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1

Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani s.l . (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939)(Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae): geographical distribution and the epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil--mini-review.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study, in view of the widespread geographical distribution of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani s.l. in Brazil, in close association with the regions of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) shawi, is to investigate the distribution of this sand fly species and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in relationship to vegetation and landscape ecology throughout Brazil. Thematic maps were elaborated by the MapInfo programme, giving information on the spatial distribution of L. whitmani s.l., in accordance with types of vegetation and foci of ACL. With regards to the known areas of transmission of ACL in Brazil, it is notable that L. (N.) whitmani s.l. occurs in most of them, where it has been implicated as a possible vector of L. (V.) braziliensis. The presence of L. whitmani s.l. has been registered in 26 states, the one exception being Santa Catarina; in some states such as Roraima, Acre, Tocantins, and Mato Grosso do Sul this sand fly species has been recorded in a large number of municipalities. L. whitmani s.l. has been found in association with a variety of vegetation types, including the Amazonian forest, savanna ("campos cerrados"), and northeastern savanna ("caatingas nordestinas" or "savana estépica"). PMID:17426877

da Costa, Simone M; Cechinel, Michela; Bandeira, Valdenir; Zannuncio, José C; Lainson, Ralph; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2007-05-01

2

Spatial modelling of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani s.l. (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) habitat suitability in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani s.l.is the main vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in state of Mato Grosso, but little is known about environmental determinants of its spatial distribution on a regional scale. Entomologic surveys of this sand fly species, conducted between 1996 and 2001 in 41 state municipalities, were used to investigate the relationships between environmental factors and the presence of the species, and to develop a spatial model of habitat suitability. The relationship between averaged CDC light trap indexes and 15 environmental and socio-economic factors were tested by logistic regression (LR) analysis. Spatial layers of deforestation tax and the Brazilian index of gross net production (IGNP) were identified as significant explanatory variables for vector presence in the LR model, and these were then overlaid with habitat maps. The highest habitat suitability in 2001 was obtained for the heavily deforested areas in the Central-North, South, East, and Southwest of Mato Grosso, particularly in municipalities with lower IGNP values. PMID:19057814

Zeilhofer, Peter; Kummer, Olga Patrícia; Santos, Emerson Soares dos; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Missawa, Nanci Akemi

2008-11-01

3

Nocturnal activity rhythms of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Lutz & Neiva) and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (Coutinho & Antunes) are important vectors of Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis, the etiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. In some areas, both species occur in sympatry, and their relative roles as vectors in these areas are not clear. We studied the nocturnal activity and biting rhythms of both species in Posse, a locality in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Our results show differences between the activity patterns of Lu. intermedia and Lu. whitmani that might be epidemiologically important. Although the activity profiles vary between seasons and microhabitats (peridomestic versus forest), the two species show marked differences in their tendencies to bite humans in the early morning (0400-0600 hours), with Lu. whitmani showing higher feeding rates than Lu. intermedia. PMID:16465739

Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2005-11-01

4

DETECTION OF Leishmania (Viannia) IN Nyssomyia neivai AND Nyssomyia whitmani BY MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION, IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Sandflies transmit pathogens of leishmaniasis. The natural infection of sandflies by Leishmania (Viannia) was assessed in municipalities, in the state of Paraná, in Southern Brazil. Sandflies were collected with Falcão and Shannon traps. After dissection in search of flagellates in digestive tubes and identification of the species, female sandflies were submitted to the Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (multiplex PCR) for detection of the fragment of the kDNA of Leishmania (Viannia) and the fragment from the IVS6 cacophony gene region of the phlebotomine insects. The analysis was performed in pools containing seven to 12 guts from females of the same species. A total of 510 female sandflies were analyzed, including nine Migonemyia migonei, 17 Pintomyia fischeri, 216 Nyssomyia neivai, and 268 Nyssomyia whitmani. Although none of the females was found naturally infected by flagellates through dissection, the fragment of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia) was shown by multiplex PCR in one sample of Ny. neivai (0.46%) and three samples of Ny. whitmani (1.12%). It was concluded that Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani are susceptible to Leishmania infection, and that multiplex PCR can be used in epidemiological studies to detect the natural infection of the sandfly vector, because of its sensitivity, specificity and feasibility. PMID:25229218

Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Karin Rosi; Venazzi, Mateus Sabaini; Scodro, Regiane Bertin de Lima; Dias, Alessandra de Cassia; Silveira, Thais Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

2014-01-01

5

Moonlight and blood-feeding behaviour of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae), vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and L. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), two important vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, occur in sympatry in the locality of Posse county, Petropolis municipality, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated the influence of the lunar cycle on the frequency of specimens of the two species caught while attempting to bite the collectors and in CDC light traps. Analysis of the numbers of sand flies captured in different lunar phases for two consecutive years in the peridomestic site and forest shows that there is a significant positive correlation between moonlight intensity and the numbers of L. intermedia and L. whitmani females collected while blood-feeding, whereas the opposite was observed for the CDC traps. PMID:15867961

Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Silva, Vanderlei C; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2005-02-01

6

First report of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in a periurban area of south Brazil using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay.  

PubMed

To identify Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) neivai naturally infected by Leishmania a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the analysis of 450 specimens (270 females, 180 males) collected in an endemic periurban area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Insects were grouped into pools of 10 and positive results were achieved in 3/27 Lu. (N.) neivai female pools. Infection by L. (Viannia) braziliensis was confirmed after hybridizing PCR products with a subgenus-specific biotinylated probe. Considering the detection of three positive pools with at least one infected insect in each, an infection rate of 1.1% was estimated. Our results associated with epidemiologic data suggest a potential ability of Lu. (N.) neivai in transmitting L. braziliensis in Porto Alegre, where the first notifications of autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans occurred in 2002, with an increase in the number of cases in recent years possibly as a consequence of deforestation and agricultural activities in the area. PMID:19346382

Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Souza, Getúlio D; Zwetsch, Adriana; Alves, Carlos Roberto; Britto, Constança; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2009-04-01

7

Micro-geographical variation among male populations of the sandfly, Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, from an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The genetic relationships among male Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from three populations from the same endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were compared. The sandflies were collected in three ecologically different habitats: domestic, extra-domestic and sylvatic over a total range of 800 m. Three molecular markers were employed to assess population variation. Based on MLEE markers, it could not be concluded that the three populations do not belong to the same gene pool (F(st) = 0.005). No within-population departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected (P < 0.05) and they presented the same level of gene variation. The number of migrants (Nm) indicated that at least 50 individuals per generation migrated between the three habitats. RAPD-PCR markers revealed that, except for the primer five, all were polymorphic. Phenetic analysis of the genotypes showed the presence of two principal clusters corresponding to: (1) domestic plus extra-domestic and (2) sylvatic. Unique genotypes were observed in each population. The sylvatic population was the most polymorphic, showing the largest number of genotypes and low level of similarity between them. Three mtDNA gene markers were studied by SSCP analysis. The most frequent haplotype for each marker ranged in frequency from 60 to 87% and individuals with unique haplotypes varied from 1 to 5%. Interestingly, the SSCP analysis showed a low level of polymorphism within populations. The disagreement between the different molecular markers observed and the hypothesis that L. intermedia could be participating in the transmission cycle of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in environments ranging from the interior of human dwellings to the forest, are discussed. PMID:15752175

Meneses, C R V; Cupolillo, E; Monteiro, F; Rangel, E F

2005-03-01

8

Patterns of exochorion ornaments on eggs of seven South American species of Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).  

PubMed

The patterns of exochorion ornaments on eggs of seven South American Lutzomyia sand fly species were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM): Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi (Mangabeira 1938), Lutzomyia (Micropygomyia) evandroi (Costa Lima and Antunes 1936), L. (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Lutz and Neiva 1912), L. longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva 1912), L. migonei (Franca 1920), L. (Nyssomyia) neivai (Pinto 1926), and L. renei (Martins, Falcao, and Silva 1957). Different patterns were observed, which showed the distinction between some species. Egg ornaments in L. cruzi and L. longipalpis appear as single, parallel, unconnected ridges, whereas eggs of L. migonei appear as single, parallel, connected ridges. Eggs of L. (Nyssomyia) intermedia and L. (N.) neivai present a new variation of the single, unconnected, parallel ridges pattern: small tubercles are present, distributed between the ridges. Eggs of L. renei present an elliptical pattern, with most structures connected by straight ridges. Eggs of L. (M.) evandroi present a polygonal pattern, with alternate rows of small and large hexagons. Our data emphasize the advantages of the SEM approach in the study of the exochorion patterns of Lutzomyia eggs and in the distinction of the sand fly species. PMID:15535608

De Almeida, Danielle Nogueira; Da Silva, Oliveira Rodrigo; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes; Soares, Maurilio José

2004-09-01

9

Comparative study of the phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the genera Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962, Bichromomyia Artemiev, 1991, and Migonemyia Galati, 1995, vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

PubMed

Phlebotominae, a group of insects with great medical importance especially in Brazil, are responsible for transmitting causal agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. In Brazil, the most important species of Leishmania Ross, 1903 are L. (Viannia) braziliensis Vianna, 1911, whose main vectors are Nyssomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Ny. neivai Pin-to, 1926, Ny. whitmani Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 and Migonemyia migonei França, 1920; and L. (Leishmania) amazon-ensis Lainson & Shaw, 1972, for which Bichromomyia flaviscutellata Mangabeira, 1942 is the main vector. The present study sought to investigate the morphological as well as geometrical and linear morphometric characteristics of these five sand flies in an attempt to cluster these species. Our aim was to reveal some of the characters that might help identify these phlebotomine species and also be useful in future phylogenetic studies. Comparative analyses by linear and geometric morphometric characters allowed us to distinguish the genera of these sand flies and assess the taxonomic position of Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, the so-called "cryptic species". Significant differences were observed in several of the analyzed structures, including the centroid size of the wings and the ratio between the ejaculatory filament and its tip. Based on the linear morphometric analytical results, the size of the centroids of the wings and their shapes indicated that these three species of Nyssomyia are phenetically more similar to Mg. migonei (all vectors of L. (V.) braziliensis) than to Bi. flavis-cutellata (vector of L. (L.) amazonensis). These results are in agreement with the division of the genera Nyssomyia and Bichromomyia. PMID:25081794

Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cordeiroestrela, Pedro; De Souza, Nataly Araújo; Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; De Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2014-01-01

10

[Species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in area with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis case of Carmo County, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Captures of sand flies were carried out in peridomiciliary, domiciliary and forest environments on São José farm, located in Carmo county where an autochthonous case of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis occurred to investigate the probable vector of the disease. A total of 4.595 sand flies belonging to six species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: L. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva), L. lenti (Mangabeira), L. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) L. migonei (França), L. ayrozai (Barretto & Coutinho) andL. quinquefer (Dyar). L. intermedia was the predominant species (99.1%), its highest frequencies occurring between 6 p.m. and 8 p.m. PMID:17934627

Alves, João R C

2007-01-01

11

Attraction of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) to host odour components in a wind tunnel  

PubMed Central

Background Laboratory studies of host-seeking olfactory behaviour in sandflies have largely been restricted to the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. In comparison, almost nothing is known about the chemical ecology of related species, which transmit American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), due in part to difficulties in raising these insects in the laboratory. Understanding how ACL vectors locate their hosts will be essential to developing new vector control strategies to combat this debilitating disease. Methods This study examined host-odour seeking behaviour of the ACL vector Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (=Lutzomyia neivai) using a wind tunnel olfactometer. The primary aim was to determine whether field-collected female N. neivai would respond to host odours in the laboratory, thereby eliminating the need to maintain colonies of these insects for behavioural experiments. Responses to two key host odour components, 1-octen-3-ol and lactic acid, and a commercially-available mosquito lure (BG-Lure™) were assessed and compared relative to an air control. We also tested whether trials could be conducted outside of the normal evening activity period of N. neivai without impacting on fly behaviour, and whether the same flies could be used to assess baseline responses to air without affecting responses to octenol, thereby reducing the number of flies required for experiments. Results Octenol was found to both activate host-seeking behaviour and attract female N. neivai in the wind tunnel, while lactic acid elicited weaker responses of activation and attractiveness under identical conditions. The BG-Lure did not activate or attract N. neivai under test conditions. Further experiments showed that sandfly behaviour in the wind tunnel was not affected by time of day, such that experiments need not be restricted to nocturnal hours. Moreover, using the same flies to measure both baseline responses to air and attraction to test compounds did not affect odour-seeking behaviour. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that N. neivai taken from the field are suitable for use in laboratory olfactometer experiments. It is hoped this work will facilitate further research into chemical ecology of this species, and other ACL vectors. PMID:23009099

2012-01-01

12

Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) geographical distribution and epidemiological importance.  

PubMed

Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912) and N. neivai (Pinto 1926) are possible vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in some regions of Brazil. Further, the latter was until recently, considered a junior synonym of the former. This study has the purpose of updating our knowledge of the geographical distribution of these species, based on specimens deposited at the collection of the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz, Faculdade de Saúde Pública-Universidade de São Paulo, and on data presented by literature as also to associate this distribution with the cutaneous leishmaniasis cases reported. It has been reported that N. intermedia occurs in the states of the Northeastern Region, in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, on the northern coast of São Paulo, in eastern Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás, close to the border with Minas Gerais and Bahia. N. neivai occurs in the Southern Region, southern coast and in western São Paulo, southern and western Minas Gerais, southern Goiás, and southern Pará, beyond Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. It is important to highlight that N. intermedia and N. neivai occur in sympatry in Minas Gerais and São Paulo. N. intermedia or N. neivai are predominant or are captured abundantly in several cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in the Southeastern and Southern regions of Brazil. PMID:17612769

Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Falcão, Alda Lima

2007-06-01

13

Development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) larvae in different diets.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in Brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. Except wheat bran for L. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. L. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. Fungi as an additional nutrient source for L. intermedia and L. longipalpis is suggested. PMID:11706567

Wermelinger, E D; Zanuncio, J C

2001-08-01

14

The sand fly fauna (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, is sporadic in many rural and suburban areas of Rio de Janeiro State. An investigation was carried out during 2008/9 in the Municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, in order to identify the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. More than 2,100 sand flies were collected in peridomestic areas in two chicken coops using CDC light traps. Nine species of phlebotomine sand flies were identified: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia (P.) pessoai, Pintomyia (P.) fischeri, Pintomyia (P.) bianchigalatiae, Migonemyia (M.) migonei, Lutzomyia (L.) longipalpis, Brumptomyia cunhai and Brumptomyia guimaraesi. Based on the results of this study together with related studies in other CL foci in Rio de Janeiro, both Nissomyia intermedia and Migonemyia migonei can be considered suspect vectors of the disease in the region. The potential risk of VL due to the presence of its proven vector L. longipalpis is discussed. PMID:21366786

Brazil, Reginaldo P; Pontes, Michelle C de Queiroz; Passos, Wagner Lança; Rodrigues, Andressa A Fuzari; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes

2011-03-01

15

Phylogenetics of the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Group Verrucarum (Diptera: Psychodidae: Lutzomyia)  

PubMed Central

Within the sand fly genus Lutzomyia, the Verrucarum species group contains several of the principal vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and human bartonellosis in the Andean region of South America. The group encompasses 40 species for which the taxonomic status, phylogenetic relationships, and role of each species in disease transmission remain unresolved. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) phylogenetic analysis of a 667-bp fragment supported the morphological classification of the Verrucarum group into series. Genetic sequences from seven species were grouped in well-supported monophyletic lineages. Four species, however, clustered in two paraphyletic lineages that indicate conspecificity—the Lutzomyia longiflocosa–Lutzomyia sauroida pair and the Lutzomyia quasitownsendi–Lutzomyia torvida pair. COI sequences were also evaluated as a taxonomic tool based on interspecific genetic variability within the Verrucarum group and the intraspecific variability of one of its members, Lutzomyia verrucarum, across its known distribution. PMID:21633028

Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Caceres, Abraham G.; Ferro, Cristina; Munstermann, Leonard E.

2011-01-01

16

Salivary amylase activity of the phlebotomine sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both male and female adult stages of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis have detectable amylase activity in their salivary glands, as indicated by formation of p-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltoside from p-nitrophenyl-?-D-octoside and by hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltoheptaoside-4,6,-O-ethylidene. No salivary ?-glucosidase was detected. Amylase activity was also found in the crop and midgut of female flies, although in a smaller amount. Salivary amylase is significantly

José M. C Ribeiro; Edgar D Rowton; Rosane Charlab

2000-01-01

17

Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p <0.0001). These findings confirm that L. migonei and L. longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza. PMID:25271451

Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Santos, Fabricio Kassio Moura; Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha de; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

2014-09-01

18

Ecological aspects of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cave of the speleological province of Bambuí, Brazil.  

PubMed

Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings. PMID:24130847

Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

2013-01-01

19

Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a Cave of the Speleological Province of Bambu?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings. PMID:24130847

Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Pecanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenobio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antonio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, Jose Dilermando

2013-01-01

20

Carbohydrate digestion in Lutzomyia longipalpis' larvae (Diptera - Psychodidae).  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis is the principal species of phlebotomine incriminated as vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Despite its importance as vector, almost nothing related to the larval biology, especially about its digestive system has been published. The objective of the present study was to obtain an overview of carbohydrate digestion by the larvae. Taking in account that phlebotomine larvae live in the soil rich in decaying materials and microorganisms we searched principally for enzymes capable to hydrolyze carbohydrates present in this kind of substrate. The principal carbohydrases encountered in the midgut were partially characterized. One of them is a ?-amylase present in the anterior midgut. It is probably involved with the digestion of glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate of fungi. Two other especially active enzymes were present in the posterior midgut, a membrane bound ?-glucosidase and a membrane bound trehalase. The first, complete the digestion of glycogen and the other probably acts in the digestion of trehalose, a carbohydrate usually encountered in microorganisms undergoing hydric stress. In a screening done with the use of p-nitrophenyl-derived substrates other less active enzymes were also observed in the midgut. A general view of carbohydrate digestion in L. longipalpis was presented. Our results indicate that soil microorganisms appear to be the main source of nutrients for the larvae. PMID:22841889

Vale, Vladimir F; Moreira, Bruno H; Moraes, Caroline S; Pereira, Marcos H; Genta, Fernando A; Gontijo, Nelder F

2012-10-01

21

[Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine Mesopotamia, 2010].  

PubMed

The first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Argentina was reported in 2006 in Posadas, Misiones. During the summer 2008-2009 Lutzomyia longipalpis, the VL vector, and canine VL cases were already spread along the province of Corrientes. In order to know the distribution of VL risk, systematic captures of the vector were performed between February and March 2010, in 18 areas of the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes, and the city of Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, with a total of 313 traps/night. We confirmed the presence of Lu. longipalpis, for the first time in Chajarí (Entre Ríos), Alvear, La Cruz, Curuzú Cuatiá and Bella Vista (Corrientes), and Puerto Iguazú (Misiones). In Santo Tome and Monte Caseros (Corrientes), where the vector had been previously reported, traps with more samples were obtained with 830 and 126 Lu. Longipalpis trap/site/night respectively. These results show that the vector of urban VL continues spreading in the Argentine territory. Simultaneously, the spread of the parasite and the resulting human VL cases are associated with the dispersion of reservoirs, infected dogs, with or without clinical symptoms or signs, due to human transit. PMID:21296716

Salomon, Oscar D; Fernandez, Maria S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina; Montiel, Natalia; Ramos, Marina A; Rosa, Juan R; Szelag, Enrique A; Martinez, Mariela F

2011-01-01

22

Survival, population size, and gonotrophic cycle duration of Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The survival, absolute population size, gonotrophic cycle duration, and temporal and spatial abundance of Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) were studied in a rural area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Conchal, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, using mark-release-recapture techniques and by monitoring population fluctuation. The monthly abundance exhibited a unimodal pattern, with forest and domicile habitats having the highest relative abundances. A total of 1,873 males and 3,557 females were marked and released during the six experiments, of which 4.1-13.0% of males and 4.1-11.8% of females were recaptured. Daily survivorship estimated from the decline in recaptures per day was 0.681 for males and 0.667 for females. Gonotrophic cycle duration was estimated to be 4.0 d. Absolute population size was calculated using the Lincoln Index and ranged from 861 to 4,612 males and from 2,187 to 19,739 females. The low proportion of females that reach the age when they are potentially infective suggests that N. neivai has a low biological capacity to serve as a vector and that factors such as high biting rates and opportunistic feeding behavior would be needed to enable Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Vianna transmission. This agreed with the epidemiological pattern of ACL in southeastern Brazil that is characterized by low incidence, with isolated cases acquired principally within domiciliary habitats. PMID:19198516

Casanova, C; Natal, D; Santos, F A M

2009-01-01

23

Lovesongs and period gene polymorphisms indicate Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) as a sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) complex.  

PubMed

The sand fly Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) is implicated as a vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in some areas of Brazil. Lutzomyia cruzi is closely related to Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) the main Latin American vector of AVL and a species complex. Although females of the two species are identical, the males can be distinguished by differences in the genitalia. Nevertheless, pheromone analysis shows that Lu. cruzi males produce 9-methyl-germacrene-B, which has also been found in a number of Latin American populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. In addition, analysis of microsatellite loci shows that the level of divergence between Lu. cruzi and Lu. longipalpis s.l. is similar to that observed among the Lu. longipalpis s.l. sibling species. Here we present the lovesongs of Lu. cruzi males which are similar to the Burst-type songs produced by one of the Lu. longipalpis s.l. sibling species. We also present data on the molecular polymorphisms of the period gene of Lu. cruzi that indicate this species as another sibling within the Lu. longipalpis complex. The results highlight the importance of an integrative approach to understand the patterns of genetic and phenotypic divergence among very closely related vector species. PMID:20478408

Vigoder, Felipe M; Araki, Alejandra S; Bauzer, Luiz G S R; Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Peixoto, Alexandre A

2010-08-01

24

Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia). Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89%) and Lutzomyia walkeri (5%) were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi) were present in very low abundance (< 2%). Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February), directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance. PMID:23828011

Trujillo, Adolfo Vasquez; Reina, Angelica E Gonzalez; Orjuela, Agustin Gongora; Suarez, Edgar Prieto; Palomares, Jairo Enrique; Alvarez, Luz Stella Buitrago

2013-01-01

25

Rare occurrence of gynandromorphism in Lutzomyia davisi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Descriptions of morphological anomalies of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) have been recorded in both the New World and the Old World. The majority of these anomalies are associated with the genitalia, the number of cibarial teeth, wing venation, the size of the palps, and other less significant features. Such morphological variations, particularly in symmetry, can result in incorrect species identification. The occurrence of gynandromorphism in sand flies is a rare phenomenon. Currently, only five such cases have been registered in worldwide literature. In Brazil, only one report of gynandromorphism was observed in a specimen of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912) from the state of the Ceará. We report here on the first known case of gynandromorphism in Lutzomyia davisi (Root 1934) captured in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. PMID:18283959

de Souza, Marcos Barbosa; Wermelinger, Eduardo Dias; Ponte, César dos Santos; Meira, Antonio de Medeiros; Machado, Roberto Ney Martins; Vargas, Paulo Sérgio Rocha; de Carvalho, Raimundo Wilson

2008-01-01

26

Antibodies from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis recognise two proteins from the saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, a major vector of Leishmania, exhibits pharmacological and immunomodulatory activities that may facilitate entry and establishment of parasites into the\\u000a vertebrate host. Salivary gland components of the sand fly are, therefore, potential candidates in the development of a vaccine\\u000a against human leishmaniasis. With the objective of identifying sand fly saliva proteins that

Diana Bahia; Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo; Ileana Rodríguez León; Jonas Perales; Marcos Horácio Pereira; Guilherme Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis

2007-01-01

27

Investigation of the Bacterial Communities Associated with Females of Lutzomyia Sand Fly Species from South America  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania that are acquired by the female sand fly during blood feeding on an infected mammal. Leishmania parasites develop exclusively in the gut lumen during their residence in the insect before transmission to a suitable host during the next blood feed. Female phlebotomine sand flies are blood feeding insects but their life style of visiting plants as well as animals, and the propensity for larvae to feed on detritus including animal faeces means that the insect host and parasite are exposed to a range of microorganisms. Thus, the sand fly microbiota may interact with the developing Leishmania population in the gut. The aim of the study was to investigate and identify the bacterial diversity associated with wild adult female Lutzomyia sand flies from different geographical locations in the New World. The bacterial phylotypes recovered from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries obtained from wild caught adult female Lutzomyia sand flies were estimated from direct band sequencing after denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of bacterial 16 rRNA gene fragments. These results confirm that the Lutzomyia sand flies contain a limited array of bacterial phylotypes across several divisions. Several potential plant-related bacterial sequences were detected including Erwinia sp. and putative Ralstonia sp. from two sand fly species sampled from 3 geographically separated regions in Brazil. Identification of putative human pathogens also demonstrated the potential for sand flies to act as vectors of bacterial pathogens of medical importance in addition to their role in Leishmania transmission. PMID:22880020

Sant'Anna, Mauricio R. V.; Darby, Alistair C.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Montoya-Lerma, James; Dillon, Viv M.; Bates, Paul A.; Dillon, Rod J.

2012-01-01

28

Identification of naturally infected Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia migonei with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) revealed by a PCR multiplex non-isotopic hybridisation assay.  

PubMed

To identify naturally infected Lutzomyia spp. by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a PCR multiplex non-isotopic hybridisation assay was developed for the analysis of insect samples collected in distinct areas of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from March to December 2003. Data from experimental infection indicate that the method can detect one individual infected insect out of ten. Wild sand flies were classified and grouped into pools of 10 specimens each, reaching a total of 40 female groups. Positive results were obtained with pools of Lu. intermedia (5/32) and Lu. migonei (3/5) collected in two areas from the district of Jacarepaguá presenting recent cases of human and canine leishmaniasis. Considering eight infected groups (8/40) with at least one positive insect in each, it was possible to infer an infection rate of 2%. This technique permits the synchronous processing of a large number of samples, in order to investigate infection rates in sand fly populations and to identify potential insect vectors. The results presented here represent the first molecular approach used to infer the natural infection index in both Lutzomyia spp. and constitute essential data to the understanding of leishmaniasis ecoepidemiology in endemic areas from Rio de Janeiro. PMID:16143358

de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Alves, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Marcos Barbosa; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Bertho, Alvaro Luiz; de Figueiredo Barbosa, André; Britto, Constança Carvalho

2005-12-01

29

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

PubMed

The article discusses habits related to the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, along with evidence confirming the importance of this sand fly species in the epidemiological chain of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. A new epidemiological profile for visceral leishmaniasis is also postulated, associated with domestic environments and the role of Lu. longipalpis in this process, its sylvatic origin, and its capacity to adapt to a wide range of habitats. Another sand fly species, Lu. cruzi, is mentioned as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in some municipalities in Central Brazil, based on studies in endemic areas of the country. PMID:19082287

Rangel, Elizabeth F; Vilela, Maurício L

2008-12-01

30

Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up

Cláudio Casanova; Antonio IP Costa; Delsio Natal

2005-01-01

31

A fourth chemotype of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Jaibas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) is a species complex of Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis (Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli) and at least three other as yet undefined siblings. Isozyme and mitochondrial studies of allopatric populations across Central and South America have suggested the presence of four "clades" that have been hypothesized to have arisen mainly because of geographical isolation mechanisms. Parallel studies of sexual behavior as well as cross-mating and genetic analysis, of both allopatric and sympatric populations, suggest at least four sibling species that do not seem to correspond to the defined four "clades." In an effort to understand this apparent discrepancy, sympatric populations of L. longipalpis from a single South American country, Brazil, are being studied. In Brazil, three putative species can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-a-himachalene, and a cembrene. We report here that analysis by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry shows that L. longipalpis from Jaibas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, occurs as two sympatric sex pheromone chemotypes. One chemotype is the cembrene type previously recorded in a L. longipalpis population from Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil, and the other is a new cembrene isomer not previously observed in L. longipalpis. The finding of this new chemotype strongly suggests that the L. longipalpis species complex in Brazil consists of four members rather than the three previously recognized and confirms previous analysis of genetic variation that had suggested the presence of a complex in Brazil. PMID:15605640

Hamilton, J G C; Brazil, R P; Maingon, R

2004-11-01

32

A laboratory evaluation of alcohols as attractants for the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera:Psychodidae)  

PubMed Central

Background The potential attraction from 1-octen-3-ol for sandflies has been documented; however, studies using other primary alcohols are limited. Findings We used a wind tunnel to compare the activation and attractive behaviors in male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis using 1-octen-3-ol and three additional alcohols, 1-octanol, 1-heptanol and 1-nonanol at three different concentrations: neat (100%) and diluted in hexane (10% and 50%). The compounds 1-octen-3-ol and 1-nonanol induced a clear concentration-dependent activation and attraction response in females. In males, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-nonanol and 1-heptanol yielded the same results. Conclusions L. longipalpis is attracted to 1-octen-3-ol, 1-nonanol and 1-heptanol, which are found in many plant volatiles. PMID:24502386

2014-01-01

33

Lutzomyia longipalpis in Brazil: a complex or a single species? A mini-review.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). Although there is strong evidence that Lu. longipalpis is a species complex, not all data concerning populations from Brazil support this hypothesis. The issue is still somewhat controversial for this large part of Lu. longipalpis distribution range even though that it is the Latin American region contributing to most of the cases of AVL. In this mini-review we consider in detail the current data for the Brazilian populations and conclude that Lu. longipalpis is a complex of incipient vector species with a complexity similar to Anopheles gambiae s.s. in Africa. PMID:17293992

Bauzer, Luiz G S R; Souza, Nataly A; Maingon, Rhayza D C; Peixoto, Alexandre A

2007-02-01

34

Reproductive isolation between sympatric and allopatric Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae).  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l., the main vector of Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, is a species complex although the exact number of siblings is yet unknown. In Brazil, the siblings differ in male copulatory courtship songs and pheromones that most certainly act as pre-zygotic reproductive barriers. Here we analysed the reproductive isolation between three allopatric and two sympatric populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. from Brazil. The results indicate a strong copulatory and pre-mating isolation between the three allopatric populations. In addition, the results also indicate a stronger pre-mating isolation between the two sympatric siblings than between the three allopatric ones, suggesting a role for reinforcement in the speciation of the Lu. longipalpis s.l. complex. PMID:18425278

Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Claudia A; Vigoder, Felipe M; Ward, Richard D; Peixoto, Alexandre A

2008-03-01

35

Effects of azadirachtin on the development and mortality of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).  

PubMed

The effects of azadirachtin A added to the standard diet on the development, mortality, and metamorphosis of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 were studied. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg of azadirachtin/mg of diet significantly increased larval mortality in comparison with nontreated insects. Concentrations 0.1 and 1.0 microg blocked the molt of larvae, which remained as third instars until the end of the experiment. The 10 microg/mg concentration resulted in greater molt inhibition. In this group, all insects stopped their development as second instars. Simultaneous addition of ecdysone (1 microg/mg) to the standard diet containing azadirachtin counteracted the effects of azadirachtin on mortality and inhibition of ecdysis. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent growth inhibitor of L. longipalpis. PMID:16619609

Andrade Coelho, Claudia Alves; de Souza, Nataly Araújo; Feder, Maria Denise; da Silva, Carlos Eugênio; Garcia, Elói de Souza; Azambuja, Patricia; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2006-03-01

36

Expression pattern of glycoside hydrolase genes in Lutzomyia longipalpis reveals key enzymes involved in larval digestion.  

PubMed

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. Adults are phytophagous (males and females) or blood feeders (females only), and larvae feed on solid detritus. Digestion in sand fly larvae has scarcely been studied, but some glycosidase activities putatively involved in microorganism digestion were already described. Nevertheless, the molecular nature of these enzymes, as the corresponding genes and transcripts, were not explored yet. Catabolism of microbial carbohydrates in insects generally involves ?-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, and digestive lysozymes. In this work, the transcripts of digestive ?-1,3-glucanase and chitinases were identified in the L. longipalpis larvae throughout analysis of sequences and expression patterns of glycoside hydrolases families 16, 18, and 22. The activity of one i-type lysozyme was also registered. Interestingly, this lysozyme seems to play a role in immunity, rather than digestion. This is the first attempt to identify the molecular nature of sand fly larval digestive enzymes. PMID:25140153

Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Diaz-Albiter, Hector M; Faria, Maiara do Valle; Sant'Anna, Maurício R V; Dillon, Rod J; Genta, Fernando A

2014-01-01

37

Expression pattern of glycoside hydrolase genes in Lutzomyia longipalpis reveals key enzymes involved in larval digestion  

PubMed Central

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. Adults are phytophagous (males and females) or blood feeders (females only), and larvae feed on solid detritus. Digestion in sand fly larvae has scarcely been studied, but some glycosidase activities putatively involved in microorganism digestion were already described. Nevertheless, the molecular nature of these enzymes, as the corresponding genes and transcripts, were not explored yet. Catabolism of microbial carbohydrates in insects generally involves ?-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, and digestive lysozymes. In this work, the transcripts of digestive ?-1,3-glucanase and chitinases were identified in the L. longipalpis larvae throughout analysis of sequences and expression patterns of glycoside hydrolases families 16, 18, and 22. The activity of one i-type lysozyme was also registered. Interestingly, this lysozyme seems to play a role in immunity, rather than digestion. This is the first attempt to identify the molecular nature of sand fly larval digestive enzymes. PMID:25140153

Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Diaz-Albiter, Hector M.; Faria, Maiara do Valle; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R. V.; Dillon, Rod J.; Genta, Fernando A.

2014-01-01

38

Bacterial feeding, Leishmania infection and distinct infection routes induce differential defensin expression in Lutzomyia longipalpis  

PubMed Central

Background Phlebotomine insects harbor bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens that can cause diseases of public health importance. Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Insects can mount a powerful innate immune response to pathogens. Defensin peptides take part in this response and are known to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and some parasites. We studied the expression of a defensin gene from Lutzomyia longipalpis to understand its role in sand fly immune response. Methods We identified, sequenced and evaluated the expression of a L. longipalpis defensin gene by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The gene sequence was compared to other vectors defensins and expression was determined along developmental stages and after exposure of adult female L. longipalpis to bacteria and Leishmania. Results Phylogenetic analysis showed that the L. longipalpis defensin is closely related to a defensin from the Old World sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi. Expression was high in late L4 larvae and pupae in comparison to early larval stages and newly emerged flies. Defensin expression was modulated by oral infection with bacteria. The Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus induced early high defensin expression, whilst the Gram-negative entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens induced a later response. Bacterial injection also induced defensin expression in adult insects. Female sand flies infected orally with Leishmania mexicana showed no significant difference in defensin expression compared to blood fed insects apart from a lower defensin expression 5 days post Leishmania infection. When Leishmania was introduced into the hemolymph by injection there was no induction of defensin expression until 72?h later. Conclusions Our results suggest that L. longipalpis modulates defensin expression upon bacterial and Leishmania infection, with patterns of expression that are distinct among bacterial species and routes of infection. PMID:23311993

2013-01-01

39

Detection of natural infection in Lutzomyia cruzi and Lutzomyia forattinii (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) by Leishmania infantum chagasi in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil using a PCR multiplex assay.  

PubMed

In order to identify Lutzomyia spp. naturally infected by Leishmania parasites a PCR multiplex assay coupled to non-isotopic hybridization was used for the analysis of insect samples collected by CDC light traps in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the municipality of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil in May/June 2006. Wild sand flies were identified and grouped into pools of 10 female specimens and 27 groups in total were collected. Positive results were obtained from Lutzomyia cruzi (2 out of 13 pools) and Lutzomyia forattinii (1 out of 14 pools). The positive pools were confirmed as being infected by Leishmania infantum chagasi after hybridizing the PCR products with a species-specific biotinylated probe derived from the kinetoplast minicircle conserved sequence. Given that we detected infection in 3 out of 27 groups and that there was at least 1 infected insect in each, it was possible to infer an infection rate of 1.5% for Lu. cruzi and 0.7% for Lu. forattinii in the analyzed samples. These results confirm the vectorial role of Lu. cruzi in transmitting L. infantum chagasi and suggest Lu. forattinii as a potential VL vector in the municipality of Corumbá, where notifications of the disease in humans and dogs have increased over the last two decades. PMID:18502392

de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Cardoso, Maria Angelica Batista; Alves, Carlos Roberto; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Britto, Constança

2008-07-01

40

Male sex pheromones and the phylogeographic structure of the Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Brazil and Venezuela.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis, a sibling complex, is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi/infantum. Discriminating between siblings is important as they may differ in vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis populations display distinct male sex pheromone chemotypes. We investigated the phylogeographic pattern of variation at microsatellite loci from 11 populations from Brazil and Venezuela related to their male pheromone. Temporal genetic differentiation was mostly not significant at the same site. Spatial genetic differentiation was, however, strong, although there was only a weak relationship between genetic differentiation and the geographic distance separating the samples (r2 < 0.10); geographic separation explained a much greater (54-97%) percentage of the genetic differences among populations when samples with the same pheromone type were analyzed separately. A cluster analysis showed five groups: Lu. cruzi (Brazil) and Lu. pseudolongipalpis (Venezuela) as separate species, two (mostly 9-methyl-germacrene-B) Venezuelan and Brazilian groups, and a very distinct cluster of Brazilian cembrene populations. PMID:16222018

Watts, Phillip C; Hamilton, J Gordon C; Ward, Richard D; Noyes, Harry A; Souza, Nataly A; Kemp, Stephen J; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Brazil, Reginaldo; Maingon, Rhayza D C

2005-10-01

41

Studies on the sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from transmission areas of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in state of Acre, Brazil.  

PubMed

Studies were undertaken on the phlebotomines in the municipalities of Bujari, Xapuri and Rio Branco in the state of Acre. The abundance of species on the ground and in the tree canopy was estimated by Standardized Index of Species Abundance. Of the 52 species identified, Lutzomyia (N.) antunesi, Lutzomyia (N.) whitmani, Lutzomyia (P.) davisi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia (N.) umbratilis, Lutzomyia (N.) flaviscutellata, Lutzomyia (T.) ubiqui-talis, Lutzomyia (P.) hirsuta hirsuta, Lutzomyia (P.) paraensis and Lutzomyia (P.) ayrozai are known to be vectors of Leishmania, the causative agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lutzomyia (T.) auraensis, Lu. (N.) antunesi, Lu. (N.) whitmani and Lu. (P.) davisi accounted for 66.95% of the specimens collected. Lu. (N.) whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Lu. (N.) antunesi and Lu. (P.) davisi. Lu. (N.) antunesi was the most abundant species in the soil as well as in the canopy. Lu. (N.) umbratilis occurred in all three municipalities and was the fifth most abundant species in the Chico Mendes Municipal Park in Rio Branco. It was collected on both the ground level as well as in the canopy; however, it was more frequently collected in the tree canopy. The present study suggests the existence of three transmission cycles of Leishmania in Acre, including the transmission of Leishmania (V.) guyanensis by Lu. (N.) umbratilis south of the Amazon River. PMID:19148413

Azevedo, Alfredo C R; Costa, Simone M; Pinto, Maria C G; Souza, Janis L; Cruz, Henrique C; Vidal, Joaquim; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2008-12-01

42

Phlebotomine Fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Putative Vectors of Leishmaniases in Impacted Area by Hydroelectric Plant, State of Tocantins, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Although leishmaniases are regarded as serious public health issues in the State of Tocantins, as consequence of the impact of environmental changes, small advances in taxonomic and ecological studies of Phlebotominae fauna are taking place in this state. The present study aimed to improve the knowledge about the sand flies, as well as about the aspects of the bioecology of leishmaniases vectors from Porto Nacional, a city that was directly impacted by the construction of Luís Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Plant (HEP – Lajeado). Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were collected monthly using CDC light traps and Shannon traps for a period of 40 consecutive months, at different monitoring stations, where 7162 specimens were collected and 48 species were detected. Among the species found, 22 are first records in the state and seven are considered important vectors of leishmaniases. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) showed higher frequency in urban compared to rural areas, and Nyssomyia whitmani, the vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL), predominated in rural areas. The frequency and habits of sand fly vectors are discussed considering environmental characteristics and climatic factors. Conclusions/Significance The construction of dams requires a great amount of labor, therefore attracting people from elsewhere. Increased migration, without adequate structure, leads to bad living conditions in new and unplanned settlements. It also leads to deforestation associated with environmental impacts, which can facilitate the spread of leishmaniases. This study discusses the importance of Lu. longipalpis and Ny. whitmani on the transmission cycles of leishmaniases in Porto Nacional and the record of Bi. flaviscutellata in periurban area of the city. PMID:22163271

Vilela, Mauricio Luiz; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Rangel, Elizabeth F.

2011-01-01

43

Species diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) during different seasons and in different environments in the district of Taquaruçú, state of Tocantins, Brazil.  

PubMed

Phlebotomine sandflies are the vectors for the protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniasis. The present study investigated the species composition of sandfly fauna in the rural district of Taquaruçú, municipality of Palmas, state of Tocantins, Brazil and compared the diversity of species among intradomicile, peridomicile and forest environments during the dry and rainy seasons. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps over the course of three months during the dry and rainy seasons. A total of 767 specimens were captured, belonging to different 32 species. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia goiana (Martins, Falcão & Silva), Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Evandromyia carmelinoi (Ryan Fraiha, Lainson & Shaw), Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). The highest species diversity (30) and the greatest percentage of specimens (78.3%) were obtained during the rainy season. During the dry season, the species richness and abundance were greater in domestic environments. However, during the rainy season, the forest displayed the highest species richness and the domestic environment exhibited the greatest species abundance. Several important vector species are reported in this study. PMID:23147157

Machado, Tâmara Oliveira; Bragança, Marcos Antônio Lima; Carvalho, Muzenilha Lima; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

2012-11-01

44

Analysis of the copulatory courtship songs of Lutzomyia longipalpis in six populations from Brazil.  

PubMed

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Americas, is believed to be a species complex, although the status of different Brazilian populations is still somewhat unclear. Preliminary analysis of the acoustic signals that are produced during copulation by L. longipalpis males has suggested the existence of three sibling species in Brazil. In the current report, we analyze in more detail a number of parameters of the copulatory courtship songs of L. longipalpis males from four allopatric populations from different parts of the country (Marajó Island, Natal, Jacobina, and Lapinha Cave) and from two sympatric populations from the locality of Sobral, where two types of males can be differentiated by the number of pale spots (one or two pairs) found on the abdomen. We show that males from the localities of Natal, Marajó, and Sobral (two-spot morph) have very similar songs composed of successive bursts, which are modulated in frequency and amplitude. No significant differences were found in the song parameters of these three populations. In contrast, one-spot males from Sobral and males from Jacobina and Lapinha produce songs that are made of pulses but with distinct patterns for each population and significant differences in all song parameters studied. The results suggest that the L. longipalpis complex in Brazil is composed of four sibling species and that the differences in song patterns between the populations are consistent with the level of divergence found in the period gene. PMID:15535620

Souza, Nataly A; Vigoder, Felipe M; Araki, Alejandra S; Ward, Richard D; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Peixoto, Alexandre A

2004-09-01

45

Caspar-like gene depletion reduces Leishmania infection in sand fly host Lutzomyia longipalpis.  

PubMed

Female phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally harbor populations of the medically important Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) parasite in the gut, but the extent to which the parasite interacts with the immune system of the insect vector is unknown. To investigate the sand fly immune response and its interaction with the Leishmania parasite, we identified a homologue for caspar, a negative regulator of immune deficiency signaling pathway. We found that feeding antibiotics to adult female L. longipalpis resulted in an up-regulation of caspar expression relative to controls. caspar was differentially expressed when females were fed on gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. caspar expression was significantly down-regulated in females between 3 and 6 days after a blood feed containing Leishmania mexicana amastigotes. RNA interference was used to deplete caspar expression in female L. longipalpis, which were subsequently fed with Leishmania in a blood meal. Sand fly gut populations of both L. mexicana and L. infantum were significantly reduced in caspar-depleted females. The prevalence of L. infantum infection in the females fell from 85 to 45%. Our results provide the first insight into the operation of immune homeostasis in phlebotomine sand flies during the growth of bacterial and Leishmania populations in the digestive tract. We have demonstrated that the activation of the sand fly immune system, via depletion of a single gene, can lead to the abortion of Leishmania development and the disruption of transmission by the phlebotomine sand fly. PMID:22375009

Telleria, Erich L; Sant'Anna, Maurício R V; Ortigão-Farias, João R; Pitaluga, André N; Dillon, Viv M; Bates, Paul A; Traub-Csekö, Yara M; Dillon, Rod J

2012-04-13

46

Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay.  

PubMed

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-alpha-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2.In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America. PMID:19883505

Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

2009-01-01

47

Ultrastructural cytochemistry of the sex pheromone glands of Lutzomyia cruzi male sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).  

PubMed

The sex pheromone glands of Lutzomyia cruzi male sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were analyzed by cytochemical techniques. In adult males, the epithelium at the fourth abdominal tergite is modified into a glandular epithelium, with large columnar gland cells located side by side. The gland cell cytoplasm contains a large number of mitochondria and peroxisomes, the latter with positive (electron-dense) reaction for catalase, a typical peroxisomal enzyme marker. The gland cell cytoplasm also contains a central vacuolated area, with a large number of electron-lucent vacuoles, not limited by a unit membrane. In well-preserved preparations such vacuoles present a homogenous and slightly electron-dense content, typical of lipid droplets. Indeed, incubation of the tergites with imidazole-buffered osmium tetroxide (to detect lipids) resulted in positive reaction in these vacuoles, as well as in between the microvilli of the gland cells. Use of the osmium-potassium iodide (Os-KI) technique allowed to demonstrate the presence of several endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles, as expected in secretory cells. Our data suggest that ER, lipid droplets and peroxisomes are involved in the sand fly pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:18089046

Spiegel, Carolina N; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Soares, Maurilio J

2004-10-01

48

Life cycle differences among Brazilian sandflies of the Lutzomyia longipalpis sibling species complex.  

PubMed

The developmental cycles of five Brazilian populations of the Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae) were compared under laboratory conditions. Three of the populations were derived from insects collected in allopatric sites at Natal (Rio Grande do Norte State), Jacobina (Bahia State) and Lapinha Cave (Minas Gerais State). The other two originated from Sobral (Ceará State), where the males of two sympatric species can be distinguished by the presence of one (1S) or two (2S) pairs of abdominal spots. The results of the present study clearly show that all three populations whose males produce C16 pheromones and use pulse-type copulation songs (Jacobina, Lapinha Cave and Sobral 1S) are more easily adapted to the colonization conditions used in our laboratory, producing larger egg batches, with higher survival and an overall faster developmental cycle. This contrasts with populations producing C20 male pheromones and using burst-type copulation songs (Natal and Sobral 2S) that produce smaller egg batches, have higher oviposition mortality and a slower rate of development under identical laboratory conditions. In conclusion, these phenological differences are a further indication of the differentiation of the siblings within the Lu. longipalpis species complex. PMID:19712160

Souza, N A; Andrade-Coelho, C A; Silva, V C; Ward, R D; Peixoto, A A

2009-09-01

49

Disruption of the peritrophic matrix by exogenous chitinase feeding reduces fecundity in Lutzomyia longipalpis females.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. When female sandflies feed on blood, a peritrophic matrix (PM) is formed around the blood bolus. The PM is secreted by midgut cells and composed of proteins, glycoproteins and chitin microfibrils. The PM functions as both a physical barrier against pathogens present in the food bolus and blood meal digestion regulator. Previous studies of mosquitoes and sandflies have shown that the absence of a PM, resulting from adding an exogenous chitinase to the blood meal, accelerates digestion. In the present study, we analysed biological factors associated with the presence of a PM in L. longipalpis females. Insects fed blood containing chitinase (BCC) accelerated egg-laying relative to a control group fed blood without chitinase. However, in the BCC-fed insects, the number of females that died without laying eggs was higher and the number of eggs laid per female was lower. The eggs in both groups were viable and generated adults. Based on these data, we suggest that the absence of a PM accelerates nutrient acquisition, which results in premature egg production and oviposition; however, the absence of a PM reduces the total number of eggs laid per female. Reduced fecundity in the absence of a PM may be due to inefficient nutrient conversion or the loss of the protective role of the PM. PMID:22666867

Araújo, Adriana Pereira Oliveira de; Telleria, Erich Loza; Dutra, Juliana da Matta Furniel; Júlio, Rute Maria; Traub-Csekö, Yara Maria

2012-06-01

50

Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Catalase Is Important for Female Lutzomyia longipalpis Fecundity and Mortality  

E-print Network

The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), the disseminated and most serious form of the disease in Central and South America. In the natural environment, most female L. longipalpis are thought to survive for less than 10 days and will feed on blood only once or twice during their lifetime. Successful transmission of parasites occurs when a Leishmania-infected female sand fly feeds on a new host. Knowledge of factors affecting sand fly longevity that lead to a reduction in lifespan could result in a decrease in parasite transmission. Catalase has been found to play a major role in survival and fecundity in many insect species. It is a strong antioxidant enzyme that breaks down toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ovarian catalase was found to accumulate in the developing sand fly oocyte from 12 to 48 hours after blood feeding. Catalase expression in ovaries as well as oocyte numbers was found to decrease with age. This reduction was not found in flies when fed on the antioxidant ascorbic acid in the sugar meal, a condition that increased mortality and activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade. RNA interference was used to silence catalase gene expression in female Lu. longipalpis. Depletion of catalase led to a significant increase of mortality and a reduction in the number of developing oocytes produced after blood feeding. These results demonstrate the central role

Hector Diaz-albiter; Roanna Mitford; O A. Genta; Mauricio R. V. Sant’anna; Rod J. Dillon

2010-01-01

51

Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance in the city of Posadas, northeastern Argentina: variations at different spatial scales.  

PubMed

The distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis is heterogeneous with a pattern of high abundance areas (HAAs) embedded in a matrix of low abundance areas (LAAs). The objective of this study was to describe the variability in the abundance of Lu. longipalpis at two different spatial levels and to analyse the relationship between the abundance and multiple environmental variables. Of the environmental variables analysed in each household, the condition that best explained the differences in vector abundance between HAA-LAA was the variable "land_grass", with greater average values in the peridomestic environments within the LAA, and the variables "#sp tree", "#pots" and "dist_water" that were higher in the HAA. Of the environmental variables analysed in the patches, the variable "unpaved_streets" was higher in the LAAs and the variable "prop_inf_dogs" was higher in the HAAs. An understanding of the main environmental variables that influence the vector distribution could contribute to the development of strategies for the prevention and control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This is the first work in which environmental variables are analysed at the micro-scale in urban areas at the southern edge of the current range of Lu. longipalpis. Our results represent a significant contribution to the understanding of the abundance of the vector in the peridomestic habitats of the region. PMID:22990967

Santini, María Soledad; Fernández, María Soledad; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

2012-09-01

52

Lutzomyia longipalpis behavior and control at an urban visceral leishmaniasis focus in Argentina.  

PubMed

During the earlier stages of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Posadas City, Misiones, both the night activity and attraction to humans of Lutzomyia longipalpis were assessed, in order to provide preliminary recommendations. The impact of peridomestic deltamethrin spraying performed by local officials was also evaluated. Although Lu. longipalpis were found in traps located over a dog the entire night, 90% of the females were captured from 20.30h to 1.30h, and only landed on a human when he was at a distance of 1.5 m from the dog. Peridomestic spraying of deltamethrin (25 mg/m²) reduced the sand fly capture up to seven days post-intervention without dispersion in the border of the sprayed areas. These results support the recommendations about time-space focus of the protection measures: first half of the night, in the backyard, with pets and domestic animals kept at least 5 m from humans. The deltamethrin as it was used did not seem very effective in this scenario; neither did the eventual use of bed nets, at least in adults, due to the place/hour of sand fly higher activity. This study strengthens the need for a multidisciplinary approach to develop prevention strategies based both on biological and anthropological studies. PMID:21748225

Santini, Maria Soledad; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Acardi, Soraya Alejandra; Sandoval, Enrique Adolfo; Tartaglino, Lilian

2010-01-01

53

[Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)].  

PubMed

Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some insect species. The present study evaluated the repellent effect of essential oils extracted from 8 plants species against bites of Lutzomyia migonei, the Leishmania vector. The essential oils were extracted by steam destillation in Clevenger chamber, from the following plants: Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plecthranthus amboinicus and Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Repellency tests were performed under laboratory conditions by the human hand method in cage assays, using female colonies of L. migonei. The more effective oils were tested at variable concentrations on different volunteers. The protection percentage and time were calculated. The results showed what oils of P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum were the most effective. Although P. amboinicus oil also had repellent effect showed an irritant effect. The oils P. marginatum, H. suaveolens and P. racemosa showed no repellent effect, while the rest of oil extracts showed significant repellency in variable degrees. P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum oils provided the 95% protection against bites of L. migonei for 3 h. The P. caeruleocanum oil showed the greatest protection time, with a mean over 4h and 3h at concentrations of 50% and 10% respectively. The results suggest that the P. caeruleocanum oil could represent a potential natural repellent against Leishmania vectors. PMID:21250485

Nieves, Elsa; Fernández Méndez, Janett; Lias, José; Rondón, Maritza; Briceño, Benito

2010-12-01

54

Molecular and Behavioral Differentiation among Brazilian Populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)  

PubMed Central

Background Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. There is strong evidence that L. longipalpis is a species complex, but until recently the existence of sibling species among Brazilian populations was considered a controversial issue. In addition, there is still no consensus regarding the number of species occurring in this complex. Methodology/Principal Findings Using period, a gene that controls circadian rhythms and affects interpulse interval periodicity of the male courtship songs in Drosophila melanogaster and close relatives, we analyzed the molecular polymorphism in a number of L. longipalpis samples from different regions in Brazil and compared the results with our previously published data using the same marker. We also studied the male copulation songs and pheromones from some of these populations. The results obtained so far suggest the existence of two main groups of populations in Brazil, one group representing a single species with males producing Burst-type copulation songs and cembrene-1 pheromones; and a second group that is more heterogeneous and probably represents a number of incipient species producing different combinations of Pulse-type songs and pheromones. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal a high level of complexity in the divergence and gene-flow among Brazilian populations of the L. longipalpis species complex. This raises important questions concerning the epidemiological consequences of this incipient speciation process. PMID:19172187

Araki, Alejandra S.; Vigoder, Felipe M.; Bauzer, Luiz G. S. R.; Ferreira, Gabriel E. M.; Souza, Nataly A.; Araujo, Izeneide B.; Hamilton, James G. C.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Peixoto, Alexandre A.

2009-01-01

55

Identification of sex pheromones of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) populations from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, four populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis each producing different sex pheromones are recognised. It has been suggested that these chemotype populations represent true sibling species. In this study we present the results of an analysis, by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, of the pheromones of males L. longipalpis from two different municipalities of the state of São Paulo. Our study showed that L. longipalpis from these two municipalities produced different sex pheromones from each other. This coupled with the remarkable difference between the epidemiological situation in Araçatuba and Espírito Santo do Pinhal, suggests that the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B and cembrene-1 populations may have different vectorial capacities. PMID:16699721

Casanova, Cláudio; Hamilton, J G C; Trigo, J R; Costa, Antonio I P

2006-02-01

56

Behavioral aspects of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in urban area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The study of some of the behavioral aspects of the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas in the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), such as dispersion, population size, and vector survival rates, is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These parameters were studied by means of capture-mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area of Campo Grande municipality, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, situated in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Six capture-mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken between November 2009 and November 2010 and once in January 2012 with a view to assessing the population size and survival rate of Lu. longipalpis. The insects were released in a peridomicile surrounded by 13 residences. The recaptures were undertaken with automatic light traps for four consecutive weeks after release in the surrounding area. In total, 3,354 sand flies were captured, marked, and released. The overall recapture rate during the capture-mark-release-recapture experiments was 4.23%, of which 92.45% were recaptured at the release site, indicating limited dispersal. The greatest distance recorded from the release site was 165 m for males and 241 m for females. The male daily survival rate, calculated on the basis of regressions from the numbers of marked recaptured insects during the 15 successive days after release was 0.897. The estimated male population size measured by the Lincoln Index was 10,947.127. Though Lu. longipalpis presented a limited dispersion the physical barriers typical of urban environments did not prevent the sand flies from flying long distances. PMID:23540114

De Oliveira, E F; Silva, E A; Casaril, A E; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Gamarra, R M; Ribeiro, A A; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G

2013-03-01

57

Phylogeography of the Lutzomyia gomezi (Diptera: Phlebotominae) on the Panama Isthmus  

PubMed Central

Background Lutzomyia gomezi (Nitzulescu, 1931) is one of the main Leishmania (Vianna) panamensis vectors in Panama, and despite its medical significance, there are no population genetic studies regarding this species. In this study, we used the sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b/start of NADH1 and the nuclear elongation gene ?-1 in order to analyze genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the Lu. gomezi populations. Methods A total of 86 Lu. gomezi individuals were captured in 38 locations where cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred. DNA was extracted with phenol/chloroform methods and amplification of genes was performed using PCR primers for mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Results We found a total of 37 and 26 haplotypes of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, high haplotype diversity (h) for all three populations were detected with both molecular markers. Nucleotide diversity (?) was estimated to be high for all three populations with the mitochondrial marker, which was opposite to the estimate with the nuclear marker. In the AMOVA ?st recorded moderate (mitochondrial) and small (nuclear) population structure with statistical significance among populations. The analysis of the fixation index (Fst) used to measure the differentiation of populations showed that with the exception of the population located in the region of Bocas del Toro, the other populations presented with minor genetic differentiation. The median-Joining network of the mitochondrial marker reveled three clusters and recorded four haplotypes exclusively of localities sampled from Western Panama, demonstrating strong divergence. We found demographic population expansion with Fu´s Fs neutrality test. In the analysis mismatch distribution was observed as a bimodal curve. Conclusion Lu. gomezi is a species with higher genetic pool or variability and mild population structure, due to possible capacity migration and local adaptation to environmental changes or colonization potential. Thus, knowledge of the genetic population and evolutionary history is useful to understand the implications of different population genetic structures for cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemiology. PMID:24398187

2014-01-01

58

Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).  

PubMed

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females. PMID:21661306

Spiegel, Carolina N; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Bretas, Jorge A C; Eiras, Alvaro E; Hooper, Antony M; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Soares, Maurilio J

2011-05-01

59

Constitutive and blood meal-induced trypsin genes in Lutzomyia longipalpis.  

PubMed

Trypsins constitute some of the most abundant midgut digestive proteases expressed by hematophagous insects upon blood feeding. In addition to their role in the digestion of the blood meal, these proteases also have been implicated in the ability of certain pathogens to infect their natural vector. In sand flies, digestive proteases including trypsins were associated with early killing of Leishmania and are believed to play a role in the species-specificity dictating sand fly vectorial capacity. Our group is involved in studies of midgut digestive proteases in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, the principal vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Here we report on the identification of two cDNAs, Lltryp1 and Lltryp2, which code for putative midgut trypsins in L. longipalpis. Analyses of RNA abundance using semi-quantitative RT-PCR show a different pattern of expression between the two genes. Lltryp1 expression remains undetected until blood feeding and reaches a peak at 12 h post-blood meal (PBM), returning to pre-blood meal levels at 72 h PBM. Additionally, Lltryp1 expression is undetected during larval development. Lltryp2, on the other hand, is constitutively expressed as high levels in the non-blood fed female, but is reduced upon blood feeding. At the end of the digestive cycle, Lltryp2 regains its pre-blood meal levels. This cDNA also is present in all developmental stages and in adult males. This pattern of expression is reminiscent of what is seen in mosquitoes and Old World sand flies, but has characteristics that are unique to L. longipalpis. PMID:17879236

Telleria, Erich Loza; Pitaluga, André Nóbrega; Ortigão-Farias, João Ramalho; de Araújo, Adriana Pereira Oliveira; Ramalho-Ortigão, José Marcelo; Traub-Cseko, Yara Maria

2007-10-01

60

Estimating carrying capacity in a newly colonized sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Diptera: Psychodidae).  

PubMed

The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Damasceno & Arouck) was mass-reared tinder conditions of varying densities in an effort to improve colony production efficiency. To do this, the experimental carrying capacity of a standard rearing chamber was determined, i.e., the optimum population size in relation to density (individuals per unit of space). Rearing chambers of 100 cm3 were populated with 1-50 L. serrana engorged females and an equal number of males. Laboratory conditions were maintained at 23-26 degrees C and 85-95% RH. The following parameters were recorded for each experimental chamber (three replicates): (1) female mortality without oviposition, (2) number of eggs oviposited and (3) number of adults emerging from the egg cohort. Female mortality began to increase substantially in the 26-female chamber, from 5.7% to 15% and finally reaching 60.2% in the 46-50 female chambers. In the chambers containing 1-20 females, egg number and realized adult progeny increased linearly to reach an asymptote. In the 20-50 female chambers, the number of eggs ranged from 420 to 699, and adult production from 306 to 432. The optimum carrying capacity for the 100-cm3 chambers was 22 +/- 2 females. Beyond this number, auto-regulation was initiated, i.e., female mortality without oviposition increased as the number of females per chamber increased. Total number of eggs and adult production was similar in all chambers containing 20-50 females. In conclusion, for optimizing production of mass reared sand flies, determination of the carrying capacity is essential to optimize use of insectary resources, to avoid loss of valuable potentially ovipositing females, and to increase overall production efficiency. PMID:11942751

Santamaría, Erika; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ferro, Cristina

2002-02-01

61

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector.  

PubMed

In our recently published article "Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector" by Iliano V. Coutinho-Abreu et al. a sentence located in paragraph 8 in the Discussion section had its meaning altered due to the improper insertion of three words. PMID:18834535

Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

2008-01-01

62

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas, and constitutes a complex of species. Various studies have suggested an incipient speciation process based on behavioral isolation driven by the chemotype of male sexual pheromones. It is well known that natural barriers, such as mountains and rivers can directly influence population divergence in

Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu; Ivan V Sonoda; Jose A Fonseca; Marcia A Melo; Valdir Q Balbino; Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão

2008-01-01

63

American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species  

PubMed Central

We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

2014-01-01

64

Transcriptome exploration of the sex pheromone gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)  

PubMed Central

Background Molecules involved in pheromone biosynthesis may represent alternative targets for insect population control. This may be particularly useful in managing the reproduction of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum in Latin America. Besides the chemical identity of the major components of the L. longipalpis sex pheromone, there is no information regarding the molecular biology behind its production. To understand this process, obtaining information on which genes are expressed in the pheromone gland is essential. Methods In this study we used a transcriptomic approach to explore the pheromone gland and adjacent abdominal tergites in order to obtain substantial general sequence information. We used a laboratory-reared L. longipalpis (one spot, 9-Methyl GermacreneB) population, captured in Lapinha Cave, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil for this analysis. Results From a total of 3,547 cDNA clones, 2,502 high quality sequences from the pheromone gland and adjacent tissues were obtained and assembled into 1,387 contigs. Through blast searches of public databases, a group of transcripts encoding proteins potentially involved in the production of terpenoid precursors were identified in the 4th abdominal tergite, the segment containing the pheromone gland. Among them, protein-coding transcripts for four enzymes of the mevalonate pathway such as 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate descarboxylase, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase were identified. Moreover, transcripts coding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase and NADP+ dependent farnesol dehydrogenase were also found in the same tergite. Additionally, genes potentially involved in pheromone transportation were identified from the three abdominal tergites analyzed. Conclusion This study constitutes the first transcriptomic analysis exploring the repertoire of genes expressed in the tissue containing the L. longipalpis pheromone gland as well as the flanking tissues. Using a comparative approach, a set of molecules potentially present in the mevalonate pathway emerge as interesting subjects for further study regarding their association to pheromone biosynthesis. The sequences presented here may be used as a reference set for future research on pheromone production or other characteristics of pheromone communication in this insect. Moreover, some matches for transcripts of unknown function may provide fertile ground of an in-depth study of pheromone-gland specific molecules. PMID:23497448

2013-01-01

65

Effects of temperature and photoperiod on daily activity rhythms of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Insect vectors have been established as models in Chronobiology for many decades, and recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the circadian clock machinery, daily rhythms of activity and vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the primary vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the New World, is reported to have crepuscular/nocturnal activity in the wild. However, most of these studies applied hourly CDC trap captures, which is a good indicative of L. longipalpis behaviour, but has limited accuracy due to the inability to record the daily activity of a single insect during consecutive days. In addition, very little is known about the activity pattern of L. longipalpis under seasonal variations of average temperature and day length in controlled laboratory conditions. Methods We recorded the locomotor activity of L. longipalpis males under different artificial regimes of temperature and photoperiod. First, in order to test the effects of temperature on the activity, sandflies were submitted to regimes of light/dark cycles similar to the equinox photoperiod (LD 12:12) combined with different constant temperatures (20°C, 25°C and 30°C). In addition, we recorded sandfly locomotor activity under a mild constant temperature (25°C with different day length regimes: 8 hours, 12 hours and 16 hours). Results L. longipalpis exhibited more activity at night, initiating dusk-related activity (onset time) at higher rather than lower temperatures. In parallel, changes of photoperiod affected anticipation as well as all the patterns of activity (onset, peak and offset time). However, under LD 16:08, sandflies presented the earliest values of maximum peak and offset times, contrary to other regimes. Conclusions Herein, we showed that light and temperature modulate L. longipalpis behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that sandflies might use environmental information to sustain their crepuscular/nocturnal activity, as well as other important aspects as mating and host-seeking at appropriate times in different seasons. Our results depict previously unappreciated aspects of the L. longipalpis daily rhythms of activity that might have important epidemiological implications. PMID:24947114

2014-01-01

66

Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.  

PubMed

The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source. PMID:22684112

Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

2012-08-01

67

Studies on the feeding habits of Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae), vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

PubMed

The precipitin test was applied to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia intermedia, collected in two distinct habitats: inside houses and in the peridomicile, in Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, a transmission area of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The following antisera were tested: human, avian, equine, rodent, and opossum. From a total of 370 females analyzed, 128 specimens from the domicile and 59 from the peridomicile reacted with specific antisera. The anthropophily of L. intermedia was confirmed in both habitats; likewise, the feeding of this sand fly species on domestic animals, observed in previous entomological surveys, was confirmed by the strong reactivity with avian, canine, and equine antisera. However, feeding on rodents, mammals frequently found inside and around houses, represents further evidence related to the vector competence of L. intermedia, since synanthropic and sylvatic rodents have been considered a putative reservoir of L. (V.) braziliensis. PMID:16410867

Afonso, Margarete Martins Dos Santos; Gomes, Almério Castro; Meneses, Cláudio Roberto Valente; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2005-01-01

68

Analysis of the activity patterns of two sympatric sandfly siblings of the Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex from Brazil.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America. Differences in copulation songs, pheromones and molecular markers show that L. longipalpis is a species complex in Brazil. The patterns of activity of insect vectors are important in disease transmission. In addition, differences in activity rhythms have a potential role as a temporal reproductive isolation mechanism in closely related species. We compared the activity patterns of males and females of two sympatric species of the Longipalpis complex from Sobral (Ceará State, Brazil) in controlled laboratory conditions. We observed small but significant differences between the two species in the activity phase in both males and females. PMID:18816278

Rivas, G B S; Souza, N A; Peixoto, A A

2008-09-01

69

Non-specific antiviral response detected in RNA-treated cultured cells of the sandfly, Lutzomyia longipalpis.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis is the principal vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas, and can also transmit some viruses. To help develop a gene-silencing system for this sandfly, we transfected cultured embryonic cells with various double-stranded RNAs using West Nile virus (WNV) virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing luciferase as the target RNA to demonstrate effective gene knock-down. When luciferase dsRNA was introduced into these cells, they produced the expected reduction in VLP-encoded luciferase, suggesting specific silencing of the luciferase gene. Surprisingly, we found that unrelated dsRNAs, which included those specific for several L. longipalpis gene sequences and Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase, diminished replication of the VLP-encoded genome. These results are the first indication for a nucleic acid-induced, non-specific antiviral response in this important insect vector. PMID:17706772

Pitaluga, A N; Mason, P W; Traub-Cseko, Y M

2008-01-01

70

Study on the bacterial midgut microbiota associated to different Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).  

PubMed

The bacterial community associated with the midgut of three Brazilian Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) populations, two from endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis (Jacobina, Bahia State and São Luís, Maranhão State) and one from a non-endemic area (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais State), was identified. Five groups, 35 females each, from each population were separated; a total of 175 females per collecting area were analyzed. The species identification was based on molecular and traditional bacteriological methods. All bacteria were either affiliated to non-Enterobacteriaceae, such as Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, Flavimonas, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, or and to Enterobacteriaceae, such as Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, Pantoea, Morganella and Weeksella. Stenotrophomonas was found to be associated with all three populations studied. In addition, Serratia spp., which are well documented as laboratory contaminant of insects, were detected only in the Jacobina population. We also discuss the impact of the colonization of insect gut by bacteria on the development and transmission of pathogens. PMID:19061048

Gouveia, Cheryl; Asensi, Marise D; Zahner, Viviane; Rangel, Elizabeth F; Oliveira, Sandra M P de

2008-01-01

71

Molecular analysis of an odorant-binding protein gene in two sympatric species of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and occurs as a species complex. DNA samples from two Brazilian sympatric species that differ in pheromone and courtship song production were used to analyse molecular polymorphisms in an odorant-binding protein (obp29) gene. OBPs are proteins related to olfaction and are involved in activities fundamental to survival, such as foraging, mating and choice of oviposition site. In this study, the marker obp29 was found to be highly polymorphic in Lu. longipalpis s.l. , with no fixed differences observed between the two species. A pairwise fixation index test indicated a moderate level of genetic differentiation between the samples analysed. PMID:24473807

Dias, Ana Karina Kerche; da Rocha Bauzer, Luiz Guilherme Soares; dos Santos Dias, Denise Borges; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

2013-01-01

72

Molecular analysis of an odorant-binding protein gene in two sympatric species of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l.  

PubMed Central

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and occurs as a species complex. DNA samples from two Brazilian sympatric species that differ in pheromone and courtship song production were used to analyse molecular polymorphisms in an odorant-binding protein ( obp29 ) gene. OBPs are proteins related to olfaction and are involved in activities fundamental to survival, such as foraging, mating and choice of oviposition site. In this study, the marker obp29 was found to be highly polymorphic in Lu. longipalpis s.l. , with no fixed differences observed between the two species. A pairwise fixation index test indicated a moderate level of genetic differentiation between the samples analysed. PMID:24473807

Dias, Ana Karina Kerche; Bauzer, Luiz Guilherme Soares da Rocha; Dias, Denise Borges dos Santos; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

2013-01-01

73

Potential sources of sugar for the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Colombian coffee plantation.  

PubMed

Sugar-deprived Lutzomyia youngi were exposed to each of the five most numerous plant species in a Colombian coffee plantation for 24 h and then tested for the presence of fructose by the cold anthrone assay. Many flies exposed to coffee (Coffea arabica) (up to 55% in an individual test) and guamo (Inga edulis) (up to 28.0%) gave positive results. Although some flies also took sugar from red-flowered balsam (Impatiens balsamina) and bamboo (Bambusa angustifolia), none of the insects exposed to plantain (Musa paradisiaca) gave a positive result unless the plants were infested with aphids (Pentalonia sp.). Although sandflies were successfully marked in the laboratory by exposing them to coffee and guamo plants whose roots had been treated with RbCl at 5000 p.p.m., RbCl was not detected by atomic emission spectrometry in wild specimens caught in the vicinity of RbCl-labelled coffee and guamo. PMID:7979645

Alexander, B; Usma, M C

1994-10-01

74

Fixed differences in the paralytic gene define two lineages within the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex producing different types of courtship songs.  

PubMed

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Latin America. There is currently a consensus that it represents a species complex, however, the number and distribution of the different siblings is still uncertain. Previous analyses have indicated that Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided into two main groups according to the type of courtship song (Burst vs. Pulse) males produce during copulation. Nevertheless, no diagnostic differences have been observed between these two groups with most molecular markers used to date. We analyzed the molecular divergence in a fragment of the paralytic (para) gene, a locus involved in the control of courtship songs in Drosophila, among a number of Lu. longipalpis populations from Brazil producing Burst and Pulse-type songs. Our results revealed a very high level of divergence and fixed differences between populations producing the two types of songs. We also compared Lu. longipalpis with a very closely related species, Lutzomyia cruzi, which produces Burst-type songs. The results indicated a higher number of fixed differences between Lu. cruzi and the Pulse-type populations of Lu. longipalpis than with those producing Burst-type songs. The data confirmed our previous assumptions that the presence of different sibling species of the Lu. longipalpis complex in Brazil can be divided into two main groups, one representing a single species and a second more heterogeneous group that probably represents a number of incipient species. We hypothesize that para might be one of the genes directly involved in the control of the courtship song differences between these two groups or that it is linked to other loci associated with reproductive isolation of the Brazilian species. PMID:22970200

Lins, Rachel M M A; Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Maingon, Rhayza D C; Peixoto, Alexandre A

2012-01-01

75

Fixed Differences in the paralytic Gene Define Two Lineages within the Lutzomyia longipalpis Complex Producing Different Types of Courtship Songs  

PubMed Central

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Latin America. There is currently a consensus that it represents a species complex, however, the number and distribution of the different siblings is still uncertain. Previous analyses have indicated that Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided into two main groups according to the type of courtship song (Burst vs. Pulse) males produce during copulation. Nevertheless, no diagnostic differences have been observed between these two groups with most molecular markers used to date. We analyzed the molecular divergence in a fragment of the paralytic (para) gene, a locus involved in the control of courtship songs in Drosophila, among a number of Lu. longipalpis populations from Brazil producing Burst and Pulse-type songs. Our results revealed a very high level of divergence and fixed differences between populations producing the two types of songs. We also compared Lu. longipalpis with a very closely related species, Lutzomyia cruzi, which produces Burst-type songs. The results indicated a higher number of fixed differences between Lu. cruzi and the Pulse-type populations of Lu. longipalpis than with those producing Burst-type songs. The data confirmed our previous assumptions that the presence of different sibling species of the Lu. longipalpis complex in Brazil can be divided into two main groups, one representing a single species and a second more heterogeneous group that probably represents a number of incipient species. We hypothesize that para might be one of the genes directly involved in the control of the courtship song differences between these two groups or that it is linked to other loci associated with reproductive isolation of the Brazilian species. PMID:22970200

Lins, Rachel M. M. A.; Souza, Nataly A.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Maingon, Rhayza D. C.; Peixoto, Alexandre A.

2012-01-01

76

Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial ecology of phlebotomine sand flies is not well understood although bacteria likely play an important role in the sand fly biology and vector capacity for Leishmania parasites. In this study, we assessed the significance of the microbial community of rabbit feces in oviposition and larval development of Lutzomyia longipalpis as well as bacterial colonization of the gut of freshly emerged flies. Methods Sterile (by autoclaving) and non-sterile (control) rabbit feces were used in the two-choice assay to determine their oviposition attractiveness to sand fly females. Bacteria were identified by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with universal eubacterial primers. Sterile, control (non-sterile), and sterilized and inoculated rabbit feces were used to assess the significance of bacteria in L. longipalpis development. Newly emerged adult flies were surface-sterilized and screened for the bacterial population size and diversity by the culturing approach. The digestive tract of L4 sterile and control larvae was incubated with Phalloidin to visualize muscle tissues and DAPI to visualize nuclei. Results Two-choice behavioural assays revealed a great preference of L. longipalpis to lay eggs on rabbit feces with an active complex bacterial community (control) (85.8?% of eggs) in comparison to that of sterile (autoclaved) rabbit feces (14.2?%). Bioassays demonstrated that L. longipalpis larvae can develop in sterile rabbit feces although development time to adult stage was greatly extended (47?days) and survival of larvae was significantly lower (77.8?%) compared to that of larvae developing in the control rabbit feces (32?days and 91.7?%). Larval survival on sterilized rabbit feces inoculated with the individual bacterial isolates originating from this substrate varied greatly depending on a bacterial strain. Rhizobium radiobacter supported larval development to adult stage into the greatest extent (39?days, 88.0?%) in contrast to that of Bacillus spp. (76?days, 36.0?%). From the complex natural bacterial community of rabbit feces, R. radiobacter survived pupation and colonized the newly emerged females most successfully (82.6?% of all bacteria cultured); however, only 25?% of females were positive for bacteria in the digestive tract upon emergence. Immunohistochemistry did not reveal any obvious differences in anatomy of the digestive tract between control and axenic larvae. Conclusions The bacterial community in the sand fly larval habitat affects oviposition and larval development although bacteria are not essential for successful development of L. longipalpis. Different bacteria contribute to larval development to various degrees and some, e.g. Rhizobium radiobacter, survive pupation and colonize the digestive tract of newly emerged females. With the establishment of the axenic rearing system, this study opens new venues to study the effect of bacteria on the gut epithelial immunity and vector competence of sand flies for Leishmania parasites with a goal to develop paratransgenic approaches for Leishmania control. PMID:22827861

2012-01-01

77

Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58%) specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings. PMID:16410957

Casanova, Cláudio; Costa, Antonio I P; Natal, Delsio

2005-11-01

78

Structure and distribution of sensilla on maxillary palps and labella of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies.  

PubMed

The typology, number, size, and distribution pattern of labellar and palpal sensilla of male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) sand flies were analyzed by scanning electron and light microscopy, contributing to the construction of a gustatory and olfactory map in this important vector species. About 35 trichoid sensilla, sorted into three different classes according to their lengths, are present on the two labellar lobes. Five distinct structures are observed in the maxillary palps, which could be classified as noninnervated (microtrichia and scales) or the following innervated structures: 1) campaniform sensilla, found near the distal end of palpal segments II and III; 2) multiporous capitate peg sensilla, found in reduced number (1-6) on segment II, but located in a group of 15-25 on the distal third part of segment III; and 3) trichoid sensilla, distributed linearly on segment IV and spirally on segment V. Light microscopy analysis of silver-stained specimens indicated the presence of pores in the trichoid sensilla and their chemosensory function is discussed, as well as the possible function of the other sensilla. PMID:16003785

Spiegel, Carolina N; Oliveira, Sandra M P; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Soares, Maurilio J

2005-04-15

79

Possible implication of the genetic composition of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) populations in the epidemiology of the visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Several studies have indicated that the Lu. longipalpis population structure is complex. It has been suggested that genetic divergence caused by genetic drift, selection, or both may affect the vectorial capacity of Lu. longipalpis. However, it remains unclear whether genetic differences among Lu. longipalpis populations are directly implicated in the transmission features of visceral leishmaniasis. We evaluated the genetic composition and the patterns of genetic differentiation among Lu. longipalpis populations collected from regions with different patterns of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis by analyzing the sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, we investigated the temporal distribution of haplotypes and compared our results with those obtained in a previous study. Our data indicate that there are differences in the haplotype composition and that there has been significant differentiation between the analyzed populations. Our results reveal that measures used to control visceral leishmaniasis might have influenced the genetic composition of the vector population. This finding raises important questions concerning the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, because these differences in the genetic structures among populations of Lu. longipalpis may have implications with respect to their efficiency as vectors for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:21936320

Rocha, Leonardo de Souza; Falqueto, Aloisio; Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Grimaldi, Gabriel Júnior; Cupolillo, Elisa

2011-09-01

80

Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis. PMID:24271040

Fernandez, Maria Soledad; Santini, Maria Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Perez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomon, Oscar Daniel

2013-01-01

81

Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunci?n, Paraguay  

PubMed Central

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-?-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America. PMID:19883505

Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

2009-01-01

82

The first report of the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in America, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread zoonosis in Brazil and, up to now, there has been no record of the main vector of its agent, Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the Southern Region. Due to the diagnosis of VL in a dog in October 2008 in the city of São Borja, in the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, a collection of phlebotomines was undertaken to detect the presence of the vector Lu. longipalpis. The captures were carried out with CDC light traps on three consecutive nights in 2008. A total of 39 specimens of Lu. longipalpis were captured, thereby increasing the knowledge of the geographical distribution of this important vector. PMID:20140381

Souza, Getúlio Dornelles; Santos, Edmilson dos; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

2009-12-01

83

Functional Transcriptomics of Wild-Caught Lutzomyia intermedia Salivary Glands: Identification of a Protective Salivary Protein against Leishmania braziliensis Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects salivary components that change the environment at the feeding site. Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland (SG) homogenate are protected against Leishmania major infection, while immunity to Lutzomyia intermedia SG homogenate exacerbated experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. In humans, antibodies to Lu. intermedia saliva are associated with risk of acquiring L. braziliensis infection. Despite these important findings, there is no information regarding the repertoire of Lu. intermedia salivary proteins. Methods and Findings A cDNA library from the Salivary Glands (SGs) of wild-caught Lu. intermedia was constructed, sequenced, and complemented by a proteomic approach based on 1D SDS PAGE and mass/mass spectrometry to validate the transcripts present in this cDNA library. We identified the most abundant transcripts and proteins reported in other sand fly species as well as novel proteins such as neurotoxin-like proteins, peptides with ML domain, and three small peptides found so far only in this sand fly species. DNA plasmids coding for ten selected transcripts were constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice to study their immunogenicity. Plasmid Linb-11—coding for a 4.5-kDa protein—induced a cellular immune response and conferred protection against L. braziliensis infection. This protection correlated with a decreased parasite load and an increased frequency of IFN-?-producing cells. Conclusions We identified the most abundant and novel proteins present in the SGs of Lu. intermedia, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. We also show for the first time that immunity to a single salivary protein from Lu. intermedia can protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. PMID:23717705

Carneiro, Marcia W.; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Clarencio, Jorge; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral, Aldina; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

2013-01-01

84

Host Modulation by a Parasite: How Leishmania infantum Modifies the Intestinal Environment of Lutzomyia longipalpis to Favor Its Development  

PubMed Central

Some reports have described the interference of Leishmania on sand flies physiology, and such behavior most likely evolved to favor the development and transmission of the parasite. Most of these studies showed that Leishmania could modulate the level of proteases in the midgut after an infective blood meal, and decreased proteolytic activity is indeed beneficial for the development of promastigotes in the gut of sand flies. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the intestinal pH in Lutzomyia longipalpis females naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and investigated the production of trypsin by these insects using different approaches. Our results allowed us to propose a mechanism by which these parasites interfere with the physiology of L. longipalpis to decrease the production of proteolytic enzymes. According to our hypothesis L. infantum promastigotes indirectly interfere with the production of trypsin by modulating the mechanism that controls the intestinal pH via the action of a yet non-identified substance released by promastigote forms inside the midgut. This substance is not an acid, whose action would be restrict on to release H+ to the medium, but is a substance that is able to interfere with midgut physiology through a mechanism involving pH control. According to our hypothesis, as the pH decreases, the proteolytic enzymes efficiency is also reduced, leading to a decline in the supply of amino acids to the enterocytes: this decline reduces the stimulus for protease production because it is regulated by the supply of amino acids, thus leading to a delay in digestion. PMID:25365351

Santos, Vania Cristina; Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Silva, Sydnei Magno; Nascimento, Alexandre Alves Sousa; Saab, Natalia Alvim Araujo; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro Pinto; Michalick, Marilene Suzan Marques; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Pereira, Marcos Horacio; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo

2014-01-01

85

Multilocus Analysis of Divergence and Introgression in Sympatric and Allopatric Sibling Species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis Complex in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of sibling species. In Brazil, a number of very closely related sibling species have been revealed by the analyses of copulation songs, sex pheromones and molecular markers. However, the level of divergence and gene flow between the sibling species remains unclear. Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided in two main groups: one producing Burst-type songs and the Cembrene-1 pheromone and a second more diverse group producing various Pulse song subtypes and different pheromones. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 21 nuclear loci in two pairs of Brazilian populations: two sympatric populations from the Sobral locality (1S and 2S) in northeastern Brazil and two allopatric populations from the Lapinha and Pancas localities in southeastern Brazil. Pancas and Sobral 2S are populations of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species while Lapinha and Sobral 1S are two putative incipient species producing the same pheromone and similar Pulse song subtypes. The multilocus analysis strongly suggests the occurrence of gene flow during the divergence between the sibling species, with different levels of introgression between loci. Moreover, this differential introgression is asymmetrical, with estimated gene flow being higher in the direction of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that introgressive hybridization has been a crucial phenomenon in shaping the genome of the L. longipalpis complex. This has possible epidemiological implications and is particularly interesting considering the potential for increased introgression caused by man-made environmental changes and the current trend of leishmaniasis urbanization in Brazil. PMID:24147172

Mazzoni, Camila J.; Souza, Nataly A.; Machado, Ricardo C.; Bruno, Rafaela V.

2013-01-01

86

Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. PMID:24069494

Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Ângelo P.

2013-01-01

87

Fine Structure of the Male Reproductive System and Reproductive Behavior of Lutzomyia longipalpis Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)  

PubMed Central

Background The male reproductive system of insects can have several tissues responsible for the secretion of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as testes, accessory glands, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct and ejaculatory bulb. The SFPs are transferred during mating and can induce several physiological and behavioral changes in females, such as increase in oviposition and decrease in sexual receptivity after copulation. The phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Despite its medical importance, little is known about its reproductive biology. Here we present morphological aspects of the male L. longipalpis reproductive system by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and compare the mating frequency of both virgin and previously mated females. Results The male L. longipalpis reproductive system is comprised by a pair of oval-shaped testes linked to a seminal vesicle by vasa deferentia. It follows an ejaculatory duct with an ejaculatory pump (a large bulb enveloped by muscles and associated to tracheas). The terminal endings of the vasa deferentia are inserted into the seminal vesicle by invaginations of the seminal vesicle wall, which is composed by a single layer of gland cells, with well-developed endoplasmic reticulum profiles and secretion granules. Our data suggest that the seminal vesicle acts both as a spermatozoa reservoir and as an accessory gland. Mating experiments support this hypothesis, revealing a decrease in mating frequency after copulation that indicates the effect of putative SFPs. Conclusion Ultrastructural features of the L. longipalpis male seminal vesicle indicated its possible role as an accessory gland. Behavioral observations revealed a reduction in mating frequency of copulated females. Together with transcriptome analyses from male sandfly reproductive organs identifying ESTs encoding orthologs of SFPs, these data indicate the presence of putative L. longipalpis SFPs reducing sexual mating frequency of copulated females. PMID:24058637

Peixoto, Alexandre A.; Vigoder, Felipe M.; Bruno, Rafaela V.; Soares, Maurilio J.

2013-01-01

88

Blood meal identification and parasite detection in laboratory-fed and field-captured Lutzomyia longipalpis by PCR using FTA databasing paper.  

PubMed

The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis takes blood from a variety of wild and domestic animals and transmits Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis. Blood meal identification in sand flies has depended largely on serological methods but a new protocol described here uses filter-based technology to stabilise and store blood meal DNA, allowing subsequent PCR identification of blood meal sources, as well as parasite detection, in blood-fed sand flies. This technique revealed that 53.6% of field-collected sand flies captured in the back yards of houses in Teresina (Brazil) had fed on chickens. The potential applications of this technique in epidemiological studies and strategic planning for leishmaniasis control programmes are discussed. PMID:18606150

Sant'Anna, Mauricio R V; Jones, Nathaniel G; Hindley, Jonathan A; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F; Dillon, Rod J; Cavalcante, Reginaldo R; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A

2008-09-01

89

Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae. PMID:19769044

Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2009-09-01

90

External morphology of sensory structures of fourth instar larvae of neotropical species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) under scanning electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, some morphological structures of antennae, maxillary palps and caudal setae of fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared phlebotomine sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. evandroi, L. lenti, L. sericea, L. whitmani and L. intermedia) of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The antennal structures exhibited considerable variation in the morphology and

Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa; Raul Guerra de Queiroz; Richard Douglas Ward

2001-01-01

91

Polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the detection and identification of sand fly gregarines in Lutzomyia longipalpis, a vector of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Gregarines that parasitise phlebotomine sand flies belong to the genus Psychodiella and, even though they are highly host-specific, only five species have been described to date. Their most outstanding features include the unique localisation of the oocysts in the accessory glands of the female host, which ensures contamination of the egg surface during oviposition, and the fact that they naturally parasitise the vectors of Leishmania, causal agent of leishmaniasis. The type species, Ps. chagasi, was first described in Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), from Brazil. We recently reported Ps. chagasi sequences in Lu. longipalpis from Posadas (Misiones, Argentina), an endemic VL location where this gregarine had not been previously recorded. In order to analyse the incidence of Ps. chagasi infections in Lu. longipalpis from this location, the aim of this study was to develop a diagnostic assay for sand fly gregarine parasites in Lu. longipalpis. For this, we designed primers using the Ps. chagasi sequences we previously identified and performed an in vitro validation by PCR amplification of the original sand fly samples. Their specificity and sensitivity as diagnostic primers were subsequently confirmed by PCR reactions using total DNA extracted from naturally infected Lu. longipalpis from the same location (Posadas, Argentina). PMID:24820560

Caligiuri, Lorena G; Acardi, Soraya A; Santini, María Soledad; Salomón, Oscar D; McCarthy, Christina B

2014-06-01

92

A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe), D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL) was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL) and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL). Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania.

Monteiro Tínel, Juliana Montezuma Barbosa; Benevides, Melina Fechine Costa; Frutuoso, Mércia Sindeaux; Rocha, Camila Farias; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Martins, Jorge Luiz; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria

2014-01-01

93

Single and concomitant experimental infections by Endotrypanum spp. and Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in the neotropical sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis females received single and mixed infections with Endotrypanum and Leishmania. Two biological parameters were analyzed: the percentage of infected females and the distribution of flagellates in the gut of the females. The principal comparisons were performed between (1) two strains of Endotrypanum, (2) cloned versus primary sample of one strain of Endotrypanum, (3) Endotrypanum versus Leishmania guyanensis, and (4) the pattern of flagellates behaviour by optical microscopy in females with single or mixed infection versus the identification of parasites isolated from digestive tracts by isoenzyme electrophoresis. Flagellates of Endotrypanum showed distinct patterns of infection suggesting that there is variation between and within strains. The distribution of Endotrypanum and L. guyanensis differed significantly in relation to the colonization of the stomodeal valve. In co-infection with L. guyanensis, a large number of flagellates were seen to be plentifully infecting the stomodeal valve in significantly more specimens than in females infected by Endotrypanum only. However, the electrophoretic profiles of isoenzymes of parasites recovered from all co-infected specimens corresponded to Endotrypanum. This suggests that the mere correlation sand fly infection-biochemical analysis of isolates may induce parasitological incorrect consideration. PMID:17293978

Barbosa, André F; Oliveira, Sandra M P; Bertho, Alvaro L; Franco, Antonia M R; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2006-12-01

94

Genetic divergence between two sympatric species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in the paralytic gene, a locus associated with insecticide resistance and lovesong production.  

PubMed

The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. L. longipalpis s.l. is a species complex but until recently the existence of cryptic sibling species among Brazilian populations was a controversial issue. A fragment of paralytic (para), a voltage dependent sodium channel gene associated with insecticide resistance and courtship song production in Drosophila, was isolated and used as a molecular marker to study the divergence between two sympatric siblings of the L. longipalpis complex from Sobral, Brazil. The results revealed para as the first single locus DNA marker presenting fixed differences between the two species in this locality. In addition, two low frequency amino-acid changes in an otherwise very conserved region of the channel were observed, raising the possibility that it might be associated with incipient resistance in this vector. To the best of our knowledge, the present study represents the first population genetics analysis of insecticide resistance genes in this important leishmaniasis vector. PMID:19057828

Lins, R M M A; Souza, N A; Peixoto, A A

2008-11-01

95

Cloning and characterization of a V-ATPase subunit C from the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis modulated during development and blood ingestion.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious tropical disease that affects approximately 500 thousand people worldwide every year. In the Americas, VL is caused by the parasite Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi mainly transmitted by the bite of the sand fly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite recent advances in the study of interaction between Leishmania and sand flies, very little is known about sand fly protein expression profiles. Understanding how the expression of proteins may be affected by blood feeding and/or presence of parasite in the vector's midgut might allow us to devise new strategies for controlling the spread of leishmaniasis. In this work, we report the characterization of a vacuolar ATPase subunit C from L. longipalpis by screening of a midgut cDNA library with a 220 bp fragment identified by means of differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the gene varies along insect development and is upregulated in males and bloodfed L. longipalpis, compared to unfed flies. PMID:17607496

Ramalho-Ortigão, J M; Pitaluga, A N; Telleria, E L; Marques, C; Souza, A A; Traub-Cseko, Y M

2007-06-01

96

Considerations on the effect of anti-sandfly antibodies on biological parameters of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).  

PubMed

The immunization of vertebrate hosts with vector components may be an alternative for the control of diseases transmitted by insects. In the present study we evaluated the effects of anti-sandfly antibodies on some of the biological parameters of female Lutzomyia longipalpis, a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Rabbits were immunized with extracts of gut from blood-fed (GB) or sugar-fed (GS) females, carcass of sugar-fed (CS) or blood-fed (CB) females, and with repeated sandfly bites (BITE). Immune sera showed increased antibody titers compared to pre-immunized animals, and specific bands were detected by Western Blot. An analysis of biological parameters revealed a decline in fecundity in the group of females fed on rabbits immunized with GB and BITE. Longevity and mortality were studied in females with oviposition (parous) and without oviposition (nulliparous). Nulliparous females that fed on rabbits immunized with bites died in the highest percentage. A mortality analysis after egg laying revealed a peak on the fifth day in all the groups, but females fed on rabbit subjected to repeated bites showed a shift towards the third day. PMID:16680320

Vilela, M L; Souza, N A; Oliveira, S M P; Costa-Pinto, D; Cabello, P H; Rangel, E F; Traub-Cseko, Y M

2006-02-01

97

EST sequencing of blood-fed and Leishmania-infected midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the principal visceral leishmaniasis vector in the Americas.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is an important worldwide public health problem. Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi is mainly transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Americas. Leishmania development within the sand fly vector is mostly restricted to the midgut. Thus, a comparative analysis of blood-fed versus infected midguts may provide an invaluable insight into various aspects of sand fly immunity, physiology of blood digestion, and, more importantly, of Leishmania development. To that end, we have engaged in a study to identify expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from L. longipalpis cDNA libraries produced from midguts dissected at different times post blood meal and also after artificial infection with L. i. chagasi. A total of 2,520 ESTs were obtained and, according to the quality of the sequencing data obtained, assembled into 378 clusters and 1,526 individual sequences or singletons totalizing 1,904 sequences. Several sequences associated with defense, apoptosis, RNAi, and digestion processes were annotated. The data presented here increases current knowledge on the New World sand fly transcriptome, contributing to the understanding of various aspects of the molecular physiology of L. longipalpis, and mechanisms underlying the relationship of this sand fly species with L. i. chagasi. PMID:19565270

Pitaluga, André N; Beteille, Vicente; Lobo, Amanda R; Ortigão-Farias, João R; Dávila, Alberto M R; Souza, Adelson A; Ramalho-Ortigão, J Marcelo; Traub-Cseko, Yara M

2009-09-01

98

Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

PubMed Central

To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis . ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:24402151

de Almeida, Paulo Silva; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, Joao; Raizer, Josue; Andrade, Jose Dilermando; Gurgel-Goncalves, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

99

[Sandflies (Diptera, psychodidae) in a secondary forest area in the Paco do Lumiar city, Maranhao, Brazil: a leishmaniasis transmission area].  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the wealth of species, relative abundance, seasonal fluctuation, and nocturnal activity of sandflies. The field survey was conducted in a "capoeira" (secondary forest) area in the county of Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, where cutaneous and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis frequently occurs. Sandflies were captured by CDC-type light traps from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM, once a month, from March 1997 to February 1998. A total of 489 specimens were collected (251 males and 238 females), distributed among 10 species: Lutzomyia antunesi (45.19%), Lutzomyia whitmani (29.4%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (7.56%), Lutzomyia sordelli (6.34%), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (4.5%), Brumptomyia avellari (4.09%), Lutzomyia evandroi (1.85%), Lutzomyia umbratilis (0.61%), Lutzomyia corossoniensis (0.41%), and Lutzomyia trispinosa (0.41%). The sandflies were present year round, with higher abundance during the rainy season. They were present in all intervals studied, with the highest frequency between 12:00 PM and 1:00 AM (31%). PMID:10738174

Barros, V L; Rebêlo, J M; Silva, F S

2000-01-01

100

Structure and Function of a “Yellow” Protein from Saliva of the Sand Fly Lutzomyia longipalpis That Confers Protective Immunity against Leishmania major Infection*  

PubMed Central

LJM11, an abundant salivary protein from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, belongs to the insect “yellow” family of proteins. In this study, we immunized mice with 17 plasmids encoding L. longiplapis salivary proteins and demonstrated that LJM11 confers protective immunity against Leishmania major infection. This protection correlates with a strong induction of a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response following exposure to L. longipalpis saliva. Additionally, splenocytes of exposed mice produce IFN-? upon stimulation with LJM11, demonstrating the systemic induction of Th1 immunity by this protein. In contrast to LJM11, LJM111, another yellow protein from L. longipalpis saliva, does not produce a DTH response in these mice, suggesting that structural or functional features specific to LJM11 are important for the induction of a robust DTH response. To examine these features, we used calorimetric analysis to probe a possible ligand binding function for the salivary yellow proteins. LJM11, LJM111, and LJM17 all acted as high affinity binders of prohemostatic and proinflammatory biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, catecholamines, and histamine. We also determined the crystal structure of LJM11, revealing a six-bladed ?-propeller fold with a single ligand binding pocket located in the central part of the propeller structure on one face of the molecule. A hypothetical model of LJM11 suggests a positive electrostatic potential on the face containing entry to the ligand binding pocket, whereas LJM111 is negative to neutral over its entire surface. This may be the reason for differences in antigenicity between the two proteins. PMID:21795673

Xu, Xueqing; Oliveira, Fabiano; Chang, Bianca W.; Collin, Nicolas; Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Reynoso, David; my Pham, Van; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Andersen, John F.

2011-01-01

101

BluePort: A Platform to Study the Eosinophilic Response of Mice to the Bite of a Vector of Leishmania Parasites, Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral Leishmaniasis is a serious human disease transmitted, in the New World, by Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Natural resistance to Leishmania transmission in residents of endemic areas has been attributed to the acquisition of immunity to sand fly salivary proteins. One theoretical way to accelerate the acquisition of this immunity is to increase the density of antigen-presenting cells at the sand fly bite site. Here we describe a novel tissue platform that can be used for this purpose. Methodology/Principal Findings BluePort is a well-vascularized and macrophage-rich compartment induced in the subcutaneous tissue of mice via injection of agarose beads covered with Cibacron blue. We describe the sequence of inflammatory events leading to its formation and how it can be used to study the dermal response to the bite of L. longipalpis sand flies. Results presented indicate that a shift in the inflammatory response, from neutrophilic to eosinophilic, is the main histopathological feature associated with the immunity acquired through repeated exposure to the bite of sand flies, and that the BluePort tissue compartment could be used to accelerate this process. In addition, changes observed inside the BluePort parenchyma indicate that it could be used to study complex immunobiological processes, and to develop ectopic secondary lymphoid structures. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the characteristics of the dermal response to the bite of sand flies is a critical element of strategies to control leishmaniasis using vaccines that target salivary proteins. Finding that dermal eosinophilia is such a prominent component of the anti-salivary immunity induced by repeated exposure to sand fly bites raises one important consideration: how to avoid the immunological conflict derived from a protective Th2-driven immunity directed to sand fly saliva with a protective Th1-driven immunity directed to the parasite. The BluePort platform is an ideal tool to address experimentally this conundrum. PMID:21048957

Mejia, J. Santiago; Toot-Zimmer, Amanda L.; Schultheiss, Patricia C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Titus, Richard G.

2010-01-01

102

Synthetic sex pheromone in a long-lasting lure attracts the visceral leishmaniasis vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, for up to 12 weeks in Brazil.  

PubMed

Current control methodologies have not prevented the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) across Brazil. Here, we describe the development of a new tool for controlling the sand fly vector of the disease: a long-lasting lure, which releases a synthetic male sex pheromone, attractive to both sexes of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This device could be used to improve the effectiveness of residual insecticide spraying as a means of sand fly control, attracting L. longipalpis to insecticide-treated animal houses, where they could be killed in potentially large numbers over a number of weeks. Different lure designs releasing the synthetic pheromone (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B (CAS 183158-38-5) were field-tested in Araçatuba, São Paulo (SP). Experiments compared numbers of sand flies caught overnight in experimental chicken sheds with pheromone lures, to numbers caught in control sheds without pheromone. Prototype lures, designed to last one night, were first used to confirm the attractiveness of the pheromone in SP, and shown to attract significantly more flies to test sheds than controls. Longer-lasting lures were tested when new, and at fortnightly intervals. Lures loaded with 1 mg of pheromone did not attract sand flies for more than two weeks. However, lures loaded with 10 mg of pheromone, with a releasing surface of 15 cm2 or 7.5 cm2, attracted female L. longipalpis for up to ten weeks, and males for up to twelve weeks. Approximately five times more sand flies were caught with 7.5 cm2 10 mg lures when first used than occurred naturally in non-experimental chicken resting sites. These results demonstrate that these lures are suitably long-lasting and attractive for use in sand fly control programmes in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first sex pheromone-based technology targeting an insect vector of a neglected human disease. Further studies should explore the general applicability of this approach for combating other insect-borne diseases. PMID:24651528

Bray, Daniel P; Carter, Vicky; Alves, Graziella B; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Bandi, Krishna K; Hamilton, James G C

2014-03-01

103

Repeated exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia sand fly saliva induces local expression of interferon-inducible genes both at the site of injection in mice and in human blood.  

PubMed

During a blood meal, Lutzomyia intermedia sand flies transmit Leishmania braziliensis, a parasite causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. In experimental leishmaniasis, pre-exposure to saliva of most blood-feeding sand flies results in parasite establishment in absence of any skin damages in mice challenged with dermotropic Leishmania species together with saliva. In contrast, pre-immunization with Lu. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) results in enhanced skin inflammatory exacerbation upon co-inoculation of Lu. intermedia SGS and L. braziliensis. These data highlight potential unique features of both L. braziliensis and Lu. intermedia. In this study, we investigated the genes modulated by Lu. intermedia SGS immunization to understand their potential impact on the subsequent cutaneous immune response following inoculation of both SGS and L. braziliensis. The cellular recruitment and global gene expression profile was analyzed in mice repeatedly inoculated or not with Lu. intermedia. Microarray gene analysis revealed the upregulation of a distinct set of IFN-inducible genes, an immune signature not seen to the same extent in control animals. Of note this INF-inducible gene set was not induced in SGS pre-immunized mice subsequently co-inoculated with SGS and L. braziliensis. These data suggest the parasite prevented the upregulation of this Lu. intermedia saliva-related immune signature. The presence of these IFN-inducible genes was further analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) sampled from uninfected human individuals living in a L. braziliensis-endemic region of Brazil thus regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites. PBMCs were cultured in presence or absence of Lu. intermedia SGS. Using qRT-PCR we established that the IFN-inducible genes induced in the skin of SGS pre-immunized mice, were also upregulated by SGS in PBMCs from human individuals regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites, but not in PBMCs of control subjects. These data demonstrate that repeated exposure to Lu. intermedia SGS induces the expression of potentially host-protective IFN-inducible genes. PMID:24421912

Weinkopff, Tiffany; de Oliveira, Camila I; de Carvalho, Augusto M; Hauyon-La Torre, Yazmin; Muniz, Aline C; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne

2014-01-01

104

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector  

PubMed Central

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas, and constitutes a complex of species. Various studies have suggested an incipient speciation process based on behavioral isolation driven by the chemotype of male sexual pheromones. It is well known that natural barriers, such as mountains and rivers can directly influence population divergence in several organisms, including insects. In this work we investigated the potential role played by the Sao Francisco River in eastern Brazil in defining the current distribution of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Our studies were based on analyses of polymorphisms of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) sequences from Lu. longipalpis s.l. available in public databases, and from additional field-caught individuals. Altogether, 9 distinct populations and 89 haplotypes were represented in the analyses. Lu. longipalpis s.l. populations were grouped according to their distribution in regards to the 10°S parallel: north of 10°S (<10°S); and south of 10°S (>10°S). Our results suggest that although no polymorphisms were fixed, moderate genetic divergences were observed between the groups analyzed (i.e., FST = 0.184; and Nm = 2.22), and were mostly driven by genetic drift. The population divergence time estimated between the sand fly groups was about 0.45 million years (MY), coinciding with the time of the change in the course of the Sao Francisco River, during the Mindel glaciation. Overall, the polymorphisms on the cyt b haplotypes and the current speciation process detected in Lu. longipalpis s.l. with regards to the distribution of male sexual pheromones suggest a role of the Sao Francisco River as a significant geographical barrier in this process. PMID:18549496

Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

2008-01-01

105

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas, and constitutes a complex of species. Various studies have suggested an incipient speciation process based on behavioral isolation driven by the chemotype of male sexual pheromones. It is well known that natural barriers, such as mountains and rivers can directly influence population divergence in several organisms, including insects. In this work we investigated the potential role played by the Sao Francisco River in eastern Brazil in defining the current distribution of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Our studies were based on analyses of polymorphisms of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) sequences from Lu. longipalpis s.l. available in public databases, and from additional field-caught individuals. Altogether, 9 distinct populations and 89 haplotypes were represented in the analyses. Lu. longipalpis s.l. populations were grouped according to their distribution in regards to the 10 degrees S parallel: north of 10 degrees S (<10 degrees S); and south of 10 degrees S (>10 degrees S). Our results suggest that although no polymorphisms were fixed, moderate genetic divergences were observed between the groups analyzed (i.e., FST = 0.184; and Nm = 2.22), and were mostly driven by genetic drift. The population divergence time estimated between the sand fly groups was about 0.45 million years (MY), coinciding with the time of the change in the course of the Sao Francisco River, during the Mindel glaciation. Overall, the polymorphisms on the cyt b haplotypes and the current speciation process detected in Lu. longipalpis s.l. with regards to the distribution of male sexual pheromones suggest a role of the Sao Francisco River as a significant geographical barrier in this process. PMID:18549496

Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

2008-01-01

106

Synthetic Sex Pheromone in a Long-Lasting Lure Attracts the Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, for up to 12 Weeks in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Current control methodologies have not prevented the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) across Brazil. Here, we describe the development of a new tool for controlling the sand fly vector of the disease: a long-lasting lure, which releases a synthetic male sex pheromone, attractive to both sexes of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This device could be used to improve the effectiveness of residual insecticide spraying as a means of sand fly control, attracting L. longipalpis to insecticide-treated animal houses, where they could be killed in potentially large numbers over a number of weeks. Different lure designs releasing the synthetic pheromone (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B (CAS 183158-38-5) were field-tested in Araçatuba, São Paulo (SP). Experiments compared numbers of sand flies caught overnight in experimental chicken sheds with pheromone lures, to numbers caught in control sheds without pheromone. Prototype lures, designed to last one night, were first used to confirm the attractiveness of the pheromone in SP, and shown to attract significantly more flies to test sheds than controls. Longer-lasting lures were tested when new, and at fortnightly intervals. Lures loaded with 1 mg of pheromone did not attract sand flies for more than two weeks. However, lures loaded with 10 mg of pheromone, with a releasing surface of 15 cm2 or 7.5 cm2, attracted female L. longipalpis for up to ten weeks, and males for up to twelve weeks. Approximately five times more sand flies were caught with 7.5 cm2 10 mg lures when first used than occurred naturally in non-experimental chicken resting sites. These results demonstrate that these lures are suitably long-lasting and attractive for use in sand fly control programmes in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first sex pheromone-based technology targeting an insect vector of a neglected human disease. Further studies should explore the general applicability of this approach for combating other insect-borne diseases. PMID:24651528

Bray, Daniel P.; Carter, Vicky; Alves, Graziella B.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Bandi, Krishna K.; Hamilton, James G. C.

2014-01-01

107

Lutzomyia (Pintomyia) fischeri (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a probable vector of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: detection of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in specimens from the municipality of Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil, using multiplex PCR assay.  

PubMed

In order to determine natural Leishmania (Viannia) infection in Lutzomyia (Pintomyia) fischeri, a multiplex PCR methodology coupled to non-isotopic hybridization was adopted for the analysis of sand fly samples collected by CDC light traps in an endemic area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in the periurban region of the municipality of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We analyzed by PCR methodology 560 specimens of Lutzomyia (Pintomyia) fischeri (520 females and 40 males). The wild sand flies were grouped into 56 pools (52 females and 4 males) of 10 each, and positive results were detected in 2 of the 52 female pools, representing a minimum infection rate of 0.38% based on the presence of at least 1 infected insect in the pool. This result associated with some local evidence such as anthopophily, spatial distribution in accordance with the transmission area and human case incidence, suggests that L. (P.)fischeri may be considered as a secondary vector of ACL in the studied locality. PMID:21939631

Pita-Pereira, Daniela de; Souza, Getúlio D; Pereira, Thaís de Araújo; Zwetsch, Adriana; Britto, Constança; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2011-12-01

108

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

2013-01-01

109

The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guara?, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO), an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements. PMID:23903972

Vilela, Mauricio Luiz; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Godoy, Rodrigo Espindola; Britto, Constanca; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2013-01-01

110

The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas.  

PubMed

Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO), an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements. PMID:23903972

Vilela, Maurício Luiz; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; Britto, Constança; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2013-08-01

111

Participation of heparin binding proteins from the surface of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes in the adhesion of parasites to Lutzomyia longipalpis cells (Lulo) in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania (V.) braziliensis is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. During the parasite life cycle, the promastigotes adhere to the gut of sandflies, to avoid being eliminated with the dejection. The Lulo cell line, derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), is a suitable in vitro study model to understand the features of parasite adhesion. Here, we analyze the role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from Lulo cells and proteins from the parasites in this event. Methods Flagellar (Ff) and membrane (Mf) fractions from promastigotes were obtained by differential centrifugation and the purity of fractions confirmed by western blot assays, using specific antibodies for cellular compartments. Heparin-binding proteins (HBP) were isolated from both fractions using a HiTrap-Heparin column. In addition, binding of promastigotes to Lulo cells or to a heparin-coated surface was assessed by inhibition assays or surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Results The success of promastigotes subcellular fractionation led to the obtainment of Ff and Mf proteins, both of which presented two main protein bands (65.0 and 55.0kDa) with affinity to heparin. The contribution of HBPs in the adherence of promastigotes to Lulo cells was assessed through competition assays, using HS or the purified HBPs fractions. All tested samples presented a measurable inhibition rate when compared to control adhesion rate (17?±?2.0% of culture cells with adhered parasites): 30% (for HS 20?g/ml) and 16% (for HS 10?g/ml); HBP Mf (35.2% for 10?g/ml and 25.4% for 20?g/ml) and HBP Ff (10.0% for 10?g/ml and 31.4% for 20?g/ml). Additionally, to verify the presence of sulfated GAGs in Lulo cells surface and intracellular compartment, metabolic labeling with radioactive sulfate was performed, indicating the presence of an HS and chondroitin sulfate in both cell sections. The SPR analysis performed further confirmed the presence of GAGs ligands on L. (V.) braziliensis promastigote surfaces. Conclusions The data presented here point to evidences that HBPs present on the surface of L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes participate in adhesion of these parasites to Lulo cells through HS participation. PMID:22805335

2012-01-01

112

Genetic identification of two sibling species of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) that produce distinct male sex pheromones in Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main sandfly vector for New World visceral leishmaniasis is a complex of an as yet undefined number of sibling species. At present, there is no consensus on the status (single species vs. species complex) of Brazilian populations. We applied five microsatellite loci to test the hypothesis that L. longipalpis occurs as two sympatric cryptic species in Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil as predicted by male sex pheromone chemotypes described previously for field specimens from this site [S-9-methyl-germacrene-B (9MGB) and a cembrene compound]. Abdominal spot morphology corresponds with pheromone type at this locality (9MGB in '1 spot' males and cembrene in '2 spot' males). Genotype data from 190 wild-caught L. longipalpis specimens collected in October 1999 and April 2001 were used to estimate genetic differentiation between the two sex pheromone populations and sampling dates. No significant (P > 0.05) genetic differences were found between the 1999 and 2001 9MGB samples (theta = 0.018; RST = -0.005), and genetic differentiation was low between the cembrene collections (theta = 0.037, P < 0.05; RST = -0.043, P > 0.05). By contrast, highly divergent allelic frequencies (largely at two microsatellite loci) corresponded to significant (P > 0.05) genetic differentiation (theta = 0.221; RST = 0.215) for all comparisons between samples with different pheromones. When pheromone samples were pooled across sample date, genetic differentiation was high (theta = 0.229; P < 0.001; Nem = 0.84). The allele frequency distribution at each of the five microsatellite loci was similar for males and females from the two collection years. Two of these loci showed highly divergent allele frequencies in the two sex pheromone populations. This was reflected in the highly significant genetic differentiation obtained from the male genotypes, between populations producing different pheromones (theta = 0.229-0.268; P < 0.0001 for the 2001 and theta = 0.254-0.558; P < 0.0001 for the 1999 collections, respectively). Similar results were obtained when the females, assigned to a pheromone type, were included in the analysis. Both a Bayesian analysis of the data set and a population assignment test provided strong evidence for two distinct populations corresponding to pheromone type. Given its genotype, the probability of assigning a 9MGB male to the original 9MGB population was 100% once the two years' collections were pooled. For cembrene-producing '2 spot' males this probability although still high, was lower than for 9MGB males, at 86%. This microsatellite data together with previously reported reproductive isolation between the two Sobral populations confirm that premating barriers are important in speciation of L. longipalpis. PMID:12803639

Maingon, R D C; Ward, R D; Hamilton, J G C; Noyes, H A; Souza, N; Kemp, S J; Watts, P C

2003-07-01

113

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from caves of the quartzite Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the sandfly fauna of two quartzite caves in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, located in the municipality of Diamantina, state Minas Gerais. From August 2010-July 2011, entomological sampling was performed in the caves of Salitre and Monte Cristo with two HP light traps exposed in the photic and aphotic zones of each cave. The sandfly fauna consisted of 17 species, among which Lutzomyia cipoensis was predominant (54.76%). The male/female ratio in the total captures was 1:2.5. The aphotic zone showed the highest frequency of specimens captured (65%). A greater density of sandflies occurred during the summer (January-February), coinciding with the period of higher temperatures, humidity and rainfall. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia pessoai, proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniasis, is of concern because the area is visited by many tourists. PMID:23295752

Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Apolinário, Estefânia Conceição

2012-12-01

114

PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193

de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

2013-01-01

115

The midgut transcriptome of Lutzomyia longipalpis: comparative analysis of cDNA libraries from sugar-fed, blood-fed, post-digested and Leishmania infantum chagasi-infected sand flies  

PubMed Central

Background In the life cycle of Leishmania within the alimentary canal of sand flies the parasites have to survive the hostile environment of blood meal digestion, escape the blood bolus and attach to the midgut epithelium before differentiating into the infective metacyclic stages. The molecular interactions between the Leishmania parasites and the gut of the sand fly are poorly understood. In the present work we sequenced five cDNA libraries constructed from midgut tissue from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis and analyzed the transcripts present following sugar feeding, blood feeding and after the blood meal has been processed and excreted, both in the presence and absence of Leishmania infantum chagasi. Results Comparative analysis of the transcripts from sugar-fed and blood-fed cDNA libraries resulted in the identification of transcripts differentially expressed during blood feeding. This included upregulated transcripts such as four distinct microvillar-like proteins (LuloMVP1, 2, 4 and 5), two peritrophin like proteins, a trypsin like protein (Lltryp1), two chymotrypsin like proteins (LuloChym1A and 2) and an unknown protein. Downregulated transcripts by blood feeding were a microvillar-like protein (LuloMVP3), a trypsin like protein (Lltryp2) and an astacin-like metalloprotease (LuloAstacin). Furthermore, a comparative analysis between blood-fed and Leishmania infected midgut cDNA libraries resulted in the identification of the transcripts that were differentially expressed due to the presence of Leishmania in the gut of the sand fly. This included down regulated transcripts such as four microvillar-like proteins (LuloMVP1,2, 4 and 5), a Chymotrypsin (LuloChym1A) and a carboxypeptidase (LuloCpepA1), among others. Upregulated midgut transcripts in the presence of Leishmania were a peritrophin like protein (LuloPer1), a trypsin-like protein (Lltryp2) and an unknown protein. Conclusion This transcriptome analysis represents the largest set of sequence data reported from a specific sand fly tissue and provides further information of the transcripts present in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. This analysis provides the detailed information of molecules present in the midgut of this sand fly and the transcripts potentially modulated by blood feeding and by the presence of the Leishmania parasite. More importantly, this analysis suggests that Leishmania infantum chagasi alters the expression profile of certain midgut transcripts in the sand fly during blood meal digestion and that this modulation may be relevant for the survival and establishment of the parasite in the gut of the fly. Moreover, this analysis suggests that these changes may be occurring during the digestion of the blood meal and not afterwards. PMID:18194529

Jochim, Ryan C; Teixeira, Clarissa R; Laughinghouse, Andre; Mu, Jianbing; Oliveira, Fabiano; Gomes, Regis B; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; Valenzuela, Jesus G

2008-01-01

116

LBSapSal-vaccinated dogs exhibit increased circulating T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) as well as a reduction of parasitism after challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis  

PubMed Central

Background The development of a protective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is an alternative approach for interrupting the domestic cycle of Leishmania infantum. Given the importance of sand fly salivary proteins as potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in the last few decades. In this context, we previously immunized dogs with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as the adjuvant and sand fly salivary gland extract (LBSapSal vaccine). This vaccine elicited an increase in both anti-saliva and anti-Leishmania IgG isotypes, higher counts of specific circulating CD8+ T cells, and high NO production. Methods We investigated the immunogenicity and protective effect of LBSapSal vaccination after intradermal challenge with 1?×?107 late-log-phase L. infantum promastigotes in the presence of sand fly saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. The dogs were followed for up to 885 days after challenge. Results The LBSapSal vaccine presents extensive antigenic diversity with persistent humoral and cellular immune responses, indicating resistance against CVL is triggered by high levels of total IgG and its subtypes (IgG1 and IgG2); expansion of circulating CD5+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes and is Leishmania-specific; and reduction of splenic parasite load. Conclusions These results encourage further study of vaccine strategies addressing Leishmania antigens in combination with proteins present in the saliva of the vector. PMID:24507702

2014-01-01

117

[Sandflies in an areas with occurrences of human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro].  

PubMed

American cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, which affects the skin and mucosa. It is primarily a zoonotic infection. Sandfly surveys were conducted in four areas with occurrences of human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Seropédica. A manual method was used to catch specimens between 6:00 pm and 10:00 pm, for 12 consecutive months. From October 2004 to September 2005, we caught 2,390 individuals belonging to four species: Lutzomyia intermedia accounted for 97.1% of the total collected, followed by Lutzomyia whitmani (1.6%), Lutzomyia migonei (1.2%) and Lutzomyia oswaldoi (0.1%). The Valão das Louças had the highest density of sandflies, followed by the localities of Km 39, Km 40 and Caçador. The low diversity of species is due to significant changes in the ecotope of the region. It is suggested that American cutaneous leishmaniasis is being transmitted by Lutzomyia intermedia in the municipality of Seropédica. PMID:19448931

Cardoso, Patrícia Giupponi; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Sanavria, Argemiro; Meira, Antonio de Medeiros; Meródio, Jairo Caetano

2009-01-01

118

Microspatial Distributional Patterns of Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution and population trends through time of Lutzomyia species in a long-term focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in an Atlantic Forest area, northeastern Brazil. Sand fly populations of different ecological niches were monitored spatiotemporally in 2009. To summarize vegetation characteristics and phenology, we calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from Landsat images. Using niche modeling approaches, we assessed suites of environmental factors to identify areas of transmission risk. Although 12 species were detected, L. whitmani was the most abundant and broadly distributed across the area, particularly in peridomiciliary locations, and associated negatively with denser vegetation areas. On the other hand, L. complexa, L. sordelli, and L. tupynambai were found almost exclusively in forested areas (P < 0.05), and associated positively with denser vegetation. Lutzomyia species' occurrences are related to specific environmental combinations (with contrast among species) in the region. PMID:22315619

Donalisio, Maria Rita; Peterson, A. Townsend; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Fernando Jose; Valenca, Helio Franca; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Brandao Filho, Sinval P.

2012-01-01

119

Heparin binding proteins from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes.  

PubMed

We have examined the heparin binding proteins from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes (HBP-Lb) by chromatography assays. The proposed strategy to isolate an enriched fraction of the HBP-Lb consisted of an association of the Triton X-114 method with affinity chromatography in heparin-Sepharose 4B column. SDS-PAGE analysis of the eluted proteins showed two main protein bands (65.0 and 54.5 kDa), while a single protein band was observed in native electrophoresis gel. The hemagglutination property of HBP-Lb over rabbit erythrocytes was confirmed up to 6.3+/-0.5 microg of protein mL(-1). Additionally, we have assayed the potential of HBP-Lb labeled with sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin in binding to nitrocellulose-immobilized gut proteins extracted of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani. The results indicated a similar profile of five ligands (67.0, 62.1, 59.5, 56.0 and 47.5 kDa) in both studied Lutzomyia species. This is the first direct description of this class of protein in L. (V.) braziliensis with a suggestion of its biological activity in the interaction of Leishmania with Lutzomyia gut cells, which maybe a crucial step during this parasite's life cycle. PMID:17292553

Azevedo-Pereira, R L; Pereira, M C S; Oliveria-Junior, F O R; Brazil, R P; Côrtes, L M C; Madeira, M F; Santos, A L S; Toma, L; Alves, C R

2007-04-30

120

Ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Xakriab? Indigenous Reserve, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Sand fly collections were performed to study ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna of the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, an area with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The collections were performed in peridomicile areas and along trails previously selected for the study of wild and synanthropic Leishmania hosts. Differences in the distribution patterns of the sand fly species as well as in species richness and abundance between the different ecotopes were investigated during both rainy and dry seasons over the course of the study period. Results A total of 8,046 sand flies belonging to 11 genera and 28 species were collected. Lutzomyia longipalpis and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant species in peridomicile areas, whereas Martinsmyia minasensis and Lutzomyia cavernicola were the most abundant species among the different trail ecotopes. Conclusion The different composition of the sand fly fauna observed in the peridomicile areas and in the trails during the study, reinforces the importance of sampled different areas in a phlebotomine fauna survey. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. Intermedia most abundant in peridomicile can be important to Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis transmission in the Imbaúbas native village. PMID:24886717

2014-01-01

121

Survey of natural infection by Leishmania in sand fly species collected in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, we sought to identify sand fly vectors of the Leishmania species that circulate in distinct eco-epidemiological disease-endemic rural areas within the Espírito Santo State in southeastern Brazil. PCR amplification of a conserved region of the minicircle kDNA was used to estimate infection rates in field-captured, peridomestic female sand flies. Only 13 of the 1689 female sand fly specimens (0.77%) actually contained Leishmania DNA. Leishmania braziliensis infections were found in Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, and, for the first time, in Lu. fischeri and Lu. ferreirana. Interestingly, the high rate of genetic polymorphism of the L. braziliensis parasites in one of the disease-endemic areas that were studied may reflect specific transmission cycles involving different sand fly vectors. PMID:20346478

Rocha, Leonardo S; Falqueto, Aloísio; dos Santos, Claudiney B; Ferreira, Adelson L; da Graça, Grazielle C; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Cupolillo, Elisa

2010-07-01

122

Geographical distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of S?o Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a re-emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is important to understand both the vector and disease distribution to help design control strategies. As an initial step in applying geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) tools to map disease-risk, the objectives of the present work were to: (i) produce a single database of species distributions of the sand fly vectors in the state of São Paulo, (ii) create combined distributional maps of both the incidence of ACL and its sand fly vectors, and (iii) thereby provide individual municipalities with a source of reference material for work carried out in their area. Results A database containing 910 individual records of sand fly occurrence in the state of São Paulo, from 37 different sources, was compiled. These records date from between 1943 to 2009, and describe the presence of at least one of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species in 183/645 (28.4%) municipalities. For the remaining 462 (71.6%) municipalities, we were unable to locate records of any of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species (Nyssomyia intermedia, N. neivai, N. whitmani, Pintomyia fischeri, P. pessoai and Migonemyia migonei). The distribution of each of the six incriminated or suspected vector species of ACL in the state of São Paulo were individually mapped and overlaid on the incidence of ACL for the period 1993 to 1995 and 1998 to 2007. Overall, the maps reveal that the six sand fly vector species analyzed have unique and heterogeneous, although often overlapping, distributions. Several sand fly species - Nyssomyia intermedia and N. neivai - are highly localized, while the other sand fly species - N. whitmani, M. migonei, P. fischeri and P. pessoai - are much more broadly distributed. ACL has been reported in 160/183 (87.4%) of the municipalities with records for at least one of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species, while there are no records of any of these sand fly species in 318/478 (66.5%) municipalities with ACL. Conclusions The maps produced in this work provide basic data on the distribution of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vectors of ACL in the state of São Paulo, and highlight the complex and geographically heterogeneous pattern of ACL transmission in the region. Further studies are required to clarify the role of each of the six suspected sand fly vector species in different regions of the state of São Paulo, especially in the majority of municipalities where ACL is present but sand fly vectors have not yet been identified. PMID:21171969

2010-01-01

123

The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area. PMID:24141956

Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

2013-11-01

124

The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area. PMID:24141956

Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araujo; Andrade, Jose Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Pecanha

2013-01-01

125

VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Sand Fly (Lutzomyia vexator) (Diptera: Psychodidae) Populations in  

E-print Network

widespread and locally abundant (range, 0.26Ð1.16 �ies/trap night) at the IES site. These populations showed,351 hunt club dogs; of these dogs, 1.8% were seropositive (Schantz et al. 2001). How the hunt club dogs of the New York hunt club dogs had traveled. Initial exposure to sand �y bites may have occurred during

126

Maxadilan, the Lutzomyia longipalpis vasodilator, drives plasma leakage via PAC1-CXCR1/2-pathway.  

PubMed

Experiments were designed to determine if the vasodilatory peptides maxadilan and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP-38) may cause plasma leakage through activation of leukocytes and to what extent these effects could be due to PAC1 and CXCR1/2 receptor stimulation. Intravital microscopy of hamster cheek pouches utilizing FITC-dextran and rhodamine, respectively, as plasma and leukocyte markers was used to measure arteriolar diameter, plasma leakage and leukocyte accumulation in a selected area (5mm(2)) representative of the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Our studies showed that the sand fly vasodilator maxadilan and PACAP-38 induced arteriolar dilation, leukocyte accumulation and plasma leakage in postcapillary venules. The recombinant mutant of maxadilan M65 and an antagonist of CXCR1/2 receptors, reparixin, and an inhibitor of CD11b/CD18 up-regulation, ropivacaine, inhibited all these effects as induced by maxadilan. Dextran sulfate, a complement inhibitor with heparin-like anti-inflammatory effects, inhibited plasma leakage and leukocyte accumulation but not arteriolar dilation as induced by maxadilan and PACAP-38. In vitro studies with isolated human neutrophils showed that maxadilan is a potent stimulator of neutrophil migration comparable with fMLP and leukotriene B(4) and that M65 and reparixin inhibited such migration. The data suggest that leukocyte accumulation and plasma leakage induced by maxadilan involves a mechanism related to PAC1- and CXCR1/2-receptors on leukocytes and endothelial cells. PMID:22036674

Svensjö, Erik; Saraiva, Elvira M; Amendola, Rafael Silveira; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina; Bozza, Marcelo T; Lerner, Ethan A; Teixeira, Mauro M; Scharfstein, Julio

2012-03-01

127

Systematic relationships among Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Peru and Colombia based  

E-print Network

Entomologi´a, Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrio´n", Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos small subunit (12SrRNA) and of the nuclear large subunit (28SrRNA) ribosomal gene sequences

Beati, Lorenza

128

Cooperative Blood-feeding and the Function and Implications of Feeding Aggregations in the Sand Fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)  

PubMed Central

Given the importance that the evolution of cooperation bears in evolutionary biology and the social sciences, extensive theoretical work has focused on identifying conditions that promote cooperation among individuals. In insects, cooperative or altruistic interactions typically occur amongst social insects and are thus explained by kin selection. Here we provide evidence that in Lutzomia longipalpis, a small biting fly and an important vector of leishmaniasis in the New World, cooperative blood-feeding in groups of non-kin individuals results in a strong decrease in saliva expenditure. Feeding in groups also strongly affected the time taken to initiate a bloodmeal and its duration and ultimately resulted in greater fecundity. The benefits of feeding aggregations were particularly strong when flies fed on older hosts pre-exposed to sand fly bites, suggesting that flies feeding in groups may be better able to overcome their stronger immune response. These results demonstrate that, in L. longipalpis, feeding cooperatively maximizes the effects of salivary components injected into hosts to facilitate blood intake and to counteract the host immune defences. As a result, cooperating sand flies enjoy enormous fitness gains. This constitutes, to our knowledge, the first functional explanation for feeding aggregations in this species and potentially in other hematophagous insects and a rare example of cooperation amongst individuals of a non-social insects species. The evolution of cooperative group feeding in sand flies may have important implications for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. PMID:19688042

Tripet, Frederic; Clegg, Simon; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; Ward, Richard D.

2009-01-01

129

Catalogue of the type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786

dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey Jose

2014-01-01

130

Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene.  

PubMed

An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA. PMID:24821056

Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Silva, Jailthon Carlos da; Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro da; Pires e Cruz, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

2014-06-01

131

Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA. PMID:24821056

Soares, Vitor Yamashiro Rocha; da Silva, Jailthon Carlos; da Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e; Santos, Marcos Persio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

2014-01-01

132

Lutzomyia diamantinensis sp. nov., a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a quartzite cave in Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

A new species of Brazilian phlebotomine sandfly found in Brazil, municipality of Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, is described based on males and females collected in a quartzite cave. The body of spermathecae is continuous to the individual duct, lanky and tapering at the end, with conical shaped, not striated and presenting the head with dense setae. The male presents gonostyle with four spines and a small subterminal seta and gonocoxite with one group of persistent setae. The paramere is simple with a group of small setae on the dorsal apex. The morphological features of this new species permit its inclusion in the migonei group. PMID:23295750

Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima

2012-12-01

133

Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 61(5), 1999, pp. 846849 Copyright 1999 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene  

E-print Network

of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene LUTZOMYIA NUNEZTOVARI ANGLESI (LE PONT & DESJEUX, 1984) AS A VECTOR Recherche pour le De´veloppement La Paz, La Paz, Bolivia; Prince Le´opold Institute of Tropical Medicine

134

Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas  

E-print Network

Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite...

Gonzá lez, Camila; Rebollar-Té llez, Eduardo A.; Ibá ñ ez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sá nchez-Cordero, Ví ctor

2011-01-01

135

Spraying houses in the Peruvian Andes with lambda-cyhalothrin protects residents against cutaneous leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A household vector control trial was carried out in the Peruvian Andes to measure the effect of spraying inside walls and ceilings with lambda-cyhalothrin on the risk for residents of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania peruviana. The mortality rates of Lutzomyia verrucarum measured with WHO contact bioassay cones set on adobe walls characteristic of the endemic region indicated an LD95

C. R. Davies; E. A. Llanos-Cuentas; P. Campos; J. Monge; E. Leon; J. Canales

2000-01-01

136

Repellent efficacy of a combination containing imidacloprid and permethrin against sand flies ( Phlebotomus papatasi ) in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection in dogs and humans with the protozoan parasite Leishmania are widespread in tropical and subtropical countries around the globe. Sand flies of the order Phlebotomus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World function as the vector of this disease. In dogs, skin lesions are the most prominent signs of canine leishmaniasis, besides other complex underlying manifestations.

N. Mencke; P. Volf; V. Volfova; D. Stanneck

2003-01-01

137

Body Size114 antihistamines that will minimize inflammation and itching, possibly  

E-print Network

during their entire life. Examples include the tsetse flies, streblids, hippoboscids and nycteribiids. For example, the tsetse fly Glossina harbors three symbiotic microorganisms, includ- ing Wigglesworthia of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis enhances the establish- ment of the parasite Leishmania major

138

Molecular typing of sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from areas endemic for Leishmaniasis in Ecuador by PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA gene.  

PubMed

Surveillance of the distribution of sand fly species is important for prediction of the risk and expansion of Leishmania infection in endemic and surrounding areas. In the present study, a simple and reliable method of typing New World Lutzomyia species circulating in endemic areas in Ecuador was established by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes with the restriction enzyme AfaI and subsequently HinfI successfully identified seven sand fly species in nine endemic areas in Ecuador. Although intraspecific genetic-diversity affecting the RFLP-patterns was detected in a species, the patterns were species specific. The method promises to be a powerful tool for the classification of New World Lutzomyia species. PMID:18840964

Terayama, Yoshimi; Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Uezato, Hiroshi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

2008-09-01

139

First case of autochthonous human visceral leishmaniasis in the urban center of Rio de Janeiro: case report.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement. PMID:24553614

Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

2014-01-01

140

Maxadilan interacts with receptors for pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide in human SH-SY5Y and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receptors for pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) have been identified in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with PACAP being 1000-fold more potent than vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in [125I]PACAP binding inhibition and stimulation of cAMP accumulation. Maxadilan, a vasodilator peptide from the salivary gland of the sand flyLutzomyia longipalpisalso specifically bound to SH-SY5Y cells, and was equipotent to PACAP in

M. Eggenberger; W. Born; U. Zimmermann; E. A. Lerner; J. A. Fischer; R. Muff

1999-01-01

141

The biogeography and population genetics of neotropical vector species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic and population genetic data support the Pliocene or Pleistocene divergences of the co-distributed hematophagous insect vectors, the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l., the mosquitoes Anopheles darlingi and A. albitarsis s.l., and the triatomines Rhodnius prolixus and R. robustus. We examined patterns of divergence and distribution in relation to three hypotheses of neotropical diversification: Miocene\\/Pliocene marine incursion, Pliocene\\/Pleistocene riverine barriers

J E Conn; L Mirabello

2007-01-01

142

Experimental Infection of Dogs with Leishmania and Saliva as a Model to Study Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The establishment of an experimental model that partially reproduces natural infection in dogs is very important to test vaccine candidates, mainly regarding those that use salivary proteins from the vector and new therapeutical approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we describe an experimental infection in dogs, using intradermal injection of Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland homogenate (SGH) of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Thirty-five dogs were infected with 1×107 parasites combined with five pairs of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary glands and followed for 450 days after infection and clinical, immunological and parasitological parameters were evaluated. Two hundred and ten days after infection we observed that 31,4% of dogs did not display detectable levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies but all presented different numbers of parasites in the lymph nodes. Animals with a positive xenodiagnosis had at least 3,35×105 parasites in their lymph nodes. An increase of IFN-? and IL-10 levels was detected during infection. Twenty two percent of dogs developed symptoms of CVL during infection. Conclusion The infection model described here shows some degree of similarity when compared with naturally infected dogs opening new perspectives for the study of CVL using an experimental model that employs the combination of parasites and sand fly saliva both present during natural transmission. PMID:23577121

Costa, Dirceu Joaquim; Carvalho, Rayssa M. de Araujo; Abbehusen, Melissa; Teixeira, Clarissa; Pitombo, Maiana; Trigo, Joelma; Nascimento, Flavia; Amorim, Lucilene; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lucia; do Socorro Pires Cruz, Maria; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Fukutani, Kyoshi; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

2013-01-01

143

Data on sand fly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The sand fly fauna in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was investigated in different habitats ranging from sylvatic areas to those altered by human activity related to ecotourism, specifically identifying species that have been suggested as potential leishmaniasis vectors. Sand flies were captured from June 2002 to March 2004, using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. A total of 1,256 sand fly specimens were captured, from species belonging to genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia: Brumptomyia guimaraesi, B. troglodytes, Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) amarali, L. lanei, L. migonei, L. sallesi, L. edwardsi, L. tupynambai, L. (Pintomyia) pessoai, L. (P.) bianchigalatie, L. rupicola, L. (Psathyromyia) shannoni, L. pascalei, L. (Psychodopygus) matosi, L. (P.) davisi, L. (P.) hirsuta hirsuta, L. (P.) ayrozai, L. peresi, L. monticola, and L. misionensis. Worthy of special attention were four species that are considered potential vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: L. ayrozai, L. hirsuta hirsuta, L. migonei, and L. davisi, representing 19.19% of the specimens captured in this study. PMID:17334585

Afonso, Margarete M S; Costa, Wagner A; Azevedo, Alfredo C R; Costa, Simone M da; Vilela, Maurício L; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2007-03-01

144

Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis. PMID:22548541

Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

2012-06-01

145

A new quadrannulate species of Orobdella (Hirudinida, Arhynchobdellida, Orobdellidae) from central Honshu, Japan  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new quadrannulate species of Orobdella, Orobdella masaakikuroiwai sp. n., from the mountainous region of central Honshu, Japan is described. This is only the second small species known within this genus, with a body length of less than 4 cm for mature individuals. Phylogenetic analyses using nuclear 18S rDNA and histone H3 as well as mitochondrial COI, tRNACys, tRNAMet, 12S, tRNAVal, 16S, and ND1 markers showed that Orobdella masaakikuroiwai sp. n. is the sister species of the quadrannulate Orobdella whitmani Oka, 1895. Phylogenetic relationships within Orobdella masaakikuroiwai sp. n. conducted using mitochondrial markers reveled a distinction between eastern and western phylogroups. PMID:25349507

Nakano, Takafumi

2014-01-01

146

Aguacate virus, a new antigenic complex of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae)  

PubMed Central

Genomic and antigenic characterization of Aguacate virus, a tentative species of the genus Phlebovirus, and three other unclassified viruses, Armero virus, Durania virus and Ixcanal virus, demonstrate a close relationship to one another. They are distinct from the other nine recognized species within the genus Phlebovirus. We propose to designate them as a new (tenth) serogroup or species (Aguacate virus) within the genus. The four viruses were all isolated from phlebotomine sandflies (Lutzomyia sp.) collected in Central and South America. Aguacate virus appears to be a natural reassortant and serves as one more example of the high frequency of reassortment in this genus. PMID:21325481

Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Wick, Ivan; Guzman, Hilda; Hutchison, Stephen; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W. Ian

2011-01-01

147

Aguacate virus, a new antigenic complex of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae).  

PubMed

Genomic and antigenic characterization of Aguacate virus, a tentative species of the genus Phlebovirus, and three other unclassified viruses, Armero virus, Durania virus and Ixcanal virus, demonstrate a close relationship to one another. They are distinct from the other nine recognized species within the genus Phlebovirus. We propose to designate them as a new (tenth) serogroup or species (Aguacate virus) within the genus. The four viruses were all isolated from phlebotomine sandflies (Lutzomyia sp.) collected in Central and South America. Aguacate virus appears to be a natural reassortant and serves as one more example of the high frequency of reassortment in this genus. PMID:21325481

Palacios, Gustavo; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Wick, Ivan; Guzman, Hilda; Hutchison, Stephen; Tesh, Robert; Lipkin, W Ian

2011-06-01

148

The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7%) predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia) sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase. PMID:23778653

Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Silva, Yanis Ricardo Espinosa; Fernandez, Nelson; Gutierrez, Reynaldo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

2013-01-01

149

Effect of environmental disturbance on the population of sandflies and leishmania transmission in an endemic area of Venezuela.  

PubMed

The exploitation of new wilderness areas with crops is increasing and traditional crop substitution has been modified by new more productive crops. The results show the anthropogenic disturbance effect on the sandflies population and Leishmania transmission in endemic areas of Venezuela. Three agroecosystems with variable degrees of ecological disturbance, forest (conserved), cacao (fragmented), and orangery (disturbed), were selected. Four methods to sandfly capture were used; the specimens were identified and infected with Leishmania. Diversity, population structure, ANOVA, Tukey test, and simple correlation analysis were carried out. Shannon traps were able to capture 94.7% of the total sandflies, while CDC light traps, Sticky traps, and direct suction just captured 2.2%, 1.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. The results showed the effect of ecological disturbance degree on the composition of sandflies and population structure, revealing a dominance level increased but decreased on the diversity and richness of sandflies species in the greatest ecological disturbance area in relation to areas with less organic disturbance. Environments more disturbed cause adaptability of certain species such as Lutzomyia gomezi and Lutzomyia walkeri. These changes on the composition of sandflies population and structure emerging species could cause increasing of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:24949018

Nieves, Elsa; Oraá, Luzmary; Rondón, Yorfer; Sánchez, Mireya; Sánchez, Yetsenia; Rojas, Masyelly; Rondón, Maritza; Rujano, Maria; González, Nestor; Cazorla, Dalmiro

2014-01-01

150

Synanthropy of mosquitoes and sand flies near the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, Brazil.  

PubMed

The environmental changes resulting from the construction of hydroelectric dams may affect the fauna of insect vectors and consequently the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit. This work examined the mosquito and sand fly fauna in the area of the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, analyzing the seasonal distribution and the degree of species synanthropy in different ecotopes. Between November, 2008 and September, 2009, entomological captures were performed with the help of HP light traps in the rural, urban, and forest areas of Aimorés, Ituêta, Resplendor, and Baixo Guandu counties. The fauna proved to be quite diversified. Twenty-two species of mosquitoes and 11 species of sand flies were found. Culex quinquefasciatus was predominant among mosquitoes (76.7%), while Lutzomyia intermedia prevailed among sand flies (34.5%). Some of the captured species have medical interest. Supported by the high degree of synanthropy, those species reinforce the need for epidemiological surveillance. PMID:23181864

Barata, R A; Ursine, R L; Nunes, F P; Morais, D H; Araújo, H S

2012-12-01

151

Emergence of Autochthonous Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Texas and Southeastern Oklahoma  

PubMed Central

Autochthonous human cases of leishmaniasis in the United States are uncommon. We report three new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and details of a previously reported case, all outside the known endemic range in Texas. Surveys for enzootic rodent reservoirs and sand fly vectors were conducted around the residences of three of the case-patients during the summer of 2006; female Lutzomyia anthophora sand flies were collected at a north Texas and southeast Oklahoma residence of a case-patient, indicating proximity of a suitable vector. Urban sprawl, climatologic variability, or natural expansion of Leishmania mexicana are possible explanations for the apparent spread to the north and east. Enhanced awareness among healthcare providers in the south central region of the United States is important to ensure clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis, diagnosis, and appropriate patient management. PMID:23185078

Clarke, Carmen F.; Bradley, Kristy K.; Wright, James H.; Glowicz, Janet

2013-01-01

152

Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.  

PubMed

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector's population and the contact between man and vectors. PMID:22988458

Gouveia, Cheryl; de Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães; Zwetsch, Adriana; Motta-Silva, Daniel; Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; de Santana, Antônio Ferreira; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2012-01-01

153

First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus. PMID:24142177

de Campos, Monique Paiva; da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Velho, Artur Augusto Mendes; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

2013-01-01

154

Proven and putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: aspects of their biology and vectorial competence.  

PubMed

The aim of the present review is to give relevant information on aspects of the biology and ecology, including the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia sand fly species suggested as vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. The disease, due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, has been registered in most municipalities in all the Brazilian states and its transmission is associated with more than one sand fly species in each geographical region. A variety of Leishmania species can be found in the Amazon basin, where different epidemiological chains have been detected with the participation of different phlebotomine vectors. Finally, a discussion is presented on some sand fly species found naturally infected by Leishmania, but for which there is as yet no evidence regarding their epidemiological importance. PMID:20027458

Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Lainson, Ralph

2009-11-01

155

Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil  

PubMed Central

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector's population and the contact between man and vectors. PMID:22988458

Gouveia, Cheryl; de Oliveira, Rosely Magalhaes; Zwetsch, Adriana; Motta-Silva, Daniel; Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; de Santana, Antonio Ferreira; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

2012-01-01

156

Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists. PMID:21845934

Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

2011-07-01

157

Current and Future Niche of North and Central American Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Climate Change Scenarios  

PubMed Central

Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases. PMID:24069478

Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdena, Carlos N.; Rebollar-Tellez, Eduardo A.; Ibanez-Bernal, Sergio; Gonzalez, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M.

2013-01-01

158

ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, Joao Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

2014-01-01

159

Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Reemerging Focus of Intense Transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992?dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated. PMID:24000322

Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinario, Estefania Conceicao; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araujo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa

2013-01-01

160

The characterization of the Phlebotomus papatasi transcriptome  

PubMed Central

As important vectors of human disease, phlebotomine sand flies are of global significance to human health, transmitting several emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. The most devastating of the sand fly transmitted infections are the leishmaniases, causing significant mortality and morbidity in both the Old and New World. Here we present the first global transcriptome analysis of the Old World vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) and compare this transcriptome to that of the New World vector of visceral leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia longipalpis. A normalized cDNA library was constructed using pooled mRNA from Phlebotomus papatasi larvae, pupae, adult males and females sugar fed, adult females blood fed and fed blood infected with Leishmania major. A total of 47,615 generated sequences were cleaned and assembled into 17,120 unique transcripts. Of the assembled sequences, 50% (8,837 sequences) were classified using Gene Ontology (GO) terms. This collection of transcripts is comprehensive, as demonstrated by the high number of different GO categories. An in depth analysis has revealed 245 sequences with putative homology to proteins involved in blood and sugar digestion, immune response and peritrophic matrix formation. Twelve of the novel genes, including one trypsin, two peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP) and nine chymotrypsins have a higher expression level during larval stages. Two novel chymotrypsins and one novel PGRP are abundantly expressed upon blood feeding. This study will greatly improve the available genomic resources for Ph. papatasi and will provide essential information for annotation of the full genome. PMID:23398403

Abrudan, Jenica; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; O'Neil, Shawn; Stayback, Gwen; Wadsworth, Mariha; Bernard, Megan; Shoue, Doug; Emrich, Scott; Lawyer, Phillip; Kamhawi, Shaden; Rowton, Edgar D.; Lehane, Michael J.; Bates, Paul A.; Valenzeula, Jesus G.; Tomlinson, Chad; Appelbaum, Elizabeth; Moeller, Deborah; Thiesing, Brenda; Dillon, Rod; Clifton, Sandra; Lobo, Neil F.; Wilson, Richard K.; Collins, Frank H.; McDowell, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

161

Efficacy of three attractant blends tested in combination with carbon dioxide against natural populations of mosquitoes and biting flies at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge.  

PubMed

Synthetic blends of chemicals identified previously from human skin emanations were evaluated against mosquito and biting fly populations at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge near Cedar Key, FL. Mosquito Magnet-Experimental traps were baited with the Red (400 ml acetone: 10 ml 1-hexen-3-ol:10 ml 1-octen-3-ol), Blue (400 ml acetone: 1 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml glycolic acid), or Green blend (400 ml acetone:1.5 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml dimethyl disulfide) plus CO2 or with CO2 alone (control). A relative index of efficacy was determined by dividing each mean blend trap catch by the mean control trap catch. Five mosquitoes (Aedes infirmatus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ae. triseriatus, Anopheles crucians, and Culex nigripalpus), 2 ceratopogonid (Culicoides floridensis and C. furens), and 1 tabanid (Diachlorus ferrugatus) and phlebotomine (Lutzomyia shannoni) species were trapped. The Red blend + CO2 treatment significantly increased collections of Ae. taeniorhynchus (3.4x), An. crucians (2.8X), total mosquitoes (2.7x), C. furens (17.6x), and L. shannoni (10.8x) compared with control traps. Traps baited with either the Blue or Green blends generally captured fewer insects than traps baited with the other 2 treatments. However, traps baited with the Green blend caught 7 x as many C. furens as the control traps. Responses clearly varied according to species; therefore, "one size does not fit all" when it comes to attractant blends. PMID:22894125

Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Hogsette, Jerome A

2012-06-01

162

Widespread atypical cutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) Chagasi in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

Leishmania chagasi, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, has recently been associated with atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Central America; however, little comprehensive information about this disease is available. Clinical, epidemiologic, and parasitologic characteristics of 252 ACL cases and 44 VL cases in Nicaragua were analyzed. Visceral leishmaniasis is primarily associated with malnourished children less than five years of age, whereas ACL is found predominantly in children greater than five years of age and young adults. Genetically similar parasites are associated with both disease manifestations. The sand fly Lutzomyia evansi, in addition to Lu. longipalpis, may be involved in transmission of L. chagasi to humans. Our results indicate that ACL is more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 10% of a local population. The fact that the same parasite appears to cause both ACL and the potentially fatal visceral disease suggests that the host immune response is critical in determining the outcome of L. chagasi infection. The public health implications of the wide-spread presence of L. chagasi are discussed. PMID:10497975

Belli, A; García, D; Palacios, X; Rodriguez, B; Valle, S; Videa, E; Tinoco, E; Marín, F; Harris, E

1999-09-01

163

The biological clock of an hematophagous insect: locomotor activity rhythms, circadian expression and downregulation after a blood meal.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of circadian rhythms in vector-borne disease transmission, very little is known about its molecular control in hematophagous insect vectors. In Drosophila melanogaster, a negative feedback loop of gene expression has been shown to contribute to the clock mechanism. Here, we describe some features of the circadian clock of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis, a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Compared to D. melanogaster, sandfly period and timeless, two negative elements of the feedback loop, show similar peaks of mRNA abundance. On the other hand, the expression of Clock (a positive transcription factor) differs between the two species, raising the possibility that the different phases of Clock expression could be associated with the observed differences in circadian activity rhythms. In addition, we show a reduction in locomotor activity after a blood meal, which is correlated with downregulation of period and timeless expression levels. Our results suggest that the circadian pacemaker and its control over the activity rhythms in this hematophagous insect are modulated by blood intake. PMID:16337945

Meireles-Filho, Antonio C A; da S Rivas, Gustavo B; Gesto, João S M; Machado, Ricardo C; Britto, Constança; de Souza, Nataly A; Peixoto, Alexandre A

2006-01-01

164

Seroconversion of sentinel chickens as a biomarker for monitoring exposure to visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmania infantum chagasi causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL); it is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis that injects saliva and parasites into the host's skin during a blood meal. Chickens represent an important blood source for sand flies and their presence in the endemic area is often cited as a risk factor for VL transmission. However, the role of chickens in VL epidemiology has not been well defined. Here, we tested if chicken antibodies against Lu. longipalpis salivary gland sonicate (SGS) could be used as markers of exposure to sand fly bites. All naturally exposed chickens in a VL endemic area in Brazil developed anti-SGS IgY antibodies. Interestingly, Lu. longipalpis recombinant salivary proteins rLJM17 and rLJM11 were also able to detect anti-SGS IgY antibodies. Taken together, these results show that chickens can be used to monitor the presence of Lu. longipalpis in the peri-domiciliary area in VL endemic regions, when used as sentinel animals. PMID:23912591

Soares, Barbara Ribeiro; Souza, Ana Paula Almeida; Prates, Deboraci Brito; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina

2013-01-01

165

Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva.  

PubMed

Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Gonçalves; Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira de; Barcinski, Marcello André; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena

2013-09-01

166

Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.  

PubMed

From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence. PMID:19967242

Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

2009-01-01

167

A 245kb mini-chromosome impacts on Leishmania braziliensis infection and survival.  

PubMed

Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, the causative agent of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, may present an LD1 type genomic amplification that appears as a small 245 kb linear chromosome, and is not clearly associated to the presence of a selection agent. A bt1 gene, codifying for a biopterin transporter protein, was identified in this small chromosome. Leishmania are auxotrophic for pterins and one of the proposed explanations for the appearance of this amplification is the improvement of biopterin capture by the parasite. We analyzed some biological aspects of two lineages of L. braziliensis strain M2903, with and without the small amplified chromosome. We showed differences in infectivity of these lineages, in macrophages and the insect vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, as well as in the uptake and metabolization of intermediates of the Leishmania biopterin salvage pathway. Our results suggest that the genomic amplification favors survival due to improved biopterin capture and at the same time hinders the infective capability, suggesting that within a population different parasites can perform different roles. PMID:19254695

Sampaio, M C R; Barbosa, A F; Este, M G; Pirmez, C; Bello, A R; Traub-Csekö, Y M

2009-04-24

168

Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

PubMed Central

Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Goncalves; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira; Barcinski, Marcello Andre; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena

2013-01-01

169

The effect of temperature on Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) development in sand flies.  

PubMed

The spread of leishmaniasis to areas where it was previously considered nonendemic has been recently found in the New and Old Worlds, and climate changes are suspected as a crucial factor responsible for this spread. Ambient temperature is known to significantly affect the metabolism of sand flies and their developmental times, but little is known about the effect of temperature on the Leishmania life cycle in vectors. This study assesses the effect of temperature on the development of two closely related New World Viannia species, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania peruviana, in the permissive vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, and on the development of New and Old World Leishmania infantum in its natural vectors Lu. longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus, respectively. The mountain species L. peruviana developed well in sand fly females kept at 20 degrees C, whereas at 26 degrees C, most infections were lost during the defecation ofbloodmeal remains; this suggests an adaptation to the slower metabolism of sand flies living at lower ambient temperature. On the contrary, L. infantum and L. braziliensis developed well at both temperatures tested; heavy late-stage infections were observed in a majority of sand fly females maintained at 20 degrees C as well 26 degrees C. Frequent fully developed infections of L. infantum and L. braziliensis at 20 degrees C suggest a certain risk of the spread of these two Leishmania species to higher latitudes and altitudes. PMID:24180098

Hlavacova, J; Votypka, J; Volf, P

2013-09-01

170

[Visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina. Cases notification and distribution of vectors (2006-2012)].  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Argentina. Every new case diagnosed must be reported to the National Health Surveillance System. In the period 2006-2012, a total of 103 cases have been notified in four provinces: Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Misiones and Santiago del Estero. Misiones has the largest amount of cases: a total of 80, detected in 15 towns from May 2006 to July 2012. The highest incidence is observed in children (less than 15 years of age). In 2004 the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected for the first time in Formosa Province. Cases of human and canine VL, as well as the presence of the canine vector were reported in 2006 in the province of Misiones, and in 2008-2009 in the province of Corrientes. In Santiago del Estero cases of human and canine VL (2008) were possibly associated with secondary vectors. In 2010 Lu longipalpis was found in Entre Rios, showing its dispersal to the south. Between January and April 2011 a systematic search of the VL vector was carried out in 13 towns, in Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Santiago del Estero Provinces (275 traps/night). The colonization of the vector Lu longipalpis was proved in Chajarí town (Entre Rios), but not in Santiago del Estero Province, where Migonemyia migonei appears as a putative LV vector. PMID:23570757

Gould, Ignacio T; Perner, Mónica S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina B; Bezzi, Gisella; Maglianese, Mariana I; Antman, Julián G; Gutiérrez, Jorge A; Salomón, Oscar D

2013-01-01

171

Leishmania chitinase facilitates colonization of sand fly vectors and enhances transmission to mice  

PubMed Central

Chitinases of trypanosomatid parasites have been proposed to fulfil various roles in their blood-feeding arthropod vectors but so far none have been directly tested using a molecular approach. We characterized the ability of Leishmania mexicana episomally transfected with LmexCht1 (the L. mexicana chitinase gene) to survive and grow within the permissive sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Compared with control plasmid transfectants, the overexpression of chitinase was found to increase the average number of parasites per sand fly and accelerate the escape of parasites from the peritrophic matrix-enclosed blood meal as revealed by earlier arrival at the stomodeal valve. Such flies also exhibited increased damage to the structure of the stomodeal valve, which may facilitate transmission by regurgitation. When exposed individually to BALB/c mice, those flies with chitinase-overexpressing parasites spent on average 2.4–2.5 times longer in contact with their host during feeding, compared with flies with control infections. Furthermore, the lesions that resulted from these single fly bite infections were both significantly larger and with higher final parasite burdens than controls. These data show that chitinase is a multifunctional virulence factor for L. mexicana which assists its survival in Lu. longipalpis. Specifically, this enzyme enables the parasites to colonize the anterior midgut of the sand fly more quickly, modify the sand fly stomodeal valve and affect its blood feeding, all of which combine to enhance transmission. PMID:18284631

Rogers, Matthew E; Hajmova, Martina; Joshi, Manju B; Sadlova, Jovana; Dwyer, Dennis M; Volf, Petr; Bates, Paul A

2008-01-01

172

Tegumentary leishmaniasis outbreak in Bella Vista City, Corrientes, Argentina during 2003.  

PubMed

Bella Vista City, Corrientes, Argentina, reported an epidemic outbreak of tegumentary leishmaniasis during 2003. The mean age of the 31 cases was 25.0 +/- 13.7 years old, with a sex ratio male:female 1.8, and without mucosal involvement. They clustered in two contiguous neighbourhoods, 96% in the periurban border and 4% in the peripheral outskirts. The transmission peak was estimated to have occurred during April 2003. Four species (3608 sand flies) were captured in nine sites: Lutzomyia neivai (90.1%), Lu. pessoai (8.9%), Lu. migonei (0.8 %), and Brumptomyia avellari (0.2 %). The outskirts/rural capture ratio of Lu. neivai was up to 3, and the outskirts/periurban up to 200. Therefore, the 'urban' transmission in this southernmost known focus is still an ecotone-border associated risk. The changes in human distribution or activities, patches of the secondary vegetation, periurban streams, rainfall of the previous year, and river period floods could all contribute to 'urban' outbreaks in the region. Tegumentary leishmaniasis risk should be assessed for any project that involves changes in land use throughout an endemic area. PMID:17160285

Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Ramos, Karina; Orellano, Pablo Wenceslao; Sanguesa, Gustavo; Fernández, Gustavo; Sinagra, Angel; Rapasciolli, Guillermo

2006-11-01

173

Purification of a serine protease and evidence for a protein C activator from the saliva of the tick, Ixodes scapularis.  

PubMed

The saliva of ticks is critical to their survival as parasites and hematophagous animals. In this study, we have purified an enzyme with trypsin-like activity from the saliva of the tick vector of Lyme Disease, Ixodes scapularis. This enzyme, named as IXOSP (I. scapularis salivary serine protease), is a 29.9 kDa molecule with N-terminus FPxMVxLRIKxR. A BLAST search identified IXOSP as a secreted serine protease (AAY66740) with a conserved catalytic triad His, Asp, and Ser. In vitro studies demonstrated that IXOSP cleaves chromogenic substrates with arginine in the P1 position, by a mechanism inhibited by PMSF or aprotinin. Gene expression studies revealed that IXOSP is expressed at different tick developmental stages, including eggs, and unfed or fed adult tick salivary glands, but not in nymphs or in the midgut. While the physiological substrate for IXOSP remains to be identified, we demonstrated that I. scapularis saliva activate protein C (PC) resulting in the production of activated PC, a potent anticoagulant that also regulates a myriad of inflammatory responses through protease activated receptors. In contrast, the salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and Phlebotomus ariasi did not activate protein C. These discoveries are discussed in the context of blood coagulation, inflammation and vector-host interactions. PMID:24184517

Pichu, Sivakamasundari; Ribeiro, José M C; Mather, Thomas N; Francischetti, Ivo M B

2014-01-01

174

A dysflagellar mutant of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolated from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient  

PubMed Central

Background Parasites of the Leishmania genus alternate between the flagellated extracellular promastigote stage and intracellular amastigotes. Here we report the characterization of a Leishmania isolate, obtained from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient, which presents peculiar morphological features. Methods The parasite was cultured in vitro and characterized morphologically using optical and electron microscopy. Identification was performed based on monoclonal antibodies and internal ribosomal spacer typing. In vitro macrophage cultures, murine experimental models and sand fly infections were used to evaluate infectivity in vitro and in vivo. Results The isolate was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. In the atypical promastigotes grown in culture, a short flagellum surrounded or interrupted by a protuberance of disorganized material was observed. A normal axoneme was present close to the basal body but without elongation much further outside the flagellar pocket. A disorganized swelling at the precocious end of the axoneme coincided with the lack of a paraflagellar rod structure. The isolate was able to infect macrophages in vitro, induce lesions in BALB/c mice and infect Lutzomyia longipalpis. Conclusions Notwithstanding the lack of an extracellular flagellum, this isolate infects macrophages in vitro and produces lesions when inoculated into mice. Moreover, it is able to colonize phlebotomine sand flies. Considering the importance attributed to the flagellum in the successful infection and survival of Leishmania in the insect midgut and in the invasion of macrophages, these findings may bring new light into the infectious mechanisms of L. (V.) braziliensis. PMID:22236464

2012-01-01

175

Phlebotomine Vector Ecology in the Domestic Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Chaparral, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Phlebotomine vector ecology was studied in the largest recorded outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia in 2004. In two rural townships that had experienced contrasting patterns of case incidence, this study evaluated phlebotomine species composition, seasonal abundance, nocturnal activity, blood source, prevalence of Leishmania infection, and species identification. CDC miniature light traps were used to trap the phlebotomines. Traps were set indoors, peridomestically, and in woodlands. Natural infection was determined in pools by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blot, and blood sources and species identification were determined by sequencing. Large differences were observed in population abundance between the two townships evaluated. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most abundant species (83.1%). Abundance was higher during months with lower precipitation. Nocturnal activity was associated with human domestic activity. Blood sources identified were mainly human (85%). A high prevalence of infection was found in L. longiflocosa indoors (2.7%) and the peridomestic setting (2.5%). L. longiflocosa was responsible for domestic transmission in Chaparral. PMID:22049038

Ferro, Cristina; Marin, Dairo; Gongora, Rafael; Carrasquilla, Maria C.; Trujillo, Jorge E.; Rueda, Norma K.; Marin, Jaime; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal; Perez, Mauricio; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Ocampo, Clara B.

2011-01-01

176

Possible determination of the vector and reservoir of leishmaniasis in the Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

Two species of sand flies were collected by various methods from sites in the Dominican Republic. Lutzomyia cayennensis hispaniolae was the more common of the two. It was found in wooded habitats from sea level to an elevation of 442 m. This species was observed feeding on lizards (Anolis sp.) in the wild. In the laboratory, it fed only on lizards and only under lighted conditions. The other species, Lu. christophei was only found in the vicinity of seven leishmaniasis case sites. It readily fed on or probed rodents and humans. Although no naturally infected sand flies were collected, in the laboratory Lu. christophei was readily capable of transmitting the Dominican Leishmania parasite to uninfected BALB/c mice. We collected 167 specimens of three species of rodents and three Herpestes auropunctatus (mongoose) from the vicinity of two case sites. All four species are non-endemics introduced in post-Columbian times. Although we were unable to isolate parasites from any of these specimens, four of 44 Rattus rattus from one case site were seropositive for antibodies against Leishmania by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. This represents the first report of transmission of the Dominican Leishmania parasite by a sympatric species of sand fly and suggests that commensal rodents may play a role in the epidemiologic cycle. PMID:1558267

Johnson, R N; Young, D G; Butler, J F; Bogaert-Diaz, H

1992-03-01

177

A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina)  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina). This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110) of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110) of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110). A total of 63 dogs (57.3%) were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases. PMID:21122107

2010-01-01

178

Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.  

PubMed

The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stål spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical diseases. PMID:21432748

Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

2011-04-01

179

In vitro effect of Aloe vera, Coriandrum sativum and Ricinus communis fractions on Leishmania infantum and on murine monocytic cells.  

PubMed

In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan species Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) and is primarily transmitted through the bite of the female Lutzomyia longipalpis. Its main reservoir in urban areas is the dog. The application of control measures recommended by health agencies have not achieved significant results in reducing the incidence of human cases, and the lack of effective drugs to treat dogs resulted in the prohibition of this course of action in Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to search new alternatives for the treatment of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro effect of fractions from Aloe vera (aloe), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), and Ricinus communis (castor) on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum and to analyze the toxicity against the murine monocytic cells RAW 264.7. To determine the viability of these substances on 50% parasites (IC50), we used a tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay (bromide 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium), and on amastigotes we performed an in situ ELISA. All fractions were effective against L. infantum promastigotes and did not differ from the positive control pentamidine (p>0.05). However, the R. communis ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, as well as the C. sativum methanol fraction, were the most effective against amastigotes and did not differ from the positive control amphotericin B (p>0.05). The R. communis ethyl acetate fraction was the least toxic, presenting 83.5% viability of RAW 264.7 cells, which was similar to the results obtained with amphotericin B (p>0.05). Based on these results, we intend to undertake in vivo studies with R. communis ethyl acetate fractions due the high effectiveness against amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum and the low cytotoxicity towards murine monocytic cells. PMID:21320755

Rondon, Fernanda C M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Accioly, Marina P; Morais, Selene M; Andrade-Junior, Heitor F; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Cardoso, Roselaine P A; Almeida, Camila A; Queiroz-Junior, Eudson M; Rodrigues, Ana Caroline M

2011-06-10

180

The FML-vaccine (Leishmune) against canine visceral leishmaniasis: a transmission blocking vaccine.  

PubMed

Transmission blocking vaccines are one of the control strategies for vector-transmitted protozoan diseases. Antibodies raised in the vaccinated host prevent the development of the parasite in the insect vector, interrupting the epidemiological cycle. The FML antigen of Leishmania donovani in combination with saponin (FML-vaccine and Leishmune) induced 92-97% of protections against zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. We assayed the ability of FML to inhibit Leishmania donovani and Leishmania chagasi procyclic promastigote-binding to dissected Lutzomyia longipalpis midguts. We found a dose-dependent inhibition, more pronounced on L. donovani (80%) than on L. chagasi promastigotes (p<0.001). On the other hand, the Fab-IgG serum fraction of Leishmune vaccinated dogs (IgG2 predominant), also inhibited parasite binding in a dose-response (p<0.0001) with an equally potent effect against L. donovani or L. chagasi (p = 0.061). The transmission blocking properties of the Leishmune vaccine was also assessed by an in vivo membrane assay, with sand flies fed with 1.5 x 10(7) amastigotes, human blood and, vaccinated or normal control dog sera. Significantly higher values were found in rate of infection (p<0.025) and intensity of infection (number of parasites/insect) (p<0.05) of control sand flies, making a very reduced infection index (20.7%) in the vaccine group. Our results disclosed that the Leishmune vaccine is a TBV, and that the dog antibodies present in sera, even 12 months after vaccination, lead to a significant effective protection of 79.3%. PMID:16386824

Saraiva, Elvira M; de Figueiredo Barbosa, André; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Borja-Cabrera, Gulnara Patrícia; Nico, Dirlei; Souza, Lucieri Olegário Pereira; de Oliveira Mendes-Aguiar, Carolina; de Souza, Edilma Paraguai; Fampa, Patrícia; Parra, Luciana Ellner; Menz, Ingrid; Dias, Jaime Galvão; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

2006-03-20

181

Hyaluronidase of Bloodsucking Insects and Its Enhancing Effect on Leishmania Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Salivary hyaluronidases have been described in a few bloodsucking arthropods. However, very little is known about the presence of this enzyme in various bloodsucking insects and no data are available on its effect on transmitted microorganisms. Here, we studied hyaluronidase activity in thirteen bloodsucking insects belonging to four different orders. In addition, we assessed the effect of hyaluronidase coinoculation on the outcome of Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice. Principal Findings High hyaluronidase activity was detected in several Diptera tested, namely deer fly Chrysops viduatus, blackflies Odagmia ornata and Eusimilium latipes, mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, biting midge Culicoides kibunensis and sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. Lower activity was detected in cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. No activity was found in kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus, mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, tse-tse fly Glossina fuscipes, stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans and human louse Pediculus humanus. Hyaluronidases of different insects vary substantially in their molecular weight, the structure of the molecule and the sensitivity to reducing conditions or sodium dodecyl sulphate. Hyaluronidase exacerbates skin lesions caused by Leishmania major; more severe lesions developed in mice where L. major promastigotes were coinjected with hyaluronidase. Conclusions High hyaluronidase activities seem to be essential for insects with pool-feeding mode, where they facilitate the enlargement of the feeding lesion and serve as a spreading factor for other pharmacologically active compounds present in saliva. As this enzyme is present in all Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia species studied to date, it seems to be one of the factors responsible for enhancing activity present in sand fly saliva. We propose that salivary hyaluronidase may facilitate the spread of other vector-borne microorganisms, especially those transmitted by insects with high hyaluronidase activity, namely blackflies (Simuliidae), biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and horse flies (Tabanidae). PMID:18820742

Volfova, Vera; Hostomska, Jitka; Cerny, Martin; Votypka, Jan; Volf, Petr

2008-01-01

182

Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.  

PubMed

The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They transmit several filarial worms of both animals and humans, and are of great medical importance as vectors of major human diseases, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and many more diseases caused by arboviruses. PMID:7711309

Braverman, Y

1994-12-01

183

The Genetic Structure of Leishmania infantum Populations in Brazil and Its Possible Association with the Transmission Cycle of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248

Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

2012-01-01

184

The genetic structure of Leishmania infantum populations in Brazil and its possible association with the transmission cycle of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248

Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

2012-01-01

185

The Mating Competence of Geographically Diverse Leishmania major Strains in Their Natural and Unnatural Sand Fly Vectors  

PubMed Central

Invertebrate stages of Leishmania are capable of genetic exchange during their extracellular growth and development in the sand fly vector. Here we explore two variables: the ability of diverse L. major strains from across its natural range to undergo mating in pairwise tests; and the timing of the appearance of hybrids and their developmental stage associations within both natural (Phlebotomus duboscqi) and unnatural (Lutzomyia longipalpis) sand fly vectors. Following co-infection of flies with parental lines bearing independent drug markers, doubly-drug resistant hybrid progeny were selected, from which 96 clonal lines were analyzed for DNA content and genotyped for parent alleles at 4–6 unlinked nuclear loci as well as the maxicircle DNA. As seen previously, the majority of hybrids showed ‘2n’ DNA contents, but with a significant number of ‘3n’ and one ‘4n’ offspring. In the natural vector, 97% of the nuclear loci showed both parental alleles; however, 3% (4/150) showed only one parental allele. In the unnatural vector, the frequency of uniparental inheritance rose to 10% (27/275). We attribute this to loss of heterozygosity after mating, most likely arising from aneuploidy which is both common and temporally variable in Leishmania. As seen previously, only uniparental inheritance of maxicircle kDNA was observed. Hybrids were recovered at similar efficiencies in all pairwise crosses tested, suggesting that L. major lacks detectable ‘mating types’ that limit free genetic exchange. In the natural vector, comparisons of the timing of hybrid formation with the presence of developmental stages suggest nectomonads as the most likely sexually competent stage, with hybrids emerging well before the first appearance of metacyclic promastigotes. These studies provide an important perspective on the prevalence of genetic exchange in natural populations of L. major and a guide for experimental studies to understand the biology of mating. PMID:23935521

Inbar, Ehud; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Charmoy, Melanie; Romano, Audrey; Lawyer, Phillip; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.; Kauffmann, Florence; Barhoumi, Mourad; Grigg, Michael; Owens, Katherine; Fay, Michael; Dobson, Deborah E.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Beverley, Stephen M.; Sacks, David

2013-01-01

186

Leishmanicidal activity in vitro of Musa paradisiaca L. and Spondias mombin L. fractions.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease characterized by infection of mononuclear phagocytes by Leishmania chagasi. The primary vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis and the dog is the main domestic reservoir. The control and current treatment of dogs using synthetic drugs have not shown effectiveness in reducing the incidence of disease in man. In attempt to find new compounds with leishmanicidal action, plant secondary metabolites have been studied in search of treatments of VL. This study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of Musa paradisiaca (banana tree) and Spondias mombin (cajazeira) chemical constituents on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. chagasi. Phytochemical analysis by column chromatography was performed on ethanol extracts of two plants and fractions were isolated. Thin layer chromatography was used to compare the fractions and for isolation the substances to be used in vitro tests. The in vitro tests on promastigotes of L. chagasi used the MTT colorimetric method and the method of ELISA in situ was used against amastigotes besides the cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the eight fractions tested, Sm1 and Sm2 from S. mombin had no action against promastigotes, but had good activity against amastigotes. The fractions Mp1 e Mp4 of M. paradisiaca were very cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells. The best result was obtained with the fraction Sm3 from S. mombin with IC(50) of 11.26 ?g/ml against promastigotes and amastigotes of 0.27 ?g/ml. The fraction Sm3 characterized as tannic acid showed the best results against both forms of Leishmania being a good candidate for evaluation in in vivo tests. PMID:22521971

Accioly, Marina Parissi; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Rondon, Fernanda C M; de Morais, Selene Maia; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Almeida, Camila A; de Andrade, Heitor Franco; Cardoso, Roselaine P A

2012-06-01

187

Leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging  

PubMed Central

Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency. PMID:23742709

2013-01-01

188

Evidence for a Lectin Specific for Sulfated Glycans in the Salivary Gland of the Malaria Vector, Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Salivary gland homogenate (SGH) from the female mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi, An. freeborni, An. dirus and An. albimanus were found to exhibit hemagglutinating (lectin) activity. Lectin activity was not found for male An. gambiae, or female Ae aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Phlebotomus duboscqi, and Lutzomyia longipalpis. With respect to species-specificity, An. gambiae SGH agglutinates red blood cells (RBC) from humans, horse, sheep, goat, pig, and cow; it is less active for rats RBC, and not detectable for guinea-pigs or chicken RBC. Notably, lectin activity was inhibited by low concentrations of dextran sulfate 50–500 K, fucoidan, heparin, laminin, heparin sulfate proteoglycan, sialyl-containing glycans (e.g. 3?-sialyl Lewis X, and 6?-sialyl lactose), and gangliosides (e.g. GM3, GD1, GD1b, GTB1, GM1, GQ1B), but not by simple sugars. These results imply that molecule(s) in the salivary gland target sulfated glycans. SGH from An. gambiae was also found to promote agglutination of HL-60 cells which are rich in sialyl Lewis X, a glycan that decorates PSGL-1, the neutrophils receptor that interacts with endothelial cell P-selectin. Accordingly, SGH interferes with HL-60 cells adhesion to immobilized P-selectin. Because An. gambiae SGH expresses galectins, one member of this family (herein named Agalectin) was expressed in E. coli. Recombinant Agalectin behaves as a non-covalent homodimer. It does not display lectin activity, and does not interact with 500 candidates tested in a Glycan microarray. Gel-filtration chromatography of the SGH of An. gambiae identified a fraction with hemagglutinating activity, which was analyzed by 1D PAGE followed by in-gel tryptic digestion, and nano-LC MS/MS. This approach identified several genes which emerge as candidates for a lectin targeting sulfated glycans, the first with this selectivity to be reported in the SGH of a blood-sucking arthropod. The role of salivary molecules (sialogenins) with lectin activity is discussed in the context of inflammation, and parasite-vector-host interactions. PMID:25207644

Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Ma, Dongying; Andersen, John F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

2014-01-01

189

Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in Latin America.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for coinfections of Leishmania and HIV to improve the consistency of research on the current situation of VL-HIV coinfections. Such a network would improve the collection of vital data and samples for better understanding of the clinical manifestations and immunopathogenic aspects of VL in immunosuppressed patients. Ultimately, a concerted effort would improve trials for new diagnostic methodologies and therapeutics, which could accelerate the implementation of more specific and effective diagnosis as well as public policies for treatments to reduce the impact of VL-HIV coinfections on the Latin American population. PMID:25233461

Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

2014-09-01

190

The effect of avian blood on Leishmania development in Phlebotomus duboscqi  

PubMed Central

Background The development of pathogens transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors is closely connected with the digestion of bloodmeals and is thus affected by midgut enzymatic activity. Some studies have demonstrated that avian blood inhibits Leishmania major infection in the Old World vector Phlebotomus papatasi; however, this effect has never been observed in the New World vectors of the genus Lutzomyia infected by other Leishmania species. Therefore, our study was focused on the effect of chicken blood on bloodmeal digestion and the development of Leishmania major in its natural vector Phlebotomus duboscqi, i.e. in a vector-parasite combination where the effect of blood is assumed. In addition, we tested the effect of avian blood on midgut trypsin activity and the influence of repeated feedings on the susceptibility of sand flies to Leishmania infection. Methods Phlebotomus duboscqi females were infected by rabbit blood containing L. major and either before or after the infection fed on chickens or mice. The individual guts were checked microscopically for presence and localization of Leishmania, parasite numbers were detected by Q-PCR. In addition, midgut trypsin activity was studied. Results Sand fly females fed on chicken blood had significantly lower midgut trypsin activity and delayed egg development compared to those fed on rabbits. On the other hand, there was no effect detected of avian blood on parasite development within the sand fly gut: similar infection rates and parasite loads were observed in P. duboscqi females infected by L. major and fed on chickens or mouse one or six days later. Similarly, previous blood feeding of sand flies on chickens or mice did not show any differences in subsequent Leishmania infections, and there was equal susceptibility of P. duboscqi to L. major infection during the first and second bloodmeals. Conclusion In spite of the fact that avian blood affects trypsin activity and the oocyte development of sand flies, no effect of chicken blood was observed on the development of L. major in P. duboscqi. Our study unambiguously shows that sand fly feeding on avian hosts is not harmful to Leishmania parasites within the sand fly midgut. PMID:24059328

2013-01-01

191

Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources  

PubMed Central

Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely available for download (right click with the mouse) at links http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-Peps-WEB.xlsx (web version) and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-sialogenins.zip (stand alone version). PMID:22778902

Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

2012-01-01

192

Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background Immune responses to sandfly saliva have been shown to protect animals against Leishmania infection. Yet very little is known about the molecular characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease. Further knowledge of the repertoire of these salivary proteins will give us insights into the molecular evolution of these proteins and will help us select relevant antigens for the development of a vector based anti-Leishmania vaccine. Results Two salivary gland cDNA libraries from female sandflies Phlebotomus argentipes and P. perniciosus were constructed, sequenced and proteomic analysis of the salivary proteins was performed. The majority of the sequenced transcripts from the two cDNA libraries coded for secreted proteins. In this analysis we identified transcripts coding for protein families not previously described in sandflies. A comparative sandfly salivary transcriptome analysis was performed by using these two cDNA libraries and two other sandfly salivary gland cDNA libraries from P. ariasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, also vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. Full-length secreted proteins from each sandfly library were compared using a stand-alone version of BLAST, creating formatted protein databases of each sandfly library. Related groups of proteins from each sandfly species were combined into defined families of proteins. With this comparison, we identified families of salivary proteins common among all of the sandflies studied, proteins to be genus specific and proteins that appear to be species specific. The common proteins included apyrase, yellow-related protein, antigen-5, PpSP15 and PpSP32-related protein, a 33-kDa protein, D7-related protein, a 39- and a 16.1- kDa protein and an endonuclease-like protein. Some of these families contained multiple members, including PPSP15-like, yellow proteins and D7-related proteins suggesting gene expansion in these proteins. Conclusion This comprehensive analysis allows us the identification of genus- specific proteins, species-specific proteins and, more importantly, proteins common among these different sandflies. These results give us insights into the repertoire of salivary proteins that are potential candidates for a vector-based vaccine. PMID:16539713

Anderson, Jennifer M; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Mans, Ben J; Reynoso, David; Seitz, Amy E; Lawyer, Phillip; Garfield, Mark; Pham, MyVan; Valenzuela, Jesus G

2006-01-01

193

Climate Change and Risk of Leishmaniasis in North America: Predictions from Ecological Niche Models of Vector and Reservoir Species  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is increasingly being implicated in species' range shifts throughout the world, including those of important vector and reservoir species for infectious diseases. In North America (México, United States, and Canada), leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is autochthonous in México and Texas and has begun to expand its range northward. Further expansion to the north may be facilitated by climate change as more habitat becomes suitable for vector and reservoir species for leishmaniasis. Methods and Findings The analysis began with the construction of ecological niche models using a maximum entropy algorithm for the distribution of two sand fly vector species (Lutzomyia anthophora and L. diabolica), three confirmed rodent reservoir species (Neotoma albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus), and one potential rodent reservoir species (N. mexicana) for leishmaniasis in northern México and the United States. As input, these models used species' occurrence records with topographic and climatic parameters as explanatory variables. Models were tested for their ability to predict correctly both a specified fraction of occurrence points set aside for this purpose and occurrence points from an independently derived data set. These models were refined to obtain predicted species' geographical distributions under increasingly strict assumptions about the ability of a species to disperse to suitable habitat and to persist in it, as modulated by its ecological suitability. Models successful at predictions were fitted to the extreme A2 and relatively conservative B2 projected climate scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080 using publicly available interpolated climate data from the Third Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report. Further analyses included estimation of the projected human population that could potentially be exposed to leishmaniasis in 2020, 2050, and 2080 under the A2 and B2 scenarios. All confirmed vector and reservoir species will see an expansion of their potential range towards the north. Thus, leishmaniasis has the potential to expand northwards from México and the southern United States. In the eastern United States its spread is predicted to be limited by the range of L. diabolica; further west, L. anthophora may play the same role. In the east it may even reach the southern boundary of Canada. The risk of spread is greater for the A2 scenario than for the B2 scenario. Even in the latter case, with restrictive (contiguous) models for dispersal of vector and reservoir species, and limiting vector and reservoir species occupancy to only the top 10% of their potential suitable habitat, the expected number of human individuals exposed to leishmaniasis by 2080 will at least double its present value. Conclusions These models predict that climate change will exacerbate the ecological risk of human exposure to leishmaniasis in areas outside its present range in the United States and, possibly, in parts of southern Canada. This prediction suggests the adoption of measures such as surveillance for leishmaniasis north of Texas as disease cases spread northwards. Potential vector and reservoir control strategies—besides direct intervention in disease cases—should also be further investigated. PMID:20098495

Gonzalez, Camila; Wang, Ophelia; Strutz, Stavana E.; Gonzalez-Salazar, Constantino; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

2010-01-01