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Sample records for luuk eve pihl

  1. 78 FR 2423 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Proposed Shu'luuk Wind Project on the Campo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... temporary concrete batch plant. The wind power generation facility would operate year-round for a minimum of...-MW to 2.3-MW wind turbines. Each turbine would have a hub height of up to 308 feet, rotor diameter of... Bureau of Indian Affairs Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Proposed Shu'luuk...

  2. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  3. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  4. Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message

    NASA Video Gallery

    Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar...

  5. After "Eve": whither proxy decision-making?

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, E H

    1987-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems facing physicians is how to approach proxy decisions made on behalf of congenitally incompetent patients. The author considers two recent court cases that attempt to provide guidelines: Re Stephen Dawson, which opts for a substituted-judgement approach, and Eve v. Mrs E.) which injoins best-interests considerations. The author explores the impact of Eve v. Mrs. E. as superseding Re Stephen Dawson, considers its ethical implications and attempts to clarify the best-interests criterion by sketching some guidelines for its interpretation. In so doing, he tries to reconcile the two decisions by laying bare their common underlying ethical rationale. The author concludes by pointing out some ethically questionable implications of Eve v. Mrs. E. in the area of allocation of health care resources. PMID:3651942

  6. The European Venus Explorer (EVE) mission proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefiere, E.; Wilson, C. F.; Titov, D.; Korablev, O.; Aplin, K.; Baines, K.; Balint, T.; Blamont, J.; Cochrane, C.; Ferencz, Cs.; Ferri, F.; Gerasimov, M.; Imamura, T.; Leitner, J.; Lopez-Moreno, J.; Marty, B.; Martynov, M.; Pogrebenko, S.; Rodin, A.; Whiteway, J.; Zasova, L.

    2007-08-01

    The European Venus Explorer (EVE) is a mission proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) under the Cosmic Vision Call for Ideas, for launch in 2016-2018. The central goal of this mission is to investigate the evolution of Venus and its climate, in order to understand better the 'life cycle' of Earth-like planets everywhere. After the excellent results being obtained from ESA's Venus Express orbiter, in situ measurements will be required to answer many of the outstanding questions, specially relating to the evolution of the planet, its complex cloud chemistry and the stability of its climate. The baseline EVE mission consists of one balloon platform floating at an altitude of 50-60 km, one descent probe provided by Russia, and an orbiter with a polar orbit which will perform science observations as well as relay data from the balloon and descent probe. The minimum lifetime of the balloon is 7 days, required for one full circle around the planet, much longer than the 48 hour data returned from Russia's VEGA balloons. Earth-based VLBI and Doppler measurements provide tracking information for the orbiter, allowing measurement of the variations in the planet's gravity field, and for the balloon and descent probe to yield wind measurements in the lower atmosphere. The descent probe's fall through the atmosphere is expected to last 60 minutes, followed by a lifetime of 30 minutes on the surface. The Japanese space agency (JAXA) also proposes to include another independent platform, a small water vapour-inflated balloon which would be deployed at 35 km altitude and would communicate directly to Earth. Further details of the EVE mission, including proposals for Education & Outreach schemes, can be viewed at the mission website: http://www.aero.jussieu.fr/EVE/

  7. Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE): A Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, M. J.; Amador, E. S.; Carrier, B. L.; Albuja, A.; Bapst, J.; Cahill, K. R. S.; Ebersohn, F.; Gainey, S.; Gartrelle, G.; Greenberger, R. N.; Hale, J. M.; Johnston, S.; Olivares, J.; Parcheta, C. E.; Sheehan, J. P.; Thorpe, A. K.; Zareh, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is an intriguing planetary body, which possibly has the ingredients needed for life. Further, it has numerous (over 100) continuously erupting geysers that eject material into the atmosphere which provide a unique opportunity to sample the body's internal chemistry from orbit. At JPL's Planetary Science Summer School, Team X and a group of students developed a mission concept to directly sample Enceladus' plumes. The mission, named Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE), follows NASA's Planetary Science Decadal survey and would assess the potential habitability of Saturn's icy satellite through analysis of the chemistry of the subsurface ocean and the nature of the organic chemistry in the plume. EVE would look at geological and geophysical surface processes of Enceladus by investigating the heat output of Enceladus, plumes' mechanics, the extent of the liquid subsurface reservoir(s), and gravitational variation. The EVE mission concept aimed for a January 2023 launch on an Atlas 551 class launch vehicle and would arrive at Saturn July 2031. A two-year-long Saturn moon tour would allow sufficient deceleration to permit a polar orbital insertion around Enceladus in March 2035, remaining stable for 54 weeks of observation. The proposed instrument payload includes: 1) SUb MilliMeter Enceladus Radiometer (SUMMER; equivalent to Rosetta MIRO), 2) Enceladus Dust and Gas Experiment (EDGE; an enhanced version of Rosetta COSIMA), 3) MAGnetometer for Ionic Concentration (MAGIC; equivalent to MMS/ InSIGHT magnetometer), 4) Visual Imaging Camera with Topographic Observational Resolution (VICTOR) and 5) Enceladus Radio Gravity Science (ERGS). Our suggested orbital timeline would allow the most comprehensive dataset yet collected of a moon in the outer solar system, mapping the entire surface twice with SUMMER and VICTOR, while sampling the plume directly 232 times with EDGE. MAGIC would also provide over a year of sampling of the magnetic field variations from orbit

  8. Eve Bunting: She Loves To Tell a Story!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuda, Janice; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Eve Bunting is an award-winning author of 167 books for children and young adults. After a series of interview questions and responses, activities are suggested to accompany several Bunting picture books. (AEF)

  9. Doppler-Shifted Flare Emissions Observed by SDO/EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been obtaining unprecedented observations of solar variation on times scales of seconds during flares and over the rising phase of Solar Cycle 24 since its start of normal operations in May 2010. Unexpectedly, as first pointed out in Hudson et. al., Ap.j. (2011), even with EVE's spectral resolution of 0.1 nm and 'irradiance' measurements, EVE has the ability to very accurately determine Doppler shifts in all emissions during solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The technique for deriving these absolute velocities is not straightforward, as the optical and instrumental effects must first be eliminated in order to separate the absolute plasma velocities from the instrument effects. This talk will discuss these efforts to eliminate the instrumental component, as well as show some of the first results of absolute velocities of multiple emissions at a wide range of temperatures during solar flares.

  10. Measuring and Modeling Solar Flares with SDO EVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.; Wilson, Anne; Lindholm, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) currently provides estimations of the solar Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV; 0.1-190 nm) irradiance from 1947 to present at 1 nm bins and 60 second temporal resolution. The accuracy of FISM is limited to 1nm because the TIMED SEE Level 3 and Level 3A measurement, for which the FISM relationships were based on, were at Inm. With the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in Feb 2010, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will provide more accurate, increased spectral resolution (0.1 nm) measurements from 6 nm to 106 nm every 10-seconds and almost 100% duty cycle. EVE also observes additional broadband measurements for 0.1-7 nm, some EUV bands from 16 nm to 40 nm, and Hydrogen Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm. Along with the better spectral resolution of EVE leading to similar spectral resolution improvements in FISM, other significant improvements provide by SDO/EVE measurements will be multi-thermal gradual phase decay, impulsive phase center-to-limb variation characterization, non-flare sub-daily variations, and multi-thermal proxies. SDO/EVE observations of various solar flares with different characteristics will be presented, with the discussion theme focused on how EVE observations will help improve the accuracy of the FISM in the future. The final topic will present the updated FISM website that now has easier access to the FISM results and produce real-time updates that are useful for Space Weather studies.

  11. Satan's Temptation of Eve in "Paradise Lost": A Rhetorical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dee Ann Duke

    John Milton employs classical rhetorical techniques in "Paradise Lost" to accomplish Satan's temptation of Eve which begins on line 524 and ends with line 732 of Book 9; however, Satan's oration resembles pejorative sophistry and Milton uses Ciceronian arrangement for Satan's argument. Milton envisions Satan as a clever, cunning creature who…

  12. Solar flare impulsive phase emission observed with SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-12-10

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log T{sub e} = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  13. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ≲2 to ≳50 MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ∼2-25 MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ≳10 MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ∼0.4-5 nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  14. Ex-Vivo Uterine Environment (EVE) Therapy Induced Limited Fetal Inflammation in a Premature Lamb Model

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Saito, Masatoshi; Usuda, Haruo; Woodward, Eleanor; Rittenschober-Böhm, Judith; Kannan, Paranthaman S.; Musk, Gabrielle C.; Matsuda, Tadashi; Newnham, John P.; Kemp, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy uses an artificial placenta to provide gas exchange and nutrient delivery to a fetus submerged in an amniotic fluid bath. Development of EVE may allow us to treat very premature neonates without mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile, elevations in fetal inflammation are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In the present study, we analysed fetal survival, inflammation and pulmonary maturation in preterm lambs maintained on EVE therapy using a parallelised umbilical circuit system with a low priming volume. Methods Ewes underwent surgical delivery at 115 days of gestation (term is 150 days), and fetuses were transferred to EVE therapy (EVE group; n = 5). Physiological parameters were continuously monitored; fetal blood samples were intermittently obtained to assess wellbeing and targeted to reference range values for 2 days. Age-matched animals (Control group; n = 6) were surgically delivered at 117 days of gestation. Fetal blood and tissue samples were analysed and compared between the two groups. Results Fetal survival time in the EVE group was 27.0 ± 15.5 (group mean ± SD) hours. Only one fetus completed the pre-determined study period with optimal physiological parameters, while the other 4 animals demonstrated physiological deterioration or death prior to the pre-determined study end point. Significant elevations (p<0.05) in: i) inflammatory proteins in fetal plasma; ii) selected cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels in fetal tissues; and iii) histological inflammatory score in fetal lung, were observed in the EVE group compared to the Control group. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in surfactant protein mRNA expression level between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we achieved limited fetal survival using EVE therapy. Despite this, EVE therapy only induced a modest fetal inflammatory response and did not promote lung maturation. These data provide additional insight into

  15. All About EVE: Education and Public Outreach for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) of the NASA Solar Dynamic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    With the aim of meeting NASA goals for education and public outreach as well as support education reform efforts including the National Science Education Standards, a suite of education materials and strategies have been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Environmental Sciences (CIRES) with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado for the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), which is an instrument aboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. This paper will examine the education materials that have been developed for teachers in the classroom and scientists who are conducting outreach, including handouts, a website on space weather for teachers, a slideshow presentation about the overall Solar Dynamic Observatory mission, and a DVD with videos explaining the construction and goals of the EVE instrument, a tour of LASP, and an overview of space science careers. The results and potential transferability of a pilot project developed through this effort that engaged English Second Language learners in a semester-long course on space weather that incorporated the used of a Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) Monitor will be highlighted.

  16. The 2010 European Venus Explorer (EVE) mission proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Colin Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Baines, Kevin H.; Balint, Tibor S.; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Blamont, Jacques; Durry, Georges; Ferencz, Csaba S.; Grimm, Robert E.; Imamura, Takeshi; Josset, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, François; Lebonnois, Sebastien; Leitner, Johannes J.; Limaye, Sanjay S.; Marty, Bernard; Palomba, Ernesto; Pogrebenko, Sergei V.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Talboys, Dean L.; Wieler, Rainer; Zasova, Liudmila V.; Szopa, Cyrill

    2012-04-01

    The European Venus Explorer (EVE) mission described in this paper was proposed in December 2010 to ESA as an `M-class' mission under the Cosmic Vision programme. It consists of a single balloon platform floating in the middle of the main convective cloud layer of Venus at an altitude of 55 km, where temperatures and pressures are benign (˜25°C and ˜0.5 bar). The balloon float lifetime would be at least 10 Earth days, long enough to guarantee at least one full circumnavigation of the planet. This offers an ideal platform for the two main science goals of the mission: study of the current climate through detailed characterization of cloud-level atmosphere, and investigation of the formation and evolution of Venus, through careful measurement of noble gas isotopic abundances. These investigations would provide key data for comparative planetology of terrestrial planets in our solar system and beyond.

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  18. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species.Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp. PMID:27242033

  19. gEVE: a genome-based endogenous viral element database provides comprehensive viral protein-coding sequences in mammalian genomes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, So; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, approximately 10% of genome sequences correspond to endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are derived from ancient viral infections of germ cells. Although most EVEs have been inactivated, some open reading frames (ORFs) of EVEs obtained functions in the hosts. However, EVE ORFs usually remain unannotated in the genomes, and no databases are available for EVE ORFs. To investigate the function and evolution of EVEs in mammalian genomes, we developed EVE ORF databases for 20 genomes of 19 mammalian species. A total of 736,771 non-overlapping EVE ORFs were identified and archived in a database named gEVE (http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp). The gEVE database provides nucleotide and amino acid sequences, genomic loci and functional annotations of EVE ORFs for all 20 genomes. In analyzing RNA-seq data with the gEVE database, we successfully identified the expressed EVE genes, suggesting that the gEVE database facilitates studies of the genomic analyses of various mammalian species. Database URL: http://geve.med.u-tokai.ac.jp PMID:27242033

  20. Detecting Eve in communication with continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Messikh, A.

    2007-03-15

    We study the validity of the entanglement parameter introduced in a recent publication by Guangqiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012314 (2006)] for detecting Eve, the eavesdropper. We have found that Eve can be detected using this parameter only if Alice establishes a quantum correlation between the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair. This quantum correlation is related to the possibility of an apparent violation of the Heisenberg inequality for the quadrature components of the EPR pair.

  1. 78 FR 75898 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the 1,000 foot safety zone in the navigable waters of the Sacramento River in Sacramento, CA on December 31, 2013 during the Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. The fireworks display will occur from 9 p.m. to 9:20 p.m. on December 31, 2013 for the annual Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to......

  2. Birds flee en mass from New Year's Eve fireworks.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M; van Gasteren, Hans; van Loon, E Emiel; Leijnse, Hidde; Bouten, Willem

    2011-11-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances of wildlife, such as noise, human presence, hunting activity, and motor vehicles, are becoming an increasing concern in conservation biology. Fireworks are an important part of celebrations worldwide, and although humans often find fireworks spectacular, fireworks are probably perceived quite differently by wild animals. Behavioral responses to fireworks are difficult to study at night, and little is known about the negative effects fireworks may have on wildlife. Every year, thousands of tons of fireworks are lit by civilians on New Year's Eve in the Netherlands. Using an operational weather radar, we quantified the reaction of birds to fireworks in 3 consecutive years. Thousands of birds took flight shortly after midnight, with high aerial movements lasting at least 45 min and peak densities measured at 500 m altitude. The highest densities were observed over grasslands and wetlands, including nature conservation sites, where thousands of waterfowl rest and feed. The Netherlands is the most important winter staging area for several species of waterfowl in Europe. We estimate that hundreds of thousands of birds in the Netherlands take flight due to fireworks. The spatial and temporal extent of disturbance is substantial, and potential consequences are discussed. Weather radar provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of birds to fireworks, which has otherwise remained elusive. PMID:22476363

  3. Heavy metals from pyrotechnics in New Years Eve snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H.; Foster, Michaela; Grass, Friedrich; Bichler, Max

    Pyrotechnics and fireworks cause pollution with barium aerosols, which is a result of the utilization of barium nitrate as a combined pyrotechnic oxidizer and coloring agent. In this study, the washing-out of barium-rich aerosols by snowflakes during the New Years Eve celebrations in an Austrian village in the Alps has been investigated. It could be shown that the fireworks caused an increase in the barium concentration in snow of up to a factor of 580 compared to the blank value. An increase of the concentrations of strontium and occasionally arsenic in snow was also observed. The geographic distribution of the pyrotechnic combustion products on this snowy evening was restricted to a relatively small area and even in a very local scale, the variations in the concentrations were remarkable. Post-firework snow from the summits of nearby located mountains was found to be as clean as pre-firework snow. However, snow that was visibly contaminated with smoke residues contained exorbitant concentrations of Ba, K, Sr, and Fe.

  4. GAGA mediates the enhancer blocking activity of the eve promoter in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Sumio; Levine, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insulator DNAs and promoter competition regulate enhancer–promoter interactions within complex genetic loci. A transgenic embryo assay was used to obtain evidence that the Drosophila eve promoter possesses an insulator activity that can be uncoupled from the core elements that mediate competition. The eve promoter contains an optimal TATA element and a GAGA sequence. The analysis of various chimeric promoters provides evidence that TATA is essential for promoter competition, whereas GAGA mediates enhancer blocking. The Trithorax-like (Trl) protein interacts with GAGA, and mutations in trl attenuate eve promoter insulator activity. We suggest that Trl–GAGA increases the stability of enhancer–promoter interactions by creating an open chromatin configuration at the core promoter. PMID:9808619

  5. New measurements and improved modeling of solar flares with SDO EVE (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Wilson, A.; Lindholm, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) currently provides estimations of the solar Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV; 0.1-190 nm) irradiance from 1947 to present at 1 nm bins and 60 second temporal resolution. The accuracy of FISM is limited to 1nm because the TIMED SEE Level 3 and Level 3A measurement, for which the FISM relationships were based on, were at 1nm. With the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in Feb 2010, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will provide more accurate, increased spectral resolution (0.1 nm) measurements from 6 nm to 106 nm every 10-seconds and almost 100% duty cycle. EVE also observes additional broadband measurements for 0.1-7 nm, some EUV bands from 16 nm to 40 nm, and Hydrogen Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm. Along with the better spectral resolution of EVE leading to similar spectral resolution improvements in FISM, other significant improvements provide by SDO/EVE measurements will be multi-thermal gradual phase decay, impulsive phase center-to-limb variation characterization, non-flare sub-daily variations, and multi-thermal proxies. SDO/EVE observations of various solar flares with different characteristics will be presented, with the discussion theme focused on how EVE observations will help improve the accuracy of the FISM in the future. The final topic will present the updated FISM website that now has easier access to the FISM results and produce real-time updates that are useful for Space Weather studies.

  6. "Mitochondrial Eve", "Y Chromosome Adam", testosterone, and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Howard, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    I suggest primate evolution began as a consequence of increased testosterone in males which increased aggression and sexuality, therefore, reproduction and success. With time, negative effects of excessive testosterone reduced spermatogenesis and started a decline of the group. Approximately 30-40 million years ago, the gene DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) appeared on the Y chromosome, increased spermatogenesis, and rescued the early primates from extinction. (Note: DAZ is considered by some to specifically, positively affect spermatogenesis; others suggest it has no effect on spermatogenesis.) Hominid evolution continued with increasing testosterone. The advent of increased testosterone in females of Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster) increased the female-to-male body size ratio, and eventually produced another era of excessive testosterone. Excessive testosterone caused a reduction in population size (bottleneck) that produced the "Mitochondrial Eve" (ME) mechanism. (Only certain females continued during the bottleneck to transmit their mitochondrial DNA.) That is, the ME mechanism culminated, again, in excessive testosterone and reduced spermatogenesis in the hominid line. Approximately 50,000 to 200,000 years ago, a "doubling" of the DAZ gene occurred on the Y chromosome in hominid males which rescued the hominid line with increased spermatogenesis in certain males. This produced the "Y Chromosome Adam" event. The doubling of DAZ allowed further increases in testosterone in hominids that resulted in the increased size and development of the brain. Modern humans periodically fluctuate between the positive and negative consequences of increased levels of testosterone, currently identifiable as the secular trend, increased infections, and reduced spermatogenesis. PMID:12449688

  7. EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Learning Suite for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellagher, Emily; Scherrer, D. K.

    2013-07-01

    EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a comic book series for upper elementary and middle school students with the SDO mascot Camilla. These comics may be printed or read on mobile devices. Many teachers are looking for resources to use with their students via the Ipad so our collaboration helps supply teachers with a great resource that teachers about solar concepts and helps dispel solar misconceptions.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a

  8. An Innovative Aperture Cover Mechanism Used on SDO/EVE and MMS/SDP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steg, Stephen; Vermeer, William; Tucker, Scott; Passe, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aperture cover mechanism that was successfully flown in four locations on SDO/EVE, and is awaiting launch in sixteen locations on MMS. This design uses a paraffin actuator and a latch that secures the cover closed and removes the actuator from the load path. This latch allows the assembly to operate both as a light weight contamination cover (SDO/EVE), and also as a high-strength sensor restraint mechanism (MMS/SDP). The paper provides design/analysis/test information about the mechanism.

  9. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, R. A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Woods, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. ( Solar Phys., 2010, doi:10.1007/s11207-009-9485-8). In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  10. A Young Researcher's Project on the Benefits of Early Language Learning: An Interview with Eve Wallwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Mary Lynn

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Eve Wallwork, a junior at David W. Butler High School in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) School District, talks about her research project on the field of early language learning. Wallwork shares the most important findings of her research, the benefits of early language learning, and her plans in the future.

  11. The Right to Control One's Own Body: A Look at the "Eve" Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Marcia; Yarmol, Karen

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews the arguments and decision of the "Eve" sterilization case decided by the Supreme Court of Canada. The court held that no one, including the courts themselves, has the power to approve the sterilization, for contraceptive purposes, of any person, mentally handicapped or not, who does not give consent. (DB)

  12. 76 FR 78820 - Safety Zone; City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Beaufort River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's... Beaufort, South Carolina, during the City of Beaufort's Tricentennial New Year's Eve Fireworks Display. The.... Add a temporary Sec. 165.T07-1112 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T07-1112 Safety Zone; City of...

  13. 75 FR 78726 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Fairplay Hoss and the Fairplay Eve...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...This document provides notice that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of the Fairplay Hoss and the Fairplay Eve lines of electric vehicles. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that the United States is the country of origin of the Fairplay Hoss and Eve lines of electric vehicles......

  14. EVE-RHESSI Observations of Thermal and Nonthermal Solar Flare Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, A.; Warren, H.

    2013-07-01

    Solar flares accelerate electrons up to hundreds of MeV and heat plasma to tens of MK. In large (GOES M- and X-class) flares, in addition to the 10-25 MK plasma thought to be the result of chromospheric evaporation, even hotter plasma (up to 50 MK) may be directly heated in the corona. While observations of hard X-ray bremmstrahlung directly probe the nonthermal electron population, for large flares the spectra below 20-30 keV are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of the nonthermal spectrum can be only loosely quantified by hard X-ray spectrometers, resulting in significant implications for calculating flare energy budgets and for constraining possible acceleration mechanisms. A precise characterization of the thermal emission is imperative. Extreme ultraviolet observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), combined with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), currently offer the most comprehensive view of the flare temperature distribution. EVE observes EUV emission lines with peak formation temperatures of 2-20 MK, while RHESSI observes the X-ray bremsstrahlung of hot, 10-50 MK plasma; combined, the two instruments cover the full range of flare plasma temperatures. In this work, we handle the EVE-RHESSI data for a few large flares in three steps; first we calculate differential emission measures (DEMs) using EVE and RHESSI independently for purposes of cross-calibration. Second, we create combined EVE-RHESSI DEMs, fixing the nonthermal spectral parameters to those found using a RHESSI-only spectral fit. The final step is to unconstrain the nonthermal parameters (in particular, the low-energy cutoff of the spectrum) and let them be fit in the same process as the EVE-RHESSI DEM, to obtain a fully self-consistent thermal plus nonthermal model. This research is supported by NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator Grant NNX12AH48G.

  15. The slowly varying corona from DEMs with the EVE data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Samuel J.; White, Stephen M.; Hock, Rachel A.; McAteer, James

    2016-05-01

    We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the slowly varying corona during the first half of solar cycle 24. Using the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) and the CHIANTI atomic line database we identify strong isolated iron emission lines present in the non-flaring spectrum with peak emissions covering the coronal temperature range of 5.7 < log(T) < 6.5. These lines are used to generate daily DEMs from EVE spectra to observe the long term variability of global coronal thermal properties. We discuss the choice of emission lines and the implications of this data set for the relationship between EUV and the F10.7 radio flux.

  16. Flare Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlon, Phillip C.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11, 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability- Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.0 rim), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum ever y 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary flare observation results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  17. Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11,2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.6 nm), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  18. Thermal Evolution and Radiative Output of Solar Flares Observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Milligan, R. O.; Woods, T. N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to obtain the thermal evolution and radiative output during solar flares as observed by the Extreme u ltraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Ob servatory (SDO). Presented and discussed in detail are how EVE measur ements, due to its temporal cadence, spectral resolution and spectral range, can be used to determine how the thermal plasma radiates at v arious temperatures throughout the impulsive and gradual phase of fla res. EVE can very accurately determine the radiative output of flares due to pre- and in-flight calibrations. Events are presented that sh ow the total radiated output of flares depends more on the flare duration than the typical GOES X-ray peak magnitude classification. With S DO observing every flare throughout its entire duration and over a la rge temperature range, new insights into flare heating and cooling as well as the radiative energy release in EUV wavelengths support exis ting research into understanding the evolution of solar flares.

  19. Measuring Solar Doppler Velocities in the He ii 30.38 nm Emission Using the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.

    2016-08-01

    The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unprecedented measurements of the solar EUV irradiance at high temporal cadence with good spectral resolution and range since May 2010. The main purpose of EVE was to connect the Sun to the Earth by providing measurements of the EUV irradiance as a driver for space weather and Living With a Star studies, but after launch the instrument has demonstrated the significance of its measurements in contributing to studies looking at the sources of solar variability for pure solar physics purposes. This paper expands upon previous findings that EVE can in fact measure wavelength shifts during solar eruptive events and therefore provide Doppler velocities for plasma at all temperatures throughout the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to hot flaring temperatures. This process is not straightforward as EVE was not designed or optimized for these types of measurements. In this paper we describe the many detailed instrumental characterizations needed to eliminate the optical effects in order to provide an absolute baseline for the Doppler shift studies. An example is given of a solar eruption on 7 September 2011 (SOL2011-09-07), associated with an X1.2 flare, where EVE Doppler analysis shows plasma ejected from the Sun in the He ii 30.38 nm emission at a velocity of almost 120 km s^{-1} along the line-of-sight.

  20. Ionospheric model-observation comparisons: E layer at Arecibo Incorporation of SDO-EVE solar irradiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, Jan J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; David, Michael; Schunk, Robert W.; Woods, Tom; Eparvier, Frank; Sulzer, Michael P.; Gonzalez, Sixto A.; Eccles, J. Vincent

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates how the new irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) can, with its high spectral resolution and 10 s cadence, improve the modeling of the E region. To demonstrate this a campaign combining EVE observations with that of the NSF Arecibo incoherent scatter radar (ISR) was conducted. The ISR provides E region electron density observations with high-altitude resolution, 300 m, and absolute densities using the plasma line technique. Two independent ionospheric models were used, the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) and Space Environment Corporation's Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) model. Each used the same EVE irradiance spectrum binned at 1 nm resolution from 0.1 to 106 nm. At the E region peak the modeled TDIM density is 20% lower and that of the DDDR is 6% higher than observed. These differences could correspond to a 36% lower (TDIM) and 12% higher (DDDR) production rate if the differences were entirely attributed to the solar irradiance source. The detailed profile shapes that included the E region altitude and that of the valley region were only qualitatively similar to observations. Differences on the order of a neutral-scale height were present. Neither model captured a distinct dawn to dusk tilt in the E region peak altitude. A model sensitivity study demonstrated how future improved spectral resolution of the 0.1 to 7 nm irradiance could account for some of these model shortcomings although other relevant processes are also poorly modeled.

  1. Development of five multifibre links for the OPTIMOS-EVE study for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinouard, Isabelle; Chemla, Fanny; Flores, Hector; Huet, Jean-Michel; Hammer, François; Wulterkens, Gerben

    2010-07-01

    The OPTIMOS-EVE concept provides optical to near-infrared (370-1700 nm) spectroscopy, with three spectral resolution (5000, 15000 and 30000), with high simultaneous multiplex (at least 200). The optical fibre links are distributed in five kinds of bundles: several hundreds of mono-object systems with three types of bundles, fibre size being used to adapt slit with, and thus spectral resolution, 30 deployable medium IFUs (about 2"×3") and one large IFU (about 6"×12"). This paper gives an overview of the design of each mode and describes the specific developments required to optimise the performances of the fibre system.

  2. 8/9 February 2012 SDO-EVE and Arecibo ISR Ionospheric Capaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J.; Schunk, R. W.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F.; Sulzer, M. P.; Gonzalez, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA SDO-EVE solar irradiance observations provide unprecedented high resolution in both time cadence and wavelength. The irradiance wavelengths of the highest importance in driving the altitude structure of the E- and F1-regions lie in two bands, a short wavelength XUV, 2 to 20 nm, and an EUV band from about 80 to 103 nm. Because of the low altitude of the E-region, 100-120 km, only remote sensing techniques are able to observe this region. Two main observational techniques are ionosondes and incoherent scatter radars (ISR). However, only the ISR can distinguish the critical valley region between the E- and F1-regions. A first EVE Arecibo ISR campaign was held on 8/9 February 2012. During daylight hours in the Puerto Rico sector the NSF Arecibo ISR operated in a special high resolution altitude mode through the ionosphere's E- and F1-regions. A total of 22 altitude profiles were obtained. The SDO-EVE instrument also operated its full instrument complement during these daylight hours. In terms of geomagnetic activity and solar dynamics, the entire period was very quiet. This study uses the USU Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) to explore the challenges of modeling the E- and F1-region under these quiet conditions. The full irradiance, with excellent wavelength resolution, defines the major input to the TDIM. The Arecibo ISR observations provide the ground truth with both excellent plasma line electron density calibration and better than 1 km altitude resolution. The major objective of this first study is to determine both the sensitivity of the model to various other drivers such as photoelectron secondary ionization, [NO], neutral winds, and the neutral atmosphere as represented by a standard thermosphere model, i.e. MSIS86 and determine what is a necessary ISR observation altitude resolution for the E- and F1-region studies. Additional complications are observed in this dataset including a descending layer and also occurrence of sporadic E. Neither of

  3. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  4. EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) in Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Algorithms and Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Woods, T.; Jones, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP) is one of five channels of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The ESP channel design is based on a highly stable diffraction transmission grating and is an advanced version of the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), which has been successfully observing solar irradiance onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) since December 1995. ESP is designed to measure solar Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) irradiance in four first-order bands of the diffraction grating centered around 19 nm, 25 nm, 30 nm, and 36 nm, and in a soft X-ray band from 0.1 to 7.0 nm in the zeroth-order of the grating. Each band’s detector system converts the photo-current into a count rate (frequency). The count rates are integrated over 0.25-second increments and transmitted to the EVE Science and Operations Center for data processing. An algorithm for converting the measured count rates into solar irradiance and the ESP calibration parameters are described. The ESP pre-flight calibration was performed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Calibration parameters were used to calculate absolute solar irradiance from the sounding-rocket flight measurements on 14 April 2008. These irradiances for the ESP bands closely match the irradiance determined for two other EUV channels flown simultaneously: EVE’s Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph (MEGS) and SOHO’s Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System/ Solar EUV Monitor (CELIAS/SEM).

  5. Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Flare Observations and Findings from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Eparvier, Francis; Jones, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    There have been more than six thousand flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) since it launched in February 2010. The SDO mission is ideal for studying flares with 24/7 operations from its geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and with some 7000 TeraBytes of data taken so far. These data include more than 100,000,000 images of coronal full-disk images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Dopplergrams and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and over 15,000,000 spectra of the solar EUV irradiance from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE). This presentation will focus primarily on the EVE flare observations and a couple key flare findings involving both AIA and EVE observations. One of these findings includes the discovery of the EUV late phase that occur in about 15% of flares. The EUV late phase is the brightening of warm coronal emissions in the EUV that starts much later after the main X-ray bright phase, lasts up to several hours, and can emit more total energy than the EUV radiation during the X-ray phase. The combination of EVE and AIA observations have revealed that the cause for the EUV late phase is a second set of post-flare coronal loops that form much higher than the primary post-flare loops near the source of the flare. This second set of loops is much longer and thus has a much slower cooling rate; consequently, the radiation from these loops appears much later after the main X-ray flare phase. Another key finding is that the EVE solar EUV irradiance observations in cool coronal emissions have dimming during and following eruptive flare events, which is often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Furthermore, the magnitude of the EVE coronal dimming is consistent with the amount of mass lost, as observed near the flaring region by AIA. This result could be important for space weather operations because EVE’s near-realtime data products of its on-disk (Earth-facing) flare observations may provide an

  6. 78 FR 77359 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Celebration/City of Mobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce the City of Mobile New Year's Eve Celebration safety zone in the Mobile Channel, Mobile, AL from 11:30 p.m. December 31, 2013 until 12:30 a.m. January 1, 2014. This safety zone has been implemented in past years but the fireworks display will move to a new location in the Mobile Channel beginning with the December 31, 2013 display. This safety zone is necessary for......

  7. Epidemiological voice health map of the teaching population of Granollers (Barcelona) developed from the EVES questionnaire and the VHI.

    PubMed

    Godall, Pere; Gassull, Cecília; Godoy, Anna; Amador, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research project was to carry out an epidemiological study on the voice health of the teaching population in Granollers (Barcelona) using the EVES questionnaire and to relate the collected data to the VHI results. The study sample consisted of 233 teachers from Granollers (Barcelona). The EVES questionnaire, which includes the VHI-10, was conducted online. A high percentage of the teachers consulted suffered voice disorders, which ranged from minor to more serious cases. In regard to the data obtained using the VHI, in 28.77% of the cases there was a moderate or a serious perception of voice problems. Out of these cases only one person, who had a moderate perception of their problem, was undergoing voice therapy with a speech therapist. There are three questions in the EVES questionnaire that can efficiently indicate the existence of a voice disorder in a straightforward manner, and the results for these were similar to those recorded for the VHI group of questions. Therefore, it may be argued that questions that refer to the perception of the degree of pleasantness of one's own voice should be included, because they would provide a useful way to indicate whether there is a voice problem at a preliminary screening stage. PMID:25573301

  8. Project overview of OPTIMOS-EVE: the fibre-fed multi-object spectrograph for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Ramón; Chemla, Fanny; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Flores, Hector; Guinouard, Isabelle; Huet, Jean-Michel; Puech, Mathieu; Royer, Frédéric; Pragt, Johannes H.; Wulterkens, Gerben; Sawyer, Eric C.; Caldwell, Martin E.; Tosh, Ian A. J.; Whalley, Martin S.; Woodhouse, Guy F. W.; Spanò, Paolo; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Andersen, Michael I.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Kaper, Lex; Hammer, François

    2010-07-01

    OPTIMOS-EVE (OPTical Infrared Multi Object Spectrograph - Extreme Visual Explorer) is the fibre fed multi object spectrograph proposed for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), planned to be operational in 2018 at Cerro Armazones, Chile). It is designed to provide a spectral resolution of 6000, 18000 or 30000, at wavelengths from 370 nm to 1.7 μm, combined with a high multiplex (>200) and a large spectral coverage. Additionally medium and large IFUs are available. The system consists of three main modules: a fibre positioning system, fibres and a spectrograph. The recently finished OPTIMOS-EVE Phase-A study, carried out within the framework of the ESO E-ELT instrumentation studies, has been performed by an international consortium consisting of institutes from France, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Italy. All three main science themes of the E-ELT are covered by this instrument: Planets and Stars; Stars and Galaxies; Galaxies and Cosmology. This paper gives an overview of the OPTIMOS-EVE project, describing the science cases, top level requirements, the overall technical concept and the project management approach. It includes a description of the consortium, highlights of the science drivers and resulting science requirements, an overview of the instrument design and telescope interfaces, the operational concept, expected performance, work breakdown and management structure for the construction of the instrument, cost and schedule.

  9. Birds flee en mass from New Year’s Eve fireworks

    PubMed Central

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; van Gasteren, Hans; van Loon, E. Emiel; Leijnse, Hidde; Bouten, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances of wildlife, such as noise, human presence, hunting activity, and motor vehicles, are becoming an increasing concern in conservation biology. Fireworks are an important part of celebrations worldwide, and although humans often find fireworks spectacular, fireworks are probably perceived quite differently by wild animals. Behavioral responses to fireworks are difficult to study at night, and little is known about the negative effects fireworks may have on wildlife. Every year, thousands of tons of fireworks are lit by civilians on New Year’s Eve in the Netherlands. Using an operational weather radar, we quantified the reaction of birds to fireworks in 3 consecutive years. Thousands of birds took flight shortly after midnight, with high aerial movements lasting at least 45 min and peak densities measured at 500 m altitude. The highest densities were observed over grasslands and wetlands, including nature conservation sites, where thousands of waterfowl rest and feed. The Netherlands is the most important winter staging area for several species of waterfowl in Europe. We estimate that hundreds of thousands of birds in the Netherlands take flight due to fireworks. The spatial and temporal extent of disturbance is substantial, and potential consequences are discussed. Weather radar provides a unique opportunity to study the reaction of birds to fireworks, which has otherwise remained elusive. PMID:22476363

  10. BioEve Search: A Novel Framework to Facilitate Interactive Literature Search

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Toufeeq; Davulcu, Hasan; Tikves, Sukru; Nair, Radhika; Zhao, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recent advances in computational and biological methods in last two decades have remarkably changed the scale of biomedical research and with it began the unprecedented growth in both the production of biomedical data and amount of published literature discussing it. An automated extraction system coupled with a cognitive search and navigation service over these document collections would not only save time and effort, but also pave the way to discover hitherto unknown information implicitly conveyed in the texts. Results. We developed a novel framework (named “BioEve”) that seamlessly integrates Faceted Search (Information Retrieval) with Information Extraction module to provide an interactive search experience for the researchers in life sciences. It enables guided step-by-step search query refinement, by suggesting concepts and entities (like genes, drugs, and diseases) to quickly filter and modify search direction, and thereby facilitating an enriched paradigm where user can discover related concepts and keywords to search while information seeking. Conclusions. The BioEve Search framework makes it easier to enable scalable interactive search over large collection of textual articles and to discover knowledge hidden in thousands of biomedical literature articles with ease. PMID:22693501

  11. New Year's Eve injuries caused by celebratory gunfire--Puerto Rico, 2003.

    PubMed

    2004-12-24

    Bullets fired into the air during celebrations fall with sufficient force to cause injury and death. However, few data exist regarding the epidemiology of injuries related to celebratory gunfire. In Puerto Rico, where such celebratory actions are common, news media reports have indicated that approximately two persons die and an estimated 25 more are injured each year from celebratory gunfire on New Year's Eve. The Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) invited CDC and local law enforcement agencies to assist in the investigation of injuries resulting from celebratory gunfire that occurred during December 31, 2003-January 1, 2004. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation, which determined that 1) bullets from probable celebratory gunfire caused 19 injuries, including one death and 2) such injuries affected a higher percentage of women and children aged <15 years than injuries from noncelebratory gunfire, with the majority occurring in certain public housing areas in densely populated, metropolitan San Juan. Education and enforcement of existing laws are needed to prevent these injuries. PMID:15614232

  12. Spatial and temporal distributions of contaminants emitted because of Chinese New Year's Eve celebrations in Wuhan.

    PubMed

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Quan, J H; Li, Jun; Zhang, Miao

    2014-04-01

    Activities involving firecrackers and fireworks on Chinese New Year's Eve (NYE) are common in Chinese culture. Previous studies revealed that such human activities significantly influence the ambient air quality and negatively impact human health. However, both the academia and the public lack a deep understanding of the extent and consequences of such human-induced air pollution. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effects of these Spring Festival celebrations on ambient air quality at a large spatial scale and a fine temporal resolution. Data from ten monitoring stations distributed around Wuhan and a Lidar system provide a good opportunity to gain insight into spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants due to the NYE celebrations. Dramatic increases in PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ mass concentrations due to NYE celebrations were observed in this study. Moreover, the ratio of residential to total area was found to be a significant factor in predicting the geographic distributions of contaminants. The vertical distribution of such human-induced and culture-related contaminants was first shown using a Mie Lidar. Contaminants emitted by firecrackers on the ground spread to a distance of over 450 m in the atmosphere. The vertical influence began to fade two hours after celebrations because of dry deposition. Moreover, it took over 15 hours for the contaminant levels to return to pre-celebration levels. Finally, estimations of PM₂.₅ emissions from firecrackers in Wuhan were 39.57 and 43.51 tons, based on regression and time series analyses, respectively. PMID:24557577

  13. The Adam and Eve story as exemplar of an early-life variant of the oedipus complex.

    PubMed

    Osman, M P

    2000-01-01

    The Adam and Eve story is construed as having an organizing function that facilitates the analytic understanding of certain patients. In this interpretation, the story epitomizes a psychodynamic in which progressive growth, with separation and individuation, of the young is experienced as perilous--not only to them, but also correspondingly to their procreators. In the myth, the increasing psychic and physical maturation of Adam and Eve produced a crisis. Not only was divine authority flouted, but also apprehensions were aroused that God might be humbled or diminished. This threatened him, evoking his wrath and leading to the punishment by abandonment of his youthful wards. It is suggested that the story depicts an emotional complex of widespread application and is an archaic version of the oedipus complex, continuous with the oedipus complex proper, but from an earlier stage of development. This archaic complex is delineated with clinical vignettes, and a clinical explication of its various components is provided. Clinical management is considered, particularly with reference to the challenge that a closed-system perspective (Fairbairn 1958) presents to a patient's development. PMID:11212191

  14. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  15. Anomalous temporal behaviour of broadband Lyα observations during solar flares from SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-03-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyα emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Lyα emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10%). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory now provides broadband, photometric Lyα data at 10 s cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (Hα, Lyβ, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Lyα lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Lyα observations during flares from SORCE/SOLSTICE peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines and/or continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting broadband Lyα observations of solar flares. Comparisons have also been made with other broadband Lyα photometers such as PROBA2/LYRA and GOES/EUVS-E.

  16. Functional endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of the parasitoid wasp cotesia congregata: insights into the evolutionary dynamics of bracoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracoviruses represent the most complex Endogenous Viral Elements (EVEs) described to date. Nudiviral genes have been hosted within the genomes of parasitoid wasps since ~ 100 MYA (Million Years Ago) and are functionally integrated in the parasitoid wasp life cycle. They are involved in the producti...

  17. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Eparvier, F.; Murillo, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) program. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post- assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built antenna and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Video footage of "The Making of a Satellite", and "All About EVE" is completed for use in the kits. Other EVE EPO includes upcoming professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  18. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, S. M.; Eparvier, F.; McCaffrey, M.; Murillo, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement MESA) program. For many of the students, this was the only science option available to them due to language limitations. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post-assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The MESA-EVE course won recognition as a Colorado MESA Program of Excellence and is being offered again in 2007-08. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Other EVE EPO includes professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  19. Ecology and Mary: An Ecological Theology of Mary as the New Eve in Response to the Church's Challenge for a Faith-Based Education in Ecological Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Gloria J.

    2007-01-01

    The Church's interpretation of the current ecological crisis as a moral crisis is the catalyst for this essay, which proposes a newly constructed faith-based model for ecological dialogue and education. The exploration and reinterpretation of the traditional Church doctrine of the Virgin Mary as the new Eve provides a theme from which an…

  20. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra as Observed Using Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar active regions (ARs) in the soft x-ray spectral range (0.5 to 3.0 nm) were made on sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 using a modified Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a pinhole camera on the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) sounding rocket instrument. The suite of EVE rocket instruments is designed for under-flight calibrations of the orbital EVE on SDO. While the sounding rocket EVE instrument is for the most part a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a free-standing transmission grating so that it could provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features on it, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. For solar observations, this spectral separation is on a similar scale to the spatial size of the AR on the CCD, so dispersed AR images associated with emission lines of similar wavelength tend to overlap. Furthermore, SAM shares a CCD detector with MEGS-A, a separate EVE spectrometer channel, and artifacts of the MEGS-A signal (a set of bright spectral lines) appear in the SAM images. For these reasons some processing and analysis of the solar images obtained by SAM must be performed in order to determine spectra of the observed ARs. We present a method for determining AR spectra from the SAM rocket images and report initial soft X-ray spectra for two of the major active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) observed on flight 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT. We also compare our results with concurrent measurements from other solar soft x-ray instrumentation.

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO): Overview of Science Objectives, Instrument Design, Data Products, and Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Hock, R.; Jones, A. R.; Woodraska, D.; Judge, D.; Didkovsky, L.; Lean, J.; Mariska, J.; Warren, H.; McMullin, D.; Chamberlin, P.; Berthiaume, G.; Bailey, S.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Sojka, J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Viereck, R.

    2010-01-01

    The highly variable solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is the major energy input to the Earth's upper atmosphere, strongly impacting the geospace environment, affecting satellite operations, communications, and navigation. The Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1 to 105 nm with unprecedented spectral resolution (0.1 nm), temporal cadence (ten seconds), and accuracy (20%). EVE includes several irradiance instruments: The Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS)-A is a grazingincidence spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 5 to 37 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution, and the MEGS-B is a normal-incidence, dual-pass spectrograph that measures the solar EUV irradiance in the 35 to 105 nm range with 0.1-nm resolution. To provide MEGS in-flight calibration, the EUV SpectroPhotometer (ESP) measures the solar EUV irradiance in broadbands between 0.1 and 39 nm, and a MEGS-Photometer measures the Sun s bright hydrogen emission at 121.6 nm. The EVE data products include a near real-time space-weather product (Level 0C), which provides the solar EUV irradiance in specific bands and also spectra in 0.1-nm intervals with a cadence of one minute and with a time delay of less than 15 minutes. The EVE higher-level products are Level 2 with the solar EUV irradiance at higher time cadence (0.25 seconds for photometers and ten seconds for spectrographs) and Level 3 with averages of the solar irradiance over a day and over each one-hour period. The EVE team also plans to advance existing models of solar EUV irradiance and to operationally use the EVE measurements in models of Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere. Improved understanding of the evolution of solar flares and extending the various models to incorporate solar flare events are high priorities for the EVE team.

  2. A substorm-associated enhancement in the XUV radiation measuring channel observed by ESP/EVE/SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hua-Ning; Shen, Chao; Du, Zhan-Le

    2016-06-01

    Comparing the ESP/EVE/SDO flux data of 2011 Feb 6, with the counterparts of XRS/GOES and SEM/SOHO, we find that there is an enhancement that is not apparent in the two latter datasets. The enhancement, possibly regarded as a flare at first glimpse, nevertheless, does not involve an energy-release from the Sun. Based on the enhancement, we combine data from SXI/GOES 15 into a synthesized analysis, and concluded that it arises from a particle-associated enhancement in the channel that measures XUV radiation. Paradoxically, it seems to be somewhat of a particle-avalanching process. Prior to the event, a moderate geomagnetic storm took place. Subsequently, while the event is proceeding, a geomagnetic substorm is simultaneously observed. Therefore, the particles, though unidentified, are probably energetic electrons induced by substorm injection.

  3. Solar EUV irradiance during solar cycle 24 as observed by PROBA2/LYRA and SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Dominique, Marie; Dammasch, Ingolf

    2013-04-01

    Solar EUV irradiance affects the upper atmospheres of planets and is a fundamental parameters for space weather. The Large-Yield Radiometer (LYRA) is a radiometer that has monitored the solar irradiance at high cadence and in four pass bands since January 2010. Both the instrument and its spacecraft, PROBA2 (Project for OnBoard Autonomy), have several innovative features for space instrumentation, which makes the data reduction necessary to retrieve the long-term variations of solar irradiance more complex than for a fully optimized solar physics mission. In this presentation, we describe how we compute the long-term time series of the two extreme ultraviolet irradiance channels of LYRA and compare the results with those of SDO/EVE and several proxies.

  4. A surprise southern hemisphere meteor shower on New-Year's Eve 2015: the Volantids (IAU#758, VOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, J.; Baggaley, J.; Crumpton, I.; Aldous, P.; Gural, P. S.; Samuels, D.; Albers, J.; Soja, R.

    2016-04-01

    A new 32-camera CAMS network in New Zealand, spread over two stations on South Island, has detected a high southern declination shower that was active on New Year's Eve, 2015 December 31. During the observing interval from 09h12m - 15h45m UT, 21 out of 59 detected meteors radiated from the constellation of Volans, the flying fish, with a geocentric radiant at RA = 122.9 deg +- 4.7 deg, Dec = -71.9 deg +- 1.9 deg, and speed V_g = 28.4 +- 1.5 km/s. The new year arrived in New Zealand at 11h00m UT. Two more were detected the next night. No activity from this shower was observed the year prior. The meteoroids move in a 48 deg-inclined Jupiter-family comet orbit. The parent body has not yet been identified.

  5. Solar EUV Variability from FISM and SDO/EVE During Solar Minimum, Active, and Flaring Time Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Living With a Star (LWS) Focus Science Team has identified three periods of different solar activity levels for which they will be determining the Earth's Ionosphere and Thermosphere response. Not only will the team be comparing individual models (e.g. FLIP, T1MEGCM, GLOW) outcome driven by the various levels of solar activity, but the models themselves will also be compared. These models all rely on the input solar EUV (0.1 -190 nm) irradiance to drive the variability. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard provide the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide the most accurate quantification of these irradiances. Presented and discussed are how much the solar EUV irradiance changes during these three scenarios, both as a function of activity and wavelength.

  6. Thermal Evolution of Solar Flares During the First Year of SDO as Seen by the EVE Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    It is very evident during the first year of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that the Sun awoke from its prolonged minimum and is well into solar cycle 24. There has been tens of moderate M-class flares and a large X-class event (as of abstract submission), with more surely to come as the solar cycle activity increases. With SDO's 24/7 observations, every single flare has been observed through their entire evolution, providing new insights in the thermal evolution of every flare. It is evident that this evolution is extremely different for many of the flares, even for flares with similar X-ray magnitude classifications. Presented and discussed will be these different flares with their varying thermal evolution profiles as observed by the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).

  7. Development of different kind of IFU prototypes for the OPTIMOS-EVE study for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinouard, Isabelle; de Oliviera, Ligia Souza; de Oliveira, Antonio César; Hammer, François; Huertas-Company, Marc; Barbuy, Beatriz; Chemla, Fanny; Huet, Jean-Michel; Flores, Hector; Puech, Mathieu; Mei, Simona

    2012-09-01

    The OPTIMOS-EVE concept provides optical to near-infrared (370-1700 nm) spectroscopy, with three spectral resolution (5000, 15000 and 30000), with high simultaneous multiplex (at least 200). The optical fibre links are distributed in four kinds of bundles: several hundreds of mono-object systems with three types of bundles, fibre size being used to adapt spectral resolution and 30 deployable medium IFUs (about 2"x3"). We are optimising the design of deployable IFUs to warrant sky subtraction for the faintest extragalactic sources. This paper gives the design and results of the prototype for the high resolution mode and the preliminary design of a medium IFU developed in collaboration between the GEPI and the LNA.

  8. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission in the soft X-ray energy range. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for solar flares. This improvement over the isothermal approximation helps to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. For this current project we are interested in breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. As in our earlier work, thermal emission is modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature. Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner.For this study, we have examined the DEM and non-thermal resuidual emission for a sample of relatively large (GOES M class and above) solar flares observed from 2011 to 2014. The results for the DEM and non-thermal parameters found using the combined EVE-RHESSI data are compared with those found using only RHESSI data.

  9. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra and Temperature Analyses based on Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Some initial results of soft x-ray spectral (0.5 to 3.0 nm) observations of active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) from a sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT are reported. These observations were made by a Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a rocket version of the EUV Variability Experiment’s (EVE) channel, a pinhole camera modified for EVE rocket suite of instruments to include a free-standing transmission grating (200 nm period), which provided spectrally-resolved images of the solar disk. Intensity ratios for strong emission lines extracted from temporally averaged SAM spectral profiles of the ARs were compared to appropriately convolved modeled CHIANTI spectra. These ratios represent the AR’s temperature structures, which are compared to the structures derived from some other observations and temperature models.

  10. [Sanitary service of West Special Military District on the eve and in the first days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Ishutin, O S; Leonik, S I

    2011-06-01

    This article evaluates military and political situation in the world and operational-strategic environment on the West Theater of operations on the eve of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). We analyze structure and overall condition of sanitary service of West Special Military District of the Workers and Peasants Red Army and causes of failure of mobilization, organization and deployment of military units and establishments from the beginning of aggression of Fascist Germany to the Soviet Union. PMID:21899072

  11. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Non-thermal Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, J. M.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of hard X-ray bremmstrahlung from solar flares directly probe the non-thermal electron population. For low energies, however, the spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission and the low energy extent of the non-thermal spectrum can be only loosely quantified. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). For a sample of solar flares, we model the emission using a Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for the thermal emission seen with both instruments and a power law fit for the non-thermal emission observed by RHESSI. Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. This improvement over the traditional isothermal approximation for thermal flare emission is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares. It is expected that a low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electron spectrum is in this energy range, but is obscured by thermal emission. For each flare in the sample we establish limits for the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal spectrum. These limits, in turn, can be used to establish limits on the energy of non-thermal electrons accelerated during the flare. This research is supported by NASA contract NAS5-98033 and NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator Grant NNX12AH48G.

  12. Experimental application of the Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition to the study of modal interactions in a mechanical oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Cusumano, J.P.

    1996-06-01

    The results of an experimental study of a magnetically-kicked flexible-beam oscillator are presented. The dynamics of the autonomous system are observed using nine strain gauges distributed along the length of the beam. The Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition is used to study the dimensionality of the system in terms of modal interactions. Two modes which interact to produce the observed dynamics over a wide range of the system{close_quote}s bifurcation parameter are found. It is concluded that a two degree of freedom model is adequate to describe the observed steady-state phenomena. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. [Entactogenic drugs "ecstasy" (MDMA), "eve" (MDE) and other ring-substituted methamphetamine derivatives. A new class of substances among illegal designer drugs?].

    PubMed

    Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E; Hermle, L; Kovar, K A; Sass, H

    1996-05-01

    The widely used recreational drugs 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDE, Eve) occupy an intermediate position between stimulants and hallucinogens. Besides stimulation similar to that caused by amphetamines, they usually induce a pleasant, easily controllable emotional state with relaxation, fearlessness and feelings of happiness, but they sometimes also have stronger, hallucinogenic, effects. A number of pharmacological studies support the hypothesis that these drugs make up a distinct class of psychoactive substances, which have been designated "entactogens." On the drug scene, MDMA and MDE are considered "safe." However, this view must be corrected. Complications are rare, but potentially devastating ([long-lasting anxiety and depressive syndromes in chronic users, fatalities with hyperpyrexia, rhabdomyolysis and DIC syndrome (disseminated instravascular coagulation), possible hepatotoxicity]. Moreover, the clinical relevance of animal studies showing neurotoxic effects of MDMA on central serotonergic pathways is still not clear. PMID:9005345

  14. C.T. Jackson's 15 October 1846 letter to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont: Jackson's thoughts on Ether Day's Eve?

    PubMed

    Bause, George S; Sim, Patrick P

    2011-01-01

    As did the previous letter on 30 November 1845 from Charles T. Jackson to J.-B.A.L. Elie de Beaumont, this 15 October 1846 missive underscores the cordial professional relationship between the two geologists. Remarkably, in this "Ether Day's Eve" letter, Jackson never reveals whether he had any clue that W.T.G. Morton would be publicly demonstrating ether anesthesia for surgery the next morning. More importantly, since Elie de Beaumont would play a future pivotal role in assigning initial credit for "discovering anesthesia" to his geological colleague Jackson, rather than to Morton, letters such as these from November of 1845 and October of 1846 can only raise more questions about the impartiality of Elie de Beaumont. PMID:22849206

  15. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  16. ["Should the staff's attitude towards the patients remain unchanged, I will not guarantee anything." Protest masculinity and coping of "rebellious patients" at the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital on the eve of deinstitutionalization].

    PubMed

    Schwamm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the illness experiences of male patients from the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital during the protests against Psychiatry in the year 1973. Protest is one of the most important expressions of masculinity in socially disadvantaged men, such as men with mental disorders. The analysis of 100 medical records shows that some patients tried to construct themselves as men in a way that was explicitly motivated by antipsychiatric ideas: They questioned psychiatric authority, behaved "sexually inappropriate", or used drugs. On the eve of psychiatric reform in West Germany those patients were well aware that the alternative--complying with the treatment--would put them at considerable risk. In addition to the usual inference of hegemonic or normative masculinities as risk-factors, the behavior of those ,,rebellious patients" has to be interpreted as individual coping strategies. PMID:26219192

  17. The acute effect in rats of 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA, "eve") on body temperature and long term degeneration of 5-HT neurones in brain: a comparison with MDMA ("ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Colado, M I; Granados, R; O'Shea, E; Esteban, B; Green, A R

    1999-06-01

    Administration of a single dose of the recreationally used drug 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA or "eve") to Dark Agouti rats resulted in an acute dose-dependent hyperthermic response. The peak effect and duration of hyperthermia of a dose of MDEA of 35 mg/kg intraperitoneally was similar to a dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") of 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Seven days later this dose of MDMA produced a marked (approximately 50%) loss of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA in cortex, hippocampus and striatum and a similar loss of [3H]-paroxetine binding in cortex: these losses reflecting the MDMA-induced neurotoxic degeneration of 5-HT nerve endings. In contrast, administration of MDEA (15, 25 or 35 mg/kg), even at the highest dose, produced only a 20% loss in cortex and hippocampus and no decrease in striatum. The neurotoxic effect of MDEA was only weakly dose-dependent. Neither MDEA (35 mg/kg) nor MDMA (15 mg/kg) altered striatal dopamine content 7 days later. MDEA appeared to have about half the potency of MDMA in inducing acute hyperthermia and 25% of the potency in inducing degeneration of cerebral 5-HT neurones. However since higher doses of MDEA (compared to MDMA) are probably necessary to induce mood changing effects, these data do not support any contention that this compound is a "safer" recreational drug than MDMA in terms of either acute toxicity or long term neurodegeneration. PMID:10401727

  18. Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric approach to the direct measurement of the neutrino mass / E. Andreotti. Electron angular correlation in neutrinoless double beta decay and new physics / A. Ali, A. Borisov, D. Zhuridov. Neutrino energy quantization in rotating medium / A. Grigoriev, A. Studenikin. Neutrino propagation in dense magnetized matter / E. V. Arbuzova, A. E. Lobanov, E. M. Murchikova. Plasma induced neutrino spin flip via the neutrino magnetic moment / A. Kuznetsov, N. Mikheev -- Astroparticle physics and cosmology. International Russian-Italian mission "RIM-PAMELA" / A. M. Galper .. [et al.]. Dark Matter searches with AMS-02 experiment / A. Malinin. Investigating the dark halo / R. Bernabei ... [et al.]. Search for rare processes at Gran Sasso / P. Belli ... [et al.]. Anisotropy of Dark Matter annihilation and remnants of Dark Matter clumps in the galaxy / V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, Yu. Eroshenko. Current observational constraints on inflationary models / E. Mikheeva. Phase transitions in dense quark matter in a constant curvature gravitational field / D. Ebert, V. Ch. Zhukovsky, A. V. Tyukov. Construction of exact solutions in two-fields models / S. Yu. Vernov. Quantum systems bound by gravity / M. L. Fil'chenkov, S. V. Kopylov, Y. P. Laptev -- CP violation and rare decays. Some puzzles of rare B-Decays / A. B. Kaidalov. Measurements of CP violation in b decays and CKM parameters / J. Chauveau. Evidence for D[symbol] mixing at BaBar / M. V. Purohit. Search for direct CP violation in charged kaon decays from NA48/2 experiment / S. Balev. [symbol] scattering lengths from measurements of K[symbol] and K± -> [symbol] decays at NA48/2 / D. Madigozhin. Rare kaon and hyperon decays in NA48 experiment / N. Molokanova. THE K+ -> [symbol]+vv¯ experiment at CERN / Yu. Potrebenikov. Recent KLOE results / B. Di Micco.Decay constants and masses of heavy-light mesons in field correlator method / A. M. Badalian. Bilinear R-parity violation in rare meson decays / A. Ali, A. V. Borisov, M. V. Sidorova. Final state interaction in K -> 2[symbol] decay / E. Shabalin -- Hadron physics. Collective effects in central heavy-ion collisions / G. I. Lykasov ... [et al.]. Stringy phenomena in Yang-Mills plasma / V. I. Zakharov. Lattice results on gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge / I. L. Bogolubsky ... [et al.]. [symbol] and [symbol] excited states in field correlator method / I. Narodetskii, A. Veselov. Theory of quark-gluon plasma and phase transition / E. V. Komarov, Yu. A. Simonov. Chiral symmetry breaking and the Lorentz nature of confinement / A. V. Nefediev. Structure function moments of proton and neutron / M. Osipenko. Higgs decay to bb: different approaches to resummation of QCD effects / A. L. Kataev, V. T. Kim. A novel integral representation for the Adler function and its behavior at low energies / A. V. Nesterenko. QCD test of z-scaling for [symbol]-meson production in pp collisions at high energies / M. Tokarev, T. Dedovich. Quark mixing in the standard model and the space rotations / G. Dattoli, K. Zhukovsky. Analytic approach to constructing effective theory of strong interactions and its application to pion-nucleon scattering / A. N. Safronov -- New developments in quantum field theory. On the origin of families and their mass matrices with the approach unifying spin and charges, prediction for new families / N. S. Mankoc Borstnik. Z[symbol] electric strings and center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory / M. I. Polikarpov, P. V. Buividovich. Upper bound on the lightest neutralino mass in the minimal non-minimal supersymmetric standard model / S. Hesselbach ... [et al.]. Application of higher derivative regularization to calculation of quantum corrections in N=l supersymmetric theories / K. Stepanyantz. Nonperturbative quantum relativistic effects in the confinement mechanism for particles in a deep potential well / K. A. Sveshnikov, M. V. Ulybyshev. Khalfin's theorem and neutral mesons subsystem / K. Urbanowski. Effective lagrangians and field theory on a lattice / O. V. Pavlovsky. String-like electrostatic interaction from QED with infinite magnetic field / A. E. Shabad, V. V. Usov. QFT systems with 2D spatial defects / I. V. Fialkovsky, V. N. Markov, Yu. M. Pismak. Bound state problems and radiative effects in extended electrodynamics with Lorentz violation / I. E. Frolov, O. G. Kharlanov, V. Ch. Zhukovsky. Particles with low binding energy in a strong stationary magnetic field / E. V. Arbuzova, G. A. Kravtsova, V. N. Rodionov. Triangle anomaly and radiatively induced Lorentz and CPT violation in electrodynamics / A. E. Lobanov, A. P. Venediktov. The comparative analysis of the angular distribution of synchrotron radiation for a spinless particle in classic and quantum theories / V. G. Bagrov, A. N. Burimova, A. A. Gusev. Problem of the spin light identification / V. A. Bordovitsyn, V. V. Telushkin. Simulation the nuclear interaction / T. F. Kamalov. Unstable leptons and (u - e - [symbol])-universality / O. Kosmachev. Generalized Dirac equation describing the quark structure of nucleons / A. Rabinowitch. Unique geometrization of material and electromagnetic wave fields / O. Olkhov -- Problems of intelligentsia. The conscience of the intelligentsia / J. K. Bleimaier.

  19. Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric approach to the direct measurement of the neutrino mass / E. Andreotti. Electron angular correlation in neutrinoless double beta decay and new physics / A. Ali, A. Borisov, D. Zhuridov. Neutrino energy quantization in rotating medium / A. Grigoriev, A. Studenikin. Neutrino propagation in dense magnetized matter / E. V. Arbuzova, A. E. Lobanov, E. M. Murchikova. Plasma induced neutrino spin flip via the neutrino magnetic moment / A. Kuznetsov, N. Mikheev -- Astroparticle physics and cosmology. International Russian-Italian mission "RIM-PAMELA" / A. M. Galper .. [et al.]. Dark Matter searches with AMS-02 experiment / A. Malinin. Investigating the dark halo / R. Bernabei ... [et al.]. Search for rare processes at Gran Sasso / P. Belli ... [et al.]. Anisotropy of Dark Matter annihilation and remnants of Dark Matter clumps in the galaxy / V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, Yu. Eroshenko. Current observational constraints on inflationary models / E. Mikheeva. Phase transitions in dense quark matter in a constant curvature gravitational field / D. Ebert, V. Ch. Zhukovsky, A. V. Tyukov. Construction of exact solutions in two-fields models / S. Yu. Vernov. Quantum systems bound by gravity / M. L. Fil'chenkov, S. V. Kopylov, Y. P. Laptev -- CP violation and rare decays. Some puzzles of rare B-Decays / A. B. Kaidalov. Measurements of CP violation in b decays and CKM parameters / J. Chauveau. Evidence for D[symbol] mixing at BaBar / M. V. Purohit. Search for direct CP violation in charged kaon decays from NA48/2 experiment / S. Balev. [symbol] scattering lengths from measurements of K[symbol] and K± -> [symbol] decays at NA48/2 / D. Madigozhin. Rare kaon and hyperon decays in NA48 experiment / N. Molokanova. THE K+ -> [symbol]+vv¯ experiment at CERN / Yu. Potrebenikov. Recent KLOE results / B. Di Micco.Decay constants and masses of heavy-light mesons in field correlator method / A. M. Badalian. Bilinear R-parity violation in rare meson decays / A. Ali, A. V. Borisov, M. V. Sidorova. Final state interaction in K -> 2[symbol] decay / E. Shabalin -- Hadron physi

  20. Robotics Team Lights Up New Year's Eve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    A robotics team from Muncie, Indiana--the PhyXTGears--is made up of high school students from throughout Delaware County. The group formed as part of the FIRST Robotics program (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), an international program founded by inventor Dean Kamen in which students work with professional engineers and…

  1. "Eve" in Africa: Human Evolution Meets Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a discussion of recent evidence on the evolution of human forms on earth gathered and evaluated using mitochondrial DNA techniques. Theories regarding the possibility that a common female ancestor existed in Africa about 200,000 years ago are discussed. A list of teaching aids is provided. (CW)

  2. On The Eve Of IYA2009 In Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Breland, K.; Hay, K.; Lane, D.; Lacasse, R.; Lemay, D.; Langill, P.; Percy, J.; Welch, D.; Woodsworth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Local events organized by astronomy clubs, colleges and universities across Canada will softly launch IYA on Saturday, 10 January and begin building awareness of opportunities for every Canadian to experience a `Galileo Moment’ in 2009. The launch typifies our `grass roots’ philosophy based upon our strong partnership of amateurs and professionals which already represents an IYA legacy. In this poster we anticipate the activities of the first half of 2009 and exhibit the educational and public outreach materials and programs we have produced in both official languages, e.g., Astronomy Trading Cards, Mary Lou's New Telescope, Star Finder, etc. Some of these play central roles in our tracking of participation, including allowing people to register to have their name launched into space in 2010. Several contests for youth are underway, with the prize in one being an hour of Gemini telescope observing. In the first half of 2009 some 30,000 grade 6 students will experience `Music of the Spheres’ astronomical orchestral programming conducted by Galileo (a.k.a. Tania Miller, Victoria Symphony). Audiences in Canada and the US will experience Taflemusik's marvelous new soundscape of music and words exploring the deep connections between astronomy and Baroque-era music. An Astronomy Kit featuring Galileoscope for classroom and astronomy club EPO will be tested. Canada Post will issue two stamps during 100 Hours of Astronomy. A new production, Galileo Live!, by Canadian planetaria involving live actors will premier, as will the national Galileo Legacy Lectures in which top astronomers familiarize the public with forefront research being done in Canada. Image exhibits drawing upon material generated by Canadian astronomers and artists, as well as from the IAU Cornerstones, FETTU and TWAN, are opening in malls and airports early in 2009. We will present the latest information about these and other events.

  3. All about Eve: Secret Sharing using Quantum Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J.

    2005-01-01

    This document discusses the nature of light (including classical light and photons), encryption, quantum key distribution (QKD), light polarization and beamsplitters and their application to information communication. A quantum of light represents the smallest possible subdivision of radiant energy (light) and is called a photon. The QKD key generation sequence is outlined including the receiver broadcasting the initial signal indicating reception availability, timing pulses from the sender to provide reference for gated detection of photons, the sender generating photons through random polarization while the receiver detects photons with random polarization and communicating via data link to mutually establish random keys. The QKD network vision includes inter-SATCOM, point-to-point Gnd Fiber and SATCOM-fiber nodes. QKD offers an unconditionally secure method of exchanging encryption keys. Ongoing research will focus on how to increase the key generation rate.

  4. Interstellar dust on the eve of Herschel and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.

    2008-11-01

    In this contribution I review some of the key scientific questions that animate the interstellar dust community a few months before the launch of Herschel and Planck. Great progress have been made in the past 25 years on the subject of interstellar dust using infrared observations from space. With the advent of sub-millimeter and millimeter observations with Herschel and Planck, new scientific challenges are coming and exciting discoveries are to be expected. In particular Herschel and Planck will bring key information 1) on the growth process of dust grains, the first step toward the formation of planetesimals, 2) on the structure of the interstellar medium and its link with interstellar turbulence, 3) on the physical conditions of the Galactic halo clouds which are thought to have some cold dust, 4) on the properties of the interstellar magnetic field and 5) on the interstellar PAHs using their spinning dust emission in the millimeter.

  5. Open problems on the eve of the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebehely, Victor

    1996-03-01

    To predict the future of Celestial Mechanics and to investigate unsolved problems for the next millennium contradicts the nature of our field of science which is based on non-integrable and transcendental equations with short time predictability. The reliability and predictability in our field depend on several factors, most of them unpredictable. Numerical predictions depend on the development of computer technology, which is itself not predictable. New analytical approaches call for the genius of Newton. We must realize that between Ptolemaeus (100 178) and Copernicus (1473 1543) our field received little attention. Between 1700 and 1800 the explosion occurred (Newton, Euler, Laplace, Lagrange and Gauss) followed by the period of 1800 1900 associated with Hamilton, Hill, Jacobi, Poincaré and Tisserand. Can we expect anyone to make similar contributions in the next 1000 years? The entrance and emphasis of probability in our field certainly will continue. Speaking about bounds of trajectories instead of individual orbits gains significant popularity. Theory of stability and chaos are expected to receive more and more attention together with Poincare's conjectures concerning the denseness of periodic orbits in the set of bounded orbits. Planetary computations for long time have shown considerable advances, partly due to computer advances as well as the selection of the proper formulation of the problems. The preparation of “exact” short time ephemerides and qualitative long time predictions require initial conditions with small observational errors, the use of proper models (including relativity effects and non-conservative forces) and the use of correct values of astronomical constants. The results of such calculations in the future should include approximate estimations of errors in the outcome. The observations and orbital calculations of Earth-crossing asteroids should receive special attention along with development of various techniques of space dynamics to avoid collisions. Interplanetary orbit calculations of space probes with optimizations included, shall receive additional attention since interplanetary flights expect to become regular travels in the next millennium. Here, again, the use of proper models, constants and planetary ephemerides will be essential. This paper was prepared with the help of many of my colleagues whose suggestions and ideas were incorporated with my many thanks.[/p

  6. 76 FR 29261 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Wind Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Campo Wind Energy Project, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION... necessary for preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Campo Shu'luuk Wind Project... San Diego, California. Construction of the Shu'luuk Wind Project within the Campo Reservation...

  7. 75 FR 80717 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve, Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...: Documents indicated in this preamble as being available in the docket are part of docket USCG-2010-1079 and are available online by going to http://www.regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2010-1079 in...

  8. 76 FR 81827 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Sacramento River near positions 38 34'48.26'' N, 121 30'38.52'' W (NAD 83) and 38 34'49.84'' N, 121 30'29.59'' W (NAD 83). Upon the commencement of the first fireworks display, scheduled to take place from 9 p.m... fireworks launch site near position 38 34'48.26'' N, 121 30'38.52'' W (NAD 83) within a radius of 1,000...

  9. 77 FR 75556 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Year's Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...'' N, 121 30'38.52'' W (NAD 83) and 38 34'49.84'' N, 121 30'29.59'' W (NAD 83). Upon the commencement... 34'48.26'' N, 121 30'38.52'' W (NAD 83) within a radius of 1,000 feet. Upon the commencement of the... near positions 38 34'48.26'' N, 121 30'38.52'' W (NAD 83) and 38 34'49.84'' N, 121 30'29.59'' W (NAD...

  10. 78 FR 75248 - Safety Zone; Sacramento New Years Eve Fireworks Display, Sacramento River, Sacramento, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... approximate position 38 34'49.98'' N, 121 30'29.61'' W (NAD 83). Upon the commencement of the fireworks...: 38 34'49.98'' N, 121 30'29.61'' W (NAD 83) within a radius of 1,000 feet. At the conclusion of...

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 15: Improvements in the stability of the tomotherapy imaging beam

    SciTech Connect

    Belec, J

    2014-08-15

    Use of helical TomoTherapy based MVCT imaging for adaptive planning requires the image values (HU) to remain stable over the course of treatment. In the past, the image value stability was suboptimal, which required frequent change to the image value to density calibration curve to avoid dose errors on the order of 2–4%. The stability of the image values at our center was recently improved by stabilizing the dose rate of the machine (dose control servo) and performing daily MVCT calibration corrections. In this work, we quantify the stability of the image values over treatment time by comparing patient treatment image density derived using MVCT and KVCT. The analysis includes 1) MVCT - KVCT density difference histogram, 2) MVCT vs KVCT density spectrum, 3) multiple average profile density comparison and 4) density difference in homogeneous locations. Over two months, the imaging beam stability was compromised several times due to a combination of target wobbling, spectral calibration, target change and magnetron issues. The stability of the image values were analyzed over the same period. Results show that the impact on the patient dose calculation is 0.7% +− 0.6%.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 54: Radiotherapy and Non-Radiotherapy Safety Practices Beyond Licensing Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Kosierb, Rick

    2014-08-15

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international obligations on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In order to perform this regulatory activity, the CNSC issue licences and has its staff perform inspections to verify conformity to the aspects of those licences. Within the CNSC, the Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) is responsible for the regulatory oversight of Class II Prescribed Equipment used in medical, academic, and industrial sectors in Canada. In performing inspections, ACFD has encountered licensees with practices that are either below, meet or exceed regulatory expectations in specific areas. Unfortunately, none of these practices are ever communicated to the broader Class II community to help other licensees avoid the same problem or achieve high standards. In this poster, ACFD will highlight safety practices that go beyond expectations. These practices are taken from observations during site inspections between 2007 and 2013 and will be presented in six areas: Procedures, Participation, Awareness, Equipment, Servicing and Software. Each area briefly discusses a number of practices that the CNSC feels went beyond the expectations dictated by the licence. Where possible, names are added of the contact people at the centres who can be reached for full details of their implementations. It is hoped that this communication will assist other licensees to achieve these same high levels of compliance and possibly go beyond.

  13. Poster — Thur Eve — 50: Common Regulatory Non-Compliances and How to Avoid Them

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), is responsible for the oversight of radiotherapy facilities containing Class II prescribed equipment in Canada. Over the past several years, ACFD has been performing compliance inspections of Class II nuclear facilities across the country (medical and otherwise), and in that time, has issued several hundred corrective actions to licensees due to non-compliance with regulatory requirements. Recently, a study was done to determine the most common regulatory non-compliances. The purpose of this poster presentation is to disseminate information to the licensee community about the nature of these non-compliances, and how they can be avoided by licensees in the future.

  14. Studies of short-period comets on the eve of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Cometas-Obs Team

    2015-05-01

    We present an extended study of the dust environment of a sample of short-period comets and their dynamical history. With this aim, we characterized the dust tails when the comets are active, and we make a statistical study to determine their dynamical evolution. The targets selected were 22P/Kopff, 30P/Reinmuth 1, 78P/Gehrels 2, 81P/Wild 2, 103P/Hartley 2, 115P/Maury, 118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4, 123P/West-Hartley, 157P/Tritton, 185P/Petriew, P/2011 W2 (Rinner).

  15. Getting It All Together: Career Education. A Teacher Handbook Developed by Project EVE. [Elementary Vocational Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Educational Cooperative, Palatine, IL.

    The teaching developed handbook was designed to assist teachers in implementing career education instructional programs at all levels of primary and junior high school instruction. The first section provides career education concepts and materials for primary grades, offering suggested activities and a unit outline for kindergarten students.…

  16. 'Mary' and 'Eve's' Social Reproduction in the 'Big Apple'; Colombian Voices. Occasional Paper No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Mary Garcia

    This paper presents research on the immigration, employment, familial, and social experiences of Colombian women in New York City. The data discussed are derived from both a literature review and extensive interviews with Colombian women residing in the city during recent years. It is hypothesized that Colombian women's perceptions of their actual…

  17. Bretton Woods Institution Narratives about Inequality and Economic Vulnerability on the Eve of South African Austerity.

    PubMed

    Bond, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, at a time when National Health Insurance should be generously funded (7 years after its approval as public policy by the ruling party), state fiscal austerity appears certain to nip the initiative in the bud. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund issued separate reports about South Africa in late 2014, following a new finance minister's mid-term budget speech. In justifying austerity, they revealed 2 important conceptual blockages regarding inequality and international financial relations. The resulting political bias in the macroeconomic debate has, in turn, given neoliberal policy advocates intellectual weaponry to impose deeper austerity. In contrast, the rise of a "united front" of labor, community-based, and social movement activists, along with a vigorous left opposition party in Parliament, ensure that one of the world's most visible class struggles ratchets up in intensity in the years ahead. PMID:26077853

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 20: CTDI Measurements using a Radiochromic Film-based clinical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, C.; Bekerat, H.; DeBlois, F.; Tomic, N.; Devic, S.; Seuntjens, J.

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of the study was evaluating accuracy and reproducibility of a radiochromic film-based protocol to measure computer tomography dose index (CTDI) as a part of annual QA on CT scanners and kV-CBCT systems attached to linear accelerators. Energy dependence of Gafchromic XR-QA2 ® film model was tested over imaging beam qualities (50 – 140 kVp). Film pieces were irradiated in air to known values of air-kerma (up to 10 cGy). Calibration curves for each beam quality were created (Film reflectance change Vs. Air-kerma in air). Film responses for same air-kerma values were compared. Film strips were placed into holes of a CTDI phantom and irradiated for several clinical scanning protocols. Film reflectance change was converted into dose to water and used to calculate CTDIvol values. Measured and tabulated CTDIvol values were compared. Average variations of ±5.2% in the mean film reflectance change were observed in the energy range of 80 to 140 keV, and 11.1% between 50 and 140 keV. Measured CTDI values were in average 10% lower than tabulated CTDI values for CT-simulators, and 44% higher for CBCT systems. Results presented a mean variation for the same machine and protocol of 2.6%. Variation of film response is within ±5% resulting in ±15% systematic error in dose estimation if a single calibration curve is used. Relatively large discrepancy between measured and tabulated CTDI values strongly support the trend towards replacing CTDI value with equilibrium dose measurement in the center of cylindrical phantom, as suggested by TG- 111.

  19. Electrodynamic model of atmospheric and ionospheric processes on the eve of an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, V. M.; Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.

    2015-09-01

    Electric field generation and its accompanying phenomena in the atmosphere-ionosphere system have been intensively studied in recent years. This paper considers the results of these studies, which have served as the physical basis for the model of lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. According to our model, the intensive processes in the lower atmosphere and lithosphere have an electrodynamic effect on the ionospheric plasma. The model was used to conduct theoretical studies of plasma and electromagnetic effects accompanying the generation of conduction current in the global circuit. It has been shown that the electrodynamic model of the influence of seismic and meteorological processes on cosmic plasma can serve as a physical basis for a satellite system to monitor earthquake precursors and the catastrophic phase of typhoon development. The model makes it possible to couple the satellite data of electromagnetic and plasma measurements with electrophysical and meteorological characteristics of the lower atmosphere at the stage of earthquake preparation and typhoon initiation. The model suggests that the numerous effects in the cosmic plasma have a single source: a change in the conduction current flowing in the atmosphere-ionosphere circuit.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 08: Rotational errors with on-board cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; Webb, R.; Nyiri, B.

    2014-08-15

    The focus of this study is on the Elekta XVI on-board cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. A rotational mismatch as large as 0.5° is observed between clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) CBCT scans. The error could affect non-isocentric treatments (e.g., lung SBRT and acoustic neuroma), as well as off-axis organs-at-risk. The error is caused by mislabeling of the projections with a lagging gantry angle, which is caused by the finite image acquisition time and delays in the imaging system. A 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom with 5 mm diameter holes is used for the scanning. CW and CCW scans are acquired for five gantry speeds (360 to 120 deg./min.) on six linacs from three generations (MLCi, MLCi2, and Agility). Additional scans are acquired with different x-ray pulse widths for the same mAs. In the automated CBCT analysis (using ImageJ), the CW/CCW mismatch in a series of line profiles is identified and used to calculate the rotational error. Results are consistent among all linacs and indicate that the error varies linearly with gantry speed. The finite width of the x-ray pulses is a major but predictable contributor to the delay causing the error. For 40 ms pulses, the delay is 34 ± 1 ms. A simple solution applied in our clinic is adjusting the gantry angle offset to make the CCW one-minute scans correct. A more involved approach we are currently investigating includes adjustments of pulse width and mA, resulting in focal spot changes, with potential impact on image quality.

  1. On the Razor's Edge: The Irish-American Press on the Eve of World War One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcrone, Mick

    A study examined three partisan Irish-American newspapers ("Irish World,""Gaelic-American," and the "Leader") representative of the Irish-American press before the First World War. The newspapers appealed to different constituencies, had contrasting orientations, and enjoyed substantial influence within the Irish-American community. The primary…

  2. Manifest Destiny and Competing Voices on the Eve of the Cherokee Removal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Prentice T.

    2011-01-01

    Manifest Destiny, the idea that Providence guided the conquest and settlement of North America, is one of the most contested ideas in American culture and history. One's opinion about this central aspect of American mythology depends heavily on one's point of view. Exploring westward expansion and the Cherokee Trail of Tears with primary sources…

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 37: Respiratory gating with an Elekta flattening filter free photon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Péloquin, S; Furstoss, C; Munger, P; Wierzbicki, W; Carrier, J-F

    2014-08-15

    In cases where surgery is not possible for lung cancer treatment, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be an option. One problem when treating this type of cancer is the motion of the lungs caused by the patient's respiration. It is possible to reduce the impact of this movement with the use of respiratory gating. By combining respiratory gating with a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam linac, the increased treatment time caused by a reduced beam-on time of respiratory gating methods can be compensated by the inherent increased dose rate of FFF beams. This project's aim is to create hardware and software interfaces allowing free respiration gating on an Elekta Synergy-S linac specially modified to deliver 6 MV FFF photon beams. First, a printed circuit board was created for reading the signal from a Bellows Belt from Philips (a respiration monitor belt) and transmitting an On/Off signal to the accelerator. A software was also developed to visualize patient respiration. Secondly, a FFF model was created with the Pinnacle treatment planning system from Philips. Gamma (Γ) analysis (2%, 2 mm) was used to evaluate model. For fields going from 5.6 × 5.6 to 12 × 12 cm{sup 2}, central axis depth dose model fitting shows an average gamma value of 0.2 and 100% of gamma values remain under the Γ = 1 limit. For smaller fields (0.8 × 0.8 and 1.6 × 1.6 cm{sup 2}), Pinnacle has more trouble trying to fit the measurements, overestimating dose in penumbra and buildup regions.

  4. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M[sub 2] often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best. The subject, however, is in a state of flux, and one may expect rapid advancement over the next several years.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 47: Monte Carlo Simulation of Scp, Sc and Sp

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K.

    2014-08-15

    The in-water output ratio (Scp), in-air output ratio (Sc), and phantom scattering factor (Sp) are important parameters for radiotherapy dose calculation. Experimentally, Scp is obtained by measuring the dose rate ratio in water phantom, and Sc the water Kerma rate ratio in air. There is no method that allows direct measurement of Sp. Monte Carlo (MC) method has been used to simulate Scp and Sc in literatures, similar to experimental setup, but no MC direct simulation of Sp available yet to the best of our knowledge. We propose in this report a method of performing direct MC simulation of Sp. Starting from the definition, we derived that Sp of a clinical photon beam can be approximated by the ratio of the dose rates contributed from the primary beam for a given field size to the reference field size. Since only the primary beam is used, any Linac head scattering should be excluded from the simulation, which can be realized by using the incident electron as a scoring parameter for MU. We performed MC simulations for Scp, Sc and Sp. Scp matches well with golden beam data. Sp obtained by the proposed method agrees well with what is obtained using the traditional method, Sp=Scp/Sc. Since the smaller the field size, the more the primary beam dominates, our Sp simulation method is accurate for small field. By analyzing the calculated data, we found that this method can be used with no problem for large fields. The difference it introduced is clinically insignificant.

  6. Journalistic Impartiality on the Eve of Revolution: the "Boston Evening Post," 1770-1775.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the impartiality of Thomas Fleet, Sr.'s "Boston Evening Post" during the years leading up to the Revolutionary War, a period during which patriots put pressure on newspapers take their side. Reviews data illustrating the paper's even-handed dealing with issues concerning Patriots and Loyalists. (TB)

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 72: Clinical Subtleties of Flattening-Filter-Free Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Corns, Robert; Thomas, Steven; Huang, Vicky

    2014-08-15

    Flattening-filter-free (fff) beams offer superior dose rates, reducing treatment times for important techniques that utilize small field sizes, such as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). The impact of ion collection efficiency (P{sub ion}) on the percent depth dose (PDD) has been discussed at length in the literature. Relative corrections of the order of l%–2% are possible. In the process of commissioning 6fff and 10fff beams, we identified a number of other important details that influence commissioning. We looked at the absolute dose difference between corrected and uncorrected PDD. We discovered a curve with a broad maximum between 10 and 20 cm. We wondered about the consequences of this PDD correction on the absolute dose calibration of the linac because the TG-51 protocol does not correct the PDD curve. The quality factor k{sub Q} depends on the PDD, so in principle, a correction to the PDD will alter the absolute calibration of the linac. Finally, there are other clinical tables, such as TMR, which are derived from PDD. Attention to details on how this computation is performed is important because different corrections are possible depending the method of calculation.

  8. Crisis of Black Athletes on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that the dynamics of black youth sports involvement and the blind faith of black youths and families in sports as a vehicle for self-realization and socioeconomic advancement generate complex problems for black society. Black families often push their children toward sports careers, neglecting personal and cultural development. Discusses…

  9. On the eve of animal radiation: phylogeny, ecology and evolution of the Ediacara biota.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuhai; Laflamme, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Ediacara fossils document an important evolutionary episode just before the Cambrian explosion and hold critical information about the early evolution of macroscopic and complex multicellular life. They also represent an enduring controversy in paleontology. How are the Ediacara fossils related to living animals? How did they live? Do they share any evolutionary patterns with other life forms? Recent developments indicate that Ediacara fossils epitomize a phylogenetically diverse biosphere, probably including animals, protists, algae, fungi and others. Their simple ecology is dominated by epibenthic osmotrophs, deposit feeders and grazers, but few if any predators. Their evolution started with an early morphospace expansion followed by taxonomic diversification within confined morphospace, and concluded by extinction of many taxa at the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary. PMID:18952316

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 71: A 4D Multimodal Lung Phantom for Regmentation Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, D; Levesque, I R; El Naqa, I

    2014-08-15

    Segmentation and registration of medical imaging data are two processes that can be integrated (a process termed regmentation) to iteratively reinforce each other, potentially improving efficiency and overall accuracy. A significant challenge is presented when attempting to validate the joint process particularly with regards to minimizing geometric uncertainties associated with the ground truth while maintaining anatomical realism. This work demonstrates a 4D MRI, PET, and CT compatible tissue phantom with a known ground truth for evaluating registration and segmentation accuracy. The phantom consists of a preserved swine lung connected to an air pump via a PVC tube for inflation. Mock tumors were constructed from sea sponges contained within two vacuum-sealed compartments with catheters running into each one for injection of radiotracer solution. The phantom was scanned using a GE Discovery-ST PET/CT scanner and a 0.23T Phillips MRI, and resulted in anatomically realistic images. A bifurcation tracking algorithm was implemented to provide a ground truth for evaluating registration accuracy. This algorithm was validated using known deformations of up to 7.8 cm using a separate CT scan of a human thorax. Using the known deformation vectors to compare against, 76 bifurcation points were selected. The tracking accuracy was found to have maximum mean errors of −0.94, 0.79 and −0.57 voxels in the left-right, anterior-posterior and inferior-superior directions, respectively. A pneumatic control system is under development to match the respiratory profile of the lungs to a breathing trace from an individual patient.

  11. World Trends And Issues In Adult Education On The Eve Of The Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1998-09-01

    The forces of globalization today seem to have overwhelmed the historical political-cultural mission of adult education. Both in the North and the South, adult education is asked to contribute directly to productivity and thereby to competitiveness in the global market. The social component that survives is expected to help in coping with globalization. Voices of conscience and sanity have been raised at world summits in Rio (1992), Cairo (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Beijing (1995), and elsewhere. However, policies, plans and practices have not matched the declarations and agendas from the summits. The programs spawned by the Education for All conference of 1990 side-lined adult education, and so did the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996). The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg during July 14-18, 1997 was marked by renewed commitment and solidarity. However, challenges of problematizing globalization, democratizing development, and socializing humanity for life together in the new century remain.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 19: Performance assessment of a 160-leaf beam collimation system

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, E. S. M.; La Russa, D. J.; Vandervoort, E.

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the performance of the new beam collimation system with 160 leaves, each with a 5 mm leaf width projected at isocenter, is evaluated in terms of positional accuracy and plan/delivery quality. Positional accuracy was evaluated using a set of static and dynamic MLC/jaw delivery patterns at different gantry angles, dose rates, and MLC/jaw speeds. The impact on IMRT plan quality was assessed by comparing against a previous generation collimation system using the same optimization parameters, while delivery quality was quantified using a combination of patient-specific QA measurements with ion chambers, film, and a bi-planar diode array. Positional accuracy for four separate units was comparable. The field size accuracy, junction width, and total displacement over 16 cm leaf travel are 0.3 ± 0.2 mm, 0.4 ± 0.3 mm, and 0.5 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. The typical leaf minor offset is 0.05 ± 0.04 mm, and MLC hysteresis effects are 0.2 ± 0.1 mm over 16 cm travel. The dynamic output is linear with MU and MLC/jaw speed, and is within 0.7 ± 0.3 % of the planning system value. Plan quality is significantly improved both in terms of target coverage and OAR sparing due, in part, to the larger allowable MLC and jaw speeds. γ-index pass rates for the patient-specific QA measurements exceeded 97% using criteria of 2%/2 mm. In conclusion, the performance of the Agility system is consistent among four separate installations, and is superior to its previous generations of collimation systems.

  13. Work and Relationship: Is Vocational Psychology on the Eve of Construction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    In proposing a "work and relationship" perspective for vocational psychology, Richardson builds on a rich intellectual (social constructionist) tradition and offers incisive social commentary. In this reaction, the author examines several of her foci--in particular, the four-part division of life's social contexts, her views on relationships, and…

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 49: Unexpected Output Drops: Pitted Blackholes in Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, A; Pierce, G

    2014-08-15

    During the daily measurement of radiation output of a 6 MV beam on a Varian Trilogy Linear Accelerator the output dropped below 2% and initiated a call to action by physics to determine the cause. Over the course of weeks the cause of the issue was diagnosed to be a defect in the target, resulting in a drop in output and an asymmetry of the beam. Steps were taken to return the machine to clinical service while parts were on order while ensuring the safety of patient treatment. The machine target was replaced and the machine continues to operate as expected. A drop in output is usually a rarity and a defect in the target is possibly more rare. This experience demonstrated the importance of routine QC measurement, recording and analyzing daily output and symmetry values. In addition, this event showcased the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach in a high-pressure situation to effectively troubleshoot unique events to ensure consistence, safety patient treatment.

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 22: A water calorimeter for low-energy particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, J; Sarfehnia, A; Seuntjens, J; Rossomme, S; Vynckier, S

    2014-08-15

    In this work, the feasibility of absolute dose to water measurements in low-energy electron beams using a water calorimeter specifically developed for shallow measurements is established. The calorimeter design consists of a cylindrical glass vessel encased in a block of expanded polystyrene. The vessel has a front window thickness of 1.1 mm, a 4 cm radius, and is 2.5 cm in depth. The vessel-block assembly sits inside a thermally-insulated box and is air-cooled to an operating temperature of 4 °C. Radiation-induced thermal gradients were simulated in a geometric model of the calorimeter using a finite element analysis software package. 52 absorbed dose to water measurements were performed in a 6 and 8 MeV electron beam (z{sub max} of 1.32 and 1.76 cm, respectively) for 60 seconds at a repetition rate of 400 MU/min and an SSD of 120 cm. Within the vessel, the depth of measurement was set to 1.08 cm relative to the inner front window. The average measured dose to water was 59.6 ± 0.2 cGy/100 MU (6 MeV), and 63.7 ± 0.3 cGy/100 MU (8 MeV). The associated heat transfer corrections were determined to be 1.026 ± 0.003 and 1.017 ± 0.004 for the 6 and 8 MeV beams, respectively. The most significant source of uncertainty in this study was the repeatability (type A, 0.42%). It is expected that performing fewer consecutive measurements under higher dose rate conditions will improve the stability of the thermal background, thereby improving the repeatability and reducing the overall standard uncertainty.

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 29: Characterization of Patient Immobilization for Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Courneyea, L; Mullins, J; Howard, M; Beltran, C; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Evaluate an immobilization system to determine its adequacy for the reduced margins required for proton therapy. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients were immobilized for conventional photon radiotherapy and imaged with pre- and post-treatment cone beam CTs (CBCTs) for each treatment fraction. To quantify the patient positioning reproducibility, each CBCT was registered to the simulation CT offline. Registrations were performed using auto-match tools and a matching volume-of-interest (VOI) consisting of a 5mm expansion around the mandible, occipital bone, C1/C2 and C7/T1. For each registration, the bony anatomy in the VOI was evaluated for agreement with the simulation position using 3 and 5mm margins. Registrations were initially restricted to translational corrections. If the bony anatomy did not agree with the simulation position to within 3mm or 5mm, the auto-match was repeated with 3 additional rotational corrections. Intrafraction motion was calculated as the difference between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT matches. Results: Pre-treatment patient positioning agreed with the simulation CT to within 3mm/5mm for 62%/86% of fractions using translational matching and 84%/100% of fractions when rotations were included. Intrafraction motion averaged 1.1±0.8mm, with 12% of fractions having >2mm intrafraction motion. Post-treatment positioning accuracy was 57%/84% and 80%/100% for registrations without/with rotations. For the mandible, positioning accuracy dropped from 93% pre-treatment to 82% post-treatment. Conclusion: If rotational corrections are available, the immobilization system studied created reproducible patient positioning to within 3mm for 84% of fractions. However, intrafraction motion caused additional anatomy to fall outside the 3mm margin by the end of treatment.

  17. Mending the Butterfly: The New Historicism and Keats's "Eve of St. Agnes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Jacqueline

    1995-01-01

    Argues that among the branches of historicism practiced by literary critics today, a branch of New Historicism that is broadly humanistic as opposed to narrowly political is the most illuminating. Describes the development and theoretical premises of this branch. Shows how it may be applied to the analysis of a literary work such as Keats's "Eve…

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 58: Dosimetric validation of electronic compensation for radiotherapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gräfe, James; Khan, Rao; Meyer, Tyler

    2014-08-15

    In this study we investigate the deliverability of dosimetric plans generated by the irregular surface compensator (ISCOMP) algorithm for 6 MV photon beams in Eclipse (Varian Medical System, CA). In contrast to physical tissue compensation, the electronic ISCOMP uses MLCs to dynamically modulate the fluence of a photon beam in order to deliver a uniform dose at a user defined plane in tissue. This method can be used to shield critical organs that are located within the treatment portal or improve dose uniformity by tissue compensation in inhomogeneous regions. Three site specific plans and a set of test fields were evaluated using the γ-metric of 3%/ 3 mm on Varian EPID, MapCHECK, and Gafchromic EBT3 film with a clinical tolerance of >95% passing rates. Point dose measurements with an NRCC calibrated ionization chamber were also performed to verify the absolute dose delivered. In all cases the MapCHECK measured plans met the gamma criteria. The mean passing rate for the six EBT3 film field measurements was 96.2%, with only two fields at 93.4 and 94.0% passing rates. The EPID plans passed for fields encompassing the central ∼10 × 10 cm{sup 2} region of the detector; however for larger fields and greater off-axis distances discrepancies were observed and attributed to the profile corrections and modeling of backscatter in the portal dose calculation. The magnitude of the average percentage difference for 21 ion chamber point dose measurements and 17 different fields was 1.4 ± 0.9%, and the maximum percentage difference was −3.3%. These measurements qualify the algorithm for routine clinical use subject to the same pre-treatment patient specific QA as IMRT.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 74: Distributed, asynchronous, reactive dosimetric and outcomes analysis using DICOMautomaton

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Haley; Wu, Jonn; Moiseenko, Vitali; Thomas, Steven

    2014-08-15

    Many have speculated about the future of computational technology in clinical radiation oncology. It has been advocated that the next generation of computational infrastructure will improve on the current generation by incorporating richer aspects of automation, more heavily and seamlessly featuring distributed and parallel computation, and providing more flexibility toward aggregate data analysis. In this report we describe how a recently created — but currently existing — analysis framework (DICOMautomaton) incorporates these aspects. DICOMautomaton supports a variety of use cases but is especially suited for dosimetric outcomes correlation analysis, investigation and comparison of radiotherapy treatment efficacy, and dose-volume computation. We describe: how it overcomes computational bottlenecks by distributing workload across a network of machines; how modern, asynchronous computational techniques are used to reduce blocking and avoid unnecessary computation; and how issues of out-of-date data are addressed using reactive programming techniques and data dependency chains. We describe internal architecture of the software and give a detailed demonstration of how DICOMautomaton could be used to search for correlations between dosimetric and outcomes data.

  20. Authoritarianism, perceived threat and exclusionism on the eve of the Disengagement: Evidence from Gaza

    PubMed Central

    Canetti, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Shapira, Oren; Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan

    2011-01-01

    Major political events such as terrorist attacks and forced relocation of citizens may have an immediate effect on attitudes towards ethnic minorities associated with these events. The psychological process that leads to political exclusionism of minority groups was examined using a field study among Israeli settlers in Gaza days prior to the Disengagement Plan adopted by the Israeli government on June 6, 2004 and enacted in August 2005. Lending credence to integrated threat theory and to theory on authoritarianism, our analyses show that the positive effect of religiosity on political exclusionism results from the two-staged mediation of authoritarianism and perceived threat. We conclude that religiosity fosters authoritarianism, which in turn tends to move people towards exclusionism both directly and through the mediation of perceived threat. PMID:22140286

  1. The Sociology of the Gene: Genetics and Education on the Eve of the Biotech Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in molecular biology are discovering an increasing genetic basis for a wide range of mental diseases, moods, behaviors, and personality traits. Findings are creating the context for a new sociobiology favoring a genetic interpretation of human motivations and drives. Genetic engineering will give some people unprecedented power over…

  2. Jupiter's Thermal Structure on the Eve of Juno's Arrival and an NEB Expansion Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn S.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Irwin, Patrick; Rogers, John; Encrenaz, Therese

    2016-04-01

    We report on a continuing program of ground-based thermal-infrared imaging spectroscopy to explore variability in Jupiter's atmospheric temperatures, winds, clouds and composition in support of the NASA/Juno mission, scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in July 2016. Observations during the 2015/16 apparition, centred on opposition on March 8th 2016, will be presented from NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) as part of a world-wide campaign to characterise the Jovian atmosphere to support Juno. Thermal and chemical contrasts, combined with the visible-light record from the amateur community, show that Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt (NEB) is presently expanding northwards. The combination of thermal and visible observations will allow us to determine the environmental conditions underlying this belt/zone variability. Radiometrically calibrated spectral scan maps of Jupiter have been regularly obtained using the TEXES instrument (Texas Echelon cross Echelle Spectrograph, Lacy et al. 2002, PASP 114, p153-168) on the IRTF since 2012, and observations are planned in January and April 2016. Ten settings between 5 and 25 μm (10-20 cm-1 wide settings at spectral resolutions of 2000-10000) were selected to be sensitive to jovian temperatures (via H2, CH4 and CH3D), tropospheric phosphine and ammonia, tropospheric haze opacity and stratospheric hydrocarbons ethane and acetylene. These will be supplemented by photometric imaging from the VLT/VISIR instrument (Lagage et al., 2004, Messenger 117, p12-16) in ten narrow-band filters to determine temperatures associated with discrete phenomena (vortices, plumes, waves) at higher diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Spectra and images are inverted via the NEMESIS retrieval algorithm (Irwin et al., 2008, JSQRT 109, p1136-1150) to map temperatures at multiple altitudes (1-600 mbar), winds, aerosol opacity and gaseous composition. Our most recent observations (November 2015) revealed (i) a regular stratospheric wave pattern in stratospheric temperatures between 20 and 30°N (i.e., above the North Tropical Zone and Temperate Belt, NTropZ and NTB, respectively), possibly associated with the northward expansion of the broad North Equatorial Belt (NEB); (ii) tropospheric thermal variability along the NEB itself with correlations between aerosol variability in the 600-mbar region (sensed at 8.6 μm) and the 2-3 bar region (sensed at 5 μm). This appears to coincide with similar NEB and NTropZ wave structure observed in reflected sunlight near 2 μm, based on images from the SpeX instrument on the IRTF. Zonal mean distributions of temperature, phosphine, ammonia, aerosols and hydrocarbons will be compared to those derived by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) 15 years earlier. High-resolution VLT images of the Great Red Spot will be compared between 2008 and 2016 to understand the thermochemical changes associated with its recent shrinkage. All images and maps of retrieved properties will be assembled as a database (JCliD) to aid in the interpretation of Juno data during 2016-2017.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 14: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation using DECT

    SciTech Connect

    Di Salvio, A.; Bedwani, S.; Carrier, J-F.; Bouchard, H.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To improve Monte Carlo dose calculation accuracy through a new tissue segmentation technique with dual energy CT (DECT). Methods: Electron density (ED) and effective atomic number (EAN) can be extracted directly from DECT data with a stoichiometric calibration method. Images are acquired with Monte Carlo CT projections using the user code egs-cbct and reconstructed using an FDK backprojection algorithm. Calibration is performed using projections of a numerical RMI phantom. A weighted parameter algorithm then uses both EAN and ED to assign materials to voxels from DECT simulated images. This new method is compared to a standard tissue characterization from single energy CT (SECT) data using a segmented calibrated Hounsfield unit (HU) to ED curve. Both methods are compared to the reference numerical head phantom. Monte Carlo simulations on uniform phantoms of different tissues using dosxyz-nrc show discrepancies in depth-dose distributions. Results: Both SECT and DECT segmentation methods show similar performance assigning soft tissues. Performance is however improved with DECT in regions with higher density, such as bones, where it assigns materials correctly 8% more often than segmentation with SECT, considering the same set of tissues and simulated clinical CT images, i.e. including noise and reconstruction artifacts. Furthermore, Monte Carlo results indicate that kV photon beam depth-dose distributions can double between two tissues of density higher than muscle. Conclusions: A direct acquisition of ED and the added information of EAN with DECT data improves tissue segmentation and increases the accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation in kV photon beams.

  4. Mirrors for the Queen: A Letter from Christine de Pizan on the Eve of Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    As a rhetorical figure, the example is constitutively split between the structural vocations of the Greek "paradeigma" (emphasizing illumination and belonging) and the Latin "exemplum" (emphasizing detachment and exclusion). This bifurcation enables the example to function as a strategic resource of ambiguity. Christine de Pizan exercises this…

  5. A strategy for exploring the Asteroid belt with ion propulsion: EVE and Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Eve Science Team

    The largest asteroids are survivors from the earliest epoch of the formation of the solar system that have escaped the heavy bombardment period largely intact Moreover these minor planets should have remained closest to their points of origin Thus a strategy of visiting the largest bodies in the main belt could tell us much about the original compositional gradient in the solar system and hence the temperature and pressure gradient that produced it The Dawn mission explores the two most massive main belt asteroids 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres at 2 34 and 2 77 AU respectively These bodies are very different Vesta has an equatorial diameter of about 520 km and is covered with basaltic flows whereas Ceres is close to 1000 km in diameter and has a shape and density consistent with a rocky core covered by a thick ice 100 km shell The third most massive main belt asteroid 2 Pallas lies at the same distance as Ceres with the same size of Vesta but a lower density However since it orbits at a high inclination it is quite inaccessible The fourth most massive asteroid is 10 Hygiea at 3 14 AU Much less is known about Hygiea than the other three asteroids but enough is known that we expect to find a much different body than either Vesta or Ceres including a more primitive composition Further upon completing an orbital exploration of Hygiea using simply a duplicate of the Dawn spacecraft there is an extensive dynamical family that is readily accessible

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 57: Evaluation of laryngeal mucosal dose with conventional linac and TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nusrat, H; Lekx, K; Eapen, L

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not underdosing occurs in the mucosal layer during treatment of glottis cancer. A larynx phantom was produced and regions at risk of recurrence due to suspected underdosing were identified and wells drilled into the phantom for flush placement of TLDs. Seven interest points were chosen. CT simulation was completed prior to the wells being drilled, and again afterwards with the TLD locations indicated using BBs. Treatment plans created for this investigation included: 3DCRT using Elekta-XiO (n=9) and VMAT created using Elekta-Monaco (n=9), both delivered on an Elekta linac; standard TomoTherapy plan (n=11) and a directionally blocked TomoTherapy plan to approximate a 3D-conformal approach (n=5). Imaging dose during TomoTherapy deliveries was accounted for. The average TLD result at each interest point was compared to the planned value using a paired t-test. There was no significant difference between the planned and measured 3DCRT dose (268.9 vs. 267.0 cGy, respectively; p>0.05). Similarly, the planned and measured TomoTherapy treatment did not show any significant differences (271.7 vs 269.7 cGy; p>0.05). In the blocked TomoTherapy plan, significant overdosing was seen (274.5 vs 294.9 cGy; p<0.05) and underdosing was not seen in the VMAT treatment (303.5 vs 321.8 cGy; p>0.05). Further investigation is ongoing to ensure appropriate normalization of results and to investigate the overdosing noted with the blocked TomoTherapy plan. Results from this study suggest that significant underdosing does not occur in the conventional treatment of early glottic cancer using 6MV photons.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 55: An automated XML technique for isocentre verification on the Varian TrueBeam

    SciTech Connect

    Asiev, Krum; Mullins, Joel; DeBlois, François; Liang, Liheng; Syme, Alasdair

    2014-08-15

    Isocentre verification tests, such as the Winston-Lutz (WL) test, have gained popularity in the recent years as techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments are more commonly performed on radiotherapy linacs. These highly conformal treatments require frequent monitoring of the geometrical accuracy of the isocentre to ensure proper radiation delivery. At our clinic, the WL test is performed by acquiring with the EPID a collection of 8 images of a WL phantom fixed on the couch for various couch/gantry angles. This set of images is later analyzed to determine the isocentre size. The current work addresses the acquisition process. A manual WL test acquisition performed by and experienced physicist takes in average 25 minutes and is prone to user manipulation errors. We have automated this acquisition on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac (Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The Varian developer mode allows the execution of custom-made XML script files to control all aspects of the linac operation. We have created an XML-WL script that cycles through each couch/gantry combinations taking an EPID image at each position. This automated acquisition is done in less than 4 minutes. The reproducibility of the method was verified by repeating the execution of the XML file 5 times. The analysis of the images showed variation of the isocenter size less than 0.1 mm along the X, Y and Z axes and compares favorably to a manual acquisition for which we typically observe variations up to 0.5 mm.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 77: Implanted Brachythearpy Seed Movement due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R; Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S; Kay, I

    2014-08-15

    The study investigated the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds upon transrectal US probe removal, providing insight into the underlying prostate deformation and an estimate of the impact on prostate dosimetry. Implanted seed distributions, one obtained with the prostate under probe compression and another with the probe removed, were reconstructed using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate, delineated on ultrasound images, was registered to the fluoroscopy images using seeds and needle tracks identified on ultrasound. A deformation tensor and shearing model was developed to correlate probe-induced seed movement with position. Changes in prostate TG-43 dosimetry were calculated. The model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to estimate the location of the prostate surface in the absence of probe compression. Seed movement patterns upon probe removal reflected elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending. Elastic decompression was characterized by expansion in the anterior-posterior direction and contraction in the superior-inferior and lateral directions. Lateral shearing resulted in large anterior movement for extra-prostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. Whole prostate D90 increased up to 8 Gy, mainly due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing movement increased prostate D90 by 4 Gy, due to increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect of shearing movement on whole prostate D90 was small compared to elastic decompression due to the subset of peripheral seeds involved, but is expected to have greater consequences for local dose coverage.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 13: Inter-Fraction Target Movement in Image-Guided Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Congwu; Zeng, Grace G.

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the setup variations over the treatment courses of 113 patients with intact prostate treated with 78Gy/39fx. Institutional standard bladder and bowel preparation and image guidance protocols were used in CT simulation and treatment. The RapidArc treatment plans were optimized in Varian Eclipse treatment planning system and delivered on Varian 2100X Clinacs equipped with On-Board Imager to localize the target before beam-on. The setup variations were calculated in terms of mean and standard deviation of couch shifts. No correlation was observed between the mean shift and standard deviation over the treatment course and patient age, initial prostate volume and rectum size. The mean shifts in the first and last 5 fractions are highly correlated (P < 10{sup −10}) while the correlation of the standard deviations cannot be determined. The Mann-Kendall tests indicate trends of the mean daily Ant-Post and Sup-Inf shifts of the group. The target is inferior by ∼1mm to the planned position when the treatment starts and moves superiorly, approaching the planned position at 10th fraction, and then gradually moves back inferiorly by ∼1mm in the remain fractions. In the Ant-Post direction, the prostate gradually moves posteriorly during the treatment course from a mean shift of ∼2.5mm in the first fraction to ∼1mm in the last fraction. It may be related to a systematic rectum size change in the progress of treatment. The biased mean shifts in Ant-Post and Sup-Inf direction of most patients suggest systematically larger rectum and smaller bladder during the treatment than at CT simulation.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 59: Atlas Selection for Automated Segmentation of Pelvic CT for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mallawi, A; Farrell, T; Diamond, K; Wierzbicki, M

    2014-08-15

    Automated atlas-based segmentation has recently been evaluated for use in planning prostate cancer radiotherapy. In the typical approach, the essential step is the selection of an atlas from a database that best matches the target image. This work proposes an atlas selection strategy and evaluates its impact on the final segmentation accuracy. Prostate length (PL), right femoral head diameter (RFHD), and left femoral head diameter (LFHD) were measured in CT images of 20 patients. Each subject was then taken as the target image to which all remaining 19 images were affinely registered. For each pair of registered images, the overlap between prostate and femoral head contours was quantified using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Finally, we designed an atlas selection strategy that computed the ratio of PL (prostate segmentation), RFHD (right femur segmentation), and LFHD (left femur segmentation) between the target subject and each subject in the atlas database. Five atlas subjects yielding ratios nearest to one were then selected for further analysis. RFHD and LFHD were excellent parameters for atlas selection, achieving a mean femoral head DSC of 0.82 ± 0.06. PL had a moderate ability to select the most similar prostate, with a mean DSC of 0.63 ± 0.18. The DSC obtained with the proposed selection method were slightly lower than the maximums established using brute force, but this does not include potential improvements expected with deformable registration. Atlas selection based on PL for prostate and femoral diameter for femoral heads provides reasonable segmentation accuracy.

  11. [Medical informatics on the eve of the 21st century and the tasks of the dental service in Russia].

    PubMed

    Prokhonchukov, A A

    1998-01-01

    The problems and tasks of information provision of dental service in Russia for all levels, from federal to regional health center are discussed as well as the concept of development and program of information provision in dentistry, software for automated working places of dentists, local network for dental centers and dentistry departments, software for differential diagnosis and treatment of the main dental diseases, such as caries, pulpitis, periodontitis, diseases of the periodontium and buccal mucosa, benign tumors, etc., for rapid screening of dental patients for AIDS and other diseases, design and software for computers intended for computer training of students and dentists, stomatology search and reference information system, etc. PMID:9752739

  12. The three phases of Eve: exploring the common and unique findings in oral and systemic health of differently aging women.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Roseann

    2002-10-01

    Given that, collectively, women are the longer-lived of the human species, it is fitting that we examine the impact and correlations of aging on systemic and oral health with women as the paradigm. Aging, however, is not a homogeneous process. Its influences are as diverse as the subgroups of people affected. To exemplify the differing manifestations and progressiveness of aging, this article highlights the profiles of three differently aging women: an independent dweller in the community, a participant in an assisted living program, and a resident of a skilled nursing home. How aging has affected their lives commonly and uniquely is addressed, as are medical and oral health issues that transcend functional capability, and evolving research in preventive strategies focusing on successful aging. PMID:12790015

  13. 77 FR 75557 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... USCG-2012-1041. To view documents mentioned in this preamble as being available in the docket, go to.... 0 2. Add a temporary Sec. 165.T07-1041 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T07-1041 Safety Zones; New...

  14. Time and Place of Human Origins, the African Eve Hypothesis Examined through Modelling: Can High Schools Contribute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnard, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Studies of mitochondrial DNA imply that modern humans arose in Africa 150,000 years ago and spread throughout the world, replacing all prior human groups. But many paleontologists see continuity in human fossils on each continent and over a much longer time. Modeling may help test these alternatives. (Author/MKR)

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 52: A Web-based Platform for Collaborative Document Management in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kildea, J.; Joseph, A.

    2014-08-15

    We describe DepDocs, a web-based platform that we have developed to manage the committee meetings, policies, procedures and other documents within our otherwise paperless radiotherapy clinic. DepDocs is essentially a document management system based on the popular Drupal content management software. For security and confidentiality, it is hosted on a linux server internal to our hospital network such that documents are never sent to the cloud or outside of the hospital firewall. We used Drupal's in-built role-based user rights management system to assign a role, and associated document editing rights, to each user. Documents are accessed for viewing using either a simple Google-like search or by generating a list of related documents from a taxonomy of categorization terms. Our system provides document revision tracking and an document review and approval mechanism for all official policies and procedures. Committee meeting schedules, agendas and minutes are maintained by committee chairs and are restricted to committee members. DepDocs has been operational within our department for over six months and has already 45 unique users and an archive of over 1000 documents, mostly policies and procedures. Documents are easily retrievable from the system using any web browser within our hospital's network.

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 09: Evaluation of electrical impedance and computed tomography fusion algorithms using an anthropomorphic phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Brige Paul; Krishnan, Kalpagam; Liu, Jeff; Kohli, Kirpal

    2014-08-15

    Integration of biological conductivity information provided by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) with anatomical information provided by Computed Tomography (CT) imaging could improve the ability to characterize tissues in clinical applications. In this paper, we report results of our study which compared the fusion of EIT with CT using three different image fusion algorithms, namely: weighted averaging, wavelet fusion, and ROI indexing. The ROI indexing method of fusion involves segmenting the regions of interest from the CT image and replacing the pixels with the pixels of the EIT image. The three algorithms were applied to a CT and EIT image of an anthropomorphic phantom, constructed out of five acrylic contrast targets with varying diameter embedded in a base of gelatin bolus. The imaging performance was assessed using Detectability and Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM). Wavelet fusion and ROI-indexing resulted in lower Detectability (by 35% and 47%, respectively) yet higher SSIM (by 66% and 73%, respectively) than weighted averaging. Our results suggest that wavelet fusion and ROI-indexing yielded more consistent and optimal fusion performance than weighted averaging.

  17. Malaria’s Eve: Evidence of a recent population bottleneck throughout the world populations of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Stephen M.; Licht, Monica C.; Hudson, Richard R.; Ayala, Francisco J.

    1998-01-01

    We have analyzed DNA sequences from world-wide geographic strains of Plasmodium falciparum and found a complete absence of synonymous DNA polymorphism at 10 gene loci. We hypothesize that all extant world populations of the parasite have recently derived (within several thousand years) from a single ancestral strain. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the time when this most recent common ancestor lived is between 24,500 and 57,500 years ago (depending on different estimates of the nucleotide substitution rate); the actual time is likely to be much more recent. The recent origin of the P. falciparum populations could have resulted from either a demographic sweep (P. falciparum has only recently spread throughout the world from a small geographically confined population) or a selective sweep (one strain favored by natural selection has recently replaced all others). The selective sweep hypothesis requires that populations of P. falciparum be effectively clonal, despite the obligate sexual stage of the parasite life cycle. A demographic sweep that started several thousand years ago is consistent with worldwide climatic changes ensuing the last glaciation, increased anthropophilia of the mosquito vectors, and the spread of agriculture. P. falciparum may have rapidly spread from its African tropical origins to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world only within the last 6,000 years. The recent origin of the world-wide P. falciparum populations may account for its virulence, as the most malignant of human malarial parasites. PMID:9539753

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 43: Monte Carlo Modeling of Flattening Filter Free Beams and Studies of Relative Output Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K.

    2014-08-15

    Flattening filter free (FFF) beams have been adopted by many clinics and used for patient treatment. However, compared to the traditional flattened beams, we have limited knowledge of FFF beams. In this study, we successfully modeled the 6 MV FFF beam for Varian TrueBeam accelerator with the Monte Carlo (MC) method. Both the percentage depth dose and profiles match well to the Golden Beam Data (GBD) from Varian. MC simulations were then performed to predict the relative output factors. The in-water output ratio, Scp, was simulated in water phantom and data obtained agrees well with GBD. The in-air output ratio, Sc, was obtained by analyzing the phase space placed at isocenter, in air, and computing the ratio of water Kerma rates for different field sizes. The phantom scattering factor, Sp, can then be obtained from the traditional way of taking the ratio of Scp and Sc. We also simulated Sp using a recently proposed method based on only the primary beam dose delivery in water phantom. Because there is no concern of lateral electronic disequilibrium, this method is more suitable for small fields. The results from both methods agree well with each other. The flattened 6 MV beam was simulated and compared to 6 MV FFF. The comparison confirms that 6 MV FFF has less scattering from the Linac head and less phantom scattering contribution to the central axis dose, which will be helpful for improving accuracy in beam modeling and dose calculation in treatment planning systems.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 32: Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Peripheral Lung Lesion: Treatment Planning and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shuying; Oliver, Michael; Wang, Xiaofang

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), due to its high precision for target localizing, has become widely used to treat tumours at various locations, including the lungs. Lung SBRT program was started at our institution a year ago. Eighteen patients with peripheral lesions up to 3 cm diameter have been treated with 48 Gy in 4 fractions. Based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulation, internal target volume (ITV) was delineated to encompass the respiratory motion of the lesion. A margin of 5 mm was then added to create the planning target volume (PTV) for setup uncertainties. There was no expansion from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV). Pinnacle 9.6 was used as the primary treatment planning system. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique, with one or two coplanar arcs, generally worked well. For quality assurance (QA), each plan was exported to Eclipse 10 and dose calculation was repeated. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the targets and organs at risk (OARs) were then compared between the two treatment planning systems. Winston-Lutz tests were carried out as routine machine QA. Patient-specific QA included ArcCheck measurement with an insert, where an ionization chamber was placed at the centre to measure dose at the isocenter. For the first several patients, and subsequently for the plans with extremely strong modulation, Gafchromic film dosimetry was also employed. For each patient, a mock setup was scheduled prior to treatments. Daily pre- and post-CBCT were acquired for setup and assessment of intra-fractional motion, respectively.

  20. Part 2: the Earliest World Map, Babylonia, c. 500 B.C. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a cuneiform Babylonian tablet from about 500 B.C., the earliest extant world map. Explores bases for contemporary interpretation of the map. Observes that the map contains representations found in later maps. Suggests that modern views of the world are no less culturally laden than much earlier perspectives were. (SG)

  1. Implementing Advanced Characteristics of X3D Collaborative Virtual Environments for Supporting e-Learning: The Case of EVE Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouras, Christos; Triglianos, Vasileios; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional Collaborative Virtual Environments are a powerful form of collaborative telecommunication applications, enabling the users to share a common three-dimensional space and interact with each other as well as with the environment surrounding them, in order to collaboratively solve problems or aid learning processes. Such an…

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 56: Design of Quality Assurance Methodology for VMAT system on Agility System equipped with CVDR

    SciTech Connect

    Thind, K; Tolakanahalli, R

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of designing comprehensive QA plans using iComCAT for Elekta machines equipped with Agility multileaf collimator and continuously variable dose rate. Test plans with varying MLC speed, gantry speed, and dose rate were created and delivered in a controlled manner. A strip test was designed with three 1 cm MLC positions and delivered using dynamic, StepNShoot and VMAT techniques. Plans were also designed to test error in MLC position with various gantry speeds and various MLC speeds. The delivery fluence was captured using the electronic portal-imaging device. Gantry speed was found to be within tolerance as per the Canadian standards. MLC positioning errors at higher MLC speed with gravity effects does add more than 2 mm discrepancy. More tests need to be performed to evaluate MLC performance using independent measurement systems. The treatment planning system with end-to-end testing necessary for commissioning was also investigated and found to have >95% passing rates within 3%/3mm gamma criteria. Future studies involve performing off-axis gantry starshot pattern and repeating the tests on three matched Elekta linear accelerators.

  3. The Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Set-point theory is the main research paradigm in the field of subjective well-being (SWB). It has been extended and refined for 30 years to take in new results. The central plank of the theory is that adult set-points do not change, except temporarily in the face of major life events. There was always some "discordant data," including evidence…

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 16: 4DCT simulation with synchronized contrast injection of liver SBRT patients

    SciTech Connect

    Karotki, A.; Korol, R.; Milot, L.; Chu, W.; Chung, H. T.; Erler, D.

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has recently emerged as a valid option for treating liver metastases. SBRT delivers highly conformai dose over a small number of fractions. As such it is particularly sensitive to the accuracy of target volume delineation by the radiation oncologist. However, contouring liver metastases remains challenging for the following reasons. First, the liver usually undergoes significant motion due to respiration. Second, liver metastases are often nearly indistinguishable from the surrounding tissue when using computed tomography (CT) for imaging making it difficult to identify and delineate them. Both problems can be overcome by using four dimensional CT (4DCT) synchronized with intravenous contrast injection. We describe a novel CT simulation process which involves two 4DCT scans. The first scan captures the tumor and immediately surrounding tissue which in turn reduces the 4DCT scan time so that it can be optimally timed with intravenous contrast injection. The second 4DCT scan covers a larger volume and is used as the primary CT dataset for dose calculation, as well as patient setup verification on the treatment unit. The combination of two 4DCT scans, short and long, allows visualization of the liver metastases over all phases of breathing cycle while simultaneously acquiring long enough 4DCT dataset suitable for planning and patient setup verification.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 76: Dosimetric Comparison of Pinnacle and iPlan Algorithms with an Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P.; Tambasco, M.; LaFontaine, R.; Burns, L.

    2014-08-15

    Our goal is to compare the dosimetric accuracy of the Pinnacle-3 9.2 Collapsed Cone Convolution Superposition (CCCS) and the iPlan 4.1 Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) algorithms in an anthropomorphic lung phantom using measurement as the gold standard. Ion chamber measurements were taken for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams in a CIRS E2E SBRT Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom, which mimics lung, spine, ribs, and tissue. The plan implemented six beams with a 5×5 cm{sup 2} field size, delivering a total dose of 48 Gy. Data from the planning systems were computed at the treatment isocenter in the left lung, and two off-axis points, the spinal cord and the right lung. The measurements were taken using a pinpoint chamber. The best results between data from the algorithms and our measurements occur at the treatment isocenter. For the 6, 10, and 18 MV beams, iPlan 4.1 MC software performs the best with 0.3%, 0.2%, and 4.2% absolute percent difference from measurement, respectively. Differences between our measurements and algorithm data are much greater for the off-axis points. The best agreement seen for the right lung and spinal cord is 11.4% absolute percent difference with 6 MV iPlan 4.1 PB and 18 MV iPlan 4.1 MC, respectively. As energy increases absolute percent difference from measured data increases up to 54.8% for the 18 MV CCCS algorithm. This study suggests that iPlan 4.1 MC computes peripheral dose and target dose in the lung more accurately than the iPlan 4.1 PB and Pinnicale CCCS algorithms.

  6. Dimitrios Mavrokordatos (1811-1839), the eve of the Hellenic School of Anatomy in modern era Greece.

    PubMed

    Sgantzos, Markos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Androutsos, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Dimitrios Alexandrou Mavrokordatos was the first regular professor of Anatomy and Physiology of the Hellenic "Othonian" University of Athens. He had completed his studies in Germany and thus he had been chosen to stimulate the empirical physicians of Greece to awaken. He died young, but his passion was so great that he had published a masterpiece in the new Greece, "On the anatomy of the human body", and left his fortune for his pupils, even though they had rebelled against him sometime before his death. With his teaching and book he established a kind of Greek "nomina anatomica" which formed the basis for medicine in the newly born country. PMID:27086416

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 70: Automatic lung bronchial and vessel bifurcations detection algorithm for deformable image registration assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Labine, Alexandre; Carrier, Jean-François; Bedwani, Stéphane; Chav, Ramnada; De Guise, Jacques

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate an automatic bronchial and vessel bifurcations detection algorithm for deformable image registration (DIR) assessment to improve lung cancer radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT datasets were acquired and exported to Varian treatment planning system (TPS) EclipseTM for contouring. The lungs TPS contour was used as the prior shape for a segmentation algorithm based on hierarchical surface deformation that identifies the deformed lungs volumes of the 10 breathing phases. Hounsfield unit (HU) threshold filter was applied within the segmented lung volumes to identify blood vessels and airways. Segmented blood vessels and airways were skeletonised using a hierarchical curve-skeleton algorithm based on a generalized potential field approach. A graph representation of the computed skeleton was generated to assign one of three labels to each node: the termination node, the continuation node or the branching node. Results: 320 ± 51 bifurcations were detected in the right lung of a patient for the 10 breathing phases. The bifurcations were visually analyzed. 92 ± 10 bifurcations were found in the upper half of the lung and 228 ± 45 bifurcations were found in the lower half of the lung. Discrepancies between ten vessel trees were mainly ascribed to large deformation and in regions where the HU varies. Conclusions: We established an automatic method for DIR assessment using the morphological information of the patient anatomy. This approach allows a description of the lung's internal structure movement, which is needed to validate the DIR deformation fields for accurate 4D cancer treatment planning.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 42: Radiochromic film calibration for low-energy seed brachytherapy dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, H; Menon, G; Sloboda, R

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of radiochromic film calibration procedures used in external beam radiotherapy when applied to I-125 brachytherapy sources delivering higher doses, and to determine any necessary modifications to achieve similar accuracy in absolute dose measurements. GafChromic EBT3 film was used to measure radiation doses upwards of 35 Gy from 6 MV, 75 kVp and (∼28 keV) I-125 photon sources. A custom phantom was used for the I-125 irradiations to obtain a larger film area with nearly constant dose to reduce the effects of film heterogeneities on the optical density (OD) measurements. RGB transmission images were obtained with an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner, and calibration curves relating OD and dose using a rational function were determined for each colour channel and at each energy using a non-linear least square minimization method. Differences found between the 6 MV calibration curve and those for the lower energy sources are large enough that 6 MV beams should not be used to calibrate film for low-energy sources. However, differences between the 75 kVp and I-125 calibration curves were quite small; indicating that 75 kVp is a good choice. Compared with I-125 irradiation, this gives the advantages of lower type B uncertainties and markedly reduced irradiation time. To obtain high accuracy calibration for the dose range up to 35 Gy, two-segment piece-wise fitting was required. This yielded absolute dose measurement accuracy above 1 Gy of ∼2% for 75 kVp and ∼5% for I-125 seed exposures.

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 27: Flattening Filter Free VMAT Quality Assurance: Dose Rate Considerations for Detector Response

    SciTech Connect

    Viel, Francis; Duzenli, Cheryl; Camborde, Marie-Laure; Strgar, Vincent; Horwood, Ron; Atwal, Parmveer; Gete, Ermias; Karan, Tania

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: Radiation detector responses can be affected by dose rate. Due to higher dose per pulse and wider range of mu rates in FFF beams, detector responses should be characterized prior to implementation of QA protocols for FFF beams. During VMAT delivery, the MU rate may also vary dramatically within a treatment fraction. This study looks at the dose per pulse variation throughout a 3D volume for typical VMAT plans and the response characteristics for a variety of detectors, and makes recommendations on the design of QA protocols for FFF VMAT QA. Materials and Methods: Linac log file data and a simplified dose calculation algorithm are used to calculate dose per pulse for a variety of clinical VMAT plans, on a voxel by voxel basis, as a function of time in a cylindrical phantom. Diode and ion chamber array responses are characterized over the relevant range of dose per pulse and dose rate. Results: Dose per pulse ranges from <0.1 mGy/pulse to 1.5 mGy/pulse in a typical VMAT treatment delivery using the 10XFFF beam. Diode detector arrays demonstrate increased sensitivity to dose (+./− 3%) with increasing dose per pulse over this range. Ion chamber arrays demonstrate decreased sensitivity to dose (+/− 1%) with increasing dose rate over this range. Conclusions: QA protocols should be designed taking into consideration inherent changes in detector sensitivity with dose rate. Neglecting to account for changes in detector response with dose per pulse can lead to skewed QA results.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 66: Robustness Assessment of a Novel IMRT Planning Method for Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahanj, M.; Bissonnette, J.-P.; Heath, E.; McCann, C.

    2014-08-15

    Conventional radiotherapy treatment planning for lung cancer accounts for tumour motion by increasing the beam apertures. We recently developed an IMRT planning strategy which uses reduced beam apertures in combination with an edge enhancing boost of 110% of the prescription dose to the volume that corresponds to the portion of the CTV that moves outside of the reduced beam. Previous results showed that this approach ensures target coverage while reducing lung dose. In the current study, we evaluate the robustness of this boost volume approach to changes in respiratory motion, including amplitude and phase weight variations. ITV and boost volume plans were generated for 5 NSCLC patients with respiratory motion amplitudes ranging from 1 to 2 cm. A standard 5mm PTV margin was used for all plans. The ORBIT treatment planning tool was used to plan and accumulate dose over 10 respiratory phases defined by the 4DCT datasets. For the phase weight variation study, dose was accumulated for three scenarios: equally-weighted-phases, higher weight assigned to exhale phases and higher weight assigned to inhale phases. For the amplitude variation study, a numerical phantom was used to generate 4DCT datasets corresponding to 7 mm, 10 mm and 14 mm motion amplitudes. Preliminary results found that delivered plans for all phase weight scenarios were clinically acceptable. When normalized to mean lung dose, the boost volume plan delivered 5% more dose to the CTV which indicates the potential for dose escalation using this approach.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 40: Automated Quality Assurance for Remote-Afterloading High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Anthony; Ravi, Ananth

    2014-08-15

    High dose rate (HDR) remote afterloading brachytherapy involves sending a small, high-activity radioactive source attached to a cable to different positions within a hollow applicator implanted in the patient. It is critical that the source position within the applicator and the dwell time of the source are accurate. Daily quality assurance (QA) tests of the positional and dwell time accuracy are essential to ensure that the accuracy of the remote afterloader is not compromised prior to patient treatment. Our centre has developed an automated, video-based QA system for HDR brachytherapy that is dramatically superior to existing diode or film QA solutions in terms of cost, objectivity, positional accuracy, with additional functionalities such as being able to determine source dwell time and transit time of the source. In our system, a video is taken of the brachytherapy source as it is sent out through a position check ruler, with the source visible through a clear window. Using a proprietary image analysis algorithm, the source position is determined with respect to time as it moves to different positions along the check ruler. The total material cost of the video-based system was under $20, consisting of a commercial webcam and adjustable stand. The accuracy of the position measurement is ±0.2 mm, and the time resolution is 30 msec. Additionally, our system is capable of robustly verifying the source transit time and velocity (a test required by the AAPM and CPQR recommendations), which is currently difficult to perform accurately.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 02: Measurement of CT radiation profile width using Fuji CR imaging plate raw data

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, T A; Yang, C J

    2014-08-15

    Measuring the CT collimation width and assessing the shape of the overall profile is a relatively straightforward quality control (QC) measure that impacts both image quality and patient dose, and is often required at acceptance and routine testing. Most CT facilities have access to computed radiography (CR) systems, so performing CT collimation profile assessments using CR plates requires no additional equipment. Previous studies have shown how to effectively use CR plates to measure the radiation profile width. However, a major limitation of the previous work is that the full dynamic range of CR detector plates are not used, since the CR processing technology reduces the dynamic range of the DICOM output to 2{sup 10}, requiring the sensitivity and latitude settings of CR reader to be adjusted to prevent clipping of the CT profile data. Such adjustments to CR readers unnecessarily complicate the QC procedure. These clipping artefacts hinder the ability to accurately assess CT collimation width because the full-width at half maximum value of the penumbras are not properly determined if the maximum dose of the profile is not available. Furthermore, any inconsistencies in the radiation profile shape are lost if the profile plateau is clipped off. In this work we developed an opensource Matlab script for straightforward CT profile width measurements using raw CR data that also allows assessment of the profile shape without clipping, and applied this approach during CT QC.

  13. Poster — Thur Eve — 61: A new framework for MPERT plan optimization using MC-DAO

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M; Lloyd, S AM; Townson, R; Bush, K; Gagne, I M; Zavgorodni, S

    2014-08-15

    This work combines the inverse planning technique known as Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and combined electron and photon therapy plans. In particular, determining conditions under which Modulated Photon/Electron Radiation Therapy (MPERT) produces better dose conformality and sparing of organs at risk than traditional IMRT plans is central to the project. Presented here are the materials and methods used to generate and manipulate the DAO procedure. Included is the introduction of a powerful Java-based toolkit, the Aperture-based Monte Carlo (MC) MPERT Optimizer (AMMO), that serves as a framework for optimization and provides streamlined access to underlying particle transport packages. Comparison of the toolkit's dose calculations to those produced by the Eclipse TPS and the demonstration of a preliminary optimization are presented as first benchmarks. Excellent agreement is illustrated between the Eclipse TPS and AMMO for a 6MV photon field. The results of a simple optimization shows the functioning of the optimization framework, while significant research remains to characterize appropriate constraints.

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 69: Computational Study of DVH-guided Cancer Treatment Planning Optimization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ghomi, Pooyan Shirvani; Zinchenko, Yuriy

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare methods to incorporate the Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) curves into the treatment planning optimization. Method: The performance of three methods, namely, the conventional Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model, a convex moment-based constrained optimization approach, and an unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach, is compared using anonymized data of a prostate cancer patient. Three plans we generated using the corresponding optimization models. Four Organs at Risk (OARs) and one Tumor were involved in the treatment planning. The OARs and Tumor were discretized into total of 50,221 voxels. The number of beamlets was 943. We used commercially available optimization software Gurobi and Matlab to solve the models. Plan comparison was done by recording the model runtime followed by visual inspection of the resulting dose volume histograms. Conclusion: We demonstrate the effectiveness of the moment-based approaches to replicate the set of prescribed DVH curves. The unconstrained convex moment-based penalty approach is concluded to have the greatest potential to reduce the computational effort and holds a promise of substantial computational speed up.

  15. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries, Part 5: Ptolemy's Map of the World, A.D. 1478.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes Ptolemy's map of the world. Discusses the idea of mapping the ecumene or known world. Lists Ptolemy's map making conventions still in use today including location of north at the top, 90 degrees latitude between the equator and each pole, and style of representing physical features. Emphasizes Ptolemy's view of the world as dynamic. (DK)

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 38: Feasibility of a Table-Top Total Body Irradiation Technique using Robotic Couch Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Erika; Otto, Karl; Hoppe, Richard; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy; Million, Lynn; Xing, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and test the feasibility of a table-top implementation for total body irradiation (TBI) via robotic couch motion and coordinated monitor unit modulation on a standard C-arm linac geometry. Methods: To allow for collision free delivery and to maximize the effective field size, the couch was rotated to 270° IEC and dropped to 150 cm from the vertical radiation source. The robotic delivery was programmed using the TrueBeam STx Developer Mode using custom XML scripting. To assess the dosimetry of a sliding 30×20 cm{sup 2} field, irradiation on a solid water phantom of varying thickness was analyzed using EDR2 radiographic film and OSLDs. Beam modulation was achieved by dividing the couch path into multiple segments of varying dose rates and couch speeds in order to deliver 120 cGy to the midline. Results: The programmed irradiation in conjunction with coordinated couch motion was successfully delivered on a TrueBeam linac. When no beam modulation was employed, the dose difference between two different phantom sections was 17.0%. With simple beam modulation via changing dose rates and couch speeds, the desired prescription dose can be achieved at the centre of each phantom section within 1.9%. However, dose deviation at the junction was 9.2% due to the nonphysical change in the phantom thickness. Conclusions: The feasibility of robotic table-top TBI on a C-arm linac geometry was experimentally demonstrated. To achieve a more uniform dose distribution, inverse-planning allowing for a combination of dose rate modulation, jaw tracking and MLC motion is under investigation.

  17. 76 FR 78154 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that... Intracoastal Waterway in approximate position 26 42'32'' N, 80 02'48'' W. This regulated area will be...

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 41: Considerations for Patients with Permanently Implant Radioactive Sources Requiring Unrelated Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Basran, P. S; Beckham, WA; Baxter, P

    2014-08-15

    Permanent implant of sealed radioactive sources is an effective technique for treating cancer. Typically, the radioactive sources are implanted in and near the disease, depositing dose locally over several months. There may be instances where these patients must undergo unrelated surgical procedures when the radioactive material remains active enough to pose risks. This work explores these risks, discusses strategies to mitigate those risks, and describes a case study for a permanent I-125 prostate brachytherapy implant patient who developed colo-rectal cancer and required surgery 6 months after brachytherapy. The first consideration is identifying the risk from unwarranted radiation to the patient and staff before, during, and after the surgical procedure. The second is identifying the risk the surgical procedure may have on the efficacy of the brachytherapy implant. Finally, there are considerations for controlling for radioactive substances from a regulatory perspective. After these risks are defined, strategies to mitigate those risks are considered. These strategies may include applying the concepts of ALARA, the use of protective equipment and developing a best practice strategy with the operating room team. We summarize this experience with some guidelines: If the surgical procedure is near (ex: 5 cm) of the implant; and, the surgical intervention may dislodge radioisotopes enough to compromise treatment or introduces radiation safety risks; and, the radioisotope has not sufficiently decayed to background levels; and, the surgery cannot be postponed, then a detailed analysis of risk is advised.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 53: Novel Technique for the Measurement of Ultra-Superficial Doses Using Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Marcos, M.; Devic, S.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Dose build-up and electron contamination are two closely related quantities with important implications in radiotherapy, yet they are quite difficult to measure with great certainty. We present a novel technique for measuring ultra-superficial doses. Method and Materials: We used Gafchromic EBT-3 film which have an effective point of measurement of roughly 153 micros (effective depth in water). By peeling off one of the polyester layers, the active layer becomes the top layer and we obtain a film with a effective point of measurement of 15 microns (effective depth in water). A film calibration was performed using a 180 kVp orthovoltage beam. Since the active layer of the film may have been compressed or perturbed during the peeling of clear polyester we use a triple-channel film calibration technique to minimize the effects of non-uniformity in the active layer. We measured surface doses of orthovoltage beams with lead cutouts in place to introduce contaminant photoelectrons. Results: Our measurements show that the dose enhancement near the edges of the lead were about 125% relative to central axis for 6 cm diameter cutouts up to 170% for 2 cm diameter cutouts, which were within 5% of our EGSnrc based Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 18: Cherenkov Emission By High-Energy Radiation Therapy Beams: A Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zlateva, Y.; El Naqa, I.; Quitoriano, N.

    2014-08-15

    We investigate Cherenkov emission (CE) by radiotherapy beams via radiation dose-versus-CE correlation analyses, CE detection optimization by means of a spectral shift towards the near-infrared (NIR) window of biological tissue, and comparison of CE to on-board MV imaging. Dose-CE correlation was investigated via simulation and experiment. A Monte Carlo (MC) CE simulator was designed using Geant4. Experimental phantoms include: water; tissue-simulating phantom composed of water, Intralipid®, and beef blood; plastic phantom with solid water insert. The detector system comprises an optical fiber and diffraction-grating spectrometer incorporating a front/back-illuminated CCD. The NIR shift was carried out with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), emitting at (650±10) nm. CE and MV images were acquired with a CMOS camera and electronic portal imaging device. MC and experimental studies indicate a strong linear dose-CE correlation (Pearson coefficient > 0.99). CE by an 18-MeV beam was effectively NIR-shifted in water and a tissue-simulating phantom, exhibiting a significant increase at 650 nm for QD depths up to 10 mm. CE images exhibited relative contrast superior to MV images by a factor of 30. Our work supports the potential for application of CE in radiotherapy online imaging for patient setup and treatment verification, since CE is intrinsic to the beam and non-ionizing and QDs can be used to improve CE detectability, potentially yielding image quality superior to MV imaging for the case of low-density-variability, low-optical-attenuation materials (ex: breast/oropharynx). Ongoing work involves microenvironment functionalization of QDs and application of multi-channel spectrometry for simultaneous acquisition of dosimetric and tumor oxygenation signals.

  1. The Wisdom of Eve: On Differentiating the Colours of Emotion that May Be Threats to Good Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, Williams A.; Adetoun, Bolanle Eliz; Adewuyi, Modupe Fal; Akande, Titilola Ikeoluwa E.; Ntshanga, L. P. Z.; Dlamini, Balin; Williamson, James T.; Dladla, Nomvul; Hlongwane, Zama; Ibeagu, Osad; Osagie, Erh J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion's twin roles-"unite and divide" our daily life, thus motivating the good and the worst in human behaviour. The way one "feels" does influence the way one "acts" toward others. If this reasoning is correct, then behaviour can never be without motive or "motiveless." Given the importance of emotions in human communication and decision…

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 25: Sensitivity to inhomogeneities for an in-vivo EPID dosimetry method

    SciTech Connect

    Peca, Stefano; Brown, Derek

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: The electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has the potential to be used for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy as an additional dose delivery check. We recently proposed a simple method of using the EPID for 2D-IVD based on correlation ratios. In this work we have investigated the sensitivity of our EPID-IVD to inhomogeneities. Methods: We used slab phantoms that simulate water, bone, and lung, arranged in various geometries. To simulate body contours non-orthogonal to the field, we used a water wedge. CT data of these phantoms was imported into MATLAB, in conjunction with EPID images acquired during irradiation, to calculate dose inside the phantom in isocenter plane. Each phantom was irradiated using a linear accelerator while images were acquired with the EPID (cine mode). Comparisons between EPID-calculated and TPS dose maps were: pixel-by-pixel dose difference, and 3%,3mm gamma evaluation. Results: In the homogeneous case, CAX dose difference was <1%, and 3%,3mm gamma analysis yielded 99% of points with gamma<1. For the inhomogeneous phantoms, agreement decreased with increasing inhomogeneity reaching up to 10% CAX dose difference with 10cm of lung. Results from the water wedge phantom suggest that the EPID-calculated dose can account for surface irregularities of approximately ±3cm. Conclusions: The EPID-based IVD investigated has limitations in the presence of large inhomogeneities. Nonetheless, CAX doses never differed by >15% from the TPS. This suggests that this EPID-IVD is capable of detecting gross dose delivery errors even in the presence of inhomogeneities, supporting its utility as an additional patient safety device.

  3. 76 FR 72842 - Safety Zones; New Year's Eve Fireworks Displays within the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... displays on certain navigable waterways in Naples, St. Petersburg, Cape Coral, and Sarasota, Florida. These... from 8:30 p.m. on December 31, 2011 until 12:30 a.m. on January 1, 2012. 3. Cape Coral, Florida. All..., 2012. (3) Cape Coral, FL. All waters within a 235 yard radius of position 26 32'15'' N., 81 59'57''...

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 01: The effect of the number of projections on MTF and CNR in Compton scatter tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chighvinadze, T; Pistorius, S

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the dependence of the reconstructed image quality on the number of projections in multi-projection Compton scatter tomography (MPCST). The conventional relationship between the projection number used for reconstruction and reconstructed image quality pertained to CT does not necessarily apply to MPCST, which can produce images from a single projection if the detectors have sufficiently high energy and spatial resolution. Methods: The electron density image was obtained using filtered-backprojection of the scatter signal over circular arcs formed using Compton equation. The behavior of the reconstructed image quality as a function of the projection number was evaluated through analytical simulations and characterized by CNR and MTF. Results: The increase of the projection number improves the contrast with this dependence being a function of fluence. The number of projections required to approach the asymptotic maximum contrast decreases as the fluence increases. Increasing projection number increases the CNR but not spatial resolution. Conclusions: For MPCST using a 500eV energy resolution and a 2×2mm{sup 2} size detector, an adequate image quality can be obtained with a small number of projections provided the incident fluence is high enough. This is conceptually different from conventional CT where a minimum number of projections is required to obtain an adequate image quality. While increasing projection number, even for the lowest dose value, the CNR increases even though the number of photons per projection decreases. The spatial resolution of the image is improved by increasing the sampling within a projection rather than by increasing the number of projections.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 17: In-phantom and Fluence-based Measurements for Quality Assurance of Volumetric-driven Adaptation of Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaly, B; Hoover, D; Mitchell, S; Wong, E

    2014-08-15

    During volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) of head and neck cancer, some patients lose weight which may result in anatomical deviations from the initial plan. If these deviations are substantial a new treatment plan can be designed for the remainder of treatment (i.e., adaptive planning). Since the adaptive treatment process is resource intensive, one possible approach to streamlining the quality assurance (QA) process is to use the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to measure the integrated fluence for the adapted plans instead of the currently-used ArcCHECK device (Sun Nuclear). Although ArcCHECK is recognized as the clinical standard for patient-specific VMAT plan QA, it has limited length (20 cm) for most head and neck field apertures and has coarser detector spacing than the EPID (10 mm vs. 0.39 mm). In this work we compared measurement of the integrated fluence using the EPID with corresponding measurements from the ArcCHECK device. In the past year nine patients required an adapted plan. Each of the plans (the original and adapted) is composed of two arcs. Routine clinical QA was performed using the ArcCHECK device, and the same plans were delivered to the EPID (individual arcs) in integrated mode. The dose difference between the initial plan and adapted plan was compared for ArcCHECK and EPID. In most cases, it was found that the EPID is more sensitive in detecting plan differences. Therefore, we conclude that EPID provides a viable alternative for QA of the adapted head and neck plans and should be further explored.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 11: Validation of the orthopedic metallic artifact reduction tool for CT simulations at the Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J; Foottit, C

    2014-08-15

    Metallic implants in patients can produce image artifacts in kilovoltage CT simulation images which can introduce noise and inaccuracies in CT number, affecting anatomical segmentation and dose distributions. The commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction algorithm (O-MAR) (Philips Healthcare System) was recently made available on CT simulation scanners at our institution. This study validated the clinical use of O-MAR by investigating its effects on CT number and dose distributions. O-MAR corrected and uncorrected images were acquired with a Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT simulator of a cylindrical solid water phantom that contained various plugs (including metal) of known density. CT number accuracy was investigated by determining the mean and standard deviation in regions of interest (ROI) within each plug for uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images and comparing with no-metal image values. Dose distributions were calculated using the Monaco treatment planning system. Seven open fields were equally spaced about the phantom around a ROI near the center of the phantom. These were compared to a “correct” dose distribution calculated by overriding electron densities a no-metal phantom image to produce an image containing metal but no artifacts. An overall improvement in CT number and dose distribution accuracy was achieved by applying the O-MAR correction. Mean CT numbers and standard deviations were found to be generally improved. Exceptions included lung equivalent media, which is consistent with vendor specified contraindications. Dose profiles were found to vary by ±4% between uncorrected or O-MAR corrected images with O-MAR producing doses closer to ground truth.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 65: A dosimetric comparison of isocentric and non-isocentric coplanar SBRT VMAT plans for peripheral lung tumours

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, L; Liu, HW; Lau, H; Smith, WL

    2014-08-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivers lung sterotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in shorter treatment time and less monitor units with comparable coverage and organ at risk sparing compared to conventional SBRT treatments. Isocentric VMAT treatment of peripheral lung tumours occasionally requires couch shifts that can inhibit 360° gantry rotation, resulting in additional imaging shifts for each treatment session, and increased potential for involuntary in-fraction motion. Here, we investigate whether non-isocentric VMAT plans can achieve comparable plan quality to isocentric plans for peripheral lung tumours. Three patient plans were selected with targets displaced > 8.5 cm (range: 8.8 – 9.9 cm) laterally from patient midline. For each patient, a plan with isocentre placed within the target volume (isocentric plan) was created and optimized. The same optimization parameters were then used to create a plan with the isocentre at patient midline (non-isocentric plan). Plan quality was evaluated and compared based on planning target volume (PTV) coverage, high dose spillage, dose homogeneity, intermediate dose spillage, dose fall-off gradient, and organ at risk contraints. Non-isocentric plans of equivalent plan quality to isocentric plans were achieved for all patients by optimizing collimator rotations. Field isocentres can be placed at patient midline, as opposed to inside the target volume, with no significant degradation in VMAT plan quality for lateral tumour displacements up to 10 cm. Non-isocentric treatment of peripheral lung tumours could result in decreased overall treatment session time and eliminate the need for imaging shifts prior to VMAT treatment.

  8. Review of the Italian Current Legislation on Research Biobanking Activities on the Eve of the Participation of National Biobanks' Network in the Legal Consortium BBMRI-ERIC

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Alessia; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

    2013-01-01

    The ethical-legal framework of research biobanking activities is still scarcely defined in Italy, and this constitutes a major obstacle to exploit the potential benefits of existing bioresource patrimony at the national and international levels. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI), which aims to become a major interface between biological samples and data and top-level biological and medical research, is undertaking the crucial transformation to the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) legal entity. In this scenario, there is a need to address the national legal and ethical concerns that are strictly correlated with the use of human biosources in research across European countries participating (and not) in BBMRI. In this perspective, this article aims to review the legal framework applying to research biobanking in Italy, including both “soft” nonbinding instruments and binding regulations. Since ethical and societal aspects impact biobanking research activities, the article discusses both the critical ethical and legal open issues that need to be implemented at the national level. PMID:23840925

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 51: An analysis of the effectiveness of automated pre-, post- and intra-treatment auditing of electronic health records

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, A.; Seuntjens, J.; Parker, W.; Kildea, J.; Freeman, C.

    2014-08-15

    We describe development of automated, web-based, electronic health record (EHR) auditing software for use within our paperless radiation oncology clinic. By facilitating access to multiple databases within the clinic, each patient's EHR is audited prior to treatment, regularly during treatment, and post treatment. Anomalies such as missing documentation, non-compliant workflow and treatment parameters that differ significantly from the norm may be monitored, flagged and brought to the attention of clinicians. By determining historical trends using existing patient data and by comparing new patient data with the historical, we expect our software to provide a measurable improvement in the quality of radiotherapy at our centre.

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 07: Simultaneous reconstruction of both true and scattered coincidences using a Generalized Scatter reconstruction algorithm in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, H; Pistorious, S

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: Scattered coincidences in PET are generally taken as noise, which reduces image contrast and compromises quantification. We have developed a method, with promising results, to reconstruct activity distribution from scattered PET events instead of simply correcting for them. The implementation of this method on clinical PET scanners is however limited by the currently available detector energy resolution. With low energy resolution we lose the ability to distinguish scattered coincidences from true events based on the measured photon energy. In addition the two circular arcs used to confine the source position for a scattered event cannot be accurately defined. Method: This paper presents a modification to this approach which accounts for limited energy resolution. A measured event is split into a true and a scattered component each with different probabilities based on the position of the pair of photon energies in the energy spectrum. For the scattered component, we model the photon energy with a Gaussian distribution and the upper and lower energy limits can be estimated and used to define inner and outer circular arcs to confine the source position. The true and scattered components for each measured event were reconstructed using our Generalized Scatter reconstruction algorithm. Results and Conclusion: The results show that the contrast and noise properties were improved by 6–9% and 2–4% respectively. This demonstrates that the performance of the algorithm is less sensitive to the energy resolution and that incorporating scattered photons into reconstruction brings more benefits than simply rejecting them.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 33: The Influence of a Modeled Treatment Couch on Dose Distributions During IMRT and RapidArc Treatment Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Aldosary, Ghada; Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Moftah, Belal; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-08-15

    Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 06: Dose assessment of cone beam CT imaging protocols as part of SPECT/CT examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkopi, E; Ross, AA

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To assess radiation dose from the cone beam CT (CBCT) component of SPECT/CT studies and to compare with other CT examinations performed in our institution. Methods: We used an anthropomorphic chest phantom and the 6 cc ion chamber to measure entrance breast dose for several CBCT and diagnostic CT acquisition protocols. The CBCT effective dose was calculated with ImPACT software; the CT effective dose was evaluated from the DLP value and conversion factor, dependent on the anatomic region. The RADAR medical procedure radiation dose calculator was used to assess the nuclear medicine component of exam dose. Results: The entrance dose to the breast measured with the anthropomorphic phantom was 0.48 mGy and 9.41 mGy for cardiac and chest CBCT scans; and 4.59 mGy for diagnostic thoracic CT. The effective doses were 0.2 mSv, 3.2 mSv and 2.8 mSv respectively. For a small patient represented by the anthropomorphic phantom, the dose from the diagnostic CT was lower than from the CBCT scan, as a result of the exposure reduction options available on modern CT scanners. The CBCT protocols used the same fixed scanning techniques. The diagnostic CT dose based on the patient data was 35% higher than the phantom dose. For most SPECT/CT studies the dose from the CBCT component was comparable with the dose from the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusions: The patient radiation dose from the cone beam CT scan can be higher than that from a diagnostic CT and should be taken into consideration in evaluating total SPECT/CT patient dose.

  13. Poster — Thur Eve — 44: Linearization of Compartmental Models for More Robust Estimates of Regional Hemodynamic, Metabolic and Functional Parameters using DCE-CT/PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blais, AR; Dekaban, M; Lee, T-Y

    2014-08-15

    Quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data usually involves minimizing a cost function with nonlinear regression, wherein the choice of starting parameter values and the presence of local minima affect the bias and variability of the estimated kinetic parameters. These nonlinear methods can also require lengthy computation time, making them unsuitable for use in clinical settings. Kinetic modeling of PET aims to estimate the rate parameter k{sub 3}, which is the binding affinity of the tracer to a biological process of interest and is highly susceptible to noise inherent in PET image acquisition. We have developed linearized kinetic models for kinetic analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT)/PET imaging, including a 2-compartment model for DCE-CT and a 3-compartment model for PET. Use of kinetic parameters estimated from DCE-CT can stabilize the kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data, allowing for more robust estimation of k{sub 3}. Furthermore, these linearized models are solved with a non-negative least squares algorithm and together they provide other advantages including: 1) only one possible solution and they do not require a choice of starting parameter values, 2) parameter estimates are comparable in accuracy to those from nonlinear models, 3) significantly reduced computational time. Our simulated data show that when blood volume and permeability are estimated with DCE-CT, the bias of k{sub 3} estimation with our linearized model is 1.97 ± 38.5% for 1,000 runs with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. In summary, we have developed a computationally efficient technique for accurate estimation of k{sub 3} from noisy dynamic PET data.

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 31: Dosimetric Effect of Respiratory Motion on RapidArc Lung SBRT Treatment Delivered by TrueBeam Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Runqing; Zhan, Lixin; Osei, Ernest

    2014-08-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) allows fast delivery of stereotactic radiotherapy. However, the discrepancies between the calculated and delivered dose distributions due to respiratory motion and dynamic multileaf collimators (MLCs) interplay are not avoidable. The purpose of this study is to investigate RapidArc lung SBRT treatment delivered by the flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and flattened beam with Varian TrueBeam machine. CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom with in-house made lung tumor insertion was CT scanned both in free breathing and 4DCT. 4DCT was used to determine the internal target volume. The free breathing CT scan was used for treatment planning. A 5 mm margin was given to ITV to generate a planning target volume. Varian Eclipse treatment planning was used to generate RapidArc plans based on the 6 MV flattened beam and 6MV FFF beam. The prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions. At least 95% of PTV was covered by the prescribed dose. The RapidArc plans with 6 MV flattened beam and 6MV FFF beam were delivered with Varian TrueBeam machine. The dosimetric measurements were performed with Gafchromic XR-RV3 film, which was placed in the lung tumor insertion. The interplay between the dynamic MLC-based delivery of VMAT and the respiratory motion of the tumor degraded target coverage and created undesired hot or cold dose spots inside the lung tumor. Lung SBRT RapidArc treatments delivered by the FFF beam of TrueBeam linear accelerator is superior to the flattened beam. Further investigation will be performed by Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Properties of Discrete and Axisymmetric Features in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Observations of Thermal Emission: Recent Updates on the Eve of the Juno Mission Arrival at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, G. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Giles, R.; Sinclair, J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Momary, T.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fisher, B.; Payne, A.; Seede, R.; Simon, J.; Lai, M.; Nguyen, M.; Fernandez, J.; Baines, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    We have derived the spatial distribution and evolution of key properties of Jupiter's atmosphere through the analysis of imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopy of its thermal emission. These observations and their analysis represent a source of data we plan to acquire as a key component of support for the Juno mission's atmospheric investigation. From thermal imaging and spectroscopy in the 7-25 µm region, we can derive temperatures between 10 and 500 mbar atmospheric pressure, cloud opacities between 500 mbar and 5 bars, the para-H2 fraction near 300 mbar, the 100-400 mbar distributions of ammonia and phosphine, and the distribution of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere (~1 µbar - 10 mbar). Earlier work determined atmospheric properties of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (Fletcher et al. 2010, Icarus 208, 306) and the evolution of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) fade (whitening) in 2009-2010 (Fletcher et al. 2011 Icarus, 213, 564). We will illustrate recent results from an examination of (1) the revival (re-darkening) of the SEB in 2010-2011, (2) discovery of uniquely dry regions of the atmosphere that are identified with visible "brown barges" typically located at the northern edge of Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt (NEB), (3) vertical structure of stratospheric waves constituting Jupiter's Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) (Leovy et al. 1991, Nature 354, 380), and (4) previously unsuspected long-term tropospheric thermal waves uncovered in our multi-year program covering well over a Jovian year. Efforts are underway to provide mission-supporting observations using mid-infrared facility and guest instruments at several observatories during the 14-day orbits of the Juno mission, particularly - but not exclusively - the early orbits dedicated to remote sensing observations.

  16. "As I deeply understand the importance and greatly admire the poetry of experiment..." (on the eve of P N Lebedev's anniversary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    Whatever we think of the eminent Russian physicist P N Lebedev, whatever our understanding of how his work was affected by circumstances in and outside of Russia, whatever value is placed on the basic elements of his twenty-year career and personal life and of his great successes and, happily, not so great failures, and whatever the stories of his happy times and his countless misfortunes, one thing remains clear — P N Lebedev's skill and talent served well to foster the development of global science and to improve the reputation of Russia as a scientific nation.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 67: Tangential Modulated Arc Therapy (TMAT): A Novel Technique using Megavoltage Photons for the Treatment of Superficial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hadsell, M; Xing, L; Bush, K

    2014-08-15

    We propose a new type of treatment that employs a modulated tangential photon field to provide superior coverage of complex superficial targets when compared to other commonly employed methods, and drastically reduce dose to the underlying sensitive structures often present in these cases. TMAT plans were formulated for a set of four representative cases: 1. Scalp sarcoma, 2. Posterior chest-wall sarcoma, 3. Pleural mesothelioma with intact lung, 4. Chest-wall with deep inframammary nodes. For these cases, asymmetric jaw placement, angular limitations, and central isocenter placements were used to force optimization solutions with beam lines tangential to the body surface. When compared with unrestricted modulated arcs, the tangential arc scalp treatment reduced the max and mean doses delivered to the brain by 33Gy (from 55Gy to 22Gy) and 6Gy (from 14Gy to 8Gy), respectively. In the posterior chest wall case, the V10 for the ipsilateral lung was kept below 5% impressively while retaining the 45Gy target prescription coverage by over 97%. For the breast chest-wall case, the TMAT plan achieved reductions in high dose to the ipsilateral lung and heart by a factor of 2–3 when compared to classic, laterally opposed, tangents and reduced the V5 by 40% when compared to standard modulated arcs. TMAT has outperformed the conventional modalities of treatment for superficial lesions used in our clinic. We hope that with the advent of digitally controlled linear accelerators, we can uncover further benefits of this new technique and extend its applicability to a wider section of the patient population.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 45: Comparison of different Monte Carlo methods of scoring linear energy transfer in modulated proton therapy beams

    SciTech Connect

    Granville, DA; Sawakuchi, GO

    2014-08-15

    In this work, we demonstrate inconsistencies in commonly used Monte Carlo methods of scoring linear energy transfer (LET) in proton therapy beams. In particle therapy beams, the LET is an important parameter because the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on it. LET is often determined using Monte Carlo techniques. We used a realistic Monte Carlo model of a proton therapy nozzle to score proton LET in spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) depth-dose distributions. We used three different scoring and calculation techniques to determine average LET at varying depths within a 140 MeV beam with a 4 cm SOBP and a 250 MeV beam with a 10 cm SOBP. These techniques included fluence-weighted (Φ-LET) and dose-weighted average (D-LET) LET calculations from: 1) scored energy spectra converted to LET spectra through a lookup table, 2) directly scored LET spectra and 3) accumulated LET scored ‘on-the-fly’ during simulations. All protons (primary and secondary) were included in the scoring. Φ-LET was found to be less sensitive to changes in scoring technique than D-LET. In addition, the spectral scoring methods were sensitive to low-energy (high-LET) cutoff values in the averaging. Using cutoff parameters chosen carefully for consistency between techniques, we found variations in Φ-LET values of up to 1.6% and variations in D-LET values of up to 11.2% for the same irradiation conditions, depending on the method used to score LET. Variations were largest near the end of the SOBP, where the LET and energy spectra are broader.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 48: Dosimetric dependence on bone backscatter in orthovoltage radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo photon fluence spectral study

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J; Grigor, G

    2014-08-15

    This study investigated dosimetric impact due to the bone backscatter in orthovoltage radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate depth doses and photon fluence spectra using the EGSnrc-based code. Inhomogeneous bone phantom containing a thin water layer (1–3 mm) on top of a bone (1 cm) to mimic the treatment sites of forehead, chest wall and kneecap was irradiated by the 220 kVp photon beam produced by the Gulmay D3225 x-ray machine. Percentage depth doses and photon energy spectra were determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Results of percentage depth doses showed that the maximum bone dose was about 210–230% larger than the surface dose in the phantoms with different water thicknesses. Surface dose was found to be increased from 2.3 to 3.5%, when the distance between the phantom surface and bone was increased from 1 to 3 mm. This increase of surface dose on top of a bone was due to the increase of photon fluence intensity, resulting from the bone backscatter in the energy range of 30 – 120 keV, when the water thickness was increased. This was also supported by the increase of the intensity of the photon energy spectral curves at the phantom and bone surface as the water thickness was increased. It is concluded that if the bone inhomogeneity during the dose prescription in the sites of forehead, chest wall and kneecap with soft tissue thickness = 1–3 mm is not considered, there would be an uncertainty in the dose delivery.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 35: The impact of intensity- and energy-modulated photon radiotherapy (XMRT) optimization on a variety of organ geometries

    SciTech Connect

    McGeachy, P.; Villarreal-Barajas, J. E.; Khan, R.; Zinchenko, Y.

    2014-08-15

    We previously reported on a novel, modulated in both energy and intensity; photon radiotherapy (XMRT) optimization technique. The purpose of this investigation was to test this XMRT optimization against conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) optimization on four different organ test geometries. All geometries mimicked clinically relevant scenarios. Both IMRT and XMRT were based on a linear programming approach where the objective function was the mean dose to healthy organs and organ-specific linear dose-point constraints were used. For IMRT, the beam energy was fixed to 6 MV while XMRT optimized in terms of both 6 and 18 MV beams. All plans consisted of a seven beam coplanar arrangement. All organ geometries were contoured on a 25cm diameter cylindrical water phantom in open source radiotherapy research software known as CERR. Solutions for both IMRT and XMRT were obtained for each geometry using a numerical solver Gurobi. Analyzing the quality of the solutions was done by comparing dose distributions and dose volume histograms calculated using CERR. For all four geometries, IMRT and XMRT solutions were comparable in terms of target coverage. For two of the geometries, IMRT provided an advantage in terms of reduced dose to the healthy structures. XMRT showed improved dose reduction to healthy organs for one geometry and a comparable dose distribution to IMRT for the remaining geometry. The inability to exploit the benefits of using multiple energies may be attributed to limited water phantom diameter and having the majority of the organs in close proximity to the transverse axis.

  1. Poster — Thur Eve — 36: Implementation of constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) for thoracic esophageal carcinoma on Varian 23EX

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ruohui; Fan, Xiaomei; Bai, Wenwen; Han, Chun

    2014-08-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to propose an alternative planning approach for VMAT using constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) implementation on conventional Linac Varian 23EX and used IMRT as a benchmark to evaluate the performance. Methods and materials: Eighteen patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma who were previously treated with IMRT on Varian 23EX were retrospectively planned for CDR-CAS-IMAT plans. Dose prescription was set to 60 Gy to PTVs in 30 fractions. The planning objectives for PTVs and OAR were corresponding with the IMRT plans. Dose to the PTVs and OAR were compared to IMRT with respect to plan quality, MU, treatment time and delivery accuracy. Results: CDR-CAS-IMAT plans led to equivalent or superior plan quality as compared to IMRT, PTV's CI relative increased 16.2%, while small deviations were observed on minimum dose for PTV. Volumes in the cord receiving 40Gy were increased from 3.6% with IMRT to 7.0%. Treatment times were reduced significantly with CDR-CAS-IMAT(mean 85.7s vs. 232.1s, p < .05), however, MU increased by a factor of 1.3 and lung V10/5/3.5/aver were relative increase 6.7%,12%,17.9%,4.2%, respectively. And increased the E-P low dose area volume decreased the hight dose area. There were no significant difference in Delta4 measurements results between both planning techniques. Conclusion: CDR-CAS-IMAT plans can be implemented smoothly and quickly into a busy cancer center, which improved PTV CI and reduces treatment time but increased the MU and low dose irradiated area. An evaluation of weight loss must be performed during treatment for CDR-CAS-IMAT patients.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 28: Enabling trajectory-based radiotherapy on a TrueBeam accelerator with the Eclipse treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J; Asiev, K; DeBlois, F; Morcos, M; Seuntjens, J; Syme, A

    2014-08-15

    The TrueBeam linear accelerator platform has a developer's mode which permits the user dynamic control over many of the machine's mechanical and radiation systems. Using this research tool, synchronous couch and gantry motion can be programmed to simulate isocentric treatment with a shortened SAD, with benefits such as smaller projected MLC leaf widths and an increased dose rate. In this work, water tank measurements were used to commission a virtual linear accelerator with an 85 cm SAD in Eclipse, from which several arc-based radiotherapy treatments were generated, including an inverse optimized VMAT delivery. For each plan, the pertinent treatment delivery information was extracted from control points specified in the Eclipse-exported DICOM files using the pydicom package in Python, allowing construction of an XML control file. The dimensions of the jaws and MLC positions, defined for an 85 cm SAD in Eclipse, were scaled for delivery on a conventional SAD linear accelerator, and translational couch motion was added as a function of gantry angle to simulate delivery at 85 cm SAD. Ionization chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were used to compare the radiation delivery to dose calculations in Eclipse. With the exception of the VMAT delivery, ionization chamber measurements agreed within 3.3% of the Eclipse calculations. For the VMAT delivery, the ionization chamber was located in an inhomogeneous region, but gamma evaluation of the Gafchromic film plane resulted in a 94.5% passing rate using criteria of 3 mm/3%. The results indicate that Eclipse calculation infrastructure can be used.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 23: Dose and Position Quality Assurance using the RADPOS System for 4D Radiotherapy with CyberKnife

    SciTech Connect

    Marants, R; Vandervoort, E; Cygler, J E

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: RADPOS 4D dosimetry system consists of a microMOSFET dosimeter combined with an electromagnetic positioning sensor, which allows for performing real-time dose and position measurements simultaneously. In this report the use of RADPOS as an independent quality assurance (QA) tool during CyberKnife 4D radiotherapy treatment is described. In addition to RADPOS, GAFCHROMIC® films were used for simultaneous dose measurement. Methods: RADPOS and films were calibrated in a Solid Water® phantom at 1.5 cm depth, SAD= 80 cm, using 60 mm cone. CT based treatment plan was created for a Solid Water® breast phantom containing metal fiducials and RADPOS probe. Dose calculations were performed using iPlan pencil beam algorithm. Before the treatment delivery, GAFCHROMIC® film was inserted inside the breast phantom, next to the RADPOS probe. Then the phantom was positioned on the chest platform of the QUASAR, to which Synchrony LED optical markers were also attached. Position logging began for RADPOS and the Synchrony tracking system, the QUASAR motion was initiated and the treatment was delivered. Results: RADPOS position measurements very closely matched the LED marker positions recorded by the Synchrony camera tracking system. The RADPOS measured dose was 2.5% higher than the average film measured dose, which is within the experimental uncertainties. Treatment plan calculated dose was 4.1 and 1.6% lower than measured by RADPOS and film, respectively. This is most likely due to the inferior nature of the dose calculation algorithm. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that RADPOS system is a useful tool for independent QA of CyberKnife treatments.

  4. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 30: 4D VMAT dose calculation methodology to investigate the interplay effect: experimental validation using TrueBeam Developer Mode and Gafchromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Teke, T; Milette, MP; Huang, V; Thomas, SD

    2014-08-15

    The interplay effect between the tumor motion and the radiation beam modulation during a VMAT treatment delivery alters the delivered dose distribution from the planned one. This work present and validate a method to accurately calculate the dose distribution in 4D taking into account the tumor motion, the field modulation and the treatment starting phase. A QUASAR™ respiratory motion phantom was 4D scanned with motion amplitude of 3 cm and with a 3 second period. A static scan was also acquired with the lung insert and the tumor contained in it centered. A VMAT plan with a 6XFFF beam was created on the averaged CT and delivered on a Varian TrueBeam and the trajectory log file was saved. From the trajectory log file 10 VMAT plans (one for each breathing phase) and a developer mode XML file were created. For the 10 VMAT plans, the tumor motion was modeled by moving the isocentre on the static scan, the plans were re-calculated and summed in the treatment planning system. In the developer mode, the tumor motion was simulated by moving the couch dynamically during the treatment. Gafchromic films were placed in the QUASAR phantom static and irradiated using the developer mode. Different treatment starting phase were investigated (no phase shift, maximum inhalation and maximum exhalation). Calculated and measured isodose lines and profiles are in very good agreement. For each starting phase, the dose distribution exhibit significant differences but are accurately calculated with the methodology presented in this work.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 39: Feasibility of Commissioning HybridArc with the Delta 4 two plane diode phantom: comparisons with Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Bojechko, C.; Ploquin, N.; Hudson, A.; Sayous, Y.

    2014-08-15

    HybridArc is a relatively novel radiation therapy technique which combines optimized dynamic conformai arcs (DCA) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). HybridArc has possible dosimetry and efficiency advantages over stand alone DCA and IMRT treatments and can be readily implemented on any linac capable of DCA and IMRT, giving strong motivation to commission the modality. The Delta4 phantom (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden) has been used for IMRT and VMAT clinical dosimetric verification making it a candidate for HybridArc commissioning. However the HybridArc modality makes use of several non co-planar arcs which creates setup issues due to the geometry of the Delta4, resulting in possible phantom gantry collisions for plans with non-zero couch angles. An analysis was done determining the feasibility of using the Delta4 fixed at 0° couch angle compared with results obtained using Gafchromic ETB2 film (Ashland, Covington Kentucky) in an anthropomorphic phantom at the planned couch angles. A gamma index analysis of the measured and planned dose distributions was done using Delta4 and DoseLab Pro (Mobius Medical Systems, Houston Texas) software. For both arc and IMRT sub-fields there is reasonable correlation between the gamma index found from the Delta4 and Gafchromic film. All results show the feasibility of using the Delta4 for HybridArc commissioning.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 26: Evaluation of lens dose from anterior electron beams: comparison of Pinnacle and Gafchromic EBT3 film

    SciTech Connect

    Sanier, M; Wronski, M; Yeboah, C

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this work is twofold: 1) to measure dose profiles under lead shielding at the level of the lens for a range of clinical electron energies via film dosimetry; and, 2) to assess the validity of the Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) in calculating the penumbral doses under lead shielding with the heterogeneous electron algorithm. First, a film calibration curve that spanned the electron energies of interest, 6–18MeV, was created. Next, EBT3 film and lead shielding were incorporated into a solid water phantom with the film positioned 7mm below the lead and a variable thickness of bolus on top. This geometry was reproduced in the Pinnacle TPS and used to calculate dose profiles using the heterogeneous electron algorithm. The measured vs. calculated dose profiles were normalized to d{sub max} in a homogeneous phantom with no lead shielding and compared. Pinnacle consistently overestimated the dose distal to the lead shielding with significant discrepancies occurring near the edge of the lead shield reaching 25% at the edge and 35% in the open field region. The film measurements showed that a minimum lead margin of 5mm extending beyond the diameter of the lens is required to adequately shield the lens to ≤10% of the dose at d{sub max}. These measurements allow for a reasonable estimate of the dose to the lens from anterior electron beams. They also allow for clinicians to assess the extent of the lead margin required to reduce the lens dose to an acceptable amount prior to radiotherapy treatment.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 46: Monte Carlo model of the Novalis Classic 6MV stereotactic linear accelerator using the GATE simulation platform

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, J; Ploquin, N

    2014-08-15

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is accepted as the most accurate method to predict dose deposition when compared to other methods in radiation treatment planning. Current dose calculation algorithms used for treatment planning can become inaccurate when small radiation fields and tissue inhomogeneities are present. At our centre the Novalis Classic linear accelerator (linac) is used for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS). The first MC model to date of the Novalis Classic linac was developed at our centre using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) simulation platform. GATE is relatively new, open source MC software built from CERN's Geometry and Tracking 4 (Geant4) toolkit. The linac geometry was modeled using manufacturer specifications, as well as in-house measurements of the micro MLC's. Among multiple model parameters, the initial electron beam was adjusted so that calculated depth dose curves agreed with measured values. Simulations were run on the European Grid Infrastructure through GateLab. Simulation time is approximately 8 hours on GateLab for a complete head model simulation to acquire a phase space file. Current results have a majority of points within 3% of the measured dose values for square field sizes ranging from 6×6 mm{sup 2} to 98×98 mm{sup 2} (maximum field size on the Novalis Classic linac) at 100 cm SSD. The x-ray spectrum was determined from the MC data as well. The model provides an investigation into GATE'S capabilities and has the potential to be used as a research tool and an independent dose calculation engine for clinical treatment plans.

  9. Aggregation server for grid-integrated vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-05-26

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for aggregating electric power flow between an electric grid and electric vehicles are disclosed. An apparatus for aggregating power flow may include a memory and a processor coupled to the memory to receive electric vehicle equipment (EVE) attributes from a plurality of EVEs, aggregate EVE attributes, predict total available capacity based on the EVE attributes, and dispatch at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid. Power flow may be aggregated by receiving EVE operational parameters from each EVE, aggregating the received EVE operational parameters, predicting total available capacity based on the aggregated EVE operational parameters, and dispatching at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid.

  10. Shadow enhancers enable Hunchback bifunctionality in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Staller, Max V.; Vincent, Ben J.; Bragdon, Meghan D. J.; Lydiard-Martin, Tara; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H.

    2015-01-01

    Hunchback (Hb) is a bifunctional transcription factor that activates and represses distinct enhancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Hb can activate and repress the same enhancer. Computational models predicted that Hb bifunctionally regulates the even-skipped (eve) stripe 3+7 enhancer (eve3+7) in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We measured and modeled eve expression at cellular resolution under multiple genetic perturbations and found that the eve3+7 enhancer could not explain endogenous eve stripe 7 behavior. Instead, we found that eve stripe 7 is controlled by two enhancers: the canonical eve3+7 and a sequence encompassing the minimal eve stripe 2 enhancer (eve2+7). Hb bifunctionally regulates eve stripe 7, but it executes these two activities on different pieces of regulatory DNA—it activates the eve2+7 enhancer and represses the eve3+7 enhancer. These two “shadow enhancers” use different regulatory logic to create the same pattern. PMID:25564665

  11. OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE-MINUTE SOLAR OSCILLATIONS IN THE CORONA USING THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ESP) ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT (SDO/EVE)

    SciTech Connect

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Woods, T.

    2011-09-01

    We report on the detection of oscillations in the corona in the frequency range corresponding to five-minute acoustic modes of the Sun. The oscillations have been observed using soft X-ray measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) of the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The ESP zeroth-order channel observes the Sun as a star without spatial resolution in the wavelength range of 0.1-7.0 nm (the energy range is 0.18-12.4 keV). The amplitude spectrum of the oscillations calculated from six-day time series shows a significant increase in the frequency range of 2-4 mHz. We interpret this increase as a response of the corona to solar acoustic (p) modes and attempt to identify p-mode frequencies among the strongest peaks. Due to strong variability of the amplitudes and frequencies of the five-minute oscillations in the corona, we study how the spectrum from two adjacent six-day time series combined together affects the number of peaks associated with the p-mode frequencies and their amplitudes. This study shows that five-minute oscillations of the Sun can be observed in the corona in variations of the soft X-ray emission. Further investigations of these oscillations may improve our understanding of the interaction of the oscillation modes with the solar atmosphere, and the interior-corona coupling, in general.

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 64: Preliminary investigation of arc configurations for optimal sparing of normal tissue in hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HF-SRT) of multiple brain metastases using a 5mm interdigitating micro-multileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Leavens, C; Wronski, M; Lee, YK; Ruschin, M; Soliman, H; Sahgal, A

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue sparing in intra-cranial HF-SRT, comparing various arc configurations with the Synergy Beam Modulator (SynBM) and Agility linacs, the latter incorporating leaf interdigitation and backup jaws. Methods: Five patients with multiple brain metastases (BMs), (5 BMs (n=2), 3 BMs (n=3)) treated with HF-SRT using 25 Gy (n=2) or 30 Gy (n=3) in 5 fractions, were investigated. Clinical treatment plans used the SynBM. Each patient was retrospectively re-planned on Agility, employing three planning strategies: (A) one isocenter and dedicated arc for each BM; (B) a single isocenter, centrally placed with respect to BMs; (C) the isocenter and arc configuration used in the SynBM plan, where closely spaced (<5cm) BMs used a dedicated isocenter and arcs. Agility plans were normalized for PTV coverage and heterogeneity. Results and Conclusion: Strategy A obtained the greatest improvements over the SynBM plan, where the maximum OAR dose, and mean dose to normal brain (averaged for all patients) were reduced by 55cGy and 25cGy, respectively. Strategy B was limited by having a single isocenter, hence less jaw shielding and increased MLC leakage. The maximum OAR dose was reduced by 13cGy, however mean dose to normal brain increased by 84cGy. Strategy C reduced the maximum OAR dose and mean dose to normal brain by 32cGy and 9cGy, respectively. The results from this study indicate that, for intra-cranial HF-SRT of multiple BMs, Agility plans are equal or better than SynBM plans. Further planning is needed to investigate dose sparing using Strategy A and the SynBM.

  13. Poster — Thur Eve — 03: Application of the non-negative matrix factorization technique to [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET data for the early detection of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Chang; Jans, Hans; McEwan, Sandy; Riauka, Terence; Martin, Wayne; Wieler, Marguerite

    2014-08-15

    In this work, a class of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) technique known as alternating non-negative least squares, combined with the projected gradient method, is used to analyze twenty-five [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET/CT brain data. For each subject, a two-factor model is assumed and two factors representing the striatum (factor 1) and the non-striatum (factor 2) tissues are extracted using the proposed NMF technique and commercially available factor analysis software “Pixies”. The extracted factor 1 and 2 curves represent the binding site of the radiotracer and describe the uptake and clearance of the radiotracer by soft tissues in the brain, respectively. The proposed NMF technique uses prior information about the dynamic data to obtain sample time-activity curves representing the striatum and the non-striatum tissues. These curves are then used for “warm” starting the optimization. Factor solutions from the two methods are compared graphically and quantitatively. In healthy subjects, radiotracer uptake by factors 1 and 2 are approximately 35–40% and 60–65%, respectively. The solutions are also used to develop a factor-based metric for the detection of early, untreated Parkinson's disease. The metric stratifies healthy subjects from suspected Parkinson's patients (based on the graphical method). The analysis shows that both techniques produce comparable results with similar computational time. The “semi-automatic” approach used by the NMF technique allows clinicians to manually set a starting condition for “warm” starting the optimization in order to facilitate control and efficient interaction with the data.

  14. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913-1916.

    PubMed

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea. PMID:25067890

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 10: Partial kV CBCT, complete kV CBCT and EPID in breast treatment: a dose comparison study for skin, breasts, heart and lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Roussin, E; Archambault, L K; Wierzbicki, W

    2014-08-15

    The advantages of kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV CBCT) imaging over electronic portal imaging device (EPID) such as accurate 3D anatomy, soft tissue visualization, fast rigid registration and enhanced precision on patient positioning has lead to its increasing use in clinics. The benefits of this imaging technique are at the cost of increasing the dose to healthy surrounding organs. Our center has moved toward the use of daily partial rotation kV CBCT to restrict the dose to healthy tissues. This study aims to better quantify radiation doses from different image-guidance techniques such as tangential EPID, complete and partial kV CBCT for breast treatments. Cross-calibrated ionization chambers and kV calibrated Gafchromic films were used to measure the dose to the heart, lungs, breasts and skin. It was found that performing partial kV CBCT decreases the heart dose by about 36%, the lungs dose by 31%, the contralateral breast dose by 41% and the ipsilateral breast dose by 43% when compared to a full rotation CBCT. The skin dose measured for a full rotation CBCT was about 0.8 cGy for the contralateral breast and about 0.3 cGy for the ipsilateral breast. The study is still ongoing and results on skin doses for partial rotation kV CBCT as well as for tangential EPID images are upcoming.

  16. Poster — Thur Eve — 24: Commissioning and preliminary measurements using an Attix-style free air ionization chamber for air kerma measurements on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D; McEwen, M; Shen, H; Siegbahn, EA; Fallone, BG; Warkentin, B

    2014-08-15

    Synchrotron facilities, including the Canadian Light Source (CLS), provide opportunities for the development of novel imaging and therapy applications. A vital step progressing these applications toward clinical trials is the availability of accurate dosimetry. In this study, a refurbished Attix-style (cylindrical) free air chamber (FAC) is tested and used for preliminary air kerma measurements on the two BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the CLS. The FAC consists of a telescoping chamber that relies on a difference measurement of collected charge in expanded and collapsed configurations. At the National Research Council's X-ray facility, a Victoreen Model 480 FAC was benchmarked against two primary standard FACs. The results indicated an absolute accuracy at the 0.5% level for energies between 60 and 150 kVp. A series of measurements were conducted on the small, non-uniform X-ray beams of the 05B1-1 (∼8 – 100 keV) and 05ID-2 (∼20 – 200 keV) beamlines for a variety of energies, filtrations and beam sizes. For the 05B1-1 beam with 1.1 mm of Cu filtration, recombination corrections of less than 5 % could only be achieved for field sizes no greater than 0.5 mm × 0.6 mm (corresponding to an air kerma rate of ∼ 57 Gy/min). Ionic recombination thus presents a significant challenge to obtaining accurate air kerma rate measurements using this FAC in these high intensity beams. Future work includes measurements using a smaller aperture to sample a smaller and thus more uniform beam area, as well as experimental and Monte Carlo-based investigation of correction factors.

  17. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913–1916

    PubMed Central

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea. PMID:25067890

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 12: Implementation of a Clinical Lung Tumour High Dose Containment Verification Procedure using Respiratory Cone-Beam CT (4DCBCT) on a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, J.; Bergman, A.

    2014-08-15

    Lung tumours move due to respiratory motion. This is managed during planning by acquiring a 4DCT and capturing the excursion of the GTV (gross tumour volume) throughout the breathing cycle within an IGTV (Internal Gross Tumour Volume) contour. Patients undergo a verification cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan immediately prior to treatment. 3D reconstructed images do not consider tumour motion, resulting in image artefacts, such as blurring. This may lead to difficulty in identifying the tumour on reconstructed images. It would be valuable to create a 4DCBCT reconstruction of the tumour motion to confirm that does indeed remain within the planned IGTV. CBCT projections of a Quasar Respiratory Motion Phantom are acquired in Treatment mode (half-fan scan) on a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. This phantom contains a mobile, low-density lung insert with an embedded 3cm diameter tumour object. It is programmed to create a 15s periodic, 2cm (sup/inf) displacement. A Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) tracking-box is placed on the phantom breathing platform. Breathing phase information is automatically integrated into the projection image files. Using in-house Matlab programs and RTK (Reconstruction Tool Kit) open-source toolboxes, the projections are re-binned into 10 phases and a 4DCBCT scan reconstructed. The planning IGTV is registered to the 4DCBCT and the tumour excursion is verified to remain within the planned contour. This technique successfully reconstructs 4DCBCT images using clinical modes for a breathing phantom. UBC-BCCA ethics approval has been obtained to perform 4DCBCT reconstructions on lung patients (REB#H12-00192). Clinical images will be accrued starting April 2014.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 62: A Retrospective Assessment of the Prevalence and Dosimetric Effect of Lateral Electron Disequilibrium in a Population of Lung Cancer Patients Treated by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Disher, Brandon; Wade, Laura; Hajdok, George; Gaede, Stewart; Battista, Jerry J.; Palma, David

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is a treatment option for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SBRT uses tightly conformed megavoltage (MV) x-ray beams to ablate the tumour. However, small MV x-ray fields may produce lateral electron disequilibrium (LED) within lung tissue, which can reduce the dose to tumour. The goal of this work is to estimate the prevalence of LED in NSCLC patients treated with SBRT, and determine dose effects for patients prone or averse to LED. Thirty NSCLC patients were randomly selected for analysis. 4-dimensional CT lung images were segmented into the right and left upper and lower lobes (RUL, RLL, LUL, LLL), and the right middle lobe. Dose calculations were performed using volume-modulated arc therapy in the Pinnacle{sup 3} TPS. Most tumours were located in the upper lobes (RUL 53%, LUL 27%) where density was significantly lower (RUL −808±46 HU vs. RLL −743±71 HU; LUL −808 ±56 HU vs. LLL −746±70 HU; p<0.001). In general, the prevalence of LED increased with higher beam energy. Using 6MV photons, patients with a RUL tumour experienced moderate (81 %), and mild (19%) levels of LED. At 18MV, LED became more prominent with severe (50%) and moderate (50%) LED exhibited. Dosimetrically, for patients prone to LED, poorer target coverage (i.e. increased R100 by 20%) and improved lung sparing (i.e. reduced V20 by −46%) was observed. The common location of lung cancers in the upper lobes, coupled with lower lung density, results in the potential occurrence of LED, which may underdose the tumour.

  20. Parvovirus-derived endogenous viral elements in two South American rodent genomes.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Gloria; Gifford, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    We describe endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) in the genomes of the long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) and the degu (Octodon degus). The novel EVEs include dependovirus-related elements and representatives of a clearly distinct parvovirus lineage that also has endogenous representatives in marsupial genomes. In the degu, one dependovirus-derived EVE was found to carry an intact reading frame and was differentially expressed in vivo, with increased expression in the liver. PMID:25078696

  1. Employing Virtual Humans for Education and Training in X3D/VRML Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ieronutti, Lucio; Chittaro, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Web-based education and training provides a new paradigm for imparting knowledge; students can access the learning material anytime by operating remotely from any location. Web3D open standards, such as X3D and VRML, support Web-based delivery of Educational Virtual Environments (EVEs). EVEs have a great potential for learning and training…

  2. Evidence of sympatric speciation of elderberry carlaviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new carlavirus species infecting elderberry were characterized and tentatively named as elderberry virus A-E (EVA-EVE). The genome organization of the viruses ranges between 8,540-8,628 nucleotides, excluding the polyadenylated tail. EVA, EVB and EVD share a common ancestor as do EVC and EVE, i...

  3. Educational Virtual Environments as a Lens for Understanding both Precise Repeatability and Specific Variation in Learning Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    As a global cyberinfrastructure, the Internet makes authentic digital problem spaces like educational virtual environments (EVEs) available to a wide range of classrooms, schools and education systems operating under different circumstantial, practical, social and cultural conditions. And yet, if the makers and users of EVEs both have a hand in…

  4. Susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae on coriander leaves to liquid- and vapor-phase ethanol.

    PubMed

    Krusong, Warawut; Pornpukdeewatana, Soisuda; Teerarak, Montinee

    2016-05-01

    The bio-control of ethanol on Klebsiella pneumoniae on fresh coriander leaves for significantly reducing consumer health risk was investigated. Washed and sterilized leaves of coriander were inoculated with K. pneumoniae cultured in Trypticase Soy broth. Susceptibility of the K. pneumoniae to liquid- and evaporated vapor-phase ethanol (EVE) was then examined in vitro Complete inhibition of K. pneumoniae was found with 18% (v/v) liquid ethanol. Exposure for 15 min to EVE (9.00 ± 0.8 mmol L(-1)) completely destroyed K. pneumoniae (4.04 ± 0.02 log CFU/ml) spread on Mueller Hilton agar at 30 ± 2°C. The effect of EVE with and without evaporated water vapor (EWV) on the susceptibility of K. pneumoniae on fresh coriander leaves was examined. While exposure to EVE affected the survival of K. pneumoniae, the degree of reduction depended on both the inoculation level and the EWV. Complete reduction of K. pneumoniae was achieved for the low inoculation level by EVE alone (37 ± 2% relative humidity; RH) but susceptibility was reduced with EWV (high RH; 80 ± 2%). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of inoculated coriander leaves confirm the effects of EVE in reducing levels of K. pneumoniae Exposure to EVE alone proved an effective bio-control for K. pneumoniae on fresh coriander leaves. PMID:27020413

  5. Expression of the pair-rule gene homologs runt, Pax3/7, even-skipped-1 and even-skipped-2 during larval and juvenile development of the polychaete annelid Capitella teleta does not support a role in segmentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Annelids and arthropods each possess a segmented body. Whether this similarity represents an evolutionary convergence or inheritance from a common segmented ancestor is the subject of ongoing investigation. Methods To investigate whether annelids and arthropods share molecular components that control segmentation, we isolated orthologs of the Drosophila melanogaster pair-rule genes, runt, paired (Pax3/7) and eve, from the polychaete annelid Capitella teleta and used whole mount in situ hybridization to characterize their expression patterns. Results When segments first appear, expression of the single C. teleta runt ortholog is only detected in the brain. Later, Ct-runt is expressed in the ventral nerve cord, foregut and hindgut. Analysis of Pax genes in the C. teleta genome reveals the presence of a single Pax3/7 ortholog. Ct-Pax3/7 is initially detected in the mid-body prior to segmentation, but is restricted to two longitudinal bands in the ventral ectoderm. Each of the two C. teleta eve orthologs has a unique and complex expression pattern, although there is partial overlap in several tissues. Prior to and during segment formation, Ct-eve1 and Ct-eve2 are both expressed in the bilaterial pair of mesoteloblasts, while Ct-eve1 is expressed in the descendant mesodermal band cells. At later stages, Ct-eve2 is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system, and in mesoderm along the dorsal midline. In late stage larvae and adults, Ct-eve1 and Ct-eve2 are expressed in the posterior growth zone. Conclusions C. teleta eve, Pax3/7 and runt homologs all have distinct expression patterns and share expression domains with homologs from other bilaterians. None of the pair-rule orthologs examined in C. teleta exhibit segmental or pair-rule stripes of expression in the ectoderm or mesoderm, consistent with an independent origin of segmentation between annelids and arthropods. PMID:22510249

  6. Endogenous RNA viruses of plants in insect genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from RNA viruses with no DNA stage are rare, especially those where the parental viruses possess single-strand positive-sense (ssRNA+) genomes. Here we provide evidence that EVEs that share a sequence similarity to ssRNA+viruses of plants are integrated into the genomes of a number of insects, including mosquito, fruit flies, bees, ant, silkworm, pea aphid, Monarch butterfly, and wasps. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis places these EVEs as divergent relatives of the Virgaviridae and three currently unclassified plant viral species. PMID:22410578

  7. Impulsivity, intelligence, and discriminating reinforcement contingencies in a fixed-ratio 3 schedule.

    PubMed

    Lozano Bleda, José Héctor; Pérez Nieto, Miguel Angel

    2012-11-01

    Research conducted in academic contexts suggests a moderating effect of impulsive behavior on the relationship between aptitude and achievement. According to these studies, intelligence scores being equal, higher levels of impulsivity have an adverse effect on achievement (Helmers, Young, & Pihl, 1995; Vigil-Colet & Morales-Vives, 2005; Zeidner, 1995). The present study aims to contrast the aforementioned moderator effect in the context of a discriminant learning task, carried out under a fixed-ratio 3 reinforcement schedule. To that end, an impulsive behavioral pattern was identified in a sample of 1,600 participants' task execution based on response rate and latency. Said pattern was consistent and stable across several trials and can be ascribed to subjects' interactive style (Hernández, 2000). The observed interaction effect supports the hypothesis that impulsivity has a moderating effect on the aptitude-achievement relationship, highlighting how it impacts achievement differentially depending on the subject's level of aptitude. PMID:23156902

  8. Conversation Currents: Learning from Families and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Gregory, Eve

    2013-01-01

    This column features two prominent literacy scholars, Catherine Compton-Lilly and Eve Gregory. They discuss their recent research studies in various contexts and describe the reciprocal relationships between school, home, and community literacy practices.

  9. 100. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 23, 1940. MEDALLION - 'EVE' - NICHE - 'ST. PAUL'. (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION). HIGH ALTAR - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  10. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, December 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, December 31, 1927 Photocopy by Lyle E. Winkle, 1969 WEATHERLY BUILDING AND ORIENTAL THEATRE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (TAKEN EVE OF THEATRE OPENING). - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. Successful First J-2X Combustion Stability Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA conducted a key stability test firing of the J-2X rocket engine Dec. 1, marking another step forward in development of the upper-stage engine that will carry humans farther into space than eve...

  12. Expedition 33/34 Change of Command

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams ceremonially handed over command of the International Space Station on Saturday to fellow NASA astronaut Kevin Ford on the eve of her departure from the comple...

  13. Incoherent and coherent eavesdropping in the six-state protocol of quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.

    1999-06-01

    All incoherent as well as 2- and 3-qubit coherent eavesdropping strategies on the six-state protocol of quantum cryptography are classified. For a disturbance of 1/6, the optimal incoherent eavesdropping strategy reduces to the universal quantum cloning machine. Coherent eavesdropping cannot increase Eve's Shannon information, neither on the entire string of bits, nor on the set of bits received undisturbed by Bob. However, coherent eavesdropping can increase as well Eve's Renyi information as her probability of guessing correctly all bits. The case that Eve delays the measurement of her probe until after the public discussion on error correction and privacy amplification is also considered. It is argued that by doing so, Eve gains only negligibly small additional information.

  14. Eavesdropping on the quantum dialogue protocol in lossy channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Lü, Hui

    2011-07-01

    We present an improved eavesdropping scheme on the quantum dialogue protocol in lossy channel, which is based on the strategies of Wójcik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 157901 (2003)] and ZML [Phys. Lett. A 333 46 (2004)] attack schemes. We show that our attack scheme doubles the domain of Eve's eavesdropping and Eve can gain more information of the communication with less risk of being detected. Finally, a possible improvement for the dialogue protocol security is proposed.

  15. Endovascular Embolization of Bronchial Artery Originating from the Upper Portion of Aortic Arch in Patients with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-05-15

    PurposeOur experience with endovascular embolization (EVE) of the bronchial artery (BA) originating from the upper portion of the aortic arch (AA) in six patients is described.MethodsAltogether, 818 patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) before EVE or AA angiography during EVE. Aberrant BAs originating from the upper portion of the AA were the source of massive hemoptysis in six patients (0.73 %). MDCT angiograms and/or Digital subtraction angiograms were retrospectively reviewed. Selective catheterization and embolization were performed.ResultsThe ostia of the BAs were located on the superior surface of the AA between the brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery in three patients, the junction of the aorta and medial surface of the left subclavian artery in two, and the posterior wall of the upper portion of the AA in one. The six BAs comprised two common trunks, three single right sides, and one single left side. The targeted vessels were successfully catheterized and embolized by a coaxial microcatheter system using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Other pathologic BAs and nonbronchial systemic arteries also were embolized. Bleeding was immediately controlled in all patients with no recurrence of hemoptysis. No procedure-related complications occurred.ConclusionsApplication of EVE of anomalous origin of BAs in patients with hemoptysis is important, as demonstrated in the six reported patients. MDCTA before EVE or AA angiography during EVE is critical to avoid missing a rare aberrant BA originating from the upper portion of the AA.

  16. A method of enciphering quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Hiroo; Ban, Masashi

    2001-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of enciphering quantum states of two-state systems (qubits) for sending them in secrecy without entangled qubits shared by two legitimate users (Alice and Bob). This method has the following two properties. First, even if an eavesdropper (Eve) steals qubits, she can extract information from them with only a certain probability at most. Second, Alice and Bob can confirm that the qubits are transmitted between them correctly by measuring a signature. If Eve measures m qubits one by one from n enciphered qubits and sends alternative ones (the intercept/resend attack), the probability that Alice and Bob do not notice Eve's action is equal to (3/4)m or less. Passwords for decryption and the signature are given by classical binary strings and they are disclosed through a public channel. Enciphering classical information by this method is equivalent to the one-time pad method with distributing a classical key (random binary string) by the BB84 protocol. If Eve takes away qubits, Alice and Bob lose the original quantum information. If we apply our method to a state in iteration, Eve's success probability decreases exponentially. We cannot examine security against the case that Eve makes an attack using entanglement. This remains to be solved in the future.

  17. Sex differences in interactions between nucleus accumbens and visual cortex by explicit visual erotic stimuli: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Jeong, B S; Choi, J; Kim, J-W

    2015-01-01

    Men tend to have greater positive responses than women to explicit visual erotic stimuli (EVES). However, it remains unclear, which brain network makes men more sensitive to EVES and which factors contribute to the brain network activity. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of sex difference on brain connectivity patterns by EVES. We also investigated the association of testosterone with brain connection that showed the effects of sex difference. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, 14 males and 14 females were asked to see alternating blocks of pictures that were either erotic or non-erotic. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was performed to investigate the functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NA) as it related to EVES. Men showed significantly greater EVES-specific functional connection between the right NA and the right lateral occipital cortex (LOC). In addition, the right NA and the right LOC network activity was positively correlated with the plasma testosterone level in men. Our results suggest that the reason men are sensitive to EVES is the increased interaction in the visual reward networks, which is modulated by their plasma testosterone level. PMID:25971857

  18. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed. PMID:25908637

  19. Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

  20. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor mediates glucocorticoid effects on hormone secretion induced by volume and osmotic changes.

    PubMed

    Ruginsk, S G; Uchoa, E T; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

    2012-02-01

    The present study provides the first in vivo evidence that the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mediates the effects of dexamethasone on hormone release induced by changes in circulating volume and osmolality. Male adult rats were administered with the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant (10 mg/Kg, p.o.), followed or not in 1 hour by dexamethasone (1 mg/Kg, i.p.). Extracellular volume expansion (EVE, 2 mL/100 g of body weight, i.v.) was performed 2 hours after dexamethasone or vehicle treatment using either isotonic (I-EVE, 0.15 mol/L) or hypertonic (H-EVE, 0.30 mol/L) NaCl solution. Five minutes after EVE, animals were decapitated and trunk blood was collected for all plasma measurements. Rimonabant potentiated oxytocin (OT) secretion induced by H-EVE and completely reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone in response to the same stimulus. These data suggest that glucocorticoid modulation of OT release is mediated by the CB(1) receptor. Although dexamethasone did not affect vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by H-EVE, the administration of rimonabant potentiated AVP release in response to the same stimulus, supporting the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor regulates AVP secretion independently of glucocorticoid-mediated signalling. Dexamethasone alone did not affect atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release stimulated by I-EVE or H-EVE. However, pretreatment with rimonabant potentiated ANP secretion induced by H-EVE, suggesting a possible role for the CB(1) receptor in the control of peripheral factors that modulate cardiovascular function. Rimonabant also reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on H-EVE-induced corticosterone secretion, reinforcing the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor may be involved in the negative feedback exerted by glucocorticoids on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that the CB(1) receptor modulates neurohypophyseal hormone secretion and

  1. A network meta-analysis of everolimus plus exemestane versus chemotherapy in the first- and second-line treatment of estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Generali, Daniele; Venturini, Sergio; Rognoni, Carla; Ciani, Oriana; Pusztai, Lajos; Loi, Sherene; Jerusalem, Guy; Bottini, Alberto; Tarricone, Rosanna

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy to exemestane plus everolimus (EXE/EVE) through a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials. NMA methods extend standard pairwise meta-analysis to allow simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments while maintaining randomization of individual studies. The method enables "direct" evidence (i.e., evidence from studies directly comparing two interventions) and "indirect" evidence (i.e., evidence from studies that do not compare the two interventions directly) to be pooled under the assumption of evidence consistency. We used NMA to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) curves in 34 studies, and response rate (RR) and the hazard ratios (HRs) of the PFS/TTP in 36 studies. A number needed to treat (NNT) analysis was also performed as well as descriptive comparison of reported toxicities. The NMA for PFS/TTP curves and for HR shows EXE/EVE is more efficacious than capecitabine plus sunitinib, CMF, megestrol acetate and tamoxifen, with an average of related-PFS/TTP difference ranging from about 10 months for capecitabine plus sunitinib to more than 6 months for tamoxifen. The NMA for overall RR shows that EXE/EVE provides a better RR than bevacizumab plus capecitabine, capecitabine, capecitabine plus sorafenib, capecitabine plus sunitinib, CMF, gemcitabine plus epirubicin plus paclitaxel, EVE plus tamoxifen, EXE, FEC, megestrol acetate, mitoxantrone, and tamoxifen. Finally, the NMA for NNT shows that EXE/EVE is more beneficial as compared to BMF, capecitabine, capecitabine plus sunitinib, CMF, FEC, megestrol acetate, mitoxantrone, and tamoxifen. The combination of EXE/EVE as first- or second-line therapy for ER+ve/HER2-ve metastatic breast cancer is more efficacious than several chemotherapy regimens that were reported in the literature. Toxicities also favored EXE/EVE in most instances. PMID:26044370

  2. Germline viral “fossils” guide in silico reconstruction of a mid-Cenozoic era marsupial adeno-associated virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard H.; Hallwirth, Claus V.; Westerman, Michael; Hetherington, Nicola A.; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Cecchini, Sylvain; Virag, Tamas; Ziegler, Mona-Larissa; Rogozin, Igor B.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Kotin, Robert M.; Alexander, Ian E.

    2016-01-01

    Germline endogenous viral elements (EVEs) genetically preserve viral nucleotide sequences useful to the study of viral evolution, gene mutation, and the phylogenetic relationships among host organisms. Here, we describe a lineage-specific, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-derived endogenous viral element (mAAV-EVE1) found within the germline of numerous closely related marsupial species. Molecular screening of a marsupial DNA panel indicated that mAAV-EVE1 occurs specifically within the marsupial suborder Macropodiformes (present-day kangaroos, wallabies, and related macropodoids), to the exclusion of other Diprotodontian lineages. Orthologous mAAV-EVE1 locus sequences from sixteen macropodoid species, representing a speciation history spanning an estimated 30 million years, facilitated compilation of an inferred ancestral sequence that recapitulates the genome of an ancient marsupial AAV that circulated among Australian metatherian fauna sometime during the late Eocene to early Oligocene. In silico gene reconstruction and molecular modelling indicate remarkable conservation of viral structure over a geologic timescale. Characterisation of AAV-EVE loci among disparate species affords insight into AAV evolution and, in the case of macropodoid species, may offer an additional genetic basis for assignment of phylogenetic relationships among the Macropodoidea. From an applied perspective, the identified AAV “fossils” provide novel capsid sequences for use in translational research and clinical applications. PMID:27377618

  3. Germline viral "fossils" guide in silico reconstruction of a mid-Cenozoic era marsupial adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard H; Hallwirth, Claus V; Westerman, Michael; Hetherington, Nicola A; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Cecchini, Sylvain; Virag, Tamas; Ziegler, Mona-Larissa; Rogozin, Igor B; Koonin, Eugene V; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Kotin, Robert M; Alexander, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    Germline endogenous viral elements (EVEs) genetically preserve viral nucleotide sequences useful to the study of viral evolution, gene mutation, and the phylogenetic relationships among host organisms. Here, we describe a lineage-specific, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-derived endogenous viral element (mAAV-EVE1) found within the germline of numerous closely related marsupial species. Molecular screening of a marsupial DNA panel indicated that mAAV-EVE1 occurs specifically within the marsupial suborder Macropodiformes (present-day kangaroos, wallabies, and related macropodoids), to the exclusion of other Diprotodontian lineages. Orthologous mAAV-EVE1 locus sequences from sixteen macropodoid species, representing a speciation history spanning an estimated 30 million years, facilitated compilation of an inferred ancestral sequence that recapitulates the genome of an ancient marsupial AAV that circulated among Australian metatherian fauna sometime during the late Eocene to early Oligocene. In silico gene reconstruction and molecular modelling indicate remarkable conservation of viral structure over a geologic timescale. Characterisation of AAV-EVE loci among disparate species affords insight into AAV evolution and, in the case of macropodoid species, may offer an additional genetic basis for assignment of phylogenetic relationships among the Macropodoidea. From an applied perspective, the identified AAV "fossils" provide novel capsid sequences for use in translational research and clinical applications. PMID:27377618

  4. Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2006-11-01

    We analyzed the security of the secure direct communication protocol based on the secret transmitting order of particles recently proposed by Zhu, Xia, Fan, and Zhang[Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006)] and found that this scheme is insecure if an eavesdropper, say Eve, wants to steal the secret message with Trojan horse attack strategies. The vital loophole in this scheme is that the two authorized users check the security of their quantum channel only once. Eve can insert another spy photon, an invisible photon, or a delay one in each photon which the sender Alice sends to the receiver Bob, and capture the spy photon when it returns from Bob to Alice. After the authorized users check the security, Eve can obtain the secret message according to the information about the transmitting order published by Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of this protocol.

  5. Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xihan; Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu

    2006-11-15

    We analyzed the security of the secure direct communication protocol based on the secret transmitting order of particles recently proposed by Zhu, Xia, Fan, and Zhang[Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006)] and found that this scheme is insecure if an eavesdropper, say Eve, wants to steal the secret message with Trojan horse attack strategies. The vital loophole in this scheme is that the two authorized users check the security of their quantum channel only once. Eve can insert another spy photon, an invisible photon, or a delay one in each photon which the sender Alice sends to the receiver Bob, and capture the spy photon when it returns from Bob to Alice. After the authorized users check the security, Eve can obtain the secret message according to the information about the transmitting order published by Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of this protocol.

  6. Incidence and time course of everolimus-related adverse events in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer: insights from BOLERO-2

    PubMed Central

    Rugo, H. S.; Pritchard, K. I.; Gnant, M.; Noguchi, S.; Piccart, M.; Hortobagyi, G.; Baselga, J.; Perez, A.; Geberth, M.; Csoszi, T.; Chouinard, E.; Srimuninnimit, V.; Puttawibul, P.; Eakle, J.; Feng, W.; Bauly, H.; El-Hashimy, M.; Taran, T.; Burris, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the BOLERO-2 trial, everolimus (EVE), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, demonstrated significant clinical benefit with an acceptable safety profile when administered with exemestane (EXE) in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer. We report on the incidence, time course, severity, and resolution of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) as well as incidence of dose modifications during the extended follow-up of this study. Patients and methods Patients were randomized (2:1) to receive EVE 10 mg/day or placebo (PBO), with open-label EXE 25 mg/day (n = 724). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. Safety evaluations included recording of AEs, laboratory values, dose interruptions/adjustments, and study drug discontinuations. Results The safety population comprised 720 patients (EVE + EXE, 482; PBO + EXE, 238). The median follow-up was 18 months. Class-effect toxicities, including stomatitis, pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia, were generally of mild or moderate severity and occurred relatively early after treatment initiation (except pneumonitis); incidence tapered off thereafter. EVE dose reduction and interruption (360 and 705 events, respectively) required for AE management were independent of patient age. The median duration of dose interruption was 7 days. Discontinuation of both study drugs because of AEs was higher with EVE + EXE (9%) versus PBO + EXE (3%). Conclusions Most EVE-associated AEs occur soon after initiation of therapy, are typically of mild or moderate severity, and are generally manageable with dose reduction and interruption. Discontinuation due to toxicity was uncommon. Understanding the time course of class-effect AEs will help inform preventive and monitoring strategies as well as patient education. Trial registration number NCT00863655. PMID:24615500

  7. Applications of the Galton Watson process to human DNA evolution and demography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Armando G. M.; Moreira, Carlos H. C.

    2006-08-01

    We show that the problem of existence of a mitochondrial Eve can be understood as an application of the Galton-Watson process and presents interesting analogies with critical phenomena in Statistical Mechanics. In the approximation of small survival probability, and assuming limited progeny, we are able to find for a genealogic tree the maximum and minimum survival probabilities over all probability distributions for the number of children per woman constrained to a given mean. As a consequence, we can relate existence of a mitochondrial Eve to quantitative demographic data of early mankind. In particular, we show that a mitochondrial Eve may exist even in an exponentially growing population, provided that the mean number of children per woman Nbar is constrained to a small range depending on the probability p that a child is a female. Assuming that the value p≈0.488 valid nowadays has remained fixed for thousands of generations, the range where a mitochondrial Eve occurs with sizeable probability is 2.0492Eve and a Y chromosome Adam. We remark why this problem may not be treated by two independent Galton-Watson processes and present some simulation results suggesting that joint existence of Eve and Adam occurs with sizeable probability in the same Nbar range. Finally, we show that the Galton-Watson process may be a useful approximation in treating biparental population models, allowing us to reproduce some results previously obtained by Chang and Derrida et al.

  8. Upconversion-based receivers for quantum hacking-resistant quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nitin; Kanter, Gregory S.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel upconversion (sum frequency generation)-based quantum-optical system design that can be employed as a receiver (Bob) in practical quantum key distribution systems. The pump governing the upconversion process is produced and utilized inside the physical receiver, making its access or control unrealistic for an external adversary (Eve). This pump facilitates several properties which permit Bob to define and control the modes that can participate in the quantum measurement. Furthermore, by manipulating and monitoring the characteristics of the pump pulses, Bob can detect a wide range of quantum hacking attacks launched by Eve.

  9. Upconversion-based receivers for quantum hacking-resistant quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nitin; Kanter, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel upconversion (sum frequency generation)-based quantum-optical system design that can be employed as a receiver (Bob) in practical quantum key distribution systems. The pump governing the upconversion process is produced and utilized inside the physical receiver, making its access or control unrealistic for an external adversary (Eve). This pump facilitates several properties which permit Bob to define and control the modes that can participate in the quantum measurement. Furthermore, by manipulating and monitoring the characteristics of the pump pulses, Bob can detect a wide range of quantum hacking attacks launched by Eve.

  10. Everolimus-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells: key role of heparanase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Everolimus (EVE) is a drug widely used in several renal transplant protocols. Although characterized by a relatively low nephrotoxicity, it may induce several adverse effects including severe fibro-interstitial pneumonitis. The exact molecular/biological mechanism associated to these pro-fibrotic effects is unknown, but epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) may have a central role. Additionally, heparanase, an enzyme recently associated with the progression of chronic allograft nephropathy, could contribute to activate this machinery in renal cells. Methods Several biomolecular strategies (RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, zymography and migration assay) have been used to assess the capability of EVE (10, 100, 200 and 500 nM) to induce an in vitro heparanase-mediated EMT in wild-type (WT) and Heparanase (HPSE)-silenced immortalized human renal epithelial proximal tubular cells (HK-2). Additionally, microarray technology was used to find additional biological elements involved in EVE-induced EMT. Results Biomolecular experiments demonstrated a significant up-regulation (more than 1.5 fold increase) of several genes encoding for well known EMT markers [(alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Vimentin (VIM), Fibronectin (FN) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)], enhancement of MMP9 protein level and increment of cells motility in WT HK2 cells treated with high concentrations of EVE (higher than 100 nM). Similarly, immunofluorescence analysis showed that 100 nM of EVE increased α-SMA, VIM and FN protein expression in WT HK2 cells. All these effects were absent in both HPSE- and AKT-silenced cell lines. AKT is a protein having a central role in EMT. Additionally, microarray analysis identified other 2 genes significantly up-regulated in 100 nM EVE-treated cells (p < 0.005 and FDR < 5%): transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGFβ2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Real-time PCR analysis validated microarray. Conclusions Our in vitro study

  11. Enhancing the security of quantum secret sharing against multiphoton attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Wang, Da-Qing; Huang, Shan-Shan; Liu, Yu

    2009-06-01

    It is generally believed that nonorthogonal operations which can realize the state transformation between two nonorthogonal bases may ensure the security of many quantum communication protocols. However, in this paper, we present a powerful attack against quantum secret sharing protocols of these kinds. Applying entangled photons as fake signals, Eve can successfully steal the exact information without being revealed. We also give our effective modification to improve it. Under the suggested checking strategy, even to Eve's most general attack, it is robust and secure.

  12. The first privately produced map in Norway with a geodetic reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, B. R.

    2009-04-01

    A map of the district surrounding lake Mjøsa in Norway was published in 1796 by the Topographical Society of Norway. Their members contributed private funds for this unique map and for the publication of the Topographical Journal, containing multidisciplinary descriptions, including environmental, of many regions of the country. The map was produced by Niels S. Darre, an army surveyor and cartographer, as a private undertaking in his own home district. The geodetic reference point of the map is the church at Vang, the position of which had been determined by repeated astronomical observations by its vicar, Abraham Pihl. He had been trained as an astronomical observer by professor Thomas Bugge at the Round Tower Observatory in Copenhagen. A supporting latitude determination near Lillehammer is also noted on the map, obtained by Maximillian Hell in 1769 on his return from Vardø in North-Norway to Vienna after a successful observation of the transit of Venus. The observed magnetic deviation from astronomically determined north is given. The map also identifies a marker of the great flood of the river Glomma in 1789, causing environmental and social devastation.

  13. Mechanisms Linking Phonological Development to Lexical Development--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Erika; Parra, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    When Roger Brown selected Adam, Eve and Sarah to be the first three participants in the modern study of child language, one of the criteria was the intelligibility of their speech (Brown, 1973). According to the prevailing view at the time, accuracy of pronunciation was a peripheral phenomenon that had nothing to do with the development of…

  14. Which "It" is It? The Acquisition of Referential and Expletive It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Susannah; Becker, Misha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the natural order of acquisition of the proform "it," comparing deictic pronoun "it," anaphoric pronoun "it" and expletive "it." Files from four children (Adam, Eve, Nina and Peter) aged 1 ; 6-3 ; 0 in the CHILDES database were coded for occurrences of NP it (here it is) and expletive it (it's raining).…

  15. Towards a History of the Encyclopedia from Jerome to Isidor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, S.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the evolution of the idea of an encyclopedia from Jerome, who worked mainly in Caesarea in Palestine towards the end of the Roman Empire, through the work of Augustine, Martianus Capella, Boethius, and Cassiodorus Senator, to Isidor, who worked in Seville on the eve of the Carolingian Renaissance. (LLS)

  16. Cyclone Tracy and the Darwin Educators: A Case in Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Hedley

    The story of successful crisis management teaches some lessons applicable not only to surmounting crises but to everyday management decisions as well. On Christmas eve, 1974, a cyclone demolished 90 percent of the city of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory. As thousands gathered in neighborhood schools, a team of educational administrators…

  17. Arts-Based Leadership: Theatrical Tributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soumerai, Eve Nussbaum; Mazer, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    The first part of this article describes how, as an independent educator, Eve Nussbaum Soumerai developed numerous theatrical tributes to inspirational historical figures (Anne Frank, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Dalai Lama, for example). By participating in these productions, young people learned about the lives of these figures and shared…

  18. Education and the Historiography of Ibero-American Independence: Elusive Presences, Many Absences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimenta, Joao Paulo G.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution analyses recent historiographical tendencies in research in the field of education at the time of the political emancipation of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America. The article briefly presents the complex educational scene in Latin America on the eve of the movements for independence. Due to the…

  19. Comment on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers'

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Fei; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2005-09-15

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve employs a special strategy to attack.

  20. Educational Journeys on the Web Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneiderman, Ben

    1998-01-01

    Presents a guiding framework (Relate-Create-Donate) for integrating World Wide Web technology into higher education and describes two specific strategies: "Encyclopedia Of" and "Open Projects." The Encyclopedia of Virtual Environments (EVE), Online Library of Information Visualization Environments (OLIVE), and Student HCI Online Research…

  1. USDA's Vick tells radio audience wind farms mean huge water savings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since most of the electricity in the U.S. is generated using coal and natural gas as fuel, almost every wind farm announcement includes the estimated amount of carbon dioxide which was not released to the atmosphere. According to Wikipedia, 2.25 tons of CO2 and 1.14 tons of CO2 were released for eve...

  2. PULMONARY FUNCTION IN JUVENILE AND YOUNG ADULT RATS EXPOSED TO LOW-LEVEL NO2 WITH DIURNAL SPIKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function was examined in juvenile and young adult Fischer-344 rats continuously exposed to NO2 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 ppm) for up to 6 weeks with twice daily 1 hr spikes equal to 3X the baseline concentration. The spike to baseline ratio was chosen to simulate morning and eve...

  3. Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Systemic Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter outlines the advances and application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) since its development in 1984 and its enhancements and applications to detection of viruses, viroids and phytoplasma in pome and stone fruits. PCR is probably the most rapidly and widely adopted technology eve...

  4. Spill Sleuths: An Interdisciplinary Environmental Health Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudensey, Lyle; Whidden, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    "We are on the eve of total contamination," said an eighth grade "toxicologist" at a mock town meeting at Mount Baker Middle School in Mount Vernon, Washington. The meeting was the culmination of a month-long investigation by students to determine why some of the townspeople were getting sick. During the unit, students used skills from several…

  5. A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Gerald David, Ed.; Williams, Robin M., Jr., Ed.

    This report describes and analyzes the status of blacks in American society since the eve of World War II. It concludes that the current state of black-white relations is the result of the negative attitudes that whites hold towards blacks and the disadvantaged conditions under which many blacks live. The following summary findings are reported:…

  6. Effect of Water Logging Conditions on Solubility of Soil Nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide use of herbicides, fungicides, fertilizers, and soil amendments affect the rhizosphere biochemistry and ecology. Soils in the Midwest of the US tend to be saturated in the early spring when snow and ice melt, and frequent rain occurs. Saturated conditions also occur after heavy rainfall eve...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1124 - Annual Firework Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...°01′05″N, 114°38′20″ W. 5. Colorado Belle & Edgewater Hotel/Casino Thanksgiving Fireworks Sponsor Edgewater Hotel & Casino Event Description Fireworks Display. Date One evening during Thanksgiving week... & Edgewater Hotel/Casino New Years Eve Fireworks Sponsor Edgewater Hotel & casino. Event Description...

  8. Tools for Employers: Making Equal Pay a Reality in Your Workplace. Facts on Working Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents six primary tools employers can use to narrow or eliminate pay gaps in their workplaces. After each tool is a discussion of the problem and examples of "best practices" by employers that have won the Department of Labor's Opportunity 2000 and EVE (Exemplary Voluntary Efforts) awards. The report is divided into six tools:…

  9. Rice University: Building an Academic Center for Nonprofit Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaworth, Angela

    2012-01-01

    According to the author, the setting for their nonprofit education center was close to ideal: Support from a dean who cares deeply about nonprofit organizations; encouragement from the university and its renewed focus on reaching beyond its walls on the eve of its centennial; and a generous gift from alumni who have been affiliated with the…

  10. THE POMEGRANATE: A NEW LOOK AT THE FRUIT OF PARADISE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pomegranate, Punica granatum, is one of 2 members of the Punicaceae family. The plant was first domesticated approximately 10,000 years ago in Iran, where it is native, and Turkey. The fruit may have been the “apple” that Eve was deceived by the snake into partaking. Cultivation of the fruit q...

  11. Holiday Storybook Stew: Cooking through the Year with Books Kids Love.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Rauen, Peter J.

    Intended for teachers of preschool and up, this book combines three favorite pastimes: reading great books, exploring related activities, and cooking. The book lists 36 books relating to a holiday or observation, beginning with Martin Luther King, Jr. Day and ending with New Year's Eve. It summarizes each featured book and gives a related…

  12. ACID FOG EFFECTS ON CONIFER SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to assess the effects of acid fog on foliar injury, biomass production, and nutrient leaching in selected conifers. ne-year old seedlings of Pseudotsuga menzieii, Pinus ponderosa, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata were exposed episodically to fog eve...

  13. Swedish Aspects on Literacy: Selected Papers from the IRA World Congress on Reading (13th, Stockholm, Sweden, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Britta, Ed.

    This book presents articles that deal with literacy, both in a scientific, as well as in a practical and experiential way. Papers in the book are: "Opening Address" (Birgitta Ulvhammar); "Illiteracy: A Global Problem" (Eve Malmquist); "Swedish Cooperation with Developing Countries in the Field of Literacy" (Agneta Lind); "The International…

  14. Breaking up with Deleuze: Desire and Valuing the Irreconcilable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Eve Tuck grapples with Gilles Deleuze's conceptualization of desire, finding it simultaneously generative and unsatisfying. Recognizing that Deleuze will not "say" what Tuck wants him to say about desire--that it is smart, and constitutes expertise--Tuck reasons that there is only one thing she can do: break up with Deleuze. The…

  15. A Developmental Switch for Hebbian Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Marijn B.; Celikel, Tansu; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.

    2015-01-01

    Hebbian forms of synaptic plasticity are required for the orderly development of sensory circuits in the brain and are powerful modulators of learning and memory in adulthood. During development, emergence of Hebbian plasticity leads to formation of functional circuits. By modeling the dynamics of neurotransmitter release during early postnatal cortical development we show that a developmentally regulated switch in vesicle exocytosis mode triggers associative (i.e. Hebbian) plasticity. Early in development spontaneous vesicle exocytosis (SVE), often considered as 'synaptic noise', is important for homogenization of synaptic weights and maintenance of synaptic weights in the appropriate dynamic range. Our results demonstrate that SVE has a permissive, whereas subsequent evoked vesicle exocytosis (EVE) has an instructive role in the expression of Hebbian plasticity. A timed onset for Hebbian plasticity can be achieved by switching from SVE to EVE and the balance between SVE and EVE can control the effective rate of Hebbian plasticity. We further show that this developmental switch in neurotransmitter release mode enables maturation of spike-timing dependent plasticity. A mis-timed or inadequate SVE to EVE switch may lead to malformation of brain networks thereby contributing to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26172394

  16. Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2009-01-01

    In this open letter, Eve Tuck calls on communities, researchers, and educators to reconsider the long-term impact of "damage-centered" research--research that intends to document peoples' pain and brokenness to hold those in power accountable for their oppression. This kind of research operates with a flawed theory of change: it is often used to…

  17. Remarkable Diversity of Endogenous Viruses in a Crustacean Genome

    PubMed Central

    Thézé, Julien; Leclercq, Sébastien; Moumen, Bouziane; Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in paleovirology have uncovered myriads of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) integrated in the genome of their eukaryotic hosts. These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance. So far, most studies have used a virus-centered approach, whereby endogenous copies of a particular group of viruses were searched in all available sequenced genomes. Here, we follow a host-centered approach whereby the genome of a given species is comprehensively screened for the presence of EVEs using all available complete viral genomes as queries. Our analyses revealed that 54 EVEs corresponding to 10 different viral lineages belonging to 5 viral families (Bunyaviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Totiviridae) and one viral order (Mononegavirales) became endogenized in the genome of the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa. Furthermore, 30 A. vulgare EVEs have uninterrupted open reading frames, suggesting they result from recent endogenization of viruses likely to be currently infecting isopod populations. Overall, our work shows that isopods have been and are still infected by a large variety of viruses. It also extends the host range of several families of viruses and brings new insights into their evolution. More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa. PMID:25084787

  18. Remarkable diversity of endogenous viruses in a crustacean genome.

    PubMed

    Thézé, Julien; Leclercq, Sébastien; Moumen, Bouziane; Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies in paleovirology have uncovered myriads of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) integrated in the genome of their eukaryotic hosts. These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance. So far, most studies have used a virus-centered approach, whereby endogenous copies of a particular group of viruses were searched in all available sequenced genomes. Here, we follow a host-centered approach whereby the genome of a given species is comprehensively screened for the presence of EVEs using all available complete viral genomes as queries. Our analyses revealed that 54 EVEs corresponding to 10 different viral lineages belonging to 5 viral families (Bunyaviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Totiviridae) and one viral order (Mononegavirales) became endogenized in the genome of the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa. Furthermore, 30 A. vulgare EVEs have uninterrupted open reading frames, suggesting they result from recent endogenization of viruses likely to be currently infecting isopod populations. Overall, our work shows that isopods have been and are still infected by a large variety of viruses. It also extends the host range of several families of viruses and brings new insights into their evolution. More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa. PMID:25084787

  19. Hilary Putnam Interviewed by Naoko Saito and Paul Standish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Philosophy of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The interview, which took place on the eve of the 2012 American presidential election, coincides with the publication of three major works by or about Hilary Putnam. It begins and ends with the topic of science, drawing attention to science's profound importance but also to its contemporary forms of distortion. It explores Putnam's…

  20. Don Quixote at 400: Still Conquering Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavans, Ilan

    2005-01-01

    The Knight of the Sorrowful Countenance is turning 400. By some accounts, the first part of Don Quixote, Miguel de Cervantes's masterpiece, was available in Valladolid by Christmas Eve 1604, although Madrid did not get copies until January 1605. Thus came to life the "ingenious gentleman" who, ill equipped with antiquated armor "stained with rust…

  1. Cheaper faster drug development validated by the repositioning of drugs against neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kevin; Bilsland, Elizabeth; Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Soldatova, Larisa N; De Grave, Kurt; Ramon, Jan; de Clare, Michaela; Sirawaraporn, Worachart; Oliver, Stephen G; King, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. This will enable the development of treatments for diseases currently neglected for economic reasons, such as tropical and orphan diseases, and generally increase the supply of new drugs. Here, we report the Robot Scientist 'Eve' designed to make drug discovery more economical. A Robot Scientist is a laboratory automation system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to discover scientific knowledge through cycles of experimentation. Eve integrates and automates library-screening, hit-confirmation, and lead generation through cycles of quantitative structure activity relationship learning and testing. Using econometric modelling we demonstrate that the use of AI to select compounds economically outperforms standard drug screening. For further efficiency Eve uses a standardized form of assay to compute Boolean functions of compound properties. These assays can be quickly and cheaply engineered using synthetic biology, enabling more targets to be assayed for a given budget. Eve has repositioned several drugs against specific targets in parasites that cause tropical diseases. One validated discovery is that the anti-cancer compound TNP-470 is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax. PMID:25652463

  2. Viscera and muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs is increased more by intermittent bolus than by continuous feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous and intermittent bolus orogastric feedings are strategies used in infants unable to tolerate normal feeds. To determine the effects of feeding modality on protein synthesis in different tissues, neonatal pigs received a balanced formula by orogastric tube as an intermittent bolus feed eve...

  3. PERTURBING LIGNIFICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perturbing lignification is possible in multiple and diverse ways. Without obvious growth/development phenotypes, transgenic angiosperms can have lignin levels reduced to half the normal level, can have compositions ranging from very high-guaiacyl/low-syringyl to almost totally syringyl, and can eve...

  4. An Online Image Analysis Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeside, L.; Busschots, B.; Waddington, S.; Keating, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an online image analysis tool developed as part of an iterative, user-centered development of an online Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) called the Education through Virtual Experience (EVE) Portal. The VLE provides a Web portal through which schoolchildren and their teachers create scientific proposals, retrieve images and…

  5. External Volume Expansion Modulates Vascular Growth and Functional Maturation in a Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Chih; Chen, Bin; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Guo, Lifei

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing application of the pre-grafting expansion during autologous fat transplantation in breast reconstruction, little is known about its mechanism of action. To address that, ventral skins of miniature pigs were treated over a 10-day or 21-day period, with continuous suction at −50 mm Hg via a 7-cm diameter rubber-lined suction-cup device. Soft tissue thickness increased immediately after this external volume expansion (EVE) treatment, such increase completely disappeared by the next day. In the dermis and subcutaneous fat, the EVE treated groups showed significant increases in blood vessel density evident by CD31 staining as well as in vascular networks layered with smooth muscle cells when compared with the control group. This finding was corroborated by the increased percentage of endothelial cells present in the treatment groups. There was no significant difference in the percentages of proliferating basal keratinocytes or adipocytes, nor in epidermal thickness. Moreover, the EVE had no effect on proliferation or differentiation potential of adipose stem cells. Taken together, the major effects of EVE appeared to be vascular remodeling and maturation of functional blood vessels. This understanding may help clinicians optimize the vascularity of the recipient bed to further improve fat graft survival. PMID:27174509

  6. Artist's concept of trajectory of Comet Kohoutek to Sun and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating the trajectory of the newly-discovered Comet Kohoutek in relation to the Sun and to the Earth and the plane of Earth's orbit. The picture show's the position of Kohoutek on Christmas Eve, 1973. The Skylab space station in Earth orbit will provide a favorable location from which to observe the passing of the comet.

  7. A Developmental Switch for Hebbian Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Martens, Marijn B; Celikel, Tansu; Tiesinga, Paul H E

    2015-07-01

    Hebbian forms of synaptic plasticity are required for the orderly development of sensory circuits in the brain and are powerful modulators of learning and memory in adulthood. During development, emergence of Hebbian plasticity leads to formation of functional circuits. By modeling the dynamics of neurotransmitter release during early postnatal cortical development we show that a developmentally regulated switch in vesicle exocytosis mode triggers associative (i.e. Hebbian) plasticity. Early in development spontaneous vesicle exocytosis (SVE), often considered as 'synaptic noise', is important for homogenization of synaptic weights and maintenance of synaptic weights in the appropriate dynamic range. Our results demonstrate that SVE has a permissive, whereas subsequent evoked vesicle exocytosis (EVE) has an instructive role in the expression of Hebbian plasticity. A timed onset for Hebbian plasticity can be achieved by switching from SVE to EVE and the balance between SVE and EVE can control the effective rate of Hebbian plasticity. We further show that this developmental switch in neurotransmitter release mode enables maturation of spike-timing dependent plasticity. A mis-timed or inadequate SVE to EVE switch may lead to malformation of brain networks thereby contributing to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26172394

  8. 7. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST OF HEADWALL THAT TERMINATES THE FORECOURT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST OF HEADWALL THAT TERMINATES THE FORECOURT; VIEW INCLUDES THE OCEANUS FOUNTAIN ON THE TERRACE LEVEL, THE DOUBLE STAIRS, RADIAL PAVING, AND THE ADAM AND EVE FOUNTAIN, IN PINK GRANITE, TUCKED INTO A CENTRAL NICHE CARVED OUT OF HEADWALL - Kykuit, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

  9. Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Shihai; Jiang Musheng; Liang Linmei

    2011-06-15

    The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve's attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.

  10. External Volume Expansion Modulates Vascular Growth and Functional Maturation in a Swine Model.

    PubMed

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Chih; Chen, Bin; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Guo, Lifei

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing application of the pre-grafting expansion during autologous fat transplantation in breast reconstruction, little is known about its mechanism of action. To address that, ventral skins of miniature pigs were treated over a 10-day or 21-day period, with continuous suction at -50 mm Hg via a 7-cm diameter rubber-lined suction-cup device. Soft tissue thickness increased immediately after this external volume expansion (EVE) treatment, such increase completely disappeared by the next day. In the dermis and subcutaneous fat, the EVE treated groups showed significant increases in blood vessel density evident by CD31 staining as well as in vascular networks layered with smooth muscle cells when compared with the control group. This finding was corroborated by the increased percentage of endothelial cells present in the treatment groups. There was no significant difference in the percentages of proliferating basal keratinocytes or adipocytes, nor in epidermal thickness. Moreover, the EVE had no effect on proliferation or differentiation potential of adipose stem cells. Taken together, the major effects of EVE appeared to be vascular remodeling and maturation of functional blood vessels. This understanding may help clinicians optimize the vascularity of the recipient bed to further improve fat graft survival. PMID:27174509

  11. GLOBAL EMISSIONS DATABASE (GLOED) DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the EPA-developed Global Emissions Database (GloED) and how it works. t was prepared to accompany a demonstration of GloED, a powerful software package. loED is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool for storing and retriEving emissions factors and activity data on...

  12. Communication, Social Structural Change, and Capital Formation in People's Republic of China. Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Godwin C.

    Focusing on economic development in the People's Republic of China beginning at the eve of the communist takeover, this monograph analyzes the ways and patterns in which mass media and interpersonal communication were used to change economically relevant social structures in the interclass confrontation and the part these patterns played in the…

  13. SIGNALING HIERARCHY THAT REGULATES ENDOTHELIAL CELL PROLIFERATION AND VASCULAR REMODELING DURING VASCULOGENESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously demonstrated that during vascular morphogenesis, retinoic acid (RA) is required for the control of endothelial cell proliferation and capillary plexus remodeling. In the present studies, we define the signaling hierarchy downstream of RA that independently regulates these cellular eve...

  14. Photon-number-splitting versus cloning attacks in practical implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Niederberger, Armand; Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas

    2005-04-01

    In practical quantum cryptography, the source sometimes produces multiphoton pulses, thus enabling the eavesdropper Eve to perform the powerful photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack. Recently, it was shown by Curty and Luetkenhaus [Phys. Rev. A 69, 042321 (2004)] that the PNS attack is not always the optimal attack when two photons are present: if errors are present in the correlations Alice-Bob and if Eve cannot modify Bob's detection efficiency, Eve gains a larger amount of information using another attack based on a 2{yields}3 cloning machine. In this work, we extend this analysis to all distances Alice-Bob. We identify a new incoherent 2{yields}3 cloning attack which performs better than those described before. Using it, we confirm that, in the presence of errors, Eve's better strategy uses 2{yields}3 cloning attacks instead of the PNS. However, this improvement is very small for the implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Thus, the existence of these new attacks is conceptually interesting but basically does not change the value of the security parameters of BB84. The main results are valid both for Poissonian and sub-Poissonian sources.

  15. Religion, Sexual Orientation, and School Policy: How the Christian Right Frames Its Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2008-01-01

    The Christian Right opposes the inclusion of sexual orientation in school policies, charging that the schools are legitimating and promoting homosexuality. The arguments have moved past the trite, "God created Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve," to claims of violations of parental rights and the First Amendment, often positioning Christians as the…

  16. Nutrient losses in runoff from conventional and no-till pearl millet on pre-wetted Ultisols fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southeastern Coastal Plain (USA), farmers with access to irrigation commonly water in herbicides following their preemergence application to improve efficacy of the herbicide. This practice increases near surface soil water content and may promote increased runoff during subsequent storm eve...

  17. Eventos de Diciembre (December Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains information on three events occurring in the month of December: winter, Christmas, and New Year's Eve. Winter is briefly discussed. The section on Christmas includes a short story ("La Nochebuena"); a poem about Christmas in Puerto Rico; a legend about the poinsettia; brief discussion of Santa Claus, the…

  18. From Mars Curiosity to Times Square - Happy New Year

    NASA Video Gallery

    New Year's Eve revelers watching giant screens in New York's TimesSquare saw a special Happy New Year greeting from Mars, currently 206million miles away.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech    › Curi...

  19. VULNERABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION, USA, TO CLIMATIC CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the distribution of vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States were explored for two climate-change scenarios. The equilibrium vegetation ecology (EVE) model was used to project the distribution of life forms and to combine these into biomes for a doubl...

  20. 3 CFR 8473 - Proclamation 8473 of January 15, 2010. Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the United States of America A Proclamation The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., challenged... America a better Nation,” Dr. King said on the eve of his death. “I may not get there with you. But I want... we have reached our destination. Today, we are closer to fulfilling America’s promise of economic...

  1. Solar Dynamics Observatory Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Rachel; Uhl, Andrew; Secunda, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Mission is to study how solar activity is created and how space weather results from that activity. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA): High Resolution Images of 10 wavelengths every 10 seconds. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE): Measure Sun's brightness in EUV. Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI): Measures Doppler shift to study waves of the Sun. Launched February 11, 2010.

  2. The WTO and the Millennium Round: What Is at Stake for Public Education? Common Concerns for Workers in Education and the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    On the eve of the year 2000, global public spending on education tops one trillion dollars. Against the backdrop of globalization, public education is currently being subjected to attacks by proponents of privatization and deregulation. The process is already underway, as is apparent from an important agreement reached by the World Trade…

  3. Streaming potential and electroviscous effects in soft nanochannels beyond Debye-Hückel linearization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we model the streaming potential (SP) and the electroviscous effects (EVE) in a soft nanochannel for system parameters that forbid the use of linearized Debye-Hückel (DH) treatment. This linear treatment, which is an essential ingredient in electrokinetics modeling, necessitates that the system parameters must be such that the electrostatic potential in the entire system must be much smaller than k(B)T/ez (where k(B)T is the thermal energy, z is the ion valence and e is the electronic charge). In our previous paper we provided analytical results for the SP and the EVE in a soft nanochannel considering the DH treatment. Therefore, in this paper we extend this previous calculation; our numerical approach allows studying much wider ranges of parameters. This numerical treatment is based on solution of an integro-differential equation governing the flow velocity; to the best of our knowledge such an approach has never been previously used for SP modeling. In our previous study, we have witnessed an enhanced SP and an enhanced EVE for the soft nanochannel for the case of small electrostatic potential. Here our numerical results help us predict a breakdown of these trends for the case of larger potentials. These findings are important to probe the problem of SP and EVE in soft nanochannels across a sufficiently large range of electrostatic potentials, with implications in issues such as electrochemomechanical energy conversion. PMID:25643963

  4. Efficiency of phosphorus cycling in different grassland systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reliance of dairy farms on grassland is currently expanding, particularly in areas where confined operations have recently predominated. At the same time, some pasture based dairy systems, such as those found in New Zealand, are turning toward seasonal confinement of herds for production and eve...

  5. A Blind Analysis of Another Case of Multiple Personality Using the Semantic Differential Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Charles E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In 1954 Osgood and Luria reported a blind analysis of a case of triple personality, popularly known as "The Three Faces of Eve," that had been analyzed by Thigpen and Cleckley. Here they combined with Robert Jeans to do a similar blind analysis of a case Jeans was treating in the late 1960s. (Editor/RK)

  6. Fine fare.

    PubMed

    Newnham, David

    2016-05-11

    Getting a dessert recipe from Janet's mum is like getting custard out of a stone. How does she make Eve's pudding - the baked apple and sponge treat that is the ultimate answer to all those nasty mother-in-law jokes? PMID:27206187

  7. Ashurbanipal's Enduring Archetype: Thoughts on the Library's Role in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Peter; And Others

    1986-01-01

    On the eve of a major change in communications media (from printing to widespread electronic publishing), this article reexamines and projects into future the library's fundamental role as a social institution. Discussion covers three environmental trends, library as an institution, and public policy and economic choices. Twenty references are…

  8. "Asking "How" Instead of "Why"": Exploring Inclusive Approaches to Teaching and Learning through Pupil and Teacher Responses to a School Link Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Eve

    2009-01-01

    The association of inclusive education with an equity discourse means that the question of "how" to include is one currently faced by many teachers in the UK. Written by Eve Griffiths, who teaches English, literacy, media studies and drama in a special school in Wolverhampton, this article constructs a set of inclusive principles for teaching and…

  9. The Big Apple's Core: Exploring Manhattan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groce, Eric C.; Groce, Robin D.; Colby, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Children are exposed to a wide variety of images related to New York City through various media outlets. They may have seen glimpses of Manhattan by watching movies such as Spiderman or Stuart Little or by taking in annual television events such as the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade or the Times Square New Year's Eve celebration. Additionally,…

  10. 16. Detail of west end of south wing, showing bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of west end of south wing, showing bay window with stone foundation, adobe walls deteriorating under paint, standard sash windows, and rafters projecting at eves. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  11. 164. HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD SUMMER RECORDING TEAM, 1992. LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    164. HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD SUMMER RECORDING TEAM, 1992. LEFT TO RIGHT: JOE ELLIOTT, PHOTOGRAPHER; VIRGINIA BRUMBACK, ARCHITECT; DAVE EVE, HISTORIAN (ICOMOS, IRONBRIDGE INSTITUTE, ENGLAND); BOB ARZYWACZ, PROJECT SUPERVISOR; LEE ANN JACKSON, ARCHITECT; AND ALBERT AFLENZER, ICOMOS ARCHITECT (TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, VIENNA, AUSTRIA). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  12. Rational and Boundedly Rational Behavior in a Binary Choice Sender-Receiver Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landi, Massimiliano; Colucci, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate the strategic rationale behind the message sent by Osama bin Laden on the eve of the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections. They model this situation as a signaling game in which a population of receivers takes a binary choice, the outcome is decided by majority rule, sender and receivers have conflicting interests, and there is…

  13. Quantum Encryption Protocol Based on Continuous Variable EPR Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang-Qiang; Zeng, Gui-Hua

    2006-07-01

    A quantum encryption protocol based on Gaussian-modulated continuous variable EPR correlations is proposed. The security is guaranteed by continuous variable EPR entanglement correlations produced by nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). For general beam splitter eavesdropping strategy, the mutual information I(α,epsilon) between Alice and Eve is calculated by employing Shannon information theory. Finally the security analysis is presented.

  14. Comment on ``Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements'' [Phys. Rev. A 61, 052312 (2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2001-03-01

    In a recent paper [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. A 61, 052312 (2000)], a quantum key distribution protocol based on entanglement swapping was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve uses a special strategy to attack.

  15. Comment on ``Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2005-09-01

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve employs a special strategy to attack.

  16. Defining the Clinical Target Volume for Bladder Cancer Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Peter; Anjarwalla, Salim; Gilbert, Hugh; Kinder, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: There are currently no data for the expansion margin required to define the clinical target volume (CTV) around bladder tumors. This information is particularly relevant when perivesical soft tissue changes are seen on the planning scan. While this appearance may reflect extravesical extension (EVE), it may also be an artifact of previous transurethral resection (TUR). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had undergone radical cystectomy were studied. All patients underwent preoperative TUR and staging computed tomography (CT) scans. The presence and extent of tumor growth beyond the outer bladder wall was measured radiologically and histopathologically. Results: Forty one (51%) patients had histologically confirmed tumor extension into perivesical fat. The median and mean extensions beyond the outer bladder wall were 1.7 and 3.1 mm, respectively. Thirty five (44%) patients had EVE, as seen on CT scans. The sensitivity and specificity of CT scans for EVE were 56% and 79%, respectively. False-positive results were infrequent and not affected by either the timing or the amount of tissue resected at TUR. CT scans consistently tended to overestimate the extent of EVE. Tumor size and the presence of either lymphovascular invasion or squamoid differentiation predict a greater extent of EVE. Conclusions: In patients with radiological evidence of extravesical disease, the CTV should comprise the outer bladder wall plus a 10-mm margin. In patients with no evidence of extravesical disease on CT scans, the CTV should be restricted to the outer bladder wall plus a 6-mm margin. These recommendations would encompass microscopic disease extension in 90% of cases.

  17. Deletion of the Wolfram syndrome-related gene Wfs1 results in increased sensitivity to ethanol in female mice.

    PubMed

    Raud, Sirli; Reimets, Riin; Loomets, Maarja; Sütt, Silva; Altpere, Alina; Visnapuu, Tanel; Innos, Jürgen; Luuk, Hendrik; Plaas, Mario; Volke, Vallo; Vasar, Eero

    2015-08-01

    Wolfram syndrome, induced by mutation in WFS1 gene, increases risk of developing mood disorders in humans. In mice, Wfs1 deficiency cause higher anxiety-like behaviour and increased response to anxiolytic-like effect of diazepam, a GABAA receptor agonist. As GABAergic system is also target for ethanol, we analysed its anxiolytic-like and sedative properties in Wfs1-deficient mice using elevated plus-maze test and tests measuring locomotor activity and coordination, respectively. Additionally loss of righting reflex test was conducted to study sedative/hypnotic properties of ethanol, ketamine and pentobarbital. To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ethanol in mice enzymatic colour test was used. Finally, gene expression of alpha subunits of GABAA receptors following ethanol treatment was studied by real-time-PCR. Compared to wild-types, Wfs1-deficient mice were more sensitive to ethanol-induced anxiolytic-like effect, but less responsive to impairment of motor coordination. Ethanol and pentobarbital, but not ketamine, caused longer duration of hypnosis in Wfs1-deficient mice. The expression of Gabra2 subunit at 30 minutes after ethanol injection was significantly increased in the frontal cortex of Wfs1-deficient mice as compared to respective vehicle-treated mice. For the temporal lobe, similar change in Gabra2 mRNA occurred at 60 minutes after ethanol treatment in Wfs1-deficient mice. No changes were detected in Gabra1 and Gabra3 mRNA following ethanol treatment. Taken together, increased anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol in Wfs1-deficient mice is probably related to altered Gabra2 gene expression. Increased anti-anxiety effect of GABAA receptor agonists in the present work and earlier studies (Luuk et al., 2009) further suggests importance of Wfs1 gene in the regulation of emotional behaviour. PMID:25725334

  18. Human brain atlas for automated region of interest selection in quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to determine iron content in deep gray matter structures

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Issel Anne L.; Faria, Andreia V.; Li, Xu; Hsu, Johnny T.C.; Airan, Raag D.; Mori, Susumu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the single-subject Eve atlas from Johns Hopkins University, which currently contains diffusion tensor and T1-weighted anatomical maps, by including contrast based on quantitative susceptibility mapping. The new atlas combines a “deep gray matter parcellation map” (DGMPM) derived from a single-subject quantitative susceptibility map with the previously established “white matter parcellation map” (WMPM) from the same subject’s T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging data into an MNI coordinate map named the “Everything Parcellation Map in Eve Space,” also known as the “EvePM.” It allows automated segmentation of gray matter and white matter structures. Quantitative susceptibility maps from five healthy male volunteers (30 to 33 years of age) were coregistered to the Eve Atlas with AIR and Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM), and the transformation matrices were applied to the EvePM to produce automated parcellation in subject space. Parcellation accuracy was measured with a kappa analysis for the left and right structures of six deep gray matter regions. For multi-orientation QSM images, the Kappa statistic was 0.85 between automated and manual segmentation, with the inter-rater reproducibility Kappa being 0.89 for the human raters, suggesting “almost perfect” agreement between all segmentation methods. Segmentation seemed slightly more difficult for human raters on single-orientation QSM images, with the Kappa statistic being 0.88 between automated and manual segmentation, and 0.85 and 0.86 between human raters. Overall, this atlas provides a time-efficient tool for automated coregistration and segmentation of quantitative susceptibility data to analyze many regions of interest. These data were used to establish a baseline for normal magnetic susceptibility measurements for over 60 brain structures of 30- to 33-year-old males. Correlating the average susceptibility with age-based iron

  19. Intrinsic imperfection of self-differencing single-photon detectors harms the security of high-speed quantum cryptography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2013-12-01

    Thanks to the high-speed self-differencing single-photon detector (SD-SPD), the secret key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), which can, in principle, offer unconditionally secure private communications between two users (Alice and Bob), can exceed 1 Mbit/s. However, the SD-SPD may contain loopholes, which can be exploited by an eavesdropper (Eve) to hack into the unconditional security of the high-speed QKD systems. In this paper, we analyze the fact that the SD-SPD can be remotely controlled by Eve in order to spy on full information without being discovered, then proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated. Here, we point out that this loophole is introduced directly by the operating principle of the SD-SPD, thus, it cannot be removed, except for the fact that some active countermeasures are applied by the legitimate parties.

  20. Intercept-resend attack on six-state quantum key distribution over collective-rotation noise channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevin, Garapo; Mhlambululi, Mafu; Francesco, Petruccione

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the effect of collective-rotation noise on the security of the six-state quantum key distribution. We study the case where the eavesdropper, Eve, performs an intercept-resend attack on the quantum communication between Alice, the sender, and Bob, the receiver. We first derive the collective-rotation noise model for the six-state protocol and then parameterize the mutual information between Alice and Eve. We then derive quantum bit error rate for three intercept-resend attack scenarios. We observe that the six-state protocol is robust against intercept-resend attacks on collective rotation noise channels when the rotation angle is kept within certain bounds. Project supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.

  1. Security proof of counterfactual quantum cryptography against general intercept-resend attacks and its vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2012-06-01

    Counterfactual quantum cryptography, recently proposed by Noh, is featured with no transmission of signal particles. This exhibits evident security advantages, such as its immunity to the well-known photon-number-splitting attack. In this paper, the theoretical security of counterfactual quantum cryptography protocol against the general intercept-resend attacks is proved by bounding the information of an eavesdropper Eve more tightly than in Yin's proposal [Phys. Rev. A 82 042335 (2010)]. It is also shown that practical counterfactual quantum cryptography implementations may be vulnerable when equipped with imperfect apparatuses, by proving that a negative key rate can be achieved when Eve launches a time-shift attack based on imperfect detector efficiency.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet solar irradiance during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 observed by PROBA2/LYRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Dammasch, Ingolf E.; Dominique, Marie; Zender, Joe; Cessateur, Gaël; D'Huys, Elke

    2012-08-01

    The Large-Yield Radiometer (LYRA) is a radiometer that has monitored the solar irradiance at high cadence and in four pass bands since January 2010. Both the instrument and its spacecraft, PROBA2 (Project for OnBoard Autonomy), have several innovative features for space instrumentation, which makes the data reduction necessary to retrieve the long-term variations of solar irradiance more complex than for a fully optimized solar physics mission. In this paper, we describe how we compute the long-term time series of the two extreme ultraviolet irradiance channels of LYRA and compare the results with those of SDO/EVE. We find that the solar EUV irradiance has increased by a factor of 2 since the last solar minimum (between solar cycles 23 and 24), which agrees reasonably well with the EVE observations.

  3. Security of direct communication quantum channel with feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, Constantin V.

    2015-01-01

    In the direct communication quantum channels, the authorized recipient (Bob) and the non-authorized recipient (Eve) have different abilities for verification of received information. Bob can apply the feedback to commit the sender (Alice) to perform verification. Eve has to use for verification an indirect method based on the measurement of a set of incompatible observables enough for determination of the coding basis used by Alice. In the protocol of direct communication, regular modification of coding basis and masking it with an equilibrium in average information carrier density matrix prevents reconstruction of coding basis by the results of Eve’s measurements of an arbitrary set of observables. This provides unconditional security of the channel.

  4. Comment on “Deterministic six states protocol for quantum communication” [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Orany, Faisal A. A.

    2010-02-01

    In [J.S. Shaari, M. Lucamarini, M.R.B. Wahiddin, Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] the deterministic six states protocol (6DP) for quantum communication has been developed. This protocol is based on three mutually unbiased bases and four encoding operators. Information is transmitted between the users via two qubits from different bases. Three attacks have been studied; namely intercept-resend attack (IRA), double-CNOT attack (2CNOTA) and quantum man-in-the-middle attack. In this Letter, we show that the IRA and 2CNOTA are not properly addressed. For instance, we show that the probability of detecting Eve in the control mode of the IRA is 70% instead of 50% in the previous study. Moreover, in the 2CNOTA, Eve can only obtain 50% of the data not all of it as argued earlier.

  5. Wearable design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Joe

    2006-09-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, visual impairment will overtake a significant portion of the US population. At the same time, more and more of our world is becoming digital. These two trends, coupled with the continuing advances in digital electronics, argue for a rethinking in the design of aids for the visually impaired. This paper discusses design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems (EVES) [R.C. Peterson, J.S. Wolffsohn, M. Rubinstein, et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136 1129 (2003)] that will facilitate their wearability and continuous use. We briefly discuss the factors affecting a person's acceptance of wearable devices. We define the concept of operational inertia which plays an important role in our design of wearable devices and systems. We then discuss how design principles based upon operational inertia can be applied to the design of EVES.

  6. Bell's inequality, random sequence, and quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Won-Young

    2005-05-01

    The Ekert 1991 quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol appears to be secure regardless of whatever devices legitimate users adopt for the protocol, as long as the devices give a result that violates Bell’s inequality. However, this is not the case if they ignore nondetection events because Eve can make use of the detection loophole, as Larrson showed [Quantum Inf. Comput. 2, 434 (2002)]. We show that even when legitimate users take into account nondetection events Eve can successfully eavesdrop if the QKD system has been appropriately designed by the manufacturer. A loophole utilized here is that of “free choice” (or “real randomness”). Local QKD devices with a pseudorandom sequence generator installed in them can apparently violate Bell’s inequality.

  7. Analysis of Forgery Attack on One-Time Proxy Signature and the Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wei, Zong-Li

    2016-02-01

    In a recent paper, Yang et al. (Quant. Inf. Process. 13(9), 2007-2016, 2014) analyzed the security of one-time proxy signature scheme Wang and Wei (Quant. Inf. Process. 11(2), 455-463, 2012) and pointed out that it cannot satisfy the security requirements of unforgeability and undeniability because an eavesdropper Eve can forge a valid proxy signature on a message chosen by herself. However, we find that the so-called proxy message-signature pair forged by Eve is issued by the proxy signer in fact, and anybody can obtain it as a requester, which means that the forgery attack is not considered as a successful attack. Therefore, the conclusion that this scheme cannot satisfy the security requirements of proxy signature against forging and denying is not appropriate in this sense. Finally, we study the reason for the misunderstanding and clarify the security requirements for proxy signatures.

  8. Quantum key distribution using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borelli, L. F. M.; Aguiar, L. S.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present a quantum key distribution protocol using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states, homodyne detection and post-selection. The employed signal states are the photon added then subtracted coherent states (PASCS) in which one photon is added and subsequently one photon is subtracted from the field. We analyze the performance of our protocol, compared with a coherent state-based protocol, for two different attacks that could be carried out by the eavesdropper (Eve). We calculate the secret key rate transmission in a lossy line for a superior channel (beam-splitter) attack, and we show that we may increase the secret key generation rate by using the non-Gaussian PASCS rather than coherent states. We also consider the simultaneous quadrature measurement (intercept-resend) attack, and we show that the efficiency of Eve's attack is substantially reduced if PASCS are used as signal states.

  9. Outbreak of meningococcal disease in Rotherham illustrates the value of coordination, communication, and collaboration in management.

    PubMed

    Perrett, K; al-Wali, W; Read, C; Redgrave, P; Trend, U

    2000-09-01

    On New Year's Eve 1998, two teenagers from the same school in Rotherham died of serogroup C meningococcal septicaemia. A third linked case occurred three days later. Over eight days starting on New Year's Eve, a further five cases of meningococcal disease arose across Rotherham district, four of whom were severely ill with serogroup C meningococcal septicaemia. Intense media interest, high levels of public concern, and anxieties caused by several 'false alarm' cases added to the challenge faced by a small health district. This article describes the epidemiology of the incident and policy decisions made, but focuses on the operational aspects of outbreak management (coordination, communication, and collaboration), an area often neglected in outbreak reports. PMID:11014027

  10. Utilizing the EUVE Innovative Technology Testbed to Reduce Operations Cost for Present and Future Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under Cooperative Agreement (CA) on the following testbed projects: TERRIERS - The development of the ground systems to support the TERRIERS satellite mission at Boston University (BU). HSTS - The application of ARC's Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS) to the EUVE satellite mission. SELMON - The application of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Selective Monitoring (SELMON) system to the EUVE satellite mission. EVE - The development of the EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE), a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) visualization environment for the EUVE satellite and its sensors, instruments, and communications antennae. FIDO - The development of the Fault-Induced Document Officer (FIDO) system, a prototype application to respond to anomalous conditions by automatically searching for, retrieving, and displaying relevant documentation for an operators use.

  11. Electronic properties and momentum densities of tin chalcogenides: Validation of PBEsol exchange-correlation potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, B. L.; Raykar, Veera; Joshi, Ritu; Tiwari, Shailja; Talreja, Sonal; Choudhary, Gopal

    2015-05-01

    We report Compton profiles of SnS and SnTe at a momentum resolution of 0.34 a.u. using a 20 Ci 137Cs Compton spectrometer. To compare our experimental data, we have also computed the theoretical Compton profiles using density functional theory within linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. To interpret the relative nature of bonding in these compounds, we have scaled the experimental and theoretical Compton profiles on equal-valence-electron-density (EVED). On the basis of EVED profiles, it is seen that SnTe shows more covalent character than SnS. To rectify the substantial disagreement between experimental and theoretical band gaps, we have also presented the energy bands and density of states of both the compounds using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) including spin-orbit interaction within the PBEsol exchange-correlation potential.

  12. Effect of imperfect Faraday mirrors on the security of a Faraday-Michelson quantum cryptography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Long; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The one-way Faraday-Michelson system is a very useful practical quantum cryptography system where Faraday mirrors (FMs) play an important role. In this paper we analyze the security of this system against imperfect FMs. We consider the security loophole caused by imperfect FMs in Alice’s and Bob’s security zones. Then we implement a passive FM attack in this system. By changing the values of the imperfection parameters of Alice’s FMs, we calculate the quantum bit error rate between Alice and Bob induced by Eve and the probability that Eve obtains outcomes successfully. It is shown that the imperfection of one of Alice’s two FMs makes the system sensitive to an attack. Finally we give a modified key rate as a function of the FM imperfections. The security analysis indicates that both Alice’s and Bob’s imperfect FMs can compromise the secure key.

  13. Army Strong, Superintendent Savvy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Brigadier General Anthony "Tony" Tata of the U.S. Army had one of those "ah-ha" moments in April 2006 when, on the eve of an operation he was heading in Afghanistan, an Al Qaeda rocket shattered a nearby school. The attack killed a teacher and seven students and wounded dozens more. The rocket incident eventually nudged Tata toward a new mission:…

  14. Upper bound on the secret key rate distillable from effective quantum correlations with imperfect detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroder, Tobias; Curty, Marcos; Luetkenhaus, Norbert

    2006-01-15

    We provide a simple method to obtain an upper bound on the secret key rate that is particularly suited to analyze practical realizations of quantum key distribution protocols with imperfect devices. We consider the so-called trusted device scenario where Eve cannot modify the actual detection devices employed by Alice and Bob. The upper bound obtained is based on the available measurements results, but it includes the effect of the noise and losses present in the detectors of the legitimate users.

  15. Gaussian operations and privacy

    SciTech Connect

    Navascues, Miguel; Acin, Antonio

    2005-07-15

    We consider the possibilities offered by Gaussian states and operations for two honest parties, Alice and Bob, to obtain privacy against a third eavesdropping party, Eve. We first extend the security analysis of the protocol proposed in [Navascues et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 010502 (2005)]. Then, we prove that a generalized version of this protocol does not allow one to distill a secret key out of bound entangled Gaussian states.

  16. Tramping Trail with Elroy in the Early Years of CELP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Krafka, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is sipping tea on the eve of a week-long winter trip--over a decade since she first tramped trail with Mike Elrick into the winter wilderness. This evening holds for her the same electricity that it did in 1997--anxiety and excitement--when Elroy guided a motley crew of teens (his gang) into the woods and frozen waters of Algonquin…

  17. General Relativity Theory: Recognition through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Zhuk, A. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E. V.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    2015-10-01

    The book provides an overview of the current state of the General Relativity Theory on the eve of its centennial. The authors describe briefly the basis of this theory, systematize experimental verifications and outline the main areas of its applications in astrophysics, cosmology and astrometry in the light of the last decade. For researchers and students specializing in the Relativity Theory as well as for anyone interested in Relativity Theory, relativistic astrophysics and cosmology.

  18. Conversion to everolimus in liver transplant patients with renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pérez, T; Segovia, R; Castro, L; Roblero, J P; Estela, R

    2011-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) immunosuppressive therapy post-liver transplantation (OLT) is important to reduce graft rejection episodes. However, these drugs show important side effects, particularly renal dysfunction (RDF). Changing from CNI to a nonnephrotoxic drug, as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor may solve the problem. Our objective was to evaluate renal function (RF) among liver transplant patients initially receiving CNI, among whom the patients with RDF were converted completely or partially to an mTOR inhibitor like everolimus (EVE). We performed a prospective study in liver transplant patients from 2000 to 2009. Creatinine levels and creatinine clearances (Cockroft-Gault) expressed as mean values ± standard deviations were measured pre- and postswitch for comparisons using Wilcoxon nonparametric tests. Six patients were converted fully or partially to EVE. Their mean age at the moment of introducing the new therapy was 52.2 ± 13.6 years (range = 28-60). Immunosuppression time prior to switching from CNI to EVE was 23.8 ± 26.6 months (range = 6-70). Postconversion follow-up was 25.8 ± 16.5 months (range = 8-42). All patients showed improvement in RF. The creatinine level improvement was significant (P = .03) namely, from a mean of 2.26 ± 0.49 to 1.21 ± 0.57 mg/dL. Glomerular filtration rate improved from a mean of 40 ± 15.13 to 72.60 ± 17.3 mL/min/m(2) (P = .03). Conversion from CNI to EVE improved creatinine concentrations and creatinine clearances with long-term effects free of graft rejection. PMID:21839260

  19. A study of the formation and dynamics of the Earth's plasma sheet using ion composition data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1994-01-01

    Over two years of data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the ISEE 1 spacecraft, covering ion energies between 100 eV/e and about 16 keV/e, have been analyzed in an attempt to extract new information about three geophysical issues: (1) solar wind penetration of the Earth's magnetic tail; (2) relationship between plasma sheet and tail lobe ion composition; and (3) possible effects of heavy terrestrial ions on plasma sheet stability.

  20. Reflections on wisdom and self.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    The end of the year is often a time of reflection. For most of us, 2012 will have brought events that were planned, perhaps for years, as well as others that were full of serendipity or unexpected misfortune. We are invariably older than we were in January. We approach December with our own rituals: summer holidays, Hanukkah, Christmas or New Year's Eve. We may reflect on our joys and disappointments, or our actions and lessons learnt. PMID:23342382

  1. Life Sciences in the Ticino: Two Scientists - Two Stories.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Susanne Lauber

    2014-12-01

    Luca Varani, PhD, a group leader in Structural Biology at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona, and Marco Brini, founder and CEO of EnvEve SA, in the Tecnopolo in Manno, describe their life sciences background, their careers and why they percieve their ideal situation being a basic scientist who wants to remain in science, or being an entrepreneur respectively. PMID:26508605

  2. The Poor Law of old England: institutional innovation and demographic regimes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Morgan; Gráda, Cormac Ó

    2010-01-01

    The striking improvement in life expectancy that took place in England between the Middle Ages and the seventeenth century cannot be explained either by an increase in real wages or by better climatic conditions. The decrease in the risk of utter destitution or of death from famine that was evident on the eve of the Industrial Revolution stemmed, in part, from institutional changes in the old poor law, which began to take shape and become effective early in the seventeenth century. PMID:21141650

  3. Time to look at rules which govern a monopoly game.

    PubMed

    Davidson, N

    1979-07-20

    What we buy and who we buy it from are basic questions posing growing complexities for the supply service. Do we buy the right things? What about the demand for a central supply council? How alert are we to an expanding monopoly in a contracting industry? The debate in the wake of the Salmon report goes on unabated. Author supplies it with more ammunition on the eve of the supply officers' conference in Nottingham. PMID:10243530

  4. The Banning of You and Machines: Competing Discourses of Educational Technology during the New Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Jes R.

    2008-01-01

    While the spectacle of book burnings in Nazi Germany was something that most Americans recoiled from in the 1930s, by the end of the decade, on the eve of America's entry into the Second World War, the symbolic power of destroying books by fire was unfortunately something that certain Americans were not above seizing upon. In the 1930s and 1940s,…

  5. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  6. Two Different Rickettsial Bacteria Invading Volvox carteri

    PubMed Central

    Kawafune, Kaoru; Hongoh, Yuichi; Hamaji, Takashi; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae are principally associated with arthropods. Recently, endosymbionts of the Rickettsiaceae have been found in non-phagotrophic cells of the volvocalean green algae Carteria cerasiformis, Pleodorina japonica, and Volvox carteri. Such endosymbionts were present in only C. cerasiformis strain NIES-425 and V. carteri strain UTEX 2180, of various strains of Carteria and V. carteri examined, suggesting that rickettsial endosymbionts may have been transmitted to only a few algal strains very recently. However, in preliminary work, we detected a sequence similar to that of a rickettsial gene in the nuclear genome of V. carteri strain EVE. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we explored the origin of the rickettsial gene-like sequences in the endosymbiont-lacking V. carteri strain EVE, by performing comparative analyses on 13 strains of V. carteri. By reference to our ongoing genomic sequence of rickettsial endosymbionts in C. cerasiformis strain NIES-425 cells, we confirmed that an approximately 9-kbp DNA sequence encompassing a region similar to that of four rickettsial genes was present in the nuclear genome of V. carteri strain EVE. Phylogenetic analyses, and comparisons of the synteny of rickettsial gene-like sequences from various strains of V. carteri, indicated that the rickettsial gene-like sequences in the nuclear genome of V. carteri strain EVE were closely related to rickettsial gene sequences of P. japonica, rather than those of V. carteri strain UTEX 2180. Conclusion/Significance At least two different rickettsial organisms may have invaded the V. carteri lineage, one of which may be the direct ancestor of the endosymbiont of V. carteri strain UTEX 2180, whereas the other may be closely related to the endosymbiont of P. japonica. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from the latter rickettsial organism may have occurred in an ancestor of V. carteri. Thus, the rickettsiae may be widely associated with V. carteri, and

  7. Performance of different polishing techniques for direct CAD/CAM ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the performance of three ceramic and two commonly used polishing methods on two CAD/CAM ceramics. Surface roughness and quality were compared. A glazed group (GLGR) of each ceramic material served as reference. One-hundred and twenty specimens of VITABLOCS Mark II (VITA) and 120 specimens of IPS Empress CAD (IPS) were roughened in a standardized manner. Twenty VITA and 20 IPS specimens were glazed (VITA Akzent Glaze/Empress Universal Glaze). Five polishing methods were investigated (n=20/group): 1) EVE Diacera W11DC-Set (EVE), 2) JOTA 9812-Set (JOTA), 3) OptraFine-System (OFI), 4) Sof-Lex 2382 discs (SOF) and 5) Brownie/Greenie/Occlubrush (BGO). Polishing quality was measured with a surface roughness meter (Ra and Rz values). The significance level was set at alpha=0.05. Kruskal Wallis tests and pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests with Bonferroni-Holm adjustment were used. Qualitative surface evaluation of representative specimens was done with SEM. On VITA ceramics, SOF produced lower Ra (p<0.00001) but higher Rz values than GLGR (p=0.003); EVE, JOTA, OFI and BGO yielded significantly higher Ra and Rz values than GLGR. On IPS ceramics, SOF and JOTA exhibited lower Ra values than GLGR (p<0.0001). Equivalent Ra but significantly higher Rz values occurred between GLGR and EVE, OFI or BGO. VITA and IPS exhibited the smoothest surfaces when polished with SOF. Nevertheless, ceramic polishing systems are still of interest to clinicians using CAD/CAM, as these methods are universally applicable and showed an increased durability compared to the investigated silicon polishers. PMID:20672733

  8. El Dia de la Independencia, September 16, 1810: El Grito de Dolores (Independence Day, September 16, 1810: The Cry of Dolores).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Each year on the eve of September 16, when the President of the Republic of Mexico has rung the church bell that once hung in the belfry at the Church of Our Lady of Sorrows in the small town of Dolores Hidalgo, he has once more proclaimed Independence Day. When Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang that same bell on September 16, 1810, he rang it…

  9. Coherent eavesdropping strategies for the four state quantum cryptography protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirac, J. I.; Gisin, N.

    1997-02-01

    An elementary derivation of best eavesdropping strategies for the four state BB84 quantum cryptography protocol is presented, for both incoherent and two-qubit coherent attacks. While coherent attacks do not help Eve to obtain more information, they are more powerful to reveal the whole message sent by Alice. Our results are based on symmetric eavesdropping strategies, which we show to be sufficient to analyze these kind of problems.

  10. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills. PMID:23684190

  11. Predicting Ancestral Segmentation Phenotypes from Drosophila to Anopheles Using In Silico Evolution.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Jeremy B; Tsimiklis, Panagiotis; Siggia, Eric D; François, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Molecular evolution is an established technique for inferring gene homology but regulatory DNA turns over so rapidly that inference of ancestral networks is often impossible. In silico evolution is used to compute the most parsimonious path in regulatory space for anterior-posterior patterning linking two Dipterian species. The expression pattern of gap genes has evolved between Drosophila (fly) and Anopheles (mosquito), yet one of their targets, eve, has remained invariant. Our model predicts that stripe 5 in fly disappears and a new posterior stripe is created in mosquito, thus eve stripe modules 3+7 and 4+6 in fly are homologous to 3+6 and 4+5 in mosquito. We can place Clogmia on this evolutionary pathway and it shares the mosquito homologies. To account for the evolution of the other pair-rule genes in the posterior we have to assume that the ancestral Dipterian utilized a dynamic method to phase those genes in relation to eve. PMID:27227405

  12. Rutherford's curriculum vitae, 1894-1907.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M

    1995-06-01

    A single page, handwritten document was discovered when the Macdonald Physics building of McGill University in Montreal was gutted in 1978. This proved to be the draft of Ernest Rutherford's curriculum vitae (C.V.) covering the years 1894-1907, probably written in the autumn of 1906 when Rutherford was preparing to leave McGill. The C.V. contains 21 headings in chronological order, referring to research and other activities of Rutherford and his coauthors (especially Soddy and Barnes), plus a further set of headings relating to the associated investigations of Rutherford's team, including Eve and Hahn. A transcript of the document is provided, although in several places, Rutherford's handwriting is difficult to interpret, and the significance of his abbreviations is not always clear. Each of the items in the C.V. is discussed briefly in this review, in the light both of Rutherford's personal career and of the contribution of his team to the development and understanding of radioactivity. This contribution included the cause and nature of radioactivity (with Soddy), energy aspects of radioactive decay (with Barnes), elucidation of the uranium-radium, thorium and actinium series (Godlewski and Hahn), the radioactivity of the earth and atmosphere (Eve), the nature of the gamma rays (Eve) and, perhaps most important of all, the nature and properties of the alpha particle (Rutherford himself). The latter investigations led directly to Rutherford's later work in Manchester, including the nuclear model of the atom and artificial disintegration of the nucleus. PMID:7565376

  13. Masking property of quantum random cipher with phase mask encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    The security analysis of physical encryption protocol based on coherent pulse position modulation (CPPM) originated by Yuen is one of the most interesting topics in the study of cryptosystem with a security level beyond the Shannon limit. Although the implementation of CPPM scheme has certain difficulty, several methods have been proposed recently. This paper deals with the CPPM encryption in terms of symplectic transformation, which includes a phase mask encryption as a special example, and formulates a unified security analysis for such encryption schemes. Specifically, we give a lower bound of Eve's symbol error probability using reliability function theory to ensure that our proposed system exceeds the Shannon limit. Then we assume the secret key is given to Eve after her heterodyne measurement. Since this assumption means that Eve has a great advantage in the sense of the conventional cryptography, the lower bound of her error indeed ensures the security level beyond the Shannon limit. In addition, we show some numerical examples of the security performance.

  14. General quantum key distribution in higher dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhao-Xi; Shi, Han-Duo; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Lei, Jin; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng

    2012-01-01

    We study a general quantum key distribution protocol in higher dimension. In this protocol, quantum states in arbitrary g+1 (1≤g≤d) out of all d+1 mutually unbiased bases in a d-dimensional system can be used for the key encoding. This provides a natural generalization of the quantum key distribution in higher dimension and recovers the previously known results for g=1 and d. In our investigation, we study Eve's attack by two slightly different approaches. One is considering the optimal cloner of Eve, and the other, defined as the optimal attack, is maximizing Eve's information. We derive results for both approaches and show the deviation of the optimal cloner from the optimal attack. With our systematic investigation of the quantum key distribution protocols in higher dimension, one may balance the security gain and the implementation cost by changing the number of bases in the key encoding. As a side product, we also prove the equivalency between the optimal phase covariant quantum cloning machine and the optimal cloner for the g=d-1 quantum key distribution.

  15. Stochastic model for gene transcription on Drosophila melanogaster embryos.

    PubMed

    Prata, Guilherme N; Hornos, José Eduardo M; Ramos, Alexandre F

    2016-02-01

    We examine immunostaining experimental data for the formation of stripe 2 of even-skipped (eve) transcripts on D. melanogaster embryos. An estimate of the factor converting immunofluorescence intensity units into molecular numbers is given. The analysis of the eve dynamics at the region of stripe 2 suggests that the promoter site of the gene has two distinct regimes: an earlier phase when it is predominantly activated until a critical time when it becomes mainly repressed. That suggests proposing a stochastic binary model for gene transcription on D. melanogaster embryos. Our model has two random variables: the transcripts number and the state of the source of mRNAs given as active or repressed. We are able to reproduce available experimental data for the average number of transcripts. An analysis of the random fluctuations on the number of eves and their consequences on the spatial precision of stripe 2 is presented. We show that the position of the anterior or posterior borders fluctuate around their average position by ∼1% of the embryo length, which is similar to what is found experimentally. The fitting of data by such a simple model suggests that it can be useful to understand the functions of randomness during developmental processes. PMID:26986358

  16. Three-step semiquantum secure direct communication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, XiangFu; Qiu, DaoWen

    2014-09-01

    Quantum secure direct communication is the direct communication of secret messages without need for establishing a shared secret key first. In the existing schemes, quantum secure direct communication is possible only when both parties are quantum. In this paper, we construct a three-step semiquantum secure direct communication (SQSDC) protocol based on single photon sources in which the sender Alice is classical. In a semiquantum protocol, a person is termed classical if he (she) can measure, prepare and send quantum states only with the fixed orthogonal quantum basis {|0>, |1>}. The security of the proposed SQSDC protocol is guaranteed by the complete robustness of semiquantum key distribution protocols and the unconditional security of classical one-time pad encryption. Therefore, the proposed SQSDC protocol is also completely robust. Complete robustness indicates that nonzero information acquired by an eavesdropper Eve on the secret message implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. In the proposed protocol, we suggest a method to check Eves disturbing in the doves returning phase such that Alice does not need to announce publicly any position or their coded bits value after the photons transmission is completed. Moreover, the proposed SQSDC protocol can be implemented with the existing techniques. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication protocols, the proposed SQSDC protocol has two merits: firstly the sender only needs classical capabilities; secondly to check Eves disturbing after the transmission of quantum states, no additional classical information is needed.

  17. Analyses of interactions among pair-rule genes and the gap gene Krüppel in Bombyx segmentation.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Hajime

    2015-09-01

    In the short-germ insect Tribolium, a pair-rule gene circuit consisting of the Tribolium homologs of even-skipped, runt, and odd-skipped (Tc-eve, Tc-run and Tc-odd, respectively) has been implicated in segment formation. To examine the application of the model to other taxa, I studied the expression and function of pair-rule genes in Bombyx mori, together with a Bombyx homolog of Krüppel (Bm-Kr), a known gap gene. Knockdown embryos of Bombyx homologs of eve, run and odd (Bm-eve, Bm-run and Bm-odd) exhibited asegmental phenotypes similar to those of Tribolium knockdowns. However, pair-rule gene interactions were similar to those of both Tribolium and Drosophila, which, different from Tribolium, shows a hierarchical segmentation mode. Additionally, the Bm-odd expression pattern shares characteristics with those of Drosophila pair-rule genes that receive upstream regulatory input. On the other hand, Bm-Kr knockdowns exhibited a large posterior segment deletion as observed in short-germ insects. However, a detailed analysis of these embryos indicated that Bm-Kr modulates expression of pair-rule genes like in Drosophila, although the mechanisms appear to be different. This suggested hierarchical interactions between Bm-Kr and pair-rule genes. Based on these results, I concluded that the pair-rule gene circuit model that describes Tribolium development is not applicable to Bombyx. PMID:26102481

  18. Rhabdovirus-like endogenous viral elements in the genome of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells are actively transcribed: Implications for adventitious virus detection.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cell lines are used to produce several biologicals for human and veterinary use. Recently, it was discovered that all tested Sf cell lines are persistently infected with Sf-rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus. As part of an effort to search for other adventitious viruses, we searched the Sf cell genome and transcriptome for sequences related to Sf-rhabdovirus. To our surprise, we found intact Sf-rhabdovirus N- and P-like ORFs, and partial Sf-rhabdovirus G- and L-like ORFs. The transcribed and genomic sequences matched, indicating the transcripts were derived from the genomic sequences. These appear to be endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which result from the integration of partial viral genetic material into the host cell genome. It is theoretically impossible for the Sf-rhabdovirus-like EVEs to produce infectious virus particles as 1) they are disseminated across 4 genomic loci, 2) the G and L ORFs are incomplete, and 3) the M ORF is missing. Our finding of transcribed virus-like sequences in Sf cells underscores that MPS-based searches for adventitious viruses in cell substrates used to manufacture biologics should take into account both genomic and transcribed sequences to facilitate the identification of transcribed EVE's, and to avoid false positive detection of replication-competent adventitious viruses. PMID:27236849

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A.; Mariska, John T.

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  20. Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2011-06-01

    The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve’s attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.

  1. Trojan-horse attacks threaten the security of practical quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nitin; Anisimova, Elena; Khan, Imran; Makarov, Vadim; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2014-12-01

    A quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be probed by an eavesdropper Eve by sending in bright light from the quantum channel and analyzing the back-reflections. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a setup for mounting such a Trojan-horse attack. We show it in operation against the quantum cryptosystem Clavis2 from ID Quantique, as a proof-of-principle. With just a few back-reflected photons, Eve discerns Bob's (secret) basis choice, and thus the raw key bit in the Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 protocol, with higher than 90% probability. This would clearly breach the security of the cryptosystem. Unfortunately, Eve's bright pulses have a side effect of causing a high level of afterpulsing in Bob's single-photon detectors, resulting in a large quantum bit error rate that effectively protects this system from our attack. However, in a Clavis2-like system equipped with detectors with less-noisy but realistic characteristics, an attack strategy with positive leakage of the key would exist. We confirm this by a numerical simulation. Both the eavesdropping setup and strategy can be generalized to attack most of the current QKD systems, especially if they lack proper safeguards. We also propose countermeasures to prevent such attacks.

  2. When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Herniou, Elisabeth A; Huguet, Elisabeth; Thézé, Julien; Bézier, Annie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2013-09-19

    The Polydnaviridae (PDV), including the Bracovirus (BV) and Ichnovirus genera, originated from the integration of unrelated viruses in the genomes of two parasitoid wasp lineages, in a remarkable example of convergent evolution. Functionally active PDVs represent the most compelling evolutionary success among endogenous viral elements (EVEs). BV evolved from the domestication by braconid wasps of a nudivirus 100 Ma. The nudivirus genome has become an EVE involved in BV particle production but is not encapsidated. Instead, BV genomes have co-opted virulence genes, used by the wasps to control the immunity and development of their hosts. Gene transfers and duplications have shaped BV genomes, now encoding hundreds of genes. Phylogenomic studies suggest that BVs contribute largely to wasp diversification and adaptation to their hosts. A genome evolution model explains how multidirectional wasp adaptation to different host species could have fostered PDV genome extension. Integrative studies linking ecological data on the wasp to genomic analyses should provide new insights into the adaptive role of particular BV genes. Forthcoming genomic advances should also indicate if the associations between endoparasitoid wasps and symbiotic viruses evolved because of their particularly intimate interactions with their hosts, or if similar domesticated EVEs could be uncovered in other parasites. PMID:23938758

  3. Secrecy extraction from no-signaling correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas; Brunner, Nicolas; Masanes, Lluis; Pino, Sergi; Acin, Antonio

    2006-10-15

    Quantum cryptography shows that one can guarantee the secrecy of correlation on the sole basis of the laws of physics, that is, without limiting the computational power of the eavesdropper. The usual security proofs suppose that the authorized partners, Alice and Bob, have a perfect knowledge and control of their quantum systems and devices; for instance, they must be sure that the logical bits have been encoded in true qubits and not in higher dimensional systems. In this paper, we present an approach that circumvents this strong assumption. We define protocols, both for the case of bits and for generic d-dimensional outcomes, in which the security is guaranteed by the very structure of the Alice-Bob correlations, under the no-signaling condition. The idea is that if the correlations cannot be produced by shared randomness, then Eve has poor knowledge of Alice's and Bob's symbols. The present study assumes on the one hand that the eavesdropper Eve performs only individual attacks (this is a limitation to be removed in further work), and on the other hand that Eve can distribute any correlation compatible with the no-signaling condition (in this sense her power is greater than what quantum physics allows). Under these assumptions, we prove that the protocols defined here allow extracting secrecy from noisy correlations, when these correlations violate a Bell-type inequality by a sufficiently large amount. The region in which secrecy extraction is possible extends within the region of correlations achievable by measurements on entangled quantum states.

  4. Computational study on the mechanisms and rate constants of the OH-initiated oxidation of ethyl vinyl ether in atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Han, Dandan; Cao, Haijie; Li, Jing; Li, Mingyue; He, Maoxia; Hu, Jingtian

    2014-09-01

    The hydroxylation reactions of ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) in the present of O2 and NO are analyzed by using MPWB1K/6-311++G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. According to the calculated thermodynamic data, the detailed reaction mechanisms of EVE and OH are proposed. All of the ten possible reaction pathways are discussed. The major products of the title reaction are ethyl formate and formaldehyde, which is in accordance with experimental detection. The rate constants of the primary reactions over the temperature of 250-400K and the pressure range of 100-2000Torr are computed by employing MESMER program. At 298K and 760Torr, OH-addition channels are predominate and the total rate constant is ktot=4.53×10(-11)cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1). The Arrhenius equation is obtained as ktot=6.27×10(-12)exp(611.5/T), according to the rate constants given at different temperatures. Finally, the atmospheric half life of EVE with respect to OH is estimated to be 2.13h. PMID:24997901

  5. Stochastic Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Model for Gene/Protein Interaction Network in Early Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible mechanisms for eve stripe formation of Drosophila embryo, a spatio-temporal gene/protein interaction network model is proposed to mimic dynamic behaviors of protein synthesis, protein decay, mRNA decay, protein diffusion, transcription regulations and autoregulation to analyze the interplay of genes and proteins at different compartments in early embryogenesis. In this study, we use the maximum likelihood (ML) method to identify the stochastic 3-D Embryo Space-Time (3-DEST) dynamic model for gene/protein interaction network via 3-D mRNA and protein expression data and then use the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to prune the gene/protein interaction network. The identified gene/protein interaction network allows us not only to analyze the dynamic interplay of genes and proteins on the border of eve stripes but also to infer that eve stripes are established and maintained by network motifs built by the cooperation between transcription regulations and diffusion mechanisms in early embryogenesis. Literature reference with the wet experiments of gene mutations provides a clue for validating the identified network. The proposed spatio-temporal dynamic model can be extended to gene/protein network construction of different biological phenotypes, which depend on compartments, e.g. postnatal stem/progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:20054403

  6. Absolute Abundance Measurements in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with EVE/SDO and EIS/Hinode. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines Fe XV-XXIV and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (F). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is F=1.17+-0.22. Furthermore, we have compared the EVE measurements with corresponding flare observations of intermediate temperature S, Ar, Ca, and Fe emission lines taken with EIS. Our initial calculations also indicate a photospheric composition for these observations. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation in the non-flaring corona occurs.

  7. The Wnt and Delta-Notch signalling pathways interact to direct pair-rule gene expression via caudal during segment addition in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    PubMed

    Schönauer, Anna; Paese, Christian L B; Hilbrant, Maarten; Leite, Daniel J; Schwager, Evelyn E; Feitosa, Natália Martins; Eibner, Cornelius; Damen, Wim G M; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-07-01

    In short-germ arthropods, posterior segments are added sequentially from a segment addition zone (SAZ) during embryogenesis. Studies in spiders such as Parasteatoda tepidariorum have provided insights into the gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying segment addition, and revealed that Wnt8 is required for dynamic Delta (Dl) expression associated with the formation of new segments. However, it remains unclear how these pathways interact during SAZ formation and segment addition. Here, we show that Delta-Notch signalling is required for Wnt8 expression in posterior SAZ cells, but represses the expression of this Wnt gene in anterior SAZ cells. We also found that these two signalling pathways are required for the expression of the spider orthologues of even-skipped (eve) and runt-1 (run-1), at least in part via caudal (cad). Moreover, it appears that dynamic expression of eve in this spider does not require a feedback loop with run-1, as is found in the pair-rule circuit of the beetle Tribolium Taken together, our results suggest that the development of posterior segments in Parasteatoda is directed by dynamic interactions between Wnt8 and Delta-Notch signalling that are read out by cad, which is necessary but probably not sufficient to regulate the expression of eve and run-1 Our study therefore provides new insights towards better understanding the evolution and developmental regulation of segmentation in other arthropods, including insects. PMID:27287802

  8. Predicting Ancestral Segmentation Phenotypes from Drosophila to Anopheles Using In Silico Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Jeremy B.; Tsimiklis, Panagiotis; Siggia, Eric D.; François, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular evolution is an established technique for inferring gene homology but regulatory DNA turns over so rapidly that inference of ancestral networks is often impossible. In silico evolution is used to compute the most parsimonious path in regulatory space for anterior-posterior patterning linking two Dipterian species. The expression pattern of gap genes has evolved between Drosophila (fly) and Anopheles (mosquito), yet one of their targets, eve, has remained invariant. Our model predicts that stripe 5 in fly disappears and a new posterior stripe is created in mosquito, thus eve stripe modules 3+7 and 4+6 in fly are homologous to 3+6 and 4+5 in mosquito. We can place Clogmia on this evolutionary pathway and it shares the mosquito homologies. To account for the evolution of the other pair-rule genes in the posterior we have to assume that the ancestral Dipterian utilized a dynamic method to phase those genes in relation to eve. PMID:27227405

  9. Stochastic model for gene transcription on Drosophila melanogaster embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, Guilherme N.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Ramos, Alexandre F.

    2016-02-01

    We examine immunostaining experimental data for the formation of stripe 2 of even-skipped (eve) transcripts on D. melanogaster embryos. An estimate of the factor converting immunofluorescence intensity units into molecular numbers is given. The analysis of the eve dynamics at the region of stripe 2 suggests that the promoter site of the gene has two distinct regimes: an earlier phase when it is predominantly activated until a critical time when it becomes mainly repressed. That suggests proposing a stochastic binary model for gene transcription on D. melanogaster embryos. Our model has two random variables: the transcripts number and the state of the source of mRNAs given as active or repressed. We are able to reproduce available experimental data for the average number of transcripts. An analysis of the random fluctuations on the number of eves and their consequences on the spatial precision of stripe 2 is presented. We show that the position of the anterior or posterior borders fluctuate around their average position by ˜1 % of the embryo length, which is similar to what is found experimentally. The fitting of data by such a simple model suggests that it can be useful to understand the functions of randomness during developmental processes.

  10. Distillation of secret key and entanglement from quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devetak, Igor; Winter, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    We study and solve the problem of distilling a secret key from quantum states representing correlation between two parties (Alice and Bob) and an eavesdropper (Eve) via one-way public discussion: we prove a coding theorem to achieve the 'wire-tapper' bound, the difference of the mutual information Alice-Bob and that of Alice-Eve, for so-called classical-quantum-quantum-correlations, via one-way public communication. This result yields information-theoretic formulae for the distillable secret key, giving 'ultimate' key rate bounds if Eve is assumed to possess a purification of Alice and Bob's joint state. Specializing our protocol somewhat and making it coherent leads us to a protocol of entanglement distillation via one-way LOCC (local operations and classical communication) which is asymptotically optimal: in fact we prove the so-called 'hashing inequality', which says that the coherent information (i.e. the negative conditional von Neumann entropy) is an achievable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen rate. This result is known to imply a whole set of distillation and capacity formulae, which we briefly review.

  11. Thwarting the Photon Number Splitting Attack with Entanglement Enhanced BB84 Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris; Sabottke, Carl; Yurtsever, Ulvi; Lamas, Antia; Dowling, Jonathan; Anisimov, Petr

    2012-02-01

    We develop an improvement to the weak laser pulse BB84 scheme for quantum key distribution, which utilizes entanglement to improve the security of the scheme and enhance its resilience to the photon number splitting attack. This protocol relies on the non-commutation of photon phase and number to detect an eavesdropper performing quantum non-demolition measurement on number. The potential advantages and disadvantages of this scheme are compared to the coherent decoy state solution. Most entanglement based quantum key distribution schemes rely on violations of Bell's inequalities to ensure security. However, this is not the strategy that our entanglement enhanced (EE) BB84 employs here. Instead, we detect Eve by introducing an entangled quantum state into the system that is sensitive to Eve's QND measurements. This allows for a recovery of an approximately linear dependence on transmittivity for the key rate. EE BB84 shares this advantage with coherent decoy state protocols as well as schemes that utilize strong phase reference pulses to eliminate Eve's ability to send Bob vacuum signals.

  12. Photon-number-splitting versus cloning attacks in practical implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederberger, Armand; Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas

    2005-04-01

    In practical quantum cryptography, the source sometimes produces multiphoton pulses, thus enabling the eavesdropper Eve to perform the powerful photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack. Recently, it was shown by Curty and Lütkenhaus [Phys. Rev. A 69, 042321 (2004)] that the PNS attack is not always the optimal attack when two photons are present: if errors are present in the correlations Alice-Bob and if Eve cannot modify Bob’s detection efficiency, Eve gains a larger amount of information using another attack based on a 2→3 cloning machine. In this work, we extend this analysis to all distances Alice-Bob. We identify a new incoherent 2→3 cloning attack which performs better than those described before. Using it, we confirm that, in the presence of errors, Eve’s better strategy uses 2→3 cloning attacks instead of the PNS. However, this improvement is very small for the implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Thus, the existence of these new attacks is conceptually interesting but basically does not change the value of the security parameters of BB84. The main results are valid both for Poissonian and sub-Poissonian sources.

  13. Quantum hacking on a practical continuous-variable quantum cryptosystem by inserting an external light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alleaume, Romain

    2015-10-01

    We report here a new side channel attack on a practical continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Inspired by blinding attack in discrete-variable QKD, we formalize an attack strategy by inserting an external light into a CV QKD system implemented Gaussian-modulated coherent state protocol and show that our attack can compromise its practical security. In this attack, we concern imperfections of a balanced homodyne detector used in CV QKD. According to our analysis, if one inserts an external light into Bob's signal port, due to the imperfect subtraction from the homodyne detector, the leakage of the external light contributes a displacement on the homodyne signal which causes detector electronics saturation. In consequence, Bob's quadrature measurement is not linear with the quadrature sent by Alice. By considering such vulnerability, a potential Eve can launch a full intercept-resend attack meanwhile she inserts an external light into Bob's signal port. By selecting proper properties of the external light, Eve actively controls the induced displacement value from the inserted light which results saturation of homodyne detection. In consequence, Eve can bias the excess noise due to the intercept-resend attack and the external light, such that Alice and Bob believe their excess noise estimation is below the null key threshold and they can still share a secret key. Our attack shows that the detector loopholes also exist in CV QKD, and it seems influence all the CV QKD systems using homodyne detection, since all the practical detectors have finite detection range.

  14. Effects of measurement dependence on generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell test in the single-run and multiple-run scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei; Li, Xin-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Bell tests, as primitive tools to detect nonlocality in bipartite systems, rely on an assumption, i.e., measurement independence. Since ensuring measurement independence in a practical Bell test is difficult, it is crucial to explore the effects of relaxing this assumption. Recently, in the simplest Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell (CHSH-Bell) test, Koh et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 160404 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.160404] built the relation among measurement dependence, guessing probability, and the maximum value of CHSH-Bell correlation function that an adversary (Eve) can fake. As well, Pope et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 032110 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.032110] and Yuan et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 91, 032111 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.032111] settled the same problem in the multiple-run scenario with the general input distribution and the factorizable one, respectively. However, pertinent results in the generalized CHSH-Bell test are still missing. Here, we study this problem and establish the relation among measurement dependence, guessing probability, and the maximum value of the generalized CHSH-Bell correlation function that Eve can fake. Furthermore, we also consider the multiple-run scenario and show the relations in both input distributions. Interestingly, compared with the simplest CHSH-Bell test, we find that it is more difficult for Eve to fake a violation in the generalized CHSH-Bell test in some special cases. We expect that our conclusions will serve as a reference for quantum information processing tasks such as quantum key distribution, randomness expansion, and other tasks in the device-independent framework.

  15. Non-adiabatic transitions from I2({E} 0g+ and {D}0u+ ) states induced by collisions with M = I2({X}0g^ + ) and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, M. E.; Baturo, V. V.; Lukashov, S. S.; Poretsky, S. A.; Pravilov, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    The stepwise two-step two-color and three-step three-color laser excitation schemes are used for selective population of rovibronic levels of the first-tier ion-pair E0_g^ + and D0_u^ + states of molecular iodine and studies of non-adiabatic transitions to the D and E states induced by collisions with M = I2(X) and H2O. Collection and analysis of the luminescence after excitation of the vE = 8, 13 and vD = 13, 18 vibronic levels of the E and D states in the pure iodine vapor and the gas-phase mixtures with H2O provide rate constants for the non-adiabatic transitions to the D and E state induced by collisions with these molecules. Vibrational distributions for the I2(E,v_E {longleftrArr} limits^M D,v_D ) collision-induced non-adiabatic transitions (CINATs) are obtained. Rather strong λ _{lum}^{max } ≈ 3400 Å luminescence band is observed in the I2 + H2O mixtures, whereas its intensity is ˜100 times less in pure iodine vapor. Radiative lifetimes and quenching rate constants of the I2(E,vE = 8, 13 and D,vD = 13, 18) vibronic state are also determined. Rate constants of the I2(E,v_E stackrel {I_2 (X)} { to 30pt {rArrfill}} D,v_D ), vE = 8-54, CINATs are measured again and compared with those obtained earlier. New data confirm resonance characters of the CINATs found in our laboratory about 10 years ago. Possible reasons of differences between rate constant values obtained in this and earlier works are discussed. It is shown, in particular, that differences in rate constants of non-resonant CINATs are due to admixture of water vapor in iodine.

  16. EUV Coronal Dimming and its Relationship to Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, James

    2016-05-01

    As a coronal mass ejection (CME) departs from the inner solar atmosphere, it leaves behind a void. This region of depleted plasma results in a corresponding decrease in coronal emissions that can be observed by instruments tuned to measure the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These coronal dimmings can be observed with EUV imagers and EUV spectral irradiance instruments. Onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) provide complementary observations; together they can be used to obtain high spatial and spectral resolution. AIA provides information about the location, extent, and spatial evolution of the dimming while EVE data are important to understand plasma temperature evolution. Concurrent processes with similar timescales to mass-loss dimming also impact the observations, which makes a deconvolution method necessary for the irradiance time series in order to have a “clean” mass-loss dimming light curve that can be parameterized and compared with CME kinematics. This presentation will first provide background on these various physical processes and the deconvolution method developed. Two case studies will then be presented, followed by a semi-statistical study (~30 events) to establish a correlation between dimming and CME parameters. In particular, the slope of the deconvolved irradiance dimming light curve is representative of the CME speed, and the irradiance dimming depth can serve as a proxy for CME mass. Finally, plans and early results from a more complete statistical study of all dimmings in the SDO era, based on an automated detection routine using EVE data, will be described and compared with independently derived dimmings automatically detected with AIA data.

  17. Phylogenetic ANOVA: The Expression Variance and Evolution Model for Quantitative Trait Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    A number of methods have been developed for modeling the evolution of a quantitative trait on a phylogeny. These methods have received renewed interest in the context of genome-wide studies of gene expression, in which the expression levels of many genes can be modeled as quantitative traits. We here develop a new method for joint analyses of quantitative traits within- and between species, the Expression Variance and Evolution (EVE) model. The model parameterizes the ratio of population to evolutionary expression variance, facilitating a wide variety of analyses, including a test for lineage-specific shifts in expression level, and a phylogenetic ANOVA that can detect genes with increased or decreased ratios of expression divergence to diversity, analogous to the famous Hudson Kreitman Aguadé (HKA) test used to detect selection at the DNA level. We use simulations to explore the properties of these tests under a variety of circumstances and show that the phylogenetic ANOVA is more accurate than the standard ANOVA (no accounting for phylogeny) sometimes used in transcriptomics. We then apply the EVE model to a mammalian phylogeny of 15 species typed for expression levels in liver tissue. We identify genes with high expression divergence between species as candidates for expression level adaptation, and genes with high expression diversity within species as candidates for expression level conservation and/or plasticity. Using the test for lineage-specific expression shifts, we identify several candidate genes for expression level adaptation on the catarrhine and human lineages, including genes putatively related to dietary changes in humans. We compare these results to those reported previously using a model which ignores expression variance within species, uncovering important differences in performance. We demonstrate the necessity for a phylogenetic model in comparative expression studies and show the utility of the EVE model to detect expression divergence

  18. Ionospheric Change and Solar EUV Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J. B.; Schunk, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    The ionosphere has been quantitatively monitored for the past six solar cycles. The past few years of observations are showing trends that differ from the prior cycles! Our good statistical relationships between the solar radio flux index at 10.7 cm, the solar EUV Irradiance, and the ionospheric F-layer peak density are showing indications of divergence! Present day discussion of the Sun-Earth entering a Dalton Minimum would suggest change is occurring in the Sun, as the driver, followed by the Earth, as the receptor. The dayside ionosphere is driven by the solar EUV Irradiance. But different components of this spectrum affect the ionospheric layers differently. For a first time the continuous high cadence EUV spectra from the SDO EVE instrument enable ionospheric scientists the opportunity to evaluate solar EUV variability as a driver of ionospheric variability. A definitive understanding of which spectral components are responsible for the E- and F-layers of the ionosphere will enable assessments of how over 50 years of ionospheric observations, the solar EUV Irradiance has changed. If indeed the evidence suggesting the Sun-Earth system is entering a Dalton Minimum periods is correct, then the comprehensive EVE solar EUV Irradiance data base combined with the ongoing ionospheric data bases will provide a most fortuitous fiduciary reference baseline for Sun-Earth dependencies. Using the EVE EUV Irradiances, a physics based ionospheric model (TDIM), and 50 plus years of ionospheric observation from Wallops Island (Virginia) the above Sun-Earth ionospheric relationship will be reported on.

  19. A quantitative atlas of Even-skipped and Hunchback expression in Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae) blastoderm embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparative studies of developmental processes are one of the main approaches to evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). Over recent years, there has been a shift of focus from the comparative study of particular regulatory genes to the level of whole gene networks. Reverse-engineering methods can be used to computationally reconstitute and analyze the function and dynamics of such networks. These methods require quantitative spatio-temporal expression data for model fitting. Obtaining such data in non-model organisms remains a major technical challenge, impeding the wider application of data-driven mathematical modeling to evo-devo. Results We have raised antibodies against four segmentation gene products in the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata, a non-drosophilid dipteran species. We have used these antibodies to create a quantitative atlas of protein expression patterns for the gap gene hunchback (hb), and the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve). Our data reveal differences in the dynamics of Hb boundary positioning and Eve stripe formation between C. albipunctata and Drosophila melanogaster. Despite these differences, the overall relative spatial arrangement of Hb and Eve domains is remarkably conserved between these two distantly related dipteran species. Conclusions We provide a proof of principle that it is possible to acquire quantitative gene expression data at high accuracy and spatio-temporal resolution in non-model organisms. Our quantitative data extend earlier qualitative studies of segmentation gene expression in C. albipunctata, and provide a starting point for comparative reverse-engineering studies of the evolutionary and developmental dynamics of the segmentation gene system. PMID:24393251

  20. Segmentation gene expression in the mothmidge Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera, psychodidae) and other primitive dipterans.

    PubMed

    Rohr, K B; Tautz, D; Sander, K

    1999-03-01

    To obtain a clearer understanding of the evolutionary transition between short- and long-germ modes of embryogenesis in insects, we studied the expression of two gap genes hunchback (hb) and Krüppel (Kr) as well as the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) in the dipteran Clogmia albipunctata (Nematocera, Psychodidae). This species has features of both short- and long-germ mode of embryogenesis. In Clogmia hb expression deviates from that known in Drosophila in two main respects: (1) it shows an extended dorsal domain that is linked to the large serosa anlage, and (2) it shows a terminal expression in the proctodeal region. These expression patterns are reminiscent of the hb expression pattern in the beetle Tribolium, which has a short germ mode of embryogenesis. Krüppel expression, on the other hand, was found to be rather similar to the Drosophila expression, both at early and late stages. eve expression starts with six stripes formed at blastoderm stage, while the seventh is only formed after the onset of gastrulation and germband extension. Surprisingly, no segmental secondary Eve stripes could be observed in Clogmia although such segmental stripes are known from higher dipterans, beetles and hymenopterans. We therefore also studied another nematoceran, Coboldia, to address this question and found that some segmental stripes form by intercalation as in Drosophila, although belatedly. Our results suggest that Clogmia embryogenesis, both with respect to morphological and molecular characteristics represents an intermediate between the long-germ mode known from higher dipterans such as Drosophila, and the short-germ mode found in more ancestral insects. PMID:10079357

  1. A segmentation clock operating in blastoderm and germband stages of Tribolium development

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherif, Ezzat; Averof, Michalis; Brown, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila, all segments form in the blastoderm where morphogen gradients spanning the entire anterior-posterior axis of the embryo provide positional information. However, in the beetle Tribolium castaneum and most other arthropods, a number of anterior segments form in the blastoderm, and the remaining segments form sequentially from a posterior growth zone during germband elongation. Recently, the cyclic nature of the pair-rule gene Tc-odd-skipped was demonstrated in the growth zone of Tribolium, indicating that a vertebrate-like segmentation clock is employed in the germband stage of its development. This suggests that two mechanisms might function in the same organism: a Drosophila-like mechanism in the blastoderm, and a vertebrate-like mechanism in the germband. Here, we show that segmentation at both blastoderm and germband stages of Tribolium is based on a segmentation clock. Specifically, we show that the Tribolium primary pair-rule gene, Tc-even-skipped (Tc-eve), is expressed in waves propagating from the posterior pole and progressively slowing until they freeze into stripes; such dynamics are a hallmark of clock-based segmentation. Phase shifts between Tc-eve transcripts and protein confirm that these waves are due to expression dynamics. Moreover, by tracking cells in live embryos and by analyzing mitotic profiles, we found that neither cell movement nor oriented cell division could explain the observed wave dynamics of Tc-eve. These results pose intriguing evolutionary questions, as Drosophila and Tribolium segment their blastoderms using the same genes but different mechanisms. PMID:23095886

  2. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multipartite quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yadong; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Xinbao; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; He, Guangqiang

    2016-02-01

    A continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multiparty quantum communication protocol is investigated in this paper. Utilizing the distributed continuous-variable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, this protocol can implement both quantum cryptographic conference and quantum secret sharing. We analyze the security of the protocol against both the entangling cloner attack and the coherent attack. The entangling cloner attack is a practical individual attack, and the coherent attack is the optimal attack Eve can implement. Simulation results show that the coherent attack can greatly reduce the secret key rate. Different kinds of entangled attacks are compared and we finally discuss the optimal coherent attacks.

  3. Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherinezhad, Saber; Karimipour, Vahid

    2003-04-01

    We introduce a protocol for quantum secret sharing based on reusable entangled states. The entangled state between the sender and the receiver acts only as a carrier to which data bits are entangled by the sender and disentangled from it by the receivers, all by local actions of simple gates. We also show that the interception by Eve or the cheating of one of the receivers introduces a quantum bit error rate larger than 25% which can be detected by comparing a subsequence of the bits.

  4. On the Oregon trail.

    PubMed

    Kitzhaber, J; Kemmy, A M

    1995-10-01

    On the eve of the 21st century, governments around the world are struggling to resolve the dual problems of health care cost and access. My own experience in addressing these issues as they manifest themselves in the US, and particularly in the state of Oregon, convinces me that successful health care reform, anywhere in the world, must sooner or later grapple with two questions: what are we buying with our health care dollars, and how do these expenditures relate to health? PMID:8556290

  5. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, Diana; Orr, Martin; Whitmire, Alexandra; Leveton, Lauren; Sandoval, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the need for a shared definitional model of long duration human spaceflight, that would provide a framework and vision to facilitate communication, research and practice In 1956, on the eve of human space travel, Hubertus Strughold first proposed a "simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight" that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Here we describe our preliminary findings and outline potential approaches for the future development of a definition and broader classification system

  6. Improved Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qi; Li, Wen-Min

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we find a man-in-the-middle attack on the quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator (Luo et al., Int. J. Theor. Phys., 51:2135, 2012). In that scheme, the authors proposed a quantum signature based on quantum one way function which contains both verifying the signer phase and verifying the signed message phase. However, after our analysis we will show that Eve can adopt different strategies in respective phases to forge the signature without being detected. Then we present an improved scheme to increase the security.

  7. Counterfactual attack on counterfactual quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng; Wnang, Jian; Tang, Chao Jing

    2012-05-01

    It is interesting that counterfactual quantum cryptography protocols allow two remotely separated parties to share a secret key without transmitting any signal particles. Generally, these protocols, expected to provide security advantages, base their security on a translated no-cloning theorem. Therefore, they potentially exhibit unconditional security in theory. In this letter, we propose a new Trojan horse attack, by which an eavesdropper Eve can gain full information about the key without being noticed, to real implementations of a counterfactual quantum cryptography system. Most importantly, the presented attack is available even if the system has negligible imperfections. Therefore, it shows that the present realization of counterfactual quantum key distribution is vulnerable.

  8. PhyLIS: A Simple GNU/Linux Distribution for Phylogenetics and Phyloinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    PhyLIS is a free GNU/Linux distribution that is designed to provide a simple, standardized platform for phylogenetic and phyloinformatic analysis. The operating system incorporates most commonly used phylogenetic software, which has been pre-compiled and pre-configured, allowing for straightforward application of phylogenetic methods and development of phyloinformatic pipelines in a stable Linux environment. The software is distributed as a live CD and can be installed directly or run from the CD without making changes to the computer. PhyLIS is available for free at http://www.eve.ucdavis.edu/rcthomson/phylis/. PMID:19812729

  9. PhyLIS: a simple GNU/Linux distribution for phylogenetics and phyloinformatics.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    PhyLIS is a free GNU/Linux distribution that is designed to provide a simple, standardized platform for phylogenetic and phyloinformatic analysis. The operating system incorporates most commonly used phylogenetic software, which has been pre-compiled and pre-configured, allowing for straightforward application of phylogenetic methods and development of phyloinformatic pipelines in a stable Linux environment. The software is distributed as a live CD and can be installed directly or run from the CD without making changes to the computer. PhyLIS is available for free at http://www.eve.ucdavis.edu/rcthomson/phylis/. PMID:19812729

  10. Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Fuguo; Long, G.L.

    2003-10-01

    A technique is devised to perform orthogonal state quantum key distribution. In this scheme, entangled parts of a quantum information carrier are sent from Alice to Bob through two quantum channels. However, before the transmission, the order of the quantum information carrier in one channel is reordered so that Eve cannot steal useful information. At the receiver's end, the order of the quantum information carrier is restored. The order rearrangement operation in both parties is controlled by a prior shared control key which is used repeatedly in a quantum key distribution session.

  11. Reshaping Time: Recommendations for Suicide Prevention in LBGT Populations. Reflections on "Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations" from Journal of Homosexuality 58(1).

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines the journal's 2011 consensus recommendations for the prevention of LGBT suicide. Invoking the axiom approach of Eve Kosovsky Sedgwick's seminal Epistemology of the Closet, the author argues that merely offering practical guidelines at the level of the demonstrative and the instructive may not be sufficient models to address the urgency of suicide rates in LGBTQ youth populations. PMID:26910196

  12. Scott E. Forbush 1904”1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomerantz, Martin A.

    1984-04-01

    Scott E. Forbush, a pioneer in cosmic ray research, was the quintessential geophysicist's geophysicist. Until, on the eve of his 80th birthday, he succumbed to pneumonia, he maintained an abiding interest in the continued reliable operation of the three remaining cosmic ray ionization chambers of the worldwide network that he had set up in the mid 1930s. No one could have predicted, when the first instrument at Cheltenham, Md. commenced operation in 1936, that Forbush was destined to discover most of the important multifarious time variations of cosmic rays that were accessible to his classic detectors

  13. Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.

    2014-05-01

    We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.

  14. Economic reasons for conserving wild nature.

    PubMed

    Balmford, Andrew; Bruner, Aaron; Cooper, Philip; Costanza, Robert; Farber, Stephen; Green, Rhys E; Jenkins, Martin; Jefferiss, Paul; Jessamy, Valma; Madden, Joah; Munro, Kat; Myers, Norman; Naeem, Shahid; Paavola, Jouni; Rayment, Matthew; Rosendo, Sergio; Roughgarden, Joan; Trumper, Kate; Turner, R Kerry

    2002-08-01

    On the eve of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, it is timely to assess progress over the 10 years since its predecessor in Rio de Janeiro. Loss and degradation of remaining natural habitats has continued largely unabated. However, evidence has been accumulating that such systems generate marked economic benefits, which the available data suggest exceed those obtained from continued habitat conversion. We estimate that the overall benefit:cost ratio of an effective global program for the conservation of remaining wild nature is at least 100:1. PMID:12169718

  15. [Emetophobia: morbid fear of vomiting and nausea].

    PubMed

    Snaebjarnardottir, Kolfinna; Sigurdsson, Engilbert

    2014-05-01

    Emetophobia is an intense, irrational fear or anxiety of or pertaining to vomiting. It is classified among specific phobias in ICD-10 and DSM-IV. This disorder is often hidden because of the shame associated with it among sufferers. As a result emetophobia has been studied less than most other anxiety disorders. Not much is known about the epidemiology, treatment and outcome of this disorder. We describe a woman in her thirties who has been living with emetophobia since she experienced emesis two successive Christmas Eves as a child. Subsequently her fear of vomiting has influenced many aspects of her daily life. PMID:24846951

  16. Space weather applications with PICARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Thuillier, Gerard

    The PICARD mission aims at providing a better understanding of the origin of solar variability and the relations between the Sun and Earth's climate. Some of the instruments from PICARD will also be of direct interest to space weather. SODISM will provide regular UV images at 215 and 393 nm wavelength and PREMOS will measure the solar spectral irradiance in 5 channels, 3 of which are in the visible and in the near-infrared. Some potential applications will be discussed as well as synergies with other spectral irradiance observations, such as by LYRA on PROBA2 and EVE on SDO.

  17. Three worlds of relief: race, immigration, and public and private social welfare spending in American cities, 1929.

    PubMed

    Fox, Cybelle

    2010-09-01

    Using a data set of public and private relief spending for 295 cities, this article examines the racial and ethnic patterning of social welfare provision in the United States in 1929. On the eve of the Depression, cities with more blacks or Mexicans spent the least on social assistance and relied more heavily on private money to fund their programs. Cities with more European immigrants spent the most on relief and relied more heavily on public funding. Distinct political systems, labor market relations, and racial ideologies about each group's proclivity to use relief best explain relief spending differences across cities. PMID:21563363

  18. Status of the DAMIC Direct Dark Matter Search Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; et al.

    2015-09-30

    The DAMIC experiment uses fully depleted, high resistivity CCDs to search for dark matter particles. With an energy threshold $\\sim$50 eV$_{ee}$, and excellent energy and spatial resolutions, the DAMIC CCDs are well-suited to identify and suppress radioactive backgrounds, having an unrivaled sensitivity to WIMPs with masses $<$6 GeV/$c^2$. Early results motivated the construction of a 100 g detector, DAMIC100, currently being installed at SNOLAB. This contribution discusses the installation progress, new calibration efforts near the threshold, a preliminary result with 2014 data, and the prospects for physics results after one year of data taking.

  19. Imaging Grating SpectroPhotometer (I-GRASP) for Solar Soft X-Ray Spectra and Images from a Cube Sat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Chao, Weilun

    2016-05-01

    We describe the Soft X-ray Imaging Grating SpectroPhotometer (I-GRASP), a novel spectrophotometer with four times narrower transmission grating period (about 50 nm) compared to the MIT-designed 200 nm gratings successfully used for the SOHO/SEM, the SDO/EVE/ESP, and the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) onboard the EVE sounding rocket suite of instruments. The new grating is based on technology developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and provides four to five time greater diffraction dispersion than the 200 nm period gratings. Such new technology will provide detection of both 0.1 nm – resolved solar spectra in about 1.0 to 7.0 nm spectral range and a soft X-ray pin-hole solar image from the I-GRASP instrument that is appropriately sized for a CubeSat platform. The solar observations of this soft X-ray range do not currently have spectral resolution, so I-GRASP concurrent spectral and imaging X-ray observations will be important for:Improvements in modeling of coronal dynamics and heating by comparing measured and modeled spectra through identifying changes in abundances from different active regions- Resolving some differences in certain iron spectral line intensity ratios observed with SAM, identifying key emission lines, and comparing to those modeled with the CHIANTI atomic database- Studying SXR spectral variability for different solar activity periods including solar flares and the 27-day solar rotation- Studying of the Earth’s ionosphere, thermosphere and mesosphere responses using as input the detailed soft X-ray spectra from I-GRASP- Improving solar soft X-ray reference spectra for accurate calculations of absolute solar irradiance from the SDO/EVE/ESP, SDO/EVE/SAM, TIMED/SEE/XPS, and SORCE/XPS channels that have broadband measurements of the 1-7 nm band- Providing validation for the soft X-Ray observations from the MinXSS CubeSat X123 spectrometer (0.04 to 2.5 nm) with the I-GRASP spectral observations from 1.0 to 7.0 nm- Comparing I

  20. Ab initio yield curve dynamics [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Roy Frieden, B.; D'Anna, Joseph L.

    2005-09-01

    We derive an equation of motion for interest-rate yield curves by applying a minimum Fisher information variational approach to the implied probability density. By construction, solutions to the equation of motion recover observed bond prices. More significantly, the form of the resulting equation explains the success of the Nelson Siegel approach to fitting static yield curves and the empirically observed modal structure of yield curves. A practical numerical implementation of this equation of motion is found by using the Karhunen Lòeve expansion and Galerkin's method to formulate a reduced-order model of yield curve dynamics.

  1. Annual variation in Internet keyword searches: Linking dieting interest to obesity and negative health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the annual variation in Internet searches regarding dieting. Time-series analysis was first used to examine the annual trends of Google keyword searches during the past 7 years for topics related to dieting within the United States. The results indicated that keyword searches for dieting fit a consistent 12-month linear model, peaking in January (following New Year's Eve) and then linearly decreasing until surging again the following January. Additional state-level analyses revealed that the size of the December-January dieting-related keyword surge was predictive of both obesity and mortality rates due to diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. PMID:22992586

  2. Eaton to be sworn in as USGS Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On the eve of the U.S. Geological Survey's 115th anniversary, Gordon P. Eaton was confirmed as the survey's 12th director by unanimous consent of the U.S. Senate. His swearing-in ceremony is tentatively scheduled for March 14. Eaton, 64, is a distinguished Earth scientist, administrator, and former employee of USGS. His most recent post was director of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. He has been an AGU member since 1963. Eaton follows in the footsteps of Dallas Peck, who held the post from 1981 to 1993, and interim director Robert M. Hirsch, who followed Peck.

  3. Two-point attack on the two nonorthogonal states QKD protocol over a fiber optic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Wu, Ling-An

    2005-01-01

    We suggest here a two-point eavesdropping strategy aimed at a two nonorthogonal states protocol of quantum key distribution over a fiber-optic channel. When the single-photon sources and detectors of Alice, Bob and the two Eve are all ideal, the two-point attack can break the two nonorthogonal states protocol if the distance between Alice and Bob is longer than 30 km. However, Bennett's original multi-photon protocol is secure against both two-point and beam splitting attacks, though the protocol is realized with a weak pulsed source.

  4. Security of a sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Zhang, Rui-Ling

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the security of a sessional blind signature protocol based on quantum cryptograph and show that there are two security leaks in this protocol. One is that the legal user Alice can change the signed message after she gets a valid blind signature from the signatory Bob, and the other is that an external opponent Eve also can forge a valid blind message by a special attack, which are not permitted for blind signature. Therefore, this protocol is not secure in the sense that it does not satisfy the non-forgeability of blind signatures. We also discuss the methods to prevent the attack strategies in the end.

  5. COMMENT: An external attack on the Brádler Dušek protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2007-12-01

    The two quantum secret sharing protocols in the paper of Brádler and Dušek (2004 J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6 63) are analysed and it is shown that both protocols are insecure not only for a dishonest participant but also for an external eavesdropper. An external eavesdropper Eve can steal half of Alice's secret without being detected, if she employs a special attack strategy. We give a possible way to improve the protocol to withstand this attack.

  6. Upper bounds for the security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Moroder, Tobias; Gómez-Sousa, Hipólito

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we present limitations imposed by sequential attacks on the maximal distance achievable by a differential-phase-shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol with weak coherent pulses. Specifically, we compare the performance of two possible sequential attacks against DPS QKD where Eve realizes, respectively, optimal unambiguous state discrimination of Alice's signal states, and optimal unambiguous discrimination of the relative phases between consecutive signal states. We show that the second eavesdropping strategy provides tighter upper bounds for the security of a DPS QKD scheme than the former one.

  7. Soft X-ray irradiance measured by the Solar Aspect Monitor on the Solar Dynamic Observatory Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. Y.; Bailey, S. M.; Jones, A.; Woodraska, D.; Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.

    2016-04-01

    The Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM) is a pinhole camera on the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. SAM projects the solar disk onto the CCD through a metallic filter designed to allow only solar photons shortward of 7 nm to pass. Contamination from energetic particles and out-of-band irradiance is, however, significant in the SAM observations. We present a technique for isolating the 0.01-7 nm integrated irradiance from the SAM signal to produce the first results of broadband irradiance for the time period from May 2010 to May 2014. The results of this analysis agree with a similar data product from EVE's EUV SpectroPhotometer to within 25%. We compare our results with measurements from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer Solar X-ray Photometer and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Solar EUV Experiment at similar levels of solar activity. We show that the full-disk SAM broadband results compared well to the other measurements of the 0.01-7 nm irradiance. We also explore SAM's capability toward resolving spatial contribution from regions of solar disk in irradiance and demonstrate this feature with a case study of several strong flares that erupted from active regions on 11 March 2011.

  8. Secure communication via quantum illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Zhang, Zheshen; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2014-10-01

    In the quantum illumination protocol for secure communication, Alice prepares entangled signal and idler beams via spontaneous parametric downconversion. She sends the signal beam to Bob, while retaining the idler. Bob imposes message modulation on the beam he receives from Alice, amplifies it, and sends it back to her. Alice then decodes Bob's information by making a joint quantum measurement on the light she has retained and the light she has received from him. The basic performance analysis for this protocol—which demonstrates its immunity to passive eavesdropping, in which Eve can only listen to Alice and Bob's transmissions—is reviewed, along with the results of its first proof-of-principle experiment. Further analysis is then presented, showing that secure data rates in excess of 1 Gbps may be possible over 20-km-long fiber links with technology that is available or under development. Finally, an initial scheme for thwarting active eavesdropping, in which Eve injects her own light into Bob's terminal, is proposed and analyzed.

  9. Endogenous Viral Elements in Animal Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized. PMID:21124940

  10. Effect of source tampering in the security of quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2015-08-01

    The security of source has become an increasingly important issue in quantum cryptography. Based on the framework of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), the source becomes the only region exploitable by a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Phase randomization is a cornerstone assumption in most discrete-variable (DV) quantum communication protocols (e.g., QKD, quantum coin tossing, weak-coherent-state blind quantum computing, and so on), and the violation of such an assumption is thus fatal to the security of those protocols. In this paper, we show a simple quantum hacking strategy, with commercial and homemade pulsed lasers, by Eve that allows her to actively tamper with the source and violate such an assumption, without leaving a trace afterwards. Furthermore, our attack may also be valid for continuous-variable (CV) QKD, which is another main class of QKD protocol, since, excepting the phase random assumption, other parameters (e.g., intensity) could also be changed, which directly determine the security of CV-QKD.

  11. Resolving Ionospheric E-region Modeling Challenges: The Solar Photon Flux Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Joseph; Sojka, Jan; David, Michael; Tobiska, Kent; Schunk, Robert; Woods, Tom; Eparvier, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The EVE instrument of the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides for the first time EUV and XUV measurements of the solar irradiance that adequately define the major source of ionization of the atmosphere. In our study we modeled the E-region of the ionosphere and analyzed how it is affected by the solar irradiance data obtained by EVE and contrast this with the S2000 Solar Irradiance model, used previously. The ionosphere has two major layers, the E-layer at 100 km, and the F-layer at 300 km. The difference in solar irradiances are small except at some wavelength bands, it is these differences that lead to a better understanding of the physical/chemical processes of the E-region. Observations of the ionospheric layers is best achieved using incoherent scatter radars (ISR). We have compared our model with ISR data available from Arecibo Puerto Rico in an effort to understand how specific solar irradiance wavelength bands affect the E-region. This study focuses on two specific wavelength bands 0.1-15 nm and 91-103 nm. Both are responsible for E-region production, but in quite different manners.

  12. Ultra-low Energy Calibration of LUX detector using 127Xe Electron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dongqing; Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. We present an absolute calibration of the liquid xenon electron recoil (ER) charge yield and fluctuations over an energy range 190 eVee to 33.2 keVee using low energy 127 Xe electron capture decay events from the LUX 85-day first WIMP search dataset. The sequence of gamma and X-ray cascade associated with 127 I produce clearly identified 2-vertex events in the LUX detector. We observe the K (33.2 keVee), L (5.2 keVee), M (1.1 keVee), and N (190 eVee) shell cascade events and verifiy the relative ratio of observed events for each shell. We extract both the mean and sigma of the charge signal yields (Qy) associated with the K, L, M, and N shell events. The N shell cascade analysis includes single extracted electron events, and represents the lowest energy ER in-situ measurements that have been explored in Xe.

  13. Wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack against plug-and-play quantum key distribution systems with decoy states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Hai; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2012-09-01

    Any imperfections in a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be exploited by an eavesdropper (Eve) to collect information about the key without being discovered. For example, without the decoy-state method, Eve can perform the photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack and get full information without introducing any perturbation, since weak laser pulses are widely used in practical systems instead of single-photon sources. However, the decoy-state method against PNS attack itself may introduce another loophole while closing the loophole of multiphoton pulses. In this paper, a fatal loophole of practical decoy-state plug-and-play QKD systems has been exploited and a wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting (WSPNS) attack scheme against plug-and-play QKD systems with the decoy-state method is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that the eavesdropper can get full information about the key generated between the legitimate parties just like the PNS attack was performed in plug-and-play QKD systems without the decoy-state method.

  14. Ancestral Resurrection of the Drosophila S2E Enhancer Reveals Accessible Evolutionary Paths through Compensatory Change

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Carlos; Rest, Joshua S.; Kim, Ah-Ram; Ludwig, Michael; Kreitman, Martin; White, Kevin; Reinitz, John

    2014-01-01

    Upstream regulatory sequences that control gene expression evolve rapidly, yet the expression patterns and functions of most genes are typically conserved. To address this paradox, we have reconstructed computationally and resurrected in vivo the cis-regulatory regions of the ancestral Drosophila eve stripe 2 element and evaluated its evolution using a mathematical model of promoter function. Our feed-forward transcriptional model predicts gene expression patterns directly from enhancer sequence. We used this functional model along with phylogenetics to generate a set of possible ancestral eve stripe 2 sequences for the common ancestors of 1) D. simulans and D. sechellia; 2) D. melanogaster, D. simulans, and D. sechellia; and 3) D. erecta and D. yakuba. These ancestral sequences were synthesized and resurrected in vivo. Using a combination of quantitative and computational analysis, we find clear support for functional compensation between the binding sites for Bicoid, Giant, and Krüppel over the course of 40–60 My of Drosophila evolution. We show that this compensation is driven by a coupling interaction between Bicoid activation and repression at the anterior and posterior border necessary for proper placement of the anterior stripe 2 border. A multiplicity of mechanisms for binding site turnover exemplified by Bicoid, Giant, and Krüppel sites, explains how rapid sequence change may occur while maintaining the function of the cis-regulatory element. PMID:24408913

  15. Electronic properties of mixed molybdenum dichalcogenide MoTeSe: LCAO calculations and Compton spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Ushma; Kumar, Kishor; Joshi, Ritu; Bhavsar, D. N.; Heda, N. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have employed linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method to compute the Mulliken's population (MP), energy bands, density of states (DOS) and Compton profiles for hexagonal MoTeSe. The density functional theory (DFT) and hybridization of Hartree-Fock with DFT (B3LYP) have been used within the LCAO approximation. Performance of theoretical models has been tested by comparing the theoretical momentum densities with the experimental Compton profile of MoTeSe measured using 137Cs Compton spectrometer. It is seen that the B3LYP prescription gives a better agreement with the experimental data than other DFT based approximations. The energy bands and DOS depict an indirect band gap character in MoTeSe. In addition, a relative nature of bonding in MoTeSe and its isovalent MoTe2 is discussed in terms of equal-valence-electron-density (EVED) profiles. On the basis of EVED profiles it is seen that MoTeSe is more covalent than MoTe2.

  16. Mechanisms and observations of coronal dimming for the 201 August 7 event

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Hock, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    Coronal dimming of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission has the potential to be a useful forecaster of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As emitting material leaves the corona, a temporary void is left behind which can be observed in spectral images and irradiance measurements. The velocity and mass of the CMEs should impact the character of those observations. However, other physical processes can confuse the observations. We describe these processes and the expected observational signature, with special emphasis placed on the differences. We then apply this understanding to a coronal dimming event with an associated CME that occurred on 2010 August 7. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) are used for observations of the dimming, while the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory's COR1 and COR2 are used to obtain velocity and mass estimates for the associated CME. We develop a technique for mitigating temperature effects in coronal dimming from full-disk irradiance measurements taken by EVE. We find that for this event, nearly 100% of the dimming is due to mass loss in the corona.

  17. Quantum Versus Classical Advantages in Secret Key Distillation (and Their Links to Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Fortescue, Benjamin; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    We consider the extraction of shared secret key from correlations that are generated by either a classical or quantum source. In the classical setting, two honest parties (Alice and Bob) use public discussion and local operations to distill secret key from some distribution pXYZ that is shared with an unwanted eavesdropper (Eve). In the quantum settings, the correlations pXYZ are delivered to the parties as either an incoherent mixture of orthogonal quantum states or as coherent superposition of such states. Here we demonstrate that the classical and quantum key rates are equivalent when the correlations are generated incoherently in the quantum setting. For coherent sources, we next show that the rates are incomparable, and in fact, their difference can be arbitrarily large in either direction. However, we identify a large class of non-trivial distributions that possess the following properties: (i) Eve's advantage is always greater in the quantum source than classically, and (ii) for the entanglement shared in the coherent source, the so-called entanglement cost/squashed entanglement/relative entropy of entanglement can all be computed. We thus present a rare instance in which various entropic entanglement measures of a quantum state can be explicitly computed.

  18. Temperature Dependence of the Flare Fluence Scaling Exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Solar flares result in an increase of the solar irradiance at all wavelengths. While the distribution of the flare fluence observed in coronal emission has been widely studied and found to scale as f(E)˜ E^{-α}, with α slightly below 2, the distribution of the flare fluence in chromospheric lines is poorly known. We used the solar irradiance measurements observed by the SDO/EVE instrument at a 10 s cadence to investigate the dependency of the scaling exponent on the formation region of the lines (or temperature). We analyzed all flares above the C1 level since the start of the EVE observations (May 2010) to determine the flare fluence distribution in 16 lines covering a wide range of temperatures, several of which were not studied before. Our results show a weak downward trend with temperature of the scaling exponent of the PDF that reaches from above 2 at lower temperature (a few 104 K) to {˜ }1.8 for hot coronal emission (several 106 K). However, because colder lines also have fainter contrast, we cannot exclude that this behavior is caused by including more noise for smaller flares for these lines. We discuss the method and its limitations and tentatively associate this possible trend with the different mechanisms responsible for the heating of the chromosphere and corona during flares.

  19. Solar Flare Impulsive Phase Observations from SDO and Other Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Woods, Thomas N.; Schrijver, Karel; Warren, Harry; Milligan, Ryan; Christe, Steven; Brosius, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    With the start of normal operations of the Solar Dynamics Observatory in May 2010, the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) have been returning the most accurate solar XUV and EUV measurements every 10 and 12 seconds, respectively, at almost 100% duty cycle. The focus of the presentation will be the solar flare impulsive phase observations provided by EVE and AIA and what these observations can tell us about the evolution of the initial phase of solar flares. Also emphasized throughout is how simultaneous observations with other instruments, such as RHESSI, SOHO-CDS, and HINODE-EIS, will help provide a more complete characterization of the solar flares and the evolution and energetics during the impulsive phase. These co-temporal observations from the other solar instruments can provide information such as extending the high temperature range spectra and images beyond that provided by the EUV and XUV wavelengths, provide electron density input into the lower atmosphere at the footpoints, and provide plasma flows of chromospheric evaporation, among other characteristics.

  20. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C.; Meik, J. M.; Dashevsky, D.; Card, D. C.; Castoe, T. A.; Schaack, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  1. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  2. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  3. Mechanisms and Observations of Coronal Dimming for the 2010 August 7 Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, James P.; Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Thompson, Barbara J.; Hock, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Coronal dimming of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission has the potential to be a useful forecaster of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As emitting material leaves the corona, a temporary void is left behind which can be observed in spectral images and irradiance measurements. The velocity and mass of the CMEs should impact the character of those observations. However, other physical processes can confuse the observations. We describe these processes and the expected observational signature, with special emphasis placed on the differences. We then apply this understanding to a coronal dimming event with an associated CME that occurred on 2010 August 7. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) are used for observations of the dimming, while the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's (SoHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory's (STEREO) COR1 and COR2 are used to obtain velocity and mass estimates for the associated CME. We develop a technique for mitigating temperature effects in coronal dimming from full-disk irradiance measurements taken by EVE. We find that for this event, nearly 100% of the dimming is due to mass loss in the corona.

  4. Quantum steganography with noisy quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Bilal A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2011-02-15

    Steganography is the technique of hiding secret information by embedding it in a seemingly ''innocent'' message. We present protocols for hiding quantum information by disguising it as noise in a codeword of a quantum error-correcting code. The sender (Alice) swaps quantum information into the codeword and applies a random choice of unitary operation, drawing on a secret random key she shares with the receiver (Bob). Using the key, Bob can retrieve the information, but an eavesdropper (Eve) with the power to monitor the channel, but without the secret key, cannot distinguish the message from channel noise. We consider two types of protocols: one in which the hidden quantum information is stored locally in the codeword, and another in which it is embedded in the space of error syndromes. We analyze how difficult it is for Eve to detect the presence of secret messages, and estimate rates of steganographic communication and secret key consumption for specific protocols and examples of error channels. We consider both the case where there is no actual noise in the channel (so that all errors in the codeword result from the deliberate actions of Alice), and the case where the channel is noisy and not controlled by Alice and Bob.

  5. In vitro enhancement of collagen matrix formation and crosslinking for applications in tissue engineering: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lareu, Ricky R; Arsianti, Irma; Subramhanya, Harve Karthik; Yanxian, Peng; Raghunath, Michael

    2007-02-01

    The construction of stable engineered tissue depends on the formation of a functional connective tissue produced by cells locally. A major component of connective tissue is collagen. Its deposition into a stable matrix depends on the enzymatic extracellular conversion of procollagen to collagen. This step is very slow in vitro and we hypothesized that this is due to a lack of crowdedness and insufficient excluded volume effect (EVE) in culture media. We used neutral (670 kDa) and negatively charged dextran sulfate (DxS, 500 kDa) to create EVE in cell cultures and to enhance in vitro matrix formation by accelerating procollagen conversion. Biochemical analyses in 2 human fibroblast lines revealed mostly unprocessed procollagen in uncrowded culture medium, whereas in the presence of DxS, procollagen conversion occurred and most of the collagen was associated with the cell layer. Immunocytochemistry confirmed DxS-related collagen deposition that colocalized with fibronectin. The large neutral dextran showed, in identical concentration ranges, no effects that correlated well with its smaller hydrodynamic radius as determined by dynamic light scattering. This predicted a 10 times bigger crowding power of DxS and benchmarks it as a potentially promising crowding agent facilitating the formation of extracellular matrix in vitro. PMID:17518571

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  7. A Comparison of Interactively Coupled Paleoclimate-Vegetation Models With the Vegetation Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, P.; Pollard, D.; Barron, E.

    2001-05-01

    Climate-vegetation interactions are a key ingredient in understanding Earth system history. Vegetation models used to explore past climate and past vegetation distributions are largely based on modern plant-climate relationships. This study explores the application of four such models, each built upon different assumptions and parameters, and determines how well each model reproduces past records. In addition, this approach enables an exploration of the potential influence of vegetation on paleoclimates. The four vegetation models (the BIOME 3.5 model of Haxeltine and Prentice (1996), the simple dynamic vegetation model of Cosgrove (1998), the EVE model of Bergengren et al. (2001) and the IBIS model of Foley et al. (1996)) were run interactively with a general circulation model (GCM) of the atmosphere for four time periods. The GCM utilized is GENESIS 2.0, designed for paleoclimate studies. The four time periods for which all four vegetation models are employed are the Early Miocene, Oxygen Isotope Stage Three (warm and cool phases) between 30,000 and 42,000 years ago, and the Last Glacial Maximum. Differences between parameterizations include differences in the number of vegetation types in each model, the inclusion in some models of the influence of atmospheric CO2 levels on the growth of C3 versus C4 vegetation and on stomatal conductance, and whether the models focus on the equilibrium or dynamic state of ecosystems. Preliminary results indicate only small differences in globally-averaged mean annual temperature and precipitation values, suggesting that all models have almost the same effect on the climate. There are differences, however, in how accurately each model reproduces the paleorecord. For example, in the Miocene simulations, when compared to the data of Wolfe (1985), the SDVM model underpredicts the presence of deciduous vegetation in North America, while the EVE model underpredicts the presence of coniferous forest in Eurasia. In the Last Glacial

  8. On-Board Mining in the Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, S.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.

    2004-12-01

    On-board data mining can contribute to many research and engineering applications, including natural hazard detection and prediction, intelligent sensor control, and the generation of customized data products for direct distribution to users. The ability to mine sensor data in real time can also be a critical component of autonomous operations, supporting deep space missions, unmanned aerial and ground-based vehicles (UAVs, UGVs), and a wide range of sensor meshes, webs and grids. On-board processing is expected to play a significant role in the next generation of NASA, Homeland Security, Department of Defense and civilian programs, providing for greater flexibility and versatility in measurements of physical systems. In addition, the use of UAV and UGV systems is increasing in military, emergency response and industrial applications. As research into the autonomy of these vehicles progresses, especially in fleet or web configurations, the applicability of on-board data mining is expected to increase significantly. Data mining in real time on board sensor platforms presents unique challenges. Most notably, the data to be mined is a continuous stream, rather than a fixed store such as a database. This means that the data mining algorithms must be modified to make only a single pass through the data. In addition, the on-board environment requires real time processing with limited computing resources, thus the algorithms must use fixed and relatively small amounts of processing time and memory. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is developing an innovative processing framework for the on-board data and information environment. The Environment for On-Board Processing (EVE) and the Adaptive On-board Data Processing (AODP) projects serve as proofs-of-concept of advanced information systems for remote sensing platforms. The EVE real-time processing infrastructure will upload, schedule and control the execution of processing plans on board remote sensors. These plans

  9. New Solar Soft X-ray Observations from the X123 Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; McTiernan, J. M.; Warren, H. P.; Woods, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Amptek X123 is a new soft X-ray photon-counting spectrometer, based on a silicon drift detector with integrated thermoelectric cooler, vacuum housing, and multi-channel analyzer (including pulse pile-up rejection), capable of measuring solar line and continuum emission from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution. It was flown on two recent SDO/EVE sounding rocket calibration underflights, is the primary science instrument on the upcoming Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) NASA CubeSat, and is part of the proposed instrument payload for the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS) mission concept. With the best resolution yet obtained from a broadband X-ray spectrometer, the X123 will enable new studies of plasma heating and particle acceleration, during flares and quiescent periods, and help to fill a crucial observational gap from ~0.2 to ~1.2 keV, not currently measured by existing instruments but critical for understanding solar-driven dynamics in Earth's upper atmosphere (ionosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere). We present results from a new analysis of X123 data obtained from the SDO/EVE rocket flights. In preparation for future MinXSS and CubIXSS data, we adapt a recently-developed technique combining EUV and X-ray spectra from SDO/EVE and RHESSI, respectively, to obtain a self-consistent differential emission measure (DEM) over the full range of coronal temperatures, ~2-50 MK. Including the X123 rocket X-ray spectra, we apply the adapted technique to examine both the coronal DEM and composition during quiescent (non-flaring) times with varying activity levels, obtaining constraints on the high-temperature extent of the quiescent DEM, the elemental abundances, and any potential non-thermal emission, and use the observations to extrapolate the spectrum to the poorly-observed ~0.2-1.2 keV band. We compare these results with those from a parallel technique using SDO/AIA imaging data. We discuss the implications for coronal plasma

  10. A systematic analysis of the gap gene system in the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata.

    PubMed

    García-Solache, Mónica; Jaeger, Johannes; Akam, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The segmentation gene hierarchy of Drosophila melanogaster represents one of the best understood of the gene networks that generate pattern during embryogenesis. Some components of this network are ancient, while other parts of the network have evolved within the higher Diptera. To further understand the evolution of this gene network, we are studying the role of gap genes in a representative of a basally diverging dipteran lineage, the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata. We have isolated orthologues of all of the Drosophila trunk gap genes from Clogmia, and determined their domains of expression during the blastoderm stage of development, in relation to one another, and in relation to the expression of even-skipped (Calb-eve), a component of the pair-rule system that is directly regulated by the gap genes in Drosophila. We find that hunchback (Calb-hb), Krüppel (Calb-Kr), knirps (Calb-knl), giant (Calb-gt) and tailless (Calb-tll) are all expressed in patterns consistent with a gap segmentation role during blastoderm formation, but huckebein (Calb-hkb) is not. In the anterior half of the embryo, the relative positions of the gap gene expression domains in relation to one another, and in relation to the eve stripes, are rather well conserved. In the posterior half of the embryo, there are significant differences. Posteriorly, Calb-gt is expressed only transiently and very weakly, in a domain that overlaps entirely with that of Calb-knl. At late blastoderm stages, none of the candidate genes we have tested is expressed in the region between the posterior Calb-knl domain and Calb-tll. It is likely that the regulation of Calb-eve expression in this posterior region depends on combinations of gap gene factors that differ from those utilised for the same stripes in Drosophila. Both the gap and the pair-rule patterns of gene expression are dynamic in Clogmia, as they are in Drosophila, shifting anteriorly as blastoderm development proceeds. PMID:20433825

  11. Utility of CSF Cytokine/Chemokines as Markers of Active Intrathecal Inflammation: Comparison of Demyelinating, Anti-NMDAR and Enteroviral Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Kothur, Kavitha; Wienholt, Louise; Mohammad, Shekeeb S.; Tantsis, Esther M.; Pillai, Sekhar; Britton, Philip N.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Angiti, Rajeshwar R.; Barnes, Elizabeth H.; Schlub, Timothy; Bandodkar, Sushil; Brilot, Fabienne; Dale, Russell C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the discovery of CSF and serum diagnostic autoantibodies in autoimmune encephalitis, there are still very limited CSF biomarkers for diagnostic and monitoring purposes in children with inflammatory or autoimmune brain disease. The cause of encephalitis is unknown in up to a third of encephalitis cohorts, and it is important to differentiate infective from autoimmune encephalitis given the therapeutic implications. Aim To study CSF cytokines and chemokines as diagnostic biomarkers of active neuroinflammation, and assess their role in differentiating demyelinating, autoimmune, and viral encephalitis. Methods We measured and compared 32 cytokine/chemokines using multiplex immunoassay and APRIL and BAFF using ELISA in CSF collected prior to commencing treatment from paediatric patients with confirmed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, n = 16), anti-NMDAR encephalitis (anti-NMDAR E, n = 11), and enteroviral encephalitis (EVE, n = 16). We generated normative data using CSF from 20 non-inflammatory neurological controls. The sensitivity of CSF cytokine/chemokines to diagnose encephalitis cases was calculated using 95th centile of control values as cut off. We correlated CSF cytokine/chemokines with disease severity and follow up outcome based on modified Rankin scale. One-way hierarchical correlational cluster analysis of molecules was performed in different encephalitis and outcome groups. Results In descending order, CSF TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-α, IL-6, CXCL13 and CXCL10 had the best sensitivity (>79.1%) when all encephalitis patients were included. The combination of IL-6 and IFN-α was most predictive of inflammation on multiple logistic regression with area under the ROC curve 0.99 (CI 0.97–1.00). There were no differences in CSF cytokine concentrations between EVE and anti-NMDAR E, whereas ADEM showed more pronounced elevation of Th17 related (IL-17, IL-21) and Th2 (IL-4, CCL17) related cytokine/chemokines. Unlike EVE, heat map analysis

  12. Robust quantum dialogue based on the entanglement swapping between any two logical Bell states and the shared auxiliary logical Bell state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tian-Yu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, using the quantum entanglement swapping technologies under the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, two robust quantum dialogue protocols are proposed, respectively. The logical Bell states are used as the traveling states to combat the collective noise. The auxiliary logical Bell state is shared privately between two participants through the manner of direct transmission first. After encoded with the receiver's secret messages, it swaps entanglement with its adjacent logical Bell state. In this way, the information leakage problem is avoided. Moreover, Eve's active attacks can be detected with the help of decoy photon technology. For decoding, the Bell state measurements rather than the four-qubit joint measurements are needed.

  13. Bioactive Compounds in Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arihara, Keizo; Ohata, Motoko

    Since health-conscious consumers have made functional foods the leading trends in the food industry, efforts have been taken in many countries to develop new functional foods and to establish regulations for functional foods (Arihara, 2004; Dentali, 2002; Eve, 2000; Hutt, 2000). For example, in 1991, the concept of foods for specified health use (FOSHU) was established by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (Arihara, 2004, 2006b). FOSHU are foods that, based on the knowledge of the relationship between foods or food components and health, are expected to have certain health benefits and have been licensed to bear the label claiming that a person using them may expect to obtain that health use through the consumption of these foods. As of June 2008, 786 FOSHU products have been approved in Japan.

  14. The California Storm of January 1862

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Wayne N.

    1996-09-01

    The greatest storm in the written history of California struck the region in the winter of 1861-1862. The unusual weather began on Christmas Eve, 1861, and persisted for some 45 days as a series of middle-latitude cyclones made landfall along the California coast. Episodes of very cold and very warm temperatures occurred both during the storm and in the spring of 1862 as meridional flow prevailed. Heavy precipitation swelled the Santa Ana River to more than triple the highest estimated discharge in this century. High water levels in coastal streams between Los Angeles and San Diego persisted into the spring. Lakes were created in the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert. Arroyos were cut. Sediments from the flood may be preserved in offshore basins.

  15. Investigating giant (Gt) repression in the formation of partially overlapping pair-rule stripes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thiago Casé; Ventrice, Glauber; Machado-Lima, Ariane; Andrioli, Luiz Paulo

    2010-11-01

    Drosophila pair-rule genes are expressed in striped patterns with a precise order of overlap between stripes of different genes. We investigated the role of Giant (Gt) in the regulation of even-skipped, hairy, runt, and fushi tarazu stripes formed in the vicinity of Gt expression domains. In gt null embryos, specific stripes of eve, h, run, and ftz are disrupted. With an ectopic expression system, we verified that stripes affected in the mutant are also repressed. Simultaneously hybridizing gt misxpressing embryos with two pair-rule gene probes, we were able to distinguish differences in the repression of pairs of stripes that overlap extensively. Together, our results showed Gt repression roles in the regulation of two groups of partially overlapping stripes and that Gt morphogen activity is part of the mechanism responsible for the differential positioning of these stripes borders. We discuss the possibility that other factors regulate Gt stripe targets as well. PMID:20925117

  16. Rockets, radiosensitizers, and RRx-001: an origin story part I.

    PubMed

    Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Ning, Shoucheng; Peehl, Donna; Oronsky, Arnold; Cabrales, Pedro; Bednarski, Mark; Knox, Susan

    2016-03-01

    From Adam and Eve, to Darwinism, origin stories attempt to fill in the blanks, connect the dots, and define the turning points that are fundamental to subsequent developments. The purpose of this review is to present the origin story of a one-of-a-kind anticancer agent, RRx-001, which emerged from the aerospace industry as a putative radiosensitizer; not since the dynamite-to-dilator transformation of nitroglycerin in 1878 or the post-World War II explosive-to-elixir conversion of hydralazine, an ingredient in rocket fuel, to an antihypertensive, an antidepressant and an antituberculant, has energetic chemistry been harnessed for therapeutic purposes. This is Part 1 of the radiosensitization story; Parts 2 and 3, which detail the crossover activity of RRx-001 as a chemosensitizer in multiple tumor types and disease states including malaria, hemorrhagic shock and sickle cell anemia, are the subject of future reviews. PMID:27115167

  17. Analysis of an Attenuator Artifact in an Experimental Attack by Gunn-Allison-Abbott Against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Secure Key Exchange System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Vadai, Gergely; Smulko, Janusz; Granqvist, Claes-Göran

    2015-12-01

    A recent paper by Gunn-Allison-Abbott (GAA) [L. J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA's arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA's asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA's scheme via an elementary current-comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

  18. Extreme Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of the Lower Solar Atmosphere During Solar Flares (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.

    2015-12-01

    The extreme ultra-violet (EUV) portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature- and density-sensitive line ratios, Doppler-shifted emission lines, nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this article I review some of the recent advances that have been made using these techniques to infer physical properties of heated plasma at footpoint and ribbon locations during the initial stages of solar flares. I primarily focus on studies that have utilised spectroscopic EUV data from Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar Dynamics Observatory/EUV Variability Experiment (SDO/EVE), and I also provide some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.

  19. Observations and Modelling of Helium Lines in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.; Labrosse, N.; Kerr, G. S.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the response of the He II 304 Å and He I 584 Å line intensities to electron beam heating in solar flares using radiative hydrodynamic simulations. Comparing different electron beams parameters, we found that the intensities of both He lines are very sensitive to the energy flux deposited in the chromosphere, or more specifically to the heating rate, with He II 304 Å being more sensitive to the heating than He I 584 Å. Therefore, the He line ratio increases for larger heating rates in the chromosphere. A similar trend is found in observations, using SDO/EVE He irradiance ratios and estimates of the electron beam energy rate obtained from hard X-ray data. From the simulations, we also found that spectral index of the electrons can affect the He ratio but a similar effect was not found in the observations.

  20. Triton, Pluto and Charon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    On the eve of the Voyager encounter with Neptune and Triton, the knowledge of the surface and atmosphere of the satellite has made some progress. Methane, and perhaps molecular nitrogen, appears to dominate the surface and atmospheric chemistry. Sketchy evidence suggests changes in the disposition and state of the volatile materials on this body in the past few years, perhaps in response to the extreme seasons. Pluto and its satellite Charon are at last revealed in some detail, chiefly resulting from observations of the mutual transits and occultations of 1985-1990. A stellar occultation by Pluto in 1988 has given the first detailed information on the planet's atmosphere. The density of the Pluto-Charon system indicates a bulk composition consisting of silicates and water ice, suggesting formation directly from the solar nebula.

  1. Thermal evolution of flares observed by PROBA2/LYRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammasch, Ingolf; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Chamberlin, Phillip; Dominique, Marie

    2012-07-01

    Evaluating the solar impact on Earth climate requires knowledge of variations in the Solar Spectral Irradiance. LYRA is a UV-VUV solar radiometer embarked on ESA's PROBA2 mission. The instrument acquires solar irradiance in four broad spectral regions - from soft X-ray to UV - that have been chosen for their relevance in solar physics, space weather, and aeronomy. Analysis of LYRA time series of flares showed that the flare rise phase is dominated by soft X-ray, whereas the flare decline phase takes longer than this and seems to be dominated by cooler EUV emission. Using data monitored by GOES and SDO/EVE, we will try to understand the quantitative relationship of these spectral intervals.

  2. International Women's Day observed in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    On the eve of International Women's Day, 80 women representing five women's groups in Malaysia, including Persatuan Sahabat Wanita, CAW's network member, marched from Petaling Jaya to Penang to attend the Women's Day celebration. The group had organized the visitation in order to strengthen its networking. During their meeting with some reporters before their departure to Penang, they demanded that the women's groups be consulted before any guideline on the prevention and handling of sexual harassment at the workplace is drawn up. They said that they have been handling several complaints and their input would help the Human Resource Ministry formulate a comprehensive set of guidelines. This demand by the women's group was in response to the announcement by the Human Resource Minister Datuk Lim Ah Lek that in a month time a code would be ready on guidelines about the establishment and implementation of in-house preventive and redress mechanisms for dealing with sexual harassment. PMID:12157876

  3. Total Quality Management and Cost of Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjicostas, Evsevios

    Before we start analysing the philosophy of Total Quality Management it is worthwhile going back to the early days of quality and the quality movement. In fact, the quality concept dates back to the creation of Adam and Eve: “And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good”. (Genesis A 31). It is remarkable that at the end of each day, looking at his creations God was saying, “This is good”. However, at the end of the sixth day, after he finished the creation of human beings, he said, “This is very good”. It is amazing that he did not say, “This is excellent”. This is because excellence is something that we gain after tireless effort. God left room for improvement in order to challenge us and make our life more attractive, which has really happened!

  4. New Ediacara fossils preserved in marine limestone and their ecological implications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Zhou, Chuanming; Xiao, Shuhai; Wang, Wei; Guan, Chengguo; Hua, Hong; Yuan, Xunlai

    2014-01-01

    Ediacara fossils are central to our understanding of animal evolution on the eve of the Cambrian explosion, because some of them likely represent stem-group marine animals. However, some of the iconic Ediacara fossils have also been interpreted as terrestrial lichens or microbial colonies. Our ability to test these hypotheses is limited by a taphonomic bias that most Ediacara fossils are preserved in sandstones and siltstones. Here we report several iconic Ediacara fossils and an annulated tubular fossil (reconstructed as an erect epibenthic organism with uniserial arranged modular units), from marine limestone of the 551–541 Ma Dengying Formation in South China. These fossils significantly expand the ecological ranges of several key Ediacara taxa and support that they are marine organisms rather than terrestrial lichens or microbial colonies. Their close association with abundant bilaterian burrows also indicates that they could tolerate and may have survived moderate levels of bioturbation. PMID:24566959

  5. Solar Dynamics Observatory Data Search using Metadata in the KDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, E.; Choi, S.; Baek, J.-H.; Park, J.; Lee, J.; Cho, K.

    2015-09-01

    We have constructed the Korean Data Center (KDC) for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). The SDO comprises three instruments; the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). We archive AIA and HMI FITS data. The size of data is about 1 TB of a day. The goal of KDC for SDO is to provide easy and fast access service to the data for researchers in Asia. In order to improve the data search rate, we designed the system to search data without going through a process of database query. The fields of instrument, wavelength, data path, date, and time are saved as a text file. This metadata file and SDO FITS data can be simply accessed via HTTP and are open to the public. We present a process of creating metadata and a way to access SDO FITS data in detail.

  6. Detector for measuring the π+ → e+v branching fraction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Bruch, D. vom; Bryman, D.; Comfort, J.; Cuen-Rochin, S.; Doria, L.; Gumplinger, P.; Hussein, A.; et al

    2015-04-13

    The PIENU experiment at TRIUMF is aimed at a measurement of the branching ratio Re/u = Γ((π+ → e+ve) + (π+ → e+veγ))/Γ((π+ → μ+vμ) + (π+ → μ+vμγ)) with precision < 0.1%. Incident pions, delivered at the rate of 60 kHz with momentum 75 MeV/c, were degraded and stopped in a plastic scintillator target. Pions and their decay product positrons were detected with plastic scintillators and tracked with multiwire proportional chambers and silicon strip detectors. The energies of the positrons were measured in a spectrometer consisting of a large NaI(Tℓ) crystal surrounded by an array of pure CsI crystals.more » This paper provides a description of the PIENU experimental apparatus and its performance in pursuit of Re/u« less

  7. NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND SUBNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA*

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of national institutions on subnational African development in a novel framework that accounts for both local geography and cultural-genetic traits. We exploit the fact that the political boundaries on the eve of African independence partitioned more than 200 ethnic groups across adjacent countries subjecting similar cultures, residing in homogeneous geographic areas, to different formal institutions. Using both a matching type and a spatial regression discontinuity approach we show that differences in countrywide institutional structures across the national border do not explain within-ethnicity differences in economic performance, as captured by satellite images of light density. The average noneffect of national institutions on ethnic development masks considerable heterogeneity partially driven by the diminishing role of national institutions in areas further from the capital cities. PMID:25802926

  8. Pioneering space research in the ussr and mathematical modelling of large problem of radiation transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushkevich, T. A.

    2011-09-01

    This review is to recall to scientists of the older generation about some historical pages of our memory and about many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. As to the younger researchers and foreign colleagues, it will be useful for them to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid down to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research collectives who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is in particular emphasized, who determined in the most degree the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called as REMOTE SENSING.

  9. Trade-Offs in Information-Theoretic Multi-party One-Way Key Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Renato; Wolf, Stefan; Wullschleger, Jürg

    We consider the following scenario involving three honest parties, Alice, Bob, and Carol, as well as an adversary, Eve. Each party has access to a single piece of information, jointly distributed according to some distribution P. Additionally, authentic public communication is possible from Alice to Carol and from Bob to Carol. Their goal is to establish two information-theoretically secret keys, one known to Alice and Carol, and one known to Bob and Carol. We derive joint bounds on the lengths of these keys. Our protocols combine distributed variants of Slepian-Wolf coding and the leftover hash lemma. The obtained bounds are expressed in terms of smooth Rényi entropies and show that these quantities are useful in this—single-serving—context as well.

  10. Second Breakwell Memorial Lecture: 1961 and all that

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battin, Richard H.

    1996-09-01

    The first manned trip beyond Earth orbit was the historic Christmas Eve flight of Apollo 8. One of the critical objectives was to verify that astronauts could navigate in space using a sextant to measure star elevations above the Earth and Moon horizons with a recursive algorithm implemented in an onboard computer to process the measurements. The Apollo Guidance Computer was primitive by any modern comparison having but 72 kilobytes of ROM and 4 kilobytes of RAM with no mass memory or even the ability to up-link large quantities of data or programs. The computer had no built-in redundancy, no spare parts and no backup. The author gives a personal account of these events—how the hardware and software evolved and what really happened on that first manned trip to the Moon.

  11. Virtual World Astrosociology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2010-01-01

    This essay introduces the opportunity for theory development and even empirical research on some aspects of astrosociology through today's online virtual worlds. The examples covered present life on other planets or in space itself, in a manner that can be experienced by the user and where the user's reactions may simulate to some degree future human behavior in real extraterrestrial environments: Tabula Rasa, Anarchy Online, Entropia Universe, EVE Online, StarCraft and World of Warcraft. Ethnographic exploration of these computerized environments raises many questions about the social science both of space exploration and of direct contact with extraterrestrials. The views expressed in this essay do not necessarily represent the views of the National Science Foundation or the United States.

  12. Open secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzman, Malcolm; Beglarian, Eve; Bahn, Curtis

    2001-05-01

    In 1998, the Schools of Architecture and Humanities at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute initiated a collaborative project between students of both schools to develop a musical performance piece that would be presented in an environment to be designed and built in the Art Gallery of the School of Architecture. Students from both Schools were to work together on developing the content and conceptualizing the built environment. Architects Malcolm Holzman and Nestor Bottino of the firm of HHPA were brought in as advisors to the project, as was Composer Eve Beglarian of Twisted Tutu. Curtis Bahn, Director of the iEAR Studio at RPI, was Academic Coordinator for the project, together with Beth Weinstein, Professor, School of Architecture, and Grethe Holby, who directed the performance. This paper will review the academic raison d'etre for organizing such a program, discuss the history of the project as it developed, and present a video tape of portions of the finished performance.

  13. [Power and everyday life in a lunatic asylum environment - a case example from Glasgow at the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Gründler, Jens

    In this article the focus of analysis lies on power relations in everyday life in one of Glasgow's Pauper Lunatic Asylums at the turn of the twentieth century. Taking a sample of patient case files I examine the daily processes of negotiation between inmates and their relatives, physicians, attendants and nurses as well as the poor law administration. Some cases especially exemplify the complex relationships between the actors. They show which opportunities and boundaries existed for "power brokering" for the more powerless. At the same time these cases illustrate the formal and practical limits of enforcement by doctors and nursing staff. Without turning a blind eve to hierarchies and power imbalances the analysis shows that even in settings like "total institutions" power remains volatile. Even there the more powerful actors have to actualize, seize and prevail on a regular basis. PMID:27501547

  14. Automated alignment of a reconfigurable optical system using focal-plane sensing and Kalman filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Joyce; Savransky, Dmitry

    2016-08-01

    Automation of alignment tasks can provide improved efficiency and greatly increase the flexibility of an optical system. Current optical systems with automated alignment capabilities are typically designed to include a dedicated wavefront sensor. Here, we demonstrate a self-aligning method for a reconfigurable system using only focal plane images. We define a two lens optical system with eight degrees of freedom. Images are simulated given misalignment parameters using ZEMAX software. We perform a principal component analysis (PCA) on the simulated dataset to obtain Karhunen-Lo\\`eve (KL) modes, which form the basis set whose weights are the system measurements. A model function which maps the state to the measurement is learned using nonlinear least squares fitting and serves as the measurement function for the nonlinear estimator (Extended and Unscented Kalman filters) used to calculate control inputs to align the system. We present and discuss both simulated and experimental results of the full system in operation.

  15. Spaced-out in Saskatchewan: modernism, anti-psychiatry, and deinstitutionalization, 1950-1968.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Erika

    2010-01-01

    On the eve of deinstitutionalization, a group of professionals, including an architect, a psychiatrist, and a psychologist, joined together in pursuit of a middle ground between outright closure of long-stay hospitals and the introduction of out-patient services in general hospitals. Augmented by the use of the hallucinogenic drug LSD, these men produced a trenchant critique of modern psychiatry and the changing mental health system without subscribing to antipsychiatry. Caught among shifting psychiatric paradigms, fiscal constraints, and political pressure to situate mental health within an encroaching system of publicly funded health care reforms, their proposed mental hospital designs failed to stem the tidal wave of post-World War II changes in mental health care. PMID:21196606

  16. [Human factors caused the third plague epidemic in Harbin].

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Ying; Li, Zhi-Ping

    2011-03-01

    The third plague epidemic in Harbin broke out in 1946 and ended in 1954. Different from the first two plague epidemics (imported), the third prevalence was both imported and idiopathic infectious disease which was caused by human factors. Japanese troops set forbidden zones to build a biological weapon center, which destroyed the natural environment and offered a good growth condition for Citellus Undulatus. In 1945, on the eve of surrender, the Japanese blew up the Unit 731 germ factory located in a bungalow district, which caused diffusion of infected plague fleas. Mice of the district were infected and a man-made plague focus was created. During the prevalence of the third plague, prevention departments at all levels took a series of actions and with people's efforts, the plague was effectively controlled. PMID:21624272

  17. Practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with finite sampling bandwidth effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-02-01

    Practical security of the continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system with finite sampling bandwidth of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at the receiver's side is investigated. We find that the finite sampling bandwidth effects may decrease the lower bound of secret key rate without awareness of the legitimate communicators. This leaves security loopholes for Eve to attack the system. In addition, this effect may restrains the linear relationship of secret key bit rate with repetition rate of the system; subsequently, there is a saturation value for the secret key bit rate with the repetition rate. To resist such kind of effects, we propose a dual sampling detection approach in which two ADCs are employed so that the finite sampling bandwidth effects are removed.

  18. Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Heckenberger, Michael J; Russell, J Christian; Fausto, Carlos; Toney, Joshua R; Schmidt, Morgan J; Pereira, Edithe; Franchetto, Bruna; Kuikuro, Afukaka

    2008-08-29

    The archaeology of pre-Columbian polities in the Amazon River basin forces a reconsideration of early urbanism and long-term change in tropical forest landscapes. We describe settlement and land-use patterns of complex societies on the eve of European contact (after 1492) in the Upper Xingu region of the Brazilian Amazon. These societies were organized in articulated clusters, representing small independent polities, within a regional peer polity. These patterns constitute a "galactic" form of prehistoric urbanism, sharing features with small-scale urban polities in other areas. Understanding long-term change in coupled human-environment systems relating to these societies has implications for conservation and sustainable development, notably to control ecological degradation and maintain regional biodiversity. PMID:18755979

  19. Pre-Columbian Urbanism, Anthropogenic Landscapes, and the Future of the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckenberger, Michael J.; Russell, J. Christian; Fausto, Carlos; Toney, Joshua R.; Schmidt, Morgan J.; Pereira, Edithe; Franchetto, Bruna; Kuikuro, Afukaka

    2008-08-01

    The archaeology of pre-Columbian polities in the Amazon River basin forces a reconsideration of early urbanism and long-term change in tropical forest landscapes. We describe settlement and land-use patterns of complex societies on the eve of European contact (after 1492) in the Upper Xingu region of the Brazilian Amazon. These societies were organized in articulated clusters, representing small independent polities, within a regional peer polity. These patterns constitute a “galactic” form of prehistoric urbanism, sharing features with small-scale urban polities in other areas. Understanding long-term change in coupled human-environment systems relating to these societies has implications for conservation and sustainable development, notably to control ecological degradation and maintain regional biodiversity.

  20. Limits on light weakly interacting massive particles from the CDEX-1 experiment with a p -type point-contact germanium detector at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Q.; Zhao, W.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Liu, S. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wong, H. T.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We report results of a search for light dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory, based on 53.9 kg-days of data from a p -type point-contact germanium detector enclosed by a NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator as anti-Compton detector. The event rate and spectrum above the analysis threshold of 475 eVee are consistent with the understood background model. Part of the allowed regions for WIMP-nucleus coherent elastic scattering at WIMP mass of 6-20 GeV are probed and excluded. Independent of interaction channels, this result contradicts the interpretation that the anomalous excesses of the CoGeNT experiment are induced by dark matter, since identical detector techniques are used in both experiments.

  1. Keeping up with the Cadillacs: What Health Insurance Disparities, Moral Hazard, and the Cadillac Tax Mean to The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Rebecca Adkins

    2016-03-01

    A major goal of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is to broaden health care access through the extension of insurance coverage. However, little attention has been given to growing disparities in access to health care among the insured, as trends to reduce benefits and increase cost sharing (deductibles, co-pays) reduce affordability and access. Through a political economic perspective that critiques moral hazard, this article draws from ethnographic research with the United Steelworkers (USW) at a steel mill and the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU) at a food-processing plant in urban Central Appalachia. In so doing, this article describes difficulties of health care affordability on the eve of reform for differentially insured working families with employer-sponsored health insurance. Additionally, this article argues that the proposed Cadillac tax on high-cost health plans will increase problems with appropriate health care access and medical financial burden for many families. PMID:25132244

  2. Fatal wounds sustained from "falling bullets": maintaining a high index of suspicion in a forensic setting.

    PubMed

    Rapkiewicz, Amy V; Shuman, Mark J; Hutchins, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    Celebratory gunfire injuries from "falling bullets" occur when guns are fired into the air during celebrations without realizing that this can cause serious injuries or even fatalities. Fatal celebratory gunfire injury is an uncommonly reported event in the continental United States. Our electronic database was queried for homicides occurring within days of July 4th and December 31st over a 14-year period. We describe two cases of fatal gunfire injury due to celebratory gunfire occurring during New Year's Eve in Southern Florida. The relevant literature is reviewed. These case reports illustrate that fatal gunfire injuries sustained from "falling bullets" may pose as an unexpected mimic to sudden natural deaths especially in patients with prior medical history. A high index of suspicion to recognize such injury is required particularly during holidays. PMID:23980530

  3. Information leakage in three-party simultaneous quantum secure direct communication with EPR pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Gang; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2011-04-01

    In 2007, Wang et al. [M. Y. Wang and F. L. Yan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24 (2007) 2486] proposed a three-party simultaneous quantum secure direct communication (3P-SQSDC) scheme with EPR pairs. Recently, Chong et al. [S. K. Chong and T. Hwang, Opt. Commun. OPTICS-15438 (2010(online))] proposed an enhancement on Wang et al.'s scheme. The communications in Chong et al.'s 3P-SQSDC can be paralleled and thus their scheme has higher efficiency. However, we find that both of the schemes have the information leakage, because the legitimate parties' secret messages have a strong correlation. This kind of security loophole leads to the consequence that any eavesdropper (Eve) can directly conjecture some information about the secrets without any active attack.

  4. International Leaders Summit: using dialogue to Center the Conversation on the Education of Deaf Children and Youth in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John L

    2011-01-01

    Om July 18, 2010, the eve of the 21st International Congress on the Education of the Deaf (ICED 2010), the International Leaders Summit was held at the Center for Dialogue at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. A total of 120 world leaders from 32 countries participated. Presenters, including students, led the conversation on current perspectives, teacher preparation, worldwide resources, and major issues affecting the education of d/Deaf and hard of hearing infants, children, and youth. Summit participants recognized that advances in detection, early intervention, and technology present challenges in meeting the needs of a student population more diverse than at any other stage in history. While it was acknowledged that needs differ in various parts of the world, there was a consensus that change is required to prepare students to handle challenges in the 21st century. PMID:21949967

  5. Quantum direct communication protocol strengthening against Pavičić’s attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Shi, Wei-Xu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2015-12-01

    A quantum circuit providing an undetectable eavesdropping of information in message mode, which compromises all two-state ψ-ϕ quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols, has been recently proposed by Pavičić [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 042326]. A modification of the protocol’s control mode is proposed, which improves users’ 25% detection probability of Eve to 50% at best, as that in ping-pong protocol. The modification also improves the detection probability of Wójcik’s attack [Phys. Rev. Lett 90 (2003) 157901] to 75% at best. The resistance against man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack as well as the discussion of security for four Bell state protocols is presented. As a result, the protocol security is strengthened both theoretically and practically, and quantum advantage of superdense coding is restored.

  6. Optimal alphabets for noise-resistant quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, Denis V.; Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.

    2005-06-01

    Possibilities of improving critical error rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols for different strategies of eavesdropping are investigated. QKD-protocols with discrete alphabets letters of which form regular polyhedrons on the Bloch sphere (tetrahedron octahedron cube icosahedron and dodecahedron which have 4, 6, 8, 12 and 20 vertexes respectively) and QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet which corresponds to the limiting case of a polyhedron with infinitive number of vortexes are considered. Stability of such QKD-protocols to the noise in a quantum channel which is due to the Eve's interference that apply either intercept-receipt or optimal eavesdropping strategy at the individual attacks is studied in detail. It is shown that in case of optimal eavesdropping strategy after bases reconciliation the QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet surpasses all other protocols in terms of noise-resistance. Without basis reconciliation the highest critical error rate have the protocol with tetrahedron-type alphabet.

  7. Photon-monitoring attack on continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source in middle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun; Huang, Peng; Guo, Ying; Huang, Dazu

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by a fact that the non-Gaussian operation may increase entanglement of an entangled system, we suggest a photon-monitoring attack strategy in the entanglement-based (EB) continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) using the photon subtraction operations, where the entangled source originates from the center instead of one of the legal participants. It shows that an eavesdropper, Eve, can steal large information from participants after intercepting the partial beams with the photon-monitoring attach strategy. The structure of the proposed CVQKD protocol is useful in simply analyzing how quantum loss in imperfect channels can decrease the performance of the CVQKD protocol. The proposed attack strategy can be implemented under current technology, where a newly developed and versatile no-Gaussian operation can be well employed with the entangled source in middle in order to access to mass information in the EB CVQKD protocol, as well as in the prepare-and-measure (PM) CVQKD protocol.

  8. Classification of native vegetation at the Woodworth Station, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, M.I.

    1985-01-01

    Native prairie areas on the Woodworth Station were sampled, classified, described, and mapped. Transect sites were selectively located along different soil moisture gradients. Data were collected from 292 plots using a modified Braun-Blanquet cover estimation technique. Trees and tall shrubs (over 2 m) were not sampled because they made up less than 1% of all cover. Eve vegetation classes were established based on growth forms. They were mixed grass, shrub, tall grass, broad-leaved forbs, and trees. Each class is divided into community types based on species composition. The mixed-grass class has blue grama, Kentucky bluegrass, and mixed native grasses. The shrub class is divided into low shrub, shrub grassland, and tall shrub. The tall-grass class includes little bluestem, big bluestem, bluestem Indian-grass, and prairie cordgrass. These results will provide baseline information for long-range plans on habitat management which are being developed for the Woodworth Station.

  9. Sky and Ocean Joined-The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Bill

    Today, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) is best known to most Americans as the location of the vice president's residence. Asked to search their memories, a few may recall that USNO maintains the nation's master clock and is in some way responsible for introducing a ``leap second'' on New Year's eve every few years. Even in the scientific community, the USNO is best known and most highly regarded for its service as the nation's timekeeper. In Sky and Ocean Joined-The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000, Steve Dick points out that the history of the development of ever-more accurate clocks and the dissemination of time closely parallels the general advance of science and technology. In addition, he takes the reader inside USNO to meet some of the more fascinating individuals that drove the events and scientific achievements associated with the work of maintaining the nation's master clock.

  10. Loss-tolerant quantum cryptography with imperfect sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Curty, Marcos; Kato, Go; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Azuma, Koji

    2014-11-01

    In principle, quantum key distribution (QKD) offers unconditional security based on the laws of physics. Unfortunately, all previous QKD experiments assume perfect state preparation in their security analysis. Therefore, the generated key is not proven to be secure in the presence of unavoidable modulation errors. The key reason that modulation errors are not considered in previous QKD experiments lies in a crucial weakness of the standard Gottesman-Lo-Lütkenhaus-Preskill (GLLP) model, namely, it is not loss tolerant and Eve may in principle enhance imperfections through losses. Here, we propose a QKD protocol that is loss tolerant to state preparation flaws. Importantly, we show conclusively that the state preparation process in QKD can be much less precise than initially thought. Our method can also be applied to other quantum cryptographic protocols.

  11. [Who would suffer this child in the cold? History and diagnosis during a Socratic dialogue].

    PubMed

    Van Rossem, Kristof; Bolten, Hans

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an account of the experiences of 12 dentists (11 general practitioners and one periodontist) during a one-day Socratic dialogue, which took place at the International Conference for Dentists in Bruges 2001. The key question was: "When must I (or mustn't I) comply with the patient's wish?" The participants tackled an example from Edgar, general practitioner. His story went like this: on Christmas Eve, dinnertime, one of his patients--duly instructed beforehand--arrived just like that, and said: "I'm in pain". When the central question was applied to this example, uncertainty arose about the exact nature of "the patient's wish". In this article you read how the participants dealt with the "pain", with the uncertainty. PMID:12649970

  12. New Ediacara fossils preserved in marine limestone and their ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Zhou, Chuanming; Xiao, Shuhai; Wang, Wei; Guan, Chengguo; Hua, Hong; Yuan, Xunlai

    2014-01-01

    Ediacara fossils are central to our understanding of animal evolution on the eve of the Cambrian explosion, because some of them likely represent stem-group marine animals. However, some of the iconic Ediacara fossils have also been interpreted as terrestrial lichens or microbial colonies. Our ability to test these hypotheses is limited by a taphonomic bias that most Ediacara fossils are preserved in sandstones and siltstones. Here we report several iconic Ediacara fossils and an annulated tubular fossil (reconstructed as an erect epibenthic organism with uniserial arranged modular units), from marine limestone of the 551-541 Ma Dengying Formation in South China. These fossils significantly expand the ecological ranges of several key Ediacara taxa and support that they are marine organisms rather than terrestrial lichens or microbial colonies. Their close association with abundant bilaterian burrows also indicates that they could tolerate and may have survived moderate levels of bioturbation. PMID:24566959

  13. New Ediacara fossils preserved in marine limestone and their ecological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhou, Chuanming; Xiao, Shuhai; Wang, Wei; Guan, Chengguo; Hua, Hong; Yuan, Xunlai

    2014-02-01

    Ediacara fossils are central to our understanding of animal evolution on the eve of the Cambrian explosion, because some of them likely represent stem-group marine animals. However, some of the iconic Ediacara fossils have also been interpreted as terrestrial lichens or microbial colonies. Our ability to test these hypotheses is limited by a taphonomic bias that most Ediacara fossils are preserved in sandstones and siltstones. Here we report several iconic Ediacara fossils and an annulated tubular fossil (reconstructed as an erect epibenthic organism with uniserial arranged modular units), from marine limestone of the 551-541 Ma Dengying Formation in South China. These fossils significantly expand the ecological ranges of several key Ediacara taxa and support that they are marine organisms rather than terrestrial lichens or microbial colonies. Their close association with abundant bilaterian burrows also indicates that they could tolerate and may have survived moderate levels of bioturbation.

  14. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  15. Linacre and Locke: Pillars of Medical Humanism

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Cecil J.

    1967-01-01

    The following address was given by Dr. Cecil J. Watson at the Wm. J. Kerr Gold Headed Cane Lecture, University of California School of Medicine, on 9 June 1967. At this event on the eve of Commencement Day, the senior student who has been chosen by his classmates and by his professors in the Department of Medicine as the one who best exemplifies the qualities of a true physician is awarded a gold-headed cane.* This carries on the British tradition of a similar cane that was passed from physician to physician from 1689 to 1825. The original cane, which was carried successively by Doctors John Radcliffe, Richard Mead, Anthony Askew, David Pitcairn and Matthew Baillie, now rests in the Hall of the Royal College of Physicians in London. PMID:4867206

  16. Search of low-mass WIMPs with a p -type point contact germanium detector in the CDEX-1 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Yue, Q.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Wong, H. T.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, J. M.; Li, X.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Lin, F. K.; Liu, S. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Ma, J. L.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Sharma, V.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The CDEX-1 experiment conducted a search of low-mass (<10 GeV /c2 ) weakly interacting massive particles dark matter at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory using a p-type point-contact germanium detector with a fiducial mass of 915 g at a physics analysis threshold of 475 eVee. We report the hardware setup, detector characterization, data acquisition, and analysis procedures of this experiment. No excess of unidentified events is observed after the subtraction of the known background. Using 335.6 kg-days of data, exclusion constraints on the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleon spin-independent and spin-dependent couplings are derived.

  17. Solar Irradiance Reference Spectra (SIRS) for the 2008 Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Harder, Jerald W.; Hock, Rachel A.; Snow, Martin; Eparvier, Francis G.; Fontenla, Juan; McClintock, William E.; Richard, Erik C.

    2009-01-01

    The IHY2007 Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) for solar Carrington Rotation 2068 (20 March to 16 April 2008) has been very successful in obtaining a wide variety of solar, heliospheric, and planetary observations during times of solar cycle minimum conditions. One of these efforts is the generation of solar irradiance reference spectra (SIRS) from 0.1 nm to 2400 nm using a combination of satellite and sounding rocket observations. These reference spectra include daily satellite observations from TIMED Solar Extreme ultraviolet Experiment (SEE) and Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments. The extreme ultraviolet range is also improved with higher spectral resolution observations using the prototype SDO Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) aboard a sounding rocket launched on 14 April 2008. The SIRS result is an important accomplishment in that it is the first data set to have simultaneous measurements over the full spectral coverage up to 2400 nm during solar cycle minimum conditions.

  18. Trojan-horse attacks on quantum key distribution with classical Bob

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Zhao, Qian-Qian

    2015-02-01

    Recently, Boyer et al. (Phys Rev Lett 99:140501, 2007) introduced a conceptually novel semi-quantum key distribution scheme (BKM07). Tan et al. (Phys Rev Lett 102:098901, 2009) showed that classical Bob is unable to detect Eve's eavesdropping by giving a special implementation of BKM07 protocol. In the reply, Boyer et al. (Phys Rev Lett 102:098902, 2009) gave a solution against the eavesdropping, i.e., Bob may place a filter that allows only photons with approximately specific frequency to pass just at the expected time . However, their improvement contradicts the descriptions about "classical." If the assumption of "classical" is not considered, we give a delay-photon Trojan-horse attack on BKM07 protocol and its improvement and further present a possible improvement.

  19. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with a passive decoy-state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yu-Zhu; Sun, Shi-Hai; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Li; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) can remove all detector loopholes. When it is combined with the decoy-state method, the final key is unconditionally secure, even if Alice and Bob do not have strict single-photon sources. However, active modulation of source intensity, which is used to generate the decoy state, may leave side channels and leak additional information to Eve. In this paper, we consider the MDI-QKD with a passive decoy state, in which both Alice and Bob send pulses to an untrusted third party, Charlie. Then, in order to estimate the key generation rate, we derive two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of the yield and the upper bound of the error rate that both Alice and Bob send a single-photon pulse to Charlie. Furthermore, the statistical fluctuation due to the finite length of data is also taken into account based on the standard statistical analysis.

  20. A late Neandertal femur from Les Rochers-de-Villeneuve, France

    PubMed Central

    Beauval, Cédric; Maureille, Bruno; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Serre, David; Peressinotto, David; Bordes, Jean-Guillaume; Cochard, David; Couchoud, Isabelle; Dubrasquet, David; Laroulandie, Véronique; Lenoble, Arnaud; Mallye, Jean-Baptiste; Pasty, Sylvain; Primault, Jérôme; Rohland, Nadin; Pääbo, Svante; Trinkaus, Erik

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, a Neandertal partial femoral diaphysis was discovered at Les Rochers-de-Villeneuve (Vienne, France). Radiocarbon dated to ≈40,700 14C years before present, this specimen is one of the most recent Middle Paleolithic Neandertals. The diaphysis derives from an archeological level indicating alternating human and carnivore (mostly hyena) occupation of the cave, reinforcing the close proximity and probable competition of Middle Paleolithic humans with large carnivores for resources and space. Morphological aspects of the diaphysis and ancient DNA extracted from it indicate that it is aligned with the Neandertals and is distinct from early modern humans. However, its midshaft cortical bone distribution places it between other Middle Paleolithic Neandertals and the Châtelperronian Neandertal from La Roche-à-Pierrot, supporting a pattern of changing mobility patterns among late Middle Paleolithic Neandertals on the eve of modern human dispersals into Europe. PMID:15878988

  1. Coherent-pulse implementations of quantum cryptography protocols resistant to photon-number-splitting attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    We propose a class of quantum cryptography protocols that are robust against photon-number-splitting attacks (PNS) in a weak coherent-pulse implementation. We give a quite exhaustive analysis of several eavesdropping attacks on these schemes. The honest parties (Alice and Bob) use present-day technology, in particular an attenuated laser as an approximation of a single-photon source. The idea of the protocols is to exploit the nonorthogonality of quantum states to decrease the information accessible to Eve due to the multiphoton pulses produced by the imperfect source. The distance at which the key distribution becomes insecure due to the PNS attack is significantly increased compared to the existing schemes. We also show that strong-pulse implementations, where a strong pulse is included as a reference, allow for key distribution robust against photon-number-splitting attacks.

  2. Apothecary activity in Dubrovnik Dominican Monastery from 17th to the beginning 19th century.

    PubMed

    Krasic, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the Dominican monastery pharmacy is not clear, but sources suggest that it had operated from the eve of the great earthquake in Dubrovnik in 1667 to the beginning of the 19th century. Its last pharmacist, praised for his competence, passed away in 1803, leaving no one behind The prior travelled all the way to Naples to find a competent pharmacist in his stead, but never returned. Story has it that on the way back, the abbot and the pharmacist lost their lives in a shipwreck. The French army occupied the town in 1806, and the monastery was turned into a military camp. Following the retreat of the French army in 1814, the monastery was returned to the Dominicans, but the pharmacy was never restored. PMID:22047479

  3. Workshop on Atmospheric Transport on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. R. (Editor); Haberle, R. M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    On June 28-30, 1993, the Workshop on Atmospheric Transport on Mars was held in Corvallis, Oregon. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the MSATT (Mars Surface and Atmosphere Through Time) Program of NASA, and was jointly sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Oregon State University, and the Oregon Space Grant Consortium. More than 50 scientists attended the workshop, which was the first such meeting to focus upon circulation processes in the Mars atmosphere. The timing of the workshop placed it almost on the eve of the arrival of Mars Observer at Mars, so that the presented papers gave a picture of the 'state of the art' in Mars atmospheric science just prior to the expected arrival of new data. The workshop highlighted a host of recent advances in atmospheric modeling and analysis - advances that will be relevant to any future observations.

  4. Linacre and Locke:pillars of medical humanism.

    PubMed

    Watson, C J

    1967-11-01

    The following address was given by Dr. Cecil J. Watson at the Wm. J. Kerr Gold Headed Cane Lecture, University of California School of Medicine, on 9 June 1967. At this event on the eve of Commencement Day, the senior student who has been chosen by his classmates and by his professors in the Department of Medicine as the one who best exemplifies the qualities of a true physician is awarded a gold-headed cane.* This carries on the British tradition of a similar cane that was passed from physician to physician from 1689 to 1825. The original cane, which was carried successively by Doctors John Radcliffe, Richard Mead, Anthony Askew, David Pitcairn and Matthew Baillie, now rests in the Hall of the Royal College of Physicians in London. PMID:4867206

  5. Historical vignette #8. General Ulysses S. Grant's hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G B

    1987-11-01

    Many biographers have discussed the throat cancer that plagued General Ulysses S. Grant toward the end of his life. However, little attention has been focused on his orthopaedic problems. On Christmas Eve in 1883, Grant slipped on an icy walk and fell. Following this accident he was bedridden for weeks and orthopaedically disabled for the remainder of his life. Although biographers have documented this incident, the outcome of the accident has been variously attributed to a sprain, muscle rupture, or simply a lack of exercise. The history of the injury and the nature of the symptoms and disability, which suggest that the General may have sustained a hip fracture, are reviewed with a discussion of the state of hip fracture diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis taken from the textbooks of the period. PMID:3332717

  6. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  7. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  8. Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.

  9. Hook ‘Em Horns and Heavy Drinking: Alcohol Use and Collegiate Sports

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Dan J.; Fromme, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with collegiate sporting events, but little is known about specific levels of consumption over the course of an entire sports season. Ongoing web-based daily-monitoring at the University of Texas at Austin allowed assessment of drinking levels of students (n = 541) over two full football seasons. High-profile football game days were among the heaviest days for alcohol consumption, comparable to consumption on other well-known drinking days such as New Years Eve and Halloween weekend. Men increased their drinking for all games, and women with greater social involvement were more likely to drink heavily during away games. Among lighter drinkers, away games were associated with a greater likelihood of behavioral risks as intoxication increased. PMID:17662537

  10. Fireworks: A physics event display for CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalskyi, D.; Tadel, M.; Mrak-Tadel, A.; Bellenot, B.; Kuznetsov, V.; Jones, C.D.; Bauerdick, L. Case, M.; Mulmenstadt, J.; Yagil, A.; /UC, San Diego

    2010-01-01

    Fireworks is a CMS event display which is specialized for the physics studies case. This specialization allows us to use a stylized rather than 3D-accurate representation when appropriate. Data handling is greatly simplified by using only reconstructed information and ideal geometry. Fireworks provides an easy-to-use interface which allows a physicist to concentrate only on the data in which he is interested. Data is presented via graphical and textual views. Fireworks is built using the Eve subsystem of the CERN ROOT project and CMS's FWLite project. The FWLite project was part of CMS's recent code redesign which separates data classes into libraries separate from algorithms producing the data and uses ROOT directly for C++ object storage, thereby allowing the data classes to be used directly in ROOT.

  11. Empirical eigenfunction analysis of sea surface temperatures in the Western North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Everson, R.; Cornillon, P.; Sirovich, L. |; Webber, A.

    1996-06-01

    The Karhunen-Lo{grave e}ve decomposition is used to analyze time records of AVHRR sea surface temperature observations of the Western North Atlantic. A manually declouded dataset covering the spring of 1985 is analyzed. The majority (80{percent}) of the variance about the mean is accounted for by an empirical eigenfunction which is identified with seasonal warming. The empirical eigenfunction describes the rates of warming in different regions of the ocean. Additional eigenfunctions associated with the meandering of the Gulf Stream are found. Techniques to deal with missing and partially cloudy data are advanced and applied to relatively cloud-free data selected from the period 1985 to 1991. Again, the dominant effect is identified as seasonal warming. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Electric fields in the plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, A.; Knott, K.; Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F. S.; Falthammar, C.-G.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Manka, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Results obtained by Forbes et al. (1981) on the basis of time delay measurements between ISEE 1 and ISEE 2 imply that the plasma flow and the boundary contracting velocity were nearly the same, whereas the expanding boundary velocity was not accompanied by any significant plasma sheet plasma motion. In the present study, this observation is discussed in conjunction with electric field data. The study is based on electric field data from the spherical double probe experiment on ISEE 1. Electric field data from GEOS 2 are used to some extent to monitor the electric fields near the geostationary orbit during the considered eve nts. Electric field data during CDAW 6 events are discussed, taking into account positions of ISEE 1/ISEE 2 and GEOS 2; March 22, 0600-1300 UT; and March 22, UT; and March 31, 1400-2400 UT.

  13. Searches for supersymmetry at high-energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Nachtman, Jane

    2010-01-15

    This review summarizes the state of the art in searches for supersymmetry at colliders on the eve of the Large Hadron Collider era. Supersymmetry is unique among extensions of the standard model in being motivated by naturalness, dark matter, and force unification, both with and without gravity. At the same time, weak-scale supersymmetry encompasses a wide range of experimental signals that are also found in many other frameworks. Motivations for supersymmetry are recalled and the various models and their distinctive features are reviewed. Searches for neutral and charged Higgs bosons and standard-model superpartners at the high energy frontier are summarized comprehensively, considering both canonical and noncanonical supersymmetric models, and including results from the LEP collider at CERN, HERA at DESY, and the Fermilab Tevatron.

  14. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170 eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV /c2.

  15. [Night sleep structural alteration as a function of individual strategy of adapting to 520-isolation].

    PubMed

    Zavalko, I M; Boritko, Ya S; Kovrov, G V; Vinokhodova, A G; Chekalina, A I; Smoleevsky, A E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to establish a relationship between trends in sleep alteration and individual adaptation to the stress-factors in the 520-day isolation study. Psychological evaluations using a battery of motivation tests and L. Sobchik's modification of the Luscher personality test, and Mirror coordinograph enabled to differentiate groups reacting to the stress on the pattern of "control" (G-1) or "search" (G-2) manifested in individual styles of behavior and operator's activity. The 2 groups showed different dynamics of the night sleep structure. Difficulties with falling asleep in G-1 arose on the eve of "landing onto Mars" and end of the experiment, whereas in G-2 they were evident prior to the end only. Besides, the micro- and segmental sleep structures were more stable in G-1 suggesting the integrity of somnogenic mechanisms despite difficult sleep initiation. PMID:25033611

  16. [Effects of long-term isolation and anticipation of significant event on sleep: results of the project "Mars-520"].

    PubMed

    Zavalko, I M; Rasskazova, E I; Gordeev, S A; Palatov, S Iu; Kovrov, G V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study effect of long-term isolation on night sleep. The data were collected during international ground simulation of an interplanetary manned flight--"Mars-500". The polysomnographic recordings of six healthy men were performed before, four times during and after 520-days confinement. During the isolation sleep efficiency and delta-latency decreased, while sleep latency increased. Post-hoc analysis demonstrate significant differences between background and the last (1.5 months before the end of the experiment) measure during isolation. Frequency of nights with low sleep efficiency rose on the eve of the important for the crew events (simulation of Mars landing and the end of the confinement). Two weeks after the landing simulation, amount of the nights with a low sleep efficiency significantly decreased. Therefore, anticipation of significant event under condition of long-term isolation might result in sleep worsening in previously healthy men, predominantly difficulties getting to sleep. PMID:25509171

  17. Quantum Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruß, D.; Meyer, T.

    The Greek words "kryptos" ≡ "hidden" and "logos" ≡ "word" are the etymological sources for "cryptology," the science of secure communication. Within cryptology, one distinguishes cryptography (or "code-making") and cryptanalysis (or "code-breaking"). The aim of cryptography is to ensure secret or "secure" communication between a sender, traditionally called Alice, and a receiver, called Bob. The encryption and decryption of a so-called plain text into a cipher text and back is achieved using a certain key (not necessarily the same for Alice and Bob), as illustrated in Fig. 1. Here, "secure" means that an eavesdropper, called Eve, has no information on the message. In this chapter we will show that in classical cryptography (using classical signals), security relies on the assumed difficulty to solve certain mathematical tasks, whereas in quantum cryptography (using quantum signals), security arises from the laws of quantum physics.

  18. RAD750 SBC Usage for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the first space weather research mission in the Living with a Star (LWS) Program. The science objective of the mission is to understand the solar variations that influence life on Earth. The mission is developed and managed by NASA/GSFC with a launch date in 2008 on a five-year mission using a geosynchronous inclined orbit. Involved with the mission are three science instruments: a helloseisic and magnetic imagery (HMI), extreme ultraviolet variability experiment (EVE), and solar helispheric activity research prediction program (SHARPP). 6U qualification Vib test has been completed with successful results (no interrupts detected at 1 nanosecond). Other test result to be reported at workshop.

  19. Features of the soft-bottom subtidal macrobenthos in Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam, South China Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalov, A. A.; Britaev, T. A.; Than, N. T. H.

    2006-07-01

    General characteristics of macrobenthos of the muddy sediments of the subtidal (19-24 m) zone in Nha Trang Bay (South Vietnam) were described based on the survey performed in April-May 2002. The mean abundance of organisms was 637 ind/m2 and the mean biomass was 2.3 g/m2. Sixty-seven macrobenthic species were found during the study. The main structural features of the macrobenthos were high species diversity, low species recurrence, and high eveness of the species structure with the absence of clearly manifested dominants. The number of species encountered regularly increased with the increase in the total area sampled from 210 to 5000 cm2, though the relation did not reach saturation. The similarities and differences between the macrobenthos structures in Nha Trang Bay and those in some tropical and boreal soft-bottom communities are discussed.

  20. Establishment of a cell line derived from top-minnow (Gambusia patruelis).

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Chen, S N; Kou, G H

    1987-07-01

    A cell line, derived from top-minnow (Gambusia patruelis), has been transferred for 114 times in Leibovitz L-15 medium plus 10% FCS (GM-L-15) at a temperature of 31 degrees C and designated as TM. The results of a chromosome analysis of 100 cells at the metaphase stage, show a bimodal distribution of the chromosome number ranged from 21 to 68 with a modal number of 38. At a low seeding density, the plating efficiency of TM cells was 11-12.4%. TM cells are susceptible to EVE, EVA, EVEX, IPNV and LV-1 at 18 degrees C. The result of a sterility test showed that the TM cell line was free of bacterial, fungal and mycoplasmic contamination. The presence of numerous microvilli on the surface of TM cells in the micrographs of normal TM cell. The microvilli are replaced by blebs at the late stage of cytokinesis of the cells. PMID:3122238

  1. Cost overruns will affect Galileo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Recent news of the cost overruns in the development of the shuttle's upper stages that will affect launching of the proposed Galileo mission prompted the following statement from Robert A. Frosch, on the eve of his resignation from the post of NASA Administrator: You know that we have been carrying out a concentrated study of Shuttle upper stages for 2 1/2 months now. This study was initiated in early November when we became concerned with the continued rapid escalation of estimated costs for the three-stage IUS (inertial upper stage). We have decided on the best course of action for the future, and I want to outline for you how I believe the nation should proceed.

  2. Monitoring the burst-out of Enteromorpha prolifera in the Yellow Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiying; Peng, Hongchun; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Chunlin

    2012-10-01

    In the eve of the Beijing Olympics Games, Qingdao in China, as the host city of OSC of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, was surrounded by Enteromorpha prolifera, which was followed with interest by whole China and the world. The Enteromorpha often comes from other ocean, monitoring the drifting path of the Enteromorpha will become very important.The Study area is mainly the Yellow Sea. And the data sources are Terra MODIS 1B images from 2000-2010 years. The data preprocessing include BOW-TIE processing, image registration, clip, merge, and masking. And the NDVI was selected as the index of derived Enteromorpha prolifera information, to get the range of Enteromorpha prolifera, and get that of dynamic change with time, and monitor the drifting path of the Enteromorpha.

  3. Early word meanings: perceptually or functionally based?

    PubMed

    Tomikawa, S A; Dodd, D H

    1980-12-01

    The issue of whether early word meaning is based on perceptual (Eve Clark) or functional (Katherine Nelson) features has not been satisfactorily resolved by previous research. The present experiments addressed this issue by presenting young children (2- and 3-year-olds) with novel objects in which perceptual and functional features varied independently. Given choices of how to sort novel artificial objects varying in both aspects, children in experiments 1 and 2 chose perceptual features with few exceptions. Experiments 3 and 4 presented the same objects to children in a concept-learning task, where nonsense labels were to be learned for perceptually or functionally based categories; the latter were much more difficult. Experiment 5 was an extension of the first 2 experiments, except that more familiar objects were employed; comparable results were found. All of the results support 1 conclusion: early conceptualizations and word meanings are perceptually based when perceptual and functional features are independently available. PMID:7471919

  4. Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Krützen, Michael; Mann, Janet; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Bejder, Lars; Sherwin, William B

    2005-06-21

    In Shark Bay, wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) apparently use marine sponges as foraging tools. We demonstrate that genetic and ecological explanations for this behavior are inadequate; thus, "sponging" classifies as the first case of an existing material culture in a marine mammal species. Using mitochondrial DNA analyses, we show that sponging shows an almost exclusive vertical social transmission within a single matriline from mother to female offspring. Moreover, significant genetic relatedness among all adult spongers at the nuclear level indicates very recent coancestry, suggesting that all spongers are descendents of one recent "Sponging Eve." Unlike in apes, tool use in this population is almost exclusively limited to a single matriline that is part of a large albeit open social network of frequently interacting individuals, adding a new dimension to charting cultural phenomena among animals. PMID:15947077

  5. Space Station Freedom Gateway to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first inhabited outpost on the frontier of space will be a place to live, work, and discover. Experiments conducted on Freedom will advance scientific knowledge about our world, our environment, and ourselves. We will learn how to adapt to the space environment and to build and operate new spacecraft with destinations far beyond Earth, continuing the tradition of exploration that began with a journey to the Moon. What we learn from living and working on Freedom will strengthen our expertise in science and engineering, promote national research and development initiatives and inspire another generation of Americans to push forward and onward. On the eve of the 21st century, Space Station Freedom will be our gateway to the future. This material covers gateways to space, research, discovery, utilization, benefits, and NASA.

  6. An attack aimed at active phase compensation in one-way phase-encoded QKD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhao-Yue; Yu, Ning-Na; Wei, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Jin-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Phase drift is an inherent problem in one-way phase-encoded quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Although combining passive with active phase compensation (APC) processes can effectively compensate for the phase drift, the security problems brought about by these processes are rarely considered. In this paper, we point out a security hole in the APC process and put forward a corresponding attack scheme. Under our proposed attack, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the QKD can be close to zero for some conditions. However, under the same conditions the ratio r of the key "0" and the key "1" which Bob (the legal communicators Alice and Bob) gets is no longer 1:1 but 2:1, which may expose Eve (the eavesdropper). In order to solve this problem, we modify the resend strategy of the attack scheme, which can force r to reach 1 and the QBER to be lower than the tolerable QBER.

  7. Huckebein is part of a combinatorial repression code in the anterior blastoderm.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Luiz Paulo; Digiampietri, Luciano Antonio; de Barros, Lilian Ponce; Machado-Lima, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    The hierarchy of the segmentation cascade responsible for establishing the Drosophila body plan is composed by gap, pair-rule and segment polarity genes. However, no pair-rule stripes are formed in the anterior regions of the embryo. This lack of stripe formation, as well as other evidence from the literature that is further investigated here, led us to the hypothesis that anterior gap genes might be involved in a combinatorial mechanism responsible for repressing the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) of hairy (h), even-skipped (eve), runt (run), and fushi-tarazu (ftz) anterior-most stripes. In this study, we investigated huckebein (hkb), which has a gap expression domain at the anterior tip of the embryo. Using genetic methods we were able to detect deviations from the wild-type patterns of the anterior-most pair-rule stripes in different genetic backgrounds, which were consistent with Hkb-mediated repression. Moreover, we developed an image processing tool that, for the most part, confirmed our assumptions. Using an hkb misexpression system, we further detected specific repression on anterior stripes. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis predicted an increased significance of binding site clusters in the CRMs of h 1, eve 1, run 1 and ftz 1when Hkb was incorporated in the analysis, indicating that Hkb plays a direct role in these CRMs. We further discuss that Hkb and Slp1, which is the other previously identified common repressor of anterior stripes, might participate in a combinatorial repression mechanism controlling stripe CRMs in the anterior parts of the embryo and define the borders of these anterior stripes. PMID:22027434

  8. Quantitative dynamics and increased variability of segmentation gene expression in the Drosophila Krüppel and knirps mutants.

    PubMed

    Surkova, Svetlana; Golubkova, Elena; Manu; Panok, Lena; Mamon, Lyudmila; Reinitz, John; Samsonova, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Here we characterize the response of the Drosophila segmentation system to mutations in two gap genes, Kr and kni, in the form of single or double homozygotes and single heterozygotes. Segmentation gene expression in these genotypes was quantitatively monitored with cellular resolution in space and 6.5 to 13min resolution in time. As is the case with wild type, we found that gene expression domains in the posterior portion of the embryo shift to the anterior over time. In certain cases, such as the gt posterior domain in Kr mutants, the shifts are significantly larger than is seen in wild type embryos. We also investigated the effects of Kr and kni on the variability of gene expression. Mutations often produce variable phenotypes, and it is well known that the cuticular phenotype of Kr mutants is variable. We sought to understand the molecular basis of this effect. We find that throughout cycle 14A the relative levels of eve and ftz expression in stripes 2 and 3 are variable among individual embryos. Moreover, in Kr and kni mutants, unlike wild type, the variability in positioning of the posterior Hb domain and eve stripe 7 is not decreased or filtered with time. The posterior Gt domain in Kr mutants is highly variable at early times, but this variability decreases when this domain shifts in the anterior direction to the position of the neighboring Kni domain. In contrast to these findings, positional variability throughout the embryo does not decrease over time in double Kr;kni mutants. In heterozygotes the early expression patterns of segmentation genes resemble patterns seen in homozygous mutants but by the onset of gastrulation they become similar to the wild type patterns. Finally, we note that gene expression levels are reduced in Kr and kni mutant embryos and have a tendency to decrease over time. This is a surprising result in view of the role that mutual repression is thought to play in the gap gene system. PMID:23333947

  9. Nuclear factor Y regulates ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus core promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhongliang; Liu, Yanfeng; Luo, Mengjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Shaokun; Xie, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Endogenous viral elements (EVE) in animal genomes are the fossil records of ancient viruses and provide invaluable information on the origin and evolution of extant viruses. Extant hepadnaviruses include avihepadnaviruses of birds and orthohepadnaviruses of mammals. The core promoter (Cp) of hepadnaviruses is vital for viral gene expression and replication. We previously identified in the budgerigar genome two EVEs that contain the full-length genome of an ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus (eBHBV1 and eBHBV2). Here, we found eBHBV1 Cp and eBHBV2 Cp were active in several human and chicken cell lines. A region from nt -85 to -11 in eBHBV1 Cp was critical for the promoter activity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a putative binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), a ubiquitous transcription factor, at nt -64 to -50 in eBHBV1 Cp. The NF-Y core binding site (ATTGG, nt -58 to -54) was essential for eBHBV1 Cp activity. The same results were obtained with eBHBV2 Cp and duck hepatitis B virus Cp. The subunit A of NF-Y (NF-YA) was recruited via the NF-Y core binding site to eBHBV1 Cp and upregulated the promoter activity. Finally, the NF-Y core binding site is conserved in the Cps of all the extant avihepadnaviruses but not of orthohepadnaviruses. Interestingly, a putative and functionally important NF-Y core binding site is located at nt -21 to -17 in the Cp of human hepatitis B virus. In conclusion, our findings have pinpointed an evolutionary conserved and functionally critical NF-Y binding element in the Cps of avihepadnaviruses. PMID:27501758

  10. Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Abbott, Derek; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged. PMID:24358129

  11. Assessment of MODIS-Derived Visible and Near-IR Aerosol Optical Properties and their Spatial Variability in the Presence of Mineral Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Zhang, Q.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H.; Remer, L. A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosol is among the most difficult aerosol species to measure quantitatively from space. In this paper, we evaluate MODIS retrievals of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the visible to the near-IR off the US West Coast using measurements taken by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer, AATS-14, during the EVE (Extended-MODIS-lambda Validation Experiment, 2004) campaign in April of 2004. In EVE, a total of 35 and 49 coincident over-ocean suborbital measurements at the nominal level-2 retrieval scale of 10 km x 10 km were collected for Terra and Aqua, respectively. For MODIS-Terra about 80% of the AOD retrievals are within the estimated uncertainty, DELTA tau = plus or minus 0.03 plus or minus 0.05 tau; this is true for both the visible (here defined to include 466-855 nm) and near-IR (here defined to include 1243-2119 nm) retrievals. For MODIS-Aqua about 45% of the AOD retrievals are within DELTA tau = plus or minus 0.03 plus or minus 0.05 tau; the fraction of near-IR retrievals that fall within this uncertainty range is about 27%. We found an rms difference of 0.71 between the sunphotometer snd MODIS-Aqua estimates of the visible (553-855 nm) Angstrom exponent, while the MODIS-Terra visible Angstrom exponents show an rms difference of only 0.29 when compared to AATS. The cause of the differences in performance between MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua could be instrument calibration and needs to be explored further. The spatial variability of AOD between retrieval boxes as derived by MODIS is generally larger than that indicated by the sunphotometer data.

  12. FISM 2.0: Improved Spectral Range, Resolution, and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) was first released in 2005 to provide accurate estimates of the solar VUV (0.1-190 nm) irradiance to the Space Weather community. This model was based on TIMED SEE as well as UARS and SORCE SOLSTICE measurements, and was the first model to include a 60 second temporal variation to estimate the variations due to solar flares. Along with flares, FISM also estimates the tradition solar cycle and solar rotational variations over months and decades back to 1947. This model has been highly successful in providing driving inputs to study the affect of solar irradiance variations on the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere, lunar dust charging, as well as the Martian ionosphere. The second version of FISM, FISM2, is currently being updated to be based on the more accurate SDO/EVE data, which will provide much more accurate estimations in the 0.1-105 nm range, as well as extending the 'daily' model variation up to 300 nm based on the SOLSTICE measurements. with the spectral resolution of SDO/EVE along with SOLSTICE and the TIMED and SORCE XPS 'model' products, the entire range from 0.1-300 nm will also be available at 0.1 nm, allowing FISM2 to be improved a similar 0.1nm spectral bins. FISM also will have a TSI component that will estimate the total radiated energy during flares based on the few TSI flares observed to date. Presented here will be initial results of the FISM2 modeling efforts, as well as some challenges that will need to be overcome in order for FISM2 to accurately model the solar variations on time scales of seconds to decades.

  13. Delayed mTOR Inhibition with Low Dose of Everolimus Reduces TGFβ Expression, Attenuates Proteinuria and Renal Damage in the Renal Mass Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Kurdián, Melania; Herrero-Fresneda, Inmaculada; Lloberas, Nuria; Gimenez-Bonafe, Pepita; Coria, Virginia; Grande, María T.; Boggia, José; Malacrida, Leonel; Torras, Joan; Arévalo, Miguel A.; González-Martínez, Francisco; López-Novoa, José M.; Grinyó, Josep; Noboa, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Background The immunosuppressive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are widely used in solid organ transplantation, but their effect on kidney disease progression is controversial. mTOR has emerged as one of the main pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed inhibition of mTOR pathway with low dose of everolimus on progression of renal disease and TGFβ expression in the 5/6 nephrectomy model in Wistar rats. Methods This study evaluated the effects of everolimus (0.3 mg/k/day) introduced 15 days after surgical procedure on renal function, proteinuria, renal histology and mechanisms of fibrosis and proliferation. Results Everolimus treated group (EveG) showed significantly less proteinuria and albuminuria, less glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis, fibroblast activation cell proliferation, when compared with control group (CG), even though the EveG remained with high blood pressure. Treatment with everolimus also diminished glomerular hypertrophy. Everolimus effectively inhibited the increase of mTOR developed in 5/6 nephrectomy animals, without changes in AKT mRNA or protein abundance, but with an increase in the pAKT/AKT ratio. Associated with this inhibition, everolimus blunted the increased expression of TGFβ observed in the remnant kidney model. Conclusion Delayed mTOR inhibition with low dose of everolimus significantly prevented progressive renal damage and protected the remnant kidney. mTOR and TGFβ mRNA reduction can partially explain this anti fibrotic effect. mTOR can be a new target to attenuate the progression of chronic kidney disease even in those nephropathies of non-immunologic origin. PMID:22427849

  14. CONTINUUM CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SDO/AIA PASSBANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Ryan O.; McElroy, Sarah A.

    2013-11-01

    Data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph component of the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) were used to quantify the contribution of continuum emission to each of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), also on SDO, during an X-class solar flare that occurred on 2011 February 15. Both the pre-flare-subtracted EVE spectra and fits to the associated free-free continuum were convolved with the AIA response functions of the seven EUV passbands at 10 s cadence throughout the course of the flare. It was found that 10%-25% of the total emission in the 94 Å, 131 Å, 193 Å, and 335 Å passbands throughout the main phase of the flare was due to free-free emission. Reliable measurements could not be made for the 171 Å channel, while the continuum contribution to the 304 Å channel was negligible due to the presence of the strong He II emission line. Up to 50% of the emission in the 211 Å channel was found to be due to free-free emission around the peak of the flare, while an additional 20% was due to the recombination continuum of He II. The analysis was extended to a number of M- and X-class flares and it was found that the level of free-free emission contributing to both the 171 Å and 211 Å passbands increased with increasing GOES class. These results suggest that the amount of continuum emission that contributes to AIA observations during flares is more significant than stated in previous studies which used synthetic, rather than observed, spectra. These findings highlight the importance of spectroscopic observations carried out in conjunction with those from imaging instruments so that the data are interpreted correctly.

  15. High intensity uranium beams from the superHILAC and the bevatron: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The two injectors formerly used at the SuperHILAC were a 750-kV air-insulated Cockcroft-Walton (EVE) and a 2.5-MV pressurized HV multiplier (ADAM). The EVE injector can deliver adequate intensities of ions up to mass 40 (argon). The ADAM injector can accelerate ions with lower charge-to-mass ratios, and they can produce beams of heavier ions. The intensity of these beams decreases as the mass number increases, with the lowest practical intensity being achieved with lead beams. Experience with the two existing injectors provided substantial help in defining the general requirements for a new injector which would provide ample beams above mass 40. The requirements for acceptance by the first tank of the SuperHILAC are a particle velocity ..beta.. = 0.0154 (corresponding to an energy of 113 keV/amu) and a charge-to-mass ratio of 0.046 or larger. Present ion source performance dictates an air-insulated Cockcroft-Walton as a pre-accelerator because of its easy accessibility and its good overall reliability. The low charge state ions then receive further acceleration and, if necessary, subsequent stripping to the required charge state before injection into the SuperHILAC. A low-beta linac of the Widereoe type has been built to perform this acceleration. The injector system described consists of a Cockcroft-Walton pre-injector, injection beam lines and isotope analysis, a low-velocity linear accelerator, and SuperHILAC control center modifications.

  16. GWAS and admixture mapping identify different asthma-associated loci in Latinos: The GALA II Study

    PubMed Central

    Galanter, Joshua M; Gignoux, Christopher R; Torgerson, Dara G; Roth, Lindsey A; Eng, Celeste; Oh, Sam S; Nguyen, Elizabeth A; Drake, Katherine A; Huntsman, Scott; Hu, Donglei; Sen, Saunak; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Avila, Pedro C.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A.; Meade, Kelley; Serebrisky, Denise; Borrell, Luisa N; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Estrada, Andres Moreno; Mendoza, Karla Sandoval; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Klitz, William; Romieu, Isabelle; London, Stephanie J.; Gilliland, Frank; Martinez, Fernando; Bustamante, Carlos; Williams, L Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodríguez-Santana, José R.; Burchard, and Esteban G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental causes. Genome-wide association studies of asthma have mostly involved European populations and replication of positive associations has been inconsistent. Objective To identify asthma-associated genes in a large Latino population with genome-wide association analysis and admixture mapping. Methods Latino children with asthma (n = 1,893) and healthy controls (n = 1,881) were recruited from five sites in the United States: Puerto Rico, New York, Chicago, Houston, and the San Francisco Bay Area. Subjects were genotyped on an Affymetrix World Array IV chip. We performed genome-wide association and admixture mapping to identify asthma-associated loci. Results We identified a significant association between ancestry and asthma at 6p21 (lowest p-value: rs2523924, p < 5 × 10−6). This association replicates in a meta-analysis of the EVE Asthma Consortium (p = 0.01). Fine mapping of the region in this study and the EVE Asthma Consortium suggests an association between PSORS1C1 and asthma. We confirmed the strong allelic association between the 17q21 asthma in Latinos (IKZF3, lowest p-value: rs90792, OR: 0.67, 95% CI 0.61 – 0.75, p = 6 × 10−13) and replicated associations in several genes that had previously been associated with asthma in genome-wide association studies. Conclusions Admixture mapping and genome-wide association are complementary techniques that provide evidence for multiple asthma-associated loci in Latinos. Admixture mapping identifies a novel locus on 6p21 that replicates in a meta-analysis of several Latino populations, while genome-wide association confirms the previously identified locus on 17q21. PMID:24406073

  17. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Simon

    2013-09-30

    The Electric-drive Vehicle Engineering (EVE) MS degree and graduate certificate programs have been continuing to make good progress, thanks to the funding and the guidance from DOE grant management group, the support from our University and College administrations, and to valuable inputs and feedback from our Industrial Advisory Board as well as our project partners Macomb Community College and NextEnergy. Table 1 below lists originally proposed Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO), which have all been completed successfully. Our program and course enrollments continue to be good and increasing, as shown in later sections. Our graduating students continue to get good job offers from local EV-related companies. Following the top recommendation from our Industrial Advisory Board, we were fortunate enough to be accepted into the prestigious EcoCAR2 (http://www.ecocar2.org/) North America university design competition, and have been having some modest success with the competition. But most importantly, EcoCAR2 offers the most holistic educational environment for integrating real-world engineering and design with our EVE graduate curriculum. Such integrations include true real-world hands-on course projects based on EcoCAR2 related tasks for the students, and faculty curricular and course improvements based on lessons and best practices learned from EcoCAR2. We are in the third and last year of EcoCAR2, and we have already formed a core group of students in pursuit of EcoCAR”3”, for which the proposal is due in early December.

  18. Spectrally-resolved Soft X-ray Observations and the Temperature Structure of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry; McTiernan, James; Woods, Thomas N.

    2015-04-01

    Solar X-ray observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating and particle acceleration, during solar flares and quiescent periods. How the corona is heated to its ~1-3 MK nominal temperature remains one of the fundamental unanswered questions of solar physics; heating of plasma to tens of MK during solar flares -- particularly to the hottest observed temperatures of up to ~50 MK -- is also still poorly understood. Soft X-ray emission (~0.1-10 keV; or ~0.1-10 nm) is particularly sensitive to hot coronal plasma and serves as a probe of the thermal processes driving coronal plasma heating. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding these energetic processes, but there have historically been very few such observations. We present new solar soft X-ray spectra from the Amptek X123-SDD, measuring quiescent solar X-ray emission from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution from two SDO/EVE calibration sounding rocket underflights in 2012 and 2013. Combined with observations from RHESSI, GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, and SDO/AIA, the temperature distribution derived from these data suggest significant hot (5-10 MK) emission from active regions, and the 2013 spectra suggest a low-FIP enhancement of only ~1.6 relative to the photosphere, 40% of the usually-observed value from quiescent coronal plasma. We explore the implications of these findings on coronal heating. We discuss future missions for spectrally-resolved soft X-ray observations using the X123-SDD, including the upcoming MinXSS 3U CubeSat using the X123-SDD and scheduled for deployment in mid-2015, and the CubIXSS 6U CubeSat mission concept.

  19. [Air Quality Characteristics in Beijing During Spring Festival in 2015].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nian-liang; Chen, Tian; Zhang, Da-wei; Li, Yun-ting; Sun, Feng; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Jia-lin; Liu, Bao-xian; Sun, Rui-wen

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the impacts of emissions from fireworks on the air quality, monitoring data of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 chemical compositions of PM2.5 of automatic air quality stations in Beijing during Spring Festival(February 18th-24th) in 2015 were investigated. Moreover, we also estimated the fireworks on the New Year's Eve produced based on the ratio of PM.5 to CO. Analysis results showed that the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 during 2015 Spring Festival was 116. 85, 184.71, 22. 14, and 36. 27 µg.m-3 respectively, which raised 52. 61%, 92. 41%, - 40. 15%, - 0.46% respectively compared to the same period in 2014; the concentration peaks of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 at 1 : 00 am on 19th was 412. 69, 541. 63, 152. 73, 51. 09 µg.m-3, respectively, which was increased 19. 02%, 14. 37%, 76. 57%, 11. 35% compared to that of 2014; the concentration peaks at dense population area were significantly higher than that in other districts; fireworks had great influence on the chemical compositions of PM2.5 especially on the concentrations of chloride ion, potassium ion, magnesian ion, which were 18. 85, 66. 72, and 70. 10 times than that in 2013-2014; fireworks resulted in severe air pollution in a short time and the estimated fireworks on the New Year's Eve was approximately 2. 13 x 10(5) kg of PM2.5. Reduction of pollutants during Spring Festival had a positive significant impact on air quality in Beijing. PMID:26717673

  20. Testing EUV/X-Ray Atomic Data for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; Drake, Jeremy J.; Landi, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) include spectral windows in the X-ray/EUV band. Accuracy and completeness of the atomic data in this wavelength range is essential for interpretation of the spectrum and irradiance of the solar corona, and of SDO observations made with the AIA and EVE instruments. Here, we test the X-ray/EUV data in the CHIANTI database to assess their completeness and accuracy in the SDO bands, with particular focus on the 94 Å and 131 Å AIA passbands. Given the paucity of solar observations adequate for this purpose, we use high-resolution X-ray spectra of the low-activity solar-like corona of Procyon obtained with the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS). We find that while spectral models overall can reproduce quite well the observed spectra in the soft X-ray range λ <~ 50 Å, and at the EUV wavelengths λ >~ 130 Å, they significantly underestimate the observed flux in the 50-130 Å wavelength range. The model underestimates the observed flux by a variable factor ranging from ≈1.5, at short wavelengths below ~50 Å, up to ≈5-7 in the ~70-125 Å range. In the AIA bands covered by LETGS, i.e., 94 Å and 131 Å, we find that the observed flux can be underestimated by large factors (~3 and ~1.9, respectively, for the case of Procyon presented here). We discuss the consequences for analysis of AIA data and possible empirical corrections to the AIA responses to model more realistically the coronal emission in these passbands.