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Sample records for lutjanus perciformes lutjanidae

  1. [Reproductive biology of the golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Ceballos-Vázquez, Bertha Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource management programs. To support the possible establishment of closed seasons and catch levels for the area, our study aimed to evaluate the spawning season of the Golden snapper (Lutjanus inermis). For this, fish caught by artisanal fisheries in the Navidad, Tenacatita and Chamela bays (Jalisco, Mexico) were sampled monthly from 1999-2008, and analyzed sex ratios, spawning season and size at first maturity. A total of 311 (53.1%) females and 275 (46.9%) males were caught, and the observed sex ratio was 1:0.88. The total length range was 14.4-37.0cm and total weight range from 48-575g. The length at first maturity was 23.9cm TL for females and 23.6cm TL for males. The gonadosomatic index showed two principal reproductive periods in the year (February-April and September-November), when the largest number of mature gonads were observed. Ovaries were of asynchronic development type and seven oocyte development stages were identified. Testicles showed lobular development and spermatozoa were observed in the center of the cysts and in the collecting ducts. It is important to mention that our results support the current suitable exploitation of this species in the area. PMID:22458233

  2. Diet and food partitioning between juveniles of mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in a mangrove-fringed estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, C R; Joyeux, J-C

    2010-06-01

    Diet of juvenile mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers were studied in the tropical Brazilian estuarine system of the Piraquê-açú and Piraquê-mirim Rivers to determine how these species share the resources in this restricted space. The three species prey principally upon Peracarida (L. synagris: relative importance index I(RIc) = 29%), Natantia (L. analis and L. synagris: I(RIc) = 39 and 38%, respectively), Reptantia (L. analis and L. jocu: I(RIc) = 28 and 43%, respectively) and Teleostei (L. jocu: I(RIc) = 24%). The three species use estuaries as nursery habitats but food overlap was not biologically significant due to a combination of interspecific differences in size, spatial distribution, microhabitat preferences and seasonal patterns of abundance and prey choice. Large marine protected areas incorporating essential habitats for all life stages are suggested to be the best tool for the management of these economically important species. PMID:20557594

  3. Mitogenomes of genus Pristipomoides, Lutjanus and Pterocaesio confirm Caesionidae nests in Lutjanidae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yusong; Bai, Qin; Yan, Tao; Wang, Zhongduo; Liu, Chuwu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Goldbanded jobfish (Perciformes: Lutjanidae: Etelinae: Pristipomoides multidens) was sequenced using long-PCR amplification (Accession No.: KF430626). The mitochondrial genome is highly homologous to those of other teleosts. Consensus tree based on phylogeny analysis of nucleotide sequences using the protein-coding regions combined sequences (apart from ND6) in 11 species supports the fact that Pristipomoides multidens of Etelinae and the cluster of Subfamily Lutjaninae remain the sister relationship, consistent with the traditional taxonomy, while the fusiliers (Pterocaesio tile) of family Caesionidae nested within the genus Lutjanus of family Lutjanidae and showed more closely relationship with the non-reddish snappers cluster including L. russellii and L. argentimaculatus. Conclusively, this mitogenomic phylogeny indicates that the Caesionidae is a synonym of family Lutjanidae. Given the morphologic and feeding diversity, we hypothesize that the variation of feeding systems of genus Lutjanus may drive the speciation of snappers and fusiliers. PMID:25423518

  4. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  5. A new species of Euryhaliotrematoides Plaisance & Kritsky, 2004 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, Lilia C; García-Gasca, Alejandra; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J

    2012-06-01

    Euryhaliotrematoides mehen n. sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) is described based on specimens collected from the gills of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner) off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, on the northwestern coast of Mexico. The synapomorphy of this genus is the presence of a funnel-shaped base of the male copulatory organ. This new species differs from all other species of the genus by possessing a male copulatory organ with a base with a thickened margin and a membranous accessory piece resembling a scarf and covering about 60% of its distal region. PCR products of the 28S rRNA (831 bp) and 18S rRNA (662 bp) genes were sequenced and submitted to GenBank (accession numbers HQ615997 and JF938069, respectively). BLASTn searches revealed no 100% identical hits with the previously registered monogenean sequences. PMID:22581247

  6. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (LutjanidaePerciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  7. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea) parasitising the gills of snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae): species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) off northern Australia, with a redescription of Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) and descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-01-01

    Three species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) were collected from the gills of four golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae) from the marine and brackish waters off Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Type-specimens of Ancyrocephalus johni Tripathi, 1959 apparently have not survived and the possibility existed that the species was based on specimens representing more than one species. Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) (sensu Young, 1968) was redescribed and determined to most likely represent A. johni, originally described from the River Hooghly, Diamond Harbour, India. Two new species were described. Euryhaliotrema longibaculoides n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema longibaculum (Zhukov, 1976) Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from Lutjanus spp. from the western Atlantic Ocean. It differed from E. longibaculum by having a male copulatory organ (MCO) with an elongate comparatively delicate shaft and a bulbous base (MCO U- or J-shaped with funnel-shaped base in E. longibaculum). Based on the comparative morphology of the haptoral sclerites, Euryhaliotrema lisae n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus Kritsky & Yang, 2012 from the gills of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) from the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema lisae differed from E. cryptophallus by having a copulatory complex with an obvious weakly sclerotised J-shaped MCO (MCO cryptic, delicate, and with a shaft comprising about one counterclockwise ring in E. cryptophallus). PMID:24395576

  8. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region. PMID:25185406

  9. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsaro, Daniele; Work, Thierry M.

    2012-01-01

    The blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Perciformes, Lutjanidae) are cosmopolitan in the Indo-Pacific but were introduced into Oahu, Hawaii, USA, in the 1950s and have since colonized most of the archipelago. Studies of microparasites in blue-striped snappers from Hawaii revealed chlamydia-like organisms (CLO) infecting the spleen and kidney, characterized by intracellular basophilic granular inclusions containing Gram-negative and Gimenez-positive bacteria similar in appearance to epitheliocysts when seen under light microscopy. We provide molecular evidence that CLO are a new member of Chlamydiae, i.e. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, that represents the first reported case of chlamydial infection in organs other than the gill in fishes.

  10. Monogenea of marine fishes from Hainan Island, China. VIII. Two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Dactylogyridae) from Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Teleostei: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Jun, Pan; Jianying, Zhang

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 collected from the gills of Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål). E. xinyingense n. sp. is similar to Euryhaliotrema atlanticum Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 in the structure of copulatory apparatus, but differs from the latter in the shape of anchors and the structure of vagina. E. hainanense n. sp. also closely resembles E. atlanticum Kritsky & Boeger, 2002, but differs from the latter in the structure of haptor and the shape of accessory piece. PMID:16612651

  11. The microecology of dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) on the gills of wild spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Lutjanidae) from Mazatlan Bay, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, Lilia C; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2012-02-01

    The spatial distribution and coexistence of monogenean dactylogyrids was assessed on the gills of 63 specimens of wild spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner), caught in the Mazatlan Bay, Sinaloa, Mexico. Five species are reported: Euryhaliotrema perezponcei Garcia-Vargas, Fajer-Avila et Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008, Euryhaliotrematoides sp., Haliotrematoides spinatus Kritsky et Mendoza-Franco, 2009, H. plectridium Kritsky et Mendoza-Franco, 2009, and H. guttati Garcia-Vargas, Fajer-Avila et Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008. All except E. perezponcei and H. guttati represent new geographical records for the Pacific coast. The most prevalent dactylogyrid species was E. perezponcei (100%), H. plectridium and H. spinatus had > 80% prevalence, and H. guttati and Euryhaliotrematoides sp. had the lowest prevalence. The mean abundance of H. plectridium and E. perezponcei was close to 60 parasites/fish, whereas Euryhaliotrematoides sp. and H. guttati had the lowest abundance. The dactylogyrid species exhibited a tendency for attachment to gill arch 2: 25% attachment occurring on gill arch 1, 30% on 2, 27% on 3 and 18% on 4, and showed a significant preference for the central sector of the gill (42%). Haliotrematoides plectridium had a preference for attachment to gill arches 2 and 3 and the central sector. Haliotrematoides spinatus tended to settle on the gill arches 2 and 3 and had a preference for the central sector. Euryhaliotrema perezponcei tended to settle on the gill arches 1 and 2 and the anterior gill sector. Euryhaliotrematoides sp. and H. guttati did not show a preference for any gill arch or sector. The intraspecific aggregation was stronger than the interspecific aggregation, indicating that all the dactylogyrid species on spotted rose snapper were aggregated, and there was no evidence of competition among the species. PMID:22439428

  12. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts. PMID:21497672

  13. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kafayat, A Fakoya; Martins, A Anetekhai; Shehu, L Akintola; Abdulwakil, O Sabal; Abass, Mikhail A

    2015-03-01

    The Gorean snapper, Lutanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life-history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90 cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10 cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance ofjuveniles (<20 cm) and sub-adults (20-35 cm) which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99 cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99 cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean +/- SD; 16.19 +/- 3.73 cm) to the marine habitat samples (32.89 +/- 6.14 cm) indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous studies demonstrated that juvenile L. goreensis displays estuarine dependency and habitat flexibility. Hence, this underscores the importance of preserving estuarine environments as essential fish habitats to prevent overfishing. The study also concludes that the species is vulnerable to recruitment overfishing in the marine environment especially as a consequence of shrimping. Consequently, it advocates for ban on all fishing activities during peak spawning periods in breeding grounds and shrimp ground assemblage. PMID:26299125

  14. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-01-01

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct. PMID:27394598

  15. Two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky et Boeger, 2002 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker) and L. argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Lutjanidae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Yang, Tingbao

    2015-01-01

    Euryhaliotrema russellum sp. n. and Euryhaliotrema tenuiaccessorium sp. n. are described from the gills of Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker) and L. argentimaculatus (Forsskål), respectively, in the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema russellum sp. n. differs from all other members of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky et Boeger, 2002 by its unique male copulatory organ, a straight tube with a bulbous base and without an accessory piece. Euryhaliotrema tenuiaccessorium sp. n. differs from its congeners by having a copulatory organ with a bulbous base, a meandering copulatory tube with clockwise coil having less than one complete ring, and a slender accessory piece along the middle length of the copulatory tube. All species of Euryhaliotrema are listed and divided to three groups based on morpholgy of the male copulatory organ. PMID:26278378

  16. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host. PMID:27522363

  17. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

  18. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

  19. Metabolic acceleration in Mediterranean Perciformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos

    2014-11-01

    Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.

  20. Kudoa hypoepicardialis n. sp. (Myxozoa: Kudoidae) and associated lesions from the heart of seven perciform fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A; Whipps, Christopher M

    2004-06-01

    Kudoa hypoepicardialis n. sp. infects the space between the epicardium and the compact myocardium and, in intense infections, the pericardial chamber of man-of-war fish (Nomeus gronovii) (Nomeidae) (the type host), blue runner (Caranx crysos) (Carangidae), Warsaw grouper (Epinephelus nigritus) (Serranidae), Atlantic tripletail (Lobotes surinamensis) (Lobotidae), northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) (Lutjanidae), black drum (Pogonias cromis) (Sciaenidae), and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) (Pomatomidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This is the first report of a Kudoa sp. from the heart of a fish in the Gulf of Mexico, and of these hosts, only the bluefish was previously identified as a host for a species of Kudoa. Spores of the new species varied slightly in size among these hosts but were regarded as conspecific based on their nearly identical (99.9%) small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. The new species differs both from the 4 nominal species of Kudoa reported from fishes in the Gulf of Mexico and from K. pericardialis, an allopatric species that infects the pericardial cavity, by the combination of having a large spore, a small polar capsule, and a polar filament with a single coil. The new species is morphologically and genetically most similar to K. shiomitsui, an allopatric species that infects the heart and pericardial cavity, but is distinguished from it based on a 4.2% difference in the SSU rDNA sequence. Heart lesions primarily were restricted to the vicinity of plasmodia and included a layer of fibrinous inflammation characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulomas as well as epithelioid encapsulations around plasmodia. Heavily infected hosts had melanin-like deposits and adipose cells beneath the epicardium. and the epicardium was discontinuous and apparently breached by plasmodia in some regions. Cardiac muscle, gill, liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney were normal. PMID:15270103

  1. High Levels of Genetic Connectivity among Populations of Yellowtail Snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus (LutjanidaePerciformes), in the Western South Atlantic Revealed through Multilocus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raimundo; Veneza, Ivana; Sampaio, Iracilda; Araripe, Juliana; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, five loci (mitochondrial and nuclear) were sequenced to determine the genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of populations of the yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus, found along the coast of the western South Atlantic. O. chrysurus is a lutjanid species that is commonly associated with coral reefs and exhibits an ample geographic distribution, and it can therefore be considered a good model for the investigation of phylogeographic patterns and genetic connectivity in marine environments. The results reflected a marked congruence between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers as well as intense gene flow among the analyzed populations, which represent a single genetic stock along the entire coast of Brazil between the states of Pará and Espírito Santo. Our data also showed high levels of genetic diversity in the species (mainly mtDNA), as well a major historic population expansion, which most likely coincided with the sea level oscillations at the end of the Pleistocene. In addition, this species is intensively exploited by commercial fisheries, and data on the genetic structure of its populations will be essential for the development of effective conservation and management plans. PMID:25769032

  2. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, K. W.; Berumen, M. L.; Mateo, I.; Elsdon, T. S.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas.

  3. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit. PMID:26299123

  4. Use of riverine through reef habitat systems by dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu ) in eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Chaves, Eduardo M.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.

    2011-11-01

    The early life history of Western Atlantic snappers from the Southern hemisphere is largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories) of the dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu) was examined across the largest South Atlantic reef-estuarine complex (Abrolhos Shelf, Brazil, 16-19° S). Visual surveys were conducted in different habitats across the shelf (estuary, inner-shelf reefs and mid-shelf reefs). Lutjanus jocu showed higher densities on inner-shelf habitats, with a clear increase in fish size across the shelf. Individuals <7 cm were associated with both the estuary (mangrove and rocky habitats) and inner-shelf reefs (particularly shallow fore-reefs and tide pools). Individuals ranging 10-30 cm were broadly distributed, but consistently more abundant on inner-shelf reefs. Individuals between 30 and 40 cm were more common on mid-shelf reefs, while individuals >40 cm were recorded only on mid-shelf reefs. Literature data indicate that individuals ranging 70-80 cm are common on deep offshore reefs. This pattern suggests that the dog snapper performs ontogenetic cross-shelf migrations. Protecting portions of the different habitats used by the dog snapper during its post-settlement life cycle is highlighted as an important conservation and management measure.

  5. Chromosomal complements of some Atlantic Blennioidei and Gobioidei species (Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Tatiana Barbosa; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A remarkable degree of chromosomal conservatism (2n=48, FN=48) has been identified in several families of Perciformes. However, some families exhibit greater karyotypic diversity, although there is still scant information on the Atlantic species. In addition to a review of karyotypic data available for representatives of the suborders Blennioidei and Gobioidei, we have performed chromosomal analyses on Atlantic species of the families Blenniidae, Ophioblennius trinitatis Miranda-Ribeiro, 1919 (2n=46; FN=64) and Scartella cristata (Linnaeus, 1758)(2n=48; FN=50), Labrisomidae, Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)(2n=48; FN=50) and Gobiidae, Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837)(2n=48; FN=56). Besides variations in chromosome number and karyotype formulas, Ag-NOR sites, albeit unique, were located in different positions and/or chromosome pairs for the species analyzed. On the other hand, the heterochromatic pattern was more conservative, distributed predominantly in the centromeric/pericentromeric regions of the four species. Data already available for Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Labrisomidae show greater intra- and interspecific karyotypic diversification when compared to other groups of Perciformes, where higher uniformity is found for various chromosome characteristics. Evolutionary dynamism displayed by these two families is likely associated with population fractionation resulting from unique biological characteristics, such as lower mobility and/or specific environmental requirements. PMID:24260634

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Parachromis managuensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihui; He, Jinzhao; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Shi, Cunbin; Lv, Yejian; Zhang, Zhixin

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Parachromis managuensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) is sequenced in this study. The genome sequence was 16 526 bp in length, with the base composition of 28.1% A, 25.5% T, 15.4% G, 31.0% C. The gene order and genes are the same as found in other previously reported cichlid fish, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 D-loop region. Except for ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. Parachromis managuensis was closely related to Amphilophus citrinellus and Petenia splendid, based on its complete mitochondrial genome sequences. This complete mitogenome data provide the basis for taxonomic and conservation research of Parachromis managuensis. PMID:26153742

  7. Age and growth of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its cool-water-range limits.

    PubMed

    Piddocke, T P; Butler, G L; Butcher, P A; Stewart, J; Bucher, D J; Christidis, L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the age and growth of Lutjanus argentimaculatus at its southern (cooler) range limits in eastern Australia. Specimens were collected from New South Wales and southern Queensland between November 2011 and December 2013. Fork lengths (LF ) ranged from 190 to 1019 mm, and ages ranged from 2+ to 57+ years. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function with coefficients L∞ = 874·92 mm, K = 0·087 year(-1) and t0 = -2·76 years. Estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M) ranged from 0·072 to 0·25. The LF (mm) and mass (W; g) relationship was represented by the equation: W=2·647×10-5LF2·92. The maximum age of 57+ years is the oldest reported for any lutjanid and comparisons with tropical studies suggest that the age-based demography of L. argentimaculatus follows a latitudinal gradient. High maximum ages and low natural mortality rates indicate considerable vulnerability to overexploitation at the species' cool-water-range limits. These results demonstrate the need to identify underlying processes driving latitudinal gradients in fish demography. PMID:25943148

  8. Glugea jazanensis sp. nov. infecting Lutjanus bohar in the Red Sea: ultrastructure and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Tamihi, Ahmad F; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mansour, Lamjed

    2015-10-27

    During a survey of the microsporean fauna of the two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar Forsskål, 1775, from the Red Sea off Jizan (Saudi Arabia), a species of Glugea Thélohan, 1891 was found that did not conform to any known species. The species is characterized by the presence of spherical xenomas (ca. 2-5 mm in diameter) in the host body cavity. Examination of the lifecycle stages and mature spores using light and transmission electron microscopy also revealed morphological characteristics typical of species of the genus Glugea. Spores were elongated-ovoid with a posterior vacuole surrounded by the polar filament coils. Mature spores were 4.5 (4.0-4.8) µm long and 2.5 (2.0-2.5) µm wide. The polar filament was isofilar with 28 to 30 coils, although in most cases 29 coils, organized in 3 rows. Phylogenetic study based on the partial sequence of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene clustered the new microsporidia within the clade grouping species of the genus Glugea. The comprehensive analysis of the parasite's ultrastructural characteristics, together with molecular data for the SSU rDNA gene, suggests that this parasite is a new species of the genus Glugea, for which the name Glugea jazanensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26503772

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pundamilia nyererei (Perciformes, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingyun; Song, Xiaolei; Chen, Xi; Dang, Xiao; Wang, Wenjing

    2016-09-01

    Pundamilia nyererei (Perciformes, Cichlidae) is a member of Cichlid fishes that lives in the Great Lakes of East Africa. Fishes of the Cichlidae family can adapt spectacular trophic radiations and provide good potential examples of vertebrate adaptive radiations. Here, we firstly assembled the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Pundamilia nyererei. The mitgenome was 16 761 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region. Most of these protein-coding genes started with a traditional ATG codon except for COX1, which initiated with an infrequent start codon GTG instead, and terminated with the mitochondrial stop codon (TAA/AGG/AGA) or a single T base. The mitogenome structural organization is identical to other Cichlid fish. The overall GC content is 45.25%, which is lower than the AT content. According to these new determined mitogenome sequences and 10 other species under the same family or order, we have constructed the species phylogenetic tree to verify the accuracy of newly assembled mitogenome sequences. We accept that by taking the advantage of full mitogenome, we can address taxonomic issue and study the related evolutionary events. Our current data are going to provide important resources for the research of Cichlid fishes mitochondrial evolution and energy metabolism. PMID:26260178

  10. Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Changes in Vacuum-Packaged Blue Spotted Emperor (Lethrinus sp), Saddletail Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus), Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillets Stored at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Amaya, Luisa Fernanda; Munyard, Steve; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Howieson, Janet

    2016-05-01

    Quality assessment of finfish fillets during storage is important to be able to predict the shelf life of the fresh product during distribution. Microbial, chemical (pH, TMA, and TVB-N), and sensory (Quality index assessment QIA, Torry scheme) changes in vacuum-packaged blue-spotted emperor (Lethrinus sp), saddletail (Lutjanus malabaricus), crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored at 4°C were evaluated for 5 days. Microbiological study included evaluation of TVC (total viable counts), total psychrotrophic organisms, and H2S-producing bacteria. Numbers increased during storage time and reached an average of 8.5, 8.5, and 9.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively, for the five different fish species. These levels were above accepted microbiological limits for fish fillets. Although the sensory analyses showed a decrease in quality, none of the finfish fillets were considered unacceptable at the end of the storage trial. Chemically, there was a slight pH increase, but trimethylamine (TMA) levels remained low. However, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels increased over time, reaching levels above 35 mg/100 g for blue spotted emperor, saddletail snapper, and crimson snapper by the end of the storage period. Results show that the deterioration of finfish fillet quality is a complex event of biochemical, sensory, and microbial factors, and multiple analyses may be required to define acceptability. PMID:27247777

  11. Spatial variation in otolith chemistry of Lutjanus apodus at Turneffe Atoll, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittaro, P. M.; Usseglio, P.; Fryer, B. J.; Sale, P. F.

    2006-05-01

    Lutjanus apodus (Schoolmaster) were collected from several mangroves and coral reefs at Turneffe Atoll, Belize, in order to investigate whether elemental concentrations from the otolith edge could be used as a means to identify the habitat (mangrove or coral reef) and site (9 mangrove sites and 6 reef sites) from which they were collected. Results of a two factor nested MANOVA (sites nested within habitat) indicated significant differences in elemental concentrations between habitats (i.e., mangrove versus reef) as well as among sites. When separate Linear Discriminant Function Analyses (LDFA) were used to assess whether the spatial variability in otolith chemistry was sufficient to differentiate individuals to their respective habitats or sites, the results indicated that fish were classified (jackknife procedure) with a moderate to poor degree of accuracy (i.e., on average, 67% and 40% of the individuals were correctly classified to the habitat and site from which they were collected, respectively). Using a partial Mantel test we did not find a significant correlation between the differences in otolith elemental concentrations between sites and the distance between sites, while controlling the effect of habitat type (mangrove or reef). This suggests that for mangrove and reef sites at Turneffe Atoll, Belize, the overlap in terms of L. apodus otolith elemental concentrations is too high for investigations of fish movement. Finally, by comparing previously published Haemulon flavolineatum otolith chemistry to that of L. apodus we assessed whether these species showed similar habitat and/or site specific patterns in their otolith chemistry. Although both species were collected from the same sites our results indicated little similarity in their elemental concentrations, thus suggesting that habitat and site elemental signatures are species specific.

  12. Broader pattern of tandem repeats in the mitochondrial control region of Perciformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yuan; Chu, Ka Hou

    2010-07-01

    Perciformes, the largest order of vertebrates with 20 suborders, is the most diverse fish order that dominates vertebrate ocean life. The complete mitochondrial control region (CR) of Trichiurus japonicus (Trichiuridae, Scombroidei) and Pampus sp. (Stromateidae, Stromateoidei) were amplified and sequenced. Together with data from GenBank, the tandem repeats in the mitochondrial CR from 48 species, which covered nine suborders of Perciformes, are reported in this study. The tandem repeats tend to be long in the suborder Percoidei and Stromateoidei. The identical repeats in 21 species of Cichlidae suggest a common origin and have existed before species divergence. Larimichthys crocea shows tandem repeats instead of the typical structure of the central conserved sequence blocks, which was first reported in Perciformes and vertebrates. This might have resulted from interruption of the polymerase activity during the H-strand synthesis. The four broader patterns presented here for the tandem repeats, including those in both the 5' and 3' ends, only in the either 5' or 3' end, and in the central conserved domain of the control region, will be useful for understanding the evolution of species.

  13. Diet shifts of Caribbean grunts (Haemulidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) and the relation with nursery-to-coral reef migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocheret de la Morinière, E.; Pollux, B. J. A.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2003-08-01

    The spatial size distribution of grunts and snappers have previously indicated the separation of juveniles in nursery habitats from the adults on the coral reef. This implies life cycle migrations from nursery habitats (such as seagrass beds and mangroves) to the coral reef. If diet shifts are related to such migrations, then the diets of these fish must change before or around the fish size at which such migrations take place. A wide size range of juveniles of two grunt species ( Haemulon sciurus and Haemulon flavolineatum) and of two snapper species ( Lutjanus apodus and Ocyurus chrysurus) were caught in seagrass beds and mangroves, and their gut contents identified and quantified. Regression analysis between fish size and dietary importance of small crustaceans showed a negative relationship in all four species. Positive relations were found for H. sciurus, L. apodus and O. chrysurus between fish length and the dietary importance of decapods, and for L. apodusand O. chrysurus between fish length and prey fish importance. Critical changes in the fish diets with fish size were examined by application of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The CCA yielded three clusters of size-classes of fishes with similar diets, and application of a Mantel test showed that each of these clusters had significantly different diets, and that each cluster diet was significantly specialised. The size at which a fish species 'switched' from one cluster to another was compared with size-at-maturity data and with the typical size at which these species migrate from the nursery habitats to the coral reef. H. sciurus and H. flavolineatum may be prompted to migrate from the nursery habitats to coral reef habitats because of dietary changes, or because of the development of the gonads. For L. apodus and O. chrysurus, a dietary changeover forms a more likely explanation for nursery-to-reef migrations than does sexual maturation because these species reach maturity at sizes much larger

  14. A new species of diplectanid (Monogenoidea) from Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off Peru

    PubMed Central

    Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M.; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias. PMID:25754099

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the endemic South Korean species Odontobutis interrupta (Perciformes, Odontobutidae).

    PubMed

    Jun, Jumin; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kum, Ji-Don

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Odontobutis interrupta (Perciformes, Odontobutidae), a species endemic to South Korea, is reported here for the first time. The O. interrupta mitogenome is 16 802 base pairs in total length and includes 13 PCGs, small and large rRNAs, a control region and 22 tRNAs. Nine genes are encoded on the light strand and 29 on the heavy strand. The O. interrupta mitochondrial genome has a conserved gene order compared to four other Odontobutis species and Micropercops swinhonis, a closely related species. The data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic studies concerning Odontobutidae and its related species. PMID:26122340

  16. A new species of diplectanid (Monogenoidea) from Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off Peru.

    PubMed

    Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias. PMID:25754099

  17. Chromosomal differentiation and speciation in sister-species of Grammatidae (Perciformes) from the Western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Wagner Franco; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos

    2012-09-01

    In the tropical Atlantic, the ichthyofauna between the coast of Brazil and the Caribbean regions, divided by the Amazon barrier, is very similar presenting several geminate species, including Gramma brasiliensis, endemic in Brazil, and its Caribbean counterpart Gramma loreto. Morphological and molecular studies have helped establish evolutionary patterns that sister-species of these two marine habitats are subjected to. However, their chromosomal characteristics are only beginning to be better characterized. Accordingly, a comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in G. brasiliensis and G. loreto, seeking evidence of cytotaxonomic markers implicated in the karyotypic diversification of these species and likely associated with speciation events. Heterochromatic regions and their affinity to fluorochromes GC- or AT-specific were identified, as well as the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites in chromosomes, either by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs) or dual-color FISH mapping with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. While displaying the same diploid number, 2 n = 48 chromosomes, considered basal for Perciformes, the two species differed in karyotype structure, showing karyotypic formulas and species-specific heterochromatin pattern. The cytological characters found support the differentiating status of these species, possibly achieved under the conditions of allopatry due to the Amazon/Orinoco barrier, showing chromosomal peculiarities in Grammatidae species when compared to other groups of Perciformes.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Trichopodus leerii (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) and phylogenetic studies of Osphronemidae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jie; Si, Gui-Cai; Hu, Guo-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Trichopodus leerii has been given many popular names in the ornament market, such as pearl gourami, lace gourami and mosaic gourami, which causes confusion in species identification. This species belongs in the family Osphronemidae of Perciformes. This species and its congeners are characterized by a brownish-silver body, covered in a pearl-like pattern. In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitogenome sequence of T. leerii, which is 16,472 bp in length. The overall base composition is 29.2%, 27.3%, 28.0% and 15.5% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a slight bias in the AT content (57.2%). All protein-coding genes share the start codon ATG and most of them have TAA or TAG as the stop codon, except ND4 and ND6 use an incomplete stop codon T. Maximum likelihood tree and Bayesian analyses based on partitioned nucleotide sequences of 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes were constructed, and both yielded identical topologies. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Osphronemidae and Perciformes. PMID:26024133

  19. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  20. Expression of myostatin in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus during larval and juvenile development under cultured conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Velarde, J; Ibarra-Castro, L; Rodríguez-Ibarra, E; Sifuentes-Romero, I; Hernández-Cornejo, R; García-Gasca, A

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the developmental expression pattern of myostatin (mstn) in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus under culture conditions is presented. The full coding sequence of mstn from L. guttatus was isolated from muscle tissue, obtaining 1134 nucleotides which encode a peptide of 377 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that this sequence corresponds to mstn-1. mstn expression was detected in embryonic stages, and maintained at low levels until 28 days post-hatch, when it showed a significant increase, coinciding with the onset of metamorphosis. After that, expression was fluctuating, coinciding probably with periods of rapid and slow muscle growth or individual growth rates. mstn expression was also analysed by body mass with higher levels detected in smaller animals, irrespective of age. mstn was also expressed in other tissues from L. guttatus, presenting higher levels in brain, eye and gill. In brain for instance, two variants of mstn were isolated, both coding sequences were identical to muscle, except that one of them contained a 75 nucleotide deletion in exon 1, maintaining the reading frame but deleting two conserved cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this brain variant was also mstn-1. The function of this variant is not clear and needs further investigation. These results indicate that mstn-1 participates in different physiological processes other than muscle growth in fishes. PMID:26376729

  1. Spatial and Dietary Overlap Creates Potential for Competition between Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and Vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens).

    PubMed

    Davis, William T; Drymon, J Marcus; Powers, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex nature of direct and indirect species interactions is a critical precursor to successful resource management. In the northern Gulf of Mexico fisheries ecosystem, red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens) are two commercially harvested species within a larger reef fish complex. These two species share similar habitats and diets; however, little is known about how these species partition habitat and dietary resources. In this study we examined the extent of spatial and dietary overlap between red snapper and vermilion snapper, and experimentally compared their feeding behavior. Field data from multiple gear types demonstrates that red snapper and vermilion snapper frequently cohabited reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and Pianka's niche overlap indices suggest significantly overlapping diets. Experimental manipulations show that red snapper are the dominant forager of the two species, as red snapper foraging alone ate more shrimp per fish than vermilion snapper in both the single species (p = 0.003) and mixed species (p = 0.02) treatments. In addition, red snapper ate significantly more shrimp per fish in the mixed species treatment than in the single species treatment (p = 0.04). Vermilion snapper shrimp consumption per fish did not differ significantly between mixed and single species treatments. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spatial and dietary overlap could lead to competition between red and vermilion snapper in the study area; however, conclusively determining the existence of such competition would require further research. PMID:26630481

  2. Hematological characteristics of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869) healthy and naturally infected by dactylogyrid monogeneans.

    PubMed

    Del Rio-Zaragoza, O B; Fajer-Ávila, E J; Almazán-Rueda, P; Abdo de la Parra, M I

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain a basic knowledge of the hematology in order to determine changes in blood parameters of the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. The morphological features of blood cells were described according to the observations made by light microscopy of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood films. The reference intervals and the mean value were determined for each hematological parameter evaluated in healthy fish and data were compared to those of naturally infected, with dactylogyrid monogeneans fish. Infected fish showed a prevalence of 100% and a mean intensity of 246.6 parasites per fish. Mean values of HCT, WBC, thrombocytes percentage and eosinophils percentage were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the infected fish. In addition, lymphocytes percentage and total protein were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the infected fish compared to healthy fish. Only total WBC count, lymphocytes percentage and eosinophils percentage in infected fish were outside reference interval. The hematology of the spotted rose snapper of this study might serve as a basis for future studies and diagnosis. Changes observed in blood parameters in infected fish suggest that the immune system of L. guttatus was affected by the presence of the parasites. PMID:21466888

  3. Influence of β-glucan on innate immunity and resistance of Lutjanus guttatus to an experimental infection of dactylogyrid monogeneans.

    PubMed

    Del Rio-Zaragoza, O B; Fajer-Ávila, E J; Almazán-Rueda, P

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on growth, haematology, innate immunity and resistance against dactylogyrids on the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus). Fish were fed during 5 weeks with commercial diet (control group) and same diet supplemented with three levels of β-glucans (0·05%, 0·1% and 0·5%/kg feed). The results showed that at concentrations of 0·05% and 0·1%, fish growth was enhanced, and in weeks 2 and 4, an increase in cellular responses such as percentage of monocytes, neutrophils, respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide activity was observed. In diet with 0·5%β-glucans, changes were registered at the end of the experiment. At week 2, 0·05%β-glucans showed the best response to most of the analysed parameters. In a second trial, diet with 0·05%β-glucans was chosen to prove its effect on the resistance of infected fish with monogeneans. The results showed that fish reduce significantly the number of dactylogyrids, and parameters such as WBC, percentage of lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils were increased. In addition, WBC and percentage of thrombocytes increased in the control (+). The β-glucans have the potential to be use in diet formulations of the spotted rose snapper and to limit the adverse effects of dactylogyrids. PMID:21711364

  4. Spatial and Dietary Overlap Creates Potential for Competition between Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and Vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William T.; Drymon, J. Marcus; Powers, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex nature of direct and indirect species interactions is a critical precursor to successful resource management. In the northern Gulf of Mexico fisheries ecosystem, red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens) are two commercially harvested species within a larger reef fish complex. These two species share similar habitats and diets; however, little is known about how these species partition habitat and dietary resources. In this study we examined the extent of spatial and dietary overlap between red snapper and vermilion snapper, and experimentally compared their feeding behavior. Field data from multiple gear types demonstrates that red snapper and vermilion snapper frequently cohabited reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and Pianka’s niche overlap indices suggest significantly overlapping diets. Experimental manipulations show that red snapper are the dominant forager of the two species, as red snapper foraging alone ate more shrimp per fish than vermilion snapper in both the single species (p = 0.003) and mixed species (p = 0.02) treatments. In addition, red snapper ate significantly more shrimp per fish in the mixed species treatment than in the single species treatment (p = 0.04). Vermilion snapper shrimp consumption per fish did not differ significantly between mixed and single species treatments. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spatial and dietary overlap could lead to competition between red and vermilion snapper in the study area; however, conclusively determining the existence of such competition would require further research. PMID:26630481

  5. Historical and contemporary evidence of a mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis Cuvier, 1828) spawning aggregation fishery in decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R. T.; Carcamo, R.; Rhodes, K. L.; Roberts, C. M.; Requena, N.

    2008-06-01

    Scientific information on reef fish spawning aggregation fisheries is sparse in light of numerous regional declines and extirpations from overexploitation. Fisher interviews of the small-scale commercial mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis) spawning aggregation fishery at Gladden Spit, Belize, suggests a historic decadal decline. The reported trend is supported by analysis of inter-seasonal catch and effort and yield (2000 2002) that reveals a 59% decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE) and a 22% decrease in mean landings per boat. Declining population-level trends are also supported by a significant decrease in inter-annual median lengths of mutton snappers (2000 2006). These findings demonstrate the need for additional life history information that includes length-associated age and details on growth to provide clearer support of the effects on, and responses by, populations following fishing. In view of the historical changes to mutton snapper CPUE and landings at Gladden Spit and the fishery-associated declines in fish spawning aggregations observed globally, a precautionary approach to spawning aggregation management is warranted that provides full protection from fishing to enhance population persistence. The findings also highlight the need for substantially greater enforcement and long-term fisheries monitoring under a comprehensive regional management strategy.

  6. Morphological Characters and Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Black Skin and Red Skin in Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Duo; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Shun; Liu, Shao-Jun; Liu, Chu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphology observation and illumina sequencing were performed on two different coloration skins of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), the black zone and the red zone. Three types of chromatophores, melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, were organized in the skins. The main differences between the two colorations were in the amount and distribution of the three chromatophores. After comparing the two transcriptomes, 9200 unigenes with significantly different expressions (ratio change ≥ 2 and q-value ≤ 0.05) were found, of which 5972 were up-regulated in black skin and 3228 were up-regulated in red skin. Through the function annotation, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the differentially transcribed genes, we excavated a number of uncharacterized candidate pigment genes as well as found the conserved genes affecting pigmentation in crimson snapper. The patterns of expression of 14 pigment genes were confirmed by the Quantitative real-time PCR analysis between the two color skins. Overall, this study shows a global survey of the morphological characters and transcriptome analysis of the different coloration skins in crimson snapper, and provides valuable cellular and genetic information to uncover the mechanism of the formation of pigment patterns in snappers. PMID:26569232

  7. Anatomical and surface morphology of Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. (Nematoda: Hedruridae) from the common marinewater fish Lutjanus synagris in Damietta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M M; Awad, E R; Taha, R G

    2014-08-01

    The description and tegumental ultrastructure of nematode Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. collected from marine Lane Snapper fish Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 collected at Manzala Lake, Damietta, Egypt was studied by light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The new species is mainly characterized by that the buccal capsule is surrounded by four pseudolapia; one small and three larger pseudolapia, each one bears a number of papillae arranged irregularly on its surface and the presence of one pair of precloacal papillae and nine pairs of postcloacal ones in males. PMID:25597145

  8. Population model for Amyloodinium ocellatum infecting the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and the red snapper Lutjanus campechanus.

    PubMed

    Masson, Ignacio; Lotz, Jeffrey M; Blaylock, Reginald B

    2013-10-11

    The dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum, a major pathogen in warm water mariculture, has a trophont, a tomont and a dinospore life history stage. This paper presents a population model for A. ocellatum infecting spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and red snapper Lutjanus campechanus and evaluates the relative effect of each vital rate on the A. ocellatum population growth rate. The vital rates were estimated by incubating trophonts in vitro and tracking their development through the successive life history stages at 25°C and 33 ppt. The A. ocellatum population growth rate was 1.90 d-1 for spotted seatrout and 1.92 d-1 for red snapper. Highest elasticity values (0.24 and 0.23 in spotted seatrout and red snapper, respectively) corresponded to transitions from the dinospore to the trophont stage, the trophont stage to the tomont stage and the tomont stage back to the dinospore stage in both host species (self-loops not included). A 50% change in vital rates showed that the mean number of dinospores produced by a tomont had the largest effect on the A. ocellatum population growth rate (15%), followed by the dinospore infection rate (14%), the tomont sporulation rate (12%) and the dinospore mortality rate (10%) in both host species. A comparison of modeled and experimental vital rate threshold values revealed a 2.5- (spotted seatrout) or a 2.6-fold (red snapper) difference in the values for dinospore mortality, which is the smallest difference among all the modeled and experimental vital rates. Therefore, measures that increase dinospore mortality have a greater likelihood of influencing the outcome of an epidemic. PMID:24113247

  9. Humoral immune response and TLR9 gene expression in Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) experimentally exposed to Aeromonas veronii.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Angulo, Carlos; Ascencio, Felipe

    2015-02-01

    Aquaculture production of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru is growing rapidly in Mexico, especially in Gulf of California. As it is a relatively new aquaculture species there are few reports evaluating its immune response to pathogens. The Gram-negative bacteria Aeromonas veronii is a heterogeneous organism that causes the disease known as motile aeromonad septicemia, which is responsible for serious economic loss in seabream culture due to bacterial infections. For the purpose of this study, juvenile Pacific red snapper specimens were intraperitoneally injected with low doses of A. veronii (1 × 10(6) CFU ml(-1)). Changes in humoral immune parameters (total protein, myeloperoxidase, lisozyme and antiprotease activities and IgM levels), as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and TLR9 gene expression were evaluated 24 and 48 h after injection. Overall, the results showed an enhanced in humoral immune parameters and SOD and CAT activities in fish infected with A. veronii compared with control group at 24 or 48 h. By real time PCR assays, the basal mRNA transcripts of TLR9 showed that were highly expressed in intestine and leucocytes compared to skin, head kidney, liver and gill. Then, the mRNA expression levels of TLR9 in head kidney, skin, liver and intestine were analyzed in non-infected and experimentally infected fish 24 and 48 h after injection. A. veronii up-regulated the expression of TLR9 at 24 or 48 h of exposure in all samples analyzed except in liver. Interestingly, intestine produced the greatest increase in transcript levels upon exposure (48 h) to A. veronii. Taken together, our results suggest that low doses of A. veronii infection inducing humoral immune system and TLR9 immune gene in Pacific red snapper that can be useful in the health control of this species. PMID:25462554

  10. Regional variation in mercury and stable isotopes of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Zapp Sluis, Michelle; Boswell, Kevin M; Chumchal, Matthew M; Wells, R J David; Soulen, Brianne; Cowan, James H

    2013-02-01

    The presence of total mercury (Hg) in fish tissue and the potential associated health risks has become a global concern in marine ecosystems. Few studies have examined basin-scale variation in Hg accumulation in marine ecosystems, and determining if Hg concentrations in fish tissue vary across marine ecosystems is a key monitoring question. The present study evaluated Hg concentrations in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) tissue across three regions of the northern Gulf of Mexico (Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas, USA) and between two habitat types (oil and gas platforms and nonplatforms) within each region. Nitrogen (δ(15)N), carbon (δ(13)C), and sulfur (δ(34)S) stable isotopes were used to investigate ecological differences that may affect Hg concentrations among regions and between habitats. Mercury concentrations in red snapper tissue were positively correlated with fish total length. Regional differences in Hg concentrations were significant, with fish collected from Alabama having the highest concentrations and fish collected from Louisiana having the lowest. No significant difference existed in Hg concentrations between habitats, suggesting that association with platforms may not be a significant factor contributing to red snapper Hg concentrations. While δ(15)N did not differ significantly among the three regions, Texas red snapper were more enriched in δ(34)S and depleted in δ(13)C compared with Alabama and Louisiana red snapper. Although the majority of red snapper collected in the present study had Hg concentrations below safe consumption guidelines, regional differences suggest that spatially explicit monitoring programs may be important for basin-wide assessments. PMID:23180665

  11. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses. PMID:26454477

  12. Metal contents in the tissues of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Smith 1949) and Epinephelus tauvina (Forskal 1775) collected from the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Al-Ghais, S.M.

    1996-12-01

    The role heavy metals (the non-degradable and commutative chemicals) play as pollutants is widely recognized. In the sea, accumulation of pollutants may cause the toxicity to the aquatic organism and subsequently transferred to man through the food chain. Among the major sources of metal contamination are industrial activities and mining. Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, erosion and wind are also important. At many places, industrial and agricultural discharges were found primary source of metal poisoning of fish e.g. Poland, Canada. Highway or motorboat traffic has also been reported as a major contributor of the problem. Exposure to heavy metals through air, water and/or the food chain is known to induce a wide variety of toxic effects in humans and animals. Some of these heavy metals are considered as essential elements for normal physiological functions of the human as well as for the most of animals micronutrients but the higher levels may be toxic or harmful. Extensive studies have been carried out in many parts of the world to determine toxicity and bio-accumulation of these metals in fish and other marine flora and fauna. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the kind and extent of marine pollution by heavy metals around the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the resultant contamination of the aquatic habitat. In continuation of our interest in marine environment, this study was designed to investigate and to compare the concentrations of cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in the skin, muscle and liver, and mercury in the muscle tissues only of Lutjanus fulviflamma and Epinephelus tauvina. These species have been selected as these are among the highly commercial fish species found in the trap fishery of United Arab Emirates. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Chromosome Mapping of Repetitive Sequences in Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae): Implications for Karyotypic Evolution and Perspectives for Biotechnological Uses

    PubMed Central

    Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Souza, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues; Calado, Leonardo Luiz; Tavares, Manoel; Manzella, João; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2011-01-01

    The cobia, Rachycentron canadum, a species of marine fish, has been increasingly used in aquaculture worldwide. It is the only member of the family Rachycentridae (Perciformes) showing wide geographic distribution and phylogenetic patterns still not fully understood. In this study, the species was cytogenetically analyzed by different methodologies, including Ag-NOR and chromomycin A3 (CMA3)/DAPI staining, C-banding, early replication banding (RGB), and in situ fluorescent hybridization with probes for 18S and 5S ribosomal genes and for telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n. The results obtained allow a detailed chromosomal characterization of the Atlantic population. The chromosome diversification found in the karyotype of the cobia is apparently related to pericentric inversions, the main mechanism associated to the karyotypic evolution of Perciformes. The differential heterochromatin replication patterns found were in part associated to functional genes. Despite maintaining conservative chromosomal characteristics in relation to the basal pattern established for Perciformes, some chromosome pairs in the analyzed population exhibit markers that may be important for cytotaxonomic, population, and biodiversity studies as well as for monitoring the species in question. PMID:21541243

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the African pompano Alectis ciliaris (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi; Zhang, Peng; Liang, Peiwen; Chen, Sen; Guo, Yihui; Li, Min

    2016-05-01

    The African pompano Alectis ciliaris (Perciformes: Carangidae) is an economic fish species distributed throughout the tropical oceans and seas of the world. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of A. ciliaris from contiguous, overlapping segments amplified by polymerase chain reactions. The complete mitogenome sequence was 16,570 bp in length, consisting of 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 control region, same with the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. There were 10 regions of gene overlaps totaling 30 bp and 12 intergenic spacer regions totaling 67 bp. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.32% for A, 26.77% for T, 16.16% for G, 28.75% for C with a slight AT bias of 55.09%. PMID:25317642

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of longfin yellowtail S. rivoliana (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuozhi; Li, Yufang; Liang, Peiwen; Li, Min

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana (Perciformes: Carangidae) was obtained in this study. The entire genome was sequenced via primer walking after long PCRs. The size of the genome was 16,530 bp in length, containing the usual 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one non-coding control region. The genome composition and gene order were similar to most vertebrates. Most mitochondrial genes (excepted for ND6 and eight tRNA genes) were encoded on the heavy strand. The complete mitogenome of S. rivoliana could provide a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics. PMID:25714153

  16. Complete mitogenome of the foxface rabbitfish Siganus vulpinus (Perciformes, Siganidae): indication of potential interbreeding in rabbitfishes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Tingbao

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the foxface rabbitfish Siganus vulpinus (Perciformes, Siganidae) is determined. The entire sequence is 16,505 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The genome organization is similar to those found in other rabbitfishes. Apart from ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Overall base compositions of mitogenome are 29.3% of A, 29.3% of C, 25.7% of T, and 15.7% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias which is commonly found in fishes. The high similarity of mitochondrial genome between S. vulpinus and S. unimaculatus indicate that natural interbreeding might exist in breeding season. PMID:25329262

  17. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  18. Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-09-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia (near Darwin): Philometra carangis n. sp. from the bluespotted trevally Caranx bucculentus Alleyne & Macleay (Carangidae) and P. carponotati n. sp. from the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae). Philometra carangis is mainly characterised by the length of the spicules (153-189 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the males (3.22-4.15 mm). Philometra carponotati is distinguished from other congeneric species parasitising lutjanids by the length of the spicules and gubernaculum (225-252 and 99-117 µm, respectively), the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum, the presence of a U-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the male (3.74-4.31 mm). Besides the recently established Philometra zabidii Moravec & Diggles, 2014 (based on a single female), these two newly described nematodes are the only nominal gonad-infecting species of Philometra known to parasitise marine fishes in Australian waters. PMID:25079814

  19. Philometrid nematodes infecting fishes from the Everglades National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2010-09-01

    The following three species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes of the Everglades National Park (northern Gulf of Mexico), Florida, U.S.A.: Philometra brevispicula sp. n. (male and females) from the subcutaneous tissue of mouth of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus) (Lutjanidae), Philometroides grandipapillatus sp. n. (only females) from pectoral fin muscle of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae), and Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza et Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 (females) from the subcutaneous fascia of trunk muscle in crevalle jack C. hippos. Philometra brevispicula is mainly characterized by small cephalic papillae of the external circle, the absence of oesophageal teeth and the presence of small caudal projections in gravid female, markedly short spicules (45 microm) in male, and by its location in the host. Philometroides grandipapillatus differs from congeners mainly in the shape of the cephalic region (narrow, conspicuously protruding), large cephalic papillae of the external circle and the absence of caudal projections in female, and by the site of infection in the host. Caranginema americanum is for the first time recorded from the northern Gulf of Mexico. PMID:20941913

  20. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  1. Effects of dietary protein level on growth and utilization of protein and energy by juvenile mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Abbas; Khalid, Jamil; Rukhsana, Akhtar; Lin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating water system to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization, hepatosomatic index and liver lipid deposition of juvenile red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (average initial wet weight 8.0 ± 0.39 g and total length 3.14 ± 0.3 cm). In the experiment, six fishmeal-based diets were formulated to contain various protein levels (20% to 45% in 5% increments), with dietary energy ranging from 2210.7kJ lOOg to 2250.2kJlOOg dry matter. The protein to energy ratios of diets ranged from 8.58 mg protein kJ-1 to 20.03 mg protein kJ-1. Diets were fed for 90d to triplicate groups of fish stocked in 0.128m3 seawater tanks, 25 individuals each. The daily ration of 2% wet body weight was offered to the fish thrice a day. The fish at the end of the study had more than ten-fold (77.0g) increase in weight compared to the initial (8.0g). Fish fed diets of 40% and 45% protein produced significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain of 77.2g and 76.5g, and specific growth rate (SGR) of 2.65% and 2.62% than those of 67.0 g and 68.3g, and 2.49% and 2.51% of the other diets. The broken-line regression of SGR against dietary protein level yielded an optimum dietary protein requirement of 42.6% (Y=-1.6295 + 0.1114 X 2,P<0.05). Survival remained 100% among groups. Feed conversion ratio decreased from 0.45 for fish fed 20% dietary protein to 0.35 for fish fed 45% dietary protein. Nitrogen intake increased with an increase in dietary protein, which in turn resulted in an increase in nitrogen gain of fish whole body. Fish fed 40% and 45% protein diets showed higher (P<0.05) nitrogen gain (0.27g and 0.26g) than those (0.23g and 025g) fed all other diets. Gross energy intake (GEI) in fish fed 45% protein was lower (600.67kJ) than that (607.97 kJ) of 40% protein diet, though the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05); GEI ranging from 677.31 kJ to 663.20 kJ at remaining four diets (20% to 35% protein

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of recombination activating genes (RAG1/2) in red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Lu, Y S; Jian, J C; Wu, Z H

    2012-04-01

    Recombination activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2), involved in the V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. The expression of these genes was required for the proper development and maturity of lymphocytes so that they can be used as useful markers to evaluate the development of lymphoid organ. In this paper, the cDNA of RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus were cloned by homological cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Results showed the full length of RAG1 cDNA was 3944 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 200 bp, a 3'-UTR of 561 bp and an open reading frame of 3183 bp encoding 1060 amino acids. Three important structural motifs, a RING/U-box domain, a RING/FYVE/PHD-type domain and a RAG Nonamer-binding domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG1 by InterProScan analysis. The full length of RAG2 cDNA was 2200 bp, consisting of a 141 bp 5'-UTR, a 457 bp 3'-UTR and an open reading frame of 1602 bp encoding 533 amino acids. Two important structural motifs, a Galactose oxidase/kelch, beta-propeller domain and a kelch-type beta-propeller domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG2 by InterProScan analysis. BLAST analysis revealed that the RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper shared a high homology with other known RAG1 and RAG2 genes, while the greatest degree of identity was observed with Hippoglossus hippoglossus RAG1 at 82% and Takifugu rubripes RAG2 at 87%, respectively. The differential expressions of RAG1 and RAG2 in various tissues of red snapper were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR. The overall expression pattern of the two genes was quite similar. In healthy red snappers, the RAGs transcripts were mainly detected in thymus, following head kidney, spleen, intestine, liver and brain. After vaccinated with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus 48 h later, the RAGs m

  3. Organization and characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the Razorbelly scad Alepes kleinii (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zou, Keshu

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Alepes kleinii (Perciformes: Carangidae) was determined in this study. The entire sequence was 16,571 bp in length which contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the light strand replication origin). Gene organization and gene order were similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. Overall base compositions of the sequence were 28.0% of A, 28.5% of C, 27.0% of T, and 16.5% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. Apart from the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes were encoded on the heavy strand. Three types of initiation codons were detected in the open reading frames of the protein-coding genes, including codon ATA which was rarely detected in Carangidae species. The complete mitogenome sequence data of A. kleinii could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies. PMID:24438294

  4. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara (Perciformes, Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Minglan; Wang, Shifeng; Su, Yongquan; Zhou, Yongcan; Liu, Min; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae), commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands) and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGG) n in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers. PMID:24949234

  5. Discovery of toll-like receptor 13 exists in the teleost fish: Miiuy croaker (Perciformes, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjin; Bi, Xueyi; Chu, Qing; Xu, Tianjun

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an indispensable role in the immune response for pathogen recognition and triggering not only innate immunity but also adaptive immunity. Here we report the TLR13 homologue, one member of TLRs, in Perciformes (especially Sciaenidae). And we used the miiuy croaker as represented species for further functional experiments. Former study reported the TLR13 only expressed in murine, and we are the first to report the teleost TLR13 (mmiTLR13). MmiTLR13 expressed highly in immune defense related tissues, such as the liver, spleen, and kidney, and Vibrio anguillarum or poly(I:C) infection showed the immune response of mmiTLR13. Further luciferase reporter assays showed the ability for activation of ISRE luciferase reporter, but it failed to active NF-κB. And further gene silence by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) confirmed the results. Immunofluorescence of mmiTLR13 presents the cytoplasmic distribution in Hela cell. In addition, the Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain of mammal TLR5 exhibits high identity with TLR13, which indicated the high homology between TLR5 and TLR13. These findings will lay the fundamental cornerstone for further research of teleost TLR13 and expand the horizon for better understand the teleost TLRs system. PMID:26952767

  6. Molecular systematics of Selene (Perciformes: Carangidae) based on cytochrome B sequences.

    PubMed

    Reed, D L; deGravelle, M J; Carpenter, K E

    2001-12-01

    The marine fishes of the genus Selene are morphologically unique, although little is known about how these species are related to other members of the family Carangidae (Perciformes). In addition, questions remain about the potential validity of two putative species and how species groups with unique body forms within Selene are related. We used DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to reconstruct the phylogeny of the seven species of Selene along with five additional species of carangids. Maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony analyses were used to examine the sequence data and both phylogenetic methods were compared. Maximum-likelihood produced a monophyletic Selene, whereas parsimony analyses did not. Both maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony produced similar support for species groups within Selene. Maximum-likelihood produced two monophyletic subgroups within the genus Selene, the "long-finned" and "short-finned" Selene. Maximum-parsimony produced the same monophyletic "long-finned" group but a paraphyletic "short-finned" group. Both analyses confirm that S. brownii and S. setapinnis are distinct species, expunging the question of conspecificity. The phylogenetic placement of the most basal taxon within Selene, S. orstedii, was problematic and differed among analyses. More data are needed to resolve with confidence its correct phylogenetic placement and, thus, the monophyly of the genus Selene. PMID:11741387

  7. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that

  8. Neobenedenia melleni Parasite of Red Snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus, with Regression Statistical Analysis between Fish Length, Temperature, and Parasitic Intensity in Infected Fish, Cultured at Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The fish parasites collected from Lutjanus erythropterus fish species showed a correlation with parasitic intensity, fish size, and temperature, and statistical model summary was produced using SPSS version 20, statistical software. Statistical model summary concluded that among the variables which significantly predict the prevalence of Neobenedenia melleni parasites are fish length and water temperature, both significant at 1% and 5%. Furthermore, the increase in one unit of fish length, holding other variables constant, increases the prevalence of parasite by approximately 1 (0.7≈1) unit. Also, increasing the temperature from 32°C to 33°C will positively increase the number of parasites by approximately 0.32 units, holding other variables constant. The model can be summarized as estimated number of Neobenedenia melleni parasites = 8.2 + 0.7 ⁎ (fish length) + 0.32 ⁎ (water temperature). Next, this study has also shown the DNA sequence and parasitic morphology of Neobenedenia melleni. Nucleotide sequence for 18s ribosomal gene RNA in this study showed 99% similarity with N. melleni EU707804.1 from GenBank. Finally, all the sequence of Neobenedenia melleni in this study was deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of KU843501, KU843502, KU843503, and KU843504. PMID:27190634

  9. Development of Formaldehyde Biosensor for Determination of Formalin in Fish Samples; Malabar Red Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) and Longtail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol).

    PubMed

    Noor Aini, Bohari; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Ampon, Kamaruzaman

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an electrochemical detector. A formaldehyde biosensor was successfully developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM][Otf])), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and chitosan (CHIT), onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The developed formaldehyde biosensor was analyzed for sensitivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and detection limits. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator for increasing the electron transfer in the electrochemical cell. The developed biosensor measured the NADH electron from the NAD⁺ reduction at a potential of 0.4 V. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method detected a wider linear range of formaldehyde concentrations from 0.01 to 10 ppm within 5 s, with a detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The proposed method was successfully detected with the presence of formalin in fish samples, Lutjanus malabaricus and Thunnus Tonggol. The proposed method is a simple, rapid, and highly accurate, compared to the existing technique. PMID:27376338

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of the silver mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) in a tropical semi-enclosed bay.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, B; Vianna, M

    2016-07-01

    This study determined the spatial and temporal distributions of the silver mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), one of the most abundant teleost species in bays and estuaries. Sampling was conducted from July 2005 to June 2007. The species was captured on all sampling dates and at six of the seven sampling stations. Approximately 80% of the individuals were below the size of first sexual maturity (12·0 cm total length, LT ). Although the spatial distribution of juveniles and adults differed throughout the study period, the environmental variables measured explained only a small part of their distribution. The recruitment period occurred during the first part of each year. Despite the high pollution levels in Guanabara Bay, this coastal system plays an important role as a nursery ground and for the growth of E. argenteus. PMID:26686645

  11. A new species of Gobius (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Mediterranean Sea and the redescription of Gobius bucchichi.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, M; Šanda, R

    2016-03-01

    A new species of the gobiid genus Gobius (Gobiidae, Perciformes), Gobius incognitus sp. nov. is described from the Mediterranean Sea, and its most morphologically similar species Gobius bucchichi is redescribed. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by: scales in lateral series 51-59; predorsal scales 25-35; opercle scaled in adults with 10-16 scales present; pectoral fin with ray count 18-20 and free tips on upper rays well developed and on the first ray longer than two thirds of the entire ray length; pelvic disc complete and with well-developed anterior membrane without lateral lobes; anterior oculoscapular canal with pore α at rear of orbit; oculoscapular row x(1) not extending forwards to pore β; suborbital row d discontinuous with large gap below suborbital rows 3 and 4; eye diameter 1·08-1·32 in snout length; by pigment rows on cheek and pigmentation on pectoral-fin base. PMID:26822387

  12. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801)*

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b<3) at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) at all temperatures and both diets except for 22 °C fed with shrimp, which showed isometric growth (b=3). Conversely, at the end of the experiment (Day 30) fish showed isometric growth (b=3) at 30 °C fed with the pellet diet, indicating that the shape of the fish did not change with increasing weight and length, and a positive allometric growth (b>3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species. PMID:27487803

  13. Nutrition and feeding research in the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus), new species for marine aquaculture.

    PubMed

    García-Ortega, Armando

    2009-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) are fish species from the tropical Eastern Pacific for which controlled production of larvae and juveniles has been accomplished in recent years. Diverse topics relating to their biology and aquaculture production are currently under study, in particular the nutrition and feeding aspects required to formulate practical feeds and rearing protocols. Improvements in larval growth and survival are possible by feeding live food organisms with natural or enhanced essential fatty acids content and highly digestible artificial microdiets. The ontogeny of the digestive tract and the expression and activity of digestive enzymes have been described for S. annulatus larvae. The effect of various protein and lipid levels on growth and feed utilization has been studied in juvenile and on-growing fish. Both species have carnivorous feeding habits and require high levels of protein in their diets, from 40% to 45% (dry weight) in spotted rose snapper and above 50% in bullseye puffer, with the younger stages requiring the highest protein levels. Encouraging results have been obtained in feeding experiments with different sources of dietary protein from animal and plant origin to evaluate their suitability as feed ingredients in practical diets. Optimization of fish culture practices through feeding management has also been investigated. Trials with various fish densities and feeding frequencies in intensive culture systems are providing information to improve feed utilization and growth in on-growing fish. Further research is underway to evaluate factors in broodstock nutrition which have an impact on egg and larval quality, and into the use of various commercially available oil sources in on-growing diets. In this paper, the results on nutrition and feeding research with both species are reviewed and research needs to support their commercial production in the region are discussed. PMID

  14. Effects of temperature and diet on length-weight relationship and condition factor of the juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Das, Simon Kumar; Bakar, Yosni; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd

    2016-08-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze the effects of water temperature and diet on the length-weight relationship and condition of juvenile Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus over a 30-d experimental period. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a flow-through-sea-water system. The fish were subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (commercial pellet and natural shrimp). Fish were fed twice daily. L. malabaricus exhibited negative allometric growth (b<3) at the beginning of the experiment (Day 0) at all temperatures and both diets except for 22 °C fed with shrimp, which showed isometric growth (b=3). Conversely, at the end of the experiment (Day 30) fish showed isometric growth (b=3) at 30 °C fed with the pellet diet, indicating that the shape of the fish did not change with increasing weight and length, and a positive allometric growth (b>3) at 30 °C fed with shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight increases faster than their length. The rest of the temperatures represented negative allometric growth (b<3) on both diet, meaning that fish became lighter with increasing size. The condition factors in the initial and final measurements were greater than 1, indicating the state of health of the fish, except for those fed on a pellet diet at 34 °C. However, the best condition was obtained at 30 °C on both diets. Nevertheless, diets did not have a significant effect on growth and condition of juvenile L. malabaricus. The data obtained from this study suggested culturing L. malabaricus at 30 °C and feeding on the pellet or shrimp diet, which will optimize the overall production and condition of this commercially important fish species. PMID:27487803

  15. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P.; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L.

    2013-01-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf. PMID:24533325

  16. Growth, Age Validation, Mortality, and other Population Characteristics of the Red Emperor Snapper, Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley Coast of North-Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Dunk, I. J.

    2002-07-01

    Red emperor, Lutjanus sebae, were examined from commercial catches in the Northern Demersal Scalefish Fishery (NDSF) of north-western Australia from 1997 to 1999. Specimens ranged from 183 to 728 mm fork length (FL); males had a mean FL of 509 mm, and were significantly larger than females that had a mean FL of 451 mm. Ages were estimated from thin sections of sagittal otoliths. Marginal increment analysis of sagittal otoliths showed a single annual minimum during September and October and indicated that one annulus is formed each year. Male L. sebae (n=977; 211-728 mm FL) ranged from age 2 to 30 years and females (n=1384; 183-584 mm FL) ranged from age 1 to 34 years. Sagittal otolith weight and height were significantly correlated with age for each sex. There was significant differential growth between sexes. The relationship of observed fork length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth equation for males, Lt=627·8 {1-exp [-0·151 (t+0·595)]} and females, Lt=482·6 {1-exp [-0·271 (t-0·065)]}. The slow growth, long life span and large size and age at maturity of L. sebae indicate that this species has a low production potential and hence spatial area closures are vulnerable to over-exploitation. The instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M) ranged from 0·104 to 0·122. The optimum rate of fishing mortality was estimated to be 0·052-0·061. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) estimated from catch at age data for fully recruited ages, was 0·374 in 1997/98 and 0·242 in 1998/99. Hence, the NDSF population of L. sebae is exploited above optimum levels. Given their low production potential, populations of L. sebae in north-western Australia and elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific region require prudent management. Furthermore, fishery managers need to consider as part of any harvest strategy for these fish to preserve significant levels of the spawning stock.

  17. Refuge-seeking impairments mirror metabolic recovery following fisheries-related stressors in the Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Messmer, Vanessa; Tobin, Andrew J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Clark, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries and marine park management strategies for large predatory reef fish can mean that a large proportion of captured fish are released. Despite being released, these fish may experience high mortality while they traverse the water column to locate suitable refuge to avoid predators, all the while recovering from the stress of capture. The predatory reef fish Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) is frequently released because of a minimum-size or bag limit or by fishers targeting more desirable species. Using L. carponotatus as a model, we tested whether simulated fishing stress (exercise and air exposure) resulted in impairments in reflexes (e.g., response to stimuli) and the ability to identify and use refuge in a laboratory arena and whether any impairments were associated with blood physiology or metabolic recovery. Control fish were consistently responsive to reflex tests and rapidly located and entered refugia in the arena within seconds. Conversely, treatment fish (exhausted and air exposed) were unresponsive to stimuli, took longer to search for refugia, and were more apprehensive to enter the refuge once it was located. Consequently, treatment fish took more than 70 times longer than control fish to enter the coral refuge (26.12 vs. 0.36 min, respectively). The finding that fish exposed to stress were hesitant to use refugia suggests that there was likely cognitive, visual, and/or physiological impairment. Blood lactate, glucose, and hematocrit measures were perturbed at 15 and 30 min after the stressor, relative to controls. However, measurements of oxygen consumption rate revealed that about 50% of metabolic recovery occurred within 30 min after the stressor, coinciding with apparent cognitive/visual/physiological recovery. Recovering the treatment fish in aerated, flow-through chambers for 30 min before introduction to the behavioral arena restored reflexes, and "recovered" fish behaved more similarly to controls. Therefore, we suggest that

  18. Rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrid monogeneans on gills of spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) after transfer to a sea-cage.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, Lilia C; Morales-Serna, Francisco N; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J

    2015-06-15

    Finfish mariculture is typically threatened by parasite and disease outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to identify parasite species of potential risk for this activity. Snappers are valuable food fish worldwide. In the Eastern Pacific, spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus [Steindachner, 1869]) is a firm candidate for sea-cage aquaculture. In the current study, the parasitism of caged L. guttatus by dactylogyrids was evaluated for the first time during a complete farming period. Twenty five thousand juvenile fish produced at the Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD, Mazatlan Unit) were reared in a sentinel sea-cage from February to November 2012 in Mazatlan Bay, Mexico. A fish sample (n=15) was obtained every month. Dactylogyrids from the left second gill arch were identified and quantified. A total of 18,704 dactylogyrids distributed in three species, Euryhaliotrema perezponcei García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008, E. mehen (Soler-Jiménez, García-Gasca and Fajer-Ávila, 2012), and Haliotrematoides guttati García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) was found, which were able to infect caged L. guttatus since the first month of the farming period. Prevalence of these parasite species was 100% all the time, except for initial low values for E. mehen and H. guttati. The mean intensity of infection of each dactylogyrid species varied significantly between sampling months. Euryhaliotrema perezponcei was the most abundant parasite, reaching the highest mean intensity in May, June and July (154.3, 296.9 and 176.6 parasites/host, respectively). No clear seasonality of infection was observed; however, the influence of the water temperature on the observed infection levels is discussed. There was no mortality, change on behavior or pathological signs. However, given the rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrids, particularly E. perezponcei on L. guttaus reared in a sentinel sea

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant croaker Nibea japonica (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) and phylogenetic analysis of the Sciaenidae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zehui; Chai, Xuejun; Wang, Yuebin; Zhu, Yunhai; Zhu, Dongfa

    2016-09-01

    The giant croaker Nibea japonica (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) is an important economic fish distributing in the East China Sea, South China Sea, and Japan southern coast. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. japonica was firstly determined. It is 16 496 bp-length and consists of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that N. japonica, A. amoyensis, and other seven fish first clustered into the Argyrosominae clade. It is consistent with the taxonomic status. Then, the Argyrosominae, Pseudosciaeninae, and Sciaeniae formed the sister group, while the Johniinae became a separate clade, which is inconsistent with the previous phenotypic report. It is suggested that the researches of single gene and taxionomic might lose some significant evolutionary characters. This study will contribute to phyogenetic analysis of the Sciaenidae and the natural resources conservation. PMID:26369837

  20. Trends on the Karyotype Acrocentrization Within Carangidae (Perciformes): A New Phylogenetic Evidence About a Traditional Marine Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Torres, Rodrigo Augusto; Souza, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Carangidae is a morphologically diverse family of marine fish, characterized by stable karyotypes, predominantly with 2n = 48, composed of acrocentric chromosomes (A). This stability is shared with other families of the order Perciformes, which resulted in the hypothesis that 48A is a plesiomorphic karyotype of the group. We tested this hypothesis in the Carangidae family using comparative phylogenetic methods, investigating the evolution of karyotype characters (including chromosome number, morphology, and number of chromosome arms per karyotype [fundamental number, FN]). Our analyses revealed that 2n = 48 is most likely the ancestral chromosome number for the family. However, an extremely variable number of FNs, always above 48, was observed in basal clades within the family and sister groups. On the other hand, the reduced FN = 48 was consistently observed only in the most derived clades, indicating a tendency for acrocentrization. The number of acrocentric chromosomes apparently was accompanied by a trend of reduction in the genome size (1C-value), suggesting that these changes might be correlated. Our data contradict the marine fish hypothesis that the 2n = 48 acrocentric karyotype is plesiomorphic, at least for Carangidae, and reveal the importance for the correct interpretation of karyotype in a temporal and phylogenetic context. PMID:26716977

  1. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the emerald rock cod, Trematomus bernacchii (Teleostei: Perciformes) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Cipriani, Paolo; Pankov, Plamen; Lawton, Scott P

    2015-10-01

    Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. is described from the gill blood vessels of the emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. It is distinguished from all other species of Aporocotyle by its body tegument showing single conical spines, spinous buccal capsule, and genital atrium positioned medially; all congeners described to date are characterized by clusters of tegumental spines, unspined buccal capsule and genital atrium located in the lateral part of the body. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. clearly differs from A. notothenia (the only other species of Aporocotyle found in a perciform fish) in its shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, location of genital atrium, body size, ratio of esophagus/body length, anterior caeca/posterior caeca ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac and ovary size and shape, and host. The new species is easily distinguished from A. argentinensis (the species that most closely resembles A. michaudi) by the shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, genital atrium location, left anterior caecum longer than right, esophagus/body length ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac size and shape, host and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 28S rDNA genetic data showed that sequences representing the new species form a distinct clade with all other sequences for species of Aporocotyle and appear basal within the genus. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. represents the only species of genus described in Antarctica. PMID:25979611

  2. Two new species of Aristocleidus (Monogenea) from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes, Gerreidae) from southwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Osorio, Marina Tapia; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aristocleidus mexicanus n. sp. and Aristocleidus lacantuni n. sp. are described from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Gerreidae, Perciformes) from the Rio Lacantún basin, Chiapas State, Mexico. These new species differ from previously described congeneric species in the characteristics of several structures, including: (a) ventral anchors, with differences in length (i.e. 46-50 µm in A. mexicanus vs. 38-43 µm, 34-37 µm, and 26-33 µm in Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, Aristocleidus sp. of Mendoza-Franco, Violante-González & Roche 2009, and Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky & Mendoza-Franco, 2008, respectively) and shape (i.e. slightly angular union of elongate arcing shaft and point in A. mexicanus vs. point and shaft united at a conspicuous angular bend in A. hastatus and Aristocleidus sp., and evenly curved shaft and point in A. lamothei); (b) male copulatory organ, i.e. a coiled tube with less than one ring in A. mexicanus and A. lacantuni (vs. a coiled tube of about 1½ in Aristocleidus sp.); (c) distal end of the accessory piece (ornate in A. mexicanus vs. distally flattened and trifid in A. hastatus and A. lamothei, respectively); (d) vaginal tube (moderately long in A. mexicanus vs. short in A. lamothei and looping in Aristocleidus sp.); and (e) ventral bar (anteromedial process with terminal horn-like ornamentation in A. lacantuni vs. ornamentation absent in the other species). This study reports for the first time species of Aristocleidus from freshwater environments in Mexico. PMID:26605987

  3. Two new species of Aristocleidus (Monogenea) from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes, Gerreidae) from southwestern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Osorio, Marina Tapia; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aristocleidus mexicanus n. sp. and Aristocleidus lacantuni n. sp. are described from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Gerreidae, Perciformes) from the Rio Lacantún basin, Chiapas State, Mexico. These new species differ from previously described congeneric species in the characteristics of several structures, including: (a) ventral anchors, with differences in length (i.e. 46–50 µm in A. mexicanus vs. 38–43 µm, 34–37 µm, and 26–33 µm in Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, Aristocleidus sp. of Mendoza-Franco, Violante-González & Roche 2009, and Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky & Mendoza-Franco, 2008, respectively) and shape (i.e. slightly angular union of elongate arcing shaft and point in A. mexicanus vs. point and shaft united at a conspicuous angular bend in A. hastatus and Aristocleidus sp., and evenly curved shaft and point in A. lamothei); (b) male copulatory organ, i.e. a coiled tube with less than one ring in A. mexicanus and A. lacantuni (vs. a coiled tube of about 1½ in Aristocleidus sp.); (c) distal end of the accessory piece (ornate in A. mexicanus vs. distally flattened and trifid in A. hastatus and A. lamothei, respectively); (d) vaginal tube (moderately long in A. mexicanus vs. short in A. lamothei and looping in Aristocleidus sp.); and (e) ventral bar (anteromedial process with terminal horn-like ornamentation in A. lacantuni vs. ornamentation absent in the other species). This study reports for the first time species of Aristocleidus from freshwater environments in Mexico. PMID:26605987

  4. [Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Palomino, Bernabé; González Sansón, Gaspar

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific. The information of trophic interactions among species is essential to understand ecosystem function. To assess this in four Diplectrum species, we analyzed the stomach contents of 397 individuals caught using shrimp trawling nets off the coasts of Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. Main food component of D. eumelum were fish of the Order Pleuronectiformes, followed by shrimps (Metapenaeopsis spp). D. euryplectrum feeds mainly on crustaceans, with stomatopods (Squilla mantoidea) as main food items followed by shrimps and brachyurans. Fish and polychaetes had a low representation in the diet of this species. D. labarum feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks and fish. The stomatopod Eurysquilla veleronis contributed to with a high diet percentage by weight, followed by shrimps (mostly Solenoceraflorae) and brachyurans, as well as the squid Lolliguncula diomedae. Fishes (Ophidion spp.) were also an important component of the diet of this species. The most common preys of D. rostrum were crustaceans, mollusks, polychaetes and fish. The squid Lolliguncula diomedae and fishes of genus Ophidion were also well represented in the diet. Diet breadth index yielded significant differences between species. The number of diet items varied from 16 in D. euryplectrum to 6 in D. eumelum. The average value of overlap (0.247) was not significantly different (p = 0.118) from the expected one for a null model (0.174). The observed variance of the overlap index (0.071) was significantly higher (V = 0.025, p = 0.0004) than the value expected for a null model. PMID:21250475

  5. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of the Falkland Islands mullet, Eleginops maclovinus (Eleginopidae), the sister group of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The perciform notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus, representing the monotypic family Eleginopidae, has a non-Antarctic distribution in the Falkland Islands and southern South America. It is the sister group of the five families and 103 species of Antarctic notothenioids that dominate the cold shelf waters of Antarctica. Eleginops is the ideal subject for documenting the ancestral morphology of nervous and sensory systems that have not had historical exposure to the unusual Antarctic thermal and light regimes, and for comparing these systems with those of the phyletically derived Antarctic species. We present a detailed description of the brain and cranial nerves of Eleginops and ask how does the neural and sensory morphology of this non-Antarctic notothenioid differ from that seen in the phyletically derived Antarctic notothenioids? The brain of Eleginops is similar to those of visually oriented temperate and tropical perciforms. The tectum is smaller but it has well-developed olfactory and mechanoreceptive lateral line areas and a large, caudally projecting corpus cerebellum. Eye diameter is about twofold smaller in Eleginops than in many Antarctic species. Eleginops has a duplex (rod and cone) retina with single and occasional twin cones conspicuous centrally. Ocular vascular structures include a large choroid rete mirabile and a small lentiform body; a falciform process and hyaloid arteries are absent. The olfactory rosette is oval with 50-55 lamellae, a large number for notothenioids. The inconspicuous bony canals of the cephalic lateral line system are simple with membranous secondary branches that lack neuromasts. In Antarctic species, the corpus cerebellum is the most variable brain region, ranging in size from large and caudally projecting to small and round. "Stalked" brains showing reduction in the size of the telencephalon, tectum, and corpus cerebellum are present in the deep-living artedidraconid Dolloidraco longedorsalis and in most of the deep

  6. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of two species of phyletically basal non-Antarctic thornfishes of the Antarctic suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes: Bovichtidae).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    The predominantly non-Antarctic family Bovichtidae is phyletically basal within the perciform suborder Notothenioidei, the dominant component of the Antarctic fish fauna. In this article we focus on the South Atlantic bovichtids Bovichtus diacanthus, the klipfish from tide pools at Tristan da Cunha, and Cottoperca gobio, the frogmouth from the Patagonian shelf and Falkland Islands. We document the anatomy and histology of the brains, olfactory apparatus, retina, and cephalic lateral line system. We also use the microvascular casting agent Microfil to examine ocular vascular structures. We provide detailed drawings of the brains and cranial nerves of both species. Typical of perciforms, the brains of both species have a well-developed tectum and telencephalon and robust thalamic nuclei. The telencephalon of C. gobio is prominently lobed, with the dorsomedial nucleus more conspicuous than in any other notothenioid. The corpus cerebelli is relatively small and upright and, unlike other notothenioids, has prominent transverse sulci on the dorsal and caudal surfaces. Areas for lateral line mechanoreception (eminentia granularis and crista cerebellaris) are also conspicuous but olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory areas are less prominent. The anterior lateral line nerve complex is larger than the posterior lateral line nerve in B. diacanthus, and in their cephalic lateral line systems both species possess branched membranous tubules (which do not contain neuromasts) with small pores. These are especially complex in B. diacanthus where they become increasingly branched and more highly pored in progressively larger specimens. Superficial neuromasts are sparse. Both species have duplex (cone and rod) retinae that are 1.25-fold thicker and have nearly 5-fold more photoreceptors and than those of most Antarctic notothenioids. Convergence ratios are also high for bovichtids. Bovichtus diacanthus has a yellow intraocular filter in the dorsal aspect of the cornea. Both

  7. Redescription and new host record of Capsala laevis (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae: Capsalinae) from gill of roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Barse, Ann M; Bullard, Stephen A

    2012-08-01

    Specimens of a capsalid collected from the gill arches of 2 roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii Lowe, 1840, (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), captured in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean were identified as Capsala laevis (Verrill, 1875) Johnston, 1929 by having the combination of papillae on the ventral surface of haptor, dorsomarginal body sclerites in a single column extending the entire body length, haptoral accessory sclerites, conical papillae distributing over the ventral body surface, and an anterior attachment organ with a fimbriated posterior margin. The new specimens plus the holotype were used to conduct a taxonomic redescription of C. laevis using light and scanning electron microscopy. We documented that the holotype (USNPC No. 7179) and the new specimens of C. laevis from roundscale spearfish each had papillae on the ventral surface of the anterior attachment organs and sensory papillae on the dorsal body surface. Although data are insufficient at this time to justify proposal of a new species, the new specimens differed from the holotype and published accounts of C. laevis by having a sinistral dorsomarginal patch comprising 27-35 sclerites whereas the holotype has a dorsomarginal patch comprising 60 sclerites. Capsala laevis morphologically most closely resembles Capsala ovalis (Goto, 1894) Price, 1938 , but can be most easily differentiated from it by having dorsomarginal body sclerites. This represents the first record of any parasite from the recently taxonomically resurrected roundscale spearfish, long considered by some as a junior subjective synonym of white marlin, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, 1860 and, concomitantly, a new host record for Capsalidae Baird, 1853. An updated list of host records for C. laevis is provided. A perusal of that literature reveals that the identity of the type host for C. laevis is indeterminate beyond Istiophoridae species and that subsequent reports of the type host as ' T. albidus ' are presumptuous (originally

  8. Chronic kisspeptin administration stimulated gonadal development in pre-pubertal male yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; Perciformes) during the breeding and non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Nocillado, Josephine N; Zohar, Yonathan; Biran, Jakob; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Elizur, Abigail

    2013-09-15

    The kisspeptin system is now accepted as a key regulator of vertebrate reproductive function, particularly the onset of puberty. In teleosts, the stimulatory effect of exogenous kisspeptins has been demonstrated mainly at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels of the reproductive axis, with very limited information pertaining to gonadal response. We determined the effect of chronic peripheral administration of the conserved kisspeptin decapeptides (YNLNSFGLRY or Kiss1-10; and FNFNPFGLRF or Kiss2-10) on gonadal development of pre-pubertal yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a Perciform teleost, during the breeding and non-breeding season. We utilized slow-release implants to chronically deliver the synthesized peptides, which were based on the yellowtail kingfish kiss1 and kiss2 cDNA sequences that we isolated. The expression level of kiss2r and gnrh1 in the brain or hypothalamus did not vary between treated and control groups. Pituitary expression of fshβ and lhβ was upregulated only with Kiss1-10 treatment regardless of the season. Based on histological evidence, gonadal development was stimulated in male fish with either Kiss1-10 or Kiss2-10, with Kiss2-10 being more effective during the non-breeding period. Overall, our results suggest that kisspeptins modulate the early gonadal development of male yellowtail kingfish, however that may vary with the breeding season. PMID:23791760

  9. The barred grunt Conodon nobilis (Perciformes: Haemulidae) in shallow areas of a tropical bight: spatial and temporal distribution, body growth and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pombo, Maíra; Denadai, Márcia Regina; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flávia Borges; de Faria, Vanessa Hermann; Turra, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the population biology of Conodon nobilis (Perciformes, Haemulidae) in Caraguatatuba Bight, southeastern Brazil. Monthly trawls were performed from October 2003 through October 2004 in two areas of the bight that are similar to but distant from each other, South and North. For all specimens, the size was measured and the sex and reproductive stage identified. Abundance and size were compared over areas and months. Body growth parameters were parameterized according to the Von Bertalanffy growth function. The stomach contents were identified and quantified. C. nobilis occurred mainly in the North area and showed an erratic pattern of abundance over time. Several cohorts entered in different periods, but very few large and mature individuals were observed. The results indicate a preference for shallow, ocean-influenced habitats and some degree of segregation between young and older individuals. The species showed a distribution consistent with an r-strategist species, with high abundance and a high growth constant ( K = 0.68 year-1 and L max = 34.2 cm). Both the relative length of the digestive tube and the prey items indicated a carnivorous feeding habit; mysids were the main item of the diet throughout the study period, indicating that this grunt is a specialist feeder. Other frequently observed items were amphipods and fish fragments. Ingestion of scales is possibly intentional.

  10. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the Whitefin trevally Carangoides equula (Perciformes: Carangidae): a novel initiation codon for ATP6 gene.

    PubMed

    Zou, Keshu; Li, Min

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Carangoides equula (Perciformes: Carangidae) was determined. The size of the genome was 16,588 bp and overall base compositions of the sequence were 26.3% of A, 30.3% of C, 25.3% of T and 18.1% of G, showing an obvious anti G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The genome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the light strand replication origin). Gene organization and gene order was similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. The initiation codon GTG was detected in the open reading frames of ATPase subunit 6, which was novel for ATP6 gene in Carangidae species. The mitogenome of C. equula shared 84.1% and 84.0% sequence similarity with two other Carangoides species Carangoides malabaricus and Carangoides armatus, respectively. The complete mitogenome sequence data of C. equula could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies. PMID:25259445

  11. Discriminatory profile of rDNA sites and trend for acrocentric chromosome formation in the genus Trachinotus Lacépède, 1801 (Perciformes, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal traits have provided valuable information for phylogeny and taxonomy of several fish groups. Three Atlantic Carangidae species of the genus Trachinotus Lacépède, 1801 (Trachinotus goodei Jordan et Evermann, 1896, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)and Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus, 1758)) were investigated, having 2n=48 chromosomes but different chromosomal arms (FN number), i.e., 52, 56 and 58, respectively, in view of the different number of two-armed chromosomes found in their karyotypes. Thus, Trachinotus goodei, Trachinotus carolinus and Trachinotus falcatus present a progressive distancefrom the probable basal karyotype proposed for Perciformes (2n=48 acrocentrics, FN=48). At first sight, these findings do not agree with the phylogenetic hypothesis based on mitochondrial sequences, where Trachinotus goodei appear as the most derived species, followed by Trachinotus falcatus and Trachinotus carolinus, respectively. However, the chromosomal mapping of ribosomal DNAs was informative for clarifying this apparent conflict. Indeed, the multiple 5S and 18S rDNA sites found in Trachinotus goodei corroborate the most derived condition for this species. In this sense, the occurrence of the unexpected number of two-armed chromosomes and FN value for this species, as well as for Trachinotus carolinus, must be due to additional rounds of acrocentric formation in these species, modifying the macrostructure of their karyotypes. PMID:24260676

  12. Two new species of Cryptocephalum n. gen. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the cephalic lateral line of Percichthys trucha (Perciformes: Percichthyidae) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vega, Rocío M; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Brugni, Norma L

    2011-04-01

    Two new species of Monogenoidea were found parasitizing the cephalic lateral line canals of Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Percichthyidae). These species are described as members of a newly proposed genus of Dactylogyridae. Cryptocephalum n. gen. is characterized by the site of infection and the combination of the several features: ventral and dorsal anchor/bar complexes, anchors with strongly elongated shaft and recurved point, shaft and point of dorsal anchors protruding laterally from haptor, hooks with 2 subunits and with pair 5 smaller than the others; gonads overlapping; coiled male copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings, accessory piece formed by 2 distinct parts, and a tubular, sclerotized ventral vagina. C ryptocephalum petreum n. sp. is characterized by having both anchor pairs protruding laterally from haptor, male copulatory organ with a coil of 2-1/2 rings, accessory piece tweezers-shaped, and sclerotized vaginal vestibule. Cryptocephalum spiralis n. sp. has ventral anchors protruding ventrally and dorsal ones protruding laterally, male copulatory organ with a coil of 1-1/2 rings, the antero-dorsal part of the accessory piece saddle-shaped, vaginal vestibule not present, and coiled vagina. This is the first record of Dactylogyridae species parasitizing the cephalic lateral line of fishes. PMID:21506871

  13. Discriminatory profile of rDNA sites and trend for acrocentric chromosome formation in the genus Trachinotus Lacépède, 1801 (Perciformes, Carangidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chromosomal traits have provided valuable information for phylogeny and taxonomy of several fish groups. Three Atlantic Carangidae species of the genus Trachinotus Lacépède, 1801 (Trachinotus goodei Jordan et Evermann, 1896, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)and Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus, 1758)) were investigated, having 2n=48 chromosomes but different chromosomal arms (FN number), i.e., 52, 56 and 58, respectively, in view of the different number of two-armed chromosomes found in their karyotypes. Thus, Trachinotus goodei, Trachinotus carolinus and Trachinotus falcatus present a progressive distancefrom the probable basal karyotype proposed for Perciformes (2n=48 acrocentrics, FN=48). At first sight, these findings do not agree with the phylogenetic hypothesis based on mitochondrial sequences, where Trachinotus goodei appear as the most derived species, followed by Trachinotus falcatus and Trachinotus carolinus, respectively. However, the chromosomal mapping of ribosomal DNAs was informative for clarifying this apparent conflict. Indeed, the multiple 5S and 18S rDNA sites found in Trachinotus goodei corroborate the most derived condition for this species. In this sense, the occurrence of the unexpected number of two-armed chromosomes and FN value for this species, as well as for Trachinotus carolinus, must be due to additional rounds of acrocentric formation in these species, modifying the macrostructure of their karyotypes. PMID:24260676

  14. [Comparative analysis of three length based methods for estimating growth of the tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in a tropical lake of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Arellano-Torres, Andrés; Hernández Montaño, Daniel; Meléndez Galicia, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A comparative analysis of three length based methods for estimating growth of the tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in a tropical lake of Mexico. Several methods are now available to estimate fish individual growth based upon the distribution of body lengths in a population. Comparative analyses of length-based methods have been undertaken mainly for marine species; nevertheless, limited information is available for inland species. Tilapia is one of the most important freshwater fisheries and its growth parameters have been estimated by several authors, usually using one length-based method. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: a) to estimate growth parameters of O. aureus from Chapala lake, Mexico, using three length-based methods ELEFAN, PROJMAT and SLCA; b) to quantify the effect of input data variations in growth parameters estimates by the jackknife technique; and c) to compare the new estimates with those previously reported, through the standard growth index phi. We collected and analyzed a total of 1,973 specimens from commercial landings from January to December 2010. The three length-base methods used in the present study resulted in parameter estimates within the range of those reported in other studies. Results derived from jackknife analysis revealed lowest values in the error percentage and coefficient of variation for L infinity when applying ELEFAN, while PROJMAT showed lowest values in the precision estimators for K, which was very similar to ELEFAN. Estimates of the comparative growth index phi were also very similar to those reported for the same species when studied in different reservoirs. Considering our results, we suggest the use of ELEFAN rather than SLCA due to its accuracy to estimate growth parameters for O. aureus. PMID:24044136

  15. Six new and one previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Rojas Herrera, Agustín A

    2011-02-01

    Six new and 1 previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Diplectanidae) are described and/or reported from the gill lamellae of 5 serranid (Perciformes) fish species from the Pacific waters in Guerrero State of Mexico and Panama City, Panama. These species are Pseudorhabdosynochus guerreroensis n. sp. from the Pacific mutton hamlet Alphestes inmaculatus Breder (type host), rivulated mutton hamlet Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther), and spotted grouper Epinephelus analogus Gill from Mexico; Pseudorhabdosynochus urceolus n. sp. from the Pacific graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner) from Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus spirani n. sp. from the starry grouper Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns) from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus fulgidus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus tabogaensis n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus anulus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; and Pseudorhabdosynochus amplidiscatum (Bravo-Hollis, 1954) Kritsky and Beverley-Burton, 1986 from E. analogus and E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama. All new species are mainly distinguished from other species of the genus by the shape and size of the sclerotized vagina and haptoral structures. The present specimens of Alphestes, Cephalopholis, and Epinephelus spp. represent new host records and Panama represents a new geographic record for species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The apparent common feature supporting a close similarity of these diplectanids is a single, secondary ejaculatory bulb with thickened wall. PMID:21348602

  16. Gene flow, population growth and a novel substitution rate estimate in a subtidal rock specialist, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Steinwender, Bernd; Weiß, Sara; Sefc, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Population histories depend on the interplay between exogeneous and endogeneous factors. In marine species, phylogeographic and demographic patterns are often shaped by sea level fluctuations, water currents and dispersal ability. Using mitochondrial control region sequences (n = 120), we infer phylogeographic structure and historic population size changes of a common littoral fish species, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the north-eastern Adriatic Sea. We find that Adriatic T. delaisi are differentiated from conspecific populations in the remaining Mediterranean, but display little phylogeographic structure within the Adriatic basin. The pattern is consistent with passive dispersal of planktonic larvae along cyclonic currents within the Adriatic Sea, but limited active dispersal of adults. Demographic reconstructions are consistent with recent population expansion, probably triggered by rising sea levels after the last glacial maximum (LGM). Placing the onset of population growth between the LGM and the warming of surface waters (18 000–13 000 years BP) and employing a novel expansion dating approach, we inferred a substitution rate of 2.61–3.61% per site per MY. Our study is one of only few existing investigations of the genetic structure of animals within the Adriatic basin and is the first to provide an estimate for mitochondrial control region substitution rates in blennioid fishes. PMID:26617435

  17. Acanthocercodes n. g. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) for species parasitising threadfins (Perciformes: Polynemidae), with description of Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. from the Atlantic threadfin Polydactylus octonemus (Girard) and reassignment of three species of Diplectanum Monticelli, 1903 from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Diggles, Ben K

    2015-07-01

    Acanthocercodes n. g. (Diplectanidae) is proposed for Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. and three previously described species of Diplectanum all parasites of the gill lamellae of threadfins (Perciformes: Polynemidae). The new genus is characterised by species having peduncular spines composed of an anteriorly directed point and a flattened base from which an anterior root arises. Members of the genus lack auxiliary spinous or sucker-like structures in the haptor. Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. is described from the Atlantic threadfin, Polydactylus octonemus (Girard), in the Gulf of Mexico off Louisiana, USA. Diplectanum polynemus Tripathi, 1957 is redescribed and transferred to Acanthocercodes as A. polynemus (Tripathi, 1957) n. comb. based on specimens collected from the fourfinger threadfin, Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw), from the mouth of the River Adelaide, Northern Territory, Australia. Diplectanum spinosum (Maillard & Vala, 1980) (=Pseudodiplectanum spinosum Maillard & Vala, 1980) and Diplectanum megacirrus (Maillard & Vala, 1980) (=Pseudodiplectanum megacirrus Maillard & Vala, 1980) from the lesser African threadfin, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch), are transferred to Acanthocercodes as A. spinosum (Maillard & Vala, 1980) n. comb. and A. megacirrus (Maillard & Vala, 1980) n. comb., respectively. PMID:26063297

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, lane, mutton, and yellowtail snappers. [Lutjanus griseus; Lutjanus synagris; Lutjanus analis; Ocyurus chrysurus

    SciTech Connect

    Bortone, S.A.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    These four snapper species have similar morphologies as well as life history and environmental requirements. With some exceptions they are restricted to tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the western Atlantic. Adults often associate with coral reef and other hard-bottom communities. Juveniles and pre-adults usually inhabit shallow, inshore areas and are often found in seagrass beds. Reproduction usually takes place offshore in the warmer months of the year. Fecundity is positively related to female body size, but there is substantial variation both within and among the species. Juveniles obtain adult body proportions at about 50 mm SL. Approximate total maximum lengths of adults are 900 mm for gray snapper, 446 mm for lane snapper, and 750 mm for mutton and yellowtail snappers. Otoliths are the most preferred body part used to determine age. Most snappers attain sexual maturity after 3 to 5 years at a size range of 180 to 350 mm FL. Males mature at a smaller size than females. Recent commercial catches of gray and lane snappers have been increasing, whereas mutton and yellowtail snappers show no clear trends. Sport fishing probably has a substantial impact on the stocks of all four species. All four snappers feed predominantly on small benthic fishes and crustaceans, but yellowtail snapper feed on more pelagic animals. Upper water temperature tolerance limits are 27.2 to 32.5/sup 0/C and lower limits are 11 to 14/sup 0/C.

  19. Spatial relationships between an introduced snapper and native goatfishes on Hawaiian reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, B.D.; Parrish, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that the introduced blueline snapper (Lutjanus kasmira, Family: Lutjanidae) may adversely affect populations of native fishery species in Hawai'i through competition for spatial or dietary resources, or through predation on young fish. We studied the habitat use patterns of L. kasmira and several native reef fish species using direct observation by SCUBA divers. Habitat use patterns of the yellowtail goatfish (Mulloidichthys vanicolensis, Family: Mullidae) were most similar to those of L. kasmira. Both species were primarily found low in the water column and were closely associated with areas of vertical relief. Individual M. vanicolensis were found higher in the water column when L. kasmirawere present, but L. kasmira were not similarly affected by M. vanicolensis. This finding suggests asymmetrical competition for shelter, in which the dominant L. kasmira displaces M. vanicolensis farther into the water column. This displacement from the protection of the reef could increase the vulnerability of M. vanicolensisto predators and fishers. ?? Springer 2005.

  20. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Ribosomal Genes, Histone H3, and Transposable Rex Elements in the Genome of Atlantic Snappers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Félix da; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2016-03-01

    Lutjanidae is a family of primarily marine and carnivorous fishes distributed in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, with enormous economic and ecological importance. In order to better clarify the conservative chromosomal evolution of Lutjanidae, we analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of 5 repetitive DNA classes in 5 Lutjanus and in 1 Ocyurus species from the Western Atlantic. The ribosomal 18S sites were generally located in a single chromosome pair, except for L. jocu and L. alexandrei where they are found in 2 pairs. In turn, the 5S rDNA sites are unique, terminal and nonsyntenic with the 18S rDNA sites. In 3 species analyzed, H3 hisDNA genes were found in 1 chromosomal pair. However, while L. jocu presented 2 H3 sites, O. chrysurus showed a noteworthy dispersion of this gene in almost all chromosomes of the karyotype. Retrotransposons Rex1 and Rex3 do not exhibit any association with the explosive distribution of H3 sequences in O. chrysurus. The low compartmentalization of Rex elements, in addition to the general nondynamic distribution of ribosomal and H3 genes, corroborate the karyotype conservatism in Lutjanidae species, also at the microstructural level. However, some "disturbing evolutionary waves" can break down this conservative scenario, as evidenced by the massive random dispersion of H3 hisDNA in the genome of O. chrysurus. The implication of the genomic expansion of H3 histone genes and their functionality remain unknown, although suggesting that they have higher evolutionary dynamics than previously thought. PMID:26792596

  1. Larval development of Evermannia zosterura (Perciformes: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, Enrique; Saldierna-Martínez, Ricardo Javier; Aceves-Medina, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    Gobiidae is the most specious fish family in the world with almost 2 000 species, however only 11% of them have been described for their larval stages. The entire life cycle information is essential to understand the biology and ecology of this important fish group. Previous studies on zooplankton samples from Ensenada de La Paz, México, have shown the presence of several Gobiidae larvae and juveniles which were identified as Evermania zosterura. The main objective of this work was to describe the larval stages of this species, widely distributed in the Eastern tropical Pacific. The development of E. zosterura larvae was described based on 66 specimens. A total of 53 specimens were used to describe morphometrics and pigmentation patterns, while 13 specimens were cleared and stained, to obtain meristic characteristics. Cleared specimens had 30 to 31 total vertebrae; dorsal-fin elements: IV; 1, 13-14, anal-fin elements: 1, 13-14, and most had pterygiophore formula 4-111100. The combination of these characteristics confirmed these specimens as E. zosterura. The pigment pattern is similar throughout ontogeny. Larvae are characterized by having three to five dendritic melanophores along the post-anal ventral margin, four to nine smaller melanophores along the ventral margin between the isthmus and anus, and one on the midpoint of the dorsal margin of the tail. There is one small pigment spot on the angle of the jaw, and other on the tip of lower lip. There is an elongated internal pigment under the notochord, between the head and gas bladder. Notochord flexion starts near 3.5mm BL and ends at 4.6mm BL; transformalion to the juvenile stage is at about 13.6mm BL. Our conclusion is that the most useful characters to distinguish this species early-larval stages from those of similar species in the area, are the number of myomeres, the large melanophores (approximately uniformly in size) on the post anal ventral margin, and the elongate internal pigment under the notochord, anterior to the gas bladder. PMID:25102643

  2. Protozoal and epitheliocystis-like infections in the introduced bluestripe snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.; Takata, G.; Kent, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The bluestripe snapper, or taape, was introduced into Hawaii in the 1950s and has since become very abundant throughout the archipelago. As part of a health survey of reef fish in Hawaii, we necropsied 120 taape collected from various coastal areas south of Oahu and examined fish histology for extraintestinal organisms. Forty-seven percent of taape were infected with an apicomplexan protozoan compatible with a coccidian. Infection was evident mainly in the spleen and, less commonly, the kidney. Prevalence of this coccidian increased with size of fish, and we saw no significant pathology associated with the organism. Twenty-six percent of taape were also infected with an epitheliocystis-like organism that occurred mainly in the kidney and, less commonly, the spleen. In contrast to the coccidian, fish mounted a notable inflammatory response to the epitheliocystis-like organism, and this inflammation appeared to increase in severity with age. Prevalence of the epitheliocystis-like organism infection increased with age, but infection was not seen in fish greater than 26.5 cm fork length. The high prevalence of coccidial infection in introduced taape prompts the concern that these organisms, along with the epitheliocystis-like organism, have the potential to be transmitted to native reef fish. Given the impact of other introduced microbial organisms on native Hawaiian fauna, there is a clear need to assess whether protozoa and bacteria are endemic to Hawaii, and whether they negatively impact native reef fish that closely associate with taape.

  3. Mitochondrial genome of the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Zou, Keshu; Chen, Zuozhi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Min

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence was determined for the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus, one species of the economically important fish in Carangidae. The entire sequence of the genome was 16,544 bp in length, including the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. Overall base compositions of the sequence were 27.3% of A, 30.4% of C, 25.3% of T and 17.0% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The mitogenome of Decapterus macarellus had a quite high-sequence similarity (92.5%) with D. macrosoma, which was morphologically close to D. macarellus. The complete mitogenome sequence data of D. macarellus could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies. PMID:25423525

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Parastromateus niger (Perciformes, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Huapu; Xie, Zhenzhen; Huang, Hongxin; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Youran; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Parastromateus niger. The mitochondrial genome is 16,561 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of Parastromateus niger mitochondrial genome is similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 28.23% of A, 29.51% of C, 26.01% of T and 16.16% of G. With the exception of five tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:24617473

  5. Whole mitogenome of the Japanese scad Decapterus maruadsi (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Chen, Zuozhi; Chen, Tao; Xiong, Dan; Fan, Jiangtao; Liang, Peiwen

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese scad (Decapterus maruadsi) is one of the most commercially important fish species that is popularly harvested in tropical and temperate seas in South East Asian countries. In the present study, we obtained the whole mitochondrial genome sequence of D. maruadsi by overlapped polymerase chain reactions. The entire sequence was 16,541 bp in length, with a gene content (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions: the control region and the light strand replication origin) and organization similar to most of the other vertebrates. Overall base composition of the genome was 27.5% of A, 30.2% of C, 25.5% of T and 16.8% of G, showing an obvious anti G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The sequence data of D. maruadsi could provide useful information for the studies on conservation genetics and molecular phylogenetics. PMID:24621222

  6. [Reproductive behavior of Opistognathus rosenblatti (Perciformes: Opistognathidae) in captivity].

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mauricio; Anguas, Benjamín; González, Pedro G; Martínez, Rodolfo E

    2012-09-01

    The Blue Spotted Jawfish O. rosenblatti, is an endemic species from the Gulf of California, included in the local list of protected species. With few biological reports, this species is appreciated in the aquarium industry due to its coloration and digging behaviour, and has a considerable value. With the aim to generate valuable biological information, eight fishes were caught at Loreto Natural Marine Protected Area. Captured fishes were juveniles, and just three of them were kept in an aquarium conditioned with gravel, pieces of shells and coral as substrata. Temperature and photoperiod conditions were stable, and they were supplied with a variety of live and inert feeds. Fishes reached maturity in eight months, according to literature reports, displaying mature male courtship coloration and upward movements in the water column. Fishes spawned several times over more than two years in captivity. Presences of egg masses, or some evidence of egg shell or larvae, were registered in 50 occasions. Male took care of eggs in his shelter, but never in his mouth. Egg masses had an average of 3 592 eggs, with a hatching rate close to 99%. Eggs were apparently rounded having three diameter measurements with significant differences (1.17mm mean higher diameter, SD=0.054; 1.13mm mean lower diameter, 0.058; 0.99mm mean height, 0.045; n=125). Most of corion eggs had four, rarely six filaments; with a single oil drop (0.30mm mean diameter, 0.021, n=59). Incubation lasted 10.4 days (9-14), depending on water temperature (21.0-25.3 degrees C). Egg hatching occurred after darkness, emerging newly hatched larvae of 4.51mm mean notochord length (0.082, n=30), with reserves exhausted, eyes pigmented and mouth opened, ready to eat. This study represents the first report on this species courtship displaying, spawning and some basic characteristics of eggs masses and larvae in captivity. Also, their flexibility and adaptability of individual behaviour to particular environment conditions, lead to consider worth their commercial culture, as already occur with other species of this family. PMID:23025099

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Diploprion bifasciatum (Perciformes, Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Guo, Limei; Ding, Shao-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Diploprion bifasciatum was first determined. The mitogenome was 16,805 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 24 tRNAs, 2 rRNA, and 2 non-coding regions. The overall base composition of the mitogenome was estimated to be T 25.72%, G 17.10%, A 28.24%, and C 28.94%, with a slight A + T bias of 53.96%, indicating an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed invertebrates. It shared 78.9%, 78.7%, 76.8%, and 72.5% identities with that of Grammistes sexlineatus, Epinephelus moara, Plectropomus areolatus, and Hypoplectrus gemma, respectively. PMID:25806580

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of black porgy Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Perciformes, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Su, Yongquan; Wang, Jun; Ding, Shaoxiong; Mao, Yong

    2012-08-01

    Black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegelii, is a marine protandrous hermaphrodite and belongs to one of the most important species commercialized for food in various areas of Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of A. schlegelii has been determined. The mitogenome was 16,649 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. It shared 90.2%, 82.3%, and 82.1% mitogenome sequence with Acanthopagrus latus, Parargyrops edita, and Pagrus major, respectively. PMID:22591205

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eleotris oxycephala (Perciformes: Eleotridae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongyong; Ma, Hongyu; Ma, Chunyan; Wei, Hongqing; Liu, Yuexing; Zhang, Fengying; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mengdi; Chen, Fenfang; Ma, Lingbo

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we obtained the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eleotris oxycephala, which was 16 527 bp in length. This genome consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a putative control region. Of the 37 genes, 28 were encoded by heavy strand, while nine were encoded by light strand. The overall base composition of this mitogenome was 28.21% for A, 16.81% for G, 24.75% for T, 30.23% for C, respectively, with a slight higher A + T content (52.96%). The phylogenetic analysis based on 13 concatenated protein-coding genes suggested that E. oxycephala as a sister species to Eleotris acanthopoma was clustered in family Eleotridae. This complete mitochondrial genome sequence of E. oxycephala should be helpful for the studies on population genetic structure, molecular evolution and phylogeny of E. oxycephala and related species. PMID:27158874

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lucioperca lucioperca (Perciformes: Percidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang; Xie, Peng; Kanu, Unisa Conteh; Li, Yu; Niu, Jiangong; Ma, Xufa

    2016-09-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Lucioperca lucioperca was cloned and sequenced in this study, which contained 16,542 bp. Results showed that the sequence was made up of 13 proteins, 22 transfer RNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The control region and the origin of the light strand replication were similar to other vertebrates. All protein-coding genes began with ATG except for COX1 and COX2, the COX1 genes started with ATC and COX2 genes started with ATT, while all of those ended with TAA, TA, T or TAG. The result could be used in related studies such as molecular ecology and evolutionary biology. PMID:25630724

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of striped gourami, Trichogaster fasciata (Perciformes: Osphronemidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xialian; Luo, Lin; He, Huan; Tian, Yinshuai; Bai, Jie

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Trichogaster fasciata is determined in this study. It is 16,635 bp in size and consists of 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the heavy strand of the T. fasciata mitochondrial genome is A: 29.18%, T: 30.22%, C: 25.14%, and G: 15.46%. A 78 bp AT tandem repeats was identified in the control region. This present study will be helpful to bring out the fact of genetic divergence among the genus Trichogaster. PMID:25765086

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus akaara (Perciformes: Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Xiang; Tang, Lin; Tang, Zhujing; Liu, Yali; Chen, Huimin; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus akaara was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,743 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of Epinephelus akaara mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 27.31% of A, 16.20% of C, 28.68% of T and 27.81% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:25405908

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhabdosargus sarba (Perciformes: Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhen; Yang, Huirong; Xie, Zhenzhen; Yang, Xiankuan; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Xiang; Li, Shuisheng; Chen, Mingliang; Zhao, Huihong; Zhang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhabdosargus sarba was presented in our study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,644 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of R. sarba mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 27.01% of A, 17.96% of C, 26.02% of T and 29.01% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:25208166

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nibea coibor (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Shan, Binbin; Zhao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Lu, Huosheng; Yan, Yunrong

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Nibea coibor has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,509 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)) and a control region as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F, CSB-E, CSB-D and CSB-C), and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-2, CSB-3). PMID:25228377

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ephippus orbis (Perciformes: Ephippidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wu, Zhongjie; Sun, Dongyan; Luo, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ephippus orbis has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16 670 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one control region. The gene order and the composition of E. orbis mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates. The overall nucleotides base composition of the heavy strand is A (27.17%), G (16.41%), C (31.46%), and T (24.96%). With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Seen from the phylogenetic tree ( Figure 1 ), E. orbis, Platax teira, and Platax orbicularis from the same family (Ephippidae) clustered into one branch and were significantly divergent from the other families of closely related fish species. PMID:26258507

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sillago asiatica (Perciformes: Sillaginidae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiaguang; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhao, Yuhui

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Sillago asiatica has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 16,493 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)), and a control region as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F, CSB-E and CSB-D), and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). PMID:25231722

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Taractes rubescens (Perciformes: Bramidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobing; Tian, Siquan; Li, Weiwen; Wu, Feng; Dai, Xiaojie

    2016-07-01

    Taractes rubescens is a high vulnerable species which widely distributes in tropical and subtropical water in Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The complete mitogenome sequence of T. rubescens was determined in this study. The complete mitogenome of T. rubescensis 16 720 bp in length, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and a control region (D-loop). Furthermore, base composition of A, C, G and T is estimated to be 27.6%, 30.9%, 15.8% and 25.7%, respectively. The complete mtDNA sequence of T. rubescens provides a useful data for studying on the molecular systematic, stock assessment and conservation genetics. PMID:26258509

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Drepane punctata (Perciformes: Drepanidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Junfeng; Xie, Zhenzhen; Peng, Chen; Xu, Wen; Wang, Qing; Chen, Huapu; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Drepane punctata was presented in our study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,397 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 16 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of D. punctata mitochondrial genome was different from that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 24.56% of A, 16.02% of C, 27.81% of T and 31.61% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and five tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:25219777

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of perch Perca fluviatilis (Perciformes: Percidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruibin; Ma, Zhihong; Beliczky, Gabor; Havasi, Mate; Bercsenyi, Miklos

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Perca fluviatilis. It was a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 16,537 base pairs (bp) in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). The mitogenome of shared common features with those of other toleosts in terms of gene order and base composition. All protein-coding genes were initiated with ATG except for COX 1, which began with GTG instead. However, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes are varied with TAG, TAA or T. This mitogenome sequence data would contribute to better understanding phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of the family Percidae. PMID:25319279

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Nemipterus virgatus (Perciformes: Nemipteridae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongjie; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Nemipterus virgatus has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16 992 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one control region. The gene order and composition of N. virgatus mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The overall nucleotides base composition of the light strand is A (27.89%), G (26.61%), C (16.45%), T (29.05%). With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The tRNA-Ser2 gene lacked DHC arm and could not fold into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure. Seen from the phylogenetic tree, N. virgatus, Nemipterus japonicus, and Nemipterus bathybius from the same genus clustered into one branch. PMID:26258518

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Perca schrenkii (Perciformes: Percidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qiong; Zhang, Xiujie; Xie, Congxin; Cai, Lingang; Gao, Zexia

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Perca schrenkii was obtained in the present study. The total length of the mitogenome was 16 536 bp in accordance with other teleost fish. It consisted of 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes) and 2 main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). All protein-coding genes started with ATG except for COX1, which began with GTG. However, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes were varied with TAA, TA, T or TAG. The overall base composition in descending order was T 27.9%, C 27.7%, A 27.1% and G 17.4%, with a slight A + T bias. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence may provide important information for phylogenetic analysis and studies on the population genetics of P. schrenkii. PMID:26122343

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus lanceolatus (Perciformes: Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Qing; Xie, Zhenzhen; He, Jianan; Wang, Dengdong; Chen, Huimin; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus lanceolatus was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,743 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of E. lanceolatus mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 26.55% of A, 15.02% of C, 29.67% of T and 28.76% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:25286235

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sillago sihama (Perciformes: Sillaginidae).

    PubMed

    Siyal, Fozia Khan; Xiao, Jiaguang; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Sillago sihama has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 17 003 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes and a control region. Within the control region, we identified the variable number tandem repeats, as well as the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F∼CSB-A) and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2, and CSB-3). PMID:26226594

  4. Characteristics of complete mitogenome of Pampus sp. nov. (Perciformes: Stromateidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Zhaohui; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-05-01

    Pampus sp. nov. is a new species in genus Pampus and different from six reported Pampus species at the molecular level. Long PCR and primer walking methods are employed for determining the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the new species. The mitogenome is a circular molecule of 16,560 bp in length including the structure of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two non-coding regions (L-strand replication origin and control region). Within the control region, we identify the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), central conserved domain (CSB-F, CSB-E and CSB-D), and three conserved sequence blocks (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). PMID:25228372

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Terapon jarbua (Perciformes: Terapontidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangcan; Wu, Changsong; Wang, Qian; Luo, Jian

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Terapon jarbua has been sequenced. The mitochondrial genome is 16,570 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one control region. The gene order and the composition of T. jarbua mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates. The overall nucleotides base composition of the heavy strand is A (27.36%), G (16.57%), C (29.87%), and T (26.20%). With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The tRNA-Ser2 gene lacked DHC arm and could not fold into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure. Seen from the phylogenetic tree, T. jarbua, Bidyanus bidyanus, and Rhynchopelates oxyrhynchus from the same family (Terapontidae) clustered into one branch and were significantly divergent from the other families of closely related fish species. PMID:25996955

  6. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  7. Phylogeographic analyses of submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis "marshi" (family Lutjanidae) reveal concordant genetic structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kimberly R; Moriwake, Virginia N; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L; Bowen, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ∼200-360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N = 787) and E. "marshi" (formerly E. carbunculus; N = 770) with 436-490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10-11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ∼800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans. PMID:24722193

  8. High Connectivity in the Deepwater Snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus (Lutjanidae) across the Indo-Pacific with Isolation of the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Jones, Shelley A.; Kelley, Christopher; Newman, Stephen J.; Sorenson, Laurie; Bowen, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    In the tropical Indo-Pacific, most phylogeographic studies have focused on the shallow-water taxa that inhabit reefs to approximately 30 m depth. Little is known about the large predatory fishes, primarily snappers (subfamily Etelinae) and groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae) that occur at 100–400 m. These long-lived, slow-growing species support fisheries across the Indo-Pacific, yet no comprehensive genetic surveys within this group have been conducted. Here we contribute the first range-wide survey of a deepwater Indo-Pacific snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, with special focus on Hawai'i. We applied mtDNA cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci to 26 samples (N = 1,222) collected across 17,000 km from Hawai'i to the western Indian Ocean. Results indicate that P. filamentosus is a highly dispersive species with low but significant population structure (mtDNA ΦST = 0.029, microsatellite FST = 0.029) due entirely to the isolation of Hawai'i. No population structure was detected across 14,000 km of the Indo-Pacific from Tonga in the Central Pacific to the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean, a pattern rarely observed in reef species. Despite a long pelagic phase (60–180 days), interisland dispersal as adults, and extensive gene flow across the Indo-Pacific, P. filamentosus is unable to maintain population connectivity with Hawai'i. Coalescent analyses indicate that P. filamentosus may have colonized Hawai'i 26 K–52 K y ago against prevailing currents, with dispersal away from Hawai'i dominating migration estimates. P. filamentosus harbors low genetic diversity in Hawai'i, a common pattern in marine fishes, and our data indicate a single archipelago-wide stock. However, like the Hawaiian Grouper, Hyporthodus quernus, this snapper had several significant pairwise comparisons (FST) clustered around the middle of the archipelago (St. Rogatien, Brooks Banks, Gardner) indicating that this region may be isolated or (more likely) receives input from Johnston Atoll to the south. PMID:22216141

  9. Identification of putative cathepsin S in mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus and its role in antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Lei; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a key enzyme employed in the histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted antigens, which are presented by processing class II-associated invariant chains and loaded antigen peptides into class II molecules. To date, little is known about the character and function of CTSS in fish. In the present study, we screened and identified a CTSS cDNA sequence from the mangrove red snapper head kidney cDNA library. The full-length CTSS cDNA contained 1339-bp nucleotide acids encoding 337 amino acids. The sequence shared high identity and similarity with other known cathepsins, especially CTSS (about 56-78% and 79-89%, respectively). Like other cathepsins, the deduced peptide consisted of regions with N-terminal signal peptides, propeptides, and mature peptides. A typical ERWNIN motif in L-like cathepsins and three conservative catalytic activity sites forming a catalytic triad active center were respectively identified in the pro-peptide and mature peptide regions of CTSS. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mangrove red snapper CTSS was located in the CTSS clade belonging to the L-like cathepsin group, and evolved from the same ancestry. To further characterize the biological activity of the putative CTSS of mangrove snapper, CTSS was expressed in Escherichia coli M15 strains. Like other mammalian CTSS, the recombinant CTSS (rCTSS) had autocatalytic activation properties, can remove pro-peptides, and can release active mature peptides. Active CTSS had the ability to catalyze Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrates in acidic conditions (pH 5.0) and weak alkaline environments (pH 7.5); this activity could be blocked by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64. Active CTSS can process recombinant Ii chains (invariant chains) in a stepwise manner in vitro. The results indicate that mangrove red snapper CTSS is a lysosomal cysteine protease family member with a key role in antigen processing in fish. PMID:22210546

  10. Phylogeographic Analyses of Submesophotic Snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis “marshi” (Family Lutjanidae) Reveal Concordant Genetic Structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kimberly R.; Moriwake, Virginia N.; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E. Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ∼200–360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N = 787) and E. “marshi” (formerly E. carbunculus; N = 770) with 436–490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10–11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ∼800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans. PMID:24722193

  11. Origin, diversification, and historical biogeography of the genus Trachurus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Leyla; Hernández, Cristián E; Poulin, Elie; Magoulas, Antonios; Kornfield, Irv; Ojeda, F Patricio

    2005-05-01

    We addressed phylogenetic relationships in the genus Trachurus using cytochrome b gene and D-loop sequences. The trees showed five groups: (1) the Southwest Pacific species (T. japonicus, T. novaezelandiae, and T. declivis); (2) The Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic species (T. mediterraneus); (3) The Atlantic Ocean species (T. lathami and T. trecae); (4) Eastern Atlantic species (T. trachurus and T. capensis); and (5) a group of highly mobile pelagic species, two from the Eastern Pacific (T. symmetricus and T. murphyi) and one from the Eastern Atlantic (T. picturatus). The phylogeny based on Cyt b, supports the molecular clock hypothesis and our results agree with the reported fossil indicating that the origin of this genus occur when the Thetys Sea closed (around 18.4 MYA). In addition, a very slow neutral substitution rate is reported identified only two periods of maximum diversification: the first occurring between 18.4 and 15.0 MYA and the second between 8.4 MYA and present day. PMID:15804418

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the bigeye scad Selar crumenophthalmus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Chen, Zuozhi; Zou, Keshu

    2016-01-01

    The bigeye scad (Selar crumenophthalmus) is a widely distributed pelagic fish species with highly commercial values. Little information was available about its genetic characteristics. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of S. crumenophthalmus by combining sequences of overlapped fragments amplified by PCR using primers designed for Carangidae species. The entire sequence was 16,610 bp in length, which included a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of light strand replication). The genome was composed of 27.2% A, 29.5% C, 26.5% T and 16.8% G, showing an obvious anti G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The complete mitogenome sequence of S. crumenophthalmus could contribute for the studies on phylogenetics, population structure and for developing fisheries management strategies. PMID:24660925

  13. Immune adaptive response induced by Bicotylophora trachinoti (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infestation in pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, I S; Luvizzotto-Santos, R; Sampaio, L A N; Bianchini, A; Martínez, P E

    2006-09-01

    Fish have developed protective strategies against monogeneans through immunological responses. In this study, immune adaptive response to parasites was analysed in the pompano Trachinotus marginatus infested by Bicotylophora trachinoti. Hosts were pre-treated with formalin and after 10 days assigned to one of the following experimental treatments: (1) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti; (2) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti and experimentally re-infested by exposure to T. marginatus heavily infested with B. trachinoti. Samples were collected at 0, 15, and 30 days. Gills were dissected to check the presence of B. trachinoti. Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical assays. Spleen and head-kidney were dissected for phagocytosis assay. The spleen-somatic index was also calculated. Re-infested fish showed a faster and higher parasite infestation than infested ones. The parasite mean abundance at 15 days was 24.86+/-13.32 and 11.67+/-8.57 for re-infested and infested fish, respectively. In both groups, hosts showed an immune adaptive response to parasite infestation that was marked by an increased number of leukocytes. Also, phagocytosis (%) in spleen and head-kidney cells was stimulated after parasite infestation (92.50+/-3.73 and 66.00+/-9.54, respectively), becoming later depressed (77.39+/-6.69 and 53.23+/-9.14, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that monogenean infestation induces a biphasic response of the non-specific defence mechanisms in the pompano T. marginatus. This response is marked by an initial stimulation followed by a later depression of the non-specific defence mechanisms. PMID:16483796

  14. First records of the blue runner Caranx crysos (Perciformes: Carangidae) in Newfoundland waters.

    PubMed

    Devine, B M; Fisher, J A D

    2014-08-01

    From August to September 2013, c. 21 specimens of the blue runner Caranx crysos were caught by commercial fishermen in two locations off the south coast of Newfoundland, Canada. These samples represent the first records of C. crysos in Newfoundland waters, and a potential northward range expansion of this species in the north-western Atlantic Ocean. They also illustrate the importance of fisher-derived sampling that spans times and locations outside of the limited range targeted by scientific surveys in this region. PMID:24976132

  15. Description of the mitochondrial genome of yellowtail scad Atule mate (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi

    2016-05-01

    The yellowtail scad Atule mate is an economic fish species distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical oceans of the Indo-Pacific region. In the present study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of A. mate from contiguous, overlapping segments amplified by PCR. The mitogenome sequence was 16,565 bp in length, consisting of 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 control region, same with the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.4% for A, 27.6% for T, 16.3% for G, and 27.7% for C. Phylogenetic analyses using the protein-coding gene sequences reveal that genus Atule was most closely related to Alepes. PMID:25423509

  16. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the Shortfin scad Decapterus macrosoma (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Dianrong; Chen, Tao; Fan, Jiangtao; Zou, Keshu; Chen, Zuozhi

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Decapterus macrosoma has been obtained with overlapped polymerase chain reaction. The genome was 16,545 bp in length which contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the light strand replication origin). Gene organization was similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. With the exception of the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The genome was composed of 27.0% A, 30.4% C, 25.4% T and 17.2% G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. Two termination-associated sequence regions (TAS-1 and TAS-2), three central conserved sequence blocks (CSB-F, CSB-E and CSB-D), and three conserved sequence blocks (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3) were identified within the control region. The sequence data of D. macrosoma could provide useful information for the studies on molecular systematics and population genetics. PMID:24438243

  17. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters.

    PubMed

    Hermida, M; Pereira, A; Correia, A T; Cruz, C; Saraiva, A

    2016-07-01

    Blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus, is a carangid fish which constitutes an important commercial resource in the north-east Atlantic. Its metazoan parasite community from Portuguese mainland waters was investigated here for the first time. Nine parasite taxa were found, most of which are common parasites of Trachurus spp. The parasite community was broadly similar to that of the Atlantic horse mackerel, T. trachurus, from the same region, but two digenean species were detected in blue jack mackerel, Monascus filiformis and Tergestia sp., which did not occur in horse mackerel from this region. A comparison with the two previous studies of T. picturatus parasite communities shows that continental-shelf regions are characterized by higher prevalences of digenean trematodes and an absence of trypanorhynch cestodes, in contrast with oceanic regions. PMID:26121918

  18. Mitochondrial genome of the Torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Perciformes: Carangidae): genome characterization and phylogenetic consideration.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi

    2016-05-01

    This study presented the complete mitochondrial genome of the Torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla, the only member of its genus, as well as its phylogenetic position in Carangidae. The genome is 16,566 bp containing the usual 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Gene organization is similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. Gene overlapping and separating were also observed in M. cordyla mitogenome. The overall base compositions of mitogenome was 28.83% A, 25.81% T, 15.93% G, and 29.43% C. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated sequence of the protein-coding genes of the reported Carangidae mitogenome showed similar results in the neighbour-joining and Bayesian inference trees. Three clades were formed as Subfamilies Caranginae, Seriolinae and Trachinotinae in Carangidae. M. cordyla was most closely related to the species in genus Caranx. PMID:25319290

  19. Fecundity, growth, and survival of the angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Perciformes: Cichlidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Salas, Armando A; Cortés G, Isabel; Reyes-Bustamante, Hugo

    2009-09-01

    The freshwater angelfishes (Pterophyllum) are South American cichlids that have become very popular among aquarists, yet scarce information on their culture and aquarium husbandry exists. We studied Pterophyllum scalare to analyze dietary effects on fecundity, growth, and survival of eggs and larvae during 135 days. Three diets were used: A) decapsulated cysts of Artemia, B) commercial dry fish food, and C) a mix diet of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The initial larval density was 100 organisms in each 40 L aquarium. With diet A, larvae reached a maximum weight of 3.80 g, a total length of 6.3 cm, and a height of 5.8 cm; with diet B: 2.80 g, 4.81 cm, and 4.79 cm, and with diet C: 3.00 g, 5.15 cm, and 5.10 cm, respectively. Significant differences were observed between diet A, and diet B and C, but no significantly differences were observed between diets B and C. Fecundity varied from 234 to 1,082 eggs in 20 and 50 g females, respectively. Egg survival ranged from 87.4% up to 100%, and larvae survival (80 larvae/40 L aquarium) from 50% to 66.3% using diet B and A, respectively. Live food was better for growing fish than the commercial balanced food diet. Fecundity and survival are important factors in planning a good production of angelfish. PMID:19928467

  20. Rebuttal to Koeda et al. (2014) on the Red Sea fishes of the perciform genus Pempheris.

    PubMed

    Randall, John E; Victor, Benjamin C; Alpermann, Tilman J; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O; Satapoomin, Ukkrit; Bineesh, K K

    2014-01-01

    Koeda et al. (2014) published a review of fishes of the genus Pempheris of the Red Sea. They concluded that there are four species: P. adusta Bleeker, P. mangula Cuvier, P. nesogallica Cuvier, and a new species, P. tominagai. We show that the first three species they cite are not present in the Red Sea, as follows. 1) P. adusta is a western Pacific species (type locality Ambon), described only from the holotype, and without a dark border on the anal fin. Koeda et al. (2014) mistakenly apply that name to P. flavicycla which is a widespread Indian Ocean species characterized by a prominent broad black border along the anal fin. Koeda et al. (2014) also redescribe P. adusta, using Indian Ocean specimens of P. flavicycla, despite the coloration difference and a 2.5% difference in the mtDNA sequence (COI) between Indian Ocean and W. Pacific populations. 2) P. mangula is a species from the east coast of India (type locality Visakhapatnam), clearly distinct in both gill-raker counts and a 1.1% sequence divergence in COI from its Red Sea relative P. rhomboidea. Pempheris mangula is not found west of India, and Koeda et al. (2014) mistakenly use DNA from Oman and Madagascar to represent P. mangula, instead of genetic material available from the type locality. 3) Pempheris nesogallica (type locality Mauritius) is unknown from the Red Sea. Koeda et al. (2014) separate P. nesogallica from P. rhomboidea (their "P. mangula") by eye size; we fail to find any difference (and they use their purported eye-size difference to erroneously rename one of the two syntypes of P. nesogallica as "P. mangula"). 4) Their new species P. tominagai is referred to as the Indian Ocean sister species of "P. schwenkii of the Pacific"; however, the type locality of P. schwenkii is the Batu Islands off the SW coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean. They mistakenly include specimens of a distant South African species as paratypes of P. tominagai. We have determined that P. tominagai is a valid species endemic to the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. They misidentify one lot of P. rhomboidea in the collection of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem as their record of P. nesogallica from the Red Sea. They misidentify the specimen in their photograph of Fig. 1B as P. adusta and use it as material for their redescription of the species, but it is now shown to be a paratype of Pempheris bexillon Mooi & Randall, 2014. Additionally, they regard P. malabarica Cuvier as a junior synonym of P. molucca Cuvier, but the name P. molucca is based on a fanciful painting and is unavailable as a nomen dubium. They treat Pempheris russellii Day as a junior synonym of P. mangula; however, it is distinct in having longer pectoral fins, a larger eye, and more gill rakers. Their key to the species of Pempheris of the Red Sea is incorrect. We present a new key and conclude that only three species of Pempheris are presently known from the Red Sea: P. flavicycla, P. rhomboidea, and P. tominagai. PMID:25543938

  1. The complete mitogenome of the Chinese bahaba Bahaba taipingensis (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Lu, Weihua; Lu, Ningning; Li, Yongzhen; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Chinese bahaba was determined by long PCR and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,500 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) as well as a control region (CR) as other bony fishes. Within the CR, we identified the extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-D, CSB-E and CSB-F) and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). PMID:22943194

  2. Tucunarella n. Gen. and other dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from cichlid fish (Perciformes) from Peruvian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Scholz, T; Rozkosná, P

    2010-06-01

    During parasitological research on cichlid fish from the tributaries of the Amazon River around Iquitos, Peru, the following gill monogenoidean species were found: Tucunarella cichlae n. gen. and n. sp. from Cichla monoculus Spix and Agassiz; Gussevia alioides Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from Heros severus Heckel; Gussevia asota Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989 from Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz); Gussevia disparoides Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from H. severus (all new geographical records) and Cichlasoma amazonarum Kullander (new host record); Gussevia longihaptor (Mizelle and Kritsky, 1969) Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 and Gussevia undulata Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from C. monoculus ; Sciadicleithrum satanopercae Yamada, Takemoto, Bellay, and Pavanelli, 2008 from Satanoperca jurupari Heckel; and Sciadicleithrum variabilum (Mizelle and Kritsky, 1969) Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989 from C. amazonarum (new host and geographical records). Tucunarella n. gen. is proposed to accommodate a new species, Tucunarella cichlae , which is its type and only known species in the genus. The new genus is characterized by, besides a very large body size (about 1.5 mm vs. much less than 1 mm in other ancyrocephaline genera in Amazonia), a thickened tegument, 1 pair of eyes, overlapping gonads (testis dorsal to the germarium), nonarticulated male copulatory organ (MCO) and accessory piece, a coiled (counterclockwise) MCO, a dextral vaginal aperture, a haptor armed with 2 pairs of anchors (each with broad base and subequal roots, which are marginally folded), and dorsal and ventral bars and 14 hooks with protruding blunt thumbs and 2 different shapes (slender vs. slightly expanded shanks). Illustrations and data on morphological and biometric variability of individual species from different hosts are provided. The present data provide evidence of a relatively wide host specificity of gill monogenoideans parasitic in South American cichlids. PMID:20557192

  3. Genetic characterization of native and invasive Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) populations in Brazilian hydrographic basins.

    PubMed

    Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Júlio, H F; Oliveira, A V; Agostinho, C S; Silva Filho, J P; Prioli, L M

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) from the Paraná, Parnaiba and Araguaia-Tocantins river basins was assessed by using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Genetic data confirmed the hypothesis of low genetic variability within and among P. squamosissimus populations introduced in the upper Paraná River basin, and indicated that they likely originated from a common ancestor. Moreover, the data demonstrated that, in agreement with available historical records, the P. squamosissimus populations established in the Paraná River basin were derived from a population native to the Parnaíba River basin. The genetic data presented here are of potential future application for the management of the invasive P. squamosissimus populations and for the preservation of the genetic legacy of native fish. PMID:26600490

  4. A new species of the sandperch genus Parapercis from the western Indian Ocean (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae).

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Heemstra, Phillip C; Imamura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Parapercis albiventer sp. nov., a new species of sandperch is described based on 12 specimens collected from the western Indian Ocean. It can be distinguished from congeners by having a bright white ventral surface, without color markings on lower fourth of body; dorsal surface of head and body densely covered by small brown spots; a row of 10 faint reddish blotches on a paler background, along body axis; row of 10 deep reddish blotches, the lower part of each blotch with a solid black bar ventrally, below mid-lateral body axis; and combination of following characters: no palatine teeth; snout long; eye small; interorbital space broad; dorsal-fin rays V, 21; anal-fin rays I, 17; pectoral-fin rays 16-17; pored lateral-line scales 55-59; predorsal scales 9 or 10; scales on transverse row 6/17-21; 3 pairs of canine teeth at front of lower jaw; and vertebrae 10 + 20 = 30. PMID:24871014

  5. Assessment of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae) fishery in Pacific Panama.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Héctor M; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Vega, Angel J; Robles, Yolany A

    2015-09-01

    The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippunis) is a highly migratory pelagic species commercially exploited by industrial, artisanal and recreational fisheries in tropical and subtropical areas of the world's oceans. Herein, we evaluated the dolphinfish industrial fishery in Pacific Panama for the first time generating a growth model and examining fluctuations in annual total catch and in catch per unit effort (CPUE) over a four-year period (2006-2009). Annual and monthly catch values and biological parameters of 14913 individuals were obtained onboard industrial vessels, landing sites and records from processing plants. Size frequency for industrial vessels showed a normal distribution between 353 and 1,715 mm (average, 1010.85 mm; n = 10,459). Fish weight averaged 4.94 kg (SD). Sex ratio was slightly biased toward females. More than 90% of the analyzed fish were sexually mature. The length-weight relationship was positive and significant, reflecting allometric growth. Growth parameters using the von Bertalanffy equation revealed a growth efficiency of θ = 4.61, which is within the reported range for Coryphaena hippurus (3.95-4.70). The largest fish were between age classes 2 and 3 (700 - 1400 mm). Total catch per year and catch per unit effort (CPUE) per year fluctuated, with the highest values recorded between 2008 and 2009. Catch values reported herein are preliminary and appear to be below those recorded elsewhere in the region and cautiously may represent an indicator of sustainable use of this marine resource even considering the absence of management actions in Panama. PMID:26666127

  6. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of the Neotropical peacock basses Cichla (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Willis, Stuart C; Nunes, Mario S; Montaña, Carmen G; Farias, Izeni P; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2007-07-01

    To investigate forces influencing diversification in Neotropical fishes, the phylogenetic relationships among species and populations of the cichlid genus Cichla were examined. Mitochondrial DNA was sequenced for 454 individuals of the 5 nominal Cichla species and several putative undescribed species. Phylogenetic analyses support the distinction of two major clades of Cichla. Clade A includes C. temensis and two undescribed species from the lower Amazonas and Xingu Rivers. Clade B includes C. orinocensis, C. monoculus, C. ocellaris. C, intermedia, and an undescribed species from the upper Madeira River. Species boundaries were relatively well-circumscribed for clade B, while incomplete lineage sorting was inferred for clade A. Three probable instances of introgression were observed, including a regional population of C. orinocensis from the Negro River that shows a history of introgression. Biogeographic patterns from Cichla are partially congruent with those seen in several other Neotropical fish clades, and the diversification of Cichla species is inferred to result from both vicariance and sympatric divergence. PMID:17275345

  7. DNA Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Diversity within Commercially Exploited Indo-Malay Carangidae (Teleosteii: Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Jaafar, Tun Nurul Aimi; Taylor, Martin I.; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah; de Bruyn, Mark; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcodes, typically focusing on the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) in many animals, have been used widely as a species-identification tool. The ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species from a range of taxa and to reveal cryptic species has been well documented. Despite the wealth of DNA barcode data for fish from many temperate regions, there are relatively few available from the Southeast Asian region. Here, we target the marine fish Family Carangidae, one of the most commercially-important families from the Indo-Malay Archipelago (IMA), to produce an initial reference DNA barcode library. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, a 652 bp region of COI was sequenced for 723 individuals from 36 putative species of Family Carangidae distributed within IMA waters. Within the newly-generated dataset, three described species exhibited conspecific divergences up to ten times greater (4.32–4.82%) than mean estimates (0.24–0.39%), indicating a discrepancy with assigned morphological taxonomic identification, and the existence of cryptic species. Variability of the mitochondrial DNA COI region was compared within and among species to evaluate the COI region's suitability for species identification. The trend in range of mean K2P distances observed was generally in accordance with expectations based on taxonomic hierarchy: 0% to 4.82% between individuals within species, 0% to 16.4% between species within genera, and 8.64% to 25.39% between genera within families. The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance between individuals, between species within genera, and between genera within family were 0.37%, 10.53% and 16.56%, respectively. All described species formed monophyletic clusters in the Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, although three species representing complexes of six potential cryptic species were detected in Indo-Malay Carangidae; Atule mate, Selar crumenophthalmus and Seriolina nigrofasciata. Conclusion/Significance This study confirms that COI is an effective tool for species identification of Carangidae from the IMA. There were moderate levels of cryptic diversity among putative species within the central IMA. However, to explain the hypothesis of species richness in the IMA, it is necessary to sample the whole family across their broad geographic range. Such insights are helpful not only to document mechanisms driving diversification and recruitment in Carangidae, but also to provide a scientific framework for management strategies and conservation of commercially-important fisheries resources. PMID:23209586

  8. The complete validated mitochondrial genome of the silver gemfish Rexea solandri (Cuvier, 1832) (Perciformes, Gempylidae).

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The silver gemfish Rexea solandri is an important economic resource but Vulnerable to overfishing in Australian waters. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is described from 1.6 million reads obtained via next generation sequencing. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,350 bp comprising 2 rRNA, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 non-coding regions. The mitogenome sequence was validated against sequences of PCR fragments and BLAST queries of Genbank. Gene order was equivalent to that found in marine fishes. PMID:24621221

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the amoy croaker Argyrosomus amoyensis (Perciformes, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Huirong; Zhao, Huihong; Sun, Jijia; Yang, Zituo; Xiao, Shibin; Li, Guifeng; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of Argyrosomus amoyensis in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,490 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. All of them are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and 8 tRNA genes on the light strand. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 31.02% of G, 26.96% of T, 25.31% of A and 16.71% of C. All the protein-coding genes begin with ATG initiation codon, and 5 types of inferred termination codons are AGA (COXI), T (COXII, ND3, ND4, Cytb), TA (ND2, COXIII), TAA (ATP8, ATP6, ND4L, ND5, ND6) and TAG (ND1). There are 11 intergenic spacers, 7 gene overlaps and no tandem repeat sequence. Gene arrangement and distribution are consistent with the typical vertebrates. PMID:25187261

  10. Paranthias furcifer (Perciformes: Serranidae), a new alien fish in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Dulčić, J; Dragičević, B

    2013-01-01

    A specimen of a creole fish Paranthias furcifer (285 mm total length) was captured in Marina Bay (Croatian coast) in the eastern Adriatic Sea. This is the first Mediterranean record of this species. The possible modes of introduction of species are discussed. PMID:23331154

  11. Fine structure of spermatozoa in the common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus Linnaeus, 1758) (Perciformes, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Maricchiolo, G; Genovese, L; Laurà, R; Micale, V; Muglia, U

    2004-10-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the fine structure of the sperm of the Sparid fish Pagellus erythrinus L. The spermatozoon of pandora has a spherical head lacking an acrosome, a cone-shaped midpiece and a long tail. The midpiece houses a single mitochondrion. The centriolar complex lies inside the nuclear fossa and is composed of a proximal and a distal centriole which are arranged at right angles to each other. The flagellum is inserted medio-laterally into the head, contains the conventional 9+2 axoneme and possesses one pair of lateral fins. On the basis of its ultrastructural organization, the pandora sperm can be regarded as an evolved form of the primitive spermatozoon found in Teleosts. According to the morphological classification proposed by Mattei (1970), the sperm of pandora belongs to a "type I" designation, like that of the other Sparid fish. PMID:15375767

  12. Chelidoperca stella, a new species of perchlet (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Matsunuma, Mizuki; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A new species of serranid fish, Chelidoperca stella, is described on the basis of five specimens from the Andaman Sea in the eastern Indian Ocean. The species can be readily distinguished from all valid congeners by having fewer pored lateral-line scales (34 or 35 vs. 40-45 in the latter) and the pelvic fin white with several small yellow spots (vs. spots absent). The species is also characterized by having relatively high counts of small serrae on the posterior margins of the preopercle (33-43 serrae), interopercle (7-10) and subopercle (18-28), despite the small body size (51.7-61.8 mm SL). Although Chelidoperca stella resembles C. margaritifera in having 2.5 scale rows between lateral line and the sixth dorsal-fin spine base, a relatively wider interorbital region, and the interorbital scales not reaching a vertical through the orbit anterior margin, but differs by having the above-mentioned diagnostic characters plus a slightly shorter longest anal-fin soft ray [17.4-18.7 (mean 18.1) % SL vs. 22.6-26.4 (24.4) % SL in C. margaritifera]. PMID:27394461

  13. Monorchiids (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of chaetodontid fishes (Perciformes): biogeographical patterns in the tropical Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    McNamara, M K A; Adlard, R D; Bray, R A; Sasal, P; Cribb, T H

    2012-06-01

    Species richness and biogeography of the monorchiid genus Hurleytrematoides was studied by the examination of 2834 individuals of 45 species of Chaetodontidae at six major sites in the tropical Indo-West Pacific: Heron Island, Lizard Island, Ningaloo (Western Australia), Palau, New Caledonia and Moorea (French Polynesia). In total, 18 species were distributed among six sites; descriptions are provided for eight new species: H. boucheti n. sp., H. combesi n. sp., H. deblocki n. sp., H. dollfusi n. sp., H. euzeti n. sp., H. kulbickii n. sp., H. pasteuri n. sp., and H. planesi n. sp. Overall richness ranged from zero to five Hurleytrematoides species per chaetodontid species. Seven Hurleytrematoides species were found at only one locality and eleven were found at multiple localities. Only one species, H. morandi, was found at all localities. Individual localities had between six (Moorea) and 10 (Heron Island) species; we attribute Moorea's depauperate parasite fauna to its isolation and distance from the Indo-Philippine centre of biological diversity. Using cluster analysis of 18 species of Hurleytrematoides and 45 species of chaetodontids sampled in the Indo-West Pacific, we show that the localities on the Great Barrier Reef (Heron Island and Lizard Island) and New Caledonia have the most similar chaetodontid and parasite fauna of any locality pairs. Cluster analysis results also show that the similarity of the chaetodontid assemblages at five of the six localities is relatively high and that Ningaloo has the most distinct fauna. Similarity values based on sharing of species of Hurleytrematoides are generally lower than those for their hosts; Moorea, Ningaloo and Palau all have low similarity to New Caledonia and Great Barrier Reef sites. We attribute these distinctions to the differential dispersal capability of the fish and their parasites. Chaetodontids have long-lived mobile pelagic larvae, the dispersal of which would be most affected by prominent biogeographical barriers, such as that between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In contrast, monorchiids have no obvious dispersal stage, and vast distances have the capacity to act as effective barriers to dispersal. We conclude that the present distributions of species of Hurleytrematoides in the Indo-Pacific are driven by historical opportunity and capacity to disperse, and that some disjunct distributions are sculpted by stochasticity. PMID:22154425

  14. [Reproductive biology of Anisotremus interruptus (Perciformes: Haemulidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Rojo-Vázquez, J A; Arellano-Martínez, Marcial

    2012-06-01

    Anisotremus interruptus is a widely distributed and commercially important species in the Eastern Pacific. A multi-year research on the reproduction of this species was carried out in coastal waters of Jalisco, Mexico. For this purpose, monthly samples were gathered with gillnets of different mesh sizes from 1998-2008. A total of 1090 individuals were collected with a total length range between 15.6-61.0cm. Significant differences from expected 1:1 ratio were found for sex ratios in the total sample and for each size class, but not when comparisons among months and years were done. Temporal variations of the gonadosomatic index and proportions of maturation stages suggest that the main reproductive period is from February to May, although some less intensive spawning events were observed in other months. Seven stages of oocytes development were identified. Oocytes in different stages of development were identified in ovaries classified as mature, suggesting an asynchronic type of gonad development. Mean maturation length (L50) was 31.0 for females and 29.7cm for males. The internal organization of testes is of lobular type. PMID:23894940

  15. Life history of the symbiotically luminous cardinalfish Siphamia tubifer (Perciformes: Apogonidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, A L; Dougan, K E; Koenigbauer, S T; Dunlap, P V

    2016-08-01

    Characteristics of the life history of the coral reef-dwelling cardinalfish Siphamia tubifer, from Okinawa, Japan, were defined. A paternal mouthbrooder, S. tubifer, is unusual in forming a bioluminescent symbiosis with Photobacterium mandapamensis. The examined S. tubifer (n = 1273) ranged in size from 9·5 to 43·5 mm standard length (LS ), and the minimum size at sexual maturity was 22 mm LS . The number of S. tubifer associated during the day among the spines of host urchins was 22·9 ± 16·1 (mean ± s.d.; Diadema setosum) and 3·6 ± 3·2 (Echinothrix calamaris). Diet consisted primarily of crustacean zooplankton. Batch fecundity (number of eggs; FB ) was related to LS by the equations: males (fertilized eggs) FB  = 27·5LS  - 189·46; females (eggs) FB  = 31·3LS  - 392·63. Individual mass (M; g) as a function of LS was described by the equation: M=9·74×10-5LS2·68. Growth, determined from otolith microstructure analysis, was described with the von Bertalanffy growth function with the following coefficients: L∞  = 40·8 mm LS , K = 0·026 day(-1) and t0  = 23·25 days. Planktonic larval duration was estimated to be 30 days. The age of the oldest examined individual was 240 days. The light organ of S. tubifer, which harbours the symbiotic population of P. mandapamensis, increased linearly in diameter as S. tubifer LS increased, and the bacterial population increased logarithmically with S. tubifer LS . These characteristics indicate that once settled, S. tubifer grows quickly, reproduces early and typically survives much less than 1 year in Okinawa. These characteristics are generally similar to other small reef fishes but they indicate that S. tubifer experiences higher mortality. PMID:27329350

  16. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Sickle pomfret Taractichthys steindachneri (Perciformes: Bramidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwen; Tian, Siquan; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Wu, Feng; Wang, Kun; Dai, Xiaojie

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Taractichthys steindachneri was sequenced and analyzed in this study. The complete mitogenome of T. steindachneri is 16 723 bp in length, which contains 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes and 2 non-coding region, a rep region and a control region (D-loop). This study will be useful for studying on the molecular systematic, taxonomic status and conservation genetics. PMID:26258504

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Protomelas annectens (Regan, 1922) (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Zhongpu; Chen, Zaizhong; Leng, Xiangjun; Zhao, Yuming; Gao, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaowu

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Protomelas annectens Regan 1922 has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16 583 bp, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and 1 control region. The overall base composition of P. annectens is 27.41% for A, 30.07% for C, 15.88% for G, 26.64% for T and shows 94% identity to threadfin cichlid, Petrochromis trewavasae. These data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic relationships within the family Cichlidae species. PMID:26358538

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of pike-perch, Sander lucioperca (Perciformes: Percidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhihong; Bercsenyi, Miklos; Yang, Xuefen; Wei, Kaijian; Yang, Ruibin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Sander lucioperca has been sequenced and analyzed in this study. It was a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 16,541 base pairs (bp) in length and exhibited 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes. The gene order and base composition were similar to those of other percid species. All protein-coding genes were initiated with ATG except for COX 1, which began with GTG instead. However, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes varied with TAG, TAA, TA or T. Within CR, we detected five copies of 10 bp tandemly repeated sequences domain, which immediately followed the tRNA(Pro). These mitogenome sequence data would contribute to better understanding phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of the family Percidae. PMID:25758047

  19. Luzonichthys seaver, a new species of Anthiinae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from Pohnpei, Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie A; Pyle, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Luzonichthys seaver, n. sp., is described from two specimens, 42-46 mm standard length (SL) collected from Pohnpei, Micronesia. Collections were made by divers on mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers using hand nets at depths of 90-100 m. Luzonichthys seaver is distinct from all other species of the genus in the characters of lateral line scales, gill rakers, pelvic fin length, caudal concavity and coloration. Of the six species of Luzonichthys, it appears to be morphologically most similar to L. earlei and L. whitleyi. PMID:25941454

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the spiny eel Sinobdella sinensis (Perciformes, Mastacembelidae).

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianheng; Chen, Daqing

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Sinobdella sinensis was reported. The circular genome is 16,540 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region. The overall nucleotide composition was 30.0% A, 26.5% T, 28.7% C, and 14.8% G, with an A + T bias of 56.5%. The gene composition and the structural arrangement of the S. sinensis complete mtDNA were identical to most other vertebrates. The molecular data here we presented could play a useful role to study the evolutionary relationships and population genetics of Mastacembelidae fish. PMID:25707410

  1. Early development in the mouth-brooding cichlid fish Satanoperca pappaterra (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Miranda Lopes, Taise; Garcia de Oliveira, Fernando; Bialetzki, Andréa; Antonio Agostinho, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    The Neotropical region exhibits the largest diversity of fish worldwide; however, little is known about the early development of fish species from this region. Therefore, to contribute to this knowledge, this study aimed to morphologically describe the early stages of development (eggs, larvae and juveniles) of S. pappaterra using morphometric and meristic traits, and to assess changes in growth rates throughout larval and juvenile development by analyzing the relationships between various morphometric traits using analytical regression models. Both juvenile and adult individuals with mouth-brooded offspring were collected along the basins of the Cuiaba and Manso Rivers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil between March 2000 and March 2004. After the adults were identified, the offspring were classified according to its stage (embryonic, larval or juvenile period), and various morphometric and meristic variables were individually measured (when possible). The eggs of this species are yellow in color, oval shaped, show dendritic pigmentation within their yolk, have small to moderately sized perivitelline spaces and lack a mucous membrane and oil droplets. The horizontal and vertical diameters of the sample yolks ranged from 1.43mm to 2.70mm and 1.05mm to 1.68 mm, respectively. The standard length of the larval period varied from 4.30mm to 7.16mm, and the standard length of the juvenile period varied from 10.29mm to 24.57mm. Larvae exhibit yolk sacs with internal dendritic pigmentation and dark punctate pigmentation in the dorsal and ventral body regions, whereas irregular transverse spots along the flanks are observed during the juvenile period. Adhesive organs are only present during the yolk-sac stage and at the beginning of the flexion stage. The mouth is terminal during all stages of development. The myomere number varied from 22 to 29 (9 to 16 pre-anal and 10 to 16 post-anal), and the maximal numbers of fin rays and spines were as follows: dorsal, XVI+10; anal, IV+8; pectoral, 16; and pelvic, I+8. Growth analyses identified periods of important change in larval morphology (i.e., metamorphosis), particularly during the flexion and post-flexion stages and in juveniles. Therefore, the morphological development of S. pappaterra is consistent with the ecological requirements of this species, which primarily occurs in structured lentic environments with aquatic macrophytes. PMID:26299120

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of jade perch, Scortum barcoo (Perciformes: Terapontidae: Scortum).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Li, Kaibin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Weiwei; Mai, Xiaomei; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-09-01

    This is the first documentation of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the jade perch, Scortum barcoo. The 16,843 bp mitogenome containes 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes) and two main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication) as do other vertebrate mitogenomes. The overall base composition of S. barcoo is 27.39% for A, 24.74% for T, 31.14% for C and 16.73% for G, with a slight A + T bias of 52.13%. All protein-coding genes are initiated with ATG except for COX1, which begin with GTG instead. Meanwhile, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes are varied with TAA, TAG, TA, T or AGG. The measure of complete mitogenome sequence of S. barcoo will provide fundamental data for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Terapontidae. PMID:25799351

  3. Ontogeny of the lymphoid organs in an Antarctic teleost, Harpagifer antarcticus (Notothenioidei: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    O'Neill, J G

    1989-01-01

    The effect of an evolutionary adaptation to low environmental temperature on the development of lymphoid organs was examined in Harpagifer antarcticus from Signy Island (South Orkney Islands; 60 degrees 43'S, 45 degrees 38'W). Thymus, pronephric kidney and spleen were typical, both in position and structural development, of those observed in warmer-water teleosts. The pronephric kidney was the first organ to be infiltrated by leucocytes, at 1 h post-hatch, though the infiltration of the thymic epithelia and the development of the splenic anlage were not observed until 4 weeks post-hatch. Full development of the lymphoid organs was not achieved until the juvenile stage. Although an increased infiltration of the thymus, by subepithelial connective tissues and epithelial mucous cells, occurred in the juvenile and adult stages, there was no evidence of an advanced stage of thymic regression or involution in the adult Harpagifer. Thus, a suppressive influence of the low temperature environment, on the onset and degree of lymphoid organ development and thymic involution, was indicated in this species. PMID:2767306

  4. Primary male development of two sequentially hermaphroditic groupers, Epinephelus akaara and Epinephelus awoara (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Wang, Y-Y; Shan, X-J; Kang, B; Ding, S-X

    2016-04-01

    Gonad ontogeny of the Hong Kong grouper Epinephelus akaara (a bi-directional sex changer) and the yellow grouper Epinephelus awoara (a protogynous hermaphrodite) was examined for the first time from post-larval phase until first sexual maturation, by histology. Approximately 20 specimens of each species were collected randomly every 2-7 weeks from rearing tanks with natural sea water and temperature between June 2013 and June 2014. The paired gonadal primordia (GP) were observed at 6 weeks after hatching (wah) for both species; however, gonia were first observed in GP at 16 wah for E. akaara and at 8 wah for E. awoara. The timings for the appearance of primary-growth stage oocytes (O1) and the completion of ovarian lumen (OL) varied; both at 27 wah for E. akaara, and at 18 and 23 wah for E. awoara respectively. A bisexual-phase gonad with an OL, O1 and scattered spermatogenic cysts (SC) was observed at 27-29 wah for both E. akaara and E. awoara. Sexual differentiation was subsequently observed from the bisexual-phase gonad at 34 wah for E. akaara, and 41 wah for E. awoara, with the appearance of cortical-alveolus stage oocytes (O2) for developing female and the proliferation of SC for developing primary male (i.e. from juvenile directly). Ovaries of mature females contained the vitellogenic stage oocytes (O3) and scattered SC; testes of mature primary males had sperm in sperm sinuses within the gonadal wall and remained O1. Minimum age of first sexual maturation for both female and primary male of E. akaara was at 41 wah; minimum total length (LT ) of female (143 mm) was larger than that of primary male (137 mm LT ). Minimum age and size of first sexual maturation for female of E. awoara (47 wah and 149 mm LT , respectively) were larger than those of E. akaara. Developing primary males of E. awoara were found at 41-58 wah, however, mature males were not observed, indicating inconsistency in first sexual maturation for E. awoara. This study provided strong evidences of primary male pathway in E. akaara and E. awoara; the latter is confirmed to be diandric. PMID:26935897

  5. DNA barcoding of commercially important Grouper species (Perciformes, Serranidae) in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Simon G; Yambot, Apolinario V

    2014-09-19

    Abstract Fish identification is generally challenging because of their unpronounced and overlapping morphological characters which is true in grouper species. In the Philippines, an updated, reliable and accurate inventory of this high value commercial groupers has not been carried out previously. Using molecular tools in the identification and inventory of fish species in the country is confined to few laboratories and experts in the country. In this study, 27 species of the Serranidae family were identified from the grouper samples collected from major fish landing sites and markets in the Philippines. The grouper species were molecularly identified using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences for DNA barcoding. The accuracy of the inferred species-level taxonomy based on COI is supported with high similarity search (98-100%) both in BOLD and BLAST, well-distributed genetic distance values and cohesive clustering in the Neighbor-Joining Tree. Aside from reinforcing the classical methodology of grouper identification in the country, this pioneering study on molecular identification of Philippine groupers constitutes a significant contribution to the DNA barcode library of Philippine marine fishes and to the global barcode entries in general, which can be used when dealing with grouper taxonomy, biodiversity, stock assessment and trade. The results reveal the different localities where the grouper species can be possibly sourced out in the country for trade and aquaculture purposes. Several of the grouper species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. As a tool for conservation ecology, this study signals the implementation of sustainable fisheries management regulation to protect in particular those which are listed under the IUCN. PMID:25238110

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixblotch hind Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Pisces: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Chen, Kao-Sung; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wu, Chi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the sixblotch hind, Cephalopholis sexmaculata was presented in this study. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,589 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to most vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 29.35%; G, 16.08%; C, 28.56%; and T, 26.01%. The COI gene started with GTG codon and the ATP6 gene started with CTG codon. The complete mitogenomic data may provide informative for further phylogenetic approach of species of Cephalopholis and related genera belong to the Epinephelidae groupers. PMID:24938086

  7. World-wide species distributions in the family Kyphosidae (Teleostei: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall D

    2016-08-01

    Sea chubs of the family Kyphosidae are major consumers of macroalgae on both temperate and tropical reefs, where they can comprise a significant proportion of fish biomass. However, the relationships and taxonomic status of sea chubs (including the junior synonyms Hermosilla, Kyphosus, Neoscorpis and Sectator) worldwide have long been problematical due to perceived lack of character differentiation, complicating ecological assessment. More recently, the situation has been further complicated by publication of conflicting taxonomic treatments. Here, we resolve the relationships, taxonomy and distribution of all known species of sea chubs through a combined analysis of partial fragments from mitochondrial markers (12s, 16s, cytb, tRNA -Pro, -Phe, -Thr and -Val) and three nuclear markers (rag1, rag2, tmo4c4). These new results provide independent evidence for the presence of several junior synonyms among Atlantic and Indo-Pacific taxa, demonstrating that several sea chub species are more widespread than previously thought. In particular, our results can reject the hypothesis of endemic species in the Atlantic Ocean. At a higher taxonomic level, our results shed light on the relationships between Girellidae, Kuhliidae, Kyphosidae, Microcanthidae, Oplegnathidae and Scorpididae, with Scorpididae resolved as the sister group to Kyphosidae. PMID:27143240

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Perciformes, Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Huirong; Xie, Zhenzhen; Li, Shuisheng; Wu, Xichao; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of Epinephelus coioides in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,458 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. All of them are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and 8 tRNA genes on the light strand. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 28.88% of G, 28.75% of T, 26.58% of A and 15.80% of C. All the protein-coding genes share ATG initiation codon except ATP6 with CTG and COXI with GTG, and four types of inferred termination codons are T (ND2, COXII, ND3, ND4 and Cytb), TA (COXIII), TAA (ND1, ATP8, ND4L, ND5, ATP6 and COXI) and TAG (ND6). There are 10 intergenic spacers, 5 gene overlaps and no tandem repeat sequence. Gene arrangement and distribution are consistent with the typical vertebrates. PMID:25211085

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenic analysis of the mudskipper Scartelaos gigas (Perciformes, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Yuting; Chen, Shixi; Chen, Wei; Hong, Wanshu

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Scartelaos gigas was firstly determined. The circular genome (16 717 bp) comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. The overall base composition of S. gigas is 28.9% for C, 28.3% for A, 26.4% for T, 16.4% for G, with a slight A + T bias of 54.7%. In the control region, the termination-associated sequence and conserved sequence block domains were found, but the tandem repeat structure was not found. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The phylogenic analysis using the Neighbor-Joining method showed that the fishes belonging to Gobiidae, Odontoburidae, and Eleotridae formed three branches grouped with other fishes into one clade which separated from the mammals. We hope that the results from the present study will provide useful molecular information for the further studies on genetic structure and demographic history of S. gigas. PMID:26436681

  10. Review of the harvestfishes, genus Peprilus (Perciformes: Stromateidae),
    of the Atlantic coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Marceniuk, Alexandre P; Caires, Rodrigo; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Currently, seven valid species are recognized in the genus Peprilus. Found from United States to Argentina, Peprilus paru has a complex nomenclatural history, with seven junior synonyms, three from North America and four from South America. As there has been no recent research, it remains unclear whether species representatives in the north-south axis represent different populations of a single species or distinct species. By comparison of type specimens as well as a comprehensive collection of non-type specimens, this paper aims to clarify the taxonomic status of the nominal species listed as junior synonyms of Peprilus paru in the Atlantic side of South America. Based on morphological data and DNA barcoding, Peprilus crenulatus Cuvier, 1829 and P. xanthurus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) are resurrected, while Rhombus argentipinnis Cuvier, 1833 and Rhombus orbicularis Guichenot, 1866, are considered to be junior synonyms of P. crenulatus. PMID:27394588

  11. New complete mitochondrial genome of the Perccottus glenii (Perciformes, Odontobutidae): additional non-coding region.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Shi, Yangbai; Zhong, Liqiang; Wang, Minghua; Sun, Lihui; Yang, Guoliang

    2016-05-01

    Perccottus glenii is a species of freshwater sleeper native to the Russian Far East, north-eastern China, and the northern part of the Korean Penninsula with introduced populations in other regions of Eurasia. In this study, a new complete mitochondrial genome of Perccottus glenii was reported. The circular genome is 16,510 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region. Except the origin of the light strand replication (OL), an additional non-coding region was present between ND6 and tRNA-Glu in the Light strand. The overall nucleotide composition was 30.5% A, 29.2% T, 24.4% C and 15.9% G, with an A + T bias of 59.7%. The gene composition and the structural arrangement of the P. glenii complete mtDNA were identical to most of the other vertebrates. The molecular data here we presented could play a useful role to study the evolutionary relationships and population genetics of Odontobutidae fish. PMID:25329281

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yang, Huirong; Yang, Zituo; Zhao, Huihong; Sun, Jijia; Xiao, Shibin; Yang, Xiankuan; Li, Guifeng

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of Protonibea diacanthus in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,535 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. All of them are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and 8 tRNA genes on the light strand. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 31.09% of G, 27.54% of T, 25.34% of A and 16.03% of C. All the protein-coding genes start with ATG initiation codon except ATP6 with GTG, and 5 types of inferred termination codons are AGA (COXI and COXII), T (ND3, ND4, Cytb), TA (ND2, COXIII and ATP6), TAA (ND1, ATP8 and ND4L) and TAG (DN5 and ND6). There are 14 intergenic spacers and 7 gene overlaps. The tandem repeat sequence is observed in 12S-rRNA, 16S-rRNA, tRNA(Trp), tRNA(Ala), COXIII, ND4L and ND4 genes. Gene arrangement and distribution are consistent with the typical vertebrates. PMID:25211087

  13. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Seriolella porosa (Perciformes: Centrolophidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanpu; Huang, Hai; Li, Jiantao; Zhao, Yuan; Deng, Siping; Li, Guangli; Huang, Hongxin; Zhu, Chunhua

    2016-05-01

    We have presented the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seriolella porosa in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,814 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of Seriolella porosa mitochondrial genome was similar to those of most vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand in descending order is 29.75% of T, 29.39% of G, 24.84% of A and 16.02% of C. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all the other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. PMID:25484174

  14. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and phylogenic analysis of Oxyeleotris lineolatus (Perciformes, Eleotridae).

    PubMed

    Zang, Xue; Yin, Danqing; Wang, Ruoran; Yin, Shaowu; Tao, Panfeng; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Guosong

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the mitochondrial genome of Oxyeleotris lineolatus was first determined. The length of entire mtDNA sequence was 16,522 bp with (A + T) content of 53.81%, and it contained 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and a control region. The gene order and the orientation are similar to some typical fish species. The data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic studies concerning O. lineolatus and its related species. PMID:26016879

  15. A new species of Tripartiella (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from Aequidens tetramerus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in north Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Bittencourt, L S; Tavares-Dias, M

    2016-06-01

    A new species of Tripartiella is described from the gills of the wild saddle cichlid Aequidens tetramerus in north Brazil. Wet smears of skin and gills of examined fish were air-dried at room temperature and impregnated with Klein's dry silver method for examination of the adhesive disc's structures and denticles. Total prevalence of parasitism was 65%. This ciliate is characterized as a small-sized trichodinid, body diameter 37.03 ± 4.9 μm, adhesive disc 30.50 ± 2.71 μm, denticulate ring 13.28 ± 0.8 μm and 24 ± 2.0 denticles. Taxonomic and morphometric data for the new species are discussed. PMID:26934157

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenic analysis of Odontobutis yaluensis, Perciformes, Odontobutidae.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xue; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guosong; Wang, Yayuan; Ding, Yandong; Yin, Shaowu

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Odontobutis yaluensis was sequenced as to be 16,909 bp in length with (A + T) content of 55.73%, and it contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The gene order and orientation are similar to some typical fish species. The data will provide the useful molecular information for phylogenetic relationships of O. yaluensis with Odontobutis potamophila first clustered into a small branch, and then with Odontobutis platycephala clade, and finally with Odontobutis sinensis clade. Odontobutidae and Rhyacichthyidae formed the sister group, and Eleotridae and Gobiidae formed the sister group. PMID:25319281

  17. Wallaceochromis gen. nov, a new chromidotilapiine cichlid genus (Pisces: Perciformes) from West Africa.

    PubMed

    Lamboj, Anton; Trummer, Franziska; Metscher, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    A new genus, Wallaceochromis, is described for the chromidotilapiine cichlids of the Pelvicachromis humilis group. It differs from Pelvicachromis sensu stricto in the number and arrangement of tubular infraorbitals, a straighter and sloping dorsal head profile with a low supraoccipital crest, higher abdominal vertebral counts (14-15 vs. 13-14), and in displaying a pattern of vertical bars on the body in several behavioral situations. PMID:27470842

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of copperband butterflyfish Chelmon rostratus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Chaetodontidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhi-Hao

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the copperband butterflyfish Chelmon rostratus from Beibu Bay, China, was determined. It is one of the most common coral reef fish in South China Sea. The total length of C. rostratus mitogenome is 16,538 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region, with the genome organization and gene order being identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The overall nucleotide composition of the H-strand is 28.05% A, 28.94% T, 16.22% G and 26.79% C, with an A + T bias. This study will provide the first complete mitochondrial genome of Chelmon rostratus as useful information for the application of fish phylogenetic relationship analysis within the butterflyfish species. PMID:25427816

  19. Mitochondrial genome of the blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus Lesson, 1831 (Perciformes, Scrombidae).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Isaza, Juan P; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-05-01

    Blackfin tuna, Thunnus atlanticus is a widespread epipelagic oceanic species in the western Atlantic. So far the mitochondrial genome of this species remained unknown, although the mitogenomes of all congeners are known. The mitochondrial genome encodes for 13 proteins, 21 tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and the gene synteny is conserved with other previously reported mitogenomes of tunas. PMID:25269003

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the striped scat Selenotoca multifasciata (Perciformes: Scatophagidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenhao; Mu, Xingjiang; Li, Hong; Gui, Lang; Zeng, Wengang; Zhang, Junbin

    2016-07-01

    The striped scat Selenotoca multifasciata is an ornamental and commercial fish in Asia. In the present study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of Selenotoca multifasciata. Its total length is 16,646 bp, and the mitochondrial genome is composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding control region. ND6 and eight tRNA genes were encoded on the light strand, whereas the remaining genes located on the heavy strand (H-strand). All the 16 mitochondrial genomes of the suborder Acanthuroidei available in GenBank were employed for phylogenetic analysis, and the result showed a close relationship between Selenotoca multifasciata and Scatophagus argus. This mitochondrial information may benefit relative ecological and phylogenetic studies. PMID:27158788

  1. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae), from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ping; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai, Guangxi, China in March 2010. These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830), being the first record of this species from Chinese waters. N. marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics: lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique, maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows, pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fin forked, upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  2. Metazoan parasites of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Patos Lagoon, extreme south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Pereira Júnior, Joaber; da Silva, Diego Silva; Wendt, Emília Welter; Monteiro, Cassandra de Moraes; Berne, Maria Elizabeth Aires

    2015-01-01

    This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis) from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31° 57' S and 52° 06' W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2%) and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9%) and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9%) were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. PMID:26648010

  3. ATPase 8/6 GENE BASED GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF SNAKEHEAD MURREL, Channa striata (Perciformes, Channidae).

    PubMed

    Baisvar, V S; Kumar, R; Singh, M; Singh, A K; Chauhan, U K; Nagpure, N S; Kushwaha, B

    2015-10-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ATPase 8/6 gene has been used in phylogenetic as well as in phylogeographic studies along with other mtDNA markers. In this study, ATPase gene sequences were used to assess the genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in Channa striata. Out of 884 nucleotide positions generated in ATPase 8/6 genes, 76 were polymorphic. The study suggested 23 unique haplotypes from 67 individuals of nine populations collected from different riverine systems of India. The ATPase 8/6 sequence revealed highest haplotype as well as nucleotide diversities in Imphal River population and lowest diversities in Tapti River population. The pattern of genetic diversity and haplotype network indicated distinct mitochondrial lineages for Chaliyar population, whereas mismatch distribution strongly suggested a population expansion in mid pleistocene epoch (0.4 Mya) with distinct genetic structuring in C. striata. The baseline information on genetic variation and the population sub-structuring would facilitate conservation and management of this important snakehead murrel. PMID:27169232

  4. A new species of Percina (Perciformes: Percidae) from the Apalachicola River drainage, southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.; Burkhead, N.M.; Straight, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Percina crypta, the Halloween Darter, is described as a new species endemic to the Chattahoochee and Flint River systems in Georgia and Alabama. Percina crypta differs from sympatric Percina nigrofasciata in having narrowly separated dorsal saddles (inter-saddle spaces typically less than or equal to saddle width, compared to frequently wider than saddle width in P. nigrofasciata), in usually possessing a single modified scale between the pelvic bases (compared to two or more in P. nigrofasciata), and in having dark wide bands on pectoral-fin rays (versus pectoral fin clear, or with irregular dark marks or weak tessellations on fin rays in P. nigrofasciata). Phylogenetic relationships of P. crypta to other species of Percina are obscure. Percina crypta occurs in shoal and riffle habitats in the Chattahoochee and Flint River mainstems and in a few tributary systems, with the known extant range comprising four disjunct areas separated by mainstem impoundments and altered river reaches.

  5. Growth and mortality rates of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in the central Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guoping; Xu, Liuxiong; Zhou, Yingqi; Chen, Xinjun

    2009-01-01

    Age and growth parameters were estimated for bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe, 1839 sampled from China longline fisheries in the central Atlantic Ocean from October 2002 to July 2003 and from August 2004 to March 2005. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L(infinity)=217.9 cm fork length, k=0.23 year(-1), and t(0)=-0.44 year. The total mortality rate (Z) was estimated to be from 0.82 to 1.02, the fishing mortality (F) and the natural mortality were 0.54 year(-1) and 0.39 year(-1), respectively. The exploitation ratio (E) was 0.35. This study provides the detailed estimates of growth and mortality rate for bigeye tuna in the central Atlantic Ocean, which can be used as biological input parameters in further stock evaluations in this region. However, age analysis, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are needed for future studies. PMID:19637690

  6. A new fish species of the subfamily Serraninae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey T; Carpenter, Kent E

    2015-01-01

    A new species of serranine fish is described from the Philippine Islands. A single specimen of a new species, Chelidoperca santosi, captured by fishermen working in Palawan waters was discovered in the public fish market in Iloilo City, Panay, Philippines. Two additional specimens of the new species, also from the Philippines, were subsequently discovered in the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia. The new species is currently known only from the Philippines and is characterized by its distinctive coloration with a row of four small dark spots on the snout (two in front of each eye) and two dark spots on the chin (one on each side of the symphysis of the dentaries), a white anal fin with six large yellow spots separated by broad white interspaces and a narrow yellow distal border, caudal fin with narrow yellow bars and a yellowish distal margin and no dark spots, and a combination of meristic and morphological characters.  PMID:25661613

  7. Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting oocytes of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Perciformes: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al, Suliman Y Omar

    2015-01-01

    During a survey the occurrence of Kudoa quraishii Mansour, Harrath, Abd-Elkader, Alwasel, Abdel-Baki et Al Omar, 2014, recently identified in the muscles of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), a species of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 infecting oocytes of mature females of the same host fish was found. The new species, for which the name Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. is proposed, infects oocytes that are enlarged with a whitish colour. The parasite develops in vesicular polysporous plasmodia within the oocyte. Infection occurs with a mean prevalence of 20% (7/35) of examined females. Mature spores are quadratic in shape in apical view, having four equal valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Fresh spores are 2.4-3.6 µm long (mean ± SD 3.1 ± 0.3 µm), 4.3-5.4 µm (4.7 ± 0.3 µm) wide and 3.4-4.3 µm (3.8 ± 0.3 µm) in thickness and long. The smaller size of the new Kudoa species was the distinctive feature that separates it from all previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the SSU rDNA sequences shows that the highest percentage of similarity of 98.5% was observed with K. ovivora Swearer et Robertson, 1999, reported from oocytes of labroid fish from the Caribbean coasts of Panama. The percentage of similarity was 98% with K. azevedoi Mansour, Thabet, Chourabi, Harrath, Gtari, Al Omar et Ben Hassine, 2013 and 89% with K. quraishii. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU and LSU rDNA data revealed a consistent of the new species with K. azevedoi and K. ovivora. Our findings support the creation of Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. that infects oocytes of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta. PMID:25960554

  8. A new species of the cardinalfish genus Siphamia (Perciformes, Apogonidae) from West Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gon, Ofer; Allen, Gerald R; Erdmann, Mark V; Gouws, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the cardinalfish genus Siphamia is described from specimens collected in the Province of West Papua, Indonesia, at depths of 50-72 m. Siphamia papuensis n. sp. has a striated light organ which makes it a member of the S. tubifer species group. Within this group it is closely related to S. argentea, sharing with the latter 13 pectoral-fin rays, 9 developed gill rakers and an irregular pattern of yellowish green bars on the body. It differs from S. argentea in having an incomplete lateral line and in lacking dark marks on the head, and at the origin and end of the dorsal-fin and anal-fin bases, as well as the absence of red spots along the light organ and along the back. Japanese records of S. tubulata are reidentified as S. argentea, and new locality records for S. argentea and S. stenotes are reported. Analysis of sequence data from a 16S rDNA fragment revealed the clear separation of S. papuensis n. sp., S. argentea and other included Siphamia species (S. jebbi, S. tubifer and S. stenotes).  PMID:25543639

  9. Reproductive biology of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Perciformes: Centropomidae) in two tropical habitats.

    PubMed

    Perera-García, Martha A; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido M; Huerta-Ortíz, Maricela; Pérez-Sánchez, Eunice

    2011-06-01

    In Southeastern Mexico, Centropomus undecimalis is an important fish species of sport and commercial fisheries for coastal and riverine communities. Fisheries along rivers and coasts depend on migratory habits of this species, and these movements are probably related to reproduction. In spite of its economic importance, few studies have been conducted focusing on its reproductive biology, and this research aims to analyze these habits. Samples (fork length, somatic and gonads weight, and macroscopic maturity stages) were obtained from organisms collected by fishermen from the largest fishing cooperatives along the coastal and riverine areas of Tabasco, from July 2006 to March 2008. Fish size ranged from 34 to 112 cm fork length, with an average age of 6.42 years for males and 9.12 years for females. In riverine areas, fish sizes ranged from 30 to 85 cm and the average age was 5.5 years for males and 6.6 years for females. Significant differences were recorded between lengths of males and females from the two areas (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The male:female ratio was 1:0.68 in the coast, and 1:0.16 in riverine areas. The length-weight relationship did not vary between both sexes among areas (ANCOVA, p > 0.05). A curve for eviscerated weight was calculated for both sexes, for coastal fishes SW = 0.0059 (FL)3.07, and the riverine ones SW = 0.0086 (FL) 2.98, with an isometric growth (b = 3). The period of maximum reproduction was from July to August, with temperatures of 28 to 30 degrees C. A significant correlation between the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and rainfall was recorded for samples of both males and females from coastal areas (r = 0.63, r = 0.70) whereas only one positive correlation was recorded for riverine females (r = 0.57). The size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 60 cm and 80 cm (FL), corresponding to 5.5 and 8.5 years of age, for males and females, respectively. An important proportion of mature females of eight years and older, suggests that these ages contribute significantly to the reproductive biomass. The results indicate that due to changes in the exploitation period, we recommend to protect populations of the common snook. PMID:21717854

  10. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  11. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  12. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  13. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  14. 50 CFR 665.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira. kalekale yellowtail snapper Pristipomoides auricilla. `pakapaka pink snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. kalekale pink snapper Pristipomoides seiboldii. gindai...

  15. B-cell activating CpG ODN 1668 enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) exposed to Vibrio parahaemolitycus.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Reyna, Tomás; Angulo, Carlos; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Velázquez-Lizárraga, Esteban; Reyes-Becerril, Martha

    2016-09-01

    B-class CpG ODN 1668 is known to possess clear immunostimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the potential ability of CpG ODN 1668 to enhance the immune response of Pacific red snapper exposed to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Four different treatments were evaluated in Pacific red snapper: (1) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668, (2) stimulatory CpG ODN 1668 and V. parahaemolyticus, (3) exposure only to V. parahaemolyticus and (4) PBS. Samples were taken at 24, 72, 168 and 240 h of stimulation/infection. The results show that intraperitoneal injection of CpG-ODN 1668 enhanced the anti-protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in serum. CpG ODN 1668 upregulated TLR9 and IgM gene expression in head-kidney, intestine and skin, with higher expression in head-kidney. A higher correlation was observed between TLR9 and IgM in head-kidney and intestine. Finally, no histopathological damages were observed in fish stimulated with CpG ODN 1668. In contrast, melanomacrophages-like structures were present in higher numbers in infected fish. Taken together, these results indicate that CpG ODN 1668 activates innate immune response and upregulate the TLR9 and IgM-mediated immune response. These results may be exploited for the control of Vibriosis in farmed Pacific red snapper. PMID:27143535

  16. Projecting Range Limits with Coupled Thermal Tolerance - Climate Change Models: An Example Based on Gray Snapper (Lutjanus griseus) along the U.S. East Coast

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Jonathan A.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Kimball, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    We couple a species range limit hypothesis with the output of an ensemble of general circulation models to project the poleward range limit of gray snapper. Using laboratory-derived thermal limits and statistical downscaling from IPCC AR4 general circulation models, we project that gray snapper will shift northwards; the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the magnitude of climate change. We also evaluate the uncertainty in our projection and find that statistical uncertainty associated with the experimentally-derived thermal limits is the largest contributor (∼ 65%) to overall quantified uncertainty. This finding argues for more experimental work aimed at understanding and parameterizing the effects of climate change and variability on marine species. PMID:23284974

  17. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  18. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  19. Biogeography of tropical Indo-West Pacific parasites: a cryptic species of Transversotrema and evidence for rarity of Transversotrematidae (Trematoda) in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Thomas H; Adlard, Robert D; Bray, Rodney A; Sasal, Pierre; Cutmore, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    We sought transversotrematid trematodes from French Polynesian fishes by examining 304 individual scaled fishes of 53 species from seven families known to harbour the family elsewhere. A single species was found at two locations in the Tuamotus Archipelago on two species of Chaetodontidae (Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon ephippium) and one species of Lutjanidae (Lutjanus gibbus). The species closely resembles Transversotrema borboleta Hunter & Cribb, 2012 from chaetodontids and lutjanids of the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) but differs from it consistently in 8 base positions of ITS2 rDNA. This level of variation exceeds that between some clearly morphologically distinct pairs of species of Transversotrema and the form from French Polynesia is thus interpreted as a distinct, though cryptic, species and named Transversotrema polynesiae n. sp. The new species forms part of a complex of species, here characterised as the T. borboleta complex, associated with chaetodontids and lutjanids in the tropical Indo-West Pacific. Most of the putative species within this complex are yet to be described. Comparison of identical numbers of matched samples of fishes from French Polynesia, Heron Island (southern GBR) and Lizard Island (northern GBR) revealed 1, 4 and 10 species of Transversotrema respectively suggesting that the French Polynesian fauna is depauperate for this family. In addition to those species apparently missing from suitable hosts in French Polynesia, several species from further west infect fishes (especially Nemipteridae) that are themselves absent from French Polynesia. This dramatic east-west decline in richness contrasts strongly with what is known for monogeneans, which appear to maintain their richness over the same scale, and is more precipitate than is known for other groups of trematodes. The decline might be explained in part by the absence of the as yet unknown first intermediate hosts in French Polynesia. However, we predict that it is explained

  20. Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Ana L; Rodríguez-Canto, Antonio; Cortés-Martínez, Jasmín; García-Calderón, José L

    2013-03-01

    The use of alizarin red S (ARS) marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1) 12 hours of immersion and 2) immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (p<0.05) in mark intensity were detected between treatments for otoliths and fin rays, but not for fish scales. Significant differences between concentrations were found for the 12h immersion treatment, while no significant differences were detected with osmotic induction. Our results showed that marks appeared at all concentrations, and none of the concentrations produced weak marks. Osmotic induction had a greater mortality than the 12h immersion procedure. After eight culture months the rest of the specimens were analyzed and the mark permanence was observed in all cases. According to the present results we recommend the marking process of 12h immersion treatment at 100mg/L concentration. PMID:23894973

  1. First cytogenetic report in Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense Kullander, 1983 (Perciformes, Cichlidae) from northeastern Brazil with inferences on chromosomal evolution of Cichlasomatini

    PubMed Central

    Argôlo, Leandro A.; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Even though genetic aspects of some cichlids have been widely studied over the last decades, little is known about the genomic structure of Cichlidae when compared to the large number of species in the family. In this paper, the first chromosomal data for Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense Kullander, 1983 are presented and discussed based on cytotaxonomic and karyoevolutionary inferences on Cichlasomatini. All individuals shared a diploid number of 2n=48 distributed as 10sm+28st+10a and Ag-NORs on short arms of a submetacentric pair. Heterochromatin was detected at pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes and at terminal sites of a few pairs. GC-rich regions were observed on short arms of two biarmed pairs, including the pair bearing Ag-NORs. Double-FISH with ribosomal probes revealed 18S rDNA clusters coincident with GC-rich regions in two biarmed pairs and 5S rDNA at interstitial location of an acrocentric pair. Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense shares some symplesiomorphic traits described in Cichlidae (2n=48 and pericentromeric C-bands) while other chromosomal features diverge from the common trend reported in Cichlasomatini, such as multiple 18S rDNA sites combined with high FN values. Finally, the present results are useful to support taxonomic identification once species-specific markers have been provided in Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense. PMID:26753082

  2. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Clapp, Michelle Daniele; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    A total of 112 specimens of yellow peacock bass, Cichla kelberi, were collected in the Três Marias Reservoir, upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, between 2004 and 2005. Twelve species of parasites were collected: two species of ectoparasites (the monogenetic Gussevia sp. and the copepod Ergasilus sp.); and ten species of endoparasites, including four species of adult endoparasites: the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, and the nematodes: Capillostrongyloides sentinosa and Rhabdochona acuminata, and six species of larval endoparasites: the metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum and the nematodes: Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Spiroxys sp., and Goezia sp.. A significant positive correlation in the abundance of the two adult endoparasites species, P. macrophallus and P. microscopicus, may indicate that such associated species had the same ecological requirements. The positive correlations between the prevalence of the larval endoparasites, Hysterothylacium sp. and A. compactum, may indicate that there was opportunism for the two generalists species. Ergasilus sp., C. sentinosa, R. acuminata and Hysterothylacium sp. were recorded for the first time in C. kelberi, and this increased their list of known hosts. In addition, both proteocephalid species and C. sentinosa can extend their known biogeographical distribution to the Três Marias Reservoir. PMID:25271458

  3. A new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first adult record of Feia nympha from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. nanus sp. nov. is described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops nanus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners in having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,10; anal-fin rays I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12-14 (lowest count known for the genus), two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form an emarginate disc, no pelvic frenum; predorsal area and narrow area at base of first dorsal fin naked; longitudinal scale series 26-29; transverse scale rows counted forward 6-7; transverse scale rows counted backward 7-8; circumpeduncular scale rows 11-12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without flap at its tip, posterior nostril pore-like; body semitranslucent, covered with small scattered orange-yellow spots and speckles, those in predorsal area contain black dots; an internal row of white spots along ventral part of body above anal-fin base and on caudal peduncle; head with small scattered orange to yellowish brown spots; first dorsal fin with two broad white bands at base of fin and distally, and with hyaline area densely dotted with melanophores in the middle of fin; preserved specimens opaque white to yellowish with sparse melanophores. An adult specimen of Feia nympha is recorded for the first time in the Red Sea and the lateral line system of this species is described. PMID:27394550

  4. Evaluation of cytochrome b mtDNA sequences in genetic diversity studies of Channa marulius (Channidae: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Habib, Maria; Lakra, W S; Mohindra, Vindhya; Khare, Praveen; Barman, A S; Singh, Akanksha; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Khan, Asif A

    2011-02-01

    Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. The present study evaluated partial Cytochrome b gene sequence of mtDNA for determining the genetic variation in wild populations of C. marulius. Genomic DNA extracted from C. marulius samples (n = 23) belonging to 3 distant rivers; Mahanadi, Teesta and Yamuna was analyzed. Sequencing of 307 bp Cytochrome b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 5 haplotypes with haplotype diversity value of 0.763 and nucleotide diversity value of 0.0128. Single population specific haplotype was observed in Mahanadi and Yamuna samples and 3 haplotypes in Teesta samples. The analysis of data demonstrated the suitability of partial Cytochrome b sequence in determining the genetic diversity in C. marulius population. PMID:20443065

  5. Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Robles-Basto, Cindy M; Mena-herrera, Alfredo

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH) with 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (17-MT) during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (approximately 5.0cm in length) were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank) in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a) fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH); b) fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R); c) fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH); and d) fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N). The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T0) and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T15, T30 and T45), and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K); survival percentage (S), feed conversion rate (FCR), percentage weight gain (WG) and (v) daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group), being particularly significant increase in weight during T15 and T30 (p<0.05). High values of K were found in the R and RGH treatments during the initial days of the experiment, which may have been a consequence of the better nutritional status affecting both weight gain and growth in body length, as a result of the additive effects of 17-MT and GH. The fish in groups not treated with 17-MT and treated with 17-MT and added GH showed greater increases in WG per day, higher K values and lower FCRs than fish in the other groups, which suggests that greater feed efficiency occurred in the hormone-treated fish. Fish in the RGH treatment showed the most growth, suggesting a possible interaction between 17-MT and injected GH. PMID:23894974

  6. A new species of the genus Scolopsis Cuvier, 1830 (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) from southern India and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S S; Biswas, Sudeepta; Russell, Barry C; Satpathy, K K; Selvanayagam, M

    2013-01-01

    Scolopsis igcarensis, a new species of monocle bream (family Nemipteridae) from the coastal waters of southern India and Sri Lanka is described. The species is distinguished from other species of the genus Scolopsis by a combination of the following characters: scales on top of head reaching forward to between anterior nostril and snout tip; lower margin of eye below the line from snout tip to upper pectoral fin base; a bony ridge below eye; a white band from behind eye to level of end of dorsal fin base. PMID:24699607

  7. Tormopsolus orientalis Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae) from Seriola dumerili (Risso) (Perciformes: Carangidae) in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Pierre; Bray, Rodney A; Montero, Francisco E

    2004-03-01

    Tormopsolus orientalis Yamaguti, 1934, is redescribed from Seriola dumerili from off Corsica, Majorca and Aguilas, SE Spain. The vitellarium is interrupted at the level of the ovary and both testes, and a bipartite seminal vesicle is found in many specimens. Oral sucker papillae are always seen. Type-specimens and voucher specimens from off Japan, Bermuda, Panama, Curaçao and the Great Barrier Reef have been compared with the Mediterranean species. Specimens of T. medius Reimer, 1983, from Mozambique have been studied and this species is synonymised with T. orientalis. PMID:15010594

  8. Molecular systematics of the Jacks (Perciformes: Carangidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian approaches.

    PubMed

    Reed, David L; Carpenter, Kent E; deGravelle, Martin J

    2002-06-01

    The Carangidae represent a diverse family of marine fishes that include both ecologically and economically important species. Currently, there are four recognized tribes within the family, but phylogenetic relationships among them based on morphology are not resolved. In addition, the tribe Carangini contains species with a variety of body forms and no study has tried to interpret the evolution of this diversity. We used DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of 50 species from each of the four tribes of Carangidae and four carangoid outgroup taxa. We found support for the monophyly of three tribes within the Carangidae (Carangini, Naucratini, and Trachinotini); however, monophyly of the fourth tribe (Scomberoidini) remains questionable. A sister group relationship between the Carangini and the Naucratini is well supported. This clade is apparently sister to the Trachinotini plus Scomberoidini but there is uncertain support for this relationship. Additionally, we examined the evolution of body form within the tribe Carangini and determined that each of the predominant clades has a distinct evolutionary trend in body form. We tested three methods of phylogenetic inference, parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian inference. Whereas the three analyses produced largely congruent hypotheses, they differed in several important relationships. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods produced hypotheses with higher support values for deep branches. The Bayesian analysis was computationally much faster and yet produced phylogenetic hypotheses that were very similar to those of the maximum-likelihood analysis. PMID:12099802

  9. Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World’s Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity. PMID:24351242

  10. When two equals three: developmental osteology and homology of the caudal skeleton in carangid fishes (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Hilton, Eric J; Johnson, G David

    2007-01-01

    Ontogeny often provides the most compelling evidence for primary homology in evolutionary developmental studies and is critical to interpreting complex structures in a phylogenetic context. As an example of this, we document the ontogenetic development of the caudal skeleton of Caranx crysos by examining a series of cleared and stained larval and postlarval specimens. By studying ontogeny, we are able to more accurately identify some elements of the adult caudal skeleton than is possible when studying the adult stage alone. The presence of two epurals has been used as a synapomorphy of Caranginae (homoplastically present in the scomberoidine genera Scomberoides and Oligoplites). Here we find that three epurals (ep) are present in larvae and small postlarval juveniles (i.e.,<25 mm standard length [SL]) of C. crysos and other carangines, but ep2 never ossifies and does not develop beyond its initial presence. Ep2 was last observed in a 33.6 mm SL specimen as a small nodule of very lightly stained cartilage cells and eventually disappears completely. Therefore, the two epurals present in the adult are ep1 and ep3. In other carangines examined (e.g., Selene, Selar), the rudimentary ep2 ossifies and appears to fuse to the proximal tip of ep1. In these taxa, therefore, the two epurals of the adult appear to be ep1+2 and ep3. We found no indication of three epurals at any stage in the development of Oligoplites (developmental material of Scomberoides was unavailable). We discuss the osteology of the caudal skeleton of carangoid fishes generally and emphasize the power and importance of ontogeny in the identification of primary homology. PMID:17371400

  11. Redescription of Parapercis okamurai Kamohara, 1960 (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), based on specimens newly collected from Taiwan and Japan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2014-01-01

    A rare species of sandperch, Parapercis okamurai, is redescribed based on 2 types and 15 specimens newly collected from Taiwan and Japan. The species is unique in having cycloid scales on the parietal, opercle and subopercle, except for few large ctenoid scale that covers the base of the opercular spine; body color yellowish dorsally, with 10 or 11 faint yellow bands on lateral body and pale ventrally; and black spots on inner side of upper pectoral fin base. It can also be distinguished from congeners by having a combination of the following characters: dorsal-fin rays V, 23; anal-fin rays I, 19; pectoral-fin rays 18; pored lateral-line scales 59-64; medial predorsal scales 9-10; transverse scale rows 4.5-5.5/14-15; circumpeduncular scales 20-21; gill raker4-5+9-10=13-16; -4 pairs of canine teeth at front of lower jaw; 2-4 rows of teeth on vomer; 2 rows of teeth on palatines; scales on cheek moderately large, each half embedded; and body color yellowish dorsally and a prominent ocellus at upper caudal-fin base. PMID:25283124

  12. An ovary transcriptome for all maturational stages of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a highly advanced perciform fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The striped bass and its relatives (genus Morone) are important fisheries and aquaculture species native to estuaries and rivers of the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico in North America. To open avenues of gene expression research on reproduction and breeding of striped bass, we generated a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a complementary DNA (cDNA) library representative of their ovarian transcriptome. Results Sequences of a total of 230,151 ESTs (51,259,448 bp) were acquired by Roche 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA pooled from ovarian tissues obtained at all stages of oocyte growth, at ovulation (eggs), and during preovulatory atresia. Quality filtering of ESTs allowed assembly of 11,208 high-quality contigs ≥ 100 bp, including 2,984 contigs 500 bp or longer (average length 895 bp). Blastx comparisons revealed 5,482 gene orthologues (E-value < 10-3), of which 4,120 (36.7% of total contigs) were annotated with Gene Ontology terms (E-value < 10-6). There were 5,726 remaining unknown unique sequences (51.1% of total contigs). All of the high-quality EST sequences are available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Short Read Archive (GenBank: SRX007394). Informative contigs were considered to be abundant if they were assembled from groups of ESTs comprising ≥ 0.15% of the total short read sequences (≥ 345 reads/contig). Approximately 52.5% of these abundant contigs were predicted to have predominant ovary expression through digital differential display in silico comparisons to zebrafish (Danio rerio) UniGene orthologues. Over 1,300 Gene Ontology terms from Biological Process classes of Reproduction, Reproductive process, and Developmental process were assigned to this collection of annotated contigs. Conclusions This first large reference sequence database available for the ecologically and economically important temperate basses (genus Morone) provides a foundation for gene expression studies in these species. The predicted predominance of ovary gene expression and assignment of directly relevant Gene Ontology classes suggests a powerful utility of this dataset for analysis of ovarian gene expression related to fundamental questions of oogenesis. Additionally, a high definition Agilent 60-mer oligo ovary 'UniClone' microarray with 8 × 15,000 probe format has been designed based on this striped bass transcriptome (eArray Group: Striper Group, Design ID: 029004). PMID:22353237

  13. Haliotrematoides spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of grunts (Perciformes: Haemulidae) from the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Reyes-Lizama, C; González-Solís, D

    2009-12-01

    One previously described species, Haliotrema striatohamus Zhukov, 1981, found off the coast of Cuba and Campeche (Gulf of Mexico), is redescribed and transferred to Haliotrematoides Kritsky, Yang and Sun, 2009, as Haliotrematoides striatohamus ( Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. This transfer is based on the study of new specimens of this species found in the gill lamellae of grunts, i.e., Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier, Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède), and Haemulon sciurus (Shaw) (Haemulidae), all from the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico. In addition, another previously described species, Haliotrema brevispirocirrus Zhukov, 1981 from Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus) from Havana, Cuba, is also transferred to Haliotrematoides based on the comparative morphology of its original description. Data are provided for prevalence and mean intensity as well as for the morphologic and biometric variability of H. striatohamus from different hosts. The new replacement of H. striatohamus ( Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. and H. brevispirocirrus (Zhukov, 1981) n. comb. infecting these taxa represents the first known species of Haliotrematoides on these fishes and new geographical records for these dactylogyrid monogenoids. PMID:19463040

  14. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Villa, Mateo Andres; de Oliveira, Ezequiel Aguiar; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Chaveerach, Arunrat

    2015-01-01

    Channid fishes, commonly referred to as "snakeheads", are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes. PMID:26067030

  15. [Growth, mortality and exploitation rate of Priacanthus arenatus (Perciformes: Priacanthidae), in the trawl fisheries of northeast Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Toledo, J; Mendoza, J; Marcano, L

    2000-12-01

    We analyzed growth, mortality and exploitation rate of Priacanhus arenatus, captured by the shrimp trawling fishery (1989-1996), in northeastern Venezuela. The growth coefficient (K) and the asymptotic length (L8) were estimated by length-frequency data using the Battacharya method and other routines of the FISAT program. Total mortality (Z) and exploitation (E) rates were obtained by length-converted catch curve analysis, based on length-frequency data, and the Berverton and Holt's yield per recruit model, respectively. The mean growth parameters L and K were estimated as 474.7 mm and 0.69 year(-1), respectively. Mean total mortality was 4.03 and the exploitation rate range was 0.70-0.80. Results indicated that the population is overexploited. PMID:15272462

  16. Actinobdella inequinnulata (Annelida: Hirudinida:Rhynchobdellida:Glossiphoniidae) from White Crappie, Pomoxis annularis (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), in Arkansas, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of 4 (25%) white crappie, Pomoxis annularis from the Ouachita River, Dallas County, Arkansas, was found to be infested with 8 glossiphoniid leeches, Actinobdella inequiannulata Moore, 1901. Leeches were removed from within the oeprculum on gills and gill arches. This leech i...

  17. Growth, mortality and reproduction of the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Aguamilpa Reservoir, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña Messina, Emilio; Tapia Varela, Raul; Velázquez Abunader, José Iván; Orbe Mendoza, Alma Araceli; Velazco Arce, Javier Marcial de Jesús Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    Tilapia production has increased in Aguamilpa Reservoir, in Nayarit, Mexico, in the last few years and represents a good economic activity for rural communities and the country. We determined growth parameters, mortality and reproductive aspects for 2413 specimens of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus in this reservoir. Samples were taken monthly from July 2000 through June 2001, of which 1 371 were males and 1 042 were females. Standard length (SL) and total weight (TW) were measured in each organism. The SL/TW relationships through power models for sexes were determined. The growth parameters L infinity k, and t0 of the von Bertalanffy equation were estimated using frequency distribution of length through ELEFAN-I computer program. Finally the reproductive cycle and size of first maturity were established using morph chromatic maturity scale. The results suggested that the males and females had negative allometric growth (b < 3). Significant differences were found between SL/TW model for the sexes, suggesting separate models for males and females. Results indicate that there are no differences in growth rates between sexes; the proposed parameters were L infinity = 43.33 cm standard length, k = 0.36/year and t0 = -0.43 years. Natural and fishing mortality coefficients were 0.83/year and 1.10/year, respectively. The estimated exploitation rate (0.57/year) suggested that during the study period the fishery showed signs of overfishing. Blue tilapia reproduces year-round; the highest activity occurs from January through May and size of first maturity was 23 cm SL. We conclude that it is necessary to establish a minimum catch size in this reservoir based on the reproductive behavior of this species. PMID:21247004

  18. [Trophic range of tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Infiernillo dam, Michoacán-Guerrero, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Badillo, M L; Nepita-Villanueva, M R

    2000-01-01

    The trophic spectrum of tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner 1864), was determined by stomach content analysis in 153 organisms collected during 1993 in Michoacán-Guerrero, México. The feeding status of the fish at the time of observation was evaluated by the examination of fat surrounding the gut, gastric replection and the condition coefficient. The quantitative evaluation of the food items was carried out by the combination of the following analysis: Frequency of Occurrence, Volumetric Method, Volumetric Mean Index and Relative Importance Index. Diet consisted of: detritus and vascular plant residues as a primary food; unicellular algae as secondary food; and remains of insects and fish, graminean seeds, filamentous algae, cladocerans, ostracods, rotifers and copepods as occasional food. We detected a difference in food preferences between juveniles and adults and a variation in the consumption proportions of some food items during the rainy and dry seasons. Thus, we concluded that O. aureus is an omnivorous species with preference for detritus and vascular plant remain. Feeding seems to be determined by the abundance of food items found in the habitat and adults showed a trend to eat only detritus. Feeding does not seem to be a limiting factor in the development of the tilapia in Infiernillo dam. PMID:11354955

  19. Reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Natalia P A; Fernandes, Cezar A F; Albuquerque, Fernanda V; Pedrosa, Vanessa; Hazin, Fábio; Travassos, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    The reproduction of Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus has been described for coastal regions, and for a long time, this species was considered to be a strictly continental spawner. Recently, this species was observed around a seamount habitat 500 nautical miles Northeast of Brazil, located between South America and Africa. In this study we describe the reproductive biology of Blackfin tuna at Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA). Male and female gonads were sampled from December 2008 to July 2010, and analyzed macro and microscopically. A total of 361 fish were sampled (247 males and 114 females). Males were more common than females, with a sex ratio of 2.2 male:1 female. The fork length (FL) of all sampled specimens ranged from 38 to 98cm, and larger length classes were more frequent in males. It was possible to distinguish six maturity phases for females: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning, regressing and recovering. Five phases were identified for males: immature, developing, spawning capable, actively spawning and recovering. The gonad index (GI) mean monthly values ranged from 6.6 (SD = 4.1) to 58.4 (SD = 34.7) for females, and from 2.6 (SD = 1.3) to 66.2 (SD = 30.4) for males. For both sexes, the largest GI values were observed at the beginning of the first semester of the year. Size at first maturity was estimated at 48cm FL and 55cm FL for females and males respectively. Approximately 80% of the specimens were adults and considered to be in reproductive conditions. Histological analysis of the ovaries and testes showed that most of the specimens were sexually mature and were reproductively active during all months of the year. However, females with mature ovaries, with large amounts of hydrated oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles, were mainly found from December to March, thus these months may constitute the main spawning season in SPSPA. Batch fecundity varied between 272025 and 1,140584 oocytes for 56 and 68 cm FL females respectively. Oocyte development and spawning patterns suggest a multiple spawning behavior. The results revealed that Blackfin tuna is using the SPSPA as a spawning ground, similar to other species commonly observed in the same area during the same reproductive season. PMID:24027926

  20. Relative yield-per-recruit and management strategies for Cynoscion acoupa (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Orlando José Ferrer; Morales, Isabel Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Acoupa weakfish, Cynoscion acoupa, in Lake Maracaibo is subject to intense commercial fishing by an artisanal fleet, and a recent decrease in fish size observed from landings is of concern. This fishery has not yet been modeled, and its assessment and the establishment of management practices to overcome the current overfished condition are urgently needed. To address this, we used recent and past empirical growth estimates to model relative yield-per-recruit under different lengths at first capture. Our results from relative yield-per-recruit analysis showed evidence that growth and recruitment overfishing occur under current fishing practices in Lake Maracaibo. Particular attention was given to fishing practices in El Tablazo Bay where young, small fish predominate in the commercial catches (mean total length=33.7cm), well below the length at first sexual maturity (-40cm TL) for both sexes. As management strategies, we propose to set a mesh size limit at or above 8.89cm (3.5in), which will reduce fishing mortality of immature fish, increase yield-per-recruit, and will result in an increase of Acoupa weakfish recruitment for the long term in Lake Maracaibo. PMID:23894971

  1. Genome Sequencing of the Perciform Fish Larimichthys crocea Provides Insights into Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Stress Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiong; Zhu, Lv-Yun; Li, Ting; Ding, Yang; Nie, Li; Li, Qiuhua; Dong, Wei-ren; Jiang, Liang; Sun, Bing; Zhang, XinHui; Li, Mingyu; Zhang, Hai-Qi; Xie, ShangBo; Zhu, YaBing; Jiang, XuanTing; Wang, Xianhui; Mu, Pengfei; Chen, Wei; Yue, Zhen; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (L. crocea) is one of the most economically important marine fish in China and East Asian countries. It also exhibits peculiar behavioral and physiological characteristics, especially sensitive to various environmental stresses, such as hypoxia and air exposure. These traits may render L. crocea a good model for investigating the response mechanisms to environmental stress. To understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation and response of L. crocea to environmental stress, we sequenced and assembled the genome of L. crocea using a bacterial artificial chromosome and whole-genome shotgun hierarchical strategy. The final genome assembly was 679 Mb, with a contig N50 of 63.11 kb and a scaffold N50 of 1.03 Mb, containing 25,401 protein-coding genes. Gene families underlying adaptive behaviours, such as vision-related crystallins, olfactory receptors, and auditory sense-related genes, were significantly expanded in the genome of L. crocea relative to those of other vertebrates. Transcriptome analyses of the hypoxia-exposed L. crocea brain revealed new aspects of neuro-endocrine-immune/metabolism regulatory networks that may help the fish to avoid cerebral inflammatory injury and maintain energy balance under hypoxia. Proteomics data demonstrate that skin mucus of the air-exposed L. crocea had a complex composition, with an unexpectedly high number of proteins (3,209), suggesting its multiple protective mechanisms involved in antioxidant functions, oxygen transport, immune defence, and osmotic and ionic regulation. Our results reveal the molecular and genetic basis of fish adaptation and response to hypoxia and air exposure. The data generated by this study will provide valuable resources for the genetic improvement of stress resistance and yield potential in L. crocea. PMID:25835551

  2. [Distribution and abundance of Katsuwonus pelamis larvae (Perciformes: Scombridae) in the Gulf of Mexico, 1982-1992].

    PubMed

    Guevara-Rascado, Ma de Lourdes; Cerecedo-Escudero, José Luis; Sánchez-Regalado, Ramón

    2008-09-01

    The epipelagic fish known as skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) is considered inside the "little tuna" group. The species is distributed in tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. Despite its fisheries importance in Mexico, there is little knowledge about the species in the region. The information from 18 oceanographic cruises inside the Mexican exclusive economic zone in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, was analyzed for the period 1982 to 1992. Plankton was collected in a paired 60 cm mouth bongo net sampler with 0.333 mm mesh nets in oblique tows. The maximum abundance was in spring and summer; 1986 had the largest population (4 881.8544 X 10(9) larvae) and 1983 the lowest density (566.3748 X 10(9)). The skipjack has suitable conditions for reproduction in this area, and the southwestern region is the most productive. The spawning was greater in the summer. The annual biomass was estimated in 2 513 to 21 659 tons, the high value corresponded to 1986, with potential yields between 7 472 and 10 071 tons. A local fishery seems viable but needs further evidence. PMID:19419048

  3. Description of a new species of rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles

    2014-01-01

    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal.  PMID:24943153

  4. Illumina next-generation sequencing reveals the complete mitochondrial genome of Psenopsis anomala (Perciformes: Centrolophidae) with phylogenetic consideration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huapu; Che, Zhiwei; Li, Jiantao; Dai, Mingli; Xiang, Ling; Deng, Siping; Zhu, Chunhua; Huang, Hai; Li, Guangli

    2016-09-01

    Using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS), the complete mitochondrial genome of the Psenopsis anomala was sequenced in the present study. The mitochondrial genome of P. anomala is 16,528 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The structure about gene order and composition of P. anomala mitochondrial genome is similar to those of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand in descending order is 29.18% of T, 27.97% of G, 27.06% of A, and 15.79% of C. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The phylogenetic analysis by maximum-likelihood (ML) method shown that the Psenopsis anomala was closer to Peprilus triacanthus in the phylogenetic relationship. PMID:25974666

  5. Redescription of Cheilinus quinquecinctus Rüppell, 1835 (Pisces: Perciformes, Labridae), a valid endemic Red Sea wrasse.

    PubMed

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Alpermann, Tilman J; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-01-01

    The labrid fish Cheilinus quinquecinctus Rüppell, originally described from the Red Sea, has long been regarded as a junior synonym of C. fasciatus (Bloch). Herein, both nominal species are redescribed, based on examination of the types and additional material from the Red Sea (for C. quinquecinctus) and the Indo-West Pacific (for C. fasciatus). Rüppell's description of Cheilinus quinquecinctus was originally based on three syntypes, and the most representative adult specimen is designated as the lectotype. We show that Cheilinus quinquecinctus is restricted to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, and it differs from the similar C. fasciatus in having modally fewer gill rakers on the first gill arch, a total of 13-16 (mean 13.9, usually 13 or 14 ) (vs. 13-16, mean 14.7, usually 14 or 15), in developing a ragged posterior margin of the caudal fin with age (versus only upper and lower caudal-fin lobes developing with age), and in its color pattern. The phylogenetic analysis of the COI barcoding region accords with the species status of C. quinquecinctus with the placement of the two sister species in two divergent and reciprocally monophyletic evolutionary lineages. A full description of C. quinquecinctus and diagnosis of C. fasciatus is provided here for comparison. In addition, the data include a table of the results of the meristic and morphological examination of type and additional specimens of both species from throughout their distribution ranges as well as a table of gill-raker counts of all examined specimens. Underwater color photographs are provided for comparison of juveniles, females and males of both species. PMID:27615897

  6. A new species of Ergasilus (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from Geophagus altifrons and G. argyrostictus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Taborda, Naraiana Lopes; Paschoal, Fabiano; Luque, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    A new species of ergasilid copepod, Ergasilus xinguensis n. sp., is described from females found on the gills of two cichlid fishes, Geophagus argyrostictus (Kullander, 1991) (type host) and G. altifrons (Heckel, 1840), from the Brazilian Amazon. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by the unique combination of the following characteristics: the cephalothorax is not inflated and is slightly constricted, the first antennulary segment bears 3 setae, maxillule with 3 unequal outer setae without minute process medially, maxilla has a large syncoxa with one seta near its basis, first and fourth legs are with a 3-segmented endopod, base of the exopod in leg 2 with a conspicuous bluntly-pointed projection and caudal ramus with two rows of curved conical spinules on ventral surface. The new species is the second member of Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 found on cichlids of the genus Geophagus (Heckel). PMID:27447219

  7. Pogonophryne neyelovi, a new species of Antarctic short-barbeled plunderfish (Perciformes, Notothenioidei, Artedidraconidae) from the deep Ross Sea

    PubMed Central

    Shandikov, Gennadiy A.; Eakin, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper continues descriptions of new deep-water Antarctic barbeled plunderfishes of the poorly known and the most speciose notothenioid genus Pogonophryne. It is based on a comprehensive collection obtained by the authors in 2009–2010 during an Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) fishing trip. A new species, the hopbeard plunderfish Pogonophryne neyelovi, the twenty-second species of the genus, is described. The new species belongs to dorsally-spotted short-barbeled species forming the “Pogonophryne mentella” group. Pogonophryne neyelovi sp. n. is characterized by the following combination of characters: a very short and small mental barbel with an ovaloid and short terminal expansion covered by flattened scale-like processes that are mostly bluntly palmate; a moderately protruding lower jaw; a high second dorsal fin almost uniformly black and lacking a sharply elevated anterior lobe; pectoral fins striped anteriorly and uniformly light posteriorly; the anal and pelvic fins light; the dorsal surface of the head and the area anterior to the first dorsal fin covered with large, irregular dark brown blotches and spots; the ventral surface of the head, breast and belly without sharp dark markings. The new species is compared to the closest species Pogonophryne brevibarbata, Pogonophryne tronio, and Pogonophryne ventrimaculata. English vernacular names are proposed for all species of the genus. PMID:23794878

  8. A multi-gene dataset reveals a tropical New World origin and Early Miocene diversification of croakers (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Lo, Pei-Chun; Liu, Shu-Hui; Chao, Ning Labbish; Nunoo, Francis K E; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2015-07-01

    Widely distributed groups of living animals, such as the predominantly marine fish family Sciaenidae, have always attracted the attention of biogeographers to document the origins and patterns of diversification in time and space. In this study, the historical biogeography of the global Sciaenidae is reconstructed within a molecular phylogenetic framework to investigate their origin and to test the hypotheses explaining the present-day biogeographic patterns. Our data matrix comprises six mitochondrial and nuclear genes in 93 globally sampled sciaenid species from 52 genera. Within the inferred phylogenetic tree of the Sciaenidae, we identify 15 main and well-supported lineages; some of which have not been recognized previously. Reconstruction of habitat preferences shows repeated habitat transitions between marine and euryhaline environments. This implies that sciaenids can easily adapt to some variations in salinity, possibly as the consequence of their nearshore habitats and migratory life history. Conversely, complete marine/euryhaline to freshwater transitions occurred only three times, in South America, North America and South Asia. Ancestral range reconstruction analysis concomitant with fossil evidence indicates that sciaenids first originated and diversified in the tropical America during the Oligocene to Early Miocene before undergoing two range expansions, to Eastern Atlantic and to the Indo-West Pacific where a maximum species richness is observed. The uncommon biogeographic pattern identified is discussed in relation to current knowledge on origin of gradients of marine biodiversity toward the center of origin hypothesis in the Indo-West Pacific. PMID:25848970

  9. Repetitive DNAs highlight the role of chromosomal fusions in the karyotype evolution of Dascyllus species (Pomacentridae, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Getlekha, Nuntaporn; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Maneechot, Nuntiya; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Tanomtong, Alongklod

    2016-04-01

    The Dascyllus genus consists of 11 species spread over vast regions of the Indo-Pacific, showing remarkable reductions in the diploid chromosome numbers (2n). The present study analyzed the karyotypes and other chromosomal characteristics of D. trimaculatus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50), D. carneus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50) and D. aruanus (2n = 30; 18m + 2st + 10a; NF = 50) from the Thailand Gulf (Pacific Ocean) and D. melanurus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50) from the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean), employing conventional cytogenetic analyses and the chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNAs, using 18S and 5S rDNA, telomeric sequences and (CA)15, (GA)15, and (CAA)10 microsatellites as probes. The C-positive heterochromatin was found in the centromeric regions of most chromosomal pairs and 18S rDNA phenotypes were single in all species. However, in D. aruanus (2n = 30), which harbors nine metacentric pairs; the 5S rDNA sites were located in the centromeric region of the shortest one. The mapping of the telomeric sequences in D. aruanus revealed the presence of interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) in the centromeric region of four metacentric pairs, with one of these pairs also displaying an additional ITS in the long arms. Distinct chromosomal markers confirmed the reduction of the 2n by chromosomal fusions, highlighting the precise characterization of these rearrangements by the cytogenetic mapping of the repetitive DNAs. PMID:26932937

  10. Cotylogaster basiri Siddiqi & Cable, 1960 (Aspidobothrea: Aspidogastridae) in Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus, 1766) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae): first report from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallas, M; Silveira, E F; Périco, E

    2016-07-11

    Up until now, there have been few studies of the helminth fauna of Brazilian populations of Pogonias cromis. In North America, P. cromis is known to be a definitive host of Cotylogaster basiri, although there have been no reports of any species of Cotylogaster infecting fish in Brazil. During necropsies of marine fish obtained from professional fisherman in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, specimens of C. basiri were found in the intestine and rectum of P. cromis. In comparison with previous studies, differences were found in relation to the number of lobes in the buccal disc and the development of the biocellate larvae in the eggs of C. basiri. This is the first report of C. basiri in P. cromis from Brazil, contributing to the understanding of the helminth fauna of this fish from the coastal zone of Brazil. PMID:27409226

  11. Feeding of introduced species of Cichla (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in Volta Grande reservoir, River Grande (MG/SP).

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2004-11-01

    Both species studied, Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus, fed mainly on fish, the first on Cichla spp., Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Tilapia rendalli, and the second, Cichla monoculus, on Cichla spp. Both diets indicated a strong correlation among the food items. Remarkable ontogenetic change was noted in both species diet: the young fed on crustaceans and insects while the adults fed mainly on fishes. The species studied, which are highly adapted to a brief life span, cause serious damage to the fish communities by predation, competition, and cascade effects throughout the whole trophic chain. PMID:15744419

  12. First cytogenetic report in Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense Kullander, 1983 (Perciformes, Cichlidae) from northeastern Brazil with inferences on chromosomal evolution of Cichlasomatini.

    PubMed

    Argôlo, Leandro A; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Even though genetic aspects of some cichlids have been widely studied over the last decades, little is known about the genomic structure of Cichlidae when compared to the large number of species in the family. In this paper, the first chromosomal data for Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense Kullander, 1983 are presented and discussed based on cytotaxonomic and karyoevolutionary inferences on Cichlasomatini. All individuals shared a diploid number of 2n=48 distributed as 10sm+28st+10a and Ag-NORs on short arms of a submetacentric pair. Heterochromatin was detected at pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes and at terminal sites of a few pairs. GC-rich regions were observed on short arms of two biarmed pairs, including the pair bearing Ag-NORs. Double-FISH with ribosomal probes revealed 18S rDNA clusters coincident with GC-rich regions in two biarmed pairs and 5S rDNA at interstitial location of an acrocentric pair. Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense shares some symplesiomorphic traits described in Cichlidae (2n=48 and pericentromeric C-bands) while other chromosomal features diverge from the common trend reported in Cichlasomatini, such as multiple 18S rDNA sites combined with high FN values. Finally, the present results are useful to support taxonomic identification once species-specific markers have been provided in Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense. PMID:26753082

  13. Molecular systematics and taxonomic status of three latitudinally widespread nototheniid (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) fishes from the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Miya, Tshoanelo; Gon, Ofer; Mwale, Monica; Poulin, Elie

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the three nototheniids, Lepidonotothen squamifrons, L. larseni and Gobionotothen marionensis from different localities in the Southern Ocean is re-evaluated at the DNA level. DNA sequence divergences and phylogenetic relationship were estimated using a combined mitochondrial (mtDNA, ND2 and COI) dataset and data for one nuclear gene (S7 intron 1). Phylogenies of both datasets had Lepidonotothen kempi nested within L. squamifrons lineage, with low sequence divergences (0% to 0.4%) between the two nominal species suggesting that they are populations of one species. Therefore, these results do not support the previous splitting of L. squamifrons into different species. Similarly, the L. larseni specimens also represented a single genetic unit (0.3% to 0.6%) with low geographic variation between Atlantic and Indian Ocean specimens, which does not support the splitting of this species into geographically restricted species. The mtDNA phylogeny clearly separated individuals of G. acuta from Kerguelen, Heard and MacDonald Islands from G. marionensis individuals into different clades, with sequence divergence of 2.9% between these clades supporting they are different species. PMID:27395508

  14. Comparative Mitogenomics of the Genus Odontobutis (Perciformes: Gobioidei: Odontobutidae) Revealed Conserved Gene Rearrangement and High Sequence Variations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihong; Yang, Xuefen; Bercsenyi, Miklos; Wu, Junjie; Yu, Yongyao; Wei, Kaijian; Fan, Qixue; Yang, Ruibin

    2015-01-01

    To understand the molecular evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) in the genus Odontobutis, the mitogenome of Odontobutis yaluensis was sequenced and compared with those of another four Odontobutis species. Our results displayed similar mitogenome features among species in genome organization, base composition, codon usage, and gene rearrangement. The identical gene rearrangement of trnS-trnL-trnH tRNA cluster observed in mitogenomes of these five closely related freshwater sleepers suggests that this unique gene order is conserved within Odontobutis. Additionally, the present gene order and the positions of associated intergenic spacers of these Odontobutis mitogenomes indicate that this unusual gene rearrangement results from tandem duplication and random loss of large-scale gene regions. Moreover, these mitogenomes exhibit a high level of sequence variation, mainly due to the differences of corresponding intergenic sequences in gene rearrangement regions and the heterogeneity of tandem repeats in the control regions. Phylogenetic analyses support Odontobutis species with shared gene rearrangement forming a monophyletic group, and the interspecific phylogenetic relationships are associated with structural differences among their mitogenomes. The present study contributes to understanding the evolutionary patterns of Odontobutidae species. PMID:26492246

  15. Ecology and management of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans/miles complex (Perciformes: Scorpaenidae) in Southern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Vera; Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Sierra, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystem integrity and functioning and are considered one of the major threats to biodiversity on a global scale. The indopacific lionfish (Plerois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] / miles [Bennet, 1882] complex) is the first non-native marine fish that has established itself in the Western Atlantic. It was first reported in Florida in the 1980s and then spread across the entire Caribbean in subsequent years. In Costa Rica, lionfish were first sighted by the end of 2008 and are now present in all South Caribbean reefs. Lionfish are a major problem for local fisherman by displacing native fish species. The aim of this study was to determine population density, size and diet of lionfish populations at four study sites along the Southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Two of the sites were located inside the National Park Cahuita where regular lionfish removal occurs, whereas the other two study sides do not experiment this kind of management. Total length and wet weight of >450 lionfish individuals were determined between March and June 2011. Three relative metrics of prey quantity (percent number, percent frequency, and percent weight) were compared from approximately 300 lionfish caught with the polespear in shallow waters (<7 m depth). Population density was assessed weekly through visual transect surveys. Our results showed that lionfish preyed mostly upon teleosts and crustaceans. Teleosts dominated lionfish diet in percent frequency (71%) and percent weight (85%), whereas crustaceans had the highest percent number (58%). The top five teleost families of dietary importance were Pomacentridae, Acanthuridae, Blennidae, Labridae and Serranidae. The average total length (+/- SD) of lionfish was 18.7 (+/- 5.7)cm and varied significantly between sites (p<0.001). Mean density of lionfish was 92fish/ha with no significant differences between sites. Smallest fish and lowest densities were found at the two sites inside the National Park Cahuita. Despite management efforts on a regional scale, nationwide efforts are ineffective and lionfish control activities are poorly implemented. We conclude that there is an urgent need to develop an improved institutional framework for local lionfish control that promotes effective coordination among the relevant stakeholders in order to deal with invasive lionfish in Costa Rica. PMID:26299126

  16. Diversity within the Redeye Bass, Micropterus coosae (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) species group, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Baker, Winston H; Blanton, Rebecca E; Johnston, Carol E

    2013-01-01

    The Redeye Bass, Micropterus coosae, was described from the Mobile River basin, Chattahoochee, and Savannah rivers in Alabama and Georgia, USA, by Hubbs and Bailey (1940). At that time the authors recognized significant variation in the Black Warrior River population, and noted that with further study this form may be recognized as a separate taxon. An examination of variation in morphology and mitochondrial DNA supported this observation, and highlighted additional species-level variation, resulting in descriptions of a total of four new species: Micropterus cahabae, new sp., restricted to the Cahaba River system; Micropterus tallapoosae, new sp., restricted to the Tallapoosa River system; Micropterus warriorensis, new sp., from the Black Warrior River system; and Micropterus chattahoochae, new sp., from the Chattahoochee River system. Micropterus coosae is restricted to the Coosa River system. The new species differ from each other and from M. coosae by a combination of pigmentation and scale count characteristics, development of the tooth patch, and divergence within the ND2 gene. While two of these species are relatively common in upland streams within their ranges, M. warriorensis, M. cahabae and M. chattahoochae are uncommon and may warrant protection. PMID:26097954

  17. Gene rearrangements and evolution of tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome of the parrotfish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Scaridae).

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Kohji; Miya, Masaki; Satoh, Takashi P; Westneat, Mark W; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2004-09-01

    Genomic size of animal mitochondrial DNA is usually minimized over time. Thus, when regional duplications occur, they are followed by a rapid elimination of redundant material. In contrast to this general view, we report here long-sustained tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of teleost fishes of the family Scaridae (parrotfishes). During the course of a molecular phylogenetic study of the suborder Labroidei, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for a parrotfish, Chlorurus sordidus, and found a gene rearrangement accompanied by a tRNA pseudogene. In the typical gene order of vertebrates, a tRNA-gene cluster between ND1 and ND2 genes includes tRNA(Ile) (I), tRNA(Gln) (Q), and tRNA(Met) (M) genes in this order (IQM). However, in the mitogenome of the parrotfish, the tRNA(Met) gene was inserted between the tRNA(Ile) and the tRNA(Gln) genes, and the tRNA(Gln) gene was followed by a putative tRNA(Met) pseudogene (psiM). Such a tRNA gene rearrangement including a pseudogene (IMQpsiM) was found in all of the 10 examined species, representing 7 of the 10 currently recognized scarid genera. All sister groups examined (20 species of Labridae and a single species of Odacidae) had the typical gene order of vertebrate mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis of the tRNA(Met) genes and the resulting pseudogenes demonstrated that the ancestral tRNA(Met) gene was duplicated in a common ancestor of the parrotfish. Based on the fossil record, these results indicate that the pseudogenes have survived at least 14 million years. Most of the vertebrate mitochondrial gene rearrangements involving the IQM region have held the tRNA(Met) gene just upstream of the ND2 gene, and even in a few exceptional cases, including the present ones, the tRNA pseudogenes have been found in that position. In addition, most of these tRNA(Met) pseudogenes maintained clover-leaf secondary structures, with the remainder sustaining the clover-leaf structure in the "top half (TpsiC and acceptor arms). Considering their potential secondary structures (holding "top halves" of the clover-leaf structures), locations within mitogenomes (flanking the 5' ends of the ND2 genes) and stabilities over time (survived at least 14 Myr), it is likely that the tRNA pseudogenes retain function as punctuation marks for mitochondrial ND2 mRNA processing. PMID:15553084

  18. Nonmonotonic response of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α gene expression after octylphenol exposure of Cichlasoma dimerus (Perciformes, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Genovese, G; Regueira, M; Da Cuña, R H; Ferreira, M F; Varela, M L; Lo Nostro, F L

    2014-11-01

    In oviparous vertebrates, vitellogenin (VTG) is mainly produced by the liver in response to estrogen (E2) and its synthesis is traditionally coupled to estrogen receptor alpha induction. Even though VTG is a female-specific protein, chemicals that mimic natural estrogens, known as xenoestrogens, can activate its expression in males causing endocrine disruption to wildlife and humans. Alkylphenols such as nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) are industrial additives used in the manufacture of a wide variety of plastics and detergents, and can disrupt endocrine functions in exposed animals. For more than a decade, the freshwater cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus has been used for ecotoxicological studies in our laboratory. We recently found an up-regulation of VTG gene expression in livers of male fish exposed to OP, from a silent state to values similar to those of E2-induced fish. To better understand the underlying mechanisms behind the action of xenoestrogens, the aim of this study was to analyze the dose-response relationship of C. dimerus VTG and estrogen receptors (ERs) gene expression after waterborne exposure to 0.15, 1.5, 15, and 150μg/L OP for up to 1 month (0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days). At the end of the experiment, histological features of exposed fish included active hepatocytes with basophilic cytoplasm and high eosinophilic content in their vascular system due to augmented expression of VTG. In testis, high preponderance of sperm was found in fish exposed to 150μg/L OP. A classic dose-response down-regulation of the expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a "non-gender specific gene" used for comparison, was found with increasing OP concentrations. No VTG and very low levels of ERα were detected in control male livers, but an up-regulation of both genes was found in males exposed to 0.15 or 150μg/L OP. Moreover, VTG transcripts were significant as early as day 3 or day 1 of exposure to these OP concentrations, respectively. Nearly no response was detected in 1.5 and 15μg/L OP exposed-fish. Data was curve-fitted evidencing a nonmonotonic dose-response curve. Interestingly, ERβ2 mRNA expression was augmented above baseline levels only when males were exposed to the lowest OP concentration. We speculate that genomic control of vitellogenesis is under control of multiple steroid receptors with different affinities for ligands. ERβ isoform, only up-regulated with very low concentrations of ligand, would act as a sensors of OP (or E2) to induce ERα and VTG. With high OP concentrations, the expression of ERα isoform is promptly augmented, with the concomitant VTG transactivation. PMID:25146234

  19. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms. PMID:26096311

  20. A comprehensive description and evolutionary analysis of 22 grouper (perciformes, epinephelidae) mitochondrial genomes with emphasis on two novel genome organizations.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuan; Qu, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Groupers of the family Epinephelidae are a diverse and economically valuable group of reef fishes. To investigate the evolution of their mitochondrial genomes we characterized and compared these genomes among 22 species, 17 newly sequenced. Among these fishes we identified three distinct genome organizations, two of them never previously reported in vertebrates. In 19 of these species, mitochondrial genomes followed the typical vertebrate canonical organization with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a non-coding control region. Differing from this, members of genus Variola have an extra tRNA-Ile between tRNA-Val and 16S rRNA. Evidence suggests that this evolved from tRNA-Val via a duplication event due to slipped strand mispairing during replication. Additionally, Cephalopholisargus has an extra tRNA-Asp in the midst of the control region, likely resulting from long-range duplication of the canonical tRNA-Asp through illicit priming of mitochondrial replication by tRNAs. Along with their gene contents, we characterized the regulatory elements of these mitochondrial genomes' control regions, including putative termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Looking at the mitochondrial genomic constituents, rRNA and tRNA are the most conserved, followed by protein-coding genes, and non-coding regions are the most divergent. Divergence rates vary among the protein-coding genes, and the three cytochrome oxidase subunits (COI, II, III) are the most conserved, while NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and the ATP synthase subunit 8 (ATP8) are the most divergent. We then tested the phylogenetic utility of this new mt genome data using 12 protein-coding genes of 48 species from the suborder Percoidei. From this, we provide further support for the elevation of the subfamily Epinephelinae to family Epinephelidae, the resurrection of the genus Hyporthodus, and the combination of the monotypic genera Anyperodon and Cromileptes to genus Epinephelus, and Aethaloperca to genus Cephalopholis. PMID:23951357

  1. Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World's Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity. PMID:24351242

  2. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Villa, Mateo Andres; de Oliveira, Ezequiel Aguiar; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Chaveerach, Arunrat

    2015-01-01

    Channid fishes, commonly referred to as “snakeheads”, are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes. PMID:26067030

  3. Shape changes and growth trajectories in the early stages of three species of the genus Diplodus (Perciformes, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Loy, A; Bertelletti, M; Costa, C; Ferlin, L; Cataudella, S

    2001-10-01

    The larvae of three species of the genus Diplodus (Diplodus vulgaris, D. sargus, and D. puntazzo) colonize shallow waters along the Mediterranean coasts and, after a short period spent in the water column, they settle. For all three species this habitat transition is characterized by important shape changes mostly related to swimming capacity and feeding behavior. In this study, geometric morphometrics are used to characterize shape changes during the early juvenile life of specimens collected in a single locality in order to compare growth curves and allometric relationships. Size-related shape changes proved to be similar for all three species and are consistent with the ecological transition. A nonparametric smoothing technique (Loess) was used to fit the scatter of shape on size. The graphical representation (of most size-related shape variability) of this fitting technique shows how major shape changes are rapid for small sizes and slow down successively. The approach allows for the visualization of allometry and the fitting technique might help in defining the allometric growth pattern, thus contributing to the study of the autoecology of the species and in establishing terms for comparison with other ecologically or phylogenetically related species. PMID:11599013

  4. Niche partitioning of feeding microhabitats produces a unique function for herbivorous rabbitfishes (Perciformes, Siganidae) on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, R. J.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2013-03-01

    Niche theory predicts that coexisting species minimise competition by evolving morphological or behavioural specialisations that allow them to spread out along resource axes such as space, diet and temporal activity. These specialisations define how a species interacts with its environment and, by extension, determine its functional role. Here, we examine the feeding niche of three species of coral reef-dwelling rabbitfishes (Siganidae, Siganus). By comparing aspects of their feeding behaviour (bite location, bite rate, foraging distance) with that of representative species from two other abundant herbivorous fish families, the parrotfishes (Labridae, Scarus) and surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae, Acanthurus), we examine whether rabbitfishes have a feeding niche distinct from other members of the herbivore guild. Measurements of the penetration of the fishes' snouts and bodies into reef concavities when feeding revealed that rabbitfish fed to a greater degree from reef crevices and interstices than other herbivores. There was just a 40 % overlap in the penetration-depth niche between rabbitfish and surgeonfish and a 45 % overlap between rabbitfish and parrotfish, compared with the almost complete niche overlap (95 %) recorded for parrotfish and surgeonfish along this spatial niche axis. Aspects of the morphology of rabbitfish which may contribute to this niche segregation include a comparatively longer, narrower snout and narrower head. Our results suggest that sympatric coexistence of rabbitfish and other reef herbivores is facilitated by segregation along a spatial (and potentially dietary) axis. This segregation results in a unique functional role for rabbitfishes among roving herbivores that of "crevice-browser": a group that specifically feeds on crevice-dwelling algal or benthic organisms. This functional trait may have implications for reef ecosystem processes in terms of controlling the successional development of crevice-based algal communities, reducing their potential to trigger macroalgal outbreaks.

  5. Description of a new weakfish, Cynoscion nortoni, from Ecuador with a note on the distribution of Umbrina bussingi (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Béarez, P

    2001-07-01

    A new sciaenid was found at a fish market on the Ecuadorian coast. Cynoscion nortoni, described from 11 specimens, is characterised by a relatively large eye, a long head and pectoral fin, a high dorsal fin-ray count and a dark, steel grey colour on its dorsum. The specimens were captured over the continental shelf with a long line at depths between 100 and 200 meters. Another deep water species, Umbrina bussingi, is recorded for the first time from southern Colombia. PMID:15260154

  6. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  7. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima–Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox–Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  8. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  9. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses.

    PubMed

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima-Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox-Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  10. Kudoa azevedoi n. sp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the oocytes of the Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus (Perciformes, Carangidae) in Tunisian coasts.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Thabet, Aouatef; Chourabi, Kalthoum; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Gtari, Mahr; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2013-04-01

    A new species Kudoa azevedoi sp. n. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) is described in Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 (Carangidae) from fishing harbors in Tunisian coasts using spore morphology and SSU rDNA sequence data. The parasite occurs only in ovaries within oocytes of mature and immature specimens. Spores are quadrate in shape in apical view with rounded edges, having four shell valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. They are of small sizes and measure 3.5±0.41 (3-4.2)×4.5±0.44 (4-5.2) length by width. The polar capsules are pyriform in shape measuring 1.5±0.22 (1.5-2)×0.75±0.14 (0.5-1) μm. Infected oocytes are hypertrophied, whitish colored, and filled with mature spores. Plasmodia are tubular and ramified from the inner membrane toward the center of the oocyte. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences shows the highest similarity (96%) with the ovary parasite Kudoa ovivora. Some morphological details and spore dimensions support the creation of a new species in the genus Kudoa. Mean prevalence among examined females is of about 55.5%. It varies between localities and length of fish. The present myxosporea is the second Kudoa species reported in fish ovaries. PMID:23435961

  11. Morphological and karyotypic differentiation in Caranx lugubris (Perciformes: Carangidae) in the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garcia, José; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2014-03-01

    Isolated oceanic islands constitute interesting model systems for the study of colonization processes, as several climatic and oceanographic phenomena have played an important role in the history of the marine ichthyofauna. The present study describes the presence of two morphotypes of Caranx lugubris, in the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago located in the mid-Atlantic. Morphotypes were compared in regard to their morphological and cytogenetic patterns, using C-banding, Ag-NORs, staining with CMA3/DAPI fluorochromes and chromosome mapping by dual-color FISH analysis with 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes. We found differences in chromosome patterns and marked divergence in body patterns which suggest that different populations of the Atlantic or other provinces can be found in the Archipelago of St. Peter and St. Paul.

  12. Three species of opisthomonorchiine monorchiids (Digenea) in Carangoides spp. (Perciformes: Carangidae) from off New Caledonia, with a description of Opisthomonorchis dinema n. sp.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2013-06-01

    Three opisthomonorchiinae species are described from fishes obtained at the Fish Market in Nouméa, New Caledonia. Opisthomonorchis dinema n. sp. from Carangoides dinema Bleeker differs from the other recognised species in the genus by the long recurved genital atrium, arcing anteriorly. Also described are Opisthomonorchis carangis Yamaguti, 1952 from Carangoides sp. and Pseudopisthomonorchis thapari (Varma & Singh, 1979) n. comb. for Opisthomonorchis thapari Varma & Singh, 1979 from Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier). The features distinguishing Opisthomonorchis Yamaguti, 1952 and Pseudopisthomonorchis Madhavi, 1974 are discussed. PMID:23673693

  13. Site fidelity, size, and morphology may differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish, Bathygobius cocosensis (Perciformes-Gobiidae), in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Malard, Lucie A.; McGuigan, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal zone is a transitional environment that undergoes daily environmental fluctuations as tides rise and fall. Relatively few fish species are adapted to endure the physiological pressures of this environment. This study focused on Bathygobius cocosensis (Gobiidae), a common intertidal fish in New South Wales, Australia. We investigated whether shore height impacted site fidelity, survival probability, fish size, and morphological traits with respect to tidal height. Mark-recapture methods were used over a five month period to determine if individuals in high shore pools had greater site fidelity; fish in high tide pools were more than twice as likely to be recaptured in their original pool than fish from low tide pools. High pool individuals were, on average, smaller with larger eyes and longer snouts relative to their size as compared to low pool individuals. We discuss several mechanisms that could cause the observed pattern in morphological variation. Ultimately, this study suggests that within species behaviour and morphology differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish. PMID:27547568

  14. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam. PMID:27095662

  15. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurdalila, A’wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish. PMID:26147421

  16. Diplectanids infesting the gills of the barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) (Perciformes: Centropomidae), with the proposal of Laticola n. g. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae).

    PubMed

    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Yuan, Sun; Jianying, Zhang; Suhua, Shi; Agrawal, N

    2006-02-01

    Four species of the Monogenoidea, Laticola lingaoensis n. sp., L. latesi (Tripathi, 1957) n. comb. [previously Pseudorhabdosynochus latesi (Tripathi, 1957) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986], L. paralatesi (Nagibina, 1976) n. comb. [previously Diplectanum paralatesi Nagibina, 1976] and Diplectanum penangi Liang & Leong, 1991, are reported from the gills of Lates calcarifer (Centropomidae) from the South China Sea (new geographical records for L. latesi and D. penangi). Collections from off Bathurst Island, Northern Territory, Australia, represent a new geographic record for L. paralatesi; Chilka Lake, Orissa, India, is established as the type-locality for L. latesi. Laticola n. g. (Diplectanidae) is proposed for species with a spoon-shaped copulatory organ with two to four concentric incomplete ridges in the base. Laticola lingaoensis, the type-species of Laticola, is described, and L. latesi and L. paralatesi are redescribed based on specimens from the South China Sea. Pseudorhabdosynochus monosquamodiscusi Balasuriya & Leong, 1995 and Pseudorhabdosynochus yangjiangenesis Wu & Li, 2005 are considered junior subjective synonyms of L. latesi and L. paralatesi, respectively. PMID:16718593

  17. Polylabris lingaoensis sp. n. and Polylabris cf. mamaevi Ogawa et Egusa, 1980 (Monogenoidea: Microcotylidae) from perciform fishes in the Gulf of Tonkin, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Jun, Pan

    2007-03-01

    Polylabris lingaoensis sp. n. is described from the gills of the bald glassy, Ambassis gymnocephalus (Chandidae), from the Gulf of Tonkin (South China Sea), near Lingao, Hainan Province, China. The new species is characterized by a midventral vaginal pore, comparatively few (5-7) testes, and 2 parallel rows each comprised of 30-43 microcotylid clamps in the haptor. Polylabris lingaoensis is the only member of the genus known to parasitize a chandid host. Polylabris cf. mamaevi is described from the gills of the mottled spinefoot, Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae), from the South China Sea, which represents new host and locality records for the helminth. The gill parasites from S. fuscescens are tentatively assigned to P. mamaevi pending new collections and restudy of microcotylid species from siganid fishes. PMID:17441434

  18. Population parameters of the Pacific flagfin mojarra Eucinostomus currani (Perciformes: Gerreidae) captured by shrimp trawling fishery in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Juana; Rodríguez-Romero, Jesús; Hernández-Saavedra, Norma Y; Herrera-Valdivia, Eloisa

    2011-06-01

    Shrimp trawling fishery in the Gulf of California captures a wide variety of non-target species of fish, crustaceans, and mollusks that are relatively unknown. The Pacific flagfin mojarra Eucinostomus currani is a frequently found species in these catches, nevertheless, nothing is currently known about its population dynamics. To contribute to the knowledge on this fish species, we studied the size structure, growth, mortality, and the recruitment pattern during the 2004-2005 seasons. A total of 6,078 mojarra were captured from 350 samples, with minimum and maximum lengths of 4.5 cm and a maximum of 21.0 cm. The average total length of the four major cohorts was 11.4, 13.7, 15.6 and 18.0 cm, corresponding to ages 0.9, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 years, respectively, being the most abundant the 1.2 year-old group. The instant growth coefficient indicated moderate growth rates (K(s) = 0.81/year, K(E) = 0.85/year), corresponding to individuals living between 3.5 to 3.7 years. The estimated asymptotic lengths was L (infinity) = 21.8 cm. In general, the population could be considered healthy: natural mortality (M = 1.53/year); total mortality (Z = 2.73/year); condition factor (K = 0.01072); fishery mortality (F = 1.2/year) and exploitation rate (E = 0.43/year). The maximum reproduction period almost coincided with the closed season for shrimp fishing (March to August), thus we concluded that survival of the species is ensured because reproduction is indirectly protected. PMID:21717858

  19. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus. PMID:26314044

  20. Phylogeny and taxonomy of sculpins, sandfishes, and snailfishes (Perciformes: Cottoidei) with comments on the phylogenetic significance of their early-life-history specializations.

    PubMed

    Smith, W Leo; Busby, Morgan S

    2014-10-01

    Despite recent progress on the higher-level relationships of the Cottoidei and its familial components, phylogenetic conflict and uncertainty remain within the Cottoidea. We analyzed a dataset composed of 4518 molecular (mitochondrial 12S, tRNA-Val, 16S, and cytochrome b and nuclear TMO-4c4, Histone H3, and 28S) and 72 morphological characters for 69 terminals to address cottoid intrarelationships. The resulting well-resolved phylogeny was used to produce a revised taxonomy that is consistent with the available molecular and morphological data and recognizes six families: Agonidae, Cottidae, Jordaniidae, Psychrolutidae, Rhamphocottidae, and Scorpaenichthyidae. The traditional Agonidae was expanded to include traditional hemitripterids and Hemilepidotus. The traditional Cottidae was restricted to Leptocottus, Trachidermus, and the riverine, lacustrine, and Lake Baikal freshwater cottoids. Jordaniidae (Jordania and Paricelinus) was separated from the traditional cottids; Psychrolutidae was expanded from the traditional grouping to include nearly all traditional marine cottids and the single species of bathylutichthyid. Rhamphocottidae was expanded to include the traditional ereuniids, and Scorpaenichthyidae separated Scorpaenichthys from the traditional cottids. The importance of early-life-history characters to the resulting phylogeny and taxonomy were highlighted. PMID:25014569

  1. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases. PMID:27386247

  2. Site fidelity, size, and morphology may differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish, Bathygobius cocosensis (Perciformes-Gobiidae), in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Malard, Lucie A; McGuigan, Katrina; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal zone is a transitional environment that undergoes daily environmental fluctuations as tides rise and fall. Relatively few fish species are adapted to endure the physiological pressures of this environment. This study focused on Bathygobius cocosensis (Gobiidae), a common intertidal fish in New South Wales, Australia. We investigated whether shore height impacted site fidelity, survival probability, fish size, and morphological traits with respect to tidal height. Mark-recapture methods were used over a five month period to determine if individuals in high shore pools had greater site fidelity; fish in high tide pools were more than twice as likely to be recaptured in their original pool than fish from low tide pools. High pool individuals were, on average, smaller with larger eyes and longer snouts relative to their size as compared to low pool individuals. We discuss several mechanisms that could cause the observed pattern in morphological variation. Ultimately, this study suggests that within species behaviour and morphology differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish. PMID:27547568

  3. Functional Categorization of Transcriptome in the Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae) Exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene and Phenanthrene

    PubMed Central

    Lemgruber, Renato de Souza Pinto; Marshall, Nislanha Ana dos Anjos; Ghelfi, Andrea; Fagundes, Daniel Barros; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the transcriptome alterations, through cDNA libraries, associated with the combined effects of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (0.5 µg/L) and phenanthrene (50 µg/L), present in crude oil, on specimens of Symphysodon aequifasciatus (discus fish) after 48 h of exposure. The cDNA libraries were constructed according to the SOLiD™ SAGE™ protocol for sequencing in the SOLiD v.3 Plus sequencer. The results were analyzed by bioinformatics and differentially expressed genes were categorized using the gene ontology program. The functional categories (terms) found in the gene ontology and the gene network generated using STRING software were used to predict the adverse effects of benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene in the liver. In the present study, 27,127 genes (compared to Danio rerio database) were identified. Considering only those genes with a p-value less than or equal to 0.05 and greater than or equal to two-fold change in expression across libraries, we found 804 genes, 438 down-regulated (54%) and 366 up-regulated (46%), in the experimental group compared to the control. Out of this total, 327 genes were successfully categorized, 174 down-regulated and 153 up-regulated, using gene ontology. Using String, the gene network was composed by 199 nodes, 124 of them resulting in 274 interactions. The results showed that even an acute exposure of 48 h caused metabolic change in response to environmental contaminants, resulting in changes of cell integrity, in oxidation-reduction processes, in the immune response and disturbances of intracellular signaling of discus fish. Also the gene network has showed no central interplay cluster, exhibiting instead interconnected clusters interactions and connected sub-networks. These findings highlight that even an acute sublethal exposure of PAHs can cause metabolism changes that may affect survival of discus. Our findings using SOLiD coupled with SAGE-method resulted in a powerful and reliable means for gene expression analysis in discus, a non-model Amazonian fish. PMID:24312524

  4. Functional categorization of transcriptome in the species Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Lemgruber, Renato de Souza Pinto; Marshall, Nislanha Ana dos Anjos; Ghelfi, Andrea; Fagundes, Daniel Barros; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the transcriptome alterations, through cDNA libraries, associated with the combined effects of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (0.5 µg/L) and phenanthrene (50 µg/L), present in crude oil, on specimens of Symphysodon aequifasciatus (discus fish) after 48 h of exposure. The cDNA libraries were constructed according to the SOLiD™ SAGE™ protocol for sequencing in the SOLiD v.3 Plus sequencer. The results were analyzed by bioinformatics and differentially expressed genes were categorized using the gene ontology program. The functional categories (terms) found in the gene ontology and the gene network generated using STRING software were used to predict the adverse effects of benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene in the liver. In the present study, 27,127 genes (compared to Danio rerio database) were identified. Considering only those genes with a p-value less than or equal to 0.05 and greater than or equal to two-fold change in expression across libraries, we found 804 genes, 438 down-regulated (54%) and 366 up-regulated (46%), in the experimental group compared to the control. Out of this total, 327 genes were successfully categorized, 174 down-regulated and 153 up-regulated, using gene ontology. Using String, the gene network was composed by 199 nodes, 124 of them resulting in 274 interactions. The results showed that even an acute exposure of 48 h caused metabolic change in response to environmental contaminants, resulting in changes of cell integrity, in oxidation-reduction processes, in the immune response and disturbances of intracellular signaling of discus fish. Also the gene network has showed no central interplay cluster, exhibiting instead interconnected clusters interactions and connected sub-networks. These findings highlight that even an acute sublethal exposure of PAHs can cause metabolism changes that may affect survival of discus. Our findings using SOLiD coupled with SAGE-method resulted in a powerful and reliable means for gene expression analysis in discus, a non-model Amazonian fish. PMID:24312524

  5. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25-28 gill rakers, and 37-38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region. PMID:27551217

  6. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E.; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25–28 gill rakers, and 37–38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region. PMID:27551217

  7. Review of the Acanthopagrus latus complex (Perciformes: Sparidae) with descriptions of three new species from the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Y

    2013-07-01

    Acanthopagrus latus, long considered a single valid Indo-West Pacific Ocean species, characterized by having yellow pelvic, anal and caudal fins, is reviewed and separated into A. latus (east Asian shelf) and Acanthopagrus longispinnis (Bengal Bay), and three new species: Acanthopagrus morrisoni sp. nov. (north-western Australia), Acanthopagrus arabicus sp. nov. [Middle East (except for the Red Sea) to coasts of Iran and Pakistan, and western Indian coast] and Acanthopagrus sheim sp. nov. (The Gulf). Although A. latus as redefined considerably varies in morphology and colouration, it can be recognized as a discrete east Asian endemic, with the following nominal species being junior synonyms: Chrysophrys auripes, Chrysophrys xanthopoda, Chrysophrys rubroptera and Sparus chrysopterus. Chrysophrys novaecaledoniae, known only from the holotype (type locality: Nouméa, New Caledonia), is a questionable junior synonym of A. latus, the lack of subsequent collections suggesting that the type locality is erroneous. Acanthopagrus longispinnis is differentiated from the other species in the complex by consistently having 12 dorsal-fin spines and a much larger second anal-fin spine, 21-26% (mean 23%) of standard length (LS ) (v. 14-24%, mean 18-21% in the other four species). Acanthopagrus morrisoni sp. nov. has the entire caudal fin yellow with a wide black posterior margin (persisting in preserved specimens) and consistently 3 ½ scale rows between the fifth dorsal-fin spine base and the lateral line. Acanthopagrus sheim sp. nov. has the pelvic, anal and lower caudal fins vivid yellow, with two (rarely three) small black blotches on the lower inter-radial membranes between the spinous and soft dorsal-fin rays. Acanthopagrus arabicus sp. nov. consistently has 4 ½ scale rows between the fifth dorsal-fin spine base and the lateral line, whereas A. latus always has black streaks proximally on the inter-radial membranes between the yellow anal-fin rays. A neotype and lectotye, respectively, are designated for A. latus and A. longispinnis. The p-distance (net nucleotide substitutions per site) of partial mitochondrial 16s ribosomal RNA genes (538 bp) among the above species (except A. longispinnis) and three other congeners (Acanthopagrus berda, Acanthopagrus pacificus and Acanthopagrus bifasciatus) strongly indicates that each is a distinct species. A key is provided for the 20 species of Acanthopagrus currently known from the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. PMID:23808693

  8. Investigation into the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the Marajó Archipelago waters using Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado da; Pessoa, Carla Mariana Ferreira; Rodrigues, Claudia Antonia Campos; Pinheiro, Raul Henrique da Silva; Costa, Edmar Tavares da; Guimarães, Adriana Costa; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining water quality within tolerable limits is a basic need of the riverside communities in the Amazon. Using endemic aquatic organisms as biological models is useful for monitoring the environment. In this study, potential cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in Plagioscion squamosissimus (commonly known as silver croaker) from the Marajó Archipelago were evaluated using a flow cytometry assay and a survey of micronuclei (MN) frequency as well as other nuclear abnormalities (NA). P. squamosissimus specimens were collected at four locations in the Marajó Archipelago. Blood samples from these fish were used in the flow cytometry assay and piscine micronucleus test, and the resulting data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). We did not observe a difference in the erythrocyte cell cycle distribution among the samples (P=0.9992), which suggests the absence of cytotoxic agent-induced apoptosis. The piscine micronucleus test exhibited differences in the samples from São Sebastião da Boa Vista (SSBV), and those from Anajás produced the highest mutagenicity indices. The MN frequencies were low for all groups, but the groups exhibited significantly different frequencies (P=0.0033). Reniform nuclei, nuclei with extensions, and lobed nuclei were combined and considered NA. The frequency differences for these NA were significant among sampling sites (P <0.0001). This report is the first to use flow cytometry in fish to evaluate cytotoxic agent-induced apoptosis. The micronucleus test results indicate the presence of pollutants that can change the genetic material of the fish studied. We also demonstrate that the Amazonian fish P. squamosissimus is important not only as a comestible species but also as an adequate model for biomonitoring in aquatic environments. PMID:27290641

  9. Cytogenetics of nine species of mediterranean blennies and additional evidence for an unusual multiple sex-chromosome system in Parablennius tentacularis (Perciformes, Blenniidae).

    PubMed

    Caputo, V; Machella, N; Nisi-Cerioni, P; Olmo, E

    2001-01-01

    The chromosomal complements of nine species of Blenniidae (Aidablennius sphylnx, Blennius ocellaris, Lypophris adriaticus, L. pavo, L. trigloides, Parcablennius gattorugine, P. ponticus, P. sanguinolentus, P. tentacularis) from the Adriatic Sea were analysed with several banding methods and in-situ hybridization. In all species, the diploid set consists of 48 mostly acrocentric chromosomes and has a similar location (terminal centromeric) of NORs, except for L. pavo (interstitial pericentric) and P. ponticus (terminal on the long arm). There are major differences in karyotype with regard to the amount and distribution of heterochromatin. Parablennius tentacularis shows a distinctive sex-chromosome system involving 2n = 48 males with a large totally heterochromatic Y chromosome, and males with 2n = 47. This difference is likely to be the consequence of a translocation of an autosome on the original Y. This finding constitutes an additional instance of the great variability in origins of multiple sex chromosome systems in vertebrates. PMID:11272790

  10. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity. PMID:21180920

  11. Accumulation of cells expressing macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor gene in the ovary of a pregnant viviparous fish, Neoditrema ransonnetii (Perciformes, Embiotocidae).

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazuki; Saito, Erina; Iwasaki, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Nozawa, Aoi; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), a member of the group of type III protein tyrosine kinase receptors, is expressed primarily by monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. In order to describe the distribution of macrophages at the maternal-fetal interface in Neoditrema ransonnetii, a viviparous fish species, M-CSFR cDNA was sequenced. Two sequences were obtained: NrM-CSFR1 (4381 bp, encoding 980 amino acids), and NrM-CSFR2 (3573 bp, encoding 1016 amino acids). Both the genes were expressed in the ovary of pregnant females. In situ hybridization revealed that a number of cells that were positive for NrM-CSFR1 and/or NrM-CSFR2 populated the ovigerous lamellae of the ovary during pregnancy. Following parturition, M-CSFR-positive cells disappeared from the subepithelial region of ovigerous lamellae, and were localized in perivascular tissues. These results suggest the role of M-CSFR-positive cells, which appear to be macrophages, in N. ransonnetii during pregnancy. PMID:26828262

  12. Application of otolith shape analysis for stock discrimination and species identification of five goby species (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in the northern Chinese coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Cao, Liang; Liu, Jinhu; Zhao, Bo; Shan, Xiujuan; Dou, Shuozeng

    2014-09-01

    We tested the use of otolith shape analysis to discriminate between species and stocks of five goby species ( Ctenotrypauchen chinensis, Odontamblyopus lacepedii, Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, and Acanthogobius hasta) found in northern Chinese coastal waters. The five species were well differentiated with high overall classification success using shape indices (83.7%), elliptic Fourier coefficients (98.6%), or the combination of both methods (94.9%). However, shape analysis alone was only moderately successful at discriminating among the four stocks (Liaodong Bay, LD; Bohai Bay, BH; Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary HRE, and Jiaozhou Bay, JZ stocks) of A. hasta (50%-54%) and C. stigmatias (65.7%-75.8%). For these two species, shape analysis was moderately successful at discriminating the HRE or JZ stocks from other stocks, but failed to effectively identify the LD and BH stocks. A large number of otoliths were misclassified between the HRE and JZ stocks, which are geographically well separated. The classification success for stock discrimination was higher using elliptic Fourier coefficients alone (70.2%) or in combination with shape indices (75.8%) than using only shape indices (65.7%) in C. stigmatias whereas there was little difference among the three methods for A. hasta. Our results supported the common belief that otolith shape analysis is generally more effective for interspecific identification than intraspecific discrimination. Moreover, compared with shape indices analysis, Fourier analysis improves classification success during inter- and intra-species discrimination by otolith shape analysis, although this did not necessarily always occur in all fish species.

  13. Parapercis nigrodorsalis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), a new species of sandperch from northern New Zealand and the Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea and remarks on P. binivirgata (Waite, 1904).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Struthers, Carl D; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2014-01-01

    A new species of pinguipedid fish, Parapercis nigrodorsalis, is described from 17 specimens collected off the North Island of New Zealand and Wanganella Bank, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, in depths of 56-280 m. The species has also been photographed underwater off the Poor Knights Islands Reserve and Burgess Island, Mokohinau Group, in New Zealand. It is most similar to Parapercis binivirgata (Waite, 1904) in morphology, coloration and meristic values, but is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays V, 23, anal-fin rays I, 19, lateral-line scales 57-63, vomer with 1-2 irregular rows of robust conical teeth, palatines with 1-2 rows of small teeth, angle of subopercle smooth, 10 abdominal and 22 caudal vertebrae, and coloration, including seven broad reddish-brown bands on the upper body between the spinous dorsal-fin and the caudal peduncle, most bands bifurcated into close-set double bars with black smudge-like blotches below, and membrane of the spinous dorsal fin black. Comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO 1) genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding produced a genetic divergence of 5.38% and 7.63% between the new species and its two closest sampled congeners. The holotype of P. binivirgata is identified from two specimens previously regarded as syntypes, some revisions are made to meristic data in the original description of the latter, and a detailed description of the revised geographic range of P. binivirgata is provided.   PMID:25284671

  14. Transcriptome of the Deep-Sea Black Scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo (Perciformes: Trichiuridae): Tissue-Specific Expression Patterns and Candidate Genes Associated to Depth Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Stefanni, Sergio; Bettencourt, Raul; Pinheiro, Miguel; Moro, Gianluca De; Bongiorni, Lucia; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea fishes provide a unique opportunity to study the physiology and evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments. We carried out a high throughput sequencing analysis on a 454 GS-FLX titanium plate using unnormalized cDNA libraries from six tissues of A. carbo. Assemblage and annotations were performed by Newbler and InterPro/Pfam analyses, respectively. The assembly of 544,491 high quality reads provided 8,319 contigs, 55.6% of which retrieved blast hits against the NCBI nonredundant database or were annotated with ESTscan. Comparison of functional genes at both the protein sequences and protein stability levels, associated with adaptations to depth, revealed similarities between A. carbo and other bathypelagic fishes. A selection of putative genes was standardized to evaluate the correlation between number of contigs and their normalized expression, as determined by qPCR amplification. The screening of the libraries contributed to the identification of new EST simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and to the design of primer pairs suitable for population genetic studies as well as for tagging and mapping of genes. The characterization of the deep-sea fish A. carbo first transcriptome is expected to provide abundant resources for genetic, evolutionary, and ecological studies of this species and the basis for further investigation of depth-related adaptation processes in fishes. PMID:25309900

  15. Description of a new species of Priolepis (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea, a new record of Priolepis compita, and a distributional range extension of Trimma fishelsoni.

    PubMed

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Reefgoby, Priolepis melanops, is described from Al Lith, central Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea, on the basis of a single adult specimen. It is a distinctive species, and can distinguish from its congeners by the following characters: dorsal-fin rays VI + I,9, no elongate spines in first dorsal fin; anal-fin rays I,8; pectoral-fin rays 14-15, all unbranched; longitudinal scale series 25; no scales on the head or predorsal midline, sides of the nape scaled; a developed transverse pattern of the sensory papillae below the eye; fifth pelvic-fin ray unbranched, its length 47% length of fourth ray; body and most of head brownish orange, densely covered with melanophores; snout, lips, chin and chest black; iris black; fins translucent with narrow black stripe along base of each dorsal fin. Placement of the new species in Priolepis is based on the presence of characteristics currently associated with Priolepis rather than with Trimma. An individual of Priolepis compita Winterbottom was photographed in very shallow water on a reef flat at Sharm el Sheikh, at the entrance of the Gulf of Aqaba, and represents a new record for the Red Sea. The endemic Red Sea species Trimma filamentosus Winterbottom and T. fishelsoni Goren, previously know as far south as Jeddah, were collected at Al Lith, central Saudi Arabia, and represents the southernmost record for both species. Variation of P. compita and T. fishelsoni is noted and the cephalic sensory system of the latter is described for the first time. In addition, we report that records of Trimma tevegae Cohen & Davis from the Red Sea are based on misidentification. A key to distinguish the species of Priolepis and Trimma known from the Red Sea is provided. PMID:27515653

  16. First record of the Indo-Pacific areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775) (Perciformes: Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Shevy B S; Stern, Nir; Goren, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The number of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is steadily increasing and it seems that the pace has been accelerating since the turn of the century (Galil et al. 2014). In 2015 alone five additional fish species have been reported, Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015); Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt, 1823) (Fricke et al. 2015); Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) (Stern et al. 2015); Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle, 1841) (Capapé et al. 2015); and Cryptocentrus caeruleopunctatus (Rüppell, 1830) (Rothman & Goren 2015). Among the ca. 100 alien fish species reported from the Mediterranean to date (Galil & Goren 2014), five Indo-Pacific species belong to the genus Epinephelus Bloch, 1793: Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822), Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775), Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Schneider, 1804) Epinephelus merra Bloch, 1793 (Golani et al. 2013a) and Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015). Additional alien Epinephelus species reported from the Mediterranean are excluded for various reasons (Golani et al. 2013b). Here we report the finding of a sixth Indo-Pacific species of this genus along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. PMID:27395890

  17. Unusual dispersion of histone repeats on the whole chromosomal complement and their colocalization with ribosomal genes in Rachycentron canadum (Rachycentridae, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Costa, Gideão W W F; Cioffi, Marcelo B; Bertollo, Luiz A C; Molina, Wagner F

    2014-01-01

    Rachycentron canadum, the only representative of the family Rachycentridae, has been the focus of biotechnological interest due to its significant potential in marine fish farming. The chromosome set of this species has been widely investigated with respect to the location of genes and multigene families. A FISH analysis was performed using 4 multigene families as probes, represented by 5S and 18S ribosomal genes and histones H2B-H2A and H3. Earlier data suggested that differential replication of heterochromatin could be partially associated with functional genes. Indeed, our results showed that the DNA contained in heterochromatic regions of R. canadum contains 5S and 18S ribosomal genes as well as the gene sequences of histones H2B-H2A and H3, which were colocalized. The distribution of H3 sequences in all heterochromatic regions, except in 13q, could indicate an important evolutionary role for this class of repetitive sequences. Besides, the presence of chromosome regions bearing multifunctional repetitive sequences formed by H2B-H2A/H3/18S rDNA and H2B-H2A/H3/5S rDNA clusters was demonstrated for the first time in fishes. The implications of differential histone gene extension and its functionality in the karyotype of R. canadum remain unknown. PMID:25341625

  18. Life-history- and ecosystem-driven variation in composition and residence pattern of seabream species (Perciformes: Sparidae) in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Species composition and length-frequency distributions of six sparid fish species were investigated in two central Mediterranean coastal lagoons off the western coast of Italy: Fogliano and Caprolace. In the former, the sparid fauna was dominated by the gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata), whereas in Caprolace, species composition was more homogeneous across all six species. Size structure varied considerably among species: S. aurata, Diplodus puntazzo and Diplodus vulgaris had a single-cohort structure in both lagoons, whereas in Diplodus annularis and Diplodus sargus at least two cohorts were identified. In Lithognathus mormyrus inter-lagoon variation was detected, with a single-cohort structure in Fogliano and a two-cohort structure in Caprolace. While inter-specific differences can be explained by variation in life-history strategies among species, intra-specific variation in L. mormyrus is likely to be determined by the known differences between the two habitats: Fogliano being a more confined lagoon, and Caprolace more extensively influenced by the sea. PMID:16266729

  19. Rhabdosynochus Spp. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) infecting the gill lamellae of snooks, Centropomus spp. (Perciformes: Centropomidae), in Florida, and redescription of the type species, R. rhabdosynochus.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Fajer-Avila, Emma J; Bullard, Stephen A

    2010-10-01

    Examination of the gill lamellae of 3 species of Centropomus spp. (Centropomidae) from 9 localities around the southern coast of Florida revealed 3 species of Rhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae). The common snook, Centropomus undecimalis, was infected with Rhabdosynochus rhabdosynochus (30 of 37 infected; prevalence 81%), Rhabdosynochus hargisi (9 of 37; 24%), and Rhabdosynochus hudsoni (20 of 37; 46%); the fat snook, Centropomus parallelus, with R. rhabdosynochus (12 of 22; 55%) and R. hudsoni (8 of 22; 36%) (new host records for both); and the tarpon snook, Centropomus pectinatus, with R. hudsoni (3 of 4; 75%) (new host record). Snooks infected with R. rhabdosynochus were collected only from tidal waters of salinity ≤10.4 ppt, where the parasite dominated the monogenoidean community. Rhabdosynochus hargisi and R. hudsoni showed greater salinity tolerance; the former dominated where salinity was ≥28.8 ppt. Thus, salinity appears to be a determinate factor in partitioning the monogenoidean community, while water depth and temperature and host population (as defined by collection locality) did not appear to affect occurrence of Rhabdosynochus spp. on snooks in Florida. With the exception of Tampa Bay for R. hargisi , each locality represented a new geographic record for the respective diplectanid. The type species, R. rhabdosynochus, is redescribed based on specimens collected from its type host, C. undecimalis. PMID:20496964

  20. Mitochondrial COI and nuclear RAG1 DNA sequences and analyses of specimens of the three morphologically established species in the genus Trichopsis (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) reveal new/cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Senapin, Saengchan; Kowasupat, Chanon; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Kühne, Jens; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2015-01-01

    Air-breathing fish species of the genus Trichopsis have been reported in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. It is only in Thailand that all three recognized species (Trichopsis vittata, Trichopsis schalleri and Trichopsis pumila), as judged by distinct external features, are found. Cambodia and Lao PDR harbor two species each. The present work involves first-time DNA sequencing and analysis based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (RAG1) DNA of numerous specimens of these species and specimens of a controversial Phetchaburi (Thailand) fish population with a mixed outward appearance. In addition to confirming the morphologically clear-cut taxonomic division of the three fish species, our DNA results show that whereas the T. pumila populations form one single species, there are cryptic species in the T. vittata and T. schalleri populations and possibly a new one in the latter. Members of the putative Phetchaburi fish population have been proven to be hybrids between T. pumila and T. vittata. In addition, a new the phylogenetic tree indicating ancestral relationships is also presented. This study should generate further research to find new/cryptic species of the genus Trichopsis in all countries harboring the fish. PMID:25853058

  1. Naricolax hoi n. sp. (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) from Arius maculatus (Siluriformes: Ariidae) off Taiwan and a redescription of N. chrysophryenus (Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983) from a new host, Seriola lalandi (Perciformes: Carangidae), in Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Kate S; Tang, Danny

    2007-10-01

    We propose that Naricolax stocki (Roubal, 1981) (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) of Ho & Lin (2005), reported from the spotted catfish Arius maculatus (Thunburg) off Taiwan, represents a new species, N. hoi n. sp. N. hoi can be distinguished from six known congeners by the shape of the rostral area, the maxillary armature and the structural details of legs 3 and 4. N. chrysophryenus (Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983) is redescribed on the basis of recently collected material from wild and farmed yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi Valenciennes in southern and eastern Australian waters, providing the first record of Naricolax Ho, Do & Kasahara, 1983 from a carangid host. A key to the species of Naricolax is provided. PMID:17912616

  2. Description of Pseudorhabdosynochus justinei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) and redescription of P. vagampullum (Young, 1969) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from the gills of the longfin grouper Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Serranidae) in Dapeng Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bijian; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-03-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus justinei n. sp. is reported and described from the gills of the longfin grouper Epinephelus quoyanus in Dapeng Bay, South China Sea off the town of Nan'ao, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. P. justinei n. sp. is characterised by the presence of a male copulatory organ (MCO) composed of a moderately quadriloculate organ, a short cone and a long, variable internal tube, and a sclerotised vagina comprising anterior 'trumpet' with a characteristic sclerotised ring, slightly medially curved canal, heavily sclerotised principal chamber and star-shaped lateral structure with accessory chambers. It is differentiated from the most similar species, P. caledonicus Justine, 2005, by the absence of a thinly sclerotised posterior tube of the MCO and by the size and morphology of the sclerotised vagina. P. vagampullum (Young, 1969) is redescribed based on specimens collected from the same species of host and locality as P. justinei n. sp. In comparison with the original description by Young [Young, P. C. (1969). Journal of Helminthology, 43, 223-254] and the redescription by Justine [Justine, J.-L. (2005a). Systematic Parasitology, 62, 1-37; (2005b). Systematic Parasitology, 62, 39-45] based on old museum material, the new specimens of P. vagampullum clearly showed the internal anatomy of the terminal genitalia, especially the sclerotised vagina, consisting of a distal, cylindrical canal with an anterior 'trumpet' continuing as an unsclerotised, curved, bulb-shaped vaginal pore, a conical principal chamber and a star-shaped lateral structure with an accessory chambers leading to the seminal receptacle via a fine, unsclerotised duct. PMID:17143574

  3. Monogenoidean parasites of the gill lamellae of the sheepshead Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, with descriptions of four new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Dactylogyridae).

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the gill lamellae of three sheepshead Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum) from the Indian River Lagoon in Florida revealed six species of Monogenoidea: Microcotyle archosargi MacCallum, 1913 (Microcotylidae); Neobenedenia sp. (Capsalidae); and four new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Dactylogyridae). The prevalence of all helminths was 100%, except for Neobenedenia sp., which was represented by a single immature specimen. The four new species, Euryhaliotrema carbuncularium n. sp., E. dunlapae n. sp., E. amydrum n. sp. and E. spirulum n. sp., are described and with E. carbunculus (Hargis, 1955) Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 apparently constitute a monophyletic clade of Euryhaliotrema spp. that parasitise sparid hosts in the western hemisphere. The Indian River Lagoon in Florida represents a new locality record for M. archosargi, and the sheepshead is apparently a new host record for a member (Neobenedenia sp.) of the Capsalidae. PMID:21161491

  4. Mitochondrial COI and nuclear RAG1 DNA sequences and analyses of specimens of the three morphologically established species in the genus Trichopsis (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) reveal new/cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Senapin, Saengchan; Kowasupat, Chanon; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Kühne, Jens; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2015-06-01

    Air-breathing fish species of the genus Trichopsis have been reported in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. It is only in Thailand that all three recognized species (Trichopsis vittata, Trichopsis schalleri and Trichopsis pumila), as judged by distinct external features, are found. Cambodia and Lao PDR harbor two species each. The present work involves first-time DNA sequencing and analysis based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (RAG1) DNA of numerous specimens of these species and specimens of a controversial Phetchaburi (Thailand) fish population with a mixed outward appearance. In addition to confirming the morphologically clear-cut taxonomic division of the three fish species, our DNA results show that whereas the T. pumila populations form one single species, there are cryptic species in the T. vittata and T. schalleri populations and possibly a new one in the latter. Members of the putative Phetchaburi fish population have been proven to be hybrids between T. pumila and T. vittata. In addition, a new the phylogenetic tree indicating ancestral relationships is also presented. This study should generate further research to find new/cryptic species of the genus Trichopsis in all countries harboring the fish. PMID:25853058

  5. The influence of cage farming on infection of the corvine fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) with metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) from the Chavantes reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, I P; Franceschini, L; Zica, É O P; Carvalho, E D; Silva, R J

    2014-09-01

    The development of cage fish farms has been associated with an increase in parasitic diseases. Organic matter resulting from feed waste and faeces attracts animals such as birds and invertebrates that can act as hosts for parasites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cage farming on Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae infections of Plagioscion squamosissimus collected close to a cage farm in the Chavantes reservoir (Paranapanema River). Thirty-seven fish were collected in an area close to cages (CF), and 28 in an area not influenced by cages (CT). All specimens were weighed, measured and the eyes removed for morphological analyses of metacercariae. The prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and condition factor were calculated. The prevalence (CF = 86.4%, CT = 57.1%), mean infection intensity (CF = 20.31 ± 1.13, CT = 4.29 ± 7.14) and mean abundance (CF = 17.70 ± 6.27, CT = 2.35 ± 0.77) were higher in the CF (P< 0.05) group. There were no significant correlations (P> 0.05) between the mean abundance and standard length or the total weight and condition factor in either group (P> 0.05). Fish farms may interfere with the life cycle of A. compactum, leading to more infections with P. squamosissimus. This could be due to an increase in the number of host animals that are attracted by the availability of food resources derived from fish farms. PMID:23628163

  6. The taxonomic status of Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) with a redescription of this species from the south china sea based on morphology and DNA barcodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ping; Sha, Zhongli; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Russell, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Because of its importance as a food source, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. Despite such intensive work, the taxonomic status of N. japonicus has never been seriously questioned and it is regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch's description of the type specimen of N. japonicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diversity are shown for the future investigations.

  7. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the latter by a concavity in the lateral profile of the snout in adults, deep body and high soft dorsal-fin ray count. Comparison of the CO1 genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding also resulted in significant genetic divergences between the new species, P. unicolor and their closest sampled congeners. Some behavioural observations are also presented for the species treated, including aggressive interactions between individuals of the new species, the likes of which have not previously been recorded among species of Plectorhinchus. PMID:26250161

  8. Description of a new species of Trimma (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea, with a discussion of the generic separation of Trimma and Priolepis, with discussion of sensory papillae terminology.

    PubMed

    Hoese, Douglass F; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Pygmygoby, Trimma quadrimaculatum, n. sp., is described from the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea on the basis of 16 adult specimens. It is small-sized species, with the largest examined specimen reaching only 16.8 mm SL. The new species has characteristics of both Priolepis and Trimma, and easily may be confused with Priolepis randalli and Trimma mendelssohni; it can distinguish from other species by combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays D VI + I,8; anal-fin rays I,7; longitudinal scale series 23-25; median predorsal scales 6-8 (usually 7 or 8); head naked; a pair of modified elongate papillae on nape; fifth pelvic-fin ray with 2 dichotomous branches; body with broad, irregular, brown bars, last bar posteriorly on caudal peduncle extending basally on to rays of caudal fin; head with three dark brown bars below eye; four subcutaneous dark brown spots ventrally on posterior half of body; and basal quarter of second and third membranes of first dorsal fin with diffuse dark blotch. Placement of the new species in Trimma is based on the presence of more characteristics currently associated with Trimma than with Priolepis. The generic separation of the two genera is discussed, suggesting that further work is needed to clarify the separation of these two genera. PMID:26624195

  9. Morphological re-description and molecular characterization of Kudoa pagrusi (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting the heart muscles of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the Red Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Maher, Sherein; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, 100 samples of different sizes of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus were collected from the Egyptian water along the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and examined for the prevalence of myxosporidian parasites in general and Kudoa spp. in particular. Fish samples were thoroughly externally examined. After dissection, all the internal organs were removed and examined. A total of 60 out of 100 fish specimens were found to be infected with Kudoa stages. Parasitic infection was restricted to the heart muscles of the examined fish. None of the other organs was found to be infected. Macroscopic cysts (plasmodia) heavily infested the different parts of the heart muscles. Each plasmodium measured 1.2-2.5 (1.53 ± 0.2) mm × 0.63-0.80 (0.65 ± 0.2) mm. Mature spores are quadratic in shape in the apical view showing four equal valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Fresh spores were 5.0-7.1 (5.7 ± 0.2) μm long × 5.4-8.5 (6.1 ± 0.3) μm wide. On the basis of spore morphology, the present species was identified as Kudoa pagrusi. Morphometric characterization revealed that the relatively small size of this Kudoa species was the distinctive feature that separates it from all previously described species. Molecular analysis based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences revealed that the highest percentage of identity was observed with K. scomberomori and followed by K. shiomitsui, K. hypoepicarclialis, K. amamiensis, and K. kenti. The kudoid spores showed morphometric variations to some extents but had essentially identical nucleotide sequences of the SSU rDNA gene sequences closest to those of K. scomberomori and K. shiomitsui recorded from elasmobranchs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The present findings support the identification of an ancestral marine origin of the present Kudoa species. PMID:27146899

  10. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    PubMed

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. PMID:26880127

  11. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution. PMID:22983803

  12. Fisheries Management of Red Snapper in the Gulf of Mexico: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joy N.; Snyder, Stephanie M.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian R.; McMullin, Steve L.

    2009-01-01

    In the Gulf of Mexico, the overfished population of red snapper ("Lutjanus campechanus") is a major source of revenue resulting in a dichotomy between maintaining the health of the fishery and meeting the demands of the local economies. In order to govern marine fisheries the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 was…

  13. CHEMICAL INTERFERENCE WITH GENOMIC AND NONGENOMIC ACTIONS OF STEROIDS IN FISHES: ROLE OF RECEPTOR BINDING. (R826125)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The characteristics of steroid nuclear and membrane receptors and their interactions with xenobiotic chemicals in two marine perciform species, Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) are briefly revi...

  14. DNA barcoding reveals mislabeling of imported fish products in Nansha new port of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Lai, Guiyan; Li, Li; Xiao, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we employed a DNA barcoding approach to authenticate the species of fish imported via one port in China. The fish were identified as smallmouth scad based on morphological characteristics, Alepes apercna (Perciformes, Carangidae), but were labeled as Rastrelliger brachysoma (Perciformes, Scombridae). Fragments of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene were sequenced from 12 specimens, and their phylogenetic relationship was subsequently examined. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all of the individuals formed a monophyletic cluster with high bootstrap values and were placed in a sister group with the ancestor of Alepes vari and Alepes melanoptera. The K2P genetic distances at an intraspecific level were significantly smaller than those at an interspecific level. Our results indicated that the fish were A. apercna, rather than R. brachysoma, which confirms the morphological analysis. This study presents a practical demonstration of the use of DNA barcoding to prevent fraud in international trade. PMID:26920274

  15. [Description of the female of a new Didymoizoidae: Gonapodasmius microovatus spec. nov].

    PubMed

    Reimer, L W

    1980-02-01

    In Megalaspis cordyla (L.) (Perciformes, Carangidae) from the Gulf of Aden Gonapodasmius microovatus spec. nov., a trematode of the family Didymozoidae is parasitizing in the body cavity. The only preserved specimen is a mature female. Description and differential diagnose is given together with a key of determination for the genus, also a review of the geographical distribution and the fish hosts of the species of the genus Gonapodasmius. PMID:7377627

  16. Cucullanus maldivensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and some other adult nematodes from marine fishes off the Maldive Islands.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Lorber, Julia; Konecný, Robert

    2008-05-01

    Marine fishes were collected from off the Maldive Islands in March, 2005. From amongst the material collected, the nematode Cucullanus maldivensis n. sp. is described from the intestine of a lutjanid fish, the black and white snapper Macolor niger (Forsskål). This species is morphologically and biometrically most similar to C. bourdini Petter & Le Bel, 1992, differing from it principally in the protruding vulval lips, the location of the first pair of pre-anal papillae, the absence of an elevated cloacal region, and having distinctly larger eggs (51-57 x 33-36 microm). Additionally, adult females of the nematodes Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. and Camallanus sp. from the green jobfish Aprion virescens Valenciennes (Lutjanidae) and the rainbow runner Elegatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard) (Carangidae), respectively, were collected. These camallanids are illustrated and measurements are provided, but they were not identified or described in detail as no males were collected. PMID:18373220

  17. Dependence of juvenile reef fishes on semi-arid hypersaline estuary microhabitats as nurseries.

    PubMed

    Sales, N S; Dias, T L P; Baeta, A; Pessanha, A L M

    2016-07-01

    The differences between fish assemblages in three microhabitat types, in relation to vegetation and sediment characteristics of a hypersaline estuary located in an semi-arid zone in north-eastern Brazil, were investigated. Fishes were collected using a beach seine during the rainy and dry seasons in 2012. A total of 78 species were recorded, with the most common families being Gerreidae, Lutjanidae and Tetraodontidae. The majority of species were represented by juveniles, with Eucinostomus argenteus, Ulaema lefroyi and Sphoeroides greeleyi being the dominant species. The fish assemblage structures differed significantly among microhabitat types, with the narrow intertidal flat adjacent to the mangrove fringe supporting the most diverse fish fauna. In addition, only 27 species were common to all of the microhabitats. The results support the hypothesis that hypersaline estuaries serve as important nursery areas for various reef fish species, due to the structural complexity provided by their macroalgae beds and mangroves. PMID:27237742

  18. The relationship of reef fish densities to the proximity of mangrove and seagrass nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorenbosch, M.; van Riel, M. C.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2004-05-01

    Visual census surveys were used to study the distribution of coral reef fishes that are associated with seagrass beds and mangroves in their juvenile phase, on various coral reef sites along the coast of the Caribbean island of Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles). The hypothesis tested was that various reef fish species occur in higher densities on coral reefs adjacent to nursery habitats than on reefs located at some distance to these habitats. Of 17 coral reef fish species that are known to use bays with seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries (nursery species), 15 were observed in quadrats on the reef. Four nursery species, Haemulon sciurus, Lutjanus apodus, Ocyurus chrysurus and Scarus coeruleus occurred in significantly higher densities on coral reefs adjacent to bays with seagrass beds and mangroves. Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus mahogoni and Sphyraena barracuda also had their highest densities on reefs adjacent to these bays, although differences between the distinguished reef categories were not always significant. It is suggested that these seven species are highly dependent on the presence of bays with seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries on an island scale. Eight other species that are known to use seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries did not have their highest densities on reefs adjacent to bays with seagrass beds and mangroves. For six of these species, juveniles were also observed on the reef. It is suggested that these species are able to use the reef as an alternative nursery and do not depend strictly on the presence of bays with seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries.

  19. The histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Silva-Souza, Angela Teresa; Eiras, Jorge C

    2002-04-01

    It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae) and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae). The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 microm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host. PMID:12048579

  20. [Vertical distribution of acanthocephalans of the order Echinorhynchida in Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Baldanova, D R

    2008-01-01

    Vertical distribution of acanthocephalans of the order Echinorhynchida is studied in Lake Baikal. Four species and subspecies from cottid fishes (Perciformes: Cottoidei) were examined, namely Pseudoechinorhynchus borealis (Linstow, 1901), Metechinorhynchus salmonis salmonis (Muller, 1780), M.s. baicalensis Bogolepova, 1957, M. truttae (Schrank, 1788). In the littoral (0-5 m) and sublittoral (5-100 m) areas all these species and subspecies were occurred, white in the profundal (100-300 m) and abyssal (900-1600 m) areas only Metechinorhynchus salmonis baisalensis has been found. PMID:18727364

  1. Chemical biology of the mutualistic relationships of sea anemones with fish and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich

    2009-12-15

    Fish species of the genera Amphiprion and Premnas (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) as well as various crustaceans seek protection from predators among the tentacles of sea anemones, where they live essentially unharmed from stinging by the host's nematocysts. The mucous coats of anemonefish and crustaceans have been suggested as mechanisms that prevent the discharge of the nematocysts upon contact. Whereas some fish species seem to produce their own protecting mucous coating, others may acquire mucus from the sea anemone during an acclimation period, as crustaceans do. Whether the natural or acquired mucus layers contain components that inhibit nematocyst discharge or simply lack compounds stimulating the stinging cell's exocytosis is still unknown. PMID:19268681

  2. Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Toonen, Robert J.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai‘i began a remarkable, if unintentional, ‘experiment’ with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (FST = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (FST = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (FST = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

  3. Target fishes on artificial reefs: evidences of impacts over nearby natural environments.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thiony; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Topics in artificial reef research have included a wide number of themes but a major portion of published works are about the attraction that artificial reefs exert over fishes that reside in natural reefs. In the present work, underwater visual censuses of fishes were conducted at both artificial and natural reefs, aiming at verifying whether fishes are attracted or and produced on artificial reefs. Length frequency, mean biomass and frequency of occurrence of four fish genera targeted by local fisheries (Caranx, Haemulon, Lutjanus and Mycteroperca) were compared between two artificial and two natural reefs. Evidences of both production and attraction of target reef fishes by artificial reefs were found. Production is evidenced by the enormous abundance of recruits of a single grunt species, the tomtate (Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier). The high concentration of adults of predator demersal fishes (Mycteroperca spp. and Lutjanus spp.), present at low density on natural reefs, is the main evidence for attraction by artificial reefs. Results are inconclusive for the pelagic predators Caranx spp. The attraction that artificial reefs exert over large demersal predators can negatively affect nearby natural areas through shifts in predation, competition or nutrient input. Production can affect benthic communities in soft bottoms adjacent to artificial reefs by foraging of reef-associated fishes. Even when unplanned for fisheries purposes artificial reefs are often submitted to commercial and recreational fisheries and, due to the strong attraction they exert over large predators, these structures need harvest regulations. PMID:21871652

  4. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. PMID:26599976

  5. Seasonal abundance and composition of finfish and shellfish seeds inmangroves of Gangolli estuary, off south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, K M; Thomas, Sujitha; Dineshbabu, A R; PrathibhaRohit; Sridhara, B; Nataraja, G D

    2015-11-01

    The composition and seasonal abundance of the fin and shellfish seeds in mangrove areas of Gangoli estuary were studied for one year from January to December, 2013. Monthly day time sampling was conducted with a rectangular dragnet of 75 m2 length having 5 mm mesh size. The mean monthly density was highest in January (Avg. of 12,996/haul) and lowest during May (Avg. of 859/haul). Thirty species of fish, four species of shrimps and two species of crabs belonging to 26 families were recorded during the study. Ambasis sp., Feneropenaeus indicus, Etroplus suratensis,Leognathus sp., Liza sp., Stolephorus vaganensis, Hemiramphus sp., Terapon sp. and Gerres sp. were the most abundant species/taxa. A total of 10 commercially important species comprising F. indicus, Etroplus suratensis, Liza sp., Gerres sp.,Siganus sp., Lutjanus russei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Sillago sp. and Penaeus monodon constituted 8.5% (April, 2013) to 93.7% (October, 2013) with an average of 37.2% of the total fish and shellfish seeds. Higher Species diversity (H') and Species richness (D) was recorded during January. The result of the present investigation gives an insight of the abundance and seasonality of commercially important fish and shellfish seeds, which may facilitate the brackishwater fish farmers to exploitthe seeds more pragmatically for their culture practice. PMID:26688975

  6. New records of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off Iraq, with the erection of two new species and the first description of the male of Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec & Manoharan, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer H; Abed, Jasim M; Shaker, Sara J

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): Philometra iraqiensis n. sp. (females) from the abdominal cavity and ovary of the Klunzinger's mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae), P. megalaspidis n. sp. (females) from the ovary of the torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Carangidae), Philometra sp. 1 (females) from the ovary of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae), Philometra sp. 2 (females) from the ovary of the bartail flathead Platycephalus indicus (Linnaeus) (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae) and Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Perciformes: Polynemidae). The new species are characterised mainly by the body length, the length and structure of the oesophagus and caudal end and by the family of their fish hosts. The male and the gravid female of P. eleutheronemae are described for the first time; the finding of this species in Iraqi waters represents the first record of this nematode in the region of the Arabian (=Persian) Gulf. PMID:26790678

  7. Convergent Aspects of Acoustic Communication in Darters, Sculpins, and Gobies.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Malavasi, Stefano; Holt, Daniel E; Noel, Patricia; Lugli, Marco; Johnston, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    Darters (Perciformes, Percidae), sculpins (Perciformes, Cottidae), and gobioids (Gobiiformes, Gobioidei) exhibit convergent life history traits, including a benthic lifestyle and a cavity nesting spawning mode. Soniferous species within these taxa produce pulsed and/or tonal sounds with peak frequencies below 200 Hz (with some exceptions), primarily in agonistic and/or reproductive contexts. The reduced or absent swim bladders found in these taxa limit or prevent both hearing enhancement via pressure sensitivity and acoustic amplification of the contracting sonic muscles, which are associated with the skull and pectoral girdle. While such anatomies constrain communication to low frequency channels, optimization of the S/N (signal-to-noise) ratio in low frequency channels is evident for some gobies, as measured by habitat soundscape frequency windows, nest cavity sound amplification, and audiograms. Similar S/N considerations are applicable to many darter and sculpin systems. This chapter reviews the currently documented diversity of sound production in darters, sculpins, and gobioids within a phylogenetic context, examines the efficacy of signal transmission from senders to receivers (sound production mechanisms, audiograms, and masking challenges), and evaluates the potential functional significance of sound attributes in relation to territorial and reproductive behaviours. PMID:26515312

  8. Role of histamine in the regulation of intestinal immunity in fish.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Mulero, Victoriano

    2016-11-01

    In mammals, during the acute inflammatory response, the complex interrelationship and cross-talk among histamine and the immune system has been fairly well characterized. There is a substantial body of information on its structure, metabolism, receptors, signal transduction, physiologic and pathologic effects. However, for early vertebrates, there is little such knowledge. In the case of teleost fish, this lack of knowledge has been due to the widely held belief that histamine is not present in this phylogenetic group. However, it has been recently demonstrated, that granules of mast cells in perciforms contain biologically active histamine. More importantly, the inflammatory response was clearly demonstrated to be regulated by the direct action of histamine on professional phagocytes. Nevertheless, the molecular basis and exact role of this biogenic amine in perciforms is still a matter of speculation. Therefore, this review intends to summarize recent experimental evidence regarding fish mast cells and correlate the same with their mammalian counterparts to establish the possible role of histamine in the fish intestinal inflammatory response. PMID:26872545

  9. The mitochondrial genome of the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, and ordinal teleostean relationships.

    PubMed

    Elmerot, Christian; Arnason, Ulfur; Gojobori, Takashi; Janke, Axel

    2002-08-01

    The small nuclear genome of the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes (order Tetraodontiformes), makes this species highly interesting for genome research. In order to establish the phylogenetic position of the Tetraodontiformes relative to other teleostean orders that might also have a reduced nuclear genome size, we have sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pufferfish. The gene order, nucleotide composition and evolutionary rate of the mt genome of the fugu correspond to those of other teleosts. This suggests that the evolution of this genome has not been affected by the processes that led to the dramatic reduction of the size of the nuclear genome of the fugu. The phylogenetic analyses, which were based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of twelve protein-coding mt genes, placed the fugu among the percomorphs. The affinities between the Tetraodontiformes and either the Perciformes or the Zeiformes were limited, however. The common notion of a separate euteleostean clade remained unsupported. The analyses did not support the traditional systematic understanding that the Clupeiformes constitute a basal teleostean lineage. In addition the findings strongly suggest that three teleostean orders, the Perciformes, Zeiformes and Scorpaeniformes, are paraphyletic. PMID:12354650

  10. Two anisakid nematodes from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from Nemipterus furcosus.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2005-10-01

    One new and one known species of the ascaridoid family Anisakidae are reported from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia: Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from the intestine of the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae, Perciformes) and Hysterothylacium cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) from the intestine of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Istiophoridae, Perciformes). R. nemipteri is characterised mainly by the shape (wider than long) of the lips, the length of the spicules (225-399 microm, which represent 2.7-4.2% of the body length), the number (22-33) of caudal pre-anal papillae, the position of the vulva (at 16-20% of the body length), and the presence of cuticular spines on the tip of the female tail. Specimens of H. cenaticum from New Caledonia generally exhibited smaller body measurements than those originally described from Australian waters; the deirids and eggs are described for the first time. Maricostula Bruce and Cannon, 1989 is considered a junior synonym of Hysterothylacium, to which three species are transferred as H. cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb., H. makairi (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb. PMID:16167119

  11. Cloning of a neoteleost (Oreochromis mossambicus) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) cDNA reveals a deletion of the gamma-melanotropin region and most of the joining peptide region: implications for POMC processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Danielson, P; Sollars, C; Alrubaian, J; Balm, P; Dores, R M

    1999-12-01

    A signature feature of tetrapod pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is the presence of three melantropin (MSH) coding regions (alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, gamma-MSH). The MSH duplication events occurred early during the radiation of the jawed vertebrates well over 400 million years ago. However, in at least one order of modern bony fish (subdivision Teleostei; order Salmoniformes; i.e. salmon and trout) the gamma-MSH sequence has been deleted from POMC. To determine whether the gamma-MSH deletion has occurred in other teleost orders, a POMC cDNA was cloned from the pituitary of the neoteleost Oreochromis mossambicus (order Perciformes). In O. mossambicus POMC, the deletion is more extensive and includes the gamma-MSH sequence and most of the joining peptide region. Because the salmoniform and perciform teleosts do not share a direct common ancestor, the gamma-MSH deletion event must have occurred early in the evolution of the neoteleost fishes. The post-translational processing of O. mossambicus POMC occurs despite the fact that the proteolytic recognition sequence, (R/K)-Xn-(R/K) where n can be 0, 2, 4, or 6, a common feature in mammalian neuropeptide and polypeptide hormone precursors, is not present at several cleavage sites in O. mossambicus POMC. These observations would indicate that either the prohormone convertases in teleost fish use distinct recognition sequences or vertebrate prohormone convertases are capable of recognizing a greater number of primary sequence motifs around proteolytic cleavage sites. PMID:10698113

  12. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  13. [Ichthyofauna of the Navidad Bay, Jalisco, México].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Palomino, B; Pérez Reyes, C; Galván-Magaña, F; Abitía-Cardenas, L A

    2001-03-01

    A check-list and the relative abundance of the ichthyofauna from Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico is presented. This poorly known area of the eastern Tropical Pacific ocean is characterized by its great fish diversity. A total of 245 fish species (163 genera, 72 families) were collected during the 1994-1995 annual cycle. Vouchers were deposited in Centro de Ecologia Costera, Universidad de Guadalajara. The most important families in number of species were Carangidae (20 species), Haemulidae (20), Serranidae (17), Sciaenidae (13) and Lutjanidae (8); 20 species represented 85% and 80% of relative abundance and biomass respectively. Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caninus, Caranx caballus, Kiphosus analogus and Caranx sexfasciatus, were the dominant species. Most fish species collected in Bahia de Navidad have zoogeographical affinity with the Panamic Province (65%), and in lesser proportion with the Eastern Pacific Ocean (19%), Circumtropical (7%), Mexican Province (5%), Indo-Pacific Ocean (3%) and Gulf of California (0.4%). The great ichthyological affinity between the study area and the southern Gulf of California suggests an extension of the of Gulf southern limit. PMID:11795146

  14. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

    2003-03-01

    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish. PMID:12784589

  15. Auditory sensitivity in settlement-stage larvae of coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. J.; Higgs, D. M.; Cato, D. H.; Leis, J. M.

    2010-03-01

    The larval phase of most species of coral reef fishes is spent away from the reef in the pelagic environment. At the time of settlement, these larvae need to locate a reef, and recent research indicates that sound emanating from reefs may act as a cue to guide them. Here, the auditory abilities of settlement-stage larvae of four species of coral reef fishes (families Pomacentridae, Lutjanidae and Serranidae) and similar-sized individuals of two pelagic species (Carangidae) were tested using an electrophysiological technique, auditory brainstem response (ABR). Five of the six species heard frequencies in the 100-2,000 Hz range, whilst one carangid species did not detect frequencies higher than 800 Hz. The audiograms of the six species were of similar shape, with best hearing at lower frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. Strong within-species differences were found in hearing sensitivity both among the coral reef species and among the pelagic species. Larvae of the coral reef species had significantly more sensitive hearing than the larvae of the pelagic species. The results suggest that settlement-stage larval reef fishes may be able to detect reef sounds at distances of a few 100 m. If true hearing thresholds are lower than ABR estimates, as indicated in some comparisons of ABR and behavioural methods, the detection distances would be much larger.

  16. Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time. The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District. Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future. PMID:25081275

  17. Phylogenetic placement of enigmatic percomorph families (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    PubMed

    Sanciangco, Millicent D; Carpenter, Kent E; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Percomorphs are a large and diverse group of spiny-finned fishes that have come to be known as the "bush at the top" due to their persistent lack of phylogenetic resolution. Recently, the broader Euteleost Tree of Life project (EToL) inferred a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that groups the diversity of percomorphs into nine well-supported series (supraordinal groups): Ophidiaria, Batrachoidaria, Gobiaria, Syngnatharia, Pelagiaria, Anabantaria, Carangaria, Ovalentaria, and Eupercaria. The EToL also provided, for the first time, a monophyletic definition of Perciformes - the largest order of vertebrates. Despite significant progress made in accommodating the diversity of percomorph taxa into major clades, some 62 families (most previously placed in "Perciformes", as traditionally defined) were not examined by the EToL. Here, we provide evidence for the phylogenetic affinities of 10 of those 62 families, seven of which have largely remained enigmatic. This expanded taxonomic sampling also provides further support for the nine EToL supraordinal series. We examined sequences from 21 genes previously used by the EToL and added two fast-evolving mitochondrial markers in an attempt to increase resolution within the rapid percomorph radiations. We restricted the taxonomic sampling to 1229 percomorph species, including expanded sampling from recent studies. Results of maximum likelihood analysis revealed that bathyclupeids (Bathyclupeidae), galjoen fishes (Dichistiidae), kelpfishes (Chironemidae), marblefishes (Aplodactylidae), trumpeters (Latridae), barbeled grunters (Hapalogenyidae), slopefishes (Symphysanodontidae), and picarel porgies (formerly Centracanthidae) are members of the series Eupercaria ("new bush at the top"). The picarel porgies and porgies (Sparidae) are now placed in the same family (Sparidae). Our analyses suggest a close affinity between the orders Spariformes (including Lethrinidae, Nemipteridae and Sparidae) and Lobotiformes (including the

  18. Primordial germ cell migration in the yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and identification of stromal cell-derived factor 1.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; Bubner, E J; Takeuchi, Y; Yoshizaki, G; Wang, T; Cummins, S F; Elizur, A

    2015-03-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are progenitors of the germ cell lineage, giving rise to either spermatogonia or oogonia after the completion of gonadal differentiation. Currently, there is little information on the mechanism of PGCs migration leading to the formation of the primordial gonad in perciform fish. Yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) (YTK) (order Perciforms) inhabit tropical and temperate waters in the southern hemisphere. Fundamental details into the molecular basis of larval development in this species can be easily studied in Australia, as they are commercially cultured and readily available. In this study, histological analysis of YTK larvae revealed critical time points for the migration of PGCs to the genital ridge, resulting in the subsequent development of the primordial gonad. In YTK larvae at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post hatch (DPH), PGCs were not yet enclosed by somatic cells, indicating the primordial gonad had not yet started to form. While at 15, 18 and 20 DPH PGCs had already settled at the genital ridge and started to become enclosed by somatic cells indicating the primordial gonad had started to develop. A higher number of PGCs were observed in the larvae at 15 and 18 DPH indicating PGCs proliferation, which corresponds with them becoming enclosed by the somatic cells. Directional migration of PGCs toward the genital ridge is a critical event in the subsequent development of a gonad. In zebrafish, mouse and chicken, stromal-cell derived factor (SDF1) signalling is one of the key molecules for PGC migration. We subsequently isolated from YTK the SDF1 (Slal-SDF1) gene, which encodes for a 98-residue precursor protein with a signal peptide at the N-terminus. There is spatial conservation between fish species of four cysteine residues at positions C9, C11, C34 and C49, expected to form disulphide bonds and stabilize the SDF structure. In YTK, Slal-SDF1 gene expression analyses shows that this gene is expressed in larvae from 1 to 22 DPH and

  19. Residency of Reef Fish During Pile Driving Within a Shallow Pierside Environment.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph D; Watwood, Stephanie L; Reyier, Eric A; Gilchrest, Matthew; Crocker, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of construction occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement and survival of free-ranging reef fish in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to 35 days of pile driving at an existing wharf complex. The site fidelity and behavior of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) were determined before, during, and after pile driving. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. There was a significant decline in the residency index for mangrove snapper at the construction wharf after pile driving compared with the baseline, although this may be influenced by natural movements of this species in the study area rather than a direct response to pile driving. PMID:26610995

  20. Characterization, development and multiplexing of microsatellite markers in three commercially exploited reef fish and their application for stock identification

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Christine; Maher, Safia; Crook, David A.; Saunders, Thor M.; Barton, Diane P.; Taylor, Jonathan A.; Welch, David J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Travers, Michael J.; Saunders, Richard J.; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four microsatellite loci were isolated from three reef fish species; golden snapper Lutjanus johnii, blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus and grass emperor Lethrinus laticaudis using a next generation sequencing approach. Both IonTorrent single reads and Illumina MiSeq paired-end reads were used, with the latter demonstrating a higher quality of reads than the IonTorrent. From the 1–1.5 million raw reads per species, we successfully obtained 10–13 polymorphic loci for each species, which satisfied stringent design criteria. We developed multiplex panels for the amplification of the golden snapper and the blackspotted croaker loci, as well as post-amplification pooling panels for the grass emperor loci. The microsatellites characterized in this work were tested across three locations of northern Australia. The microsatellites we developed can detect population differentiation across northern Australia and may be used for genetic structure studies and stock identification.

  1. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million. PMID:21542214

  2. First evidence of fish larvae producing sounds

    PubMed Central

    Staaterman, Erica; Paris, Claire B.; Kough, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic ecology of marine fishes has traditionally focused on adults, while overlooking the early life-history stages. Here, we document the first acoustic recordings of pre-settlement stage grey snapper larvae (Lutjanus griseus). Through a combination of in situ and unprovoked laboratory recordings, we found that L. griseus larvae are acoustically active during the night, producing ‘knock’ and ‘growl’ sounds that are spectrally and temporally similar to those of adults. While the exact function and physiological mechanisms of sound production in fish larvae are unknown, we suggest that these sounds may enable snapper larvae to maintain group cohesion at night when visual cues are reduced. PMID:25274018

  3. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test. PMID:26611089

  4. Groupers on the edge: Shelf edge spawning habitat in and around marine reserves of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, F.C.; Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains some of the most diverse and productive marine habitat in the United States. Much of this habitat, located on the shelf edge in depths of 50 to 120 m, supports spawning for many economically important species, including groupers. Here, we couple acoustic surveys with georeferenced videography to describe the primary spatial and geologic features of spawning aggregation sites for four economically important species: gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), with notes on fish distribution and abundance and spawning activities. We provide information on movement patterns of reef fish determined using acoustic telemetry. Finally, we discuss the possible coupling of geomorphology with hydrographic features to influence the overall productivity of the region and the importance of spatial fishery management in sustaining that productivity. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  5. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries.

    PubMed

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F

    2015-11-30

    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed. PMID:26233306

  6. Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in sympatric snapper species from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bank, Michael S; Chesney, Edward; Shine, James P; Maage, Amund; Senn, David B

    2007-10-01

    Consumption of marine fish is a major route of toxic methyl mercury (MeHg) exposure to ocean apex predators and human populations. Here we explore the influence of trophic structure on total mercury (Hg) accumulation in red snapper (RS, Lutjanus campechanus) and gray snapper (GS, Lutjanus griseus) from the coastal Louisiana region of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Mississippi River. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) determine the effectiveness of the use of offshore recreational fishing charter boats and marinas as sources of fish samples and (2) compare species differences in Hg bioaccumulation, trophic position, and carbon sources. Our data show that length-normalized Hg concentrations (> or = 97% as MeHg in tissue of both species) were 230% greater in GS in comparison to RS collected from the same general area. Stable C and N isotope signatures (delta15N and delta13C) indicate that GS occupy a slightly higher trophic position (approximately 30% of one trophic position higher) on the Gulf food web in comparison to RS and that GS appear to incorporate higher trophic positioned prey, continually and at smaller sizes. Mercury was strongly correlated with combined delta15N and delta13C in pooled species data, arguing that most of the substantial difference in Hg bioaccumulation between RS and GS can be explained by modest differences in their trophic position and, to a lesser degree, carbon sources, which had low variation and high overlap among species. These observations demonstrate that even minor to moderate differences in trophic position and food habits in sympatric species can create relatively large differences in bioaccumulation regimes and underscores the importance of quantitative characterization of trophic structure in marine MeHg bioaccumulation studies. PMID:17974344

  7. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a new intestinal parasite of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) off New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the intestine of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède) from coral reefs off New Caledonia. The new species, belonging to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987, differs from other congeneric species of this subgenus from marine fishes mainly in the length (168–186 μm), shape and structure of the spicule. It is characterized, in the male, by the presence of two well-developed dorsolateral caudal lobes, a pair of lateral papillae, a heavily sclerotized spicule with many rough transverse grooves in the middle part, a spinose spicular sheath, and in the female, by eggs measuring 60–66 × 27 μm without protruding polar plugs. The buccal cavity contains a small finger-shaped stylet. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. is the first known species of this genus parasitizing fishes of the perciform family Serranidae. PMID:25531932

  8. Calicobenedenia Polyprioni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae) from the external surfaces of wreckfish, Polyprion americanus (Teleostei: Polyprionidae), in the north Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, D C; Fennessy, C J

    1999-04-01

    Calicobenedenia polyprioni n. sp. (Capsalidae) is described from the external surfaces (skin and eye) of wreckfish, Polyprion americanus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Polyprionidae), from the north Atlantic Ocean. The monotypic Calicobenedenia n. gen. is proposed for this species and is characterized, in part, by its members possessing an aseptate haptor armed with 14 submarginal hooks and 1 pair of anchors, a common genital pore opening marginally immediately posterior to the left cephalic lobe, 2 testes juxtaposed near the body midlength, and by lacking cephalic suckers or adhesive discs, accessory haptoral sclerites, and a uterine valve. The new genus most closely resembles Entobdella, which differs from Calicobenedenia by having an aseptate haptor armed with 14 submarginal hooks, 2 pairs of anchors, and a pair of accessary sclerites. PMID:10219294

  9. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-02-01

    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea. PMID:17436940

  10. A new triaenophorid tapeworm from blackfish Centrolophus niger.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-04-01

    Milanella familiaris n. gen. and n. sp. (Bothriocephalidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate a new cestode from blackfish Centrolophus niger (Gmelin) (Perciformes: Centrolophidae). Milanella is characterized as follows: trapeziform, i.e., markedly craspedote proglottids with a velum-like posterior margin and horn like lateral projections; pyriform uterine sac in the first gravid proglottids; arrow-shaped scolex with well-developed apical disc and prominent posterior margins; strobila with intensively stained corpuscles, most numerous in the anterior part; deeply lobated ovary; absence of a neck; a large, pyriform, thin-walled cirrus-sac with the proximal part bent anteromedially; vagina posterior to the cirrus-sac; and cortical vitelline follicles. Milanella most closely resembles Bathycestus Kuchta and Scholz, 2004, Pistana Campbell and Gartner, 1982, and Probothriocephalus Campbell, 1979, differing mainly in the shape of proglottids and uterine sac. PMID:18564751

  11. Olfactory transduction in ciliated receptor neurons of the Cabinza grunt, Isacia conceptionis (Teleostei: Haemulidae).

    PubMed

    Schmachtenberg, Oliver; Bacigalupo, Juan

    2004-12-01

    The ciliated receptor neurons of fish olfactory organs are thought to transduce amino acids through a cAMP-dependent transduction pathway, but direct physiological evidence for this hypothesis remains scarce and is confined to catfish and trout. We investigated olfactory transduction in a marine fish, the Cabinza grunt Isacia conceptionis (Perciformes, Teleostei). The olfactory epithelium was characterized using light and electron microscopy, and isolated ciliated receptor neurons were recorded with the perforated patch-clamp technique. Cells were stimulated with puffer pipettes containing amino acid odourants, IBMX plus forskolin or 8 bromo-cAMP. All three stimuli triggered transient inward currents at a holding potential of -70 mV and responses with outward-rectifying current-voltage relationships. The characteristics of the transduction currents induced by each stimulus were similar across cells and indistinguishable within the same cell, supporting the hypothesis of a cAMP pathway mediating transduction of amino acids in ciliated olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:15610170

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence and gene organization of Tridentiger trigonocephalus (Gobiidae: Gobionellinae) with phylogenetic consideration.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongqing; Ma, Hongyu; Ma, Chunyan; Zhang, Fengying; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei; Ma, Lingbo

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome plays an important role in studies of genome-level characteristics and phylogenetic relationships. Here we determined the complete mitogenome sequence of Tridentiger trigonocephalus (Perciformes, Gobiidae), and discovered its phylogenetic relationship. This circular genome was 16 662 bp in length, and consisted of 37 typical genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes. The gene order of T. trigonocephalus mitochondrial genome was identical to those observed in most other vertebrates. Of 37 genes, 28 were encoded by heavy strand, while the others were encoded by light strand. The phylogenetic tree constructed by 13 concatenated protein-coding genes showed that T. trigonocephalus was closest to T. bifasciatus, and then to T. barbatus among the 20 species within suborder Gobioidei. This work should facilitate the studies on population genetic diversity, and molecular evolution in Gobioidei fishes. PMID:26370266

  13. Cues from the reef: olfactory preferences of a symbiotically luminous cardinalfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Alison L.; Harii, Saki; Dunlap, Paul V.

    2015-06-01

    The symbiotically luminous, reef-dwelling cardinalfish, Siphamia tubifer (Perciformes: Apogonidae), exhibits daily site fidelity, homing behavior, and a preference for the long-spined urchin, Diadema setosum, as its daytime host. The fish acquires its symbiont during larval development and releases large numbers of the bacteria with its feces daily at a host urchin. To examine the role of olfaction in site fidelity and homing by S. tubifer, juvenile and adult fish were tested in a two-channel choice flume for their olfactory preferences. Neither juveniles nor adults showed a preference for seawater conditioned by D. setosum. Juvenile fish, but not adults, preferred seawater conditioned by conspecific fish versus unconditioned seawater. Both juveniles and adults preferred seawater conditioned by their luminous symbiont and also preferred home site water to foreign reef water. These results suggest that S. tubifer uses chemical cues for homing and possibly settlement and symbiont acquisition, but not for host urchin recognition.

  14. Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the marine fish (picarel) Spicara smaris (Centracanthidae) off Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Marino, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from a gravid female found in the abdominal cavity of spicarel, Spicara smaris (Linnaeus) (Centracanthidae, Perciformes), from the Ionian Sea off Sicily, Italy. The new species differs from most other Philometra spp. parasitic in the abdominal cavity of marine fishes by the oesophagus without an anterior inflation, resembling thus only Philometra cheilopogoni Mordvinova, 1986 and Philometra justinei Moravec, Ternengo and Levron, 2006; these two species can be differentiated from P. spicarae by the relative length of the oesophagus to body length (0.6-0.8% vs. 6%) and some other features. From the gonad-infecting species Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus), P. spicarae differs mainly in having a conspicuously long (1.4 mm) intestinal ligament. It is the first nominal philometrid species described from the fish of the family Centracanthidae. PMID:20428890

  15. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  16. Hysterothylacium simile n. sp. and H. aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) from marine fishes in the Bohai and Yellow Sea, China, with comments on the record of H. paralichthydis (Yamaguti, 1941) from Chinese waters.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Liu, Yuan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Hysterothylacium simile n. sp., collected from the Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus (Cuvier) (Perciformes: Lateolabracidae) in the Bohai Sea off China, is described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species differs from its congeners in the presence of narrow lateral alae originating a short distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips, a long intestinal caecum (60.4-79.1% of oesophageal length) and a relatively short ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:0.58-0.85), long spicules (2.11-2.99 mm, 4.25-7.83% of body length), the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae (32-36 pairs arranged as follows: 27-31 pairs precloacal, 1 pair paracloacal, and 4-5 pairs postcloacal with the second or third pair double) and the presence of a particular midventral precloacal papilla. Specimens originally identified as Contracaecum paralichthydis Yamaguti, 1941 [now H. paralichthydis (Yamaguti, 1941)] by Xü (1957), collected from the yellow striped flounder Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini (Jordan & Snyder) (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae) in the Yellow Sea off China, were also re-examined. Their morphology clearly revealed they belong to H. aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802), which is also redescribed based on Xü's material. In addition, the morphological variation of caudal papillae in H. aduncum from P. herzensteini was compared, using scanning electron microscopy, with specimens collected from another three fish hosts, Lophius litulon (Jordan) (Lophiiformes: Lophiidae), Scomberomorus niphonius (Cuvier) (Perciformes: Scombridae) and Cleisthenes herzensteini (Schmidt) (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae), from the Yellow Sea off China. PMID:23263941

  17. Novel relationships among ten fish model species revealed based on a phylogenomic analysis using ESTs.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2006-06-01

    The power of comparative phylogenomic analyses also depends on the amount of data that are included in such studies. We used expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from fish model species as a proof of principle approach in order to test the reliability of using ESTs for phylogenetic inference. As expected, the robustness increases with the amount of sequences. Although some progress has been made in the elucidation of the phylogeny of teleosts, relationships among the main lineages of the derived fish (Euteleostei) remain poorly defined and are still debated. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of a set of 42 of orthologous genes from 10 available fish model systems from seven different orders (Salmoniformes, Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Beloniformes, and Perciformes) of euteleostean fish to estimate divergence times and evolutionary relationships among those lineages. All 10 fish species serve as models for developmental, aquaculture, genomic, and comparative genetic studies. The phylogenetic signal and the strength of the contribution of each of the 42 orthologous genes were estimated with randomly chosen data subsets. Our study revealed a molecular phylogeny of higher-level relationships of derived teleosts, which indicates that the use of multiple genes produces robust phylogenies, a finding that is expected to apply to other phylogenetic issues among distantly related taxa. Our phylogenomic analyses confirm that the euteleostean superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii are monophyletic and the Protacanthopterygii and Ostariophysi are sister clades. In addition, and contrary to the traditional phylogenetic hypothesis, our analyses determine that killifish (Cyprinodontiformes), medaka (Beloniformes), and cichlids (Perciformes) appear to be more closely related to each other than either of them is to pufferfish (Tetraodontiformes). All 10 lineages split before or during the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea in the

  18. Effects of a single intensive harvest event on fish populations inside a customary marine closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupiter, S. D.; Weeks, R.; Jenkins, A. P.; Egli, D. P.; Cakacaka, A.

    2012-06-01

    In September 2008, the villagers of Kia Island, Fiji, opened their customary managed closure (Cakaulevu tabu) to fishing for a fundraiser that lasted for 5 weeks. We report on opportunistic before-after-control-impact surveys describing changes to coral reef communities both 4 weeks into the harvest and 1 year later compared with pre-harvest conditions. Prior to the harvest, there was a gradient in mean fish abundance and biomass per transect, with highest levels in the north of the closure (250 fish transect-1, 8,145.8 kg ha-1), intermediate levels in the south of the closure (159 fish transect-1, 4,672.1 kg ha-1) and lowest levels in the control area open to fishing (109 fish transect-1, 594.0 kg ha-1). During the harvest, there were extensive depletions in large-bodied, primary targeted fish species, with significant loss in biomass of Acanthuridae and Carangidae in the north and Lutjanidae and Serranidae in the south. We also observed significant increases in Acanthuridae, Lethrinidae and Scaridae in the control, suggesting a "bail-out" effect whereby fish left the closure in response to a rapid increase in fishing pressure. These changes were coupled with a large increase in turf algal cover at all survey areas, despite a large numerical increase in small, roving acanthurids (e.g., Ctenochaetus striatus) and scarids (e.g., Chlorurus sordidus). By 1 year later, fish biomass was significantly lower within the closure than before the harvest, while values in the control returned to pre-harvest levels, suggesting non-compliance with the reinstated fishing ban. We use the lessons learned from this event to suggest recommendations for promoting effective management of periodically harvested customary closures that are a common feature across much of Oceania.

  19. The functional role of tabular structures for large reef fishes: avoiding predators or solar irradiance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Large reef fishes may often be seen sheltering under tabular structures on coral reefs. There are two principle explanations for this behaviour: avoidance of predation or avoidance of solar irradiance. This study sought supporting evidence to distinguish between these two explanations by examining the usage of tabular structures on a shallow mid-shelf reef of the Great Barrier Reef at midday and sunset. If predation avoidance is most important, usage should increase towards sunset; conversely, if avoidance of solar radiation is most important, more fishes should use cover at midday. Underwater video observations revealed that tabular structures were extensively used by large reef fishes at midday, being characterised by numerous species, especially Lutjanidae and Haemulidae. In contrast, at sunset, tabular structures were used by significantly fewer large reef fishes, being characterised mostly by species of unicornfish ( Naso spp.). Resident times of fishes using tabular structures were also significantly longer at midday (28:06 ± 5:55 min) than at sunset (07:47 ± 2:19 min). The results suggest that the primary function of tabular structures for large reef fishes is the avoidance of solar irradiance. This suggestion is supported by the position of fishes when sheltering. The majority of large reef fishes were found to shelter under the lip of tabular structure, facing outwards. This behaviour is thought to allow protection from harmful downwelling UV-B irradiance while allowing the fish to retain photopic vision and survey more of the surrounding area. These findings help to explain the importance of tabular structures for large reef fishes on coral reefs, potentially providing a valuable energetic refuge from solar irradiance.

  20. Fishes in Mangrove Prop-root Habitats of Northeastern Florida Bay: Distinct Assemblages across an Estuarine Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, J. A.; McIvor, C. C.; Montague, C. L.

    1999-06-01

    Seasonal changes in freshwater inflow and other environmental conditions may induce changes in density and species composition of mangrove fishes along estuarine gradients. Fishes within mangrove habitats in a subtropical estuary were sampled monthly from May 1989 to May 1990, using block nets with rotenone and visual censuses. At 18 stations, temperature ranged from 22 to 34°C, depth from 10 to 104cm and underwater visibility from 1 to 13m. Salinity ranged from 0 to 60 upstream, and 35 to 54 mid- and downstream. A total of 573191 individuals (76 species) was observed or collected, with an average density of 6·5 fish m -2. Engraulidae, Atherinidae, Poeciliidae and Cyprinodontidae numerically dominated the assemblage. Distinct assemblages occurred up-, mid- and downstream and maintained coherent groups in these gradient positions over the seasons. Residents totalled 94·5% of the individuals, estuarine transients comprised 5·1% and occasional marine visitors were less than 0·4%. Densities of resident fishes peaked in winter as temperatures and water levels fell, uncorrelated with changes in salinity. These observations suggest that mangrove habitats may sustain diverse and abundant fish communities dominated by euryhaline residents. Although estuarine transients were consistently rare in upstream sub-basins, downstream were found numerous sub-adults of species occurring as adults on nearby reefs (Lutjanidae, Haemulidae). Thus, reef-associated estuarine transients may be abundant in mangrove habitats having near-marine salinities. Contrary to expectations, mangrove habitats in northeastern Florida bay did not function as a nursery as defined under the nursery-ground paradigm: young-of-the-year juveniles of estuarine transient species did not seek low salinity sub-basins. However, northeastern Florida Bay may not be representative of most mangrove estuaries as the area: (1) is without lunar tides and related circulation; (2) has low and variable amounts of

  1. Mangrove Habitat Use by Juvenile Reef Fish: Meta-Analysis Reveals that Tidal Regime Matters More than Biogeographic Region

    PubMed Central

    Igulu, Mathias M.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Dorenbosch, Martijn; Grol, Monique G. G.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Kimirei, Ismael A.; Mumby, Peter J.; Olds, Andrew D.; Mgaya, Yunus D.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of critical life-stage habitats is key to successful conservation efforts. Juveniles of some species show great flexibility in habitat use while other species rely heavily on a restricted number of juvenile habitats for protection and food. Considering the rapid degradation of coastal marine habitats worldwide, it is important to evaluate which species are more susceptible to loss of juvenile nursery habitats and how this differs across large biogeographic regions. Here we used a meta-analysis approach to investigate habitat use by juvenile reef fish species in tropical coastal ecosystems across the globe. Densities of juvenile fish species were compared among mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats. In the Caribbean, the majority of species showed significantly higher juvenile densities in mangroves as compared to seagrass beds and coral reefs, while for the Indo-Pacific region seagrass beds harbored the highest overall densities. Further analysis indicated that differences in tidal amplitude, irrespective of biogeographic region, appeared to be the major driver for this phenomenon. In addition, juvenile reef fish use of mangroves increased with increasing water salinity. In the Caribbean, species of specific families (e.g. Lutjanidae, Haemulidae) showed a higher reliance on mangroves or seagrass beds as juvenile habitats than other species, whereas in the Indo-Pacific family-specific trends of juvenile habitat utilization were less apparent. The findings of this study highlight the importance of incorporating region-specific tidal inundation regimes into marine spatial conservation planning and ecosystem based management. Furthermore, the significant role of water salinity and tidal access as drivers of mangrove fish habitat use implies that changes in seawater level and rainfall due to climate change may have important effects on how juvenile reef fish use nearshore seascapes in the future. PMID:25551761

  2. Mangrove habitat use by juvenile reef fish: meta-analysis reveals that tidal regime matters more than biogeographic region.

    PubMed

    Igulu, Mathias M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Dorenbosch, Martijn; Grol, Monique G G; Harborne, Alastair R; Kimirei, Ismael A; Mumby, Peter J; Olds, Andrew D; Mgaya, Yunus D

    2014-01-01

    Identification of critical life-stage habitats is key to successful conservation efforts. Juveniles of some species show great flexibility in habitat use while other species rely heavily on a restricted number of juvenile habitats for protection and food. Considering the rapid degradation of coastal marine habitats worldwide, it is important to evaluate which species are more susceptible to loss of juvenile nursery habitats and how this differs across large biogeographic regions. Here we used a meta-analysis approach to investigate habitat use by juvenile reef fish species in tropical coastal ecosystems across the globe. Densities of juvenile fish species were compared among mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats. In the Caribbean, the majority of species showed significantly higher juvenile densities in mangroves as compared to seagrass beds and coral reefs, while for the Indo-Pacific region seagrass beds harbored the highest overall densities. Further analysis indicated that differences in tidal amplitude, irrespective of biogeographic region, appeared to be the major driver for this phenomenon. In addition, juvenile reef fish use of mangroves increased with increasing water salinity. In the Caribbean, species of specific families (e.g. Lutjanidae, Haemulidae) showed a higher reliance on mangroves or seagrass beds as juvenile habitats than other species, whereas in the Indo-Pacific family-specific trends of juvenile habitat utilization were less apparent. The findings of this study highlight the importance of incorporating region-specific tidal inundation regimes into marine spatial conservation planning and ecosystem based management. Furthermore, the significant role of water salinity and tidal access as drivers of mangrove fish habitat use implies that changes in seawater level and rainfall due to climate change may have important effects on how juvenile reef fish use nearshore seascapes in the future. PMID:25551761

  3. Fishes in mangrove prop-root habitats of northeastern Florida Bay: Distinct assemblages across an estuarine gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ley, J.A.; McIvor, Carole; Montague, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Seasonal changes in freshwater inflow and other environmental conditions may induce changes in density and species composition of mangrove fishes along estuarine gradients. Fishes within mangrove habitats in a subtropical estuary were sampled monthly from May 1989 to May 1990, using block nets with rotenone and visual censuses. At 18 stations, temperature ranged from 22 to 34°C, depth from 10 to 104cm and underwater visibility from 1 to 13m. Salinity ranged from 0 to 60 upstream, and 35 to 54 mid- and downstream. A total of 573191 individuals (76 species) was observed or collected, with an average density of 6·5 fish m−2. Engraulidae, Atherinidae, Poeciliidae and Cyprinodontidae numerically dominated the assemblage. Distinct assemblages occurred up-, mid- and downstream and maintained coherent groups in these gradient positions over the seasons. Residents totalled 94·5% of the individuals, estuarine transients comprised 5·1% and occasional marine visitors were less than 0·4%. Densities of resident fishes peaked in winter as temperatures and water levels fell, uncorrelated with changes in salinity. These observations suggest that mangrove habitats may sustain diverse and abundant fish communities dominated by euryhaline residents. Although estuarine transients were consistently rare in upstream sub-basins, downstream were found numerous sub-adults of species occurring as adults on nearby reefs (Lutjanidae, Haemulidae). Thus, reef-associated estuarine transients may be abundant in mangrove habitats having near-marine salinities. Contrary to expectations, mangrove habitats in northeastern Florida bay did not function as a nursery as defined under the nursery-ground paradigm: young-of-the-year juveniles of estuarine transient species did not seek low salinity sub-basins. However, northeastern Florida Bay may not be representative of most mangrove estuaries as the area: (1) is without lunar tides and related circulation; (2) has low and variable amounts of

  4. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  5. Cloning of stanniocalcin (STC) cDNAs of divergent teleost species: Monomeric STC supports monophyly of the ancient teleosts, the osteoglossomorphs.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yutaka; Irwin, David M; Youson, John H

    2006-10-01

    Molecular cloning of teleost stanniocalcin (STC) cDNAs was undertaken in two species of order Osteoglossiformes of subdivision Osteoglossomorpha and one species of each of orders Cypriniformes and Perciformes within the subdivision Euteleostei. The elephantnose (Gnathonemus petersii) and the butterflyfish (Pantadon buchholzi) are basal teleosts in different osteoglossiforme suborders yet their 218 amino acid (aa) mature hormones, from prehormones of 249 and 251aa, respectively, have only 10 cysteine residues. A substitution for cysteine at the intermonomeric disulfide linkage site, implies that their STCs exist as monomeric peptides, as is the case with STC from another osteoglossormorph, arawana [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. The STC cDNA of the generalized teleost and cyprinid, the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), encodes a prehormone of 249aa with a signal peptide of 31aa and a mature protein of 218aa that possesses 11 cysteine residues. The latter feature is consistent with a previous analysis that white sucker mature STC is a glycosylated, homodimeric peptide [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. An open reading frame of the STC cDNA of the derived teleost and perciforme, the smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), encodes a prehormone of 255aa with a signal peptide of 33aa and a mature protein of 222aa. The position of the 11 cysteines in smallmouth bass STC suggests that it exists as a homodimeric peptide. A phylogenetic analysis, using the new STC-1 amino acid sequences and those in the gene data base provided strong support for monophyly of the Osteoglossomorpha and indicated, with positioning of

  6. Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc Contents of Fish Marketed in NW Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Frías-Espericueta, Martín G.; Zamora-Sarabia, Francia K. G.; Osuna-López, J. Isidro; Muy-Rangel, María D.; Rubio-Carrasco, Werner; Aguilar-Juárez, Marisela

    2014-01-01

    To assess if they were within the safety limits for human consumption, the Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of fish muscles, bought from separate stalls of the fish markets of nine cities of NW Mexico, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Considering all fish and markets, the mean contents were Zn: 23.23 ± 5.83, Cu: 1.72 ± 0.63, Cd: 0.27 ± 0.07, and Pb: 0.09 ± 0.04 µg/g (dry weight). Cu, Zn, and Pb did not reach levels of concern for human consumption, but the high Cd values determined in Mazatlán (Mugil cephalus: 0.48 ± 0.15; Diapterus spp.: 0.57 ± 0.33; Lutjanus spp.: 0.72 ± 0.12; small shark: 0.87 ± 0.19 µg/g dry weight) indicate that this was the only metal of concern for human health because the daily individual consumption of fish muscle to reach the PTDI would be within 0.27 and 0.41 kg. PMID:24526908

  7. Diversity and Abundance of a Tropical Fishery on the Pacific Shelf of Michoacán, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, J.; Sánchez, P.; Ruiz, A.

    1997-10-01

    This study was undertaken on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Some 22 523 individual fish were sampled, representing two classes, 154 genera, 64 families and 257 species in a total area of 50 km 2. The species Lutjanus guttatus, Scomberomorus sierra, Cynoscion reticulatus, Sphyrna lewini, Arius platypogonand Caranx caninuswere the most numerically abundant, amounting to 53·2% of the whole sample. Two models for sample size analysis and richness prediction were used. From these, the forecast for a theoretical doubling of the level of sampling effort (90 days) was 297 and 331. The Shannon diversity indexes in summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) were significantly different (paired t-test, P<0·0005). Of four families compared, three gave significant differences in the summer and winter periods (the Carangidae, the Haemulidae and the Sciaenidae). The classification (Euclidean Distance and UPGMA) indicated two climatic periods and three species assemblages. In addition, the nodal fidelity analysis agreed with the importance of the winter season in the study area. Two El Niño/southern oscillation incidences from 1986-87 and 1991-93 occurred during the sampling period.

  8. Using Fish Population Metrics to Compare the Effects of Artificial Reef Density

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Artificial reefs continue to be added as habitat throughout the world, yet questions remain about how reef design affects fish diversity and abundance. In the present study, the effects of reef density were assessed for fish communities and sizes of economically valuable Lutjanus campechanus 13 km off Port Mansfield, Texas, at a reef composed of more than 4000 concrete culverts. The study spanned from May to June in 2013 and 2014, and sites sampled included natural reefs, bare areas, and varying culvert patch density categories, ranging from 1–190 culverts. Abundances of adults and species evenness of juvenile populations differed between the years. Fish communities did not significantly differ among density categories; however, highest species richness and total abundances were observed at intermediate culvert densities and at natural reefs. Whereas the abundance of L. campechanus did not differ among density categories, mean total lengths of L. campechanus were greatest at the lower density. Our findings suggest that reefs should be deployed with intermediate patch density of 71–120 culverts in a 30-m radius to yield the highest fish abundances. PMID:26422472

  9. The use of biotic and abiotic components of Red Sea coastal areas as indicators of ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-03-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted using some biotic (Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii fish) and abiotic (water and sediment) components of the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic along two polluted sites (Al-Dawar beach and Urj village) in comparison to a reference site (Al-Nukhailah beach). The studied fish biomarkers included hepatosomatic index (HSI), condition factor (K), scaled mass index (SMI), catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and albumin. In addition, metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) concentrations in water and sediment were measured and sediment pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). The studied metals concentration in water and sediment samples showed significant increase among the polluted sites in comparison to the reference site. Sediment pollution assessment generally confirmed that Urj village was the most contaminated site followed by Al-Dawar beach. Catalase, GST and MDA proved to be the most responsive biomarkers with increased values of GST and MDA at sites influenced by agricultural, urban and industrial activities while catalase, HSI, K, SMI, total protein and albumin showed the opposite trend. This study recommends monitoring of sediment Igeo and EF values as well as SMI, catalase, GST and MDA as sensitive indicators of different anthropogenic activities and their effects on aquatic ecosystems under complex and different gradients of metal pollution. In addition, P. hasta proved to be more sensitive towards the detected pollution condition. PMID:26547874

  10. Trophic behaviour of juvenile reef fishes inhabiting interlinked mangrove-seagrass habitats in offshore mangrove islets.

    PubMed

    Vaslet, A; Phillips, D L; France, C A M; Feller, I C; Baldwin, C C

    2015-08-01

    Stable isotope (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and gut content analyses were used to investigate size-related feeding habits of four reef fishes (the beaugregory Stegastes leucostictus, the french grunt Haemulon flavolineatum, the schoolmaster snapper Lutjanus apodus and the yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus) inhabiting an offshore (non-estuarine) mangrove islet off Belize, Central America. Comparisons of isotopic niche space and Schoener diet similarity index suggested a low to moderate degree of niche overlap between fish size groups. The δ(13)C gradient between mangrove and seagrass prey as well as results of Bayesian mixing models revealed that sampled fishes relied mostly on seagrass prey items. Only small and large juveniles of the carnivorous species L. apodus derived a part of their diet from mangroves by targeting mangrove-associated Grapsidae crabs and fish prey, respectively. Isotopic niche shifts were particularly obvious for carnivorous fishes that ingested larger prey items (Xanthidae crabs and fishes) during their ontogeny. The utilization of mangrove food resources is less than expected and depends on the ecology and life history of the fish species considered. This research highlights that mangrove-derived carbon contributed relatively little to the diets of four fish taxa from an offshore mangrove islet. PMID:26084450

  11. Statistical power to detect change in a mangrove shoreline fish community adjacent to a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T E; Lynch, P D; Karazsia, J L; Serafy, J E

    2016-03-01

    An expansion is underway of a nuclear power plant on the shoreline of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA. While the precise effects of its construction and operation are unknown, impacts on surrounding marine habitats and biota are considered by experts to be likely. The objective of the present study was to determine the adequacy of an ongoing monitoring survey of fish communities associated with mangrove habitats directly adjacent to the power plant to detect fish community changes, should they occur, at three spatial scales. Using seasonally resolved data recorded during 532 fish surveys over an 8-year period, power analyses were performed for four mangrove fish metrics (fish diversity, fish density, and the occurrence of two ecologically important fish species: gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) and goldspotted killifish (Floridichthys carpio). Results indicated that the monitoring program at current sampling intensity allows for detection of <33% changes in fish density and diversity metrics in both the wet and the dry season in the two larger study areas. Sampling effort was found to be insufficient in either season to detect changes at this level (<33%) in species-specific occurrence metrics for the two fish species examined. The option of supplementing ongoing, biological monitoring programs for improved, focused change detection deserves consideration from both ecological and cost-benefit perspectives. PMID:26903208

  12. Stable isotopes as tracers of residency for fish on inshore coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jean P.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Fry, Brian; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the migratory movements of fish between habitats is an important priority for fisheries management. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes were used to evaluate the degree of movement and residency for five fish species collected from coral reefs in Queensland, Australia. Isotope values of fish were measured and compared between slow-turnover muscle tissue and fast-turnover liver tissue, with isotopic agreement between liver and muscle generally indicating resident animals, and relatively low C isotope values in muscle indicating migrants. Three fish species, rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), painted sweetlips (Diagramma labiosum) and Guenther's wrasse (Pseudolabrus guentheri) showed relatively consistent carbon isotope values between muscle and liver tissue as expected for resident populations. One quarter of bream (Acanthopagrus australis) individuals showed much lower δ13C values in muscle than liver. These low values diverged from the -10 to -15‰ values of residents and were more similar to the -20‰ values of fish collected from coastal riverine habitats, the presumed migration source. Moses perch (Lutjanus russelli) also showed substantial differences between muscle and liver C isotopes for about a quarter of individuals, but the overall higher C values of these individuals indicated they may have switched diets within island habitats rather than migrating. Our results were consistent with previous studies of fish residency and indicate that measuring stable isotopes in multiple tissues provides a useful methodology for characterizing fish residency in inshore areas.

  13. Vitrification of Sperm from Marine Fishes: Effect on Motility and Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Chesney, Edward J.; Daly, Jonathan; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to develop a standardized approach for sperm vitrification of marine fishes that can be applied generally in aquatic species. The objectives were to: 1) estimate acute toxicity of cryoprotectants over a range of concentrations; 2) evaluate the properties of vitrification solutions (VS); 3) evaluate different thawing solutions, and 4) evaluate sperm quality after thawing by examination of motility and membrane integrity. Sperm were collected from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). A total of 29 combinations of cryoprotectants were evaluated for toxicity and glass formation. Samples were loaded onto 10-µL polystyrene loops and plunged into liquid nitrogen. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-thaw motility among VS and among species when using the same VS. The sperm in VS of 15% DMSO + 15% ethylene glycol + 10% glycerol + 1% X-1000™ + 1% Z-1000™ had an average post-thaw motility of 58% and membrane integrity of 19% for spotted seatrout, 38% and 9% for red snapper, and 30% and 19% for red drum. Adaptations by marine fish to high osmotic pressures could explain the survival in the high cryoprotectant concentrations. Vitrification offers an alternative to conventional cryopreservation. PMID:26074721

  14. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP. PMID:24389468

  15. New records of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) from marine fishes in Jaramijó, an area with potential for sea-cage aquaculture in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptali; Caña-Bozada, Víctor; Mera-Loor, Geormery; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J; Ho, Ju-Shey

    2015-01-01

    Farming of finfish in sea cages is gaining popularity worldwide. These systems are a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of parasites or pathogens, such as sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae), known to cause serious diseases and economic losses in finfish aquaculture worldwide. In coastal waters of Jaramijó, Ecuador, there are plans to culture spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana); however, the information about the occurrence of sea lice on fish from this country is scarce. To address this problem, a parasitological survey of economically important fish caught by artisanal fishermen was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014. A total of 608 fish belonging to 66 species were examined. Sea lice were found on 23 fish species. The diversity of these parasites consisted of 22 species of Caligus and 5 species of Lepeophtheirus. Most sea lice species (66%) occurred in a single fish species only, with low infection levels. The most frequently encountered species were Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951, Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 and Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905. Taxonomic remarks are presented for some of the species recorded during this survey. All but two sea lice records are new to Ecuador, considerably expanding the geographical range of some species. PMID:25781254

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in marine fishes collected from fish culture sites in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, C K; Wong, P P; Chu, L M

    2001-01-01

    The levels of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in different tissues of three species of cultured marine fishes (Epinephelus areolatus, Lutjanus russelli, and Sparus sarba) collected from three fish culture sites in Hong Kong were evaluated. Metal pollution problems in the fish culture sites were serious, as reflected by the high metal concentrations recorded in sea water, sediments, and the biomonitor Perna viridis. In general, tissues of all three species contained high concentrations of Zn and Cu, but much lower concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr. Similar pattern of heavy metal concentrations was observed in sea water, sediment, and P. viridis. Metal concentrations in various tissues varied greatly among species and among fish culture sites. Different tissues showed different capacity for accumulating heavy metals. Gonad of all three species contained high concentrations of Zn. On the other hand, liver seemed to be the primary organ for Cu accumulation. Overall, metal concentrations in the tissues of culture marine fishes were much lower than those in P. viridis. Despite high metal levels in sea water and sediments, concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb in edible tissues, including muscle and skin, did not exceed permissible levels recommended by the Hong Kong Government for human consumption. PMID:11116341

  17. [Trophic interactions of the six most abundant fish species in the artisanal fishery in two bays, central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Flores Ortega, J R; Godínez Domínguez, E; Rojo Vázquez, J A; Corgos, A; Galván Piña, V H; Sansón González, G

    2010-03-01

    We surveyed the trophic components in six species of Bahía de Navidad and Bahía de Chamela: Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, L. argentiventris and Mulloidichthys dentatus. Two main seasonal periods were considered: 1) North Equatorial Counter Current NECC period influence (T1) and 2) California Current CC period influence (T2). In Bahía de Navidad 78 prey taxa were identified in the stomachs. From July to December (T1), 64 prey taxa were found, and from January to June (T2), 45 prey items. In Bahía de Chamela 93 prey items were identified; 74 during T1 and 60 during T2. The highest prey number was found in the stomachs of M. dentatus during T1 in Bahía de Navidad and the lowest prey number (7) was recorded in H. flaviguttatum in Bahía de Navidad in the same period. Crustaceans were the most frequently recorded prey items, followed by fishes, mollusks, polychaetes, and echinoderms in both seasonal periods and sites. The six fish species studied are considered as specialist feeders due the low values of the niche breadth index. There was little similarity among the diets. PMID:20411730

  18. Abundance, diversity, and activity of microbial assemblages associated with coral reef fish guts and feces.

    PubMed

    Smriga, Steven; Sandin, Stuart A; Azam, Farooq

    2010-07-01

    Feces and distal gut contents were collected from three coral reef fish species. Bacteria cell abundances, as determined via epifluorescence microscopy, ranged two orders of magnitude among the fishes. Mass-specific and apparent cell-specific hydrolytic enzyme activities in feces from Chlorurus sordidus were very high, suggesting that endogenous fish enzymes were egested into feces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of 16S rRNA genes were more similar among multiple individuals of the surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans than among individuals of the parrotfish C. sordidus or the snapper Lutjanus bohar. Analyses of feces-derived 16S rRNA gene clones revealed that at least five bacterial phyla were present in A. nigricans and that Vibrionaceae comprised 10% of the clones. Meanwhile, C. sordidus contained at least five phyla and L. bohar three, but Vibrionaceae comprised 71% and 76% of the clones, respectively. Many sequences clustered phylogenetically to cultured Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium spp. including Vibrio ponticus and Photobacterium damselae. Other Vibrionaceae-like sequences comprised a distinct phylogenetic group that may represent the presence of 'feces-specific' bacteria. The observed differences among fishes may reflect native gut microbiota and/or bacterial assemblages associated with ingested prey. PMID:20455942

  19. Otolith chemistry of fishes from Kosi Bay, South Africa: A preliminary multiple analytical methods approach to reconstruct fish migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbach, Andreas; Cowley, Paul D.; Kramar, Utz; Neumann, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Over exploitation of fish stocks in coastal areas is a subject of global concern. Increasing numbers of traditional fish traps, recreational fishing effort and unknown extents of illegal gillnetting are blamed for the declining abundance of estuarine-dependent fish species in the Kosi Bay estuarine lake system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Otoliths from four important fishery species (Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Pomadasys commersonnii, Acanthopagrus vagus, and Rhabdosargus sarba) and water samples collected from throughout the Kosi Bay system were analyzed for trace element constituents and δ18O values, in an attempt to reconstruct fish movements. The applied microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis proved valuable in detecting μm-scale spatially resolved Sr/Ca ratio distributions across otolith thin sections. Sr/Ca ratios and δ18O in otoliths correlated well with ambient water conditions and, thus, enabled us to reconstruct migratory histories of individual fish in the estuarine lake system. The findings are representative of the known biology of these species, although exact spatial and temporal ranges of migrations remain unclear. Interestingly, samples of two species (L. argentimaculatus and R. sarba) did not show any clue of migrations back to sea, which would be necessary for successful spawning. Further laboratory and field investigations with larger sample sizes are necessary to detect fishery impacts on migratory behavior at a population level.

  20. Trace metals health risk appraisal in fish species of Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Kousar; Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khan, Namra A; Kausar, Nazish; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Hanif, Muddasir

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a vital food for humans and many animals. We report an environmental monitoring study to assess the trace metals in fish species caught from Arabian Sea and commercially available in the coastal city Karachi, Pakistan. Heavy metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were determined in the skin, fillet and heart of the fish species Pampus argenteus, Epinephelus chlorostigma, Rachycentron canadum, Scomberomorus commerson, Johnius belangerii, Labeo rohita, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Trachinotus blochii, Pomadsys olivaceum and Acanthopagrus berda by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration (mg kg(-1), dry weight) range was: Cd (0.00-0.041), Cu (0.006-0.189), Fe (0.413-4.952) and Pb (0.00-0.569). Cadmium, copper and iron levels were below the tolerable limits whereas concentration of lead in the skins of S. commerson, E. chlorostigma, J. belangerii, A. berda; L. argentimaculatus, fillets of J. belangerii, E. chlorostigma and in the heart of J. belangerii exceeded the recommended limits. Therefore fish skin should be discouraged as food for humans or animals. The results indicate that a number of fish species have higher concentration of heavy metals dangerous for human health. Since the fish P. olivaceum (Dhotar) has the lowest level of trace metals therefore we recommend it for breeding and human consumption. PMID:27386308

  1. Reef fishes have higher parasite richness at unfished Palmyra Atoll compared to fished Kiritimati Island.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Shaw, Jenny C; Kuris, Armand M

    2008-09-01

    We compared parasite communities at two coral atolls in the Line Islands chain of the central Pacific (Kiritimati Island and Palmyra Atoll). Palmyra Atoll is relatively pristine while Kiritimati Island is heavily fished. At each island, we sampled five fish species for helminth and arthropod endoparasites: Chromis margaritifer, Plectroglyphidodon dickii, Paracirrhites arcatus, Acanthurus nigricans, and Lutjanus bohar. The surveys found monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, and copepods. Parasite richness was higher at Palmyra compared to Kiritimati for all five fish species. Fishes from Palmyra also tended to have more parasites species per host, higher parasite prevalence, and higher parasite abundance than did fishes from Kiritimati. The lower parasitism at Kiritimati may result from a simplified food web due to over fishing. Low biodiversity could impair parasite transmission by reducing the availability of hosts required by parasites with complex life cycles. Most notably, the lower abundances of larval shark tapeworms at Kiritimati presumably reflect the fact that fishing has greatly depleted sharks there in comparison to Palmyra. PMID:18846315

  2. Length-Based Assessment of Coral Reef Fish Populations in the Main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Nadon, Marc O.; Ault, Jerald S.; Williams, Ivor D.; Smith, Steven G.; DiNardo, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable “average length in the exploited phase of the population (L¯)”, estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  3. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. PMID:22380551

  4. Extent of Mangrove Nursery Habitats Determines the Geographic Distribution of a Coral Reef Fish in a South-Pacific Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

  5. Sublethal effects of catch-and-release fishing: measuring capture stress, fish impairment, and predation risk using a condition index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Matthew D.; Patino, Reynaldo; Tolan, J.M.; Strauss, R.E.; Diamond, S.

    2009-01-01

    The sublethal effects of simulated capture of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) were analysed using physiological responses, condition indexing, and performance variables. Simulated catch-and-release fishing included combinations of depth of capture and thermocline exposure reflective of environmental conditions experienced in the Gulf of Mexico. Frequency of occurrence of barotrauma and lack of reflex response exhibited considerable individual variation. When combined into a single condition or impairment index, individual variation was reduced, and impairment showed significant increases as depth increased and with the addition of thermocline exposure. Performance variables, such as burst swimming speed (BSS) and simulated predator approach distance (AD), were also significantly different by depth. BSSs and predator ADs decreased with increasing depth, were lowest immediately after release, and were affected for up to 15 min, with longer recovery times required as depth increased. The impairment score developed was positively correlated with cortisol concentration and negatively correlated with both BSS and simulated predator AD. The impairment index proved to be an efficient method to estimate the overall impairment of red snapper in the laboratory simulations of capture and shows promise for use in field conditions, to estimate release mortality and vulnerability to predation.

  6. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis. PMID:24830151

  7. Detailed LC-MS/MS analysis of ciguatoxins revealing distinct regional and species characteristics in fish and causative alga from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Inafuku, Yasuo; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    Toxin profiles of representative ciguatera species caught at different locations of Japan were investigated in fish flesh by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Identification and quantification of 16 toxins were facilitated by the use of 14 reference toxins prepared by either synthesis or isolation from natural sources and the previous LC-MS data thereof. Sodium adduct ions [M + Na](+) were used as parent and product ions. Distinct regional differences were unveiled: ciguatoxin-1B type toxins were found in snappers and groupers from Okinawa, ciguatoxin-3C type toxins were found in a spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Miyazaki located 730 km north of Okinawa, and both types of toxins were found in a red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima (Marcus) Island. Twelve toxins were identified in a dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, collected as the primary toxin source in French Polynesia. Occurrence of M-seco-toxins in fish and oxidized toxins in the dinoflagellate was confirmed for the first time. The present LC-MS/MS method is rapid, specific, and accurate. It not only outperforms the currently employed mouse bioassays but also enables the study of the toxin dynamics during the food chain transmission. PMID:22010820

  8. High population density enhances recruitment and survival of a harvested coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wormald, Clare L; Steele, Mark A; Forrester, Graham E

    2013-03-01

    A negative relationship between population growth and population density (direct density dependence) is necessary for population regulation and is assumed in most models of harvested populations. Experimental tests for density dependence are lacking for large-bodied, harvested fish because of the difficulty of manipulating population density over large areas. We studied a harvested coral reef fish, Lutjanus apodus (schoolmaster snapper), using eight large, isolated natural reefs (0.4-1.6 ha) in the Bahamas as replicates. An initial observational test for density dependence was followed by a manipulation of population density. The manipulation weakened an association between density and shelter-providing habitat features and revealed a positive effect of population density on recruitment and survival (inverse density dependence), but no effect of density on somatic growth. The snappers on an individual reef were organized into a few shoals, and we hypothesize that large shoals on high-density reefs were less vulnerable to large piscivores (groupers and barracudas) than the small shoals on low-density reefs. Reductions in predation risk for individuals in large social groups are well documented, but because snapper shoals occupied reefs the size of small marine reserves, these ecological interactions may influence the outcome of management actions. PMID:23634588

  9. Species composition of by-catch from milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry fishery in selected sites in the Philippines as determined by DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Destura, Irma; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-05-01

    Milkfish fry fishery, an important industry in the Philippines, uses non-selective fishing gears and push nets in coastal areas which lead to the capture of other non-targeted juvenile aquatic species. Unfortunately, information on the amount and the identity of by-catch species is lacking thus the extent of impact of the fry fishery is not known. In this study, the species composition of milkfish fry fishery by-catch sampled from selected coastal areas that are known to be fry collection sites in the country were identified and assessed through the use of DNA barcoding. Analyses revealed that by-catch fish species of the milkfish fry industry included Black Tiger shrimp (Peneaus monodon), Tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides), Glass perchlets (Ambasis gymnocephalus and Ambasis buruensis), Ladyfish (Elops hawaiensis), Snapper (Lutjanus fulviflamma), Cardinal fishes (Apogon hyalosoma and Sphaeramia orbicularis), Whipfin siver biddy (Gerres filamentosus), Mullet (Liza sp.), Anchovy (Encrasicholina heteroloba), and Tiger perch (Terapon jarbua), almost all of which are potential marketable food fish and culture species. The results of the study provide preliminary information, as well as awareness, on the species composition of milkfish fry by-catch. PMID:25329278

  10. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Nicholas Rountrey, Adam; Jane Meeuwig, Jessica; John Newman, Stephen; Zinke, Jens; Gregory Meekan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  11. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Rountrey, Adam Nicholas; Meeuwig, Jessica Jane; Newman, Stephen John; Zinke, Jens; Meekan, Mark Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  12. Length-based assessment of coral reef fish populations in the main and northwestern Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Marc O; Ault, Jerald S; Williams, Ivor D; Smith, Steven G; DiNardo, Gerard T

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable "average length in the exploited phase of the population ([Formula: see text])", estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  13. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc contents of fish marketed in NW Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frías-Espericueta, Martín G; Zamora-Sarabia, Francia K G; Osuna-López, J Isidro; Muy-Rangel, María D; Rubio-Carrasco, Werner; Aguilar-Juárez, Marisela; Voltolina, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    To assess if they were within the safety limits for human consumption, the Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of fish muscles, bought from separate stalls of the fish markets of nine cities of NW Mexico, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Considering all fish and markets, the mean contents were Zn: 23.23 ± 5.83, Cu: 1.72 ± 0.63, Cd: 0.27 ± 0.07, and Pb: 0.09 ± 0.04 µg/g (dry weight). Cu, Zn, and Pb did not reach levels of concern for human consumption, but the high Cd values determined in Mazatlán (Mugil cephalus: 0.48 ± 0.15; Diapterus spp.: 0.57 ± 0.33; Lutjanus spp.: 0.72 ± 0.12; small shark: 0.87 ± 0.19 µg/g dry weight) indicate that this was the only metal of concern for human health because the daily individual consumption of fish muscle to reach the PTDI would be within 0.27 and 0.41 kg. PMID:24526908

  14. 'Cebiche'--a potential source of human anisakiasis in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Laffon-Leal, S M; Vidal-Martínez, V M; Arjona-Torres, G

    2000-06-01

    Five fish species used for preparation of a popular dish (cebiche) made with raw fish flesh in Mexico were obtained from five localities of the coast of Yucatan. Lutjanus synagris, Gerres cinereus, Sphyraena barracuda, Epinephelus morio and Haemulon plumieriwere examined for the presence of larvae of anisakid nematodes, causative agents of human anisakiasis. The nematode Pseudoterranova sp. was found in E. morio and S. barracuda with a total prevalence of 83% and 6.5 +/- 6.2 worms per fish for E. morio, and a prevalence of 33% and 10.2 +/- 30.0 worms per fish for S. barracuda. Contracaecumsp. was found to infect G. cinereus with a prevalence of 57% and 7.6 +/- 11.4 worms per fish. The relatively high prevalence of Pseudoterranova sp. indicates that this parasite is a potential causal agent of anisakiasis on the coast of Yucatan. Although all larvae were found only in the mesentery of the fish host, their importance as a potential source of human infection cannot be excluded as larval migration to the muscles in dead fish is possible. PMID:10881286

  15. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    PubMed

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  16. The morphology and systematics of Rhabdochona paski Baylis, 1928 (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae), a widespread parasite of freshwater fishes in Africa.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Charo-Karisa, Harrison; Jirků, Miloslav

    2013-05-01

    Nematodes of the genus Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916, identified as R. paski Baylis, 1928, were collected from the intestine of Hydrocynus forskahlii (Cuvier) (Characiformes: Alestidae), Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) and Tilapia zillii (Gervais) (both Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Turkana, Kenya during 2007-2009. Their morphology was studied in detail using light and scanning electron microscopy. Paratypes of R. paski and museum specimens of R. congolensis Campana-Rouget, 1961 from six other host species were examined for comparison. Based on these studies and the available literature data, Rhabdochona congolensis, R. aegyptiaca El-Nafar & Saoud, 1974 (emend.) and R. vesterae Boomker & Petter, 1993 are considered to be junior synonyms of R. paski. The occurrence of this widely distributed African nematode in many fish species belonging to different families and orders suggests that most of them are probably not definitive hosts of this parasite, but only serve as paratenic, paradefinitive or postcyclic hosts (sensu Odening, 1976). True definitive hosts of R. paski appear to be characiform species belonging to some genera (e.g., Alestes, Brycinus, Hydrocynus) of the family Alestidae. PMID:23595492

  17. Philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya, including two new species of Philometra and erection of Afrophilometra gen. n.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Charo-Karisa, Harrison; Jirků, Miloslav

    2009-03-01

    The following four species (only females available) of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) were recorded from freshwater fishes of Lake Turkana, northwestern Kenya in 2007-2008: Philometra bagri (Khalil, 1965) from the subcutaneous tissue around the mouth, on gill covers and the fin base of the bayad Bagrus bajad (Forsskål) (Bagridae: Siluriformes), Philometra lati sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Nile perch Lates niloticus (Linnaeus) (Latidae: Perciformes), Philometra spiriformis sp. n. from capsules on the inner surface of gill covers of L. niloticus and Afrophilometra hydrocyoni (Fahmy, Mandour et El-Nafar, 1976) comb. n. from the fins of Hydrocynus forskahlii (Cuvier) (Alestidae: Characiformes). The new species P. lati is characterized mainly by the presence of distinct oesophageal teeth, absence of large cephalic lobes and caudal projections, and by a combination of other features. Philometra spiriformis differs from all congeners principally in the spirally coiled body and from individual species by a combination of other morphological features. The already known species P. bagri and A. hydrocyoni are redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy; findings of both these species in Kenya represent new geographical records. PMID:19391330

  18. Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

  19. Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the Chinese marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-06-01

    A new species of ascaridoid nematode, Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the intestine of the slender lizardfish Saurida elongata (Temminck et Schlegel) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) in the Yellow Sea, China. The new species differs from its congeners by its small body size (12.8-13.2 mm), the absence of cervical alae, a very short intestinal caecum (representing 8.86-9.52% of oesophageal length) and a long ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:15.3-20.0), short spicules (0.38-0.41 mm, representing 2.97-3.11% of body length), the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae (25-28 pairs arranged as follows: 18-22 pairs precloacal, 3 pairs paracloacal, and 3-4 pairs postcloacal). In addition, Hysterothylacium tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) is also redescribed based on the material collected from the striped marlin Kajikia audax (Philippi) (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the South China Sea. PMID:24827106

  20. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37–39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  1. Structural characterization of carangid fish myoglobins.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Mehedi; Watabe, Shugo; Ochiai, Yoshihiro

    2012-10-01

    The primary structures of myoglobin (Mb) from the following five carangid species were determined: yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata, greater amberjack Seriola dumerili, yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi, Japanese horse mackerel Trachurus japonicus, and silver trevally Pseudocaranx dentex. The sequences were of varying composition both in the coding and in the noncoding regions, but all contained the open reading frame of 444 nucleotides encoding 147 amino acids. Amino acid sequence identities of carangid Mbs were in the range of 81-99%. The similarity of the heme pocket and associated heme-binding residues of carangid Mbs were evidence of the conservative nature of Mbs. Similar to the other teleost Mbs, carangid Mbs did not contain a D helix and had mostly conserved A and E helices as well as E-F and G-H inter-helical segments. Hydropathy profiles of carangid Mbs showed species-specific variations where silver trevally Mb exhibited generally higher hydrophobicity. Phylogenetic analysis based on the primary structures was in agreement with conventional morphological taxonomy, establishing close proximity of carangid Mbs with those of cichlid and scombroid, the other members of the Perciformes order. PMID:22361749

  2. The Kiss2 receptor (Kiss2r) gene in Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii and in Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi - functional analysis and isolation of transcript variants.

    PubMed

    Nocillado, J N; Biran, J; Lee, Y Y; Levavi-Sivan, B; Mechaly, A S; Zohar, Y; Elizur, A

    2012-10-15

    The kisspeptin system plays an essential role in reproductive function in vertebrates, particularly in the onset of puberty. We investigated the kisspeptin system in two Perciform teleosts, the Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT; Thunnus maccoyii), and the Yellowtail Kingfish (YTK; Seriola lalandi), by characterising their kisspeptin 2 receptor (Kiss2r) genes. In addition to the full length Kiss2r cDNA sequences, we have isolated from SBT and YTK a transcript variant that retained an intron. We have further obtained three ytkKiss2r transcript variants that contained deletions. In vitro functional analysis of the full length SBT and YTK Kiss2r showed higher response to Kiss2-10 than to Kiss1-10, with stronger transduction via PKC than PKA. The full length ytkKiss2r and two deletion variants were differentially expressed in the brain of male, but not in female, juvenile YTK treated with increasing doses of Kiss2-10 peptide. In the gonads, the expression level of the ytkKiss2r transcripts did not vary significantly either in the male or female fish. This is the first time that transcript variants of the Kiss2r gene that contain deletions and show responsiveness to treatments with kisspeptin have been reported in any teleost. PMID:22824208

  3. Redescription of Metabronema magnum (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae), a swimbladder parasite of the carangid fish Gnathanodon speciosus off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2007-11-01

    The cystidicolid nematode Metabronema magnum (Taylor, 1925) is redescribed from specimens collected from the swimbladder of the fish (golden trevally) Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål) (Carangidae, Perciformes) off New Caledonia, South Pacific (a new geographical record). The light and scanning electron microscopical examination made it possible to study in detail the morphology of this so far little-known species. Its pseudolabia were found to possess distinct anterior protrusions (protuberances), sublabia are absent, only four cephalic papillae are present, deirids are bifurcated, and the male possesses six pairs of postanal papillae. By its morphology, M. magnum seems to be most similar to species of Salvelinema Trofimenko, 1962, also from the swimbladder of fishes, differing from them mainly in the presence of median wedge-shaped outgrowths in the mouth, lateral alae, the longer spicule on the right side, and a fewer number of pairs of preanal papillae in the male. Since the morphology of M. magnum considerably differs from that of other representatives of the Cystidicolidae, Metabronema in Rasheed's (1966) conception is considered a valid genus. PMID:18303771

  4. A new genus and species of philometrid (Nematoda) from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (Osteichthyes), from the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2008-12-01

    A new genus and species of nematode, Caranginema americanum n. gen., n. sp. (Philometridae), are described from gravid, subgravid, and nongravid female specimens collected from the subcutaneous tissue of the fish (crevalle jack) Caranx hippos (Carangidae, Perciformes) from the coral reef El Cabezo, southern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. Caranginema, assigned to the Philometrinae, differs from other genera of this subfamily mainly in the presence of 2 conspicuous parallel cordons on either side, extending along nearly the entire body length and demarcating narrow smooth lateral fields and in having the remaining body surface with numerous ornamentations forming irregularly scattered, transversely elongated narrow cuticular molds. The new species is characterized mainly by the presence of 3 large, sclerotized esophageal teeth protruded out of the mouth, the number and arrangement of cephalic papillae (8 papillae in 4 pairs of external circle and 4 single papillae of internal circle), the length and structure of the esophagus, and by the body length of gravid and subgravid females (267 and 258 mm, respectively). Caranginema americanum is the seventh philometrid species reported from marine and brackish water fishes in Mexico. PMID:18576858

  5. Ceratomyxa tunisiensis n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from the Gallbladders of Two Carangid Fish Caught Off the Coast of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Aouatef; Mansour, Lamjed; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha

    2016-01-01

    A new coelozoic Myxozoan species, Ceratomyxa tunisiensis n. sp., was found infecting the gallbladders of two carangid fish, Caranx rhonchus and Trachurus trachurus (Perciforme, Carangidae), from the Gulf of Gabès, on the southern coast of Tunisia. The parasite develops in spherical mono-, diplo-, or polysporic tropozoites in the gallbladder of the hosts. Mature spores are typical of the genus Ceratomyxa. They are transversely elongated and narrowly crescent-shaped with a slightly convex anterior and concave posterior, and measure 23 ± 0. 27 (20-25) μm width × 6 ± 0.26 (5-8) μm in length. Spore shell valves are symmetrical with rounded ends. Two spherical polar capsules situated on either side of the sutural line measure 2.2 μm (2.0-3.0) in diam. Periodical sampling of C. rhonchus and T. trachurus from Marsh 2012 to February 2013 showed that infection due to C. tunisiensis occurs in 59% and 69% of the examined fish, respectively. Molecular analysis based on the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequence shows high genetic divergence with all other ceratomyxid species. A Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree shows association with the species C. leatharjecketi Fiala, kova, Kodadkova, Freeman, Bartošova-Sojkova, and Atkinson, 2015 reported from the gallbladder of Aluterusmonoceros (L.) caught in the Andaman Sea, off Malaysia. Nonetheless, the SSU rRNA sequences of C. tunisiensis and C. leatharjecketi have only a 90% similarity. PMID:26194329

  6. Primary structure of solitary form of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in cichlid pituitary; three forms of GnRH in brain of cichlid and pumpkinseed fish.

    PubMed

    Powell, J F; Fischer, W H; Park, M; Craig, A G; Rivier, J E; White, S A; Francis, R C; Fernald, R D; Licht, P; Warby, C

    1995-05-01

    GnRH is a decapeptide family with at least nine distinct structures. Vertebrates, except for most placental mammals, have more than one of these GnRH forms within the brain. We report chromatographical and immunological evidence that three forms of GnRH are in the brains of both cichlid (Haplochromis burtoni) and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) fishes. We argue that the three forms correspond to those previously described as sea bream GnRH (sbGnRH), chicken GnRH-II and salmon GnRH. In contrast, only one GnRH form was present in the pituitary of the cichlid and is identified as sbGnRH by amino acid sequence. This is the first report in which the primary structure of GnRH is determined from pituitary tissue. The N-terminus was identified by monitoring the digestion of the peptide by pyroglutamate aminopeptidase with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The amidation of the C-terminus was established using an esterification procedure for monitoring with MALDI-MS. This report supports the idea that three forms of GnRH within one species is widespread in the order Perciformes. The present study establishes sbGnRH as the third GnRH form in H. burtoni and predicts that sbGnRH is synthesized in preoptic neurons, then transported to the pituitary in the preoptic-hypophyseal axons for the release of one or both gonadotropins. PMID:7644702

  7. Gene flow by larval dispersal in the Antarctic notothenioid fish Gobionotothen gibberifrons.

    PubMed

    Matschiner, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Salzburger, Walter

    2009-06-01

    The diversification of the teleost suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes) in Antarctic waters provides one of the most striking examples of a marine adaptive radiation. Along with a number of adaptations to the cold environment, such as the evolution of antifreeze glycoproteins, notothenioids diversified into eight families and at least 130 species. Here, we investigate the genetic population structure of the humped rockcod (Gobionotothen gibberifrons), a benthic notothenioid fish. Six populations were sampled at different locations around the Scotia Sea, comprising a large part of the species' distribution range (N = 165). Our analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data (352 bp) and eight microsatellite markers reveal a lack of genetic structuring over large geographic distances (Phi(ST) < or = 0.058, F(ST) < or = 0.005, P values nonsignificant). In order to test whether this was due to passive larval dispersal, we used GPS-tracked drifter trajectories, which approximate movement of passive surface particles with ocean currents. The drifter data indicate that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) connects the sampling locations in one direction only (west-east), and that passive transport is possible within the 4-month larval period of G. gibberifrons. Indeed, when applying the isolation-with-migration model in IMA, strong unidirectional west-east migration rates are detected in the humped rockcod. This leads us to conclude that, in G. gibberifrons, genetic differentiation is prevented by gene flow via larval dispersal with the ACC. PMID:19457182

  8. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  9. Molecular and morphological evidence for the widespread distribution of Laticola paralatesi infecting wild and farmed Lates calcarifer in Australia.

    PubMed

    Chotnipat, Soranot; Miller, Terrence L; Knuckey, Richard M; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-04-01

    Infections with monogeneans of the Diplectanidae can limit productivity of and cause considerable health issues for fish in aquaculture. To date, 9 species of diplectanids have been reported from the Asian sea bass or barramundi Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae) in the Asia-Pacific region. This study characterised the diplectanid parasite fauna found infecting wild and farmed barramundi from 5 localities in tropical Australia, including north Queensland and Western Australia. A combination of morphometric and comparative genetic analyses of partial 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) from specimens recovered were used to confirm their identity and to explore relationships with other diplectanids. These data revealed that a single, dominant species of diplectanid, Laticola paralatesi, infects wild and farmed Lates calcarifer in tropical Australia. Laticola lingaoensis Yang, Kritsky, Sun, Jiangying, Shi & Agrawal, 2006 is synonymised with L. seabassi (Wu, Li, Zhu & Xie, 2005) Domingues & Boeger, 2008 based on the combination of the host infected (Lates calcarifer), geographic distribution, distinct morphological similarity, and identical 28S rRNA sequence data identified here. Laticola seabassi is now designated as the type species of Laticola due to nomenclatural priority. PMID:25850397

  10. Redescription of Philometra globiceps (Rudolphi, 1819) (Nematoda: Philometridae), the type species of Philometra Costa, 1845, including the first data obtained by SEM.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Tedesco, Perla

    2015-12-01

    A redescription of Philometra globiceps (Rudolphi 1819), the type species of Philometra Costa 1845 (Philometridae), is provided on the basis of specimens collected from the gonads, stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine and gallbladder of the marine fish Uranoscopus scaber Linnaeus (Uranoscopidae, Perciformes) caught in the Ionian Sea off Ugento, southern Italy. Light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical examinations (latter used for the first time in this species) of the specimens revealed some previously unreported morphological features, such as the location of submedian pairs of cephalic papillae of external circle on four elevated cuticular lobes in gravid females, the presence of amphids, genital papillae and phasmids in males, the lamellate structure of the distal end of gubernaculum appearing as a dorsal protuberance in lateral view and the structure of the male caudal end. A taxonomically important feature of P. globiceps is the details in the dorsal transverse lamella-like structures on the distal end of the gubernaculum, by which this species can be separated from other gonad-infecting species of this genus. Apparently, P. globiceps is a specific parasite of U. scaber and all previous records of this species from hosts belonging to other fish families are evidently based on misidentifications. PMID:26319523

  11. A RAD-Tag Genetic Map for the Platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) Reveals Mechanisms of Karyotype Evolution Among Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3–40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24–25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years. PMID:24700104

  12. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species. PMID:23724731

  13. Nippotaenia mogurndae Yamaguti et Myiata, 1940 (Cestoda, Nippotaeniidea): first data on spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Bílý, Tomáš; Nebesářová, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon ultrastructure of the cestode Nippotaenia mogurndae Yamaguti et Myiata, 1940 (Nippotaeniidea), a parasite of Perccottus glenii Dubowski, 1877 (Perciformes: Odontobutidae), have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) for glycogen, and electron tomography. The process of spermatozoon formation is characterised by the presence of (1) two centrioles without typical striated rootlets, (2) a single intercentriolar body, (3) a flagellar rotation (free flagellum plus flagellar bud), and (4) a complete proximodistal fusion. The mature spermatozoon of N. mogurndae contains a single helicoidal crested body, one axoneme of the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan structure, parallel cortical microtubules arranged in a ring in the anterior region of the cell, and a spiraled nucleus encircling the axoneme. Intracellular components are situated in a moderately electron-dense cytoplasm, containing glycogen in the principal regions (II, III, IV) of the spermatozoon. Application of electron tomography has revealed a helicoidal nature of the central electron-dense core in the central cylinder of the axoneme in parasitic cestodes for the first time. The patterns of spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure resemble most closely those in mesocestoidids and may reflect the relationships between Nippotaeniidea and Mesocestoididae. PMID:25653030

  14. Metabolic rates in an anadromous clupeid, the American shad (Alosa sapidissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, J.B.K.; Norieka, J.F.; Kynard, B.; McCormick, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the energetics of migration in an anadromous fish, adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima) were swum in a large respirometer at a range of speeds (1.0-2.3 body lengths (BL) s-1, 13-24 ??C). Metabolic rate (M(O2)) was logarithmically related to swimming speed (Bl s-1; r2 = 0.41, slope = 0.23 ?? 0.037) and tailbeat frequency (beats x min-1; r2 = 0.52, slope = 0.003 ?? 0.0003). Temperature had a significant effect on metabolic rate (r2 = 0.41) with a Q10 of 2.2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR), determined directly after immobilization with the neuroblocker gallamine triethiodide, ranged from 2.2-6.2 mmolO2 kg-1 h-1 and scaled with mass (W) such that SMR = 4.0 (??0.03)W(0.695(??0.15)). Comparison of directly determined and extrapolated SMR suggests that swimming respirometry provides a good estimate of SMR in this species, given the differences in basal activity monitored by the two methods. Overall, American shad metabolic rates (M(O2) and SMR) were intermediate between salmonids and fast-swimming perciforms, including tunas, and may be a result of evolutionary adaptation to their active pelagic, schooling life history. This study demonstrates variability in metabolic strategy among anadromous fishes that may be important to understanding the relative success of different migratory species under varying environmental conditions.

  15. Input data for inferring species distributions in Kyphosidae world-wide.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall D

    2016-09-01

    Input data files for inferring the relationship among the family Kyphosidae, as presented in (Knudsen and Clements, 2016) [1], is here provided together with resulting topologies, to allow the reader to explore the topologies in detail. The input data files comprise seven nexus-files with sequence alignments of mtDNA and nDNA markers for performing Bayesian analysis. A matrix of recoded character states inferred from the morphology examined in museum specimens representing Dichistiidae, Girellidae, Kyphosidae, Microcanthidae and Scorpididae, is also provided, and can be used for performing a parsimonious analysis to infer the relationship among these perciform families. The nucleotide input data files comprise both multiple and single representatives of the various species to allow for inference of the relationship among the species in Kyphosidae and between the families closely related to Kyphosidae. The '.xml'-files with various constrained relationships among the families potentially closely related to Kyphosidae are also provided to allow the reader to rerun and explore the results from the stepping-stone analysis. The resulting topologies are supplied in newick-file formats together with input data files for Bayesian analysis, together with '.xml'-files. Re-running the input data files in the appropriate software, will enable the reader to examine log-files and tree-files themselves. PMID:27508256

  16. Closely Related Fishes Inhabiting Different Ecosystems Exhibit the Same Oocyte Production and Recruitment Pattern.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eudriano F S; Dias, June F; Murua, Hilario

    2016-04-01

    Information on oocyte production and recruitment in phylogenetically related species can help in understanding the evolution of reproductive life-history traits in fish of indeterminate fecundity. The present study compared, for the first time, oocyte production and recruitment patterns between two closely related species: Stellifer brasiliensis and Stellifer rastrifer (Perciformes, Sciaenidae), in the southwestern Atlantic, Brazil. Specimens of S. brasiliensis were sampled from the coastal waters of Ubatuba, and samples of S. rastrifer were taken from the Cananéia Lagoon Estuarine System. Ovaries were investigated using histology and model-based stereology. The total number of oocytes per individual (N) and stage-specific oocyte packing density did not differ significantly between S. brasiliensis and S. rastrifer The number of pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes were positively correlated with female total weight and length, and ovary weight in both species. Analysis of oocyte recruitment across their development stages revealed that approximately 5.9% of the standing stock oocytes larger than 50 μm in S. brasiliensis and 5.0% in S. rastrifer were recruited to form the next batches. Females of S. brasiliensis and S. rastrifer, in spawning-capable phase, exhibit the same oocyte production and recruitment patterns, showing no influences of the ecosystems on primary and secondary oocyte production. PMID:27132132

  17. Genetic identification of bucktooth parrotfish Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes, 1840) (Labridae, Scarinae) by chromosomal and molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Paim, Fabilene Gomes; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Sampaio, Iracilda; de Mello Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Diniz, Débora

    2014-01-01

    Parrotfishes (Labridae, Scarinae) comprise a large marine fish group of difficult identification, particularly during juvenile phase when the typical morphology and coloration of adults are absent. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test cytogenetic markers and DNA barcoding in the identification of bucktooth parrtotfish Sparisoma radians from the northeastern coast of Brazil. Sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) confirmed all studied samples as S. radians, and all showed high similarity (99–100%) with Caribbean populations. The karyotype of this species was divergent from most marine Perciformes, being composed of 2n = 46 chromosomes. These consisted of a large number of metacentric and submetacentric pairs with small amounts of heterochromatin and GC-rich single nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) not syntenic to 5S rDNA clusters. These are the first data about DNA barcoding in parrotfish from the Brazilian province and the first refined chromosomal analysis in Scarinae, providing useful data to a reliable genetic identification of S. radians. PMID:25505839

  18. Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families

    PubMed Central

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

  19. Linking the genomes of nonmodel teleosts through comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Sarropoulou, E; Nousdili, D; Magoulas, A; Kotoulas, G

    2008-01-01

    Recently the genomes of two more teleost species have been released: the medaka (Oryzias latipes), and the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculateus). The rapid developments in genomics of fish species paved the way to new and valuable research in comparative genetics and genomics. With the accumulation of information in model species, the genetic and genomic characterization of nonmodel, but economically important species, is now feasible. Furthermore, comparison of low coverage gene maps of aquacultured fish species against fully sequenced fish species will enhance the efficiency of candidate genes identification projected for quantitative trait loci (QTL) scans for traits of commercial interest. This study shows the syntenic relationship between the genomes of six different teleost species, including three fully sequenced model species: Tetraodon nigroviridis, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculateus, and three marine species of commercial and evolutionary interest: Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax, Oreochromis spp. All three commercial fish species belong to the order Perciformes, which is the richest in number of species (approximately 10,000) but poor in terms of available genomic information and tools. Syntenic relationships were established by using 800 EST and microsatellites sequences successfully mapped on the RH map of seabream. Comparison to the stickleback genome produced most positive BLAT hits (58%) followed by medaka (32%) and Tetraodon (30%). Thus, stickleback was used as the major stepping stone to compare seabass and tilapia to seabream. In addition to the significance for the aquaculture industry, this approach can encompass important ecological and evolutionary implications. PMID:18297360

  20. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. PMID:27615321

  1. Suction among pickers: jaw mechanics, dietary breadth and feeding behaviour in beach-spawning Leuresthes spp. compared with their relatives.

    PubMed

    Higgins, B A; Horn, M H

    2014-06-01

    Jaw mechanics and dietary breadth in California grunion Leuresthes tenuis and Gulf grunion Leuresthes sardina were compared with three other members of the tribe Atherinopsini to test whether these two species have evolved a novel jaw protrusion that might be associated with feeding narrowly on abundant prey near spawning beaches. Quantitative comparison of cleared-and-stained specimens of five members of the atherinopsine clade showed that, compared with false grunion Colpichthys regis, topsmelt Atherinops affinis and jacksmelt Atherinopsis californiensis, L. tenuis and L. sardina have longer, more downwardly directed premaxillary protrusion, expanded dentary and premaxillary bones, greater lower jaw rotation and larger premaxilla-vomer separation. Leuresthes tenuis showed greater differences than L. sardina in these features. Comparison of the gut contents of L. tenuis and A. affinis with zooplankton samples collected simultaneously with these fishes in the water column within 1 km of shore showed that, as predicted, L. tenuis fed predominantly on mysid crustaceans and had a narrower diet than A. affinis. High-speed video analysis showed that L. tenuis exhibits a mean time to maximum jaw protrusion c. 2.5 times shorter than that of A. affinis. The grunion sister species, especially L. tenuis, have evolved suction feeding that may allow efficient feeding on common, evasive prey near spawning sites. The morphological traits seen in both species of Leuresthes signify a marked difference from their closest relatives in prey capture and suggest a type of jaw protrusion not yet seen in cyprinodontiforms or perciforms. PMID:24787078

  2. Experimental and computational study of inter- and intra- species specificity of gonadotropins for various gonadotropin receptors.

    PubMed

    Aizen, Joseph; Kowalsman, Noga; Kobayashi, Makito; Hollander, Lian; Sohn, Young Chang; Yoshizaki, Goro; Niv, Masha Y; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2012-11-25

    The gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and their receptors play critical roles in vertebrate reproduction. In order to study intra- and interspecies ligand promiscuity of gonadotropins, COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with one of the gonadotropin receptor genes, FSHR or LHR, and tested for activation by gonadotropins from representative fish orders: Aquilliformes (eel; e), Salmoniformes (trout; tr), and Perciformes (tilapia; ta), and of mammalian origin: porcine (p), bovine (b) and human (h). The study reveals complex relations between the gonadotropin hormones and their receptors. Each gonadotropin activated its own cognate receptor. However, taLHR was also activated by hCG and eLHR was activated by hFSH, hCG, and trFSH. For FSHR, the only cross-reactivity detected was for hFSHR, which was activated by pFSH and bFSH. These findings are of great interest and applicability in the context of activation of various GTHRs by their ligands and by ligands from other vertebrates. Analysis of the three-dimensional models of the structures highlights the importance of residues outside of the currently established hormone-receptor interface region. In addition, the interface residues in taFSHR and the effect of exon duplication, which causes an insert in the LRR domain, are suggested to affect the interaction and binding of taFSH. PMID:22954681

  3. Characterization, molecular cloning, and expression analysis of Ecsit in the spinyhead croaker, Collichthys lucidus.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Jiang, K J; Zhang, F Y; Wang, J; Ma, L B

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (Ecsit) is reported to play an essential role in innate immunity, embryogenesis, and assembly or stability of the mitochondrial complex I. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Ecsit was cloned from the spinyhead croaker Collichthys lucidus based on the expressed sequence tags from our cDNA library constructed using the SMART technique. The cDNA was 1669 bp long, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 121 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 183 bp, and an open reading frame of 1365 bp encoding a 454-amino acid polypeptide. The estimated molecular weight of C. lucidus Ecsit (ClEcsit) was 52.50 kDa with an isoelectric point of 6.14, and contained a typical Ecsit domain that is conserved in other Ecsits. Multiple alignment of ClEcsit with other selected Ecsits suggested that some amino acid residues were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ClEcsit was more similar to its identities in Sciaenidae and grouped with Ecsits from other Perciformes. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed broad expression of ClEcsit and the transcript was strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in other tissues. PMID:26909903

  4. Fish gills alterations as potential biomarkers of environmental quality in a eutrophized tropical river in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A A; Araújo, F G; Gomes, I D; Mendes, R M M; Sales, A

    2012-06-01

    Gill anomalies in three common fish species of different taxonomic order, habitat dwelling and feeding habits (one Characiformes, Oligosarcus hepsetus; one Siluriformes, Hypostomus auroguttatus; and one Perciformes, Geophagus brasiliensis) from a eutrophized tropical river in south-eastern in Brazil were compared. The aim of this study was to search for sentinel species that could be used as potential biomarkers of environmental quality. Most fish had gills with histological changes, namely epithelial lifting, interstitial oedema, leucocyte infiltration, hyperplasia of the epithelial cells, lamellar fusion, vasodilatation and necrosis. On the other hand, lamellar blood congestion and lamellar aneurysm, which are more serious and often irreversible changes, were recorded for the water column carnivorous O. hepsetus and, to a lesser extent, for the bottom-dwelling detritivorous H. auroguttatus. A histopathological alteration index (HAI) based on the occurrence and severity of gills anomalies indicated that O. hepsetus (mean score = 11.4) had significantly higher values (Kruskall-Wallis H(2,41) = 15.95, P = 0.0003) compared with G. brasiliensis (mean score = 7.0). Overall, the omnivorous G. brasiliensis had comparatively lesser occurrence of most gill anomalies compared with other two species, being less suitable as biomarker of environmental quality. In contrast, the water column-dweller O. hepsetus (water column) and the bottom-dweller H. auroguttatus had gills most susceptible to changes, making them more suitable for using as histological biomarkers of the environmental quality in entrophized tropical rivers. PMID:22211803

  5. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  6. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25236267

  7. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae. PMID:24699571

  8. Histopathology of a mesoparasitic hatschekiid copepod in hospite: does Mihbaicola sakamakii (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) fast within the host fish tissue?

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-08-01

    Mihbaicola sakamakii is a mesoparasitic copepod that infests the branchiostegal membranes of groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae). In this study, we observed M. sakamakii within host tissue. Histologically, copepods were found enclosed inside a pouch composed of the thickened epidermis of the host, tightly encased on all sides by the host epidermal pouch wall. There were no host blood cells or other food resources in the pouch lumen. Since the host epidermis was intact and continuous, even in the vicinity of the oral region of the parasite, the copepod would not have access to the host blood in this state. However, the stomach (ampullary part of the mid gut) was filled with granular components, the majority of which were crystalloids that likely originated from fish erythrocyte hemoglobin. We supposed that the parasite drinks blood exuded from the lesion in the fish caused by copepod entry into the host tissue. Invasion of the parasite may elicit immune responses in the host, but there were no traces on the copepod of any cellular immune reactions, such as encapsulation. The array of minute protuberances on the copepod cuticle surface may be involved in avoidance of cell adhesion. After the lesion has healed, the copepod is enclosed in a tough epidermal pouch, in which it gradually digests the contents of its stomach and continues egg production. PMID:25088597

  9. Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) and Parachromis managuensis (Cichlidae): A Threat to Native Fishes of the Doce River in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Lucas C.; Santos, Udson; Zanuncio, José C.; Dergam, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    The middle section of the lake basin of the Doce River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil is plagued by grave environmental problems, including the introduction of non-native fish, which reduces the biodiversity of this region. This study reports the presence of two newly-detected non-native species in the Doce River Basin. Sampling efforts included gill nets with mesh size of 3 to 12 mm (measured diagonally) and trawling nets, both of which were used in independent field campaigns in 2002 and 2011. The two new invasive Perciform fishes, Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) and Parachromis managuensis (Günther 1867) were collected in Caratinga and Rio Doce municipalities. These records and other reports on non-native fishes suggest favorable environmental conditions for the establishment of invasive species in this drainage. These invasive species have behavior and diet observed in other wide distribution exotic fish of Rio Doce Basin representing a threat to the 77 native fishes of this region, 37 of which are endangered. PMID:22720053

  10. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with differential body size in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi).

    PubMed

    Tian, Changxu; Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Guo, Wenjie; Lv, Liyuan; Wang, Qingchao; Song, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Body size is an obvious and important characteristic of fish. Mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) is one of the most valuable perciform species widely cultured in China. Individual differences in body size are common in mandarin fish and significantly influence the aquaculture production. However, little is currently known about its genetic control. In this study, digital gene expression profiling and transcriptome sequencing were performed in mandarin fish with differential body size at 30 and 180 days post-hatch (dph), respectively. Body weight, total length and body length of fish with big-size were significantly higher than those with small-size at both 30 and 180 dph (P < 0.05). 2171 and 2014 differentially expressed genes were identified between small-size and big-size fish at 30 and 180 dph, respectively. RT quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the differential expression of 10 selected genes in mandarin fish that went through the same training procedure. The genes were involved in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis, cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, glucose metabolism, reproduction and sexual size dimorphism pathways. This study will help toward a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of regulation of body size in mandarin fish individuals and provide valuable information for future research. PMID:27393605

  11. Morphology, histology and phylogeny of Henneguya sinova sp. nov. (Myxobolidae: Myxozoa) infecting gills of Parablennius tentacularis in the Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özer, A; Özkan, H; Gürkanlı, C T; Yurakhno, V; Çiftçi, Y

    2016-03-30

    Myxosporeans of the genus Henneguya have a global distribution and infect organs and tissues of both marine and freshwater fishes. Here we describe the morphological, histological and molecular characteristics of Henneguya sinova sp. nov. parasitizing the gill arches of tentacled blenny Parablennius tentacularis (Perciformes: Blenniidae) collected from the coast of Sinop on the Black Sea in Turkey. Several oval whitish plasmodia of different sizes in the gill arches of fish were found. The mature spores were rounded oval in frontal view, with a mean (range) total length 57.5 (51.5-68.0) µm; the spore body was 11.7 (11.3-12.0) µm in length by 7.6 (7.3-8.3) µm in width and 6.7 (6.6-6.8) µm in thickness. The caudal appendages, measuring 46.0 (40.0-55.0) µm in length, were very thin at the tapered end. The prevalence of infection by H. sinova sp. nov. was 35.5%. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) clearly suggested H. sinova as a new species which is clustered within the marine Henneguya lineage. Pairwise nucleotide similarities and DNA distance values of SSU rDNA between H. sinova sp. nov. and other related Henneguya species also supported this suggestion. PMID:27025308

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Black-spot tuskfish (Choerodon schoenleinii).

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Li, Wenshen; Luo, Jian; Chen, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    Choerodon schoenleinii, a critically endangered ocean fish, is also a highly prized commercial fish. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of C. schoenleinii based on NGS. The length of C. schoenleinii mitochondrial genome is 16,504 bp which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a D-loop. The gene order and the composition of mitochondrial genome in C. schoenleinii were similar to other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 28.23% of A, 30.51% of C,24.04% of T, and 17.22% of G. Except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, the rest of mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The construction of phylogenetic trees based on the entire mitochondrial genome sequence of 11 Perciformes species constructed by the NJ method has suggested that the Choerodon schoenleinii has closer relationship to the Chlorurus sordidus, Scarus ruborviolaceus, Scarus forsteri, and Scarus schlegeli, and that they constitute a sister group. PMID:26016881

  13. Mitogenome metadata: current trends and proposed standards.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Jeff H T; Gwiazdowski, Rodger A; Hanner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Mitogenome metadata are descriptive terms about the sequence, and its specimen description that allow both to be digitally discoverable and interoperable. Here, we review a sampling of mitogenome metadata published in the journal Mitochondrial DNA between 2005 and 2014. Specifically, we have focused on a subset of metadata fields that are available for GenBank records, and specified by the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) and other biodiversity metadata standards; and we assessed their presence across three main categories: collection, biological and taxonomic information. To do this we reviewed 146 mitogenome manuscripts, and their associated GenBank records, and scored them for 13 metadata fields. We also explored the potential for mitogenome misidentification using their sequence diversity, and taxonomic metadata on the Barcode of Life Datasystems (BOLD). For this, we focused on all Lepidoptera and Perciformes mitogenomes included in the review, along with additional mitogenome sequence data mined from Genbank. Overall, we found that none of 146 mitogenome projects provided all the metadata we looked for; and only 17 projects provided at least one category of metadata across the three main categories. Comparisons using mtDNA sequences from BOLD, suggest that some mitogenomes may be misidentified. Lastly, we appreciate the research potential of mitogenomes announced through this journal; and we conclude with a suggestion of 13 metadata fields, available on GenBank, that if provided in a mitogenomes's GenBank record, would increase their research value. PMID:25693692

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the black surfperch, Embiotoca jacksoni: Selection and substitution rates among surfperches (Embiotocidae).

    PubMed

    Longo, Gary C; O'Connell, Brendan; Green, Richard E; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2016-08-01

    The complete 16,515bp nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome was determined for the black surfperch, Embiotoca jacksoni (Perciformes: Embiotocidae). The black surfperch mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and the non-coding control region (D-loop), the gene order of which is identical to that observed in most vertebrates. The protein-coding gene sequences of E. jacksoni mitochondrial DNA were compared with two other embiotocid surfperches with available complete mitochondrial genomes, Cymatogaster aggregata and Ditrema temminckii. Across all mitochondrial protein-coding genes in surfperches the weighted average substitution rate was 2.079% per My and average dN/dS ratios for each protein-coding gene ranged from 0.016 in CytB to 0.608 in ND3. Substitution rates and dN/dS ratios were relatively high for ATP8 compared to other protein-coding genes. Although most protein-coding genes showed signals of purifying selection, we found evidence for positive selection in ND3 in E. jacksoni. PMID:26994927

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cherskii's sculpin (Cottus czerskii) (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomin; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Shuai; Xu, Chunzhu

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Cherskii's sculpin (Cottus czerskii) is determined using long PCR. The genome is 16,534 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (26.4%), C (30.1%), T (26.1%) and G (17.5%). The control region is 857 bp in length and the A + T content of the region is 61.5%. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Cherskii's sculpin. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees, indicating a close phylogenetic affinity of the 21 Actinopterygii species. It appears that no less than two major phyletic lineages were present in Actinopterygii. The main clades within the Perciformes and Scorpaeniformes supported are: a clade including the Scombridae, Kyphosidae and Percichthyidae; a clade (Cottidae) with the Trichodontidae as the sister taxon to Pholidae, Anarhichadidae and Zoarcidae, which was supported by bootstrap values of 92%. The five Cottus species formed a paraphyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100%) in all examinations. PMID:26024130

  16. Description of free-living marine nematodes found in the intestine of fishes from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, Joaquín; Ruiz-Cuenca, Alba N; Fernandes, Berenice M M; Cohen, Simone C; Cárdenas, Melissa Q

    2015-01-01

    The marine nematodes usually comprise free-living species, although a few are parasitic. However, several cases of free-living nematodes found accidentally in the digestive tract of certain vertebrates, especially fishes, have sometimes been recorded and categorized as pseudoparasites. In the present work, two species of marine fishes, the rhomboid crappie, Diapterus rhombeus, and the silvered crappie, Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), from Angra dos Reis on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were examined. Seven species of free-living marine nematodes were found in the digestive tract of these fish. Several of these species remain unknown as free-living forms in Brazil. The combination of the fish feeding strategies and the poor preservation of the body of the nematode specimens found could indicate that these nematodes are pseudoparasites, appearing in the fishes' digestive tracts through accidental ingestion and thereafter surviving for brief periods of time. Descriptions, illustrations and tables of measurements are provided for all species. Six of these species (Croconema torquens, Dorylaimopsis pellucida, Oncholaimellus labiatus, Parodontophora breviamphida, Prooncholaimus ornatus, Trissonchulus latus) have been reported for the first time from the Brazilian coast. PMID:25947787

  17. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species. PMID:22650431

  18. A new species of Heteronybelinia (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from Sympterygia bonapartii (Rajidae), Nemadactylus bergi (Cheilodactylidae) and Raneya brasiliensis (Ophidiidae) in the south-western Atlantic, with comments on host specificity of the genus.

    PubMed

    Menoret, A; Ivanov, V A

    2013-12-01

    Adults and plerocercoids of a new species of Heteronybelinia (Trypanorhyncha, Tentaculariidae) were recovered from the skate Sympterygia bonapartii (Rajiformes: Rajidae) and two species of teleosts, Raneya brasiliensis (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae) and Nemadactylus bergi (Perciformes: Cheilodactylidae), respectively. Heteronybelinia mattisi n. sp. differs from its congeners in its possession of a tentacular armature consisting of hooks with slight differences in size and shape on opposite surfaces of the tentacle (uncinate with rounded bases on the bothrial surface and uncinate with elongate bases on the antibothrial surface), without a characteristic basal armature, hooks increasing in size toward the tip of the tentacles, and pars bothrialis slightly overlapping with bulbs. The description of Heteronybelinia is emended regarding the distribution of testes to include species without postovarian testes (H. palliata and H. mattisi), and without testes anterior to cirrus sac on the poral side (H. robusta and H. mattisi). Host data are summarized for all 15 valid species of Heteronybelinia. Host specificity of adults and plerocercoids of Heteronybelinia is variable among species, the adults being more host specific than the plerocercoids. With the exception of H. mattisi, the definitive hosts of all species of Heteronybelinia for which adults are known include carcharhiniform sharks. Heteronybelinia mattisi seems to have oioxenous specificity for its definitive batoid host, S. bonapartii, and to be more specific for the intermediate hosts than most of its congeners. PMID:23072730

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus).

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Jing, Yan-Juan; Song, Hong-Mei; Bai, Jun-Jie; Ma, Dongmei; Ye, Xin

    2014-02-01

    The green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) is a species of freshwater fish in the Centrarchidae family of order Perciformes, which is native to a wide area of North America. This species was introduced into China in 1998 and became one of the economically important freshwater species. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. cyanellus. The total length of L. cyanellus mitogenome is 16,485 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop), with the genome organization and gene order being identical to that of the typical vertebrate. The overall base compositions of the heavy strand are 27.5% A, 26.2% T, 29.9% C, and 16.4% G, with an A + T content of 53.7%. The mitochondrial genome of L. cyanellus shared 86.8% sequence identity with that of Lepomis macrochirus. The sequence information presented here will be useful for evolutionary as well as population genetic studied. PMID:23841601

  20. The protective effect of vitamin E against changes in fatty acid composition of phospholipid subclasses in gill tissue of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Elif Ipek; Bayar, Ahmet Serhat; Kizmaz, Veysi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of deltamethrin on the fatty acid composition of phospholipid subclasses (phosphatidylchlonine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositole (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS)) in gill tissue of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) and the possible protective effect of vitamin E against deltamethrin were determined by gas chromatography. The changes in the fatty acid profile were analysed after 14 d of exposure. Treatments included Group I (fed with basal diet only), Group II (fed with vitamin E-supplemented diet), Group III (fed with basal diet and exposed to deltamethrin) and Group IV (fed with vitamin E-supplemented diet and exposed to deltamethrin). The effects of deltamethrin on PI, PE and PS were valid for the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The effect on PC was detected in total SFAs and total PUFAs. The vitamin E-supplemented diet did not show complete protective effect on fatty acid composition of the fish exposed to deltamethrin. However, the protective effect was observed in total SFAs, total MUFAs and total PUFAs in PC. In PI, protective effect was only recorded on total PUFAs. There was no protective effect in PS and PE. The results of the present study demonstrated that deltametrin exposure had harmful effects on cell membrane and treatment with vitamin E could only partially protect fish gills. PMID:26766025

  1. Fisheries Oceanography in the Virgin Islands: Preliminary Results from a Collaborative Research Endeavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. H.; Gerard, T. L.; Johns, E. M.; Lamkin, J. T.

    2008-05-01

    A multi-species spawning aggregation located on the banks south of St. Thomas includes several economically important fish species, including dog snapper, yellowfin grouper, Nassau grouper, and tiger grouper. Increased fishing pressure on these banks has prompted the Caribbean Fisheries Council to take actions such as seasonally closing fishing grounds and establishing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Due to a lack of biological and oceanographic data for the region, these management decisions have been based on professional judgment rather than scientific data. In response to this situation, NOAA scientists from SEFSC and AOML began an interdisciplinary field study in the region in 2007. Research cruises utilize biological sampling techniques such as MOCNESS, neuston, and bongo trawl tows simultaneously with standard physical sampling methods such as CTD/LADCP casts, hull- mounted water velocity measurements, and Lagrangian drifter deployments. The three year project aims to determine how the unprotected banks of the Virgin Islands and surrounding region, the seasonally closed banks and MPAs, and near-shore areas are ecologically linked in terms of larval dispersal, transport, and life history patterns. This collaboration should produce an assessment, based on scientific data, of the effectiveness of Caribbean Research Council management decisions and suggest modifications and improvements to current policy. Additionally, this project will also provide fisheries independent data, and develop ecological indices which can be integrated into stock assessment models. Analysis of data gathered during the project's first research cruise is yielding preliminary results. A total of 26,809 fish larvae were collected from the Grammanik and Red Hind Banks and surrounding regions. Of this total, 585 Serranidae (grouper) and 93 Lutjanidae (snapper) larval specimens were collected. Typical sampling transects included near-shore, shelf-break, and offshore regimes. The most

  2. Characteristic ichthyoplankton taxa in the separation zone of the East Australian Current: Larval assemblages as tracers of coastal mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahailatua, Augy; Roughan, Moninya; Suthers, Iain M.

    2011-03-01

    Ichthyoplankton assemblages were compared between regions dominated by the oligotrophic East Australian Current (EAC) and the inner-shelf waters off southeastern Australia, to determine if the early life history of fish was related to the separation of the EAC from the coast, producing different water masses as well as characteristic taxa. Samples were collected at the surface and in sub-surface waters, at 50 and 100 m isobath stations, during two summer research voyages in November 1998 and January 1999. On both voyages the study region was characterized by coastal and EAC waters in the north (˜31°S), and in the south by topographically induced upwelling (˜31°S), associated with narrowing of the continental shelf and separation of the EAC from the coast. Among the 111 families of larval fish, we observed distinctive assemblages of ichthyoplankton associated with the two different water masses. A greater abundance of the Carangidae, Labridae, Lutjanidae, Microcanthidae, Myctophidae and Scombridae was associated with the nutrient poor EAC water mass, while the Callionymidae, Clupeidae, Platycephalidae and Sillaginidae were mostly found in the cooler and/or fresher inner-shelf water mass. We assessed these patterns with opportunistic samples from an unusual, wind-driven upwelling event in the north (˜31°S) earlier in the November voyage. The relative abundance of these 10 characteristic families distinguished this wind-driven upwelling event from the subsequent relaxation and predominance of the EAC assemblage at this location just 6 d later. Distinctive and abundant families such as larval clupeids, relative to larval carangids, could be a useful marker of inner-shelf, EAC and mixed water masses in the absence of robust hydrographic data. This and related studies indicate contrast in early life histories of Sardinops sagax and Trachurus spp., which appear to spawn respectively in the inner-shelf and outer-shelf waters. The post-flexion stages of S. sagax

  3. Diversity and distribution of fishes in tropical estuary Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jalal, K C A; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Arshad, A; Ara, R; Rahman, M F

    2012-06-15

    A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H') was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30 degrees C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm(-1)), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L(-1)), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L(-1)), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 microg L(-1)), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L(-1)), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L(-1)), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the

  4. Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n = 297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 °C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in demersal fish (the range was from 0.173 to 2.537 mg/kg in dried weight) compared to pelagic fish (which ranged from 0.055 to 2.137 mg/kg in dried weight). The mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537 ± 0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492 ± 0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465 ± 0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher mercury levels compared to other groups. Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563 ± 0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521 ± 0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380 ± 0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p = 0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p < 0.002) in bigger fish (body length >20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish. PMID:25256581

  5. Seagrass ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gullström, Martin; de la Torre Castro, Maricela; Bandeira, Salomão; Björk, Mats; Dahlberg, Mattis; Kautsky, Nils; Rönnbäck, Patrik; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Seagrasses are marine angiosperms widely distributed in both tropical and temperate coastal waters creating one of the most productive aquatic ecosystems on earth. In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, with its 13 reported seagrass species, these ecosystems cover wide areas of near-shore soft bottoms through the 12 000 km coastline. Seagrass beds are found intertidally as well as subtidally, sometimes down to about 40 m, and do often occur in close connection to coral reefs and mangroves. Due to the high primary production and a complex habitat structure, seagrass beds support a variety of benthic, demersal and pelagic organisms. Many fish and shellfish species, including those of commercial interest, are attracted to seagrass habitats for foraging and shelter, especially during their juvenile life stages. Examples of abundant and widespread fish species associated to seagrass beds in the WIO belong to the families Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Centriscidae, Gerreidae, Gobiidae, Labridae, Lethrinidae Lutjanidae, Monacanthidae, Scaridae, Scorpaenidae, Siganidae, Syngnathidae and Teraponidae. Consequently, seagrass ecosystems in the WIO are valuable resources for fisheries at both local and regional scales. Still, seagrass research in the WIO is scarce compared to other regions and it is mainly focusing on botanic diversity and ecology. This article reviews the research status of seagrass beds in the WIO with particular emphasis on fish and fisheries. Most research on this topic has been conducted along the East African coast, i.e. in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and eastern South Africa, while less research was carried out in Somalia and the Island States of the WIO (Seychelles, Comoros, Reunion (France), Mauritius and Madagascar). Published papers on seagrass fish ecology in the region are few and mainly descriptive. Hence, there is a need of more scientific knowledge in the form of describing patterns and processes through both field and experimental work

  6. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  7. Distribution of fish in seagrass, mangroves and coral reefs: life-stage dependent habitat use in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Jaxion-Harm, Jessica; Saunders, James; Speight, Martin R

    2012-06-01

    Many coral reef fish exhibit habitat partitioning throughout their lifetimes. Such patterns are evident in the Caribbean where research has been predominantly conducted in the Eastern region. This work addressed the paucity of data regarding Honduran reef fish distribution in three habitat types (seagrass, mangroves, and coral reefs), by surveying fish on the islands of Utila and Cayos Cochinos off the coast of Honduras (part of the Mesoamerican barrier reef). During July 2nd - Aug 27th 2007 and June 22nd - Aug 17th, 2008, visual surveys (SCUBA and snorkel) were performed in belt transects in different areas: eleven coral reef, six seagrass beds, and six mangroves sites. Juvenile densities and total habitat surface area were used to calculate nursery value of seagrass and mangroves. A total of 113 fish species from 32 families were found during underwater surveys. Multi-dimensional analyses revealed distinct clusters of fish communities in each habitat type by separating fish associated with seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs. Coral reefs showed the highest mean fish species richness and were dominated by adult fish, while juvenile fish characterized seagrass beds and mangrove sites. Habitat use differed widely at the fish species level. Scarus iseri (Striped Parrotfish), the most abundant fish in this study, were found in all three habitat types, while Lutjanus apodus (Schoolmaster Snapper) juveniles were located primarily in mangroves before migrating to coral reefs. Many species used seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries; however, the nursery value could not be generalized at the family level. Furthermore, for some fish species, nursery value varied between islands and sites. Our results suggest that connectivity of seagrass, mangrove, and coral reef sites at a species and site levels, should be taken into consideration when implementing policy and conservation practices. PMID:23894938

  8. The role of Thalassoma lunare as a predator of juvenile fish on a sub-tropical coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. H.; Wilson, S. K.; Vanderklift, M.; Babcock, R.; Fraser, M.

    2012-12-01

    The process of predation causes significant mortality in coral reef fishes immediately following settlement. However, much of what we know of predator identity is based on a small number of detailed studies. This study aims to identify the key predator of early juvenile coral reef fishes on Ningaloo Reef, North-Western Australia. Video cameras were used to observe patch reefs stocked with newly settled reef fish in the back-reef area between 12:00 and 20:30 h. The cameras were fitted with >610 nm light sources to allow observation in low light conditions. All strikes (attempted and successful) on newly settled fish were recorded, along with the time spent in the vicinity of experimental patch reefs with or without juvenile fish. A total of 69 strikes were observed over the 199 h of recorded video footage, with the majority of strikes occurring mid-afternoon between 13:00 and 15:30 h. Only one strike was observed during the twilight period, an hour either side of sunset (~18:45 h), and no strikes were observed after this period. The moonwrasse, Thalassoma lunare, was responsible for the majority of strikes (75.4 %), with the sandperch ( Parapercis clatharatha—10.1 %), spanish flag ( Lutjanus carponotatus—5.8 %) and ring wrasse ( Hologymnosus annulatus—2.9 %) the next highest contributors. T. lunare also spent significantly more time in the vicinity of reefs stocked with newly settled fish, than those without, during daylight hours. The results of the study are in contrast to the common perception that predation on newly settled fish is focused largely around crepuscular periods and suggests that diurnally active species, in particular T. lunare, are important predators of juvenile fish on the Ningaloo back-reef. The study also implies that generalist species can fulfil key functional roles and that the nature of these roles is not always apparent.

  9. Modulation of telomerase activity in fish muscle by biological and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Drew Ryan; Mok, Helen Oi Lam; Au, Doris Wai Ting

    2015-12-01

    Telomerase expression has long been linked to promotion of tumor growth and cell proliferation in mammals. Interestingly, telomerase activity (TA) has been detected in skeletal muscle for a variety of fish species. Despite this being a unique feature in fish, very few studies have investigated the potential role of TA in muscle. The present study was set to prove the concepts that muscle telomerase in fish is related to body growth, and more specifically, to muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis in vivo. Moreover, muscle TA can be influenced by biotic factors and modulated by environmental stress. Using three fish species, mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), the present work reports for the first time that fish muscle TA was sensitive to the environmental stresses of starvation, foodborne exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, and hypoxia. In marine medaka, muscle TA was coupled with fish growth during early life stages. Upon sexual maturation, muscle TA was confounded by sex (female>male). Muscle TA was significantly correlated with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein expression (Pearson correlation r=0.892; p≤0.05), which was coupled with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cell proliferation, but not associated with apoptosis (omBax/omBcl2 ratio) in muscle tissue. The results reported here have bridged the knowledge gap between the existence and function of telomerase in fish muscle. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of muscle TA in fish warrant further exploration for comparison with telomerase regulation in mammals. PMID:26400776

  10. ET743: Chemical analysis of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Manning, Thomas; Rhodes, Emily; Loftis, Richard; Phillips, Dennis; Demaria, Don; Newman, David; Rudloe, Jack

    2006-05-10

    The sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata produces the powerful drug ET743. In this study Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are systematically used to measure elemental and molecular species in a Florida Keys mangrove ecosystem that contains the sea squirt. ICP-AES is used to measure the concentration of 27 elements down to the parts per billion level in 16 organisms and 3 sediment samples that reside in the mangrove ecosystem including turtle grass, blue crabs, fire sponge, and lettuce slugs. MALDI-MS is used to search for ET743 in these same organisms and sediment samples. A mass spectral feature corresponding to ET743 is identified in the extract of the sea squirt, red mangrove root (Rhizophera mangle), the schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and a sediment sample taken from the ecosystem. We use MALDI-MS to study the impact that various environmental conditions, such as UV light, I(2), cation binding (Fe(+3), Zn(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2)), metal oxide nanoparticles (FeO, CuO, TiO(2), ZnO, Al(2)O(3)), a common mineral (CaCO(3)), and extremes in acidity (0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH) have on the ET743 structure. The data provide potential structures (degradation products, metal-ligand complexes, etc.) that might be present in organism or sedimentary extracts that are similar to ET743. We are studying the marine geochemistry of this ecosystem so a broth can be developed and tested for producing this marine natural product. PMID:16644544

  11. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  12. The Mangrove Nursery Paradigm Revisited: Otolith Stable Isotopes Support Nursery-to-Reef Movements by Indo-Pacific Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Kimirei, Ismael A.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania). Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma) were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ13C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29%) or seagrass (53%) or reef (18%) habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65–72%) as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28–35%). This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations. PMID:23776658

  13. Responses of algae, corals and fish to the reduction of macroalgae in fished and unfished patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T.; McField, M.; Huitric, M.; Bergman, K.; Sala, E.; Nyström, M.; Nordemar, I.; Elfwing, T.; Muthiga, N.

    2001-05-01

    Macroalgae were experimentally reduced by approximately 2.5 kg/m2 on eight similar-sized patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize, in September 1998. Four of these reefs were in a protected "no-take" zone and four were in a "general use" fishing zone. Eight adjacent reefs (four in each management zone) were also studied as unmanipulated controls to determine the interactive effect of algal reduction and fisheries management on algae, coral, fish, and rates of herbivory. The 16 reefs were sampled five times for 1 year after the manipulation. We found that the no-fishing zone had greater population densities for 13 of 30 species of fish, including four herbivorous species, but lower herbivory levels by sea urchins. However, there was lower stony coral cover and higher macroalgal cover in the "no-take" zone, both prior to and after the experiment. There were no significant effects of management on the percent cover of fleshy macroalgae. The algal reduction resulted in an increase in six fish species, including four herbivores and two which feed on invertebrates. One species, Lutjanus griseus, declined in experimental reefs. Macroalgal biomass quickly recovered from the reduction in both management areas within a few months, and by species-level community measures within 1 year, while stony coral was reduced in all treatments. Coral bleaching and Hurricane Mitch disturbed the site at the beginning of the study period and may explain the loss of stony coral and rapid increase in erect algae. We suggest that reducing macroalgae, as a technique to restore turf and encrusting coralline algae and stony corals, may work best after reefs have been fully protected from fishing for a period long enough to allow herbivorous fish to recover (i.e. >5 years). Further ecological studies on Glovers Reef are required to understand the shift from coral to algal dominance that has occurred on this reef in the last 25 years.

  14. The fish species composition and variation of catch from the small-scale gillnet fishery before, during and after the 1997-1998 ENSO event, central Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Vázquez, J A; Quiñonez-Velázquez, C; Echavarria-Heras, H A; Lucano-Ramirez, G; Godínez-Domínguez, E; Ruiz-Ramírez, S; Galván-Piña, V H; Sosa-Nishizaki, O

    2008-03-01

    In the tropical and subtropical coastal zone, were highly diverse fish communities occur, it is important to study the small scale fisheries exploiting these communities. For this study, 219 fishing days were carried out in Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico. Four gillnets with different mesh sizes (76.2, 88.9, 101.6 and 114.3 mm) were used for the fishing operations, from April 1994 to March 1995 and from January 1998 to December 2000. A total of 26126 organisms weighting 11680 kg were caught. One hundred and eighty three species belonging to 57 families and 19 orders were identified. Ten species accumulated more than 60% of the total abundance and biomass, the remaining species (173) individually contributed with less than 2% of the total abundance and biomass. The most important species in the catch were Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Scomberomorus sierra, C. caninus, C. sexfjasciatus, Lutjanus guttatus and L. argentiventris. The catch per unit of effort showed a large variation during the study, both in number and biomass. On average, 110 fishes and 48.5 kg fishing day(-1) were caught. The maximum values were recorded during January and October 1998 (250 fishes and 100 kg fishing day(-1)), and the minimum values were recorded during September and November 1994 (25 org. and 10 kg fishing day(-1)). The total abundance and biomass was lower during the 1994-95 period (F=6.16, 8.32, P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences among the annual catch from each gillnet. All the environmental changes caused by the ENSO event had ecological and economic effects that can be rated from moderate to severe. PMID:18624232

  15. Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov., isolated from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Roque, Ana; Chimetto, Luciane; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Lang, Elke; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-12-01

    Five strains (CAIM 1831(T), CAIM 1832, CAIM 1833, CAIM 1834 and CAIM 1836) were isolated from cultured sole (Solea senegalensis) in two regions of Spain, two strains (CAIM 404 and CAIM 1294) from wild-caught spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) in Mexico, and one strain (CAIM 1835) from corals in Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed similarity to Vibrio ponticus (98.2-98.3%, GenBank accession no. AJ630103) and to a lesser degree to Vibrio furnissii (97.2-97.3%, X76336) and to Vibrio fluvialis (96.9-97.1%, X74703). Multilocus sequence analysis clustered these strains closely together and clearly separated them from phylogenetically related species of the genus Vibrio. Genomic fingerprinting by rep-PCR clustered the novel strains according to their geographical origin. Phenotypic analyses showed a large variation among the new strains, but many tests enabled them to be differentiated from other species of the genus Vibrio. The mean ΔT(m) values between the strains analysed here and closely related type strains were above 6.79 °C. The values between the novel isolates were below 2.35 °C, well outside the limit suggested for the delineation of a bacterial species. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented here clearly place these new strains as a coherent group within the genus Vibrio, for which we propose the name Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov. with CAIM 1831(T) ( = DSM 24595(T) = S277(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22286904

  16. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean. PMID:12012188

  17. Evidence for climate-driven synchrony of marine and terrestrial ecosystems in northwest Australia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce J L; Rountrey, Adam N; Zinke, Jens; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Grierson, Pauline F; O'Donnell, Alison J; Newman, Stephen J; Lough, Janice M; Trougan, Mélissa; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-08-01

    The effects of climate change are difficult to predict for many marine species because little is known of their response to climate variations in the past. However, long-term chronologies of growth, a variable that integrates multiple physical and biological factors, are now available for several marine taxa. These allow us to search for climate-driven synchrony in growth across multiple taxa and ecosystems, identifying the key processes driving biological responses at very large spatial scales. We hypothesized that in northwest (NW) Australia, a region that is predicted to be strongly influenced by climate change, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon would be an important factor influencing the growth patterns of organisms in both marine and terrestrial environments. To test this idea, we analyzed existing growth chronologies of the marine fish Lutjanus argentimaculatus, the coral Porites spp. and the tree Callitris columellaris and developed a new chronology for another marine fish, Lethrinus nebulosus. Principal components analysis and linear model selection showed evidence of ENSO-driven synchrony in growth among all four taxa at interannual time scales, the first such result for the Southern Hemisphere. Rainfall, sea surface temperatures, and sea surface salinities, which are linked to the ENSO system, influenced the annual growth of fishes, trees, and corals. All four taxa had negative relationships with the Niño-4 index (a measure of ENSO status), with positive growth patterns occurring during strong La Niña years. This finding implies that future changes in the strength and frequency of ENSO events are likely to have major consequences for both marine and terrestrial taxa. Strong similarities in the growth patterns of fish and trees offer the possibility of using tree-ring chronologies, which span longer time periods than those of fish, to aid understanding of both historical and future responses of fish populations to climate variation

  18. Evaluation of ToxA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus lysate on humoral immune response and immune-related genes in Pacific red snapper.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Maldonado-García, Minerva; Guluarte, Crystal; León-Gallo, Amalia; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Ascencio, Felipe; Hirono, Ikuo; Angulo, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Immunogenicity of ToxA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus lysate was evaluated in a double immunostimulation scheme in Pacific red snapper after V. parahaemolyticus infection. Three groups of Pacific red snapper were intraperitonealy (i.p.) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), ToxA of V. parahaemolyticus (ToxA-Vp group) or V. parahaemolyticus lysate (lysate-Vp group) (first injection, day 1; second injection, day 7). Fish were subsequently infected with live V. parahaemolyticus. Humoral immune parameters in skin mucus and serum were evaluated on days 1, 7, 8 and 14 days post-immunostimulation and 7 days post-infection. Moreover expression of immune-related genes was quantified by real time PCR in head-kidney leukocytes, spleen, liver, and intestine. The ToxA-Vp-treated group showed a higher anti-protease and catalase activity in skin mucus when compared with the PBS group. Measurements of SOD and CAT activities showed an increment in both activities a day after the second boost with ToxA-Vp or lysate-Vp. Interestingly, IgM levels in mucus and transcripts were enhanced followed the ToxA-Vp treatment even after challenge. Furthermore, IL-1β was strongly expressed in all analyzed cell or tissues followed ToxA-Vp or Vp-lysate treatments. Finally, SOD and CAT gene expression was up-regulated in fish immunostimulated with either treatment ToxA-Vp or lysate-Vp, mainly after infection in head-kidney leukocytes and intestine. This is the first study where the effects of ToxA from V. parahaemolyticus in the immune system of Pacific red snapper was evaluated. These results suggest that ToxA-Vp would positively affect humoral immune response and up-regulate expression of genes involved in the immune system function; and could help in the control of V. parahaemolyticus infection in Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru, an economic important fish in Mexico. PMID:27417232

  19. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    PubMed

    Lavides, Margarita N; Molina, Erina Pauline V; de la Rosa, Gregorio E; Mill, Aileen C; Rushton, Stephen P; Stead, Selina M; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet wide

  20. The Paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast): ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES).

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Salyvonchyk, Svetlana; Nora, Vinicius; Lopes, Priscila F; Silvano, Renato A M

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1) to describe the Paraty fishery; 2) to compare the fishermen's local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3) to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems) Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo), Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa), Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala), and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho). Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the "defeso system" (closed season including a salary payment) to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism), such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks. PMID:22738073

  1. Seascape-scale trophic links for fish on inshore coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jean P.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Fry, Brian; Olds, Andrew D.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2014-12-01

    It is increasingly accepted that coastal habitats such as inshore coral reefs do not function in isolation but rather as part of a larger habitat network. In the Caribbean, trophic subsidies from habitats adjacent to coral reefs support the diet of reef fishes, but it is not known whether similar trophic links occur on reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we test whether reef fishes in inshore coral, mangrove, and seagrass habitats are supported by trophic links. We used carbon stable isotopes and mathematical mixing models to determine the minimum proportion of resources from mangrove or seagrass habitats in the diet of five fish species from coral reefs at varying distances (0-2,200 m) from these habitats in Moreton Bay, Queensland, eastern Australia. Of the fish species that are more abundant on reefs near to mangroves, Lutjanus russelli and Acanthopagrus australis showed no minimum use of diet sources from mangrove habitat. Siganus fuscescens utilized a minimum of 25-44 % mangrove sources and this contribution increased with the proximity of reefs to mangroves ( R 2 = 0.91). Seagrass or reef flat sources contributed a minimum of 14-78 % to the diet of Diagramma labiosum, a species found in higher abundance on reefs near seagrass beds, but variation in diet among reefs was unrelated to seascape structure. Seagrass or reef flat sources also contributed a minimum of 8-55 % to a fish species found only on reefs ( Pseudolabrus guentheri), indicating that detrital subsidies from these habitats may subsidize fish diet on reefs. These results suggest that carbon sources from multiple habitats contribute to the functioning of inshore coral reef ecosystems and that trophic connectivity between reefs and mangroves may enhance production of a functionally important herbivore.

  2. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb. PMID:25070289

  3. An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Michelle R; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J; Wood, Chelsea L; Bowen, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

  4. An Invasive Fish and the Time-Lagged Spread of Its Parasite across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

  5. Modeling coral reef fish home range movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Ault, Jerald S

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28±0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60±0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06±0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93±1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72±2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16±1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods. PMID:24558320

  6. Modeling Coral Reef Fish Home Range Movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Ault, Jerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28 ± 0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60 ± 0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06 ± 0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93 ± 1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72 ± 2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16 ± 1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods. PMID:24558320

  7. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers’ Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Aileen C.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Stead, Selina M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers’ recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers’ reports of typical good days’ catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers’ knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet

  8. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast): ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1) to describe the Paraty fishery; 2) to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3) to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems) Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo), Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa), Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala), and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho). Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment) to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism), such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks. PMID:22738073

  9. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelton W; Thorrold, Simon R; Houghton, Leah A; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world's oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ(13)C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization. PMID:26590916

  10. Evidence for 5S rDNA Horizontal Transfer in the toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) based on the analysis of three multigene families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Batrachoididae family is a group of marine teleosts that includes several species with more complicated physiological characteristics, such as their excretory, reproductive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Previous studies of the 5S rDNA gene family carried out in four species from the Western Atlantic showed two types of this gene in two species but only one in the other two, under processes of concerted evolution and birth-and-death evolution with purifying selection. Here we present results of the 5S rDNA and another two gene families in Halobatrachus didactylus, an Eastern Atlantic species, and draw evolutionary inferences regarding the gene families. In addition we have also mapped the genes on the chromosomes by two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Two types of 5S rDNA were observed, named type α and type β. Molecular analysis of the 5S rDNA indicates that H. didactylus does not share the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sequences with four other species of the family; therefore, it must have evolved in isolation. Amplification with the type β specific primers amplified a specific band in 9 specimens of H. didactylus and two of Sparus aurata. Both types showed regulatory regions and a secondary structure which mark them as functional genes. However, the U2 snRNA gene and the ITS-1 sequence showed one electrophoretic band and with one type of sequence. The U2 snRNA sequence was the most variable of the three multigene families studied. Results from two-colour FISH showed no co-localization of the gene coding from three multigene families and provided the first map of the chromosomes of the species. Conclusions A highly significant finding was observed in the analysis of the 5S rDNA, since two such distant species as H. didactylus and Sparus aurata share a 5S rDNA type. This 5S rDNA type has been detected in other species belonging to the Batrachoidiformes and Perciformes orders, but not in the Pleuronectiformes

  11. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of the parasite Henneguya carolina sp. nov. (Myxozoa), from the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, S; Casal, G; Garcia, P; Matos, E; Al-Quraishy, S; Azevedo, C

    2014-12-01

    Microscopic and molecular procedures are used to describe a new myxosporean species, Henneguya carolina sp. nov., found infecting the intestine of the marine teleost fish Trachinotus carolinus on the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil. Spherical to ellipsoid cysts, measuring up to ~750 µm, display synchronous development. Mature myxospores are ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. Myxospore body length, width, and thickness are 12.7 ± 0.8 (12.0-13.4) µm, 8.8 ± 0.6 (7.5-9.6) µm, and 5.8 ± 0.4 (5.0-6.4) µm, respectively; 2 equal caudal processes are 16.8 ± 1.1 (15.9-18.0) µm long, and the total myxospore length is 29.4 ± 0.8 (28.4-30.4) µm. Two pyriform polar capsules measure 5.0 ± 0.5 (4.6-5.6) × 2.4 ± 0.4 (1.9-2.9) µm, and each contains a polar filament forming 3 to 4 coils. Sporoplasm is binucleated and presents a spherical vacuole surrounded by numerous globular sporoplasmosomes. Molecular analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene by maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and maximum likelihood reveals the parasite clustering together with other myxobolids that are histozoic in marine fish of the order Perciformes, thereby strengthening the contention that the host phylogenetic relationships and aquatic environment are the strongest evolutionary signal for myxosporeans of the family Myxobolidae. PMID:25449325

  12. Systematic Variation in the Pattern of Gene Paralog Retention between the Teleost Superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de la serrana, Daniel; Mareco, Edson A.; Johnston, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Teleost fish underwent whole-genome duplication around 450 Ma followed by diploidization and loss of 80–85% of the duplicated genes. To identify a deep signature of this teleost-specific whole-genome duplication (TSGD), we searched for duplicated genes that were systematically and uniquely retained in one or other of the superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii. TSGD paralogs comprised 17–21% of total gene content. Some 2.6% (510) of TSGD paralogs were present as pairs in the Ostariophysi genomes of Danio rerio (Cypriniformes) and Astyanax mexicanus (Characiformes) but not in species from four orders of Acanthopterygii (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodon nigroviridis; Perciformes, Oreochromis niloticus; and Beloniformes, Oryzias latipes) where a single copy was identified. Similarly, 1.3% (418) of total gene number represented cases where TSGD paralogs pairs were systematically retained in the Acanthopterygian but conserved as a single copy in Ostariophysi genomes. We confirmed the generality of these results by phylogenetic and synteny analysis of 40 randomly selected linage-specific paralogs (LSPs) from each superorder and completed with the transcriptomes of three additional Ostariophysi species (Ictalurus punctatus [Siluriformes], Sinocyclocheilus species [Cypriniformes], and Piaractus mesopotamicus [Characiformes]). No chromosome bias was detected in TSGD paralog retention. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant enrichment of GO terms relative to the human GO SLIM database for “growth,” “Cell differentiation,” and “Embryo development” in Ostariophysi and for “Transport,” “Signal Transduction,” and “Vesicle mediated transport” in Acanthopterygii. The observed patterns of paralog retention are consistent with different diploidization outcomes having contributed to the evolution/diversification of each superorder. PMID:24732281

  13. Hidden diversity and evolutionary trends in malacosporean parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) identified using molecular phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Hrabcová, Martina; Pecková, Hana; Patra, Sneha; Kodádková, Alena; Jurajda, Pavel; Tyml, Tomáš; Holzer, Astrid Sibylle

    2014-07-01

    Malacosporeans represent a small fraction of myxozoan biodiversity with only two genera and three species described. They cycle between bryozoans and freshwater fish. In this study, we (i) microscopically examine and screen different freshwater/marine fish species from various geographic locations and habitats for the presence of malacosporeans using PCR; (ii) study the morphology, prevalence, host species/habitat preference and distribution of malacosporeans; (iii) perform small subunit/large subunit rDNA and Elongation factor 2 based phylogenetic analyses of newly gathered data, together with all available malacosporean data in GenBank; and (iv) investigate the evolutionary trends of malacosporeans by mapping the morphology of bryozoan-related stages, host species, habitat and geographic data on the small subunit rDNA-based phylogenetic tree. We reveal a high prevalence and diversity of malacosporeans in several fish hosts in European freshwater habitats by adding five new species of Buddenbrockia and Tetracapsuloides from cyprinid and perciform fishes. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses revealed that, apart from Buddenbrockia and Tetracapsuloides clades, a novel malacosporean lineage (likely a new genus) exists. The fish host species spectrum was extended for Buddenbrockia plumatellae and Buddenbrockia sp. 2. Co-infections of up to three malacosporean species were found in individual fish. The significant increase in malacosporean species richness revealed in the present study points to a hidden biodiversity in this parasite group. This is most probably due to the cryptic nature of malacosporean sporogonic and presporogonic stages and mostly asymptomatic infections in the fish hosts. The potential existence of malacosporean life cycles in the marine environment as well as the evolution of worm- and sac-like morphology is discussed. This study improves the understanding of the biodiversity, prevalence, distribution, habitat and host preference of malacosporeans

  14. Neural pathway for aggressive display in Betta splendens: midbrain and hindbrain control of gill-cover erection behavior.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1990-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to identify parts of the presumptive neural pathway for gill cover erection, a behavioral display pattern performed by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) during aggressive interactions. Motor, motor integration and sensory areas were identified in the medulla and mesencephalon. Motor neurons of the dilator operculi muscle, the effector muscle for gill cover erection, are located in the lateral and medial parts of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus. Iontophoretic injections of HRP into the lateral trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cell bodies in two motor areas (medial part of the trigeminal motor nucleus, anterior part of the motor nucleus of cranial nerve IX-X), two parts of the reticular formation (medial and inferior reticular areas), and two nuclei of the octavolateralis system (nucleus medialis, magnocellular octaval nucleus). The HRP injections in the medial part of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cells in the lateral part of the nucleus and in the medial reticular nucleus. Discrete injections of HRP into nucleus medialis revealed a strong axonal projection that terminated in the torus semicircularis. The medial reticular area and both of the octavolateralis nuclei received projections from their contralateral counterparts. Connections between motor areas, and between parts of the reticular formation, may coordinate the performance of gill cover erection with other behavioral patterns used during aggressive display. Connections with the octavolateralis system may provide information on the strength of an opponent's tail beats via the lateral-line system, as well as vestibular information about the fish's own orientation during aggressive display. The organization of inputs to the trigeminal motor nucleus in Betta, a perciform fish, was found to differ from that reported in the common carp, a cypriniform fish. These differences may underlie the different behavioral capabilities of

  15. Impact assessment of the introduction of Cichla kelberi in a large Neotropical reservoir and its lateral lagoons (Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to understand how the introduction of Cichla kelberi in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River) affected the native ichthyofauna. Data on the structure of the small fish fauna assemblage were obtained before and after the introduction of this carnivorous species. Samplings were carried out in February and September of 2004, previously to the register of Cichla kelberi in the reservoir, and after its introduction, November of 2004, January, March, May and August of 2005, February and June of 2006, February and July of 2007, February and October of 2008 and February of 2009. A total of 4,693 fish, belonging to 43 different species was sampled between 2004 and 2009. The order Characiformes was the most abundant, followed by Perciformes and Siluriformes. Comparative analyses, before and after the introduction, could not demonstrate significant changes in composition, richness, abundance, biomass, mean length and diversity of fish. Aquatic insects were the main feeding item of C. kelberi, followed by tetragonopterinae fish. Cannibalism was recorded during the whole study period. The results showed that Cichla cannot deeply affect the ichthyofauna assemblages of a large Neotropical reservoir, at least in a short or medium term period after its introduction. The results also allowed concluding that the introduction of C. kelberi in the reservoir is in the phase 3. In this phase, the specie can survive and reproduce in the new environment; however it is not totally established and disseminated. The reasons for the fact that Cichla is still not dominant in Rosana Reservoir could be related to feeding competition, high rate of cannibalism and the presence of large amount of aquatic macrophytes (refuge zones). In spite of the results, the continuous monitoring of the role of non-native species on the local fish fauna is absolutely necessary because the impacts caused by colonization of this undesirable species can be magnified by complex processes, usually

  16. [Bycatch fish species from shrimp industrial fishery in the Gulf of California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Juana; Herrera-Valdivia, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Romero, Jesús; Hernández-Vázquez, Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Bycatch fish species from shrimp industrial fishery in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The shrimp fishery in the Gulf of California is one the most important activities of revenue and employment for communities. Nevertheless, this fishery has also created a large bycatch problem, principally fish. To asses this issue, a group of observers were placed on board the industrial shrimp fleet and evaluated the Eastern side of the Gulf during 2004 and 2005. Studies consisted on 20kg samples of the capture for each trawl, and made possible a systematic list of species for this geographic area. Fish represented 70% of the capture. A total of 51 101 fish were collected, belonging to two classes, 20 orders, 65 families, 127 genera, and 241 species. The order Perciformes was the most diverse with 31 families, 78 genera, and 158 species. The best represented families by number of species were: Sciaenidae (34) and Paralichthyidae (18) and Haemulidae and Carangidae (16 each). The best represented genera in number of species were Symphurus (nine) and Diplectrum and Cynoscion (six); other important genera were Larimus and Porichthys with five species each. The best represented species in number were Syacium ovale, Pseudupeneus grandisquamis, Haemulopsis nitidos, Diplectrum pacificum, Synodus scituliceps, Balistes polylepis, Eucinostomus currani, Eucinostomus gracilis, Porichthys analis, Chloroscombrus orqueta, Selene peruviana, Orthopristis reddingi, Etropus crossotus, Scorpaena sonorae and Urobatis halleri. The number of recorded species is notably high, compared with demersal fauna of other areas of the Mexican Pacific, such as Gulf of Tehuantepec (178), Nayarit, Michoacán, Guerrero (174, 120 and 166), Jalisco and Colima (161 species), and those of the Western coast of the Baja California Peninsula (220 species). PMID:20737847

  17. The Highly conserved gonadotropin-releasing hormone-2 form acts as a melatonin-releasing factor in the pineal of a teleost fish, the european sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Servili, Arianna; Lethimonier, Christèle; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Kah, Olivier; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio

    2010-05-01

    With the exception of modern mammals, most vertebrate species possess two GnRH genes, GnRH-1 and GnRH-2. In addition, in many teleost fish, there is a third gene called GnRH-3. If the main function of GnRH-1 is unambiguously to stimulate gonadotropin release, the other two GnRH forms still lack clear functions. This is particularly true for the highly conserved GnRH-2 that encodes chicken GnRH-II. This GnRH variant is consistently expressed in neurons of the dorsal synencephalon in most vertebrate groups but still has no clear functions supported by anatomical, pharmacological, and physiological data. In this study performed on a perciform fish, the European sea bass, we show for the first time that the pineal organ receives GnRH-2-immunoreactive fibers originating from the synencephalic GnRH-2 neurons. This was shown through a combination of retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry, using highly specific antibodies. Supporting the presence of GnRH-2 functional targets, RT-PCR data together with the in situ hybridization studies showed that the sea bass pineal gland strongly expressed a GnRH receptor (dlGnRHR-II-2b) with clear selectivity for GnRH-2 and, to a lesser extent, the dlGnRHR-II-1a subtype. Finally, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate stimulatory effects of GnRH-2 on nocturnal melatonin secretion by the sea bass pineal organ. Altogether, these data provide, for the first time in a vertebrate species, converging evidence supporting a role of GnRH-2 in the modulation of fish pineal functions. PMID:20215565

  18. Rapid isolation of microsatellite DNAs and identification of polymorphic mitochondrial DNA regions in the fish rotan (Perccottus glenii) invading European Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Timothy L.; Eackles, Michael S.; Reshetnikov, Andrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Human-mediated translocations and subsequent large-scale colonization by the invasive fish rotan (Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877; Perciformes, Odontobutidae), also known as Amur or Chinese sleeper, has resulted in dramatic transformations of small lentic ecosystems. However, no detailed genetic information exists on population structure, levels of effective movement, or relatedness among geographic populations of P. glenii within the European part of the range. We used massively parallel genomic DNA shotgun sequencing on the semiconductor-based Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing platform to identify nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA sequences in P. glenii from European Russia. Here we describe the characterization of nine nuclear microsatellite loci, ascertain levels of allelic diversity, heterozygosity, and demographic status of P. glenii collected from Ilev, Russia, one of several initial introduction points in European Russia. In addition, we mapped sequence reads to the complete P. glenii mitochondrial DNA sequence to identify polymorphic regions. Nuclear microsatellite markers developed for P. glenii yielded sufficient genetic diversity to: (1) produce unique multilocus genotypes; (2) elucidate structure among geographic populations; and (3) provide unique perspectives for analysis of population sizes and historical demographics. Among 4.9 million filtered P. glenii Ion Torrent PGM sequence reads, 11,304 mapped to the mitochondrial genome (NC_020350). This resulted in 100 % coverage of this genome to a mean coverage depth of 102X. A total of 130 variable sites were observed between the publicly available genome from China and the studied composite mitochondrial genome. Among these, 82 were diagnostic and monomorphic between the mitochondrial genomes and distributed among 15 genome regions. The polymorphic sites (N = 48) were distributed among 11 mitochondrial genome regions. Our results also indicate that sequence reads generated

  19. Histochemical localisation of carbonic anhydrase in the inner ear of developing cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, M.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    2008-12-01

    Inner ear otolith growth in terms of mineralisation mainly depends on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CAH). CAH is located in specialised, mitochondria-rich macular cells (ionocytes), which are involved in the endolymphatic ion exchange, and the enzyme is responsible for the provision of the pH-value necessary for otolithic calcium carbonate deposition. In the present study, for the first time the localisation of histochemically demonstrated CAH was analysed during the early larval development of a teleost, the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. CAH-reactivity was observed already in stage 7 animals (onset of otocyst development; staging follows Anken et al. [Anken, R., Kappel, T., Slenzka, K., Rahmann, H. The early morphogenetic development of the cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes, Teleostei). Zool. Anz. 231, 1-10, 1993]). Neuroblasts (from which sensory and supporting cells are derived) proved to be CAH-positive. Already at stage 12 (hatch), CAH-positive regions could be attributed to ionocyte containing regions both in the so-called meshwork and patches area of the macula (i.e., clearly before ionocytes can be identified on ultrastructural level or by employing immunocytochemistry). In contrast to the circumstances observed in mammalian species, sensory hair cells stained negative for CAH in the cichlid. With the onset of stage 16 (finray primordia in dorsal fin, yolk-sac being increasingly absorbed), CAH-reactivity was observed in the vestibular nerve. This indicates the onset of myelinisation and thus commencement of operation. The localisation of CAH in the inner ear of fish (especially the differences in comparison to mammals) is discussed on the basis of its role in otolith calcification. Since the vestibular system is a detector of acceleration and thus gravity, also aspects regarding effects of altered gravity on CAH and hence on the mineralisation of otoliths in an adaptive process are addressed.

  20. Assessing genetic diversity of Brazilian reef fishes by chromosomal and DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Pedro Manoel; Molina, Wagner Franco; Affonso, Paulo Roberto A M; Aguilar, Cecília Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Little is known on genetics of Brazilian coral reef fish and most of this information is limited to chromosome characterization of major representative species. The diploid chromosome number in marine fish varies from 2n= 22-26 to 2n = 240-260. Despite of this apparent diversity, most studied marine species have a diploid complement with 48 acrocentric chromosomes. This latter trend is mostly observed among Perciformes, an important major taxon of coral reef fishes. Studies in the families Pomacentridae, Pomacanthidae and Chaetodontidae, for example, have shown a common karyotype pattern entirely formed by 48 uniarmed chromosomes. However, rare numerical and structural chromosome polymorphisms and cryptic chromosome rearrangements involving heterochromatin segments and/or nucleolar organizing sites have been reported among such fishes. Although new chromosome forms can contribute to the establishment of genetically isolated populations, their role in reef fish speciation at marine realm still is an open question. More recently, genomic DNA analyses using RAPD and microsatellites, and sequencing and RFLP of mitochondrial DNA have increasingly been used in Atlantic reef fish species. Genetic homogeneity over wide geographical ranges has been reported for different fish groups, in contrast to several cases of population substructuring related to environmental constraints or evolutionary history. Amazonas outflow and upwelling on the Southeastern coast of Brazil are believed to be strong barriers to dispersal of some reef species. Moreover, it is suggested that the pattern of speciation and population structure at South Atlantic is quite distinctive from Pacific Ocean, even when comparing closely related taxa. Further genetic studies are strongly encouraged in Brazilian reef fishes in order to provide a reliable scenario of the genetic structure in this important and diverse fish group. PMID:16502093

  1. Comparative analysis of Hox paralog group 2 gene expression during Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Pierre; Stellwag, Edmund J; Brothers, Shelby N; Scemama, Jean-Luc

    2007-12-01

    The hindbrain and pharyngeal arch-derived structures of vertebrates are determined, at least in part, by Hox paralog group 2 genes. In sarcopterygians, the Hoxa2 gene alone appears to specify structures derived from the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), while in zebrafish (Danio rerio), either of the two Hox PG2 genes, hoxa2b or hoxb2a, can specify PA2-derived structures. We previously reported three Hox PG2 genes in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), including hoxa2a, hoxa2b, and hoxb2a and observed that only HoxA cluster genes are expressed in PA2, indicative that they function alone or together to specify PA2. In this paper, we present the cloning and expression analysis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Hox PG2 genes and show that all three genes are expressed in the hindbrain and in PA2. The expression of hoxb2a in PA2 was unexpected given the close phylogenetic relationship of Nile tilapia and striped bass, both of which are members of the order Perciformes. A reanalysis of striped bass hoxb2a expression demonstrated that it is expressed in PA2 with nearly the same temporal and spatial expression pattern as its Nile tilapia ortholog. Further, we determined that Nile tilapia and striped bass hoxa2a orthologs are expressed in PA2 well beyond the onset of chondrogenesis whereas neither hoxa2b nor hoxb2a expression persist until this stage, which, according to previous hypotheses, suggests that hoxa2a orthologs in these two species function alone as selector genes of PA2 identity. PMID:17924140

  2. The Tree of Life and a New Classification of Bony Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Betancur-R., Ricardo; Broughton, Richard E.; Wiley, Edward O.; Carpenter, Kent; López, J. Andrés; Li, Chenhong; Holcroft, Nancy I.; Arcila, Dahiana; Sanciangco, Millicent; Cureton II, James C; Zhang, Feifei; Buser, Thaddaeus; Campbell, Matthew A.; Ballesteros, Jesus A; Roa-Varon, Adela; Willis, Stuart; Borden, W. Calvin; Rowley, Thaine; Reneau, Paulette C.; Hough, Daniel J.; Lu, Guoqing; Grande, Terry; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    The tree of life of fishes is in a state of flux because we still lack a comprehensive phylogeny that includes all major groups. The situation is most critical for a large clade of spiny-finned fishes, traditionally referred to as percomorphs, whose uncertain relationships have plagued ichthyologists for over a century. Most of what we know about the higher-level relationships among fish lineages has been based on morphology, but rapid influx of molecular studies is changing many established systematic concepts. We report a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for bony fishes that includes representatives of all major lineages. DNA sequence data for 21 molecular markers (one mitochondrial and 20 nuclear genes) were collected for 1410 bony fish taxa, plus four tetrapod species and two chondrichthyan outgroups (total 1416 terminals). Bony fish diversity is represented by 1093 genera, 369 families, and all traditionally recognized orders. The maximum likelihood tree provides unprecedented resolution and high bootstrap support for most backbone nodes, defining for the first time a global phylogeny of fishes. The general structure of the tree is in agreement with expectations from previous morphological and molecular studies, but significant new clades arise. Most interestingly, the high degree of uncertainty among percomorphs is now resolved into nine well-supported supraordinal groups. The order Perciformes, considered by many a polyphyletic taxonomic waste basket, is defined for the first time as a monophyletic group in the global phylogeny. A new classification that reflects our phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed to facilitate communication about the newly found structure of the tree of life of fishes. Finally, the molecular phylogeny is calibrated using 60 fossil constraints to produce a comprehensive time tree. The new time-calibrated phylogeny will provide the basis for and stimulate new comparative studies to better understand the evolution of the amazing

  3. Expression of Kisspeptins and Kiss Receptors Suggests a Large Range of Functions for Kisspeptin Systems in the Brain of the European Sea Bass

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Sebastián; Servili, Arianna; Espigares, Felipe; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Brocal, Isabel; Felip, Alicia; Gómez, Ana; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This study, conducted in the brain of a perciform fish, the European sea bass, aimed at raising antibodies against the precursor of the kisspeptins in order to map the kiss systems and to correlate the expression of kisspeptins, kiss1 and kiss2, with that of kisspeptin receptors (kiss-R1 and kiss-R2). Specific antibodies could be raised against the preprokiss2, but not the preoprokiss1. The data indicate that kiss2 neurons are mainly located in the hypothalamus and project widely to the subpallium and pallium, the preoptic region, the thalamus, the pretectal area, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mediobasal medial and caudal hypothalamus, and the neurohypophysis. These results were compared to the expression of kiss-R1 and kiss-R2 messengers, indicating a very good correlation between the wide distribution of Kiss2-positive fibers and that of kiss-R2 expressing cells. The expression of kiss-R1 messengers was more limited to the habenula, the ventral telencephalon and the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. Attempts to characterize the phenotype of the numerous cells expressing kiss-R2 showed that neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase are targets for kisspeptins, while GnRH1 neurons did not appear to express kiss-R1 or kiss-R2 messengers. In addition, a striking result was that all somatostatin-positive neurons expressed-kissR2. These data show that kisspeptins are likely to regulate a wide range of neuronal systems in the brain of teleosts. PMID:23894610

  4. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  5. Descriptions of Philometra aenei n. sp. and P. tunisiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Epinephelus spp. off Tunisia confirm a high degree of host specificity of gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 in groupers (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies of males and mature females, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of groupers, Epinephelus spp. (Perciformes; Serranidae), in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Sfax): Philometra aenei n. sp. from the white grouper E. aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and P. tunisiensis n. sp. from the goldblotch grouper E. costae (Steindachner). Identification of both fish hosts was confirmed by barcoding of the infected fish specimens. Philometra aenei is mainly characterised by the length of conspicuously distended spicules (108-123 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal barb at the middle region of the gubernaculum and a distinct protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field at its distal tip, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity and by the body length of the males (2.34-3.05 mm). The male of this species was found to possess minute deirids in the cervical region, which is quite exceptional within the Philometridae. Philometra tunisiensis is distinguished from other gonad-infecting congeneric species parasitising serranids by the length of the needle-like spicules and gubernaculum (201-219 and 78-87 µm, respectively), spicule length representing 9-11% of body length, the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio of 1:2.52-2.77, the length of oesophagus in the male comprising 15-16% of the body length, the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum and a pair of large papillae posterior to the cloaca, a dorsally interrupted mound on the male caudal extremity and the body length of the male (2.01-2.42 mm). The presence of three morphologically very different species of Philometra in congeneric hosts in the Mediterranean Sea confirms a high degree of host specificity of these gonad-infecting nematodes parasitising groupers. PMID:26790677

  6. Divergent evolution of two corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) genes in teleost fishes

    PubMed Central

    Grone, Brian P.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    Genome duplication, thought to have happened twice early in vertebrate evolution and a third time in teleost fishes, gives rise to gene paralogs that can evolve subfunctions or neofunctions via sequence and regulatory changes. To explore the evolution and functions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), we searched sequenced teleost genomes for CRH paralogs. Our phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate that two CRH genes, crha and crhb, evolved via duplication of crh1 early in the teleost lineage. We examined the expression of crha and crhb in two teleost species from different orders: an African cichlid, Burton's mouthbrooder, (Astatotilapia burtoni; Order Perciformes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio; Order Cypriniformes). Furthermore, we compared expression of the teleost crha and crhb genes with the crh1 gene of an outgroup to the teleost clade: the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). In situ hybridization for crha and crhb mRNA in brains and eyes revealed distinct expression patterns for crha in different teleost species. In the cichlid, crha mRNA was found in the retina but not in the brain. In zebrafish, however, crha mRNA was not found in the retina, but was detected in the brain, restricted to the ventral hypothalamus. Spotted gar crh1 was found in the retina as well as the brain, suggesting that the ancestor of teleost fishes likely had a crh1 gene expressed in both retina and brain. Thus, genome duplication may have freed crha from constraints, allowing it to evolve distinct sequences, expression patterns, and likely unique functions in different lineages. PMID:26528116

  7. Application of hydroacoustics to investigate the distribution, diel movement, and abundance of fish on Zhubi Reef, Nansha Islands, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Guobao; Chen, Zuozhi; Qiu, Yongsong; Xiong, Dan

    2016-01-01

    A combination of traditional fish sampling methods (hand-line and gill net) and modern hydroacoustic techniques were used to study fish community structure, distribution, and diel movements of fish on Zhubi Reef to enhance understanding of the ecosystem. We collected 126 individuals from 29 species, 20 genera, 17 families, three orders, and two classes using traditional gear. Perciforms were the dominant group in terms of species richness and biomass. The acoustic data indicated that very small (target strength [TS], dB) <-60 dB) and small (-60 dB≤TS<-45 dB) fish contributed the most to abundance and species richness on the coral reef, and that the proportion of medium-sized (-45 dB≤TS<-35 dB) and large-sized (-35 dB≤TS) fish increased gradually as depth increased. The single-target detection method revealed two distinct size classes during the day in the 12-16 and 16-20-m layers. One group consisted of very small-sized fish (TS<-60 dB) and the other consisted of medium and large-sized fish (TS>-55 dB). The number of single-target detections was significantly higher during the night than during the day (P<0.05). The singletarget TS frequency distribution during the day was significantly diff erent than during the night at depths of 4-8, 8-12, 12-16, and 16-20 m. Significant diff erences were observed among the 4-8, 8-12, 12-16, and 16-20-m-depth layers during day and night. Diel vertical movement was evidenced as fish began to spread and move upward just before sunset and began to assemble and descend shortly (15 min) after sunrise.

  8. Genome Enablement of the Notothenioidei: Genome Size Estimates from 11 Species and BAC Libraries from 2 Representative Taxa

    PubMed Central

    DETRICH, H. WILLIAM; STUART, ANDREW; SCHOENBORN, MICHAEL; PARKER, SANDRA K.; METHÉ, BARBARA A.; AMEMIYA, CHRIS T.

    2013-01-01

    The perciform suborder Notothenoidei provides a compelling opportunity to study the adaptive radiation of a marine species flock in the cold Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica. To enable genome-level studies of these psychrophilic fishes, we estimated the sizes of the genomes of 11 Antarctic species and generated high-quality BAC libraries for 2, the notothen Notothenia coriiceps and the icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Our results indicate that evolution of phylogenetically derived notothenioid families, [e.g., the icefishes (Channichthyidae)], was accompanied by genome expansion. Species (n = 6) of the basal family Nototheniidae had C values that ranged between 0.98 and 1.20 pg, whereas those of the icefishes, the notothenioid crown group, were 1.66–1.83 pg (n = 4 species). The BAC libraries VMRC-19 (N. coriiceps) and VMRC-21 (C. aceratus) comprised 12X and 10X coverage of the respective genomes and had average insert sizes of 138 and 168 kb. Greater than 60% of paired BAC ends sampled from each library (~0.1% of each genome) contained repetitive sequences, and the repetitive element landscapes of the 2 genomes (13.4% of the N. coriiceps genome and 14.5% for C. aceratus) were similar. The representation and depth of coverage of the libraries were verified by identification of multiple Hox gene contigs: six discrete Hox clusters were found in N. coriiceps and at least five Hox clusters were found in C. aceratus. Given the unusual anatomical and physiological adaptations of the notothenioids, the availability of these BAC libraries sets the stage for expanded analysis of the psychrophilic mode of life. PMID:20235119

  9. Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes: Genomic Resources and Strategies for Analyzing an Adaptive Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Detrich, H. W.; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2010-01-01

    The perciform suborder Notothenoidei provides a compelling opportunity to study the adaptive radiation of a marine species-flock in the cold Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica. To facilitate genome-level studies of the diversification of these fishes, we present estimates of the genome sizes of 11 Antarctic species and describe the production of high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for two, the red-blooded notothen Notothenia coriiceps and the white-blooded icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Our results indicate that evolution of phylogenetically derived notothenioid families (e.g., the crown group Channichthyidae [icefishes]), was accompanied by genome expansion. Six species from the basal family Nototheniidae had C-values between 0.98 and 1.20 pg, a range that is consistent with the genome sizes of proposed outgroups (e.g., percids) of the notothenioid suborder. In contrast, four icefishes had C-values in the range 1.66–1.83 pg. The BAC libraries VMRC-19 (N. coriiceps) and VMRC-21 (C. aceratus) comprise 12× and 10× coverage of the respective genomes and have average insert sizes of 138 and 168 kb. Paired BAC-end reads representing ∼0.1% of each genome showed that the repetitive element landscapes of the two genomes (13.4% of the N. coriiceps genome and 14.5% for C. aceratus) were similar. The availability of these high-quality and well-characterized BAC libraries sets the stage for targeted genomic analyses of the unusual anatomical and physiological adaptations of the notothenioids, some of which mimic human diseases. Here we consider the evolution of secondary pelagicism by various taxa of the group and illustrate the utility of Antarctic icefishes as an evolutionary-mutant model of human osteopenia (low-mineral density of bones). PMID:21082069

  10. A phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of Mediterranean teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Christine N; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a highly diverse, highly studied, and highly impacted biogeographic region, yet no phylogenetic reconstruction of fish diversity in this area has been published to date. Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b) and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I), including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing non-endemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ~100-80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80-50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100-80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot. PMID:22590545

  11. Fish otoliths: do sizes correlate with taxonomic group, habitat and/or luminescence?

    PubMed

    Paxton, J R

    2000-09-29

    Otoliths are dense structures in the ears of fishes that function in hearing and gravity perception. Otolith (sagitta) diameters, as percentages of standard length (% SL), are calculated for 247 marine fish species in 147 families and compared by taxonomic group (usually order), habitat and presence or absence of luminescence. Otolith sizes range from 0.4-31.4 mm and 0.08-11.2% SL. The eel and spiny eel orders Anguilliformes and Notacanthiformes have small to very small otoliths, as do the triggerfish order Tetraodontiformes, pipefish order Gasterosteiformes, billfish suborder Scombroidei and many of the dragonfish order Stomiiformes. The soldierfish order Beryciformes has moderate to very large otoliths. The perch order Perciformes has a wide range of otolith sizes but most have small to moderate otoliths 2-5% SL. Only 16 out of the 247 species have the relatively largest otoliths, over 7% SL. Seven out of these 16 species are also luminous from a variety of habitats. Luminous species have slightly to much larger otoliths than non-luminous species in the same family Both beryciforms and luminous fishes live in low-light environments, where acute colour vision is probably impossible. Most fishes of the epipelagic surface waters have very small otoliths, perhaps due to background noise and/or excessive movement of heavy otoliths in rough seas. Bathypelagic species usually have small otoliths and regressed or absent swimbladders. Other habitats have species with a range of otolith sizes. While the relationship between hearing ability and otolith length is unknown, at least some groups with modified swim-bladders have larger otoliths, which may be associated with more acute hearing. PMID:11079419

  12. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17β-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20β-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  13. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Sixin; Rexroad, Caird E; Couch, Charlene R; Cordes, Jan F; Reece, Kimberly S; Sullivan, Craig V

    2012-04-01

    The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetics technologies in striped bass breeding programs, we previously developed nearly 500 microsatellite markers. The objectives of this study were to construct a microsatellite linkage map of striped bass and to examine conserved synteny between striped bass and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Of 480 microsatellite markers screened for polymorphism, 289 informative markers were identified and used to genotype two half-sib mapping families. Twenty-six linkage groups were assembled, and only two markers remain unlinked. The sex-averaged map spans 1,623.8 cM with an average marker density of 5.78 cM per marker. Among 287 striped bass microsatellite markers assigned to linkage groups, 169 (58.9%) showed homology to sequences on stickleback chromosomes or scaffolds. Comparison between the stickleback genome and the striped bass linkage map revealed conserved synteny between these two species. This is the first linkage map for any of the Morone species. This map will be useful for molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection of genes of interest in striped bass breeding programs. The conserved synteny between striped bass and stickleback will facilitate fine mapping of genome regions of interest and will serve as a new resource for comparative mapping with other Perciform fishes such as European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and tilapia (Oreochromis ssp.). PMID:21968826

  14. Evolutionary suppression of erythropoiesis via the modulation of TGF-β signalling in an Antarctic icefish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianghua; Cai, Chang; Hu, Xingxing; Liu, Yun; Guo, Yanan; Hu, Peng; Chen, Zuozhou; Peng, Sihua; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Shouwen; Wu, Zhichao; Chan, Jiulin; Chen, Liangbiao

    2015-09-01

    The Antarctic icefish, a family (Channichthyidae) of teleosts within the perciform suborder Notothenioidei, are the only known vertebrates without oxygen-transporting haemoglobins and that are largely devoid of circulating erythrocytes. To elucidate the evo-devo mechanisms underpinning the suppressed erythropoiesis in the icefish, we conducted comparative studies on the transcriptomes and microRNAomes of the primary haematopoietic tissues between an icefish (Chionodraco hamatus) and two red-blooded notothenioids (Trematomus bernacchii and Gymnodraco acuticeps). We identified substantial remodelling of the haematopoietic programs in the icefish through which erythropoiesis is selectively suppressed. Experimental verification showed that erythropoietic suppression in the icefish may be attributable to the upregulation of TGF-β signalling, which coincides with reductions in multiple transcription factors essential for erythropoiesis and the upregulation of hundreds of microRNAs, the majority (> 80%) of which potentially target erythropoiesis regulating factors. Of the six microRNAs selected for verification, three miRNAs (miR-152, miR-1388 and miR-16b) demonstrated suppressive functions on GATA1 and ALAS2, which are two factors important for erythroid differentiation, resulting in reduced numbers of erythroids in microinjected zebra fish embryos. Codon substitution analyses of the genes of the TGF-β superfamily revealed signs of positive selection in TGF-β1 and endoglin in the lineages leading to Antarctic notothenioids. Both genes are previously known to function in erythropoietic suppression. These findings implied a general trend of erythropoietic suppression in the cold-adapted notothenioid lineages through evolutionary modulation of the multi-functional TGF-β signalling pathway. This trend is more pronounced in the haemoglobin-less icefish, which may pre-emptively hinder the otherwise defective erythroids from production. PMID:26268413

  15. Fish otoliths: do sizes correlate with taxonomic group, habitat and/or luminescence?

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, J R

    2000-01-01

    Otoliths are dense structures in the ears of fishes that function in hearing and gravity perception. Otolith (sagitta) diameters, as percentages of standard length (% SL), are calculated for 247 marine fish species in 147 families and compared by taxonomic group (usually order), habitat and presence or absence of luminescence. Otolith sizes range from 0.4-31.4 mm and 0.08-11.2% SL. The eel and spiny eel orders Anguilliformes and Notacanthiformes have small to very small otoliths, as do the triggerfish order Tetraodontiformes, pipefish order Gasterosteiformes, billfish suborder Scombroidei and many of the dragonfish order Stomiiformes. The soldierfish order Beryciformes has moderate to very large otoliths. The perch order Perciformes has a wide range of otolith sizes but most have small to moderate otoliths 2-5% SL. Only 16 out of the 247 species have the relatively largest otoliths, over 7% SL. Seven out of these 16 species are also luminous from a variety of habitats. Luminous species have slightly to much larger otoliths than non-luminous species in the same family Both beryciforms and luminous fishes live in low-light environments, where acute colour vision is probably impossible. Most fishes of the epipelagic surface waters have very small otoliths, perhaps due to background noise and/or excessive movement of heavy otoliths in rough seas. Bathypelagic species usually have small otoliths and regressed or absent swimbladders. Other habitats have species with a range of otolith sizes. While the relationship between hearing ability and otolith length is unknown, at least some groups with modified swim-bladders have larger otoliths, which may be associated with more acute hearing. PMID:11079419

  16. Relative Brain and Brain Part Sizes Provide Only Limited Evidence that Machiavellian Behaviour in Cleaner Wrasse Is Cognitively Demanding

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Dominika; Isler, Karin; Barski, Jaroslaw Jerzy; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently widely accepted that the complexity of a species’ social life is a major determinant of its brain complexity, as predicted by the social brain hypothesis. However, it remains a challenge to explain what social complexity exactly is and what the best corresponding measures of brain anatomy are. Absolute and relative size of the brain and of the neocortex have often been used as a proxy to predict cognitive performance. Here, we apply the logic of the social brain hypothesis to marine cleaning mutualism involving the genus Labroides. These wrasses remove ectoparasites from ‘client’ reef fish. Conflict occurs as wrasse prefer client mucus over ectoparasites, where mucus feeding constitutes cheating. As a result of this conflict, cleaner wrasse show remarkable Machiavellian-like behaviour. Using own data as well as available data from the literature, we investigated whether the general brain anatomy of Labroides provides any indication that their Machiavellian behaviour is associated with a more complex brain. Neither data set provided evidence for an increased encephalisation index compared to other wrasse species. Published data on relative sizes of brain parts in 25 species of the order Perciformes suggests that only the diencephalon is relatively enlarged in Labroides dimidiatus. This part contains various nuclei of the social decision making network. In conclusion, gross brain anatomy yields little evidence for the hypothesis that strategic behaviour in cleaning selects for larger brains, while future research should focus on more detailed aspects like the sizes of specific nuclei as well as their cryoarchitectonic structure and connectivity. PMID:26263490

  17. Two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Mycteroperca spp. (Serranidae) in the North-West Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2016-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from two species of Mycteroperca Gill (Serranidae), marine perciform fishes, in coastal waters off Florida, USA: Philometra deburonae n. sp. from the inner side of operculum of the yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa (L.) and P. incognita n. sp. from the ovary of the gag M. microlepis (Goode & Bean). Philometra deburonae n. sp. is mainly characterised by the body length of males (1.90-2.38 mm), the length of the spicules (78-84 µm) and gubernaculum (54 µm) and the presence of small outer cephalic papillae, a pair of fairly large caudal projections and the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly beyond the nerve-ring in subgravid females. Philometra incognita n. sp. is distinguished by the caudal mound consisting of two lateral reniform parts widely separated dorsally from each other, the absence of a pair of large papillae situated posteriorly to the cloaca, the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum plus the lengths of the spicules (117-141 µm) and gubernaculum (60-81 µm) in the male, the absence of caudal projections and the comparatively large larvae in the uterus (660-675 µm long) of the gravid female, as well as, the body length of both males (2.45-3.11 mm) and gravid females (120-180 mm). The present descriptions of an additional two new philometrids increases the number of recorded nominal species of Philometra parasitising groupers (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico to nine. PMID:27221001

  18. The Atlantic-Mediterranean transition: discordant genetic patterns in two seabream species, Diplodus puntazzo (Cetti) and Diplodus sargus (L.).

    PubMed

    Bargelloni, L; Alarcon, J A; Alvarez, M C; Penzo, E; Magoulas, A; Palma, J; Patarnello, T

    2005-09-01

    Sparids are a group of demersal perciform fish of high commercial value, which have experienced an extensive radiation, particularly in the Mediterranean, where they occupy a variety of different niches. The present study focuses on two species: Diplodus sargus and D. puntazzo, presenting a wide distribution from the Mediterranean to the eastern Atlantic coasts. They display similar ecological behaviour and are evolutionary closely related. Both are highly appreciated in fisheries and D. puntazzo is currently under domestication process. However, little is know on their population structure and it is an open question whether any genetic differentiation exists at the geographic level. To address this issue we examined sequence variation of a portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region in population samples of each of the two species collected over a wide geographic range. In addition to the mtDNA, analysis of nuclear loci (allozymes) was included in the study to compare patterns revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial markers. The studied samples covered an area from the eastern Mediterranean to the Portuguese coasts immediately outside the Gibraltar Strait. The two species revealed a level of sequence polymorphism remarkably different for the control region with the D. puntazzo and D. sargus showing 111 and 28 haplotypes, respectively. Such a difference was not detected with allozyme markers. The two species also showed large differences in their population structure. While D. puntazzo presented a marked genetic divergence between the Atlantic and Mediterranean samples, D. sargus showed little intraspecific differentiation. These results were supported using both mtDNA and allozyme markers, and were interpreted as the consequence of differences in the history of the two species such as fluctuations in the effective population size due to bottlenecks and expansions, possibly combined with present-day differences in levels of gene flow. PMID:15936957

  19. Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Hutson, Kate S

    2013-10-01

    The parasite Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) is a major threat to the sustained mariculture of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae). We investigated the effect of water temperature and salinity on egg hatching success of L. latis and describe the life cycle for the first time. Wild and sea-caged L. calcarifer examined in tropical north Australia exhibited similar parasite prevalence (range: 80-100%) and mean parasite intensity (range: 3-6), whereas land-based maricultured fish were not infected. Hatching success and time to first and last hatch was determined for a range of water temperature (22, 30, 32 and 34°C) and salinity (0, 11, 22, 35 and 40‰) combinations representing current and predicted climate conditions. There was a significant interaction between water temperature and salinity on the hatching success of L. latis nauplii. Eggs hatched in all temperature treatments, with the greatest hatching success at 30°C and 32°C (98 and 92% success, respectively) in 35‰. Hatching did not occur at 0‰ and was severely reduced at 11‰ (1.6% success). Hatching began within 6h at all water temperatures with >95% of eggs hatched within 30h at 30, 32 and 34°C and within 60h at 22°C. Adult parasites differed from the original description by the presence of the parabasal flagellum, small setae on the legs and caudal rami and minor incongruences regarding morphological measurements. The life cycle of L. latis includes three free living stages and five parasitic stages. Although L. latis exhibits broad environmental tolerance, freshwater can be used as an effective management strategy to break the life cycle in aquaculture. PMID:23707229

  20. Application of hydroacoustics to investigate the distribution, diel movement, and abundance of fish on Zhubi Reef, Nansha Islands, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Guobao; Chen, Zuozhi; Qiu, Yongsong; Xiong, Dan

    2016-09-01

    A combination of traditional fish sampling methods (hand-line and gill net) and modern hydroacoustic techniques were used to study fish community structure, distribution, and diel movements of fish on Zhubi Reef to enhance understanding of the ecosystem. We collected 126 individuals from 29 species, 20 genera, 17 families, three orders, and two classes using traditional gear. Perciforms were the dominant group in terms of species richness and biomass. The acoustic data indicated that very small (target strength [TS], dB) <-60 dB) and small (-60 dB≤TS<-45 dB) fish contributed the most to abundance and species richness on the coral reef, and that the proportion of medium-sized (-45 dB≤TS<-35 dB) and large-sized (-35 dB≤TS) fish increased gradually as depth increased. The single-target detection method revealed two distinct size classes during the day in the 12-16 and 16-20-m layers. One group consisted of very small-sized fish (TS<-60 dB) and the other consisted of medium and large-sized fish (TS>-55 dB). The number of single-target detections was significantly higher during the night than during the day ( P<0.05). The singletarget TS frequency distribution during the day was significantly different than during the night at depths of 4-8, 8-12, 12-16, and 16-20 m. Significant differences were observed among the 4-8, 8-12, 12-16, and 16-20-m-depth layers during day and night. Diel vertical movement was evidenced as fish began to spread and move upward just before sunset and began to assemble and descend shortly (15 min) after sunrise.

  1. Molecular characterization and immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1, 2 and 3 genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai-Zhi; He, An-Yuan; Chen, Li-Qiao; Limbu, Samwel Mchele; Wang, Ya-Wen; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are inverse feedback regulators of cytokine and hormone signaling mediated by the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway that are involved in immunity, growth and development of organisms. In the present study, three SOCS genes, SOCS-1, SOCS-2 and SOCS-3, were identified in an economically important fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) referred to as NtSOCS-1, NtSOCS-2 and NtSOCS-3. Multiple alignments showed that, the three SOCS molecules share highly conserved functional domains, including the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain, the extended SH2 subdomain (ESS) and the SOCS box with others vertebrate counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that NtSOCS-1, 2 and 3 belong to the SOCS type II subfamily. Whereas NtSOCS-1 and 3 showed close evolutionary relationship with Perciformes, NtSOCS-2 was more related to Salmoniformes. Tissue specific expression results showed that, NtSOCS-1, 2 and 3 were constitutively expressed in all nine tissues examined. NtSOCS-1 and 3 were highly expressed in immune-related tissues, such as gills, foregut and head kidney. However, NtSOCS-2 was superlatively expressed in liver, brain and heart. In vivo, NtSOCS-1 and 3 mRNA levels were up-regulated after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge while NtSOCS-2 was down-regulated. In vitro, LPS stimulation increased NtSOCS-3 mRNA expression, however it inhibited the transcription of NtSOCS-1 and 2. Collectively, our findings suggest that, the NtSOCS-1 and 3 might play significant role(s) in innate immune response, while NtSOCS-2 may be more involved in metabolic regulation. PMID:26820103

  2. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    PubMed

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco

  3. [Seasonal and spatial structure of reef fish community in San Jose Island, Gulf of California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barjau, Emelio; Rodríguez-Romero, Jesús; Galván, Felipe; Gutiérrez, Francisco; López, Juana

    2012-06-01

    The Gulf of California is one of the most fish diverse areas of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. In spite of its economic value, few works have considered fish community studies for optimum management. With the aim to determine the seasonal and spatial variation of fish communities in eight locations around the San José Island, some ecological research was conducted from March 2001 to February 2002. For this, visual censuses were used in 48 transects of 100x5m (500m2); specific analysis such as diversity values, the relative abundance and the biological value indexes were undertaken, and a principal component analysis applied. Our results clearly showed two climatic seasons of cold and warm waters. A total number of 26 608 organisms of 112 species and 76 genera of fishes were identified. We used the relative abundance index to determine the most important species, which were: Abudefduf troschelii, Thalassoma lucasanum, Stegastes rectifraenum, Mulloidichthys dentatus, Chromis atrilobata, Lutjanus argentiventris and Scarus ghobban. February was the month with the lowest diversity with a value of 3.12bits/ind. and October was the most diverse (4.13bits/ind.). According to the biological value index (BVI) and considering the climatic seasons, the fish species with the highest score during cold months were: A. troschelii, M. dentatus, S. ghobban, S. rectifraenum and T lucasanum. Besides, for warmer months, the same fish species were observed but in different order and abundance: A. troschelii, S. ghobban, S. rectifraenum, T lucasanum and M. dentatus. Using the biological value index, 13 species were those which had a higher overall score. The locations by the Eastern side of the island had a greater number of species and abundance of fish. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied using the seasonal data, species richness, diversity, equity, number of species and total abundance during the warmer months also a PCA within spatial data, showed that location in

  4. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, James A.; Rozar, Katherine L.; Adams, Charles S.; Wall, Kara R.; Switzer, Theodore S.; Winner, Brent L.; Hollander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus). We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt), against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ13C and δ15N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ15N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ13C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes and corresponding

  5. Beyond the transect: an alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A; Booth, David J; Hare, Dominic J

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified 'ear stones' used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (<10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 Jcm(-2)). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of >97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D scanning has no

  6. Comparative phylogeography of the western Indian Ocean reef fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, Philippe; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hubert, Nicolas; Muths, Delphine; Mou-Tham, Gérard; Kulbicki, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Assessing patterns of connectivity at the community and population levels is relevant to marine resource management and conservation. The present study reviews this issue with a focus on the western Indian Ocean (WIO) biogeographic province. This part of the Indian Ocean holds more species than expected from current models of global reef fish species richness. In this study, checklists of reef fish species were examined to determine levels of endemism in each of 10 biogeographic provinces of the Indian Ocean. Results showed that the number of endemic species was higher in the WIO than in any other region of the Indian Ocean. Endemic species from the WIO on the average had a larger body size than elsewhere in the tropical Indian Ocean. This suggests an effect of peripheral speciation, as previously documented in the Hawaiian reef fish fauna, relative to other sites in the tropical western Pacific. To explore evolutionary dynamics of species across biogeographic provinces and infer mechanisms of speciation, we present and compare the results of phylogeographic surveys based on compilations of published and unpublished mitochondrial DNA sequences for 19 Indo-Pacific reef-associated fishes (rainbow grouper Cephalopholis argus, scrawled butterflyfish Chaetodon meyeri, bluespot mullet Crenimugil sp. A, humbug damselfish Dascyllus abudafur/Dascyllus aruanus, areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus, blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus, honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra, bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii, cleaner wrasse Labroides sp. 1, longface emperor Lethrinus sp. A, bluestripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira, unicornfishes Naso brevirosris, Naso unicornis and Naso vlamingii, blue-spotted maskray Neotrygon kuhlii, largescale mullet Planiliza macrolepis, common parrotfish Scarus psicattus, crescent grunter Terapon jarbua, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus) and three coastal Indo-West Pacific invertebrates (blue seastar Linckia laevigata, spiny lobster

  7. Ciguatera fish toxicity in French Polynesia: size does not always matter.

    PubMed

    Gaboriau, Matthias; Ponton, Dominique; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille

    2014-06-01

    Accumulation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in tropical reef fish tissues during their life is responsible of the most prevalent human seafood intoxication in the South Pacific called Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). It has been assumed for a long time that CTXs are transferred and accumulated along the trophic food chain, and consequently that smaller individuals within a given fish species are safer to eat than larger ones. However, the relationship between toxicity and fish size has been studied for a limited number of species only and the conclusions are often contradictory. The toxicity of 856 fishes from 59 different species sampled in six islands in French Polynesia between 2003 and 2011 was assessed by Receptor Binding Assay. Among them, 45 species × island and 32 families × island for which the number of individuals was ≥6 allowed testing the relationship between toxicity and size. Except for six specimens of Lutjanus bohar caught in Fakarava (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.854), the 44 remaining species × island showed no significant increase of CTXs concentration with fish total length (TL). Moreover, the proportion of toxic individuals decreased significantly for Epinephelus polyphekadion from Fakarava (n = 24; P < 0.05) and Kyphosus cinerascens from Raivavae (n = 29; P < 0.05), while no significant variation was detected for the other 43 species × island. At the family level, only three positive and three negative relationships between size and CTXs concentration were observed among the 32 family × island analyzed. No relationship between the proportion of toxic fish within a family and the relative total length of individuals were observed. The lack of relationship between toxicity and size observed for most of the species and families from the six islands suggests that fish size cannot be used as an efficient predictor of fish toxicity in French Polynesia. These results highlight the need for improving our knowledge about metabolic processes

  8. Post-settlement Life Cycle Migration Patterns and Habitat Preference of Coral Reef Fish that use Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats as Nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocheret de la Morinière, E.; Pollux, B. J. A.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2002-08-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds have received considerable attention as nurseries for reef fish, but comparisons have often been made with different methodologies. Thus, relative importance of different habitats to specific size-classes of reef fish species remains unclear. In this study, 35 transects in 11 sites of mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reef were surveyed daily, in and in front of a marine bay on the island of Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles). The density and size-frequency of nine reef fish species (including herbivores, zoobenthivores and piscivores) was determined during a five-month period using a single methodology, viz. underwater visual census. All species were ' nursery species ' in terms of their high densities of juveniles in mangroves or seagrass beds. Relative density distribution of the size-classes of the selected species over mangroves and seagrass beds suggested high levels of preference for either mangroves or seagrass beds of some species, while other species used both habitats as a nursery. Spatial size distribution of the nine species suggested three possible models for Post-settlement Life Cycle Migrations (PLCM). Haemulon sciurus, Lutjanus griseus, L. apodus, and Acanthurus chirurgus appear to settle and grow up in bay habitats such as mangroves and seagrass beds, and in a later stage migrate to the coral reef (Long Distance PLCM). Juveniles of Acanthurus bahianus and Scarus taeniopterus were found only in bay habitats at close proximity to the coral reef or on the reef itself, and their migration pattern concerns a limited spatial scale (Short Distance PLCM). Some congeneric species carry out either Long Distance PLCM or Short Distance PLCM, thereby temporarily alleviating competition in reef habitats. Haemulon flavolineatum, Ocyurus chrysurus and Scarus iserti displayed a Stepwise PLCM pattern in which smallest juveniles dwell in the mouth of the bay, larger individuals then move to habitats deeper into the bay, where they grow up

  9. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  10. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ (13)C and δ (15)N).

    PubMed

    Stallings, Christopher D; Nelson, James A; Rozar, Katherine L; Adams, Charles S; Wall, Kara R; Switzer, Theodore S; Winner, Brent L; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus). We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt), against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ (13)C and δ (15)N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ (15)N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ (13)C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes and

  11. Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from cenote fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Moravec, F

    1996-10-01

    The cestode Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. is described from the intestine of the cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) from cenote (= sinkhole) Zaci near Valladolid, Yucatan, Mexico. The pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis Günther, which also harbored conspecific cestodes, seems to represent accidental or postcyclic host of B. pearsei. The new species differs from congeners mainly by the morphology of the scolex, which is clavate, with the maximum width in its middle part, has a distinct but weakly muscular apical disc; 2 short and wide bothria distinctly demarcated in their anterior part, becoming indistinct posteriorly in the middle part of the scolex, and 2 elongate, lateral grooves. In addition to the scolex morphology, the new species can be differentiated from Bothriocephalus species parasitizing North American freshwater fishes as follows: B. claviceps (Goeze, 1782), a specific parasite of eels in the Holarctic, B. cuspidatus Cooper, 1917, occurring mostly in perciform fishes in North America, B. musculosus Baer, 1937 found in the cichlid Cichlasoma biocellata (Regan) (= C. octofasciatum (Regan)), and B. texomensis Self, 1954, described from Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), are much larger, with strobilae consisting of relatively short and very wide proglottids versus small-sized stro