Sample records for lutzomyia nyssomyia whitmani

  1. DETECTION OF Leishmania (Viannia) IN Nyssomyia neivai AND Nyssomyia whitmani BY MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION, IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Venazzi, Mateus Sabaini; Scodro, Regiane Bertin de Lima; Dias, Alessandra de Cassia; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

    2014-01-01

    Sandflies transmit pathogens of leishmaniasis. The natural infection of sandflies by Leishmania (Viannia) was assessed in municipalities, in the state of Paraná, in Southern Brazil. Sandflies were collected with Falcão and Shannon traps. After dissection in search of flagellates in digestive tubes and identification of the species, female sandflies were submitted to the Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (multiplex PCR) for detection of the fragment of the kDNA of Leishmania (Viannia) and the fragment from the IVS6 cacophony gene region of the phlebotomine insects. The analysis was performed in pools containing seven to 12 guts from females of the same species. A total of 510 female sandflies were analyzed, including nine Migonemyia migonei, 17 Pintomyia fischeri, 216 Nyssomyia neivai, and 268 Nyssomyia whitmani. Although none of the females was found naturally infected by flagellates through dissection, the fragment of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia) was shown by multiplex PCR in one sample of Ny. neivai (0.46%) and three samples of Ny. whitmani (1.12%). It was concluded that Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani are susceptible to Leishmania infection, and that multiplex PCR can be used in epidemiological studies to detect the natural infection of the sandfly vector, because of its sensitivity, specificity and feasibility. PMID:25229218

  2. Molecular polymorphism, differentiation and introgression in the period gene between Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Camila J; Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Claudia; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2006-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important and very closely related vector species of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, which are distinguishable by a few morphological differences. There is evidence of mitochondrial introgression between the two species but it is not clear whether gene flow also occurs in nuclear genes. Results We analyzed the molecular variation within the clock gene period (per) of these two species in five different localities in Eastern Brazil. AMOVA and Fst estimates showed no evidence for geographical differentiation within species. On the other hand, the values were highly significant for both analyses between species. The two species show no fixed differences and a higher number of shared polymorphisms compared to exclusive mutations. In addition, some haplotypes that are "typical" of one species were found in some individuals of the other species suggesting either the persistence of old polymorphisms or the occurrence of introgression. Two tests of gene flow, one based on linkage disequilibrium and a MCMC analysis based on coalescence, suggest that the two species might be exchanging alleles at the per locus. Conclusion Introgression might be occurring between L. intermedia and L. whitmani in period, a gene controlling behavioral rhythms in Drosophila. This result raises the question of whether similar phenomena are occurring at other loci controlling important aspects of behavior and vectorial capacity. PMID:17069656

  3. Cryptic speciation in Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) trapidoi (Fairchild & Hertig) (Diptera: Psychodidae) detected by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, J P; Le Pont, F; Cruz, M; Leon, R; Tarrieu, L F; Guderian, R; Echeverria, R; Tibayrenc, M

    1996-01-01

    Lutzomyia trapidoi is the major vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador. In the framework of an epidemiologic study, female Lu. trapidoi sand flies were captured on human bait in La Tablada and Paraiso Escondido. Some coloration heterogeneity among the specimens caught led us to look for the existence of cryptic species using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. In 196 specimens studied, five of seven enzyme loci proved to be variable, making it possible to check for departures from panmixia both by Hardy-Weinberg statistics and linkage disequilibrium analysis. Two discrete groups were clearly distinguished, which could be differentiated by the diagnostic locus glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. The two groups occurred in sympatry within each locality. Genetic distances measured between these two groups were consistent with values usually found between distinct species. These results suggest the existence of a least two sibling species in Paraiso Escondido as well as La Tablada. The epidemiologic relevance of these results is discussed. PMID:8651367

  4. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Veruska Nogueira; de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25410993

  5. Comparative study of the phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the genera Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962, Bichromomyia Artemiev, 1991, and Migonemyia Galati, 1995, vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cordeiroestrela, Pedro; De Souza, Nataly Araújo; Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; De Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Phlebotominae, a group of insects with great medical importance especially in Brazil, are responsible for transmitting causal agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. In Brazil, the most important species of Leishmania Ross, 1903 are L. (Viannia) braziliensis Vianna, 1911, whose main vectors are Nyssomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Ny. neivai Pin-to, 1926, Ny. whitmani Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 and Migonemyia migonei França, 1920; and L. (Leishmania) amazon-ensis Lainson & Shaw, 1972, for which Bichromomyia flaviscutellata Mangabeira, 1942 is the main vector. The present study sought to investigate the morphological as well as geometrical and linear morphometric characteristics of these five sand flies in an attempt to cluster these species. Our aim was to reveal some of the characters that might help identify these phlebotomine species and also be useful in future phylogenetic studies. Comparative analyses by linear and geometric morphometric characters allowed us to distinguish the genera of these sand flies and assess the taxonomic position of Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, the so-called "cryptic species". Significant differences were observed in several of the analyzed structures, including the centroid size of the wings and the ratio between the ejaculatory filament and its tip. Based on the linear morphometric analytical results, the size of the centroids of the wings and their shapes indicated that these three species of Nyssomyia are phenetically more similar to Mg. migonei (all vectors of L. (V.) braziliensis) than to Bi. flavis-cutellata (vector of L. (L.) amazonensis). These results are in agreement with the division of the genera Nyssomyia and Bichromomyia. PMID:25081794

  6. Biogeographical aspects of the occurrence of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a sympatric area of the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lara; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Carvalho, Deborah Aparecida Alves de; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2012-11-01

    Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai constitute a species complex associated with Leishmania transmission. The aim of this study was to analyse the ecological profiles of the Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai populations in a sympatric area in the Brazilian savannah along the banks of the Velhas River. Captures were performed from July 2003-June 2005 in two distinct environments: a gallery forest with various degrees of anthropogenic modification and animal shelters. A total of 20,508 Ny. neivai (86%) and Ny. intermedia (14%) sandflies were collected. The difference between the proportions of the sandflies that were collected (Ny. neivai/Ny. intermedia) per bank was significant. The right bank presented a greater number of sandflies (65%) and more preserved vegetation. The abundance of Ny. neivai was higher than that of Ny. intermedia on both banks. The results demonstrate that anthropic activities can affect the sandfly populations in this area, thereby leading to a reduction in species abundance. Nevertheless, the environments with higher levels of antropogenic modification displayed sandfly population numbers that favour the Leishmania transmission cycle. PMID:23147141

  7. Vavraia lutzomyiae n. sp. (Phylum Microspora) infecting the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), a vector of human visceral leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edilson Matos; Ivete Mendonça; Carlos Azevedo

    2006-01-01

    Vavraia lutzomyiae (Microsporida; Pleistophoridae) is a new species parasitic in the tropical phlebotomine sandfly, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), a major vector of Leishmania chagasi in Latin America where human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Infected larvae and pupae were parasitized in the abdomen, and some adults were parasitized in Malpighian tubules and midgut. The sporogonial plasmodium divided by multiple divisions

  8. Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Conclusions Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area. PMID:23849624

  9. Phylogenetics of the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Group Verrucarum (Diptera: Psychodidae: Lutzomyia)

    PubMed Central

    Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Caceres, Abraham G.; Ferro, Cristina; Munstermann, Leonard E.

    2011-01-01

    Within the sand fly genus Lutzomyia, the Verrucarum species group contains several of the principal vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and human bartonellosis in the Andean region of South America. The group encompasses 40 species for which the taxonomic status, phylogenetic relationships, and role of each species in disease transmission remain unresolved. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) phylogenetic analysis of a 667-bp fragment supported the morphological classification of the Verrucarum group into series. Genetic sequences from seven species were grouped in well-supported monophyletic lineages. Four species, however, clustered in two paraphyletic lineages that indicate conspecificity—the Lutzomyia longiflocosa–Lutzomyia sauroida pair and the Lutzomyia quasitownsendi–Lutzomyia torvida pair. COI sequences were also evaluated as a taxonomic tool based on interspecific genetic variability within the Verrucarum group and the intraspecific variability of one of its members, Lutzomyia verrucarum, across its known distribution. PMID:21633028

  10. Description of Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia) robusta n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from Peruvian Equadorean interandean areas.

    PubMed

    Galati, E A; Cáceres, A G; Le Pont, F

    1995-04-01

    Description of Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from interandean areas of Peru and Equador. Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp., probable vector of human bartonellosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, is described and illustrated. This species presents strong affinity with L. serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949) but they can be distinguished by variance analysis of four male characteristics and only one female characteristic. In the variance analysis, populations of L. serrana, of Amazonian areas of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, the coast of Equador and other areas of Brazil were studied. The synonymy of Lutzomyia guayasi (Rodriguez) and L. serrana was corroborated. PMID:8525330

  11. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 3. Lutzomyia trapidoi, vector of Leishmania panamensis].

    PubMed

    Le Ponti, F; Leon, R; Guerrini, F; Gantier, J C; Mouchet, J; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    Lutzomyia trapidoi, the more abundant anthropophilic species, is a presumed leishmaniasis vector in the Pacific foothills of Ecuador. Three biotopes have been sampled (dwelling, and nearby coffee crop and primary forest) in the focus of Paraiso Escondido, by human bait catches, from August 1991 to October 1992. A large number of sandflies, 6,965 specimens, have been dissected to estimate peri and hypopyloric infections. All the peripyloric infections, characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, were Leishmania panamensis. The percentage of these infections was low, around 3%, but they were massive. They occurred only in dry season. Hypopyloric infections were observed in Lu. trapidoi all the year round in the three biotopes. Their percentage was high, reaching 40%. Despite of many trials to cultivate the parasite on NNN medium, no stain could be isolated. It is suggested that the parasite could be L. equatorensis. PMID:8024346

  12. Lutzomyia longipalpis peritrophic matrix: formation, structure, and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Secundino, N F C; Eger-Mangrich, I; Braga, E M; Santoro, M M; Pimenta, P F P

    2005-11-01

    Sandflies are vectors of several pathogens, constituting serious health problems. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi, agent of visceral leishmaniasis. They synthesize a thick bag-like structure that surrounds the bloodmeal, named peritrophic matrix (PM). One of the major roles of PM in blood-fed insects includes protection against ingested pathogens by providing a defensive barrier to their development. We used traditional and modern morphological methods as well as biochemical and immunolabeling tools to define details of the PM structure of the Lu. longipalpis sandfly, including composition, synthesis, and degradation. The kinetics of PM formation and degradation was found to be related to the ingestion and time of digestion of the bloodmeal. The midgut changes its size and morphology after the blood ingestion and during the course of digestion. A striking morphological modification takes place in the midgut epithelium after the stretching caused by the bloodmeal, revealing a population of cells that was not observed in the unfed midgut. The transmission and scanning electron microscopies were used to reveal several morphological aspects of PM formation. The PM looks thicker and well formed 24 h after the bloodmeal. Presence of chitin in the PM was demonstrated by immunolabeling with an alpha-chitin monoclonal antibody. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed at least five protein bands with molecular masses of 38.7-135 kDa, induced by the protein-free diet. Mouse polyclonal antiserum was produced against PMs induced by protein-free meal and used in Western blotting, which revealed at least three associated proteins. PMID:16465730

  13. Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) Apache Young and Perkins (Diptera: Psychodidae) feeds on reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. In the western USA a sand fly, Lutzomyia apache Young and Perkins, was initially associated with epizootics of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), because sand flies were trapped at sites of an outbreak. Additional studies indica...

  14. Pathogens and bionomics of Lutzomyia apache (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Wyoming, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Lutzomyia apache, a North American sand fly, was incriminated as a vector of vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) due to overlapping ranges of the sand fly and recent outbreaks of VSV. We report on the discovery of two population...

  15. Antibodies from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis recognise two proteins from the saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Bahia; Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo; Ileana Rodríguez León; Jonas Perales; Marcos Horácio Pereira; Guilherme Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis

    2007-01-01

    The saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, a major vector of Leishmania, exhibits pharmacological and immunomodulatory activities that may facilitate entry and establishment of parasites into the\\u000a vertebrate host. Salivary gland components of the sand fly are, therefore, potential candidates in the development of a vaccine\\u000a against human leishmaniasis. With the objective of identifying sand fly saliva proteins that

  16. A comparative field study of the relative importance of Lutzomyia peruensis and Lutzomyia verrucarum as vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Villaseca, P; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Perez, E; Davies, C R

    1993-08-01

    A two-year field study of Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (uta) in the valley of Purisima, Ancash Department, Peru has provided quantitative epidemiologic and entomologic evidence for the predominant role of Lutzomyia peruensis in the transmission of Leishmania peruviana in this endemic area. The monthly incidence in the valley was greatest in the wet season (from December to May), when Lu. peruensis was particularly endophilic. A significant correlation was detected between intradomiciliary (but not extradomiciliary) Lu. peruensis abundance and the monthly incidence of uta in the valley following a one-month time lag. In contrast, no significant correlation was detected between any measure of Lu. verrucarum abundance and the incidence of uta. Lutzomyia peruensis and Lu. verrucarum comprise more than 98% of all the sand fly captures made in this valley. The increase in incidence of uta with altitude, which reached a peak rate between 2,250 and 2,750 meters above sea level, was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of Lu. peruensis as compared with Lu. verrucarum. Seasonal and altitudinal variation was also detected in the peak time of activity for both sand fly species, a phenomenon that could significantly influence the transmission rate: later host-seeking sand flies being more likely to find sleeping, nondefensive, human hosts. PMID:8357089

  17. Genetic diversity of ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer sequences in Lutzomyia species from areas endemic for New World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Kei; Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Cáceres, Abraham G; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2009-11-01

    In this study, each of 60 rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS2 sequences was determined from 44 individuals of 14 morphologically identified New World sand fly Lutzomyia species in Ecuador, and their interspecies and intraspecies genetic diversity was compared. Distinguishing between related species based on the ITS1 sequence was difficult because of variability, while the genetic diversity of ITS2 was distinct even among closely related species. Further, an assessment of intraspecies ITS sequence diversity in the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia revealed no correlation between sequence variation and geographic distribution. The results strongly suggested ITS2 to be a more suitable marker than ITS1 for the taxonomic analysis of Lutzomyia species including closely related species. Moreover, neither ITS sequence may be useful for the analysis of population structures in Lutzomyia species. PMID:19631188

  18. Genetic diversity of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Lutzomyia spp., with special reference to Lutzomyia peruensis, a main vector of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kento; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2013-05-01

    The genetic divergence caused by genetic drift and/or selection is suggested to affect the vectorial capacity and insecticide susceptibility of sand flies, as well as other arthropods. In the present study, cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences were determined in 13 species circulating in Peru to establish a basis for analysis of the genetic structure, and the intraspecific genetic diversity was assessed in the Lutzomyia (Lu.) peruensis, a main vector species of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana in Peruvian Andes. Analysis of intraspecific genetic diversity in the cyt b gene sequences from 36 Lu. peruensis identified 3 highly polymorphic sites in the middle region of the gene. Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on the cyt b gene sequences of 130 Lu. peruensis in 9 Andean areas from 3 Departments (Ancash, Lima and La Libertad). The results showed that the populations of La Libertad were highly polymorphic and that their haplotypes were distinct from those of Ancash and Lima, where dominant haplotypes were observed, suggesting that a population bottleneck may have occurred in Ancash and Lima, but not in La Libertad. The present study indicated that the middle region of the cyt b gene is useful for the analysis of genetic structure in sand fly populations. PMID:23416127

  19. A laboratory evaluation of alcohols as attractants for the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera:Psychodidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential attraction from 1-octen-3-ol for sandflies has been documented; however, studies using other primary alcohols are limited. Findings We used a wind tunnel to compare the activation and attractive behaviors in male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis using 1-octen-3-ol and three additional alcohols, 1-octanol, 1-heptanol and 1-nonanol at three different concentrations: neat (100%) and diluted in hexane (10% and 50%). The compounds 1-octen-3-ol and 1-nonanol induced a clear concentration-dependent activation and attraction response in females. In males, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-nonanol and 1-heptanol yielded the same results. Conclusions L. longipalpis is attracted to 1-octen-3-ol, 1-nonanol and 1-heptanol, which are found in many plant volatiles. PMID:24502386

  20. Expression pattern of glycoside hydrolase genes in Lutzomyia longipalpis reveals key enzymes involved in larval digestion

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Diaz-Albiter, Hector M.; Faria, Maiara do Valle; Sant'Anna, Maurício R. V.; Dillon, Rod J.; Genta, Fernando A.

    2014-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. Adults are phytophagous (males and females) or blood feeders (females only), and larvae feed on solid detritus. Digestion in sand fly larvae has scarcely been studied, but some glycosidase activities putatively involved in microorganism digestion were already described. Nevertheless, the molecular nature of these enzymes, as the corresponding genes and transcripts, were not explored yet. Catabolism of microbial carbohydrates in insects generally involves ?-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, and digestive lysozymes. In this work, the transcripts of digestive ?-1,3-glucanase and chitinases were identified in the L. longipalpis larvae throughout analysis of sequences and expression patterns of glycoside hydrolases families 16, 18, and 22. The activity of one i-type lysozyme was also registered. Interestingly, this lysozyme seems to play a role in immunity, rather than digestion. This is the first attempt to identify the molecular nature of sand fly larval digestive enzymes. PMID:25140153

  1. Analysis of ESTs from Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies and their contribution toward understanding the insect–parasite relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rod J. Dillon; Al C. Ivens; Carol Churcher; Nancy Holroyd; Michael A. Quail; Matthew E. Rogers; M. Bento Soares; Maria F. Bonaldo; Thomas L. Casavant; Mike J. Lehane; Paul A. Bates

    2006-01-01

    An expressed sequence tag library has been generated from a sand fly vector of visceral leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia longipalpis. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from whole adults and 16,608 clones were sequenced from both ends and assembled into 10,203 contigs and singlets. Of these 58% showed significant similarity to known genes from other organisms, <4% were identical to described sand

  2. Phlebotomine Fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Putative Vectors of Leishmaniases in Impacted Area by Hydroelectric Plant, State of Tocantins, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Maurício Luiz; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Rangel, Elizabeth F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although leishmaniases are regarded as serious public health issues in the State of Tocantins, as consequence of the impact of environmental changes, small advances in taxonomic and ecological studies of Phlebotominae fauna are taking place in this state. The present study aimed to improve the knowledge about the sand flies, as well as about the aspects of the bioecology of leishmaniases vectors from Porto Nacional, a city that was directly impacted by the construction of Luís Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Plant (HEP – Lajeado). Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were collected monthly using CDC light traps and Shannon traps for a period of 40 consecutive months, at different monitoring stations, where 7162 specimens were collected and 48 species were detected. Among the species found, 22 are first records in the state and seven are considered important vectors of leishmaniases. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) showed higher frequency in urban compared to rural areas, and Nyssomyia whitmani, the vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL), predominated in rural areas. The frequency and habits of sand fly vectors are discussed considering environmental characteristics and climatic factors. Conclusions/Significance The construction of dams requires a great amount of labor, therefore attracting people from elsewhere. Increased migration, without adequate structure, leads to bad living conditions in new and unplanned settlements. It also leads to deforestation associated with environmental impacts, which can facilitate the spread of leishmaniases. This study discusses the importance of Lu. longipalpis and Ny. whitmani on the transmission cycles of leishmaniases in Porto Nacional and the record of Bi. flaviscutellata in periurban area of the city. PMID:22163271

  3. Population dynamics of Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae) at the Patuxent National Wildlife Research Refuge, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Florin, David A; Lawyer, Phillip; Rowton, Edgar; Schultz, George; Wilkerson, Richard; Davies, Stephen J; Lipnick, Robert; Keep, Lisa

    2010-09-01

    The seasonal abundance and temporal patterns of the adult sand fly (Lutzomyia shannoni Dyar) were examined at the Patuxent National Wildlife Research Refuge, MD, from August 3, 2005, to July 29, 2006. A total of 138 (53 males, 85 females) L. shannoni was collected from 4 dry ice-baited traps set at the same 4 locations throughout the study. The male:female ratio was 1:2.4. All 4 traps, separated by a maximum distance of approximately 1.6 km, operated simultaneously on the collection dates. The collection dates were spaced apart by near weekly intervals during the months of expected sand fly activity. No collections occurred in December-February. August was clearly the period of peak adult abundance as the numbers collected were significantly greater during this month than any other month of collection. Results indicate the existence of a unimodal pattern of abundance with adult emergence beginning in June and ending by September. The temporal pattern and abundance differ from what has been observed for the species on Ossabaw Island, a barrier island located along coastal Georgia, and at San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park, Gainesville, FL. Continued research is needed to compile multiyear data to confirm the temporal abundance patterns of this species in Maryland. PMID:21033063

  4. [In vitro insecticidal activity of seed neem oil on Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    PubMed

    Maciel, Michelline V; Morais, Selene M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Silva, Rafaella A; Barros, Renata S; Sousa, Raimundo N; Sousa, Lindemberg C; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Brito, Edy S; Souza-Neto, Manoel A

    2010-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the effect of oil from (Azadirachta indica) neem seeds on eggs, larvae and adults of the vector. The insects were captured in the field and kept in the laboratory at +/- 27 °C and 80% relative humidity. Five treatments with different concentrations were performed using two negative controls (distilled water and Tween 80) and a positive control. The eggs were sprayed with the oil at different concentrations and the number of hatched larvae evaluated for 10 days. Mortality of larvae was observed to pupation and adult mortality was observed after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Statistical analysis was performed by Tukey test at 5% probability. The highest oil concentration of eggs obtained 65.16 +/- 3.24% efficacy for reducing egg hatching. The test with larvae showed 67.75 +/- 2.21% efficacy at a concentration of 100 mg.mL?¹. In adults, the efficacy of the 100 mg.mL?¹ concentration was 96.64 +/- 4.11% after 24 hours. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of triterpenes. These results demonstrate the potential use of this oil in the control of this vector. PMID:20385053

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of Lutzomyia longipalpis LJL143.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Alan; Liu, Zhuyun; Seid, Christopher A; Zhan, Bin; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A

    2015-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne disease with a global prevalence of over 12 million cases and 59?000 annual deaths. Transmission of the parasite requires salivary proteins, including LJL143 from the New World sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis. LJL143 is a known marker of sandfly exposure in zoonotic hosts. LJL143 was crystallized from soluble protein expressed using Pichia pastoris. X-ray data were collected to 2.6?Å resolution from orthorhombic crystals belonging to space group P212121, with average unit-cell parameters a = 57.39, b = 70.24, c = 79.58?Å. The crystals are predicted to have a monomer in the asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 48.5%. LJL143 has negligible homology to any reported structures, so the phases could not be determined by molecular replacement. All attempts at S-SAD failed and future studies include experimental phase determination using heavy-atom derivatives. PMID:26144240

  6. Feeding Preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the Sand Fly Vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P.; Martins, Daniella R. A.; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G.; Freire, Caio C. M.; Queiroz, José W.; Dupnik, Kathryn M.; Pearson, Richard D.; Wilson, Mary E.; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source of bloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P < 0.0001). Blood from guinea pig or horse was best to support sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil. PMID:24605474

  7. Chemical composition of Eucalyptus spp. essential oils and their insecticidal effects on Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Silva, R A; Barros, R S; Sousa, R N; Sousa, L C; Brito, E S; Souza-Neto, M A

    2010-01-20

    The chemical composition of essential oils from three species of plants belonging to the Eucalyptus genus was determined and, their insecticidal effects on egg, larva and adult phases of Lutzomyia longipalpis were assessed. The insects were collected in the municipality of Sobral in the State of Ceará, Brazil. Five treatments with different concentrations were performed along with two negative controls, distilled water and Tween 80 (3%), and a positive control, cypermethrin (0.196mg/ml). The tests were carried out in plastic pots internally coated with sterile plaster and filled with a substrate made of rabbit feces and crushed cassava leaves. The eggs, larvae and adults were sprayed with the oils. The hatched larvae were counted for 10 consecutive days and observed until pupation. Insect mortality was observed after 24, 48 and 72h. E. staigeriana oil was the most effective on all three phases of the insect, followed by E. citriodora and E. globulus oils, respectively. The major constituents of the oils were Z-citral and alpha-citral (E. staigeriana), citronellal (E. citriodora) and 1,8-cineole (E. globulus). The Eucalyptus essential oils constitute alternative natural products for the control of L. longipalpis since the median effective concentration (EC(50)) values revealed relevant action as compared with other natural products, some of their chemical constituents are already known for their insecticidal activity and these oils are produced in commercial scale in Brazil. PMID:19896276

  8. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Andrade, Andrey José de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino de; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  9. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  10. First Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Wild Adult Male and Female Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Santini, María Soledad; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Diambra, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi) and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes represented putative targets for vector control via RNA interference (RNAi). PMID:23554910

  11. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu; Ivan V Sonoda; Jose A Fonseca; Marcia A Melo; Valdir Q Balbino; Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão

    2008-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas, and constitutes a complex of species. Various studies have suggested an incipient speciation process based on behavioral isolation driven by the chemotype of male sexual pheromones. It is well known that natural barriers, such as mountains and rivers can directly influence population divergence in

  12. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    In our recently published article "Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector" by Iliano V. Coutinho-Abreu et al. a sentence located in paragraph 8 in the Discussion section had its meaning altered due to the improper insertion of three words. PMID:18834535

  13. Analysis of salivary gland transcripts of the sand fly Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Jochim, Ryan C.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    The saliva of blood sucking insects contains potent pharmacologically active components that assist them in counteracting the host hemostatic and inflammatory systems during blood feeding. In addition, sand fly salivary proteins affect host immunity and have the potential to be a vaccine against Leishmania infection. In the present study, the salivary gland transcripts of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuadorian and Peruvian Andes, were analyzed by sequencing randomly selected clones of the salivary gland cDNA library of this sand fly. This resulted in the identification of the most abundant transcripts coding for secreted proteins. These proteins were homologous to the salivary molecules present in other sand flies including the RGD-containing peptide, PpSP15/SL1 family protein, yellow-related protein, putative apyrase, antigen 5-related protein, D7 family protein, and 27 kDa salivary protein. Of note, homologues of maxadilan, an active vasodilator abundantly present in saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis, were not identified. This analysis is the first description of salivary proteins from a sand fly of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia and from vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. The present analysis will provide further insights into the evolution of salivary components in blood sucking arthropods. PMID:23000112

  14. Hosts of Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae) in relation to vesicular stomatitis virus on Ossabaw Island, Georgia, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Comer, J A; Irby, W S; Kavanaugh, D M

    1994-10-01

    Hosts of Lutzomyia shannoni Dyar, a suspected biological vector of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis (VSNJ) virus, were determined using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of 333 blood-fed female sandflies collected from their diurnal resting shelters on Ossabaw Island, Georgia, U.S.A. Sandflies had fed primarily on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (81%) and to a lesser extent on feral swine (Sus scrofa) (16%), two species of host infected annually with VSNJ. Other hosts were raccoons (Procyon lotor) and horses (Equus caballus) or donkeys (E. asinus), with only two (< 1%) mixed bloodmeals from deer/raccoon and deer/swine. A larger proportion of feedings on feral swine was detected in maritime live oak forests than in mixed hardwood forests. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that L.shannoni is a primary vector of VSNJ virus on Ossabaw Island. PMID:7841487

  15. Biting activity of two anthropophilic species of sandflies, Lutzomyia, in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Y; Gomez, E A; De Coronel, V V; Mimori, T; Kawabata, M

    1985-10-01

    The biting patterns of Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. hartmanni, vectors of leishmaniasis, were studied using a human bait in an endemic area on the Pacific slope of the Andes in Ecuador. The results suggest that Lu. trapidoi is primarily an early biter at dusk, with the first peak at 20.00-21.00 hours and the second at 03.00-04.00 hours; and that Lu. hartmanni bites more constantly throughout the night, with a pronounced peak between 23.00 and 24.00 hours. The biting activity, however, shows a marked variation at each site and between different collections at the same site. The activity and the biting places on man are discussed in relation to human infection with leishmaniasis in the area and the location of lesions on patients. PMID:4083963

  16. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis. PMID:24271040

  17. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Silva, Elaine Araújo e; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Ribeiro, Alisson André; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2012-05-01

    The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies. PMID:22510836

  18. Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Diptera: Phlebotomidae), a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Dominican amber

    PubMed Central

    Poinar, George

    2008-01-01

    Background Amber fossils can be used to trace the history of disease-vector associations because microorganisms are preserved "in situ" inside the alimentary tract and body cavity of blood-sucking insects. Results Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Phlebotomidae: Diptera) is described from Dominican amber as a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The fossil sand fly differs from all previously described extinct and extant members of the genus by the following combination of characters: Sc forked with the branches meeting the costa and radius veins; wing L/W value of 4.1; a ? value of 18; a ratio ?/? value of 0.86, and the shape and size of the spatulate rods on the ninth sternite. The trypanosomatid is characterized by the structure of its promastigotes, amastigotes and paramastigotes and its transmission by an extinct species of sand fly. Conclusion Morphological characters show that the fossil sand fly is a new extinct species and that it is host to a digenetic species of trypanosomatid. This study provides the first fossil evidence that Neotropical sand flies were vectors of trypanosomatids in the mid-Tertiary (20–30 mya). PMID:18627624

  19. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 2. Man/vector contacts in leishmaniasis: the case of Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. Gomezi].

    PubMed

    Le Ponti, F; Leon, R; Moucheti, J; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    In two leishmaniasis endemic foci of the Pacific coast of Ecuador, where the primary forest is severely attacked by human settlements, intradomiciliary sandfly catches, with light trap and human bait, have been carried out from August 1991 to October 1992. The presumed vector Lutzomyia trapidoi was by far the dominant species inside dwellings at Paraiso Escondido in the preandean hills (86% of the anthropophilic sandfly population, and 8.5 females/night catch by light trap). Not a single Lu. gomezi was caught in this village. At La Tablada, Lu. gomezi was the dominant anthropophilic species in the coastal cordillera (83% of anthropophilic sandfly population and 3.7 females/night catch by light trap); Lu. trapidoi accounted only for 4.6% of the total catches in this village. On human bait, catches were variable depending on the day and on the season, but dominant species were always the same. The percentage of Lu. trapidoi was higher on human bait than in light trap. Blood meal identifications of engorged Lu. gomezi and Lu. trapidoi confirmed the anthropophily of these two species in the houses. PMID:8024345

  20. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, James G C; Ward, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. PMID:20305911

  1. Clinical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Rates Are Associated with Household Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. Panamensis, and Lu. trapidoi Abundance in Trinidad de Las Minas, Western Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Chaves, Luis F.; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Wald, Coridalia; Smucker, Joanne E.; Calzada, Jose E.

    2013-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission patterns have been increasingly associated with domestic and peridomestic environments. Here, we present results from an epidemiological survey of 94 people from 24 households in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We studied the role of sand fly abundance, housing quality, peridomicile landscape matrix, and vegetation structure on shaping household clinical ACL rate patterns at Trinidad de Las Minas. We found that sand fly abundance was significantly associated with household clinical ACL rates, with a 6% rate increase for each additional Lutzomyia gomezi sand fly found inside a domicile. PMID:23339202

  2. Description of Micropygomyia (Micropygomyia) ancashensis sp. nov. and the female of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) chavinensis Pérez & Ogusuku (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from Ancash department, Peru.

    PubMed

    A Bianchi Galati, Eunice; Cáceres, Abraham G

    2007-11-01

    A male of a new species Micropygomyia (Micropygomyia) ancashensis sp. nov. and a female of the Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) chavinensis Pérez & Ogusuku, 1999 captured in the Antonio Raymondi province, department of Ancash, Peru are described and illustrated. The new species belongs to the cayennensis series, being closest to Mi. lewisi (Feliciangeli Ordoñez & Férnandez) though presenting highly sclerotized pseudotracheae on the labella that seem to constitute an autapomorphy among American Phlebotominae, and a clypeus almost completely covered with setae, as in Warileya. The female of Lu. chavinensis is close to those of Lu. blancasi Galati & Cáceres 1990, Lu. noguchii (Shannon, 1929), and Lu. pallidithorax Galati & Cáceres 1994. PMID:18584783

  3. Fine Structure of the Male Reproductive System and Reproductive Behavior of Lutzomyia longipalpis Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Alexandre A.; Vigoder, Felipe M.; Bruno, Rafaela V.; Soares, Maurilio J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The male reproductive system of insects can have several tissues responsible for the secretion of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as testes, accessory glands, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct and ejaculatory bulb. The SFPs are transferred during mating and can induce several physiological and behavioral changes in females, such as increase in oviposition and decrease in sexual receptivity after copulation. The phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Despite its medical importance, little is known about its reproductive biology. Here we present morphological aspects of the male L. longipalpis reproductive system by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and compare the mating frequency of both virgin and previously mated females. Results The male L. longipalpis reproductive system is comprised by a pair of oval-shaped testes linked to a seminal vesicle by vasa deferentia. It follows an ejaculatory duct with an ejaculatory pump (a large bulb enveloped by muscles and associated to tracheas). The terminal endings of the vasa deferentia are inserted into the seminal vesicle by invaginations of the seminal vesicle wall, which is composed by a single layer of gland cells, with well-developed endoplasmic reticulum profiles and secretion granules. Our data suggest that the seminal vesicle acts both as a spermatozoa reservoir and as an accessory gland. Mating experiments support this hypothesis, revealing a decrease in mating frequency after copulation that indicates the effect of putative SFPs. Conclusion Ultrastructural features of the L. longipalpis male seminal vesicle indicated its possible role as an accessory gland. Behavioral observations revealed a reduction in mating frequency of copulated females. Together with transcriptome analyses from male sandfly reproductive organs identifying ESTs encoding orthologs of SFPs, these data indicate the presence of putative L. longipalpis SFPs reducing sexual mating frequency of copulated females. PMID:24058637

  4. Trypsin-Like Serine Proteases in Lutzomyia longipalpis – Expression, Activity and Possible Modulation by Leishmania infantum chagasi

    PubMed Central

    Telleria, Erich Loza; de Araújo, Adriana Pereira Oliveira; Secundino, Nágila Francinete; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Traub-Csekö, Yara Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background Midgut enzymatic activity is one of the obstacles that Leishmania must surpass to succeed in establishing infection. Trypsins are abundant digestive enzymes in most insects. We have previously described two trypsin cDNAs of L. longipalpis: one (Lltryp1) with a bloodmeal induced transcription pattern, the other (Lltryp2) with a constitutive transcription pattern. We have now characterized the expression and activity of trypsin-like proteases of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Methodology and Principal Findings In order to study trypsin expression profiles we produced antibodies against peptides specific for Lltryp1 and Lltryp2. The anti-Lltryp1-peptide antibody revealed a band of 28 kDa between 6 and 48 hours. The anti-Lltryp2 peptide antibody did not evidence any band. When proteinaceous substrates (gelatin, hemoglobin, casein or albumin) were co-polymerized in polyacrylamide gels, insect midguts obtained at 12 hours after feeding showed a unique proteolytic pattern for each substrate. All activity bands were strongly inhibited by TLCK, benzamidine and 4-amino-benzamidine, indicating that they are trypsin-like proteases. The trypsin-like activity was also measured in vitro at different time points after ingestion of blood or blood containing Leishmania infantum chagasi, using the chromogenic substrate BA?NA. L. longipalpis females fed on blood infected with L. i. chagasi had lower levels of trypsin activity after 12 and 48 hours than non-infected insects, suggesting that the parasite may have a role in this modulation. Conclusions and Significance Trypsins are important and abundant digestive enzymes in L. longipalpis. Protein production and enzymatic activity followed previously identified gene expression of a blood modulated trypsin gene. A decrease of enzymatic activity upon the parasite infection, previously detected mostly in Old World vectors, was detected for the first time in the natural vector-parasite pair L. longipalpis-L. i. chagasi. PMID:20502532

  5. Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Cláudio; Andrighetti, Maria T. M.; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Marcoris, Maria L. G.; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Prado, Ângelo P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. Methodology/Principal finding In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5%) were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. Conclusion The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. PMID:24069494

  6. Phlebotominae fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an urban district of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, endemic for visceral leishmaniasis: characterization of favored locations as determined by spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Falcão, Alda Lima; de Carvalho, Deborah Aparecida Alves; de Souza, Carina Margonari; Freitas, Christian Rezende; Gomes Lopes, Camila Ragonezi; Moreno, Elizabeth Castro; Melo, Maria Norma

    2011-02-01

    Belo Horizonte, the capital of the southeastern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the fourth-largest city in the country, has the highest incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) together with a high prevalence of canine VL. The Northeast Sanitary District (NSD) of Belo Horizonte has the largest historical average of human VL cases in the metropolitan region, and is classified as a priority area for epidemiological and entomological monitoring of the disease. The objectives of the present study were to determine the seasonal variation in phlebotomine fauna and to describe the environmental situations in the NSD through characterization of peri-domiciles and application of geographical information system analysis. Entomological captures were performed every two weeks during the period July 2006 to June 2007 using HP light traps placed at 16 locations where cases of human VL had been reported in 2005. The environmental characterization of these locations was accomplished using forms and photographic images. Spatial analyses was used to determine the influence of vegetation, hydrography, altitude and pockets of poverty on the occurrence of cases of human and canine VL, and of phlebotomine vectors. A total of 633 phlebotomines belonging to the subtribes Psychodopygina and Lutzomyina were captured and, of these, 75% were identified as Nyssomyia whitmani and 11% as Lutzomyia longipalpis. The majority of the studied peri-domiciles presented inadequate hygienic conditions that would favor the development of phlebotomines. No significant correlations could be established between biogeographical aspects and either the incidence of human and canine VL or the occurrence of phlebotomines. The proximity of areas with vegetation, villages, slums and open watercourses exerted little influence on the incidence of VL. These findings reinforce the urbanization of the VL profile since the disease occurred in locations where conditions that have been classically related to its prevalence were not present. The results reported herein will be important for implementing measures against VL in the study area. PMID:21110938

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of Taxa Associated with Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Using an Unbiased High-Throughput Approach

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Diambra, Luis A.; Rivera Pomar, Rolando V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is one of the most diverse and complex of all vector-borne diseases worldwide. It is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, obligate intramacrophage protists characterised by diversity and complexity. Its most severe form is visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a systemic disease that is fatal if left untreated. In Latin America VL is caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sandfly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. In South America, migration and urbanisation have largely contributed to the increase of VL as a public health problem. Moreover, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Methodology/Principal Findings An inventory of the microbiota associated with insect vectors, especially of wild specimens, would aid in the development of novel strategies for controlling insect vectors. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. Previous studies on wild and laboratory reared female Lu. longipalpis have described gut bacteria using standard bacteriological methods. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the insects and submitted to high-throughput pyrosequencing. The analysis revealed the presence of sequences from bacteria, fungi, protist parasites, plants and metazoans. Conclusions/Significance This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive metagenomic approach has been used to survey taxa associated with an infectious disease vector. The identification of gregarines suggested they are a possible efficient control method under natural conditions. Ongoing studies are determining the significance of the associated taxa found in this study in a greater number of adult male and female Lu. longipalpis samples from endemic and non-endemic locations. A particular emphasis is being given to those species involved in the biological control of this vector and to the etiologic agents of animal and plant diseases. PMID:21909446

  8. Blood meal identification and parasite detection in laboratory-fed and field-captured Lutzomyia longipalpis by PCR using FTA databasing paper

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Jones, Nathaniel G.; Hindley, Jonathan A.; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F.; Dillon, Rod J.; Cavalcante, Reginaldo R.; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis takes blood from a variety of wild and domestic animals and transmits Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis. Blood meal identification in sand flies has depended largely on serological methods but a new protocol described here uses filter-based technology to stabilise and store blood meal DNA, allowing subsequent PCR identification of blood meal sources, as well as parasite detection, in blood-fed sand flies. This technique revealed that 53.6% of field-collected sand flies captured in the back yards of houses in Teresina (Brazil) had fed on chickens. The potential applications of this technique in epidemiological studies and strategic planning for leishmaniasis control programmes are discussed. PMID:18606150

  9. Monthly variation in natural infection of the sandfly Lutzomyia ayacuchensis with Leishmania mexicana in an endemic focus in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, E A; Hashiguchi, Y

    1991-08-01

    In order to collect information on the role of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis in the transmission of leishmaniasis in a newly discovered Andean endemic focus in Ecuador, a longitudinal field study was carried out over 13 months. Monthly dissections were made of a minimum of 200 anthropophilic sandflies, collected at night during the month. A total of 2600 flies was separated from a small number of Lu. osornoi, another anthropophilic species in the area, and dissected; 95 (3.65%) were naturally infected with Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. The parasites were always located in the sandfly midgut. The current study revealed a marked monthly variation both in natural infections with Leishmania and in biting activity of sandflies in the endemic area, demonstrating a high transmission rate during the period from the early rainy season to the early or mid dry season (February to July). PMID:1796881

  10. Orientation of colonized sand flies Phlebotomus papatasi, P. duboscqi, and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to diverse honeys using a 3-chamber in-line olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Wasserberg, G; Kirsch, P; Rowton, E D

    2014-06-01

    A 3-chamber in-line olfactometer designed for use with sand flies is described and tested as a high-throughput method to screen honeys for attractiveness to Phlebotomus papatasi (four geographic isolates), P. duboscqi (two geographic isolates), and Lutzomyia longipalpis maintained in colonies at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. A diversity of unifloral honey odors were evaluated as a proxy for the natural floral odors that sand flies may use in orientation to floral sugar sources in the field. In the 3-chamber in-line olfactometer, the choice modules come directly off both sides of the release area instead of angling away as in the Y-tube olfactometer. Of the 25 honeys tested, five had a significant attraction for one or more of the sand fly isolates tested. This olfactometer and high-throughput method has utility for evaluating a diversity of natural materials with unknown complex odor blends that can then be down-selected for further evaluation in wind tunnels and/or field scenarios. PMID:24820561

  11. Polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the detection and identification of sand fly gregarines in Lutzomyia longipalpis, a vector of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Lorena G; Acardi, Soraya A; Santini, María Soledad; Salomón, Oscar D; McCarthy, Christina B

    2014-06-01

    Gregarines that parasitise phlebotomine sand flies belong to the genus Psychodiella and, even though they are highly host-specific, only five species have been described to date. Their most outstanding features include the unique localisation of the oocysts in the accessory glands of the female host, which ensures contamination of the egg surface during oviposition, and the fact that they naturally parasitise the vectors of Leishmania, causal agent of leishmaniasis. The type species, Ps. chagasi, was first described in Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), from Brazil. We recently reported Ps. chagasi sequences in Lu. longipalpis from Posadas (Misiones, Argentina), an endemic VL location where this gregarine had not been previously recorded. In order to analyse the incidence of Ps. chagasi infections in Lu. longipalpis from this location, the aim of this study was to develop a diagnostic assay for sand fly gregarine parasites in Lu. longipalpis. For this, we designed primers using the Ps. chagasi sequences we previously identified and performed an in vitro validation by PCR amplification of the original sand fly samples. Their specificity and sensitivity as diagnostic primers were subsequently confirmed by PCR reactions using total DNA extracted from naturally infected Lu. longipalpis from the same location (Posadas, Argentina). PMID:24820560

  12. Ayadualin, a novel RGD peptide with dual antihemostatic activities from the sand fly Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Fujita, Megumi; Ishimaru, Yuka; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-05-01

    Sequence analysis of the Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis salivary gland cDNA library identified a short peptide containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence flanked by two cysteine residues in the C-terminal end as the most abundant transcript. In the present study, a recombinant protein of the RGD-containing peptide, designated ayadualin, was expressed in Escherichia coli and its activity was characterized. Ayadualin inhibited both collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregations by interfering with the binding of integrin ?IIb?3 to fibrinogen. The RGD sequence and cysteine residues located on both sides of the RGD sequence were essential for the inhibitory action. Moreover, ayadualin efficiently inhibited the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway irrespective of the RGD sequence. Measuring the enzymatic activity of coagulation factors using chromogenic substrates revealed that ayadualin efficiently inhibited factor XIIa (FXIIa) activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pre-incubation of ayadualin with FXII inhibited FXIIa activity, while activated FXIIa was not affected by ayadualin, indicating that ayadualin inhibits the activation of FXII, but not enzymatic activity of FXIIa. These results indicated that ayadualin plays an important role in the blood feeding of Lu. ayacuchensis by inhibiting host hemostasis via dual mechanisms. PMID:25724270

  13. A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro Tínel, Juliana Montezuma Barbosa; Benevides, Melina Fechine Costa; Frutuoso, Mércia Sindeaux; Rocha, Camila Farias; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Martins, Jorge Luiz; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe), D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL) was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL) and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL). Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania. PMID:25431778

  14. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis . ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:24402151

  15. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas, and constitutes a complex of species. Various studies have suggested an incipient speciation process based on behavioral isolation driven by the chemotype of male sexual pheromones. It is well known that natural barriers, such as mountains and rivers can directly influence population divergence in several organisms, including insects. In this work we investigated the potential role played by the Sao Francisco River in eastern Brazil in defining the current distribution of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Our studies were based on analyses of polymorphisms of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) sequences from Lu. longipalpis s.l. available in public databases, and from additional field-caught individuals. Altogether, 9 distinct populations and 89 haplotypes were represented in the analyses. Lu. longipalpis s.l. populations were grouped according to their distribution in regards to the 10 degrees S parallel: north of 10 degrees S (<10 degrees S); and south of 10 degrees S (>10 degrees S). Our results suggest that although no polymorphisms were fixed, moderate genetic divergences were observed between the groups analyzed (i.e., FST = 0.184; and Nm = 2.22), and were mostly driven by genetic drift. The population divergence time estimated between the sand fly groups was about 0.45 million years (MY), coinciding with the time of the change in the course of the Sao Francisco River, during the Mindel glaciation. Overall, the polymorphisms on the cyt b haplotypes and the current speciation process detected in Lu. longipalpis s.l. with regards to the distribution of male sexual pheromones suggest a role of the Sao Francisco River as a significant geographical barrier in this process. PMID:18549496

  16. Repeated Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Fly Saliva Induces Local Expression of Interferon-Inducible Genes Both at the Site of Injection in Mice and in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Weinkopff, Tiffany; de Oliveira, Camila I.; de Carvalho, Augusto M.; Hauyon-La Torre, Yazmin; Muniz, Aline C.; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    During a blood meal, Lutzomyia intermedia sand flies transmit Leishmania braziliensis, a parasite causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. In experimental leishmaniasis, pre-exposure to saliva of most blood-feeding sand flies results in parasite establishment in absence of any skin damages in mice challenged with dermotropic Leishmania species together with saliva. In contrast, pre-immunization with Lu. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) results in enhanced skin inflammatory exacerbation upon co-inoculation of Lu. intermedia SGS and L. braziliensis. These data highlight potential unique features of both L. braziliensis and Lu. intermedia. In this study, we investigated the genes modulated by Lu. intermedia SGS immunization to understand their potential impact on the subsequent cutaneous immune response following inoculation of both SGS and L. braziliensis. The cellular recruitment and global gene expression profile was analyzed in mice repeatedly inoculated or not with Lu. intermedia. Microarray gene analysis revealed the upregulation of a distinct set of IFN-inducible genes, an immune signature not seen to the same extent in control animals. Of note this INF-inducible gene set was not induced in SGS pre-immunized mice subsequently co-inoculated with SGS and L. braziliensis. These data suggest the parasite prevented the upregulation of this Lu. intermedia saliva-related immune signature. The presence of these IFN-inducible genes was further analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) sampled from uninfected human individuals living in a L. braziliensis-endemic region of Brazil thus regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites. PBMCs were cultured in presence or absence of Lu. intermedia SGS. Using qRT-PCR we established that the IFN-inducible genes induced in the skin of SGS pre-immunized mice, were also upregulated by SGS in PBMCs from human individuals regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites, but not in PBMCs of control subjects. These data demonstrate that repeated exposure to Lu. intermedia SGS induces the expression of potentially host-protective IFN-inducible genes. PMID:24421912

  17. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas, and constitutes a complex of species. Various studies have suggested an incipient speciation process based on behavioral isolation driven by the chemotype of male sexual pheromones. It is well known that natural barriers, such as mountains and rivers can directly influence population divergence in several organisms, including insects. In this work we investigated the potential role played by the Sao Francisco River in eastern Brazil in defining the current distribution of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Our studies were based on analyses of polymorphisms of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) sequences from Lu. longipalpis s.l. available in public databases, and from additional field-caught individuals. Altogether, 9 distinct populations and 89 haplotypes were represented in the analyses. Lu. longipalpis s.l. populations were grouped according to their distribution in regards to the 10°S parallel: north of 10°S (<10°S); and south of 10°S (>10°S). Our results suggest that although no polymorphisms were fixed, moderate genetic divergences were observed between the groups analyzed (i.e., FST = 0.184; and Nm = 2.22), and were mostly driven by genetic drift. The population divergence time estimated between the sand fly groups was about 0.45 million years (MY), coinciding with the time of the change in the course of the Sao Francisco River, during the Mindel glaciation. Overall, the polymorphisms on the cyt b haplotypes and the current speciation process detected in Lu. longipalpis s.l. with regards to the distribution of male sexual pheromones suggest a role of the Sao Francisco River as a significant geographical barrier in this process. PMID:18549496

  18. Lufaxin, a Novel Factor Xa Inhibitor from the Salivary Gland of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, Blocks PAR2 Activation and Inhibits Inflammation and Thrombosis in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Nicolas; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Gilmore, Dana; Dutra-Oliveira, Angélica; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Teixeira, Clarissa; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Blood-sucking arthropods salivary glands (SGs) contain a remarkable diversity of antihemostatics. The aim of this study was to identify the unique salivary anticoagulant of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, which remained elusive for decades. Methods and Results Several L. longipalpis salivary proteins were expressed in HEK293 cells and screened for inhibition of blood coagulation. A novel 32.4-kDa molecule, named Lufaxin, was identified as a slow, tight, non-competitive, and reversible inhibitor of Factor Xa (FXa). Notably, Lufaxin primary sequence does not share similarity to any physiological or salivary inhibitors of coagulation reported to date. Lufaxin is specific for FXa and does not interact with FX, DEGR- FXa, or 15 other enzymes. In addition, Lufaxin blocks prothrombinase and increases both PT and aPTT. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that FXa binds Lufaxin with a KD ~3 nM, and isothermal titration calorimetry determined a stoichiometry of 1:1. Lufaxin also prevents PAR2 activation by FXa in the MDA-MB-231 cell line and abrogates edema formation triggered by injection of FXa in the paw of mice. Moreover, Lufaxin prevents FeCl3-induced carotid artery thrombus formation and prolongs aPTT ex vivo, implying that it works as an anticoagulant in vivo. Finally, SG of sandflies was found to inhibit FXa and to interact with the enzyme. Conclusion Lufaxin belongs to a novel family of slow-tight FXa inhibitors, which display antithrombotic and antiinflamatory activities. It is a useful tool to understand FXa structural features and its role in pro-hemostatic and pro-inflammatory events. PMID:22796577

  19. The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Maurício Luiz; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Azevedo, Carina Graser; Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; Britto, Constança; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO), an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements. PMID:23903972

  20. Participation of heparin binding proteins from the surface of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes in the adhesion of parasites to Lutzomyia longipalpis cells (Lulo) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania (V.) braziliensis is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. During the parasite life cycle, the promastigotes adhere to the gut of sandflies, to avoid being eliminated with the dejection. The Lulo cell line, derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), is a suitable in vitro study model to understand the features of parasite adhesion. Here, we analyze the role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from Lulo cells and proteins from the parasites in this event. Methods Flagellar (Ff) and membrane (Mf) fractions from promastigotes were obtained by differential centrifugation and the purity of fractions confirmed by western blot assays, using specific antibodies for cellular compartments. Heparin-binding proteins (HBP) were isolated from both fractions using a HiTrap-Heparin column. In addition, binding of promastigotes to Lulo cells or to a heparin-coated surface was assessed by inhibition assays or surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Results The success of promastigotes subcellular fractionation led to the obtainment of Ff and Mf proteins, both of which presented two main protein bands (65.0 and 55.0kDa) with affinity to heparin. The contribution of HBPs in the adherence of promastigotes to Lulo cells was assessed through competition assays, using HS or the purified HBPs fractions. All tested samples presented a measurable inhibition rate when compared to control adhesion rate (17?±?2.0% of culture cells with adhered parasites): 30% (for HS 20?g/ml) and 16% (for HS 10?g/ml); HBP Mf (35.2% for 10?g/ml and 25.4% for 20?g/ml) and HBP Ff (10.0% for 10?g/ml and 31.4% for 20?g/ml). Additionally, to verify the presence of sulfated GAGs in Lulo cells surface and intracellular compartment, metabolic labeling with radioactive sulfate was performed, indicating the presence of an HS and chondroitin sulfate in both cell sections. The SPR analysis performed further confirmed the presence of GAGs ligands on L. (V.) braziliensis promastigote surfaces. Conclusions The data presented here point to evidences that HBPs present on the surface of L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes participate in adhesion of these parasites to Lulo cells through HS participation. PMID:22805335

  1. Expression of the mevalonate pathway enzymes in the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sex pheromone gland demonstrated by an integrated proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    González-Caballero, Natalia; Rodríguez-Vega, Andrés; Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Valente, Richard H.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Cuervo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Latin America, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. This insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition. Elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulation may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, the vector's population management. Motivated by our recent results of the transcriptomic characterization of the L. longipalpis pheromone gland, we performed a proteomic analysis of this tissue combining SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry followed by an integrative data analysis. Considering that annotated genome sequences of this sand fly are not available, we designed an alternative workflow searching MS/MS data against two customized databases using three search engines: Mascot, OMSSA and ProLuCID. A total of 542 proteins were confidently characterized, 445 of them using a Uniref100-insect protein database, and 97 using a transcript translated database. In addition, use of PEAKS for de novo peptide sequencing of MS/MS data confirmed ?90% identifications made with the combination of the three search engines. Our results include the identification of six of the seven enzymes of the mevalonate-pathway, plus the enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, all of which are proposed to be involved in pheromone production in L. longipalpis. Biological significance L. longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite L. infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. One of the control measures of such disease is focused on vector population control. As this insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition, the elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulating process may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, this vector's population management. On this regard, in this manuscript we report expression evidence, at the protein level, of several molecules potentially involved in the pheromone production of L. longipalpis. Our results include the identification of the mevalonate-pathway enzymes, plus the enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, all of which are proposed to be involved in pheromone production in L. longipalpis. In addition, considering that the annotated genome sequences of this sand fly are not yet available, we designed an alternative workflow searching MS/MS data against proteomic and transcript translated customized databases, using three search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and ProLuCID. In addition, a de novo peptide sequencing software (PEAKS) was used to further analyze the MS/MS data. This approach made it possible to identify and annotate 542 proteins for the pheromone gland of L. longipalpis. Importantly, all annotated protein sequences and raw data are available for the research community in protein repositories that provide free access to the data. PMID:24185139

  2. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193

  3. The distribution pattern of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the peridomiciles of a sector with canine and human visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Dracena, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Osias; Sampaio, Susy Mary Perpetuo; Ciaravolo, Ricardo Mario de Carvalho; Holcman, Marcia Moreira

    2012-03-01

    The specimen distribution pattern of a species can be used to characterise a population of interest and also provides area-specific guidance for pest management and control. In the municipality of Dracena, in the state of São Paulo, we analysed 5,889 Lutzomyia longipalpis specimens collected from the peridomiciles of 14 houses in a sector where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is transmitted to humans and dogs. The goal was to analyse the dispersion and a theoretical fitting of the species occurrence probability. From January-December 2005, samples were collected once per week using CDC light traps that operated for 12-h periods. Each collection was considered a sub-sample and was evaluated monthly. The standardised Morisita index was used as a measure of dispersion. Adherence tests were performed for the log-series distribution. The number of traps was used to adjust the octave plots. The quantity of Lu. longipalpis in the sector was highly aggregated for each month of the year, adhering to a log-series distribution for 11 of the 12 months analysed. A sex-stratified analysis demonstrated a pattern of aggregated dispersion adjusted for each month of the year. The classes and frequencies of the traps in octaves can be employed as indicators for entomological surveillance and AVL control. PMID:22415253

  4. Leishmania (Viannia) shawi sp. n., a parasite of monkeys, sloths and procyonids in Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lainson, R; Braga, R R; De Souza, A A; Pôvoa, M M; Ishikawa, E A; Silveira, F T

    1989-01-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) shawi sp. n., is described from the monkeys Cebus apella and Chiropotes satanus, the sloths Choloepus didactylus and Bradypus tridactylus, the procyonid Nasua nasua, and the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia whitmani, all from primary forest in the State of Pará, north Brazil. L. (V.) shawi is variably distinguished from all other known species within the subgenus Viannia by a combination of biological, biochemical and serological characters, as revealed by studies on morphology, isoenzyme profiles, kDNA buoyant densities and monoclonal antibodies. PMID:2504099

  5. Microspatial Distributional Patterns of Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Peterson, A. Townsend; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Fernando José; Valença, Hélio França; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Brandão Filho, Sinval P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution and population trends through time of Lutzomyia species in a long-term focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in an Atlantic Forest area, northeastern Brazil. Sand fly populations of different ecological niches were monitored spatiotemporally in 2009. To summarize vegetation characteristics and phenology, we calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from Landsat images. Using niche modeling approaches, we assessed suites of environmental factors to identify areas of transmission risk. Although 12 species were detected, L. whitmani was the most abundant and broadly distributed across the area, particularly in peridomiciliary locations, and associated negatively with denser vegetation areas. On the other hand, L. complexa, L. sordelli, and L. tupynambai were found almost exclusively in forested areas (P < 0.05), and associated positively with denser vegetation. Lutzomyia species' occurrences are related to specific environmental combinations (with contrast among species) in the region. PMID:22315619

  6. Geographical distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a re-emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is important to understand both the vector and disease distribution to help design control strategies. As an initial step in applying geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) tools to map disease-risk, the objectives of the present work were to: (i) produce a single database of species distributions of the sand fly vectors in the state of São Paulo, (ii) create combined distributional maps of both the incidence of ACL and its sand fly vectors, and (iii) thereby provide individual municipalities with a source of reference material for work carried out in their area. Results A database containing 910 individual records of sand fly occurrence in the state of São Paulo, from 37 different sources, was compiled. These records date from between 1943 to 2009, and describe the presence of at least one of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species in 183/645 (28.4%) municipalities. For the remaining 462 (71.6%) municipalities, we were unable to locate records of any of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species (Nyssomyia intermedia, N. neivai, N. whitmani, Pintomyia fischeri, P. pessoai and Migonemyia migonei). The distribution of each of the six incriminated or suspected vector species of ACL in the state of São Paulo were individually mapped and overlaid on the incidence of ACL for the period 1993 to 1995 and 1998 to 2007. Overall, the maps reveal that the six sand fly vector species analyzed have unique and heterogeneous, although often overlapping, distributions. Several sand fly species - Nyssomyia intermedia and N. neivai - are highly localized, while the other sand fly species - N. whitmani, M. migonei, P. fischeri and P. pessoai - are much more broadly distributed. ACL has been reported in 160/183 (87.4%) of the municipalities with records for at least one of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species, while there are no records of any of these sand fly species in 318/478 (66.5%) municipalities with ACL. Conclusions The maps produced in this work provide basic data on the distribution of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vectors of ACL in the state of São Paulo, and highlight the complex and geographically heterogeneous pattern of ACL transmission in the region. Further studies are required to clarify the role of each of the six suspected sand fly vector species in different regions of the state of São Paulo, especially in the majority of municipalities where ACL is present but sand fly vectors have not yet been identified. PMID:21171969

  7. First report of Warileya rotundipennis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mabel; Ferro, Cristina; Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Rubiano, Luisa; Delgado, Marcela; Cossio, Alexandra; Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Ocampo, Clara; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. Assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement "La Cabaña", in the Department of Risaralda, Colombia, revealed an abundance of Warileya rotundipennis. This unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections using CDC light traps were conducted during two consecutive nights in May and August 2011.The total of 667 sand flies collected were classified into five species: W. rotundipennis (n=654; 98.05%), Nyssomyia trapidoi (n=7; 1.04%); Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (n=3; 0.44%); Lutzomyia lichyi (n=2; 0.29%) and Psychodopygus panamensis (n=1; 0.14%). The striking predominance of W. rotundipennis within households during both wet (May) and dry (August) seasons, anthropophilic behavior demonstrated by human blood in 95.23% (60/63) evaluable blood-engorged specimens, and natural infection (5/168-3%) with genetically similar parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus observed in a patient in this community, support the involvement of W. rotundipennis in the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in "La Cabaña". PMID:25917717

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis of man due to Leishmania (Viannia) shawi Lainson, de Souza, Póvoa, Ishikawa & Silveira, in Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J J; Ishikawa, E A; Lainson, R; Braga, R R; Silveira, F T

    1991-01-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) shawi Lainson, Braga, de Souza, Póvoa, Ishikawa & Silveira, 1989, was originally recorded from monkeys (Cebus apella and Chiropotes satanas), sloths (Choloepus didactylus and Bradypus tridactylus) and coatis (Nasua nasua) and the sandfly, Lutzomyia whitmani. With a panel of Leishmania specific monoclonal antibodies, it was found that 30.5% of the Leishmania strains from patients, who had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pará State, were similar, but not identical to L. (V.) guyanensis. The enzyme profiles of 18 of these strains were determined, and it was found that 12 isolates belonged to the same zymodeme as the type strain of L. (V.) shawi. The other 6 belonged to a second L. (V.) shawi zymodeme that only differed from the other by having a slightly faster PEP band. These results are the first records of infections of L. (V.) shawi in man and suggest that this parasite is probably common in areas of Pará State to the south of the Amazon River. PMID:1822654

  9. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the island. The presence of L. (N.) flaviscutellata in peridomestic areas is also an important finding, since the species is involved in the transmission of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Health education practices directed to the local community and tourists are important control actions that can be taken in Ilha Grande to reduce the burden of leishmaniases. PMID:24499568

  10. VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Sand Fly (Lutzomyia vexator) (Diptera: Psychodidae) Populations in

    E-print Network

    in the vicinity of the kennel could be involved in transmission of canine leishmaniasis. KEY WORDS canine,FOXHOUNDS AT A HUNT clubinDutchessCounty, southeastern New York, experienced an outbreak of canine of sand ßies in areas near the New York hunt club where the canine leishmaniasis outbreak occurred

  11. Bacterial Infection and Immune Responses in Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Larvae Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju-Lin; Hurwitz, Ivy; Durvasula, Ravi; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The midgut microbial community in insect vectors of disease is crucial for an effective immune response against infection with various human and animal pathogens. Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants. Sand flies are major vectors of leishmaniasis, and shown to harbor a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site. Here, we assess the distribution of two bacteria commonly found within the gut of sand flies, Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that these bacteria are able to differentially infect the larval digestive tract, and regulate the immune response in sand fly larvae. Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut. PMID:26154607

  12. Genetic Structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis Populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mirella F. C.; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Andrade-Filho, José D.; Casaril, Aline E.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Fernandes, Carlos E. S.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Oliveira, Alessandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyialongipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within Lu. longipalpis populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself. PMID:24066129

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION First Collection Records of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera

    E-print Network

    SHORT COMMUNICATION First Collection Records of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From (2011); DOI: 10.1603/ME10170 ABSTRACT The phlebotomine sand Ã?ies Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Dyar for either species. KEY WORDS phlebotomine, sand Ã?y, leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia shannoni, Lutzomyia vexator

  14. Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; da Silva, Jailthon Carlos; da Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA. PMID:24821056

  15. Sand fly fauna in Chapare, Bolivia: an endemic focus of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Marinely; Diaz, Mery; Espinoza, Jorge; Parrado, Rudy; Reithinger, Richard; García, Ana Lineth

    2012-09-01

    Data on the distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bolivia is scarce. Sand flies from an area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis endemicity in the Isiboro-Secure National Park in the Department of Cochabamba were captured and identified to species. In total, 945 sand flies (789 females and 156 males) belonging to 15 species were collected from the four collection points in two study villages in 2007. With 549 (58.1%) specimens, Lutzomyia shawi was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) sp. (22.2%), Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi (8.3%), Lutzomyia antunesi (4.3%), and Lutzomyia olmeca (2.1%). Abundance and species composition varied between rainy and dry seasons, with 99.3% of all sand flies being collected outdoors. Because of species abundance and confirmed Leishmania infection in previous entomological collections, we believe Lu. shawi is the vector of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in Isiboro-Secure National Park. PMID:23025199

  16. VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Virulence of a Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, for Its Sand

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Virulence of a Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, for Its Sand Fly Vectors, Lutzomyia vexator and Lutzomyia stewarti (Diptera: Psychodidae) JOS. J that virulence of parasites for mobile vector insects will be low for natural parasite-host associations

  17. Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Oscar Fernando Mikery; León, Julio Cesar Rojas; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Vera, Alfredo Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most frequently trapped species. This is the first record of its remarkable ability to adapt to urban green areas. The three other species trapped represent new records of geographic distribution for the study region. These results indicate the need to establish measures for reducing both human contact with this vector and the risk of possible sites of infection. PMID:25742275

  18. Sand flies of Nicaragua: a checklist and reports of new collections.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Russell W; McHugh, Chad P; Kerr, Sara F

    2010-11-01

    Sand flies within the genus Lutzomyia serve as the vectors for all species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania in the New World. In this paper, we present a summary of the 29 species of Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia previously reported for Nicaragua and report results of our recent collections of 565 sand flies at eight localities in the country from 2001-2006. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species collected within the Pacific plains region of western Nicaragua, while Lutzomyia cruciata or Lutzomyia barrettoi majuscula were the species most frequently collected in the central highlands and Atlantic plains regions. The collection of Lutzomyia durani (Vargas & Nájera) at San Jacinto in July 2001 is a new record for Nicaragua. Leishmaniasis is endemic to Nicaragua and occurs in three forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Cutaneous infections are the most prevalent type of leishmaniasis in Nicaragua and they occur in two different clinical manifestations, typical cutaneous leishmaniasis and atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis, depending on the species of the infecting Leishmania parasite. The distribution of sand flies collected during this study in relation to the geographic distribution of clinical forms of leishmaniasis in the country is also discussed. PMID:21120358

  19. Peridomiciliary Breeding Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

  20. Spraying houses in the Peruvian Andes with lambda-cyhalothrin protects residents against cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Davies; E. A. Llanos-Cuentas; P. Campos; J. Monge; E. Leon; J. Canales

    2000-01-01

    A household vector control trial was carried out in the Peruvian Andes to measure the effect of spraying inside walls and ceilings with lambda-cyhalothrin on the risk for residents of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania peruviana. The mortality rates of Lutzomyia verrucarum measured with WHO contact bioassay cones set on adobe walls characteristic of the endemic region indicated an LD95

  1. Potential for Transovarial Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an insect transmitted rhabdovirus which causes economically devastating disease in cattle and horses in the western U.S. Important insect vectors identified thus far include Lutzomyia shannoni sand flies, Simulium vittatum black flies, and Culicoides sonorensis bi...

  2. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many

  3. Aspectos Clínicos da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Clinical Aspects of Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Henrique Guimarães; Roberto L. Machado; Hélio A. Lessa

    2005-01-01

    A leishmaniose tegumentar representa um grupo de doenças com características clínicas, imunológicas e patológicas distintas, compondo uma manifestação espectral. Diversos fatores interferem nessas diferenças, com destaque para a resposta imune do hospedeiro e fatores inerentes à leishmania, que podem aumentar ou atenuar o seu poder patogênico. Recentemente, tem sido demonstrado que a saliva do vetor (Lutzomyia) facilita a infecção em

  4. LEISHMANIOSE CUTÂNEA DIFUSA (LCD) NA AMAZÔNIA, BRASIL: LEISHMANIOSE CUTÂNEA DIFUSA (LCD) NA AMAZÔNIA, BRASIL: LEISHMANIOSE CUTÂNEA DIFUSA (LCD) NA AMAZÔNIA, BRASIL: LEISHMANIOSE CUTÂNEA DIFUSA (LCD) NA AMAZÔNIA, BRASIL: LEISHMANIOSE CUTÂNEA DIFUSA (LCD) NA AMAZÔNIA, BRASIL: ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS (DCL) IN THE AMAZON REGION, BRAZIL: CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando T. Silveira

    2009-01-01

    No presente trabalho foram revistos os principais aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos da leishmaniose cutânea difusa (LCD) na região Amazônica do Brasil, onde a doença tem como agente causal específico a Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, sendo sua transmissão feita pelo flebotomíneo vetor, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata, de baixa antropofilia. Desse modo, embora de ocorrência rara, não ultrapassando mais do que vinte casos desde seu

  5. Sandfly fauna of endemic leishmaniasis foci in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    González, R; Jorquera, A; De Sousa, L; Ledezma, E; Devera, R

    2002-01-01

    A census of the sandfly fauna was undertaken in 1993-98 in 5 endemic leishmaniasis foci situated at different altitudes in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. From the 17 species of Lutzomyia identified, we believe that Lu. ovallesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while Lu. evansi might transmit visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:11925994

  6. Immunity to a salivary protein of a sand fly vector protects against the fatal outcome of visceral leishmaniasis in a hamster model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regis Gomes; Clarissa Teixeira; Maria Jânia Teixeira; Fabiano Oliveira; Maria José Menezes; Claire Silva; Camila I. de Oliveira; Jose C. Miranda; Dia-Eldin Elnaiem; Shaden Kamhawi; Jesus G. Valenzuela; Cláudia I. Brodskyn

    2008-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal disease for humans, and no vaccine is currently available. Sand fly salivary proteins have been associated with protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis. To test whether vector salivary proteins can protect against VL, a hamster model was developed involving intradermal inoculation in the ears of 100,000 Leishmania infantum chagasi parasites together with Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva to

  7. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN COLOMBIA: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLINICAL AND PARASITOLOGIC STATUS AND INFECTIVITY FOR SAND FLIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUNO L. TRAVI; CARLOS J. TABARES; HORACIO CADENA; CRISTINA FERRO; YANETH OSORIO

    2001-01-01

    We studied the reservoir competency of canines with distinct clinical presentations of Leishmania chagasi infection. The parasitologic status of asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs was determined by standard culture methods Infectivity was assessed by multiple xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis, over a period of 2-11 months. Asymp- tomatic dogs were non-infective (0 of 5) while 2 of 7 oligosymptomatic dogs infected L.

  8. Molecular typing of sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from areas endemic for Leishmaniasis in Ecuador by PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Yoshimi; Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Uezato, Hiroshi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2008-09-01

    Surveillance of the distribution of sand fly species is important for prediction of the risk and expansion of Leishmania infection in endemic and surrounding areas. In the present study, a simple and reliable method of typing New World Lutzomyia species circulating in endemic areas in Ecuador was established by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes with the restriction enzyme AfaI and subsequently HinfI successfully identified seven sand fly species in nine endemic areas in Ecuador. Although intraspecific genetic-diversity affecting the RFLP-patterns was detected in a species, the patterns were species specific. The method promises to be a powerful tool for the classification of New World Lutzomyia species. PMID:18840964

  9. Transmission Potential of Antimony-Resistant Leishmania Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Oury, Bruno; Eddaikra, Naouel; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Pratlong, Francine; Gazanion, Elodie; Maia, Carla; Volf, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We studied the development of antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum in natural vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus to ascertain the risk of parasite transmission by sand flies. All three resistant strains produced fully mature late-stage infections in sand flies; moreover, the resistant phenotype was maintained after the passage through the vector. These results highlight the risk of circulation of resistant Leishmania strains and question the use of human drugs for treatment of dogs as Leishmania reservoirs. PMID:25049256

  10. A new quadrannulate species of Orobdella (Hirudinida, Arhynchobdellida, Orobdellidae) from central Honshu, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new quadrannulate species of Orobdella, Orobdella masaakikuroiwai sp. n., from the mountainous region of central Honshu, Japan is described. This is only the second small species known within this genus, with a body length of less than 4 cm for mature individuals. Phylogenetic analyses using nuclear 18S rDNA and histone H3 as well as mitochondrial COI, tRNACys, tRNAMet, 12S, tRNAVal, 16S, and ND1 markers showed that Orobdella masaakikuroiwai sp. n. is the sister species of the quadrannulate Orobdella whitmani Oka, 1895. Phylogenetic relationships within Orobdella masaakikuroiwai sp. n. conducted using mitochondrial markers reveled a distinction between eastern and western phylogroups. PMID:25349507

  11. Epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Regina-Silva, Shara; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Silva, Maiara Alves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; da Costa, Ailton Junior Antunes; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-08-01

    About 97% of the human cases of the American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur in Brazil. In the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control VL spreading. Our two-year study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, the sixth most populous city in Brazil, which is endemic for VL. We focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and submitted to minor surveillance and control actions. Our aim was to draw an epidemiological profile of the local situation concerning Lutzomyia vector, Leishmania parasites, and the main domestic reservoirs (dogs). Lutzomyia longipalpis comprised 96.5% of the total phlebotomine sand flies captured and displayed an expressive minimal infection rate by Leishmania infantum (16.7%). Positive correlations were found between the population densities of L. longipalpis, rainfall and temperature. L. infantum was also detected in the cortelezzii complex and, for the first time, in Lutzomyia lloydi. Leishmania braziliensis, an etiological agent of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis, was also identified in L. longipalpis. Among the 1408 dogs serologically tested by standard enzyme-linked and fluorescence immune assays (ELISA/IFA) 3.6% were positive for VL. L. infantum DNA and Leishmania parasites were identified in 100% and 72.5% of the seropositive dogs, respectively. The co-positivity of other diagnostic tests for VL-Leishmania-nested PCR, imprint and myeloculture-was compared to the standard serology. Both symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs displayed an equal average number of positive diagnostic tests for VL. The districts studied display favorable conditions for the rapid spreading of human infection, in terms of L. longipalpis population density, and presence of L. infantum in both vector and main reservoir. PMID:25882769

  12. Leishmania herreri sp. n. from sloths and sandflies of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Zeledón, R; Ponce, C; Murillo, J

    1979-04-01

    Leishmania herreri sp. n. is described after isolation in pure culture from blood, viscera and skin of two-toed (Choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed (Bradypus griseus) sloths from Costa Rica. Also, it was isolated from the following sandflies: Lutzomyia trapidoi, L. ylephiletor and L. shannoni. The amastigote forms were not seen in the final hosts but they were obtained in tissue culture at 33 C. Both promastigotes and amastigotes failed to infect hamsters. The new parasite is isolated frequently in culture, mixed with other hemoflagellates such as L. braziliensis, Endotrypanum sp. and Trypanosoma rangeli. PMID:448612

  13. Clonal diversity of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its transmission success from its vertebrate-to-insect host.

    PubMed

    Vardo-Zalik, A M

    2009-12-01

    Infections of the lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum are often genetically complex within their fence lizard host (Sceloporus occidentalis) harbouring two or more clones of parasite. The role of clonal diversity in transmission success was studied for P. mexicanum by feeding its sandfly vectors (Lutzomyia vexator and Lutzomyia stewarti) on experimentally infected lizards. Experimental infections consisted of one, two, three or more clones, assessed using three microsatellite markers. After 5days, vectors were dissected to assess infection status, oocyst burden and genetic composition of the oocysts. A high proportion (92%) of sandflies became infected and carried high oocyst burdens (mean of 56 oocysts) with no influence of clonal diversity on these two measures of transmission success. Gametocytemia was positively correlated with transmission success and the more common vector (L. vexator) developed more oocysts on midguts. A high proportion ( approximately 74%) of all alleles detected in the lizard blood was found in infected vectors. The relative proportion of clones within mixed infections, determined by peak heights on pherograms produced by the genetic analyser instrument, was very similar for the lizard's blood and infections in the vectors. These results demonstrate that P. mexicanum achieves high transmission success, with most clones making the transition from vertebrate-to-insect host, and thus explains in part the high genetic diversity of the parasite among all hosts at the study site. PMID:19523471

  14. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo. PMID:26047181

  15. Restricted Outbreak of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis with High Microfocal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.; Gil, José F.; Quipildor, Marcelo; Cajal, Silvana P.; Pravia, Carlos; Juarez, Marisa; Villalpando, Carlos; Locatelli, Fabricio M.; Chanampa, Mariana; Castillo, Gabriela; Oreste, María F.; Hoyos, Carlos L.; Negri, Vanesa; Nasser, Julio R.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Salta, the northwestern province of Argentina. We describe an outbreak involving five recreational hunters whose exposure was limited to several hours in a residual patch of primary forest. All patients presented with typical cutaneous lesions after a mean incubation period of 59 days (range 15–78), and one developed simultaneous mucosal involvement. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of lesions confirmed Leishmania (V.) braziliensis as the etiologic agent in three cases. All patients were cured with anti-Leishmania treatment. Entomologic surveys in the transmission area revealed a predominance of Lutzomyia neivai. This outbreak report confirms a microfocal transmission pattern of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Americas and based on a well-determined exposure, allows the determination of incubation times for leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. PMID:23339200

  16. Apparent disappearance of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus from Ossabaw Island, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Killmaster, Lindsay Fann; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Moulton, John K; Smith, Paul F; Mead, Daniel G

    2011-05-01

    Ossabaw Island, Georgia, is the only reported endemic focus of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus (VSNJV) in the United States. Based on recent negative serologic results of white-tailed deer and feral swine and the failure to isolate VSNJV from Lutzomyia shannoni, it appears that VSNJV is no longer present at this site. This apparent disappearance does not appear to be related to a change in L. shannoni habitat, specifically to the density of tree holes in the maritime and mixed hardwood forests. We believe that the disappearance of VSNJV from Ossabaw Island is directly related to a reduction in the feral swine population and a subsequent increase in the utilization of white-tailed deer by the known vector, L. shannoni. PMID:20954866

  17. Identification of Leishmania infantum in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lucrecia; Díaz, Ricardo; Torres, Pedro; Silva, Gustavo; Ramos, Marina; Fattore, Gladys; Deschutter, Enrique J; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando J

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area. PMID:25923899

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania infantum IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    ACOSTA, Lucrecia; DÍAZ, Ricardo; TORRES, Pedro; SILVA, Gustavo; RAMOS, Marina; FATTORE, Gladys; DESCHUTTER, Enrique J.; BORNAY-LLINARES, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

     The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area. PMID:25923899

  19. Molecular mass screening to incriminate sand fly vectors of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Marco, Jorge D; Barroso, Paola A; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2008-11-01

    Sand flies from the Andean areas of Ecuador and Peru were examined for Leishmania infections by using our recently established molecular mass screening method. Leishmanial minicircle DNA-positive sand flies were detected in 3 of 192 and 1 of 462 samples from Ecuador and Peru, respectively. Sand fly species were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, and the positive flies were Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis and Lu. peruensis, respectively. Furthermore, cytochrome b and mannose-phosphate isomerase gene sequence analyses identified the parasites from Ecuador and Peru as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (Viannia) peruviana, respectively. Thus, the mass screening method was confirmed to be a powerful tool for sand fly research. PMID:18981511

  20. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 6. Epidemiological and entomological note on the focus of leishmaniasis in Zumba].

    PubMed

    Le Pont, F; Barrera, C; Caceres, A L; Galati, E A; Jarra, O; Riofrio, A R; Mouchet, J; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    The Zumba focus of tegumentary leishmaniasis lies in the southwards Amazonian region of Ecuador. A clinico-epidemiological study has been carried out in the area on 83 patients attending health centers. All the biotopes suitable for sandflies, including dwellings, have been sampled from February to September 1992 by light trap and human bait catches. The number of sandflies caught amounts to 2,547. Anthropophilic sandfly fauna is poor and only three species have been recorded. Lutzomyia serrana abounds inside dwellings where it bites men even during daytime. The parasite was identified as an intermediate form between Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. It will be described elsewhere. The high proportion of facial lesions suggests a domiciliary transmission for which Lu. serrana could be a good vector candidate. PMID:8024349

  1. Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

  2. Predicted altitudinal shifts and reduced spatial distribution of Leishmania infantum vector species under climate change scenarios in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Camila; Paz, Andrea; Ferro, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania infantum (=Leishmania chagasi), and is epidemiologically relevant due to its wide geographic distribution, the number of annual cases reported and the increase in its co-infection with HIV. Two vector species have been incriminated in the Americas: Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia evansi. In Colombia, L. longipalpis is distributed along the Magdalena River Valley while L. evansi is only found in the northern part of the Country. Regarding the epidemiology of the disease, in Colombia the incidence of VL has decreased over the last few years without any intervention being implemented. Additionally, changes in transmission cycles have been reported with urban transmission occurring in the Caribbean Coast. In Europe and North America climate change seems to be driving a latitudinal shift of leishmaniasis transmission. Here, we explored the spatial distribution of the two known vector species of L. infantum in Colombia and projected its future distribution into climate change scenarios to establish the expansion potential of the disease. An updated database including L. longipalpis and L. evansi collection records from Colombia was compiled. Ecological niche models were performed for each species using the Maxent software and 13 Worldclim bioclimatic coverages. Projections were made for the pessimistic CSIRO A2 scenario, which predicts the higher increase in temperature due to non-emission reduction, and the optimistic Hadley B2 Scenario predicting the minimum increase in temperature. The database contained 23 records for L. evansi and 39 records for L. longipalpis, distributed along the Magdalena River Valley and the Caribbean Coast, where the potential distribution areas of both species were also predicted by Maxent. Climate change projections showed a general overall reduction in the spatial distribution of the two vector species, promoting a shift in altitudinal distribution for L. longipalpis and confining L. evansi to certain regions in the Caribbean Coast. Altitudinal shifts have been reported for cutaneous leishmaniasis vectors in Colombia and Peru. Here, we predict the same outcome for VL vectors in Colombia. Changes in spatial distribution patterns could be affecting local abundances due to climatic pressures on vector populations thus reducing the incidence of human cases. PMID:23988300

  3. Experimental Transmission of Leishmania infantum by Two Major Vectors: A Comparison between a Viscerotropic and a Dermotropic Strain

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Carla; Seblova, Veronika; Sadlova, Jovana; Votypka, Jan; Volf, Petr

    2011-01-01

    We quantified Leishmania infantum parasites transmitted by natural vectors for the first time. Both L. infantum strains studied, dermotropic CUK3 and viscerotropic IMT373, developed well in Phlebotomus perniciosus and Lutzomyia longipalpis. They produced heavy late-stage infection and colonized the stomodeal valve, which is a prerequisite for successful transmission. Infected sand fly females, and especially those that transmit parasites, feed significantly longer on the host (1.5–1.8 times) than non-transmitting females. Quantitative PCR revealed that P. perniciosus harboured more CUK3 strain parasites, while in L. longipalpis the intensity of infection was higher for the IMT373 strain. However, in both sand fly species the parasite load transmitted was higher for the strain with dermal tropism (CUK3). All but one sand fly female infected by the IMT373 strain transmitted less than 600 promastigotes; in contrast, 29% of L. longipalpis and 14% of P. perniciosus infected with the CUK3 strain transmitted more than 1000 parasites. The parasite number transmitted by individual sand flies ranged from 4 up to 4.19×104 promastigotes; thus, the maximal natural dose found was still about 250 times lower than the experimental challenge dose used in previous studies. This finding emphasizes the importance of determining the natural infective dose for the development of an accurate experimental model useful for the evaluation of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:21695108

  4. Sergentomyia schwetzi is not a competent vector for Leishmania donovani and other Leishmania species pathogenic to humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sand fly species of the genus Sergentomyia are proven vectors of reptilian Leishmania that are non-pathogenic to humans. However, a consideration of the role of Sergentomyia spp. in the circulation of mammalian leishmaniasis appears repeatedly in the literature and the possibility of Leishmania transmission to humans remains unclear. Here we studied the susceptibility of colonized Sergentomyia schwetzi to Leishmania donovani and two other Leishmania species pathogenic to humans: L. infantum and L. major. Methods Females of laboratory-reared S. schwetzi were infected by cultured Leishmania spp. by feeding through a chicken membrane, dissected at different time intervals post bloodmeal and examined by light microscopy for the abundance and location of infections. Results All three Leishmania species produced heavy late stage infections in Lutzomyia longipalpis or Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies used as positive controls. In contrast, none of them completed their developmental cycle in Sergentomyia females; Leishmania promastigotes developed within the bloodmeal enclosed by the peritrophic matrix (PM) but were defecated together with the blood remnants, failing to establish a midgut infection. In S. schwetzi, the PM persisted significantly longer than in L. longipalpis and it was degraded almost simultaneously with defecation. Therefore, Leishmania transformation from procyclic to long nectomonad forms was delayed and parasites did not attach to the midgut epithelium. Conclusions Sergentomyia schwetzi is refractory to human Leishmania species and the data indicate that the crucial aspect of the refractoriness is the relative timing of defecation versus PM degradation. PMID:23786805

  5. VSV-NJ on Ossabaw Island, Georgia. The truth is out there.

    PubMed

    Stallknecht, D E

    2000-01-01

    Ossabaw Island, Georgia, is the only recognized enzootic focus of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV-NJ) in the United States and has been the subject of VSV-NJ research since 1981. To date, VSV-NJ antibodies have been detected only from feral swine, cattle, equines, deer, and raccoons. VSV-NJ transmission occurs annually, is seasonal, and is associated with the maritime forest. Despite high transmission rates the clinical disease is rarely detected. A sand fly (Lutzomyia shannoni) occurs on the Island, and experimental and field data suggest that it is a biological vector of VSV-NJ at this site. Many questions relating to the epidemiology of VSV-NJ on Ossabaw remain. What is the maintenance cycle of VSV-NJ? Is a vertebrate amplifying host(s) needed? Are other insect vectors involved in mechanical or biological transmission? Why do vesicular lesions develop on some but not all infected animals? Do native and domestic animals play the same role in the maintenance cycle? These questions challenge researchers in all areas where VSV-NJ occurs. It is our hope that Ossabaw Island will provide a much needed model system for gaining insight into the epidemiology of this virus. PMID:11193657

  6. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  7. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cássia Regina de; Parpinelli, Ana Cláudia; Lima, Romeika Reis de; Dias, Luis Gustavo Gosuen Gonçalves; Pereira, Lucas de Freitas; Dias, Fernanda Gosuen Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi), which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological). It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification. PMID:26154962

  8. A dysflagellar mutant of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolated from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parasites of the Leishmania genus alternate between the flagellated extracellular promastigote stage and intracellular amastigotes. Here we report the characterization of a Leishmania isolate, obtained from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient, which presents peculiar morphological features. Methods The parasite was cultured in vitro and characterized morphologically using optical and electron microscopy. Identification was performed based on monoclonal antibodies and internal ribosomal spacer typing. In vitro macrophage cultures, murine experimental models and sand fly infections were used to evaluate infectivity in vitro and in vivo. Results The isolate was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. In the atypical promastigotes grown in culture, a short flagellum surrounded or interrupted by a protuberance of disorganized material was observed. A normal axoneme was present close to the basal body but without elongation much further outside the flagellar pocket. A disorganized swelling at the precocious end of the axoneme coincided with the lack of a paraflagellar rod structure. The isolate was able to infect macrophages in vitro, induce lesions in BALB/c mice and infect Lutzomyia longipalpis. Conclusions Notwithstanding the lack of an extracellular flagellum, this isolate infects macrophages in vitro and produces lesions when inoculated into mice. Moreover, it is able to colonize phlebotomine sand flies. Considering the importance attributed to the flagellum in the successful infection and survival of Leishmania in the insect midgut and in the invasion of macrophages, these findings may bring new light into the infectious mechanisms of L. (V.) braziliensis. PMID:22236464

  9. A New Model of Progressive Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamsters by Natural Transmission via Bites of Vector Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Hamide; Dey, Ranadhir; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra; Oliva, Gætano; Fischer, Laurent; Duncan, Robert C.; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is transmitted by sand flies. Protection of needle-challenged vaccinated mice was abrogated in vector-initiated cutaneous leishmaniasis, highlighting the importance of developing natural transmission models for VL. Methods.?We used Lutzomyia longipalpis to transmit Leishmania infantum or Leishmania donovani to hamsters. Vector-initiated infections were monitored and compared with intracardiac infections. Body weights were recorded weekly. Organ parasite loads and parasite pick-up by flies were assessed in sick hamsters. Results.?Vector-transmitted L. infantum and L. donovani caused ?5-fold increase in spleen weight compared with uninfected organs and had geometric mean parasite loads (GMPL) comparable to intracardiac inoculation of 107–108 parasites, although vector-initiated disease progression was slower and weight loss was greater. Only vector-initiated L. infantum infections caused cutaneous lesions at transmission and distal sites. Importantly, 45.6%, 50.0%, and 33.3% of sand flies feeding on ear, mouth, and testicular lesions, respectively, were parasite-positive. Successful transmission was associated with a high mean percent of metacyclics (66%–82%) rather than total GMPL (2.0 × 104–8.0 × 104) per midgut. Conclusions.?This model provides an improved platform to study initial immune events at the bite site, parasite tropism, and pathogenesis and to test drugs and vaccines against naturally acquired VL. PMID:23288926

  10. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Sugui, Daniel; Nunes, Rafael Fernandes; de Azevedo, Karime; de Azevedo, Marcelo; Marques, Alexandre; Martins, Carlos; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement. PMID:25548691

  11. Efficacy of three attractant blends tested in combination with carbon dioxide against natural populations of mosquitoes and biting flies at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge.

    PubMed

    Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2012-06-01

    Synthetic blends of chemicals identified previously from human skin emanations were evaluated against mosquito and biting fly populations at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge near Cedar Key, FL. Mosquito Magnet-Experimental traps were baited with the Red (400 ml acetone: 10 ml 1-hexen-3-ol:10 ml 1-octen-3-ol), Blue (400 ml acetone: 1 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml glycolic acid), or Green blend (400 ml acetone:1.5 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml dimethyl disulfide) plus CO2 or with CO2 alone (control). A relative index of efficacy was determined by dividing each mean blend trap catch by the mean control trap catch. Five mosquitoes (Aedes infirmatus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ae. triseriatus, Anopheles crucians, and Culex nigripalpus), 2 ceratopogonid (Culicoides floridensis and C. furens), and 1 tabanid (Diachlorus ferrugatus) and phlebotomine (Lutzomyia shannoni) species were trapped. The Red blend + CO2 treatment significantly increased collections of Ae. taeniorhynchus (3.4x), An. crucians (2.8X), total mosquitoes (2.7x), C. furens (17.6x), and L. shannoni (10.8x) compared with control traps. Traps baited with either the Blue or Green blends generally captured fewer insects than traps baited with the other 2 treatments. However, traps baited with the Green blend caught 7 x as many C. furens as the control traps. Responses clearly varied according to species; therefore, "one size does not fit all" when it comes to attractant blends. PMID:22894125

  12. Cross-species genetic exchange between visceral and cutaneous strains of Leishmania in the sand fly vector

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Audrey; Inbar, Ehud; Debrabant, Alain; Charmoy, Melanie; Lawyer, Phillip; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flavia; Barhoumi, Mourad; Grigg, Michael; Shaik, Jahangheer; Dobson, Deborah; Beverley, Stephen M.; Sacks, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic exchange between Leishmania major strains during their development in the sand fly vector has been experimentally shown. To investigate the possibility of genetic exchange between different Leishmania species, a cutaneous strain of L. major and a visceral strain of Leishmania infantum, each bearing a different drug-resistant marker, were used to coinfect Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Eleven double–drug-resistant progeny clones, each the product of an independent mating event, were generated and submitted to genotype and phenotype analyses. The analysis of multiple allelic markers across the genome suggested that each progeny clone inherited at least one full set of chromosomes from each parent, with loss of heterozygosity at some loci, and uniparental retention of maxicircle kinetoplast DNA. Hybrids with DNA contents of approximately 2n, 3n, and 4n were observed. In vivo studies revealed clear differences in the ability of the hybrids to produce pathology in the skin or to disseminate to and grow in the viscera, suggesting polymorphisms and differential inheritance of the gene(s) controlling these traits. The studies, to our knowledge, represent the first experimental confirmation of cross-species mating in Leishmania, opening the way toward genetic linkage analysis of important traits and providing strong evidence that genetic exchange is responsible for the generation of the mixed-species genotypes observed in natural populations. PMID:25385616

  13. Vertebrate hosts and vectors of Trypanosoma rangeli in the Amazon Basin of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miles, M A; Arias, J R; Valente, S A; Naiff, R D; de Souza, A A; Povoa, M M; Lima, J A; Cedillos, R A

    1983-11-01

    A total of 46 Trypanosoma rangeli stocks were isolated from naturally infected mammals and triatomine vectors. Twenty-two stocks were from the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), one from the brown "4-eyed" opossum (Metachirus nudicaudatus), one from the anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla), one from the coati (Nasua nasua), seven from Rhodnius pictipes and 14 from Rhodnius robustus. Two stocks were also isolated from recently fed sandflies (Lutzomyia sp., Shannoni group). The stocks were identified as T. rangeli on the basis of natural or experimental salivary gland infections in Rhodnius, inoculative (anterior station) transmission to mice, morphological parameters in parasitemic mice and comparisons of isozyme profiles with a known stock of T. rangeli isolated from man. Three other trypanosome stocks from D. marsupialis, T. tetradactyla and the three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus) were morphologically similar to T. rangeli in culture but had quite different isozyme profiles and were not identified. It is concluded that T. rangeli is widely distributed in Amazonas, Pará and Rondonia States of Brazil, and probably extends into other regions where R. pictipes and R. robustus are known to occur. R. pictipes is light-attracted into houses and occasionally transmits Chagas' disease to man. It is likely that T. rangeli is also occasionally transmitted to man in the Amazon basin. PMID:6418015

  14. Modulation of murine cellular immune response and cytokine production by salivary gland lysate of three sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Rohousová, I; Volf, P; Lipoldová, M

    2005-12-01

    Saliva of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) plays an important role in transmission of Leishmania parasites by modulating host immune response. However, because of the different protein compositions of saliva, the immunomodulatory effects may vary among sand fly species. We have therefore analysed and compared the immunomodulation effects of salivary gland lysate (SGL) of three different sand flies. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice were incubated with SGL of Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti or Lutzomyia longipalpis. Concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed with SGLs of all three sand fly species and all SGL doses tested. This result indicates that saliva from different sand fly species is able to suppress host proliferative response even to the potent mitogen. In parallel experiments, we analysed the effect of SGL on IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4 production; in mitogen-stimulated cells SGLs markedly inhibited IFN-gamma production in all intervals tested (reduced up to 31%) and to a lesser degree impaired production of the other two cytokines as well. Despite some species-specific differences in the intensity of immunomodulatory effects, saliva of all sand fly species modulated cell proliferation as well as cytokine production in a similar way. PMID:16255746

  15. Aspects of the ecology of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence, municipality of Angra dos Reis, coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Gustavo Marins de; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; Medeiros, Wagner Muniz de; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  16. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  17. Phlebotomine sandflies and the spreading of leishmaniases and other diseases of public health concern.

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Feliciangeli, M D; Bichaud, L; Charrel, R N; Gradoni, L

    2013-06-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies transmit pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. We review the roles of phlebotomines in the spreading of leishmaniases, sandfly fever, summer meningitis, vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura virus encephalitis and Carrión's disease. Among over 800 species of sandfly recorded, 98 are proven or suspected vectors of human leishmaniases; these include 42 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and 56 Lutzomyia species in the New World (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). Based on incrimination criteria, we provide an updated list of proven or suspected vector species by endemic country where data are available. Increases in sandfly diffusion and density resulting from increases in breeding sites and blood sources, and the interruption of vector control activities contribute to the spreading of leishmaniasis in the settings of human migration, deforestation, urbanization and conflict. In addition, climatic changes can be expected to affect the density and dispersion of sandflies. Phlebovirus infections and diseases are present in large areas of the Old World, especially in the Mediterranean subregion, in which virus diversity has proven to be higher than initially suspected. Vesiculovirus diseases are important to livestock and humans in the southeastern U.S.A. and Latin America, and represent emerging human threats in parts of India. Carrión's disease, formerly restricted to regions of elevated altitude in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, has shown recent expansion to non-endemic areas of the Amazon basin. PMID:22924419

  18. Andean leishmaniasis in Ecuador caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana and L. major-like parasites.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Y; Gomez, E A; de Coronel, V V; Mimori, T; Kawabata, M; Furuya, M; Nonaka, S; Takaoka, H; Alexander, J B; Quizhpe, A M

    1991-02-01

    Between 1986 and 1988, epidemiologic studies were carried out in a small rural community in an Andean region of Ecuador, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is highly endemic. A total of 25 human cases, positive for Leishmania parasites by culture and/or smear, were examined. Fourteen of the cases were in infants less than one year of age, suggesting intradomiciliary transmission of the disease. Clinically, many of these cases were similar to descriptions of "uta," a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis which occurs in Andean regions of Peru and is reported caused by L. peruviana. Of the 11 positive cultures obtained from human cases in the present study, eight were identified by molecular characterization as L. mexicana and three were identified as L. major-like. Two additional isolates of L. mexicana were also made from an infected dog and from a sand fly, Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, living in the region, thus implicating the latter species as possible reservoir and vector, respectively, of L. mexicana in this highland community. The significance and validity of recent isolates of L. major-like parasites from the New World are also discussed. PMID:1672799

  19. Detection and identification of Leishmania species within naturally infected sand flies in the andean areas of ecuador by a polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Calvopiña, Manuel; Marco, Jorge D; Barroso, Paola A; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Nonaka, Shigeo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2005-01-01

    The surveillance of prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species in endemic areas is important for prediction of the risk and expansion of leishmaniasis. In this study, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Leishmania minicircle DNA within individual sand flies. Using this method, we detected minicircle DNA in 6 (3.3%) of 183 sand flies, while 5 (3.5%) of 143 were positive for Leishmania promastigotes in the same areas by microscopic examination. The species were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana by nucleotide sequencing of the cytochrome b gene. Additionally, all the Leishmania-positive sand flies were identified as Lutzomyia ayacuchensis by the restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR-amplified 18S ribosomal RNA gene fragments. Since this combined method is relatively easy and can process a large number of samples, it will be a powerful tool for the rapid identification of prevalent sand fly and Leishmania species as well as monitoring the infection rate in sand fly populations in endemic areas. PMID:15728872

  20. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge -- a review.

    PubMed

    Calvopina, Manuel; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2004-11-01

    Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania) spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis. PMID:15654419

  1. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries.

    PubMed

    Davies, C R; Reithinger, R; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Feliciangeli, D; Borges, R; Rodriguez, N

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia) infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control. PMID:11175518

  2. Lundep, a Sand Fly Salivary Endonuclease Increases Leishmania Parasite Survival in Neutrophils and Inhibits XIIa Contact Activation in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Andrezza C.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Debrabant, Alain; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Calvo, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are the host's first line of defense against infections, and their extracellular traps (NET) were recently shown to kill Leishmania parasites. Here we report a NET-destroying molecule (Lundep) from the salivary glands of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome of Lu. longipalpis showed the potential presence of an endonuclease. Indeed, not only was the cloned cDNA (Lundep) shown to encode a highly active ss- and dsDNAse, but also the same activity was demonstrated to be secreted by salivary glands of female Lu. longipalpis. Lundep hydrolyzes both ss- and dsDNA with little sequence specificity with a calculated DNase activity of 300000 Kunitz units per mg of protein. Disruption of PMA (phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate)- or parasite-induced NETs by treatment with recombinant Lundep or salivary gland homogenates increases parasite survival in neutrophils. Furthermore, co-injection of recombinant Lundep with metacyclic promastigotes significantly exacerbates Leishmania infection in mice when compared with PBS alone or inactive (mutagenized) Lundep. We hypothesize that Lundep helps the parasite to establish an infection by allowing it to escape from the leishmanicidal activity of NETs early after inoculation. Lundep may also assist blood meal intake by lowering the local viscosity caused by the release of host DNA and as an anticoagulant by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. PMID:24516388

  3. Natural infection of synathropic rodent species Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus by Leishmania infantum in Sesimbra and Sintra – Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is a parasitic zoonotic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Genus Phlebotomus is the biological vector in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. The dog is the domestic reservoir host but other animals like the fox (Vulpes vulpes) and rodents are known to maintain the infection in both sylvatic and domestic cycles. Methods To identify the role of synanthropic rodents Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus as reservoir hosts for Leishmania infantum natural infection, 30 rodents were captured under a trap rodent control program in two private dog shelters from Sintra and Sesimbra, located in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, known to be endemic for canine leishmaniosis in Portugal. Tissue samples were screened for the presence of Leishmania amastigotes by qPCR and parasitological analysis. Results A total of 33.3% (9/27) of Mus musculus rodents revealed the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA while 29.6% (8/27) were positive in the parasitological analysis. Concerning Rattus norvegicus (n=3), one animal revealed infection only by parasitological analysis. Conclusions Our results identified for the first time in Portugal the presence of Leishmania infection in both rodent species. As susceptible hosts, infected Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus may increase the risk for dog and human infection in households and surrounding areas, enhancing the need for efficient rodent control measures in shelters and risk zones to prevent transmission of the infection. PMID:23566789

  4. Visualisation of Leishmania donovani Fluorescent Hybrids during Early Stage Development in the Sand Fly Vector

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Lewis, Michael D.; Mauricio, Isabel; Volf, Petr; Miles, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Leishmania protozoan parasites cause devastating human diseases. Leishmania have been considered to replicate clonally, without genetic exchange. However, an accumulation of evidence indicates that there are inter-specific and intra-specific hybrids among natural populations. The first and so far only experimental proof of genetic exchange was obtained in 2009 when double drug resistant Leishmania major hybrids were produced by co-infecting sand flies with two strains carrying different drug resistance markers. However, the location and timing of hybridisation events in sand flies has not been described. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have co-infected Phlebotomus perniciosus and Lutzomyia longipalpis with transgenic promastigotes of Leishmania donovani strains carrying hygromycin or neomycin resistance genes and red or green fluorescent markers. Fed females were dissected at different times post bloodmeal (PBM) and examined by fluorescent microscopy or fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) followed by confocal microscopy. In mixed infections strains LEM3804 and Gebre-1 reached the cardia and stomodeal valves more rapidly than strains LEM4265 and LV9. Hybrids unequivocally expressing both red and green fluorescence were seen in single flies of both vectors tested, co-infected with LEM4265 and Gebre-1. The hybrids were present as short (procyclic) promastigotes 2 days PBM in the semi-digested blood in the endoperitrophic space. Recovery of a clearly co-expressing hybrid was also achieved by FACS. However, hybrids could not sustain growth in vitro. Conclusions/Significance For the first time, we observed L. donovani hybrids in the sand fly vector, 2 days PBM and described the morphological stages involved. Fluorescence microscopy in combination with FACS allows visualisation and recovery of the progeny of experimental crosses but on this occasion the hybrids were not viable in vitro. Nevertheless, genetic exchange in L. donovani has profound epidemiological significance, because it facilitates the emergence and spread of new phenotypic traits. PMID:21637755

  5. Experimental vesicular stomatitis in swine: effects of route of inoculation and steroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Howerth, E W; Stallknecht, D E; Dorminy, M; Pisell, T; Clarke, G R

    1997-04-01

    An enzootic focus of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ) exists on Ossabaw Island, Georgia. Many questions regarding the epizootiology of this virus at this focus still exist, but evidence suggests that the vector for this virus is a phlebotomine sand fly (Lutzomyia shannoni), with feral swine serving as a potential source of virus for the sand fly and for other swine via contact transmission. We conducted 2 experimental trials in domestic swine using VSV-NJ isolated from a sand fly from Ossabaw Island to determine if route of inoculation or immunosuppression via steroid administration affected the development of disease, viremia, viral shedding, or the neutralizing antibody response. In a third trial, we studied the potential for contact transmission among swine using this isolate. Virus isolations were made from nasal cavity or palatine tonsil of the soft palate, and VSV-NJ neutralizing antibodies developed when pigs were inoculated intradermally in the apex of the snout, ear, or coronary band, intravenously, intranasally, or via scarification of the apex of the snout or coronary band. Vesicles developed only in pigs inoculated in the apex of the snout or coronary band, and these vesicles were at the site of inoculation. Steroid treatment did not potentiate the development of secondary vesicles and did not prolong the period of virus shedding from VSV-NJ-infected swine. Contact transmission, as determined by shedding of virus from the tonsil of the soft palate and the development of VSV-NJ neutralizing antibodies, occurred in pigs in contact with animals inoculated in the apex of the snout but not in contact animals exposed to pigs inoculated intradermally in the coronary band or intranasally. These trials show that contact transmission can occur and VSV-NJ can be shed without the development of clinical disease (i.e., vesicle formation). Viremia was never detected in any of the experimental pigs, suggesting that swine may not be a good amplifying host for VSV-NJ. PMID:9211231

  6. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They transmit several filarial worms of both animals and humans, and are of great medical importance as vectors of major human diseases, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and many more diseases caused by arboviruses. PMID:7711309

  7. Ecology of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transitional area between the Amazon and the Cerrado in the State of Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A M; Matavelli, R; Santos, C L C dos; Moraes, L S; Rebêlo, J M M

    2013-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest and the Brazilian Cerrado both possess high phlebotomine diversity. The fragmentation of these habitats has resulted in the appearance of human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In one altered area of mixed primary vegetation (forest and Cerrado) and its adjacent settlement in the northeast state of Maranhão, Brazil, evidence exists for the active transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Accordingly, an entomological investigation was performed in both the forest and the settlement to compare the phlebotomine vector faunain each environment. The study was conducted from September 2009 to August 2010 in the municipality of Itapecuru Mirim in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. The phlebotomine species were captured using 24 light Center for Disease Control and Prevention traps that were placed in the forest and the settlement (peridomicile and intradomicile). The similarity between the phlebotomine compositions in the forest and those in the settlement was determined using a Principal Coordinate Analysis based on a dissimilarity matrix that was calculated using the Bray-Curtis index (relative abundance) and the Jaccard index (presence and absence of species). In total, 29 Lutzomyia species and one Brumptomyia species were collected. The phlebotomines were diverse and abundant in both the forest fragment (27 species, 4,606 specimens) and the settlement (22 species, 753 specimens). The most abundant species were L. infraspinosa (25%), L. davisi (21%), L. antunesi (21%), L. longipalpis (9%), L. saulensis (6%), L. flaviscutellata (5%), and L. wellcomei (4%). Some species were found strictly in the forest, other species were exclusive to the anthropic environment, and some species colonized both of the studied environments. The phlebotomines adaptation to these modified environments explains the autochthonous outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:23427652

  8. The Mating Competence of Geographically Diverse Leishmania major Strains in Their Natural and Unnatural Sand Fly Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Inbar, Ehud; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Charmoy, Melanie; Romano, Audrey; Lawyer, Phillip; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.; Kauffmann, Florence; Barhoumi, Mourad; Grigg, Michael; Owens, Katherine; Fay, Michael; Dobson, Deborah E.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Beverley, Stephen M.; Sacks, David

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate stages of Leishmania are capable of genetic exchange during their extracellular growth and development in the sand fly vector. Here we explore two variables: the ability of diverse L. major strains from across its natural range to undergo mating in pairwise tests; and the timing of the appearance of hybrids and their developmental stage associations within both natural (Phlebotomus duboscqi) and unnatural (Lutzomyia longipalpis) sand fly vectors. Following co-infection of flies with parental lines bearing independent drug markers, doubly-drug resistant hybrid progeny were selected, from which 96 clonal lines were analyzed for DNA content and genotyped for parent alleles at 4–6 unlinked nuclear loci as well as the maxicircle DNA. As seen previously, the majority of hybrids showed ‘2n’ DNA contents, but with a significant number of ‘3n’ and one ‘4n’ offspring. In the natural vector, 97% of the nuclear loci showed both parental alleles; however, 3% (4/150) showed only one parental allele. In the unnatural vector, the frequency of uniparental inheritance rose to 10% (27/275). We attribute this to loss of heterozygosity after mating, most likely arising from aneuploidy which is both common and temporally variable in Leishmania. As seen previously, only uniparental inheritance of maxicircle kDNA was observed. Hybrids were recovered at similar efficiencies in all pairwise crosses tested, suggesting that L. major lacks detectable ‘mating types’ that limit free genetic exchange. In the natural vector, comparisons of the timing of hybrid formation with the presence of developmental stages suggest nectomonads as the most likely sexually competent stage, with hybrids emerging well before the first appearance of metacyclic promastigotes. These studies provide an important perspective on the prevalence of genetic exchange in natural populations of L. major and a guide for experimental studies to understand the biology of mating. PMID:23935521

  9. Proteophosphoglycan confers resistance of Leishmania major to midgut digestive enzymes induced by blood feeding in vector sand flies

    PubMed Central

    Secundino, Nagila; Kimblin, Nicola; Peters, Nathan C.; Lawyer, Phillip; Capul, Althea A.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Turco, Salvatore J.; Sacks, David

    2010-01-01

    Summary Leishmania synthesize abundant phosphoglycan-containing molecules made up of [Gal-Man-PO4] repeating units, including the surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG), and the surface and secreted proteophosphoglycan (PPG). The vector competence of Phlebotomus duboscqi and Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies was tested using L. major knockout mutants deficient in either total phosphoglycans (lpg2? or lpg5A?/5B?) or LPG alone (lpg1?) along with their respective gene add-back controls. Our results confirm that LPG, the major cell surface molecule of Leishmania promastigotes known to mediate attachment to the vector midgut, is necessary to prevent the loss of infection during excretion of the blood meal remnants from a natural vector, P. duboscqi, but not an unnatural vector, L. longipalpis. Midgut digestive enzymes induced by blood feeding pose another potential barrier to parasite survival. Our results show that 36–72 h after the infective feed, all parasites developed well except the lpg2? and lpg5A?/5B? mutants, which showed significantly reduced survival and growth. Protease inhibitors promoted the early survival and growth of lpg2? in the blood meal. PPG was shown to be the key molecule conferring resistance to midgut digestive enzymes, as it prevented killing of lpg2? promastigotes exposed to midgut lysates prepared from blood-fed flies. The protection was not associated with inhibition of enzyme activities, but with cell surface acquisition of the PPG, which appears to function similar to mammalian mucins to protect the surface of developing promastigotes against proteolytic damage. PMID:20088949

  10. The Effect of Regional Climate Variability on Outbreak of Bartonellosis Epidemics in Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Lau, K.-M.; Laughlin, Larry W.; Masuoka, Penny M.; Andre, Richard G.; Chamberlin, Judith; Lawyer, Phillip; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Bartonellosis is a vector-borne, highly fatal, emerging infectious disease, which has been known in the Peruvian Andes since the early 1600s and has continued to be a problem in many mountain valleys in Peru and other Andean South American countries. The causative bacterium, Bartonella bacilliformis (Bb), is believed to be transmitted to humans by bites of the sand fly Lutzomyia verrucarum. According to available medical records, the transmission of infection often occurs in river valleys of the Andes Mountains at an altitude between 800 and 3500 meters above sea level. It shows a seasonal pattern, which usually begins to rise in December, peaks in February and March, and is at its lowest from July until November. The epidemics of bartonellosis also vary interannually, occurring every four to eight years, and appear to be associated with the El Nino cycle. In response to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announcement on climate variability and human health, which was constructed to stimulate integrated multidisciplinary research in the area of climate variability and health interactions, we have conducted a study to investigate the relationship between the El Nino induced regional climate variation and the outbreak of bartonellosis epidemics in Peru. Two test sites, Caraz and Cusco, were selected for this study. According to reports, Caraz has a long-standing history of endemic transmission and Cusco, which is located about five degrees poleward of Caraz, had no recorded epidemics until the most recent 1997/1998 El Nino event. The goal of this study is to clarify the relative importance of climatic risk factors for each area that could be predicted in advance, thus allowing implementation of cost-effective control measures, which would reduce disease morbidity and mortality.

  11. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes: risk factors identified from a village cohort study.

    PubMed

    Davies, C R; Llanos-Cuentas, E A; Campos, P; Monge, J; Villaseca, P; Dye, C

    1997-01-01

    Risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were identified from a comparative study of transmission rates in 27 villages in the Departments of Lima, Ancash, and Piura in Peru. To evaluate regression analysis as a tool for the incrimination of sand fly vectors in the absence of other biologic evidence, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify which of 14 variables (the abundance of nine sand fly species, four social factors, and region) predicted transmission rates in villages (incidence, active prevalence, or cumulative prevalence). In general, suspected or proven vectors (e.g., Lutzomyia peruensis) had the strongest associations with transmission rate, indicating that regression is a useful supplementary method of incriminating vectors. Regression was then used to quantify the importance of suspected risk factors. Transmission rate increased with the abundance of Lu. peruensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. noguchii, and, to a lesser extent, Lu. verrucarum and transmission was higher among villagers who slept more frequently in temporary shelters in crop areas. There were also weak effects of the number of dogs/ person (negative) and the number of persons/household (positive). Linear regressions failed to detect a threshold sand fly density below which transmission ceases. The minimal adequate multiple regression model explained 82% of the variance in village incidence rates. This model was used to predict the effect on incidence of reducing each of the four suspected vectors in northern and southern Peru. The results indicate that vector control programs in the south should aim at Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum, and Lu. noguchii, but focus on Lu. ayacuchensis in the north. PMID:9063368

  12. A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina). This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110) of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110) of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110). A total of 63 dogs (57.3%) were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases. PMID:21122107

  13. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 5. Leishmaniasis and anthropization on the Pacific coast].

    PubMed

    Mouchet, J; Le Pont, F; Leon, R; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    We have evaluated the impact of anthropization of the forest on the incidence of leishmaniasis, due to Leishmania panamensis, in three coastal study areas, Corriente Grande (primary forest), Paraiso Escondido and La Tablada (secondary forest). The situation of isolated dwellings, in deforested areas, has also been analysed in the last two stations. In each station, the study of the density of anthropophilic sand flies, specially Lutzomyia trapidoi, has been conducted in the domestic environment, coffee plantations and undergrowth. The incidence of leishmaniasis was nearly non existent in primary forest, though it ranged from 106 to 147% in the more or less cleared forest. At Corriente Grande, none Lu. trapidoi was caught in houses. In the undergrowth, catches were low (8% of the total). At Paraiso Escondido, Lu. trapidoi was the dominant species, with more than 83% of the catches in the undergrowth and in the coffee plantations (41 Man/hour), as well as in dwellings (10.6 M/h). At La Tablada, in the domestic environment, Lu. gomezi, was the dominant species: 2.8 M/h against 0.1 M/h for Lu. trapidoi. In the coffee plantations and in the undergrowth Lu. trapidoi was the main species, 21 M/h and 14 M/h. Thus in the primary rainforest, leishmaniasis transmission can be very low. In disturbed forest, coffee plantations near houses are good biotopes for Lu. trapidoi. The cycle of L. panamensis has been adapted to this new ecological situation, by being closer to the houses. The reservoirs live and circulate throughout coffee plantations. In deforested areas, neither aggressive sand flies have been observed, nor leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:8024348

  14. Ecological niche modeling for visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil, using genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction and growing degree day-water budget analysis.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Prixia; Malone, John B; Bavia, Maria E

    2006-11-01

    Two predictive models were developed within a geographic information system using Genetic Algorithm Rule-Set Prediction (GARP) and the growing degree day (GDD)-water budget (WB) concept to predict the distribution and potential risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The objective was to define the environmental suitability of the disease as well as to obtain a deeper understanding of the eco-epidemiology of VL by associating environmental and climatic variables with disease prevalence. Both the GARP model and the GDDWB model, using different analysis approaches and with the same human prevalence database, predicted similar distribution and abundance patterns for the Lutzomyia longipalpis-Leishmania chagasi system in Bahia. High and moderate prevalence sites for VL were significantly related to areas of high and moderate risk prediction by: (i) the area predicted by the GARP model, depending on the number of pixels that overlapped among eleven annual model years, and (ii) the number of potential generations per year that could be completed by the Lu. longipalpis-L. chagasi system by GDD-WB analysis. When applied to the ecological zones of Bahia, both the GARP and the GDD-WB prediction models suggest that the highest VL risk is in the interior region of the state, characterized by a semi-arid and hot climate known as Caatinga, while the risk in the Bahia interior forest and the Cerrado ecological regions is lower. The Bahia coastal forest was predicted to be a low-risk area due to the unsuitable conditions for the vector and VL transmission. PMID:18686237

  15. Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stål spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical diseases. PMID:21432748

  16. The Genetic Structure of Leishmania infantum Populations in Brazil and Its Possible Association with the Transmission Cycle of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248

  17. A long-lasting topical deltamethrin treatment to protect dogs against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Courtenay, O; Kovacic, V; Gomes, P A F; Garcez, L M; Quinnell, R J

    2009-09-01

    To develop long-lasting, topical pour-on insecticides for dogs to control zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, two deltamethrin-based formulations (emulsifiable concentrate [EC] and suspension concentrate [SC]) were tested for their efficacy against the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), vector of Leishmania infantum Nicolle (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The entomological outcomes tested were anti-feeding effect (proportion of female sandflies unfed), lethal effect (24-h female sandfly mortality) and these two effects combined, and the insecticide persistence time at 50% (residual activity, RA50) and 80% (RA80) efficacy. On initial application, the proportions of female flies that demonstrated anti-feeding activity or were killed were similar for both formulations, at 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.856-0.977) vs. 0.81 (95% CI 0.763-0.858) (anti-feeding) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.787-0.920) vs. 0.76 (95% CI 0.698-0.817) (24-h mortality) for EC and SC, respectively. The RA(50) rates for anti-feeding and mortality caused by the EC formulation were 4.7 months (95% CI 4.18-5.84) and 2.5 months (95% CI 2.25-2.90), respectively, compared with 1.1 months (95% CI 0.96-1.15) and 0.6 months (95% CI 0.50-0.61), respectively, for the SC formulation. The RA(50) for the combined anti-feeding and mortality effects of EC was 5.2 months (95% CI 4.73-5.96), compared with only 0.9 months (95% CI 0.85-1.00) for the SC formulation. The four- to six-fold superior residual activity of the EC formulation was attributed to the addition of a solvent-soluble resin in the formulation which improved fur adhesion and acted as a reservoir for the slow release of the active ingredient. These results identify the potential of such a low-cost formulation to reduce the inter-intervention interval to 5-6 months, similar to that recommended for deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars or for re-impregnation of conventional bednets, both of which are currently used to combat Leishmania transmission. Finally, a novel bioassay was developed in which sandflies were exposed to fur from treated dogs, revealing no detectable tolerance (24-h mortality) in wild-caught sandflies to the insecticide formulations up to 8 months after the initiation of communitywide application of the insecticides to dogs. PMID:19712155

  18. Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources

    PubMed Central

    Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely available for download (right click with the mouse) at links http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-Peps-WEB.xlsx (web version) and http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/RGD/RGD-sialogenins.zip (stand alone version). PMID:22778902

  19. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for coinfections of Leishmania and HIV to improve the consistency of research on the current situation of VL-HIV coinfections. Such a network would improve the collection of vital data and samples for better understanding of the clinical manifestations and immunopathogenic aspects of VL in immunosuppressed patients. Ultimately, a concerted effort would improve trials for new diagnostic methodologies and therapeutics, which could accelerate the implementation of more specific and effective diagnosis as well as public policies for treatments to reduce the impact of VL-HIV coinfections on the Latin American population. PMID:25233461

  20. Acetylcholinesterase of the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): cDNA sequence, baculovirus expression, and biochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of people and domestic animals around the world are affected by leishmaniasis, a disease caused by various species of flagellated protozoans in the genus Leishmania that are transmitted by several sand fly species. Insecticides are widely used for sand fly population control to try to reduce or interrupt Leishmania transmission. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major is vectored mainly by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Asia and Africa. Organophosphates comprise a class of insecticides used for sand fly control, which act through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central nervous system. Point mutations producing an altered, insensitive AChE are a major mechanism of organophosphate resistance in insects and preliminary evidence for organophosphate-insensitive AChE has been reported in sand flies. This report describes the identification of complementary DNA for an AChE in P. papatasi and the biochemical characterization of recombinant P. papatasi AChE. Methods A P. papatasi Israeli strain laboratory colony was utilized to prepare total RNA utilized as template for RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase 1 using gene specific primers and 3’-5’-RACE. The cDNA was cloned into pBlueBac4.5/V5-His TOPO, and expressed by baculovirus in Sf21 insect cells in serum-free medium. Recombinant P. papatasi acetylcholinesterase was biochemically characterized using a modified Ellman’s assay in microplates. Results A 2309 nucleotide sequence of PpAChE1 cDNA [GenBank: JQ922267] of P. papatasi from a laboratory colony susceptible to insecticides is reported with 73-83% nucleotide identity to acetylcholinesterase mRNA sequences of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Lutzomyia longipalpis, respectively. The P. papatasi cDNA ORF encoded a 710-amino acid protein [GenBank: AFP20868] exhibiting 85% amino acid identity with acetylcholinesterases of Cx. pipiens, Aedes aegypti, and 92% amino acid identity for L. longipalpis. Recombinant P. papatasi AChE1 was expressed in the baculovirus system and characterized as an insect acetylcholinesterase with substrate preference for acetylthiocholine and inhibition at high substrate concentration. Enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by eserine, BW284c51, malaoxon, and paraoxon, and was insensitive to the butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors ethopropazine and iso-OMPA. Conclusions Results presented here enable the screening and identification of PpAChE mutations resulting in the genotype for insensitive PpAChE. Use of the recombinant P. papatasi AChE1 will facilitate rapid in vitro screening to identify novel PpAChE inhibitors, and comparative studies on biochemical kinetics of inhibition. PMID:23379291

  1. Climate Change and Risk of Leishmaniasis in North America: Predictions from Ecological Niche Models of Vector and Reservoir Species

    PubMed Central

    González, Camila; Wang, Ophelia; Strutz, Stavana E.; González-Salazar, Constantino; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2010-01-01

    Background Climate change is increasingly being implicated in species' range shifts throughout the world, including those of important vector and reservoir species for infectious diseases. In North America (México, United States, and Canada), leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is autochthonous in México and Texas and has begun to expand its range northward. Further expansion to the north may be facilitated by climate change as more habitat becomes suitable for vector and reservoir species for leishmaniasis. Methods and Findings The analysis began with the construction of ecological niche models using a maximum entropy algorithm for the distribution of two sand fly vector species (Lutzomyia anthophora and L. diabolica), three confirmed rodent reservoir species (Neotoma albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus), and one potential rodent reservoir species (N. mexicana) for leishmaniasis in northern México and the United States. As input, these models used species' occurrence records with topographic and climatic parameters as explanatory variables. Models were tested for their ability to predict correctly both a specified fraction of occurrence points set aside for this purpose and occurrence points from an independently derived data set. These models were refined to obtain predicted species' geographical distributions under increasingly strict assumptions about the ability of a species to disperse to suitable habitat and to persist in it, as modulated by its ecological suitability. Models successful at predictions were fitted to the extreme A2 and relatively conservative B2 projected climate scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080 using publicly available interpolated climate data from the Third Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report. Further analyses included estimation of the projected human population that could potentially be exposed to leishmaniasis in 2020, 2050, and 2080 under the A2 and B2 scenarios. All confirmed vector and reservoir species will see an expansion of their potential range towards the north. Thus, leishmaniasis has the potential to expand northwards from México and the southern United States. In the eastern United States its spread is predicted to be limited by the range of L. diabolica; further west, L. anthophora may play the same role. In the east it may even reach the southern boundary of Canada. The risk of spread is greater for the A2 scenario than for the B2 scenario. Even in the latter case, with restrictive (contiguous) models for dispersal of vector and reservoir species, and limiting vector and reservoir species occupancy to only the top 10% of their potential suitable habitat, the expected number of human individuals exposed to leishmaniasis by 2080 will at least double its present value. Conclusions These models predict that climate change will exacerbate the ecological risk of human exposure to leishmaniasis in areas outside its present range in the United States and, possibly, in parts of southern Canada. This prediction suggests the adoption of measures such as surveillance for leishmaniasis north of Texas as disease cases spread northwards. Potential vector and reservoir control strategies—besides direct intervention in disease cases—should also be further investigated. PMID:20098495