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  1. Birth control pills - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP ... Birth control pills are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe ...

  2. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... frequency of your menstrual cycles. Types of Combination Birth Control Pills Birth control pills come in packages. You ...

  3. Birth control pill overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control pill overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended ...

  4. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    The pill - combination; Oral contraceptives - combination; OCP - combination; Contraception - combination ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most ...

  5. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pill - progestin; Oral contraceptives - progestin; OCP - progestin; Contraception - progestin ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The pills with only progestin come in 28-day ...

  6. Birth control pills overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines ...

  7. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  8. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC About Birth Control Birth Control Methods: How Well Do They Work? ... You Need a Pelvic Exam to Get Birth Control? How Can I Get on the Pill Without Telling My Parents? How Can I Get the Pill if I ...

  9. Localization of magnetic pills

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  10. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The ...

  11. Birth control pill - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ... The lower levels of estrogen in birth control pills suppress FSH ... woman is pregnant. Ovulation will then not occur, which prevents ...

  12. Fluoxetine-induced pill oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Shiekh, Abdul Gaffar; Hussain, Waleed M; Miamini, Wail Al; Khoujah, Amer M; Zayyani, Najah R

    2011-01-01

    Pill-induced oesophagitis is well reported in people of all ages (range 3–98 years), with females outnumbering males by 1.5:1. Antibiotic pills, cardiac pills and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and alendronate are the most common culprits. We report a case of fluoxetine-induced pill oesophagitis in a young adult without any underlying pathological abnormalities of the oesophagus. PMID:22693306

  13. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured. PMID:17901607

  14. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups are very effective at reducing swelling and mucus ... liver or cause sterility Available as pills and syrups. Often necessary for treating more severe episodes of ...

  15. Choosing a combined oral contraceptive pill

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mary; Black, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Summary The combined oral contraceptive pill is an effective contraceptive method which can also offer other benefits. However, other contraceptive options should be discussed. If the pill is the chosen method, prescribe a pill with the lowest effective dose of oestrogen and progestogen. Pills containing levonorgestrel or norethisterone in combination with ethinyloestradiol 35 microgram or less are considered first-line. They are effective if taken correctly, have a relatively low risk of venous thromboembolism, and are listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The pill is usually taken in a monthly cycle. Some women may prefer an extended pill regimen with fewer or no inactive pills. PMID:26648603

  16. Birth control pill - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The internal female reproductive organs include the uterus, ovaries, cervix and vagina. These organs are necessary to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE PILLS IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the operating characteristics of the PILLS IV (Particulate Instrumentation by Laser Light Scattering) in situ particle sizing instrument. Results of both investigations show large errors in sizing particle...

  18. Hounding the pill.

    PubMed

    Smibert, J

    1980-01-12

    The removal of Serial C from the market 4 years ago because its progestogen -- megestrol acetate -- had been found to cause benign mammary tumors in beagle bitches, caused much concern because at least 10% of this writer's patients using oral contraceptives were using Serial C. It needs to be restated that one cannot extrapolate straight from the breasts of lower animals to the human, although some test results do warrant additional investigation. This physician was unaware of any increase in breast lumps in humans after the use of megestrol acetate. There is no question that the Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) has the important duty of preventing the release of drugs whose side effects may not be justified by their beneficial effects, but ADEC also has the responsibility of assuring that the Australian public is not denied the use of drugs whose beneficial effects outweigh their side effects. It is hoped that the ADEC -influenced by the United States in its decision to remove megestrol acetate and therefore ban Serial C -- will reconsider their decision. There are many women who continued to need a predominantly estrogenic contraceptive pill and Serial C was the answer for this group. PMID:7360074

  19. Medical Uses of the Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pill. Birth control pills can help irregular periods, PCOS, endometriosis, acne, menstrual cramps, and low estrogen conditions. ... PMS, endometriosis, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) and for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Girls who are diagnosed with PCOS are ...

  20. Editorial: Pills over the counter.

    PubMed

    1975-05-17

    A pamphlet published by the Birth Control Trust and followed by a letter in the British Medical Journal has recommended that paramedical personnel be allowed to dispense oral contraceptives if properly supervised. Also, others have recommended that these drugs should be on direct sale to the public. However, because of the multiple risk factors, there is a place for screening before the pills are prescribed. The main objection to freeing the pill from prescription would be the abdication of medical responsibility for supply of potentially dangerous drugs. For an exception to be made for oral contraceptives there should be evidence of a clear benefit to society, which is not believed to be the case. Present contraceptive services would not be improved if the pill went on display on the counters of chemists' shops. PMID:1131602

  1. RU-486: the "abortion pill".

    PubMed

    Herranz, G

    1991-05-23

    A report sent by the Vatican to bishops' conferences throughout the world calls RU-486, the so-called abortion pill currently available in France, "a new, serious threat to human life." The report was developed at the Vatican's request by Gonzalo Herranz, a Spanish bioethicist. A cover letter to bishops' conferences from Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, suggested that the report be used "to resist the introduction of the abortion pill RU-486 into your country." Related to TU-486 and to new terminology some use to characterize its non-surgical approach to abortion is an intention "to amoralize and thereby place the transmission of human life into an ethically neutral terrain and reduce it to pure biology," says the report. The report discusses possible future uses of RU-486 as a contraceptive, stating: "Women would no longer have to worry themselves about whether they have conceived or not. Each month they would proceed to clean out their uterus chemically." The report refers to RU-486 as "a technical step forward in an area that did not need it." It says, "The abortion pill favors a woman's privacy and secret, but it condemns her to solitude." The English text from the Vatican follows. PMID:16145821

  2. British Experience of the Pill

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Clifford R.

    1970-01-01

    We have set up a study that can make a contribution to our knowledge of the effect of the present oral contraceptive agents. We may also learn something about the characteristics of women who chose the pill and about those who reject it. Perhaps our results will provide a more secure base from which research for a better product can begin. It may be, however, that we have demonstrated something of greater importance: that meaningful large-scale morbidity statistics can be accurately collected from the point at which the greatest information is available-the records of the family physician. Imagesp57-a PMID:20468506

  3. [Contraceptive pill amenorrhea--does it exist?].

    PubMed

    Fries, H; Nillius, S J

    1975-11-01

    The possibility of amenorrhea as a direct result of discontinuing oral contraceptives is discussed and its etiology is explored. In a study of 1860 women in Uppsala county in Sweden, 16% of the amenorrhea cases among these women could be temporally related to the discontinuation of oral contraceptive use. Earlier irregularities of menstruation and psychological stress are discussed as indications that "contraceptive pill amenorrhea" could occur. Loss of weight, often combined with symptoms of anorexia nervosa, is also a frequent indication of susceptibility to "contraceptive pill amenorrhea." The possibility of "contraceptive pill amenorrhea" as an iatrogenic syndrome is discussed. PMID:1186384

  4. The mother of the pill.

    PubMed

    Djerassi, C

    1995-01-01

    The first synthesis of an active ingredient of the pill was performed on October 15, 1951, at Syntex in Mexico City. These preliminary results, obtained in late 1951, encouraged the submission of a synthetic progestin, norethindrone (19-nor-17alpha-ethynyltestosterone), to a number of outside investigators for more extensive biological scrutiny. Norethynodrel, together with many other steroids synthesized in the Searle laboratories, as well as Syntex's norethindrone, were examined by Pincus and collaborators for ovulation inhibition in animals and humans. Contrary to predictions, orally effective steroid ovulation inhibitors became the most widely used method of reversible birth control in most parts of the world some 40 years after their first synthesis. Toward the end of the 1960s, at least 13 international pharmaceutical companies (9 of them US) had active research and development programs dedicated to new advances in the field of contraception. Every drug to which a woman or man is exposed to for long periods of time (e.g., vaccines, systemic contraceptives, cholesterol-lowering agents, antihypertensives) in the end has to pass through large-scale postmarketing experiments. The most damaging was the requirement for 6-year toxicology in beagle dogs, which resulted in enormous development costs. Another setback was a 1986 judgment in Georgia against Ortho Pharmaceutical Company for the amount of $5,151,030 for alleged birth defects caused by the use of its spermicide Ortho-Gynol in spite of overwhelming epidemiological evidence against such a cause-effect relationship. Mifepristone (RU-486) is clearly the most significant new development in birth control as an important alternative to conventional abortion. A priority list of six new contraceptive methods for future development includes a spermicide with antiviral properties, a once-a-month menses inducer, a reliable ovulation predictor, easily reversible male sterilization, a male contraceptive pill, and an

  5. The story of the pill.

    PubMed

    Davis, K S

    1978-01-01

    A 1951 meeting between feminist Margaret Sanger, philanthropist Katherine McCormick and biologist Dr. G.G. Pincus is described as the beginning of the project which was to culminate in the development of the oral contraceptive. The stories of the lives of the 3 participants are told. Dr. Pincus' field, endocrinology and mammalian reproduction, is explained in general terms for the lay reader. The results of early experimental work on mammalian sex hormones are described, as are some of the early problems in manufacturing synthetic estrogen and progesterone. Pincus' career is outlined, beginning at the time of his brief appointment at Harvard University in 1930-36. Notes on related work done by other scientists in this period are interspersed with the biographical sketches. The work of Dr. John Rock on induction of pregnancy through administration of estrogen and progesterone is described, with reference to Pincus' work. Pincus' search for an inexpensive progesterone which would be effective when taken orally is described, with a tangential story of how diosgenin was produced in Mexico. Pincus' bold declaration to the general public that the development of a safe oral contraceptive would be soon attained enabled him to obtain funding for conducting field trials. Results of field trials in Puerto Rico and subsequent changes in the pill are discussed. The possible consequences of use of a technology developed from a primitive science are discussed, as is the attitude of Puerto Rican and Haitian women who were willing to take the risks explained to them in order to avoid future pregnancy. Popular controversies over the pill in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s are described. PMID:11631375

  6. Dynamically programmable electronic pill dispenser system.

    PubMed

    Boquete, Luciano; Rodriguez-Ascariz, Jose Manuel; Artacho, Irene; Cantos-Frontela, Joaquin; Peixoto, Nathalia

    2010-06-01

    Compliance in medicine dispensation has proven critical for dosage control, diagnosis, and treatment. We have designed, manufactured, and characterized a novel dynamically programmable e-pill dispensing system. Our system is initially programmed remotely through a cell phone. After programming, the system may be reconfigured in order to adapt pill dispensation to new conditions. In this paper we describe the mechanics, electronics, control, and communication protocols implemented. Our dyn-e-pill devices can be actuated for over 350 h with two pill retrievals per hour. We challenged the charging circuit and demonstrated that the system has a lifetime longer than 6 h with a 30 min charging cycle, while it lasts for 14 h of uninterrupted use with a full charge. PMID:20503621

  7. The Return of Rainbow Diet Pills

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Pieter A.; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics’ adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements. PMID:22813089

  8. Noncontraceptive Benefits of Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... that contain hormones) and one week of inactive placebo Treatment for acne, hirsutism (excess hair) and alopecia ( ... growth in the midline that the sugar or placebo pills are taken. A woman can increase the ...

  9. [A brief history of traditional Chinese medicinal pills].

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P

    2016-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production. PMID:27485865

  10. Osteoarthritis: No Pills Yet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis "No Pills Yet..." Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... Robert Boston "There are no pills yet for osteoarthritis, but we're working on it," says Linda ...

  11. Contraceptives and dysplasia: higher rate for pill choosers.

    PubMed

    Stern, E; Clark, V A; Coffelt, C F

    1970-07-31

    Among women choosing the pill in preference to other contraceptive methods there is a higher rate of the cancer precursor, dysplasia of the cervix, before any possible effect of the pill. PMID:17739011

  12. "Take your pill": the role and fantasy of pills in modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Leder, Drew; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2014-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has undergone a vast expansion in the 20th and 21st centuries. This article explores the central role now played by pills in clinical practice, but also in the public imagination. First, this article analyzes four properties that, together, account for many of the promises and perils associated with pills: They are ingestible, potent, reproducible, and miniaturized. This allows them to serve as ideal consumer items for widespread distribution and sale and also as model technological "devices" capable of downloading into the body healing chemicals. As such, they seem to promise a disburdening solution to many of life's ills. In our cultural fantasy, often shared by physician and patient alike, pills can be used not only to treat and prevent disease but also raise energy, lose weight, lessen pain, lift mood, cope with stress, and enhance sexual and athletic performance. This article also explores many adverse effects not only of pills themselves but of this exaggerated cultural fantasy of the pill. It tends to distract us from other, more holistic understandings of the locus of disease and healing. It even fosters misunderstandings of the ways in which pills themselves work, which is to assist bodily processes, and the mind's "meaning response." The intent here is not to demonize all pills-many have great therapeutic potential-but to learn how to better choose and use them wisely. We propose that this process be assisted through recontextualizing the pill as a multidimensional gift. Taken in such a way, with appropriate gratitude and discernment, we may ingest fewer pills, but with greater efficacy. PMID:24766064

  13. Contraception. Low-dose pill launched.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    At a vibrant ceremony in Kampala, Uganda, the Minister of Women in Development, Youth and Culture launched the new low-dose oral contraceptive Pilplan which provides women more options for birth spacing. Diplomats, physicians, government officials, and business leaders attended the ceremony at the Sheraton Hotel Kampala. A dance group did an interpretation of "Women in Uganda: Gaining Momentum." The Minister considered the introduction of this new pill as a turning point for reproductive rights. A baseline survey among Ugandan women has shown that although almost all women were familiar with the pill, only 36% have ever used it and only 15% were currently using it. 80% thought that pill use was preferable to having an unplanned pregnancy. These findings convinced the Minister that ignorance and misconception keep women from using the pill. The government, health providers, and others need to educate women about Pilplan and how to use it correctly. A bilateral agreement between the Ministry of Health and USAID set in motion a social marketing project which has now launched two contraceptive methods: Pilplan in 1993 and the Protector condom in 1990. USAID vowed to continue to support Pilplan, particularly if men could also help in supporting birth spacing. A Uganda-based pharmaceutical firm will distribute Pilplan in Uganda through pharmacies, clinics, and health facilities. Pilplan targets all middle- to low-income women. PMID:12319754

  14. Emergency contraception pill--controversies and use.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, C; Sivalingam, N

    2007-03-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) are effective, safe and cheap, with profound global health and economic benefits. Patient education and easy access to ECP will contribute immensely to avoiding unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Issues related to morality, its perceived status as an abortifacient and harmful behaviour should it be easily available, has limited the widespread use of ECP in many countries. PMID:17682587

  15. Pill Properties that Cause Dysphagia and Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jeremy; Go, Jorge T.; Schulze, Konrad S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pills (tablets and capsules) are widely used to administer prescription drugs or to take supplements such as vitamins. Unfortunately, little is known about how much effort it takes Americans to swallow these various pills. More specifically, it is not known to what extent hard-to-swallow pills might affect treatment outcomes (eg, interfering with adherence to prescribed medications or causing clinical complications). It is also unclear which properties (eg, size, shape, or surface texture) Americans prefer or reject for their pills. To learn more about these issues, we interviewed a small group of individuals. Methods We invited individuals in waiting rooms of our tertiary health care center to participate in structured interviews about their pill-taking habits and any problems they have swallowing pills. We inquired which pill properties they believed caused swallowing problems. Participants scored capsules and pills of representative size, shape, and texture for swallowing effort and reported their personal preferences. Results Of 100 successive individuals, 99 participants completed the interview (65% women, mean age = 41 years, range = 23-77 years). Eighty-three percent took pills daily (mean 4 pills/d; 56% of those pills were prescribed by providers). Fifty-four percent of participants replied yes to the question, "Did you ever have to swallow a solid medication that was too difficult?" Four percent recounted serious complications: 1% pill esophagitis, 1% pill impaction, and 2% stopped treatments (antibiotic and prenatal supplement) because they could not swallow the prescribed pills. Half of all participants routinely resorted to special techniques (eg, plenty of liquids or repeated or forceful swallows). Sixty-one percent of those having difficulties cited specific pill properties: 27% blamed size (20% of problems were caused by pills that were too large whereas 7% complained about pills that were too small to sense); 12% faulted rough surface

  16. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  17. How to use mini-pills: helpful patient instructions.

    PubMed

    1982-09-01

    Progestin only birth control pills appeared on the US market in 1973. As there is no estrogen in these mini pills, they may have fewer dangerous side effects than the combined pills. Some clinics suggest mini pills for women who suffer from estrogen excess side effects. The 3 mini pills available in the U.S. are called Micronor, NOR-QD, and Ovrette. Instructions are presented for patients who are interested in using mini pills. The mini pills most likely work by affecting a women's fertility in several ways: act as a messenger to the woman's ovaries and uterus to prevent the release of an egg; thicken the mucous on the cervix, making it difficult for the sperm to "get through" the cervix and reach the egg; and change the lining of the uterus so that it may not develop properly for the fertilized egg to grow. The mini pills can be 97% effective is used perfectly. The mini pills are only effective for as long as a woman takes them. A woman must take a pill every day to prevent pregnancy. A woman should not use the mini pill if she has or ever has had any of these problems: blood clotting problems in veins; stroke; cancer of the breast or reproductive parts of the body; suspected pregnancy, current pregnancy; and undiagnosed, abnormal genital bleeding. Possible benefits for a woman using mini pills include: an effective method of birth control; a method for nursing mothers since it does not seem to affect the amount of their breast milk; and a possible reduction in premenstrual cramps. Possible risks for a woman using mini pills include: irregular periods; and a less effective method if the patient does not take a pill every day. The danger signals to look for are abdominal pain, chest pain, headaches, eye problems, and severe leg pain. A patient should revisit a clinic in the following situations: has not had a period within 45 days of the last period; severe abdominal pains while taking mini pills; experiences a warning signal; any time one thinks the pills are

  18. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are now taking any kind of birth control pill or are considering using one, keep these guidelines in mind: Don't mix smoking and "the pill." If you smoke cigarettes, make a serious effort to quit. If you cannot quit, choose ... of birth control. Cigarette smoking boosts the risk of serious health ...

  19. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms. PMID:11089290

  20. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    Lottes, Ilsa L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  1. Pill impaction mimicking appendicitis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Torno, Mauro; Shallman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a frequent presenting symptom among HIV-positive patients seeking care at emergency departments. We report a case of a 45-year-old HIV-infected Hispanic man who presented with right lower quadrant pain accompanied by fever, decreased appetite, nausea, and vomiting. The results of a CT scan of his abdomen were normal with no evidence of appendicitis. A colonoscopy was performed and revealed an impacted pill in the appendiceal orifice. The pill was removed endoscopically, and pill impaction has not recurred. PMID:19209455

  2. Standardized pill imprint codes: a pharma fantasy.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Gordon

    2004-02-01

    To safely use medications, professionals and consumers need usable and reliable methods to identify tablets patients are prescribed and taking. Currently, each manufacturer assigns its own identifying codes and symbols. Standardization of the system for identifying solid dosage forms is a goal that has been widely advocated, yet stubbornly resistant to progress. Physicians, pharmacists, and consumers attempting to identify pills must use various methods which have shortcomings in ease of use, availability, and accuracy. Arguments have been advanced, particularly by pharmaceutical manufacturers, that evidence of unworkability of the current system is not compelling, and costs of retooling current manufacturing processes could be prohibitive. These issues are currently being explored by a task force led by the U.S. Pharmacopeia Safe Medication Use, and Pharmaceutical Forms Dosage Expert Committees. This paper presents a fictitious case study of an elderly patient succumbing to digoxin overdose illustrating the dilemmas posed in the tablet-imprint debate. PMID:15171065

  3. Atripla™ – HIV therapy in one pill

    PubMed Central

    Julg, Boris; Bogner, Johannes R

    2008-01-01

    In July 2006 Atripla™ was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), combining the active ingredients of one NNRTI and two NRTIs. Atripla™ is the first “one-pill-daily” regimen licensed for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in patients older than 18 years. H was licensed in Europe in December 2007 Atripla™ contains efavirenz 600 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg. It therefore combines 3 compounds which have been widely used before and which were recommended for initial therapy due to their potency, tolerability, and safety profile. Efficacy and safety data of efavirenz, tenofovir DF, and emtricitabine are reviewed and compared with other antiretroviral drugs, which are used as initial therapy for treatment-naive patient. PMID:18827852

  4. 'Female Libido' Pill May Not Be Worth It: Researchers

    MedlinePlus

    ... html 'Female Libido' Pill May Not Be Worth It: Researchers Addyi carries host of serious side effects ... per month, on average, according to the report. It was published online Feb. 29 in the journal ...

  5. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  6. Fabrication of CPA Salt Pill with Circulating Solution Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, A.; Tokoi, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; McCammon, D.

    2008-05-01

    We report results on fabrication of a Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill. CPA is a typical paramagnetic salt used as refrigerant of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) because of its low Curie point, 4 11 mK. We made an test model of CPA salt pill by fast crystallizing method, namely circulating solution between 36°C and 15°C. The crystallizing rate was 0.5 g h-1, and 40 g of CPA crystal was obtained inside a stainless steel cylinder equipped with 160 copper wires. The cooling test was operated utilizing a commercial ADR system. We attached three thermometers and four heaters to the salt pill, in order to measure thermal conductance among different parts of the pill. It is confirmed that our salt pill was cooled down from B/ T=4 T/2 K to 64 mK at zero magnetic field. We suspect the cause of limiting the cooling temperature in the present level to be the dehydration of CPA, non-uniformity of magnetic field, and stainless steel of the pill which has large heat capacity below 0.1 K.

  7. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwan; Kim, Won; Lee, Kook Lae; Byeon, Sun-ju; Choi, Euno; Chang, Mee Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell) and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR). As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases), 9% (2 cases) and 32% (7 cases) of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases) versus 10% (2 cases), respectively (P < 0.05). Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, diffuse dilated

  8. Monitoring Location and Angular Orientation of a Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system moves through, or adjacent to, one or more organs in an animal or human body, while transmitting signals from its present location and/or present angular orientation. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates angular orientation and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into, or onto, the body. Optionally, the pill, as it moves, provides a sequence of visually perceptible images. The times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one of at least four criteria. This invention provides and supplies an algorithm for exact determination of location coordinates and angular orientation coordinates for a mobile pill transmitter (PT), or other similar device that is introduced into, and moves within, a GI tract of a human or animal body. A set of as many as eight nonlinear equations has been developed and applied, relating propagation of a wireless signal between either two, three, or more transmitting antennas located on the PT, to four or more non-coplanar receiving antennas located on a signal receiver appliance worn by the user. The equations are solved exactly, without approximations or iterations, and are applied in several environments: (1) association of a visual image, transmitted by the PT at each of a second sequence of times, with a PT location and PT angular orientation at that time; (2) determination of a position within the body at which a drug or chemical substance or other treatment is to be delivered to a selected portion of the body; (3) monitoring, after delivery, of the effect(s) of administration of the treatment; and (4) determination of one or more positions within the body where provision and examination of a finer-scale image is warranted.

  9. Analyzing Adherence to Prenatal Supplement: Does Pill Count Measure Up?

    PubMed Central

    Appelgren, Kristie E.; Nietert, Paul J.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Wagner, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To determine if adherence as measured by pill count would show a significant association with serum-based measures of adherence. Methods. Data were obtained from a prenatal vitamin D supplementation trial where subjects were stratified by race and randomized into three dosing groups: 400 (control), 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day. One measurement of adherence was obtained via pill counts remaining compared to a novel definition for adherence using serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) levels (absolute change in 25(OH)D over the study period and the subject's steady-state variation in their 25(OH)D levels). A multivariate logistic regression model examined whether mean percent adherence by pill count was significantly associated with the adherence measure by serum metabolite levels. Results. Subjects' mean percentage of adherence by pill count was not a significant predictor of adherence by serum metabolite levels. This finding was robust across a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. Based on our novel definition of adherence, pill count was not a reliable predictor of adherence to protocol, and calls into question how adherence is measured in clinical research. Our findings have implications regarding the determination of efficacy of medications under study and offer an alternative approach to measuring adherence of long half-life supplements/medications. PMID:20169132

  10. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  11. Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157758.html Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare ... suggests. Dutch researchers found that obese women on birth control pills were nearly 30 times more likely ...

  12. To pill or not to pill in GnRH-antagonist cycles: the answer is in the data already!

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Georg; Venetis, Christos A; Tarlatzis, Basil; Kolibianakis, Efstratios Michaelis

    2015-07-01

    The planning of IVF treatment by scheduling menstruation and hence initiation of ovarian stimulation using sex-steroid pre-treatment is commonly used. Pooling data from six randomized-controlled trials encompassing 1343 patients, with and without combined oral contraceptive pill pre-treatment, suggests that the ongoing pregnancy rate per randomized woman is significantly lower in patients with oral contraceptive pill pre-treatment (relative risk [RR]: 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-0.97; rate difference [RD]: -5%, 95% CI: -10% to -1%; fixed effects model). This finding remains remarkably robust in multiple sensitivity analyses: exclusion of a study on poor responders, exclusion of the three smallest studies or exclusion of studies with a pill-free interval of less than 5 days, results in RR of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64-0.94), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98) and 0.79, (95% CI: 0.64-0.99), respectively. Furthermore, the finding of a significant reduction in ongoing pregnancy rate is not inconsistent with other evidence from the literature. The potential benefit of using oral contraceptive pill pre-treatment for cycle planning should therefore be balanced against its detrimental effect. Further randomized studies should test whether an effect similar to the one observed after combined oral contraceptive pill usage exists after other sex steroid pre-treatment regimens. PMID:25985996

  13. The sleep-wake cycle and sleeping pills.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Björn

    2007-02-28

    Sleeping pills are drugs which are used world-wide to combat sleep disturbances, and to prevent symptoms due to maladjustment to shiftwork or jet-lag. Today, benzodiazepines and the so-called "non-benzodiazepines", such as zolpidem, which both act on benzodiazepine receptors, are drugs of first choice and they are substitutes for barbiturates. Their use as sleeping pills in insomniacs is established after appropriate medical diagnosis. Symptoms from shiftwork or jet-lag are due to an internal desynchronisation of biological rhythms, and there is ample evidence that benzodiazepines are not effective in preventing these symptoms. Cabin crews in particular should never take sleeping pills, in order not to impair cognitive functions or to reduce the reactivity needed to fly an aircraft safely. The biological clock(s) cannot be reset instantaneously by any drug. PMID:17049955

  14. Pills, Thrills and Bellyaches: Case Studies of Prescription Pill Use and Misuse among Marijuana/Blunt Smoking Middle Class Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Bardhi, Flutura; Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Recent survey research has documented important increases during the 2000s in the misuse and abuse of several prescription drugs (Vicodin, Percocet, Codeine, Dilaudid, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Adderall, Ritalin, among others). This article focuses upon the patterns of pill use and misuse among young women who are middle-class white and college-educated, and they are also experienced marijuana users who report recreational consumption of other illegal drugs. The ethnographic data provides insights about various ways and reasons that such prescription pill misuse occurs among 12 college-educated, (upper) middle-class, white/Asian women in their 20s who were involved in a major ethnographic study of marijuana and blunts. Three patterns of pill use were observed: recreational; quasi-medical; and legal medical; shifts among these patterns of pill use was common. Few reported that their pill use interfered with their conventional jobs and lifestyles; they concealed such use from their employers and coworkers, and from non-using friends and family members. None reported contacts with police nor seeking treatment specifically for their pill misuse. Many reported misusing prescription pills in conjunction with illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy) and alcohol. Pills were used as a way to enhance the euphoric effects of other drugs, as well as a way to avoid the negative side effects of illegal drugs. Some reported pill use as a means for reducing expenditures (and use of) alcohol and cocaine. The implications suggest a hidden subpopulation of prescription pill misusers among regular users of marijuana and other illegal drugs. Future research should include users and misusers of various pills to better understand how prescriptions pills interact with illegal drug use patterns. PMID:19081798

  15. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  16. Salt Pill Design and Fabrication for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Mccammon, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of "salt pills" for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single-­- or poly-­-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low-­- and mid-­-temperature applications.

  17. Unexpected advantages of a temporary fluid-loss control pill

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.

    1996-09-01

    Economics often dictate research; however, serendipity can benefit the results of research and simultaneously soften the rigidity of economic demands. Such as the case with a recently developed fluid-loss control pill. Economic reasons compelled researchers to find a replacement for an existing field product, the characteristics of which had to be duplicated. Initially, researchers sought to develop a pill that blocked fluid flow into and out of the wellbore and was mixable in brines from 8.35 to 19 lb/gal. The degradation of the replacement crosslinkable hydroxyethyl cellulose fluid (RXHEC) involves uncrosslinking and unzipping of backbone, which simplifies the disposal of returns. In addition to being environmentally acceptable, RXHEC is capable of breaking with weak acids, allowing the use of external breakers in acid-sensitive wells. Additional advantages include the ease with which tubulars can pass through the RXHEC pill and leave it in place, making a remedial pill unnecessary. The RXHEC uses a liquid gel concentrate (LGC) system and is stable beyond 125 C.

  18. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  19. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2014-06-24

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  20. Ephedrine as an anorectic: the story of the 'Elsinore pill'.

    PubMed

    Malchow-Møller, A; Larsen, S; Hey, H; Stokholm, K H; Juhl, E; Quaade, F

    1981-01-01

    Obese patients, age 18-60 years, overweight 20-80 per cent, entered a controlled, clinical study comparing the effects of two anorectic drugs, ie a prescription containing ephedrine and caffein ('Elsinore pills') and diethylpropion, with placebo. All 132 patients were instructed in a 1200-kcal diet, and 108 patients completed 12 weeks' treatment. There was a significantly better effect on body weight of diethylpropion (39 patients, median weight loss 8.4 kg, P less than 0.01) as well as of 'Elsinore pills' (38 patients, median weight loss 8.1 kg, P less than 0.01) compared to the effect of placebo treatment ( 31 patients, median weight loss 4.1 kg). Four patients treated with diethylpropion, and four patients treated with 'Elsionore pills' were withdrawn because of complaints of exaltation, tremor and insomnia. Tremor, in some cases only transient, was significantly more frequent in the 'Elsinore pill' group, but no serious side effects were observed. PMID:7228474

  1. The pill in Japan: will approval ever come?

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1999-01-01

    The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare voted in March 1998 to indefinitely delay the licensing of oral contraceptives in Japan. Over years of attempts to gain approval of the pill for contraception, health officials have cited a range of reasons for their position against the pill, including concern over side effects, fears about the potential spread of sexually transmitted diseases if pill use replaces condom use, and worries about the environmental effects of hormonal contraceptive use. Japan is unique in banning all hormonal methods of contraception. The author describes the history of hormonal agents in Japan, from their initial approval in the country for noncontraceptive therapeutic uses in the late 1950s through the defeat in March 1998. Given the higher failure rates associated with condom use and fertility awareness, it is no wonder that abortion is rather common in Japan. Making hormonal methods of contraception available would help to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The uphill battle to legalize the low-dose pill in Japan continues. PMID:10029933

  2. Ingestible Thermometer Pill Aids Athletes in Beating the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to monitor the core body temperature of astronauts during space flight, the ingestible "thermometer pill" has a silicone-coated exterior, with a microbattery, a quartz crystal temperature sensor, a space-aged telemetry system, and microminiaturized circuitry on the interior.

  3. Determination and application of location and angular orientation of a pill transmitter within a body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system that moves through or adjacent to one or more organs in an animal's body and that provides signals from which the pill's present location and/or present angular orientation can be determined. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into or onto the body. Optionally, the pill as it moves also provides a sequence of visually perceptible images; the times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one or at least four different criteria.

  4. Discussing Smart Pills versus Endorsing Smart Pills: Reply to Swanson, Wigal, and Volkow (2011) and Elliott and Elliott (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Martha J.; Smith, M. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We find much of interest, and little to disagree with, in the commentaries on our article. We take issue only with the suggestion that our article was provocative and submit that the attempt to understand the use of stimulants as smart pills does not imply an endorsement of the practice.

  5. Social constructions of the male contraception pill: When are we going to break the vicious circle?

    PubMed

    Dismore, Lorelle; Van Wersch, Anna; Swainston, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Social constructions of men towards the availability of a male hormonal contraceptive, the 'male pill', were explored. A qualitative approach applying semi-structured interviews and scenarios with 22 men (mean age 35 years) from the North East of England revealed two core constructs and six sub-constructs using a Thematic-Construct Analysis in line with the method of Toerien and Wilkinson and Clarke and Kitzinger. Verbal accounts were inductively used to balance the deductively created two core constructs 'Constructing the male pill norm: dominant system of sensemaking' and 'Living by the male pill norm' to represent a normative framework within a changing ideology of shared responsibility in contraceptive choice. Constructing the male pill norm was divided into two sub-constructs: 'Male pill: we are going to join the women and become responsible - too!' and 'Male pill: you look so girly - what are they going to think of me?' The 'Living by the male pill norm' was further divided into four sub-constructs 'Male pill - thank you for giving me promises not to have to become a dad as yet!'; 'Male pill: thank you for the idea of fun - sorry about my morals!'; 'Male pill: in stable relations - yes, I would have you now - sorry, I am too late!' and 'Male pill, we love you - but we are too anxious - we are not ready as yet!' From this male discourse, it is clear that discussions over the male pill follow the line of a vicious circle. In order to establish long-term side effects, Phase IV studies are necessary, and these cannot commence without the male hormonal contraception being a marketable product. So, unless this circle gets broken by some brave men, the male pill will remain a virtual rotating idea for a long time. PMID:24997170

  6. Salt pill design and fabrication for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; McCammon, Dan

    2014-07-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of “salt pills” for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single- or poly-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low- and mid-temperature applications.

  7. Brief Report: Apparent Antiretroviral Overadherence by Pill Count is Associated With HIV Treatment Failure in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okatch, Harriet; Beiter, Kaylin; Eby, Jessica; Chapman, Jennifer; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Tshume, Ontibile; Matshaba, Mogomotsi; Anabwani, Gabriel M; Gross, Robert; Lowenthal, Elizabeth

    2016-08-15

    Pill counts with calculated adherence percentages are used in many settings to monitor adherence, but can be undermined by patients discarding pills to hide nonadherence. Pill counts suggesting that >100% of prescribed doses were taken can signal "pill dumping." We defined "overadherence" among a cohort of 300 HIV-infected adolescents as having greater than one-third of pill counts with >100% adherence during a year of follow-up. Apparent overadherence was more common in those with virologic failure than in those with suppressed viral loads (33% vs 13%, χ P = 0.001). Pill count adherence repeatedly >100% may identify HIV-infected adolescents at increased risk of treatment failure. PMID:26990822

  8. A comparison of patient adherence and preference of packaging method for oral anticancer agents using conventional pill bottles versus daily pill boxes.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, P W; Pond, G R; Pond, B J; Leung, V; Siu, L L

    2007-07-01

    Adherence to medications is an important issue in oncology due to the increasing number of anticancer agents, such as targeted therapies, formulated for oral dosing. A prospective, crossover design was utilized in which patients on capecitabine were randomly assigned to one of two packaging methods for one cycle, and then switched over to the alternate packaging method in the subsequent cycle. Twenty-five patients were accrued to this study. Adherence rates were similar when using the daily pill boxes (17/21 = 81%) and when using the conventional pill bottles (18/21 = 86%). However, more patients were satisfied with the daily pill boxes (61% versus 11%, P = 0.027), preferred the daily pill boxes (61% versus 17%, P = 0.061), and thought the daily pill boxes were more helpful in reminding them to take their medications (50% versus 11%, P = 0.070). In conclusion, this small pilot study did not demonstrate that the use of daily pill boxes improved patient adherence with capecitabine, but patient satisfaction and preference for this packaging method were greater than for the conventional pill bottles. Further exploration of this intervention in a larger study is warranted. PMID:17587364

  9. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    PubMed Central

    Ioos, Vincent; Das, Vincent; Maury, Eric; Baudel, Jean-Luc; Guéchot, Jérôme; Guidet, Bertrand; Offenstadt, Georges

    2008-01-01

    Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia. PMID:19337445

  10. Is [symbol: see text] Yasmin a "truly different" pill?

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    A combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing the progestogen drospirenone (pronounced dro-spi-re-known) plus the oestrogen ethinylestradiol ([symbol: see text] Yasmin--Schering Health Care) is now available in the UK. Company advertising claims that Yasmin is "truly different", as reliable and safe as other COCs and is "the pill for well-being", with "no associated weight gain" and "a demonstrable positive effect" on premenstrual symptoms and skin condition. Such claims have also appeared in the lay media. Are they justified? PMID:12216337

  11. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p < 0.0001). When expressed relative to baseline, lactate levels were lower in PILL versus PLA, but glucose was greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Cortisol levels were also significantly greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Norepinephrine levels were significantly increased during exercise (p < 0.0001) and in H versus N (p < 0.0001). However, epinephrine levels were not different over time or with trial. Thus, the presence of circulating estradiol and progesterone during the PILL phase reduces glucose and lactate responses to hypoxic exercise.

  12. A new contraceptive pill containing 17β-estradiol and nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Laroche, Emmanuelle; Bricaire, Léopoldine

    2013-01-01

    Most combined oral contraceptive pills contain ethinyl estradiol (EE) with progestins. In order to minimize the pill's cardiovascular risks, the concept of using 17β-estradiol (E2), the endogenous estradiol, arose in the 1970s. Many attempts to develop a pill containing 17β-E2 have failed as cycle control was low. The first pill containing 17β-E2 was launched in 2011. This monophasic pill contains 24 pills with 1.5 mg 17β-E2 and 2.5 mg nomegestrol acetate, and four placebo pills. Studies conducted in Europe and the USA demonstrate that its Pearl index is 0.38 and 1.13, respectively. It has less influence on hemostasis, fibrinolysis markers, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the combined oral contraceptive levonorgestrel/EE (150 g/30 g and 100 µg/20 µg). Withdrawal bleedings are shorter and lighter as compared with women using drospirenone/EE (3 mg/ 30 µg). The number of women without withdrawal bleeding is approximately 30% after 12 months. Even though its contraindications are identical to other combined oral contraceptives, this nomegestrol acetate/E2 pill should be considered to be of interest for many women. PMID:23241152

  13. A Case of Significant Endobronchial Injury due to Recurrent Iron Pill Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Joo-Hee; Koo, Gun Woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric mucosal damage by iron pills is often reported. However, iron pill aspiration is uncommon. Oxidation of the impacted iron pill causes bronchial mucosal damage that progresses to chronic bronchial inflammation, necrosis, endobronchial stenosis and rarely, perforation. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with chronic productive cough and significant left-sided atelectasis. Bronchoscopy revealed substantial luminal narrowing with exudative inflammation of the left main bronchus. Bronchial washing cytology showed necroinflammatory exudate and a small amount of brown material. Mucosal biopsy showed diffuse brown pigments indicative of ferrous pigments, crystal deposition, and marked tissue degeneration. After vigorous coughing, she expectorated dark sediments and her symptoms and radiological abnormalities improved. There are a few such reports worldwide; however, this was the first case reported in Korea. Careful observation of aspiration-prone patients and early detection of iron pill aspiration may prevent iron pill-induced bronchial injury. PMID:26508942

  14. [Estrogens and feminine brain maturation during adolescence: emergency contraceptive pill].

    PubMed

    López Moratalla, Natalia; Errasti Alcalá, Tania; Santiago, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    In the period between puberty and maturity takes place the process of brain maturation. Hormone levels induce changes in neurons and direct the architecture and structural functionality thus affecting patterns of development of different brain areas. The onset of puberty brings with it the invasion of the female brain by high levels of hormones, cyclic surges of estrogen and progesterone in addition to steroids produced in situ. Control centers of emotions (amygdala), memory and learning (hippocampus) and sexual activity (hypothalamus) are modified according to the cyclical concentrations of both hormones. Sex hormones stimulate multimodal actions, both short and longer terms, because neurons in various brain areas have different types of receptors, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear. The composition of emergency contraceptive pill (postcoital pill) with high hormonal content raises the urgency of a thorough knowledge about the possible effect that the lack of control of the menstrual cycle in a time of consolidation of brain maturation, can bring in structuring and development of brain circuitry. Changes in the availability of sex steroids during puberty and adolescence underlie psychiatric disorders whose prevalence is typically feminine, such as depression, anxiety disorders. It is a fundamental ethical duty to present scientific data about the influence of estrogen in young female brain maturation, both for full information to potential users, and also to induce the appropriate public health measures. PMID:22040134

  15. Cloxacillin: A New Cause of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Zezos, Petros; Harel, Ziv; Saibil, Fred

    2016-01-01

    A large variety of medications can cause pill-induced esophagitis. Herein we present a case of cloxacillin-induced esophagitis. A 66-year-old male presented with an acute onset of epigastric and retrosternal pain on the 5th day of a course of oral cloxacillin prescribed for erysipelas. Initial clinical and imaging assessment was negative and he was sent home. A few days later, he returned with persistent severe retrosternal pain; endoscopy at the same day revealed a normal upper esophagus, several small stellate erosions in the midesophagus, and a normal squamocolumnar junction with a small hiatus hernia. Treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg bid and MucaineR suspension resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms. Pill-induced esophagitis may be underreported by patients, when symptoms are mild and unrecognized and/or underdiagnosed by the clinicians as a cause of retrosternal pain, odynophagia, or dysphagia. Failure of early recognition may result in unnecessary diagnostic investigations and prolongation of the patient's discomfort. This case signifies the importance of enhancing clinician awareness for drug-associated esophageal injury when assessing patients with retrosternal pain, as well as the value of prophylaxis against this unpleasant condition by universally recommending drinking enough water in an upright position during ingestion of any oral medication. PMID:27446834

  16. Unannounced telephone-based pill counts: a valid and feasible method for monitoring adherence

    PubMed Central

    Fredericksen, R; Feldman, BJ; Brown, T; Schmidt, S; Crane, PK; Harrington, RD; Dhanireddy, S; McReynolds, J; Lober, WB; Bangsberg, DR; Kitahata, MM; Crane, HM

    2015-01-01

    Phone-based unannounced pill counts to measure medication adherence are much more practical and less expensive than home-based unannounced pill counts, but their validity has not been widely assessed. We examined the validity of phone vs. home-based pill counts using a simplified protocol streamlined for studies embedded in clinical care settings. A total of 100 paired counts were used to compare concordance between unannounced phone and home-based pill counts using interclass correlations. Discrepancy analyses using χ2 tests compared demographic and clinical characteristics across patients who were concordant between phone and home-based pill counts and patients who were not concordant. Concordance was high for phone-based and home-based unannounced total pill counts, as well as individual medication counts and calculated adherence. This study demonstrates that a simplified phone-based pill count protocol can be implemented among patients from a routine clinical care setting and is a feasible means of monitoring medication adherence. PMID:25331265

  17. Association between Physician Specialty and Risk of Prescribing Inappropriate Pill Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Ho, Chin-Chin; Chou, Chia-Lin; Wu, Min-Shan; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Han-Yi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription errors that occur due to the process of pill splitting are a common medication problem; however, available prescription information involving inappropriate pill splitting and its associated factors is lacking. Methods We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of ambulatory prescriptions involving extended-release or enteric-coated formulations in a Taiwan medical center during a 5-month period in 2010. For this study, those pill splitting prescriptions involving special oral formulations were defined as inappropriate prescriptions. Information obtained included patient demographics, prescriber specialty and prescription details, which were assessed to identify factors associated with inappropriate pill splitting. Results There were 1,252 inappropriate prescriptions identified in this cohort study, representing a prescription frequency for inappropriate pill splitting of 1.0% among 124,300 prescriptions with special oral formulations. Among 35 drugs with special oral formulations in our study, 20 different drugs (57.1%, 20/35) had ever been prescribed to split. Anti-diabetic agents, cardiovascular agents and central nervous system agents were the most common drug classes involved in inappropriate splitting. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was higher in older (over 65 years of age) patients (1.1%, 832/75,387). Eighty-seven percent (1089/1252) of inappropriate prescriptions were prescribed by internists. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was highest from endocrinologists (3.4%, 429/12,477), nephrologists (1.3%, 81/6,028) and cardiologists (1.3%, 297/23,531). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the strongest factor associated with individual specific drug of inappropriate splitting was particular physician specialties. Conclusion This study provides important insights into the inappropriate prescription of special oral formulation related to pill splitting, and helps to aggregate information that can assist

  18. Multi-components determination by single reference standard and HPLC fingerprint analysis for Lamiophlomis rotata Pill.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yang; Sun, Guoxiang; Ma, Yongfu; Guo, Xingjie

    2016-07-01

    A validated HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality of Lamiophlomis rotata Pill combining the multi-components analysis by single reference standard with HPLC fingerprint analysis. Five bioactive components (shanzhiside methyl ester, loganin, 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester, forsythoside B and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) were selected as markers to control the quality of L. rotata Pill. The results revealed that the chromatographic fingerprint method coupled with multi-components analysis provides an effective and feasible way to determine the components in L. rotata Pill. PMID:26595778

  19. Decision-making and Anticipation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium vulgare)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru; Migita, Masao

    2004-08-01

    In the previous study, decision-making of the direction of motion was found in pill bugs. In the present experiment, we find that they autonomously choose specific places for the decision-making. Each individual was placed in a circle track surrounded by water. Small columnar marks were placed in the center of the track at equal intervals. At first, when they encountered the marks, they moved along and passed it. After some minutes, they tended to mount on the top of the marks, stayed for a while and swung the antennae as if they searched for the direction of motion. As time went on, they sometimes traced several marks. It seemed that they anticipated the appearance of the mark in advance to use it for decision-making of the direction of the next motion. In another circle track surrounded by wall, such behaviors were not observed.

  20. Pills, injections and audiotapes: reaching couples in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Collumbien, Martine; Douthwaite, Megan

    2003-01-01

    An innovative social marketing intervention in Pakistan distributes audiocassettes via chemist shops and Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) to reach women in a segregated society with accurate information on hormonal contraceptives. Operations research was done to assess the utility of the cassette in knowledge dissemination and adoption of hormonal use. In total 187 structured questionnaires were completed with couples who had obtained a cassette. Listeners were significantly more knowledgeable than non-listeners about correct use of hormonals (OR = 8.6 for women and OR = 12.7 for men). Hormonal use increased from 12% to 25%. LHVs also organized discussion groups for women, and attending such a chat group was the strongest predictor for adoption of pills and injectables (OR = 4.15). Equivalent male groups are suggested to reach apprehensive men. By providing accurate information to urban couples and by acquiring a knowledgeable critical mass of satisfied users, the cassette could be a powerful catalyst to further contraceptive diffusion. PMID:12537155

  1. Adolescents at risk: pain pills to heroin: part II.

    PubMed

    Fogger, Susanne; McGuinness, Teena M

    2015-02-01

    Casually exposing adolescents to prescription opioid agents may escalate to daily use. A trend exists for adolescents using prescription opioid agents to substitute heroin because it is significantly cheaper than pills (approximately half of the cost) and is often more readily available. Additionally, it is more potent than most prescription opioid agents and carries increased risks of overdose and death. Although treatment for substance use disorders has traditionally centered on total abstinence, opioid replacement therapy (ORT) is an option that saves lives and prevents overdose deaths. In the United States, ORT is based on two medicines: methadone and buprenorphine. These drugs can be substituted for other opiate agents and have much lower overdose risks. Nursing implications and web-based resources for teaching are presented. PMID:25654572

  2. Pills on the World Wide Web: reducing barriers through technology.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Lori M; Turok, David K

    2015-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are safe, effective, and available without a prescription in most countries. Despite support from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to provide oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication, US women are still required to have a prescription to obtain them. Use of online applications and the Internet has made most things easier to obtain in our society and this includes contraceptive methods. Several online ventures are now underway to enable US women to obtain oral contraceptives without visiting a medical provider's office. Women's health care professionals should encourage these novel approaches, as they will improve contraceptive access. As US women experiment with innovative health care models, providers will need to lead, follow, or be left behind. PMID:26071918

  3. Mainstreaming of Emergency Contraception Pill in India: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anvita; Khan, M. E.; Bhatnagar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP) is an essential intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, its use has remained low due to various barriers including reservations among medical fraternity. Materials and Methods: This paper presents findings on barriers to ECP's easy access for potential users from (i) a cross-sectional survey of providers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices and interviews with key opinion leaders, (ii) three consultations organized by Population Council with policymakers and public health experts, and (iii) evidence from scientific literature. Results: The major barriers to easy access of ECP include misconceptions and reservations of providers (disapproval of ECP provision by CHWs, opposition to its being an OTC product, and myths, misconceptions, and moral judgments about its users) including influential gynecologists. Conclusion: For mainstreaming ECP, the paper recommends educational campaign focusing on gynecologists and CHWs, relaxing restrictive policy on advertisement of ECP, involving press media and strengthening supply chain to ensure its regular supply to ASHA (CHW). PMID:25657513

  4. Is It Safe to Provide Abortion Pills over the Counter? A Study on Outcome Following Self-Medication with Abortion Pills

    PubMed Central

    Nivedita, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medical abortion is a safe method of termination of pregnancy when performed as per guidelines with a success rate of 92-97 %. But self-administration of abortion pills is rampant throughout the country due to over the counter availability of these drugs and complications are not uncommon due to this practice. The society perceives unsupervised medical abortion as a very safe method of termination and women use this as a method of spacing. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to study the implications of self-administration of abortion pills by pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study done in Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College & Hospital between the period of July 2013 to June2014. Case sheets were analysed to obtain data regarding self-administration of abortion pills and complications secondary to its administration. The following data were collected. Age, marital status, parity, duration of pregnancy as perceived by the women, confirmation of pregnancy, duration between pill intake and visit to hospital, whether any intervention done elsewhere, any known medical or surgical complications, Hb level on admission, whether patient was in shock, USG findings, evidence of sepsis, blood transfusion, treatment given and duration of hospital stay. Descriptive analysis of the collected data was done. Results: Among the 128 cases of abortion in the study period, 40 (31.25%) patients had self-administered abortion pills. Among these 40 patients 27.5% had consumed abortion pills after the approved time period of 63 days of which 17.5% had consumed pills after 12 weeks of gestation. The most common presentation was excessive bleeding (77.5%) Severe anaemia was found in 12.5% of the patients and 5% of patients presented with shock. The outcome was as follows : 62.5% of the patients were found to have incomplete abortion, 22.5% had failed abortion and 7.5% of patients had incomplete abortion with sepsis. Surgical evacuation

  5. Highs and lows: patterns of use, positive and negative effects of benzylpiperazine-containing party pills (BZP-party pills) amongst young people in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Rachael A; Sheridan, Janie L

    2007-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate patterns and context of use of BZP-party pills, function of use, and positive and negative effects experienced by a sample of New Zealand young people who had used the products. Methods A qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and group discussions. Results The sample included 58 young people aged 17–23 years who had used BZP-party pills in the previous 12 months. Young people were using these substances in a range of settings – primarily during weekend social occasions – particularly as part of the dance party culture. They were mostly used for their stimulant properties and to enhance socialisation, and were often taken in combination with other legal and illicit drugs. Young people had suffered a range of physical and emotional negative effects, although none of these was reported as being life-threatening or long-term. Many participants had reduced the frequency with which they used BZP-party pills due to adverse effects. Potentially risky behaviours identified included taking large doses, mixing BZP-party pills with alcohol and other substances, and driving whilst under the influence of BZP-party pills. Conclusion Findings suggest that young people in this study were not suffering excessive or dangerous adverse effects. However, potentially risky use of these products raises the issue of the need for developing harm reduction interventions. PMID:18021425

  6. Effects of Bak Foong Pills and Menoease Pills on white blood cell distribution in old age female rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alice Lok Sze; Gou, Yu Lin; Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the effects of Bak Foong Pills (BFP) and the new BFP-derived post-menopause formula, Menoease Pills (MBFP), on the distribution of peripheral white blood cells (WBC) between BFP/MBFP-treated and non-treated rats. Eighteen months old female SD rats were used to mimic post-menopausal and old age animal models. The percentage distribution of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes were measured using flow cytometry with and without treatments of BFP or MBFP. Results showed that WBC distribution in old age rats were significantly different from that of adult rats, suggesting that as the animal aged, their WBC distributions were altered. Old age rats were observed to have much lower percentages of lymphocytes, but higher percentages of granulocytes when compared to the adult rats, indicating possible attenuated immunity. Following treatment with BFP or MBFP, WBC populations were found to be redistributed back into the ranges observed in adult animals. Furthermore, MBFP, was found to alter WBC distribution in a dose-dependent manner. When compared to estrogen (E(2)), a well documented regulator of immune function, results showed that MBFP was able to show significantly greater effects on WBC redistribution compared to E(2). However, in ovariectomised (ovx) old age rats, neither MBFP nor E(2) treated groups showed any changes in WBC redistribution. These results indicate that MBFP may share similarities to E(2). Indeed, the effect of MBFP and E(2) seems to require intact ovaries, which are believed to be necessary for the modulation of WBC distributions and immune functions. Overall, our findings suggest that BFP and MBFP may be able to regulate WBC population in old age female rats, and thus, indicate their potential role on improving the attenuated immunity evident in post-menopausal and elderly women. PMID:14646184

  7. Are Birth Control Pills Tied to Decline in Ovarian Cancer Deaths?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control Pills Tied to Decline in Ovarian Cancer Deaths? Rates down 16 percent in U.S., 8 percent ... WEDNESDAY, Sept. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ovarian cancer deaths are down dramatically in many parts of the ...

  8. Birth Control Pills Linked to Fewer Severe Knee Injuries in Teen Girls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Linked to Fewer Severe Knee Injuries in Teen Girls Study reinforces theory that estrogen may be why ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teen girls who take birth control pills may be less ...

  9. Balloon-In-A-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159005.html Balloon-in-a-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool Those using the device were ... 2016 TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new ingestible and inflatable balloon system seems to be ...

  10. Balloon-In-A-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Balloon-in-a-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool Those using the device were nearly 7 ... while current balloons prompt 80 percent of their weight loss in the first three months before trailing off, ...

  11. A radiotelemetry pill for the measurement of ionising radiation using a mercuric iodide detector.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; Pearce, G; Edwards, J P

    1978-03-01

    A small radiation measuring pill is briefly described which utilises the principles of radiotelemetry and the properties of a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector such as mercuric iodide. By transmitting a radio signal to a remote receiver the pill could be an effective tool in localising bleeding sites along the gastrointestinal tract and also possibly in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal carcinoma. Other uses of the radiopill are suggested. The size of the pill is 27 mm x 10 mm diameter and consists of a mercuric iodide crystal, an amplifier, a frequency modulated transmitter and one battery. The radiotransmitter operates at about 106 MHz and has a range of about 10m, and the sensitivity of the pill has been found for 99Tcm, 131I and 32P. PMID:306112

  12. Condom Use Falls When Teen Girls Opt for IUDs Vs. the Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157762.html Condom Use Falls When Teen Girls Opt for IUDs vs. The Pill Experts ... a related editorial. "Dual protection for sexually active adolescents should be encouraged, so that adolescents are not ...

  13. Got Unwanted Pills? Drug Take-Back Day Is April 30

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158560.html Got Unwanted Pills? Drug Take-Back Day Is April 30 National effort coordinates drop-off ... drop-off centers nationwide during Drug Take-Back Day, which takes place this year on Saturday, April ...

  14. A Pill to Ward Off Cavities? Scientists Say It Could Happen

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Pill to Ward Off Cavities? Scientists Say It Could Happen Researchers spotted a strain of 'good' ... cavity-causing bacteria in check. The investigators said it might be possible to use this beneficial bacteria ...

  15. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF. PMID:26935150

  16. Bringing smart pills to market: FDA regulation of ingestible drug/device combination products.

    PubMed

    Avery, Matthew; Liu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a pill that, after you swallow it, can track its position in your body. Or imagine a pill that can transmit a message to a doctor to tell him that you have taken your bitter medicine. Pills like this already exist. These so-called smart pills are an emerging type of medical therapy. However, this nascent technology has yet to reach the market and developers of these novel therapies face significant regulatory challenges. This article predicts how the Food and Drug Administration will regulate smart pills and shows how the current regulatory regime is inadequate. The article then proposes modifying the current regulatory regime to encourage development of smart pills and other innovative combination products by: (1) regulating combination products based on their "novel mode of action" rather than their "primary mode of action," (2) creating a marketing approval pathway specifically for combination products, and (3) eliminating regulations that require sponsors to get marketing approval from multiple centers within FDA and providing regulatory guidance specifically for ingestible drug/device combination products. PMID:24505852

  17. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (p<.05) between genders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  18. Pills easier to obtain as nations start to relax rules.

    PubMed

    1975-01-01

    In both developing and developed nations it has become easier to obtain oral contraception (OC). Generally, this means that the OC becomes available without a doctor's prescription and/or sources from outside a pharmacy. Sometimes there is no charge for the OC. In the People's Republic of China barefoot doctors distribute OC free of charge. Fiji, Israel, Korea and Pakistan have removed the prescription requirement. In India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Turkey private family planning clinics distribute the OC on prescription but free of charge. Specially trained and registered midwives distribute OCs in Chile and Antigua has also recently lifted the prescription requirement. Free OC is available to low income women in Jamaica, Costa Rica and Peru. In Egypt family planning centers distribute the OC free and without prescription. The United Kingdom is making OCs available free-of-charge through the National Health Service. OCs are free in France. In the U.S. government agencies have provided free OCs to low-income women in government health centers and have subsidized free pills for distribution in private family planning clinics. In Canada and in the Democratic Republic of Germany, OCs are distributed free, on prescription, to low-income women. PMID:12259672

  19. Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill improves cardiac function after myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    JianXin, Chen; Xue, Xu; ZhongFeng, Li; Kuo, Gao; FeiLong, Zhang; ZhiHong, Li; Xian, Wang; HongCai, Shang

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) is one of the leading causes of death, while Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill (QYDP) is a representative traditional Chinese medicine to treat this disease. Unveiling the pharmacological mechanism of QYDP will provide a great opportunity to promote the development of novel drugs to treat MI. 64 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: MI model group, sham operation group, QYDP treatment group and Fosinopril treatment group. Echocardiography results showed that QYDP exhibited significantly larger LV end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd) and LV end-systolic dimension (LVEDs), compared with the MI model group, indicating the improved cardiac function by QYDP. 1H-NMR based metabonomics further identify 9 significantly changed metabolites in the QYDP treatment group, and the QYDP-related proteins based on the protein-metabolite interaction networks and the corresponding pathways were explored, involving the pyruvate metabolism pathway, the retinol metabolism pathway, the tyrosine metabolism pathway and the purine metabolism pathway, suggesting that QYDP was closely associated with blood circulation. ELISA tests were further employed to identify NO synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the networks. For the first time, our work combined experimental and computational methods to study the mechanism of the formula of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27075394

  20. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior. PMID:26621257

  1. Pill side effects, continuation found similar whether self-prescribed or prescribed by doctor.

    PubMed

    1976-09-01

    In developing countries, especially Latin America, women obtain oral contraceptives without a physician's prescription. While these women experience more side effects, they have fewer accidental pregnancies than women who obtain the pills through a physician/prescription. A probability sample of 6692 Colombian women in Bogota were interviewed in 1974. Almost 1 in 20 of all women, and almost 1 in 13 of those married or living in a union, said they began using the pill on their own as their first method of contraception. The characteristics of the women without prescriptions were similar to those with, but self-prescribers were slightly older, had more children, and were less educated. 7 in 10 women of both groups continued pill use for 1 year; about 6 in 10 still used the pill after 2 years. Both groups gave side effects as their reason for discontinuation. The most frequently cited side effect was headache. None of the women reported the more serious complications, thrombophlebitis and thromboembolism. Women who did not begin with medical advice were less likely to seek it when they had side effects attributed to the pill. Half as many self-prescribers (24%), as users with a prescription (46%), reported visiting a private physician about side effects. 11% self-prescribers, compared with 25%, sought other professional help. PMID:12299650

  2. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, L P J; de Haan, A; de Koning, J J; Daanen, H A M

    2012-06-01

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The pill temperature (T(pill)) was compared with the rectal temperature (T(re)) and esophageal temperature (T(es)). T(pill) corresponded well to T(re) during the entire trial, but deviated considerably from T(es) during the exercise and recovery periods. During maximal exercise, the average ΔT(pill)-T(re) and ΔT(pill)-T(es) were 0.13 ± 0.26 and -0.57 ± 0.53 °C, respectively. The response time from the start of exercise, the rate of change during exercise and the peak temperature were similar for T(pill) and T(re.) T(es) responded 5 min earlier, increased more than twice as fast and its peak value was 0.42 ± 0.46 °C higher than T(pill). In conclusion, also during considerable temperature changes at a very high rate, T(pill) is still a representative of T(re). The extent of the deviation in the pattern and peak values between T(pill) and T(es) (up to >1 °C) strengthens the assumption that T(pill) is unsuited to evaluate central blood temperature when body temperatures change rapidly. PMID:22551669

  3. Honduran women received no written information on contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    In the period 1989-1994, Honduran women participating in the Project Health Sector 2 have been exposed to a contraceptive mini-pill, Ovrette. The Institute of Honduran Social Security (IHSS) approved the program (in which Ovrette distribution is included) in May 1990. The program is partly funded by the Population Council, which is funded by USAID Registry with the Department of Health was not required under the Health Code since Ovrette had entered the country as a donation. In June 1993, a Commission of the Honduran Medical Association reported that the women were not given any written information on the drug. Ovrette is an oral contraceptive manufactured by Wyeth. Its active ingredient is a progestagen, Norgestrel. Contraindications for Ovrette include: non-lactating women who exhibit side-effects such as dizziness, water retention, migraine, etc.; non-lactating women with contraindications for estrogen; lactating women who reject other contraceptive drugs. The US Pharmacopeia and the US Food and Drug Administration do not authorize the drug for use by lactating women. As with other progestagens, Norgestrel passes through to the mother's milk. In 1993, the US Pharmacopeia reported that these hormones can cause harmful effects to the child, and recommended switching medications or discontinuation of lactation. In 1983, the WHO expressed concern about the possibility of injury caused by the progestagens. The possibilities included alterations to personality, behavior, anatomy of sexual organs, reproductive capacity, immunological function and development of neoplasia. Possible damages in puberty or during the reproductive age are not known since there is no study of exposed children that are older than 12 years of age. PMID:12318716

  4. High order mode damping in a pill box cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, F.; Lambertson, G.; Rimmer, R.

    1991-04-01

    We have substantially damped the higher order modes (HOM's) in a pill box cavity with attached beam pipe, while reducing the Q of the principal mode by less that 10%. This was accomplished by cutting slots in the cavity end wall at a radius at which the magnetic field of the lowest frequency HOM's is large. The slots couple energy from the cavity into waveguides which are below cut off for the principal mode, but which propagate energy at the HOM frequencies. Three slots 120 degrees apart couple HOM energy to three waveguides. We are concerned primarily with accelerating and deflecting modes: i.e. the TM{sub mnp} modes of order m=0 and m=1. For the strongest damping, only three m=0 and m=1 modes were detectable. These were the principal TM{sub 010} mode, the TM{sub 011} longitudinal mode, and the TM{sub 110} deflecting mode. In addition the HOM Q's and the reduction of Q for the principal mode were determined by computer calculation. The principal mode Q for an actual rf cavity could not be measured because the bolted joints used in the construction of the cavity were not sufficiently good to support Q's above 6000. The measured Q of the first longitudinal mode was 31 and of the first transverse mode 37. Our maximum damping was limited by how well we could terminated the waveguides, and indeed, the computer calculations for the TM{sub 011} and TM{sub 110} modes give values in the range we measured. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Suicide, Canadian law, and Exit International's "peaceful pill".

    PubMed

    Ogden, Russel D

    2010-11-01

    Australia's Exit International ("Exit") is probably the most visible and controversial right-to-die organization in the world. Founded by Dr. Philip Nitschke, Exit is known for do-it-yourself ("DIY") suicide workshops and a book banned in Australia: The Peaceful Pill Handbook. In 2009, Exit held its first workshop in Canada. Due to legal concerns, the Vancouver Public Library reneged on a commitment to give Exit a venue, so the workshop proceeded in the sanctuary of a church hall. This article summarizes the history of suicide law in Canada and gives an overview of the emerging DIY movement. A case report describes how a Canadian woman studied Exit's literature and learned how to import veterinary pentobarbital. In accordance with Exit's information, she ended her life. Ethical and legal implications for researching DIY suicide are discussed and it is argued that prohibition contributes to an undesirable situation of uncontrolled and unregulated suicide. Whether they are prohibited, permitted, or tolerated, suicide and assisted suicide are controversial. Their legal treatment in Canada is conflicting because suicide is not a crime but it is a serious offense to assist, encourage, or counsel someone to suicide. Individuals can lawfully take their lives, but they must act independently. This legal situation has given rise to a do-it-yourself ("DIY") right-to-die movement dedicated to technologies and information to enhance the possibilities for planned and humane suicide, while limiting the legal exposure of sympathetic third parties (Martin, 2010; Ogden 2001). My aim is to summarize the legal history of suicide in Canada and discuss the emerging social movement for DIY suicide and assistance in suicide. Exit International ("Exit"), based in Australia, is a leading organization in this movement. I present a case report that describes how a Canadian woman ended her life using DIY techniques learned from Exit. Some ethical and legal implications for researching DIY

  6. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  7. Normalizing the exceptional: incorporating the "abortion pill" into mainstream medicine.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Carole; Weitz, Tracy A

    2003-06-01

    Mifepristone, also known as RU-486, and in the US known as "the French abortion pill", finally received FDA approval in the United States in September 2000. This paper discusses the steps now in process to integrate this drug into mainstream healthcare and the sociological implications of those efforts. Each of the steps that is normally taken to introduce a newly approved medication in the US context is rendered highly complex in the case of mifepristone--because of the unique circumstances of abortion in both American culture generally, and medical culture specifically. The story of RU-486/mifepristone, as it is currently unfolding, can be understood as one of attempting to "normalize the exceptional". After offering a brief historical overview of the protracted struggle for FDA approval of mifepristone in the US, this paper discusses the typical processes for integration of a newly approved medication into mainstream medicine and contrasts this process with the special challenges posed by a drug that is associated with abortion. We outline the challenges to implementation, including both external and internal obstacles. We compare the traditional role of a pharmaceutical company in drug diffusion and the circumstances of the company that produces mifepristone in the US. We discuss such external obstacles as the conflict between the FDA-approved regime and an evidence-based alternative; the necessity for physicians to order and dispense this drug; the ambiguity over the need for ultrasonography; and insurance reimbursement, malpractice, and other legal issues. Internal issues addressed include "turf issues" between medical specialties and between physicians and advanced practice clinicians as well as concerns over "cowboy medicine", and patient compliance. This paper concludes with an exploration of the sociological implications of this effort to "normalize the exceptional". PMID:12742600

  8. Autopsy report on pseudo-Bartter syndrome with renal calcification induced by diuretics and diet pills

    PubMed Central

    Unuma, Kana; Tojo, Akihiro; Harada, Kazuki; Saka, Kanju; Nakajima, Makoto; Ishii, Takeshi; Fujita, Toshiro; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    A woman in her mid-forties had repeated vomiting and diarrhoea accompanied by muscle weakness soon after she started taking seven different diet pills imported from Thailand. After she had taken the pills for 8 days, respiratory depression progressed rapidly to arrest. Blood tests at the Emergency Department showed severe hypokalaemia with metabolic alkalosis. We diagnosed that she had developed pseudo-Bartter syndrome from the findings based on ionic abnormalities and high renin and aldosterone levels, and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. A postmortem blood analysis indicated subtherapeutic levels of furosemide. We concluded that the patient died from pseudo-Bartter syndrome, which was triggered by chronic self-administration of furosemide and aggravated by the diet pills. This is the first pseudo-Bartter syndrome autopsy report to show histological localisation of calcification in the kidneys. PMID:21686346

  9. [Study on fluorescence sequencing typing technology identification of raw materials in liuwei dihuang pill].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-Hu; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Min-Hui; Jiang, Chao; Zhou, Li-She

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, Liuwei Dihuang pill was used to study the identification of Chinese patent medicine by fluorescence sequencing typing technology. The DNA of Paeonia suffruticosa was used as template to amplify by five pair of FAM fluorescence labeling primers. Then, the amplified products were sequenced. The sequencing results were analyzed by GeneMarker V1.80 to screen the best fluorescence labeling primers. As a result, psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer was used to identify the raw materials of Liuwei Dihuang pill. The results showed that three kinds of raw plant medicinal materials in Liuwei Dihuang pill were able to be correctly identified by psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer. The fluorescence sequencing typing technology can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicine. PMID:25612423

  10. Imbibition, desiccation and mechanical deformations of zein pills in relation to their porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabino, M. A.; Pauchard, L.; Allain, C.; Colonna, P.; Lourdin, D.

    2006-05-01

    This paper deals with the interaction between zein (the main protein component of corn grain) and water. It induces macroscopic properties changes and may allow for the understanding of the basis of zein endosperm structure: vitreous endosperm is compact and floury endosperm is porous, giving the endosperm its hard and soft textures, respectively. In that aim porous pills made by compaction of zein powder submitted to different hydration/dehydration processes have been prepared and studied. In particular, imbibition measurements of a pure-water drop deposited onto a zein pill were performed. Also, desiccation of a zein pill previously imbibed induces strong mechanical stresses leading to crack formation and/or large deformations.

  11. Pill burden does not influence compliance with oral medication in recipients of renal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Uma Rani; Taraphder, Abhijit; Hazra, Avijit; Das, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Insights about the predictors of noncompliance are key to develop compliance enhancing strategy in a given therapeutic situation. Renal transplantation is a critical surgical procedure that imposes a large medication burden on patients. There is a suspicion that the large pill burden may lead to noncompliance. Our objective was to ascertain the influence of pill burden on medication compliance in renal transplant patients in the Indian sociocultural context. Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted in two Tertiary Care Hospitals in Kolkata running renal transplant program – one each from the government and private sectors. Totally 120 literate adult transplant recipients were recruited through purposive sampling and followed up at 3 months intervals for 1 year. Data were collected through interview and review of prescriptions and medical records. Results: Data of 110 subjects were analyzed. The pill burden was high – ranging from 10-21 (median 14) at first visit shortly after discharge to 7–22 (median 11) at last visit at 12 months in the government sector; corresponding figures in the private sector were 14–32 (median 21) and 10–28 (median 17). Pill burden increased with age. Only 60.91% of the patients were fully compliant until 1 year after transplantation. The rate of immunosuppressant noncompliance was 27.78% in government sector and 25.00% in private sector. There was no significant association between median pill burden and medication compliance. Satisfaction with caregiver support was associated with better immunosuppressant compliance. Conclusions: Noncompliance in renal transplant recipients is likely to be multifactorial. Contrary to popular belief, pill burden was not a major determinant of noncompliant behavior. PMID:26997717

  12. [Study on self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release drop pill of hawthorn leaves flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Xuan; Huang, Hong-Zhang; Li, Ning; Gao, Chong-Kai

    2014-03-01

    To prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release coated drop pill, and to study its release rate in vitro and pharmacokinetics study in vivo. In order to improve the dissolution of hawthorn leaves flavonoids, self-microemulsifying technology was used to prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsion. Hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying drop pill was prepared with the PEG 6000. Studies were made on the in vitro release of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills and the in vivo pharmacokinetic in rats. The prescription of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying drop pills was 0.25 g of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves, 0.25 g of iodophenyl maleimide, 0.375 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 0.375 g of cremophor RH 40 and 2 g of polyethylene glycol 6000. The optimized prescription was 4 g of ethyl cellulose 20, 0.64 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 1.8 g of diethyl phthalate, and the weight of coating materials increased by 3.5%. Flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills complied with the design of sustained-release in 12 h in terms of in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters in rats, and its bioavailability was 2.47 times of quick-release drop pills. Slightly soluble flavonoids from hawthorn leaves could be made into sustained-release preparations by the self-micro-emulsifying and coating technology. PMID:25204172

  13. Comparison of dual antiplatelet therapy prescribed as one-pill versus two-pill regimen. A pooled analysis of individual patient data from the three MR-CAPCIS trials.

    PubMed

    Lim, Woo-Hyun; Chae, In-Ho; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Choi, Dong-Ju; Lim, Sang Wook; Park, Woo Jung; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-A; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Jung Han; Ahn, Young Keun; Hyon, Min-Su; Kim, Ki Seok; Kim, Young Kwon; Lee, Han Cheol; Seol, Sang-Hoon; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Choi, Si-Wan; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Shin, Eun-Seok; Kim, Sang-Wook; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-dose combination (FDC) drugs can simplify the medication regimen and potentially improve adherence. However, evidence is lacking about the efficacy and safety of FDC drugs of clopidogrel plus aspirin. Individual data from the three independent MR-CAPCIS trials were pooled and analysed. In those trials, subjects who had been treated with either dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) or aspirin alone after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation were randomly assigned to one-pill or to two-pill DAPT group. Platelet reactivity was measured with VerifyNow-P2Y12 and aspirin point-of-care assays at baseline and eight weeks after treatment. In the present study, primary efficacy endpoint was changes in platelet reactivity unit (PRU) between baseline and eight weeks. A total of 965 subjects were analysed. In prior clopidogrel and aspirin users, PRU was well maintained regardless of switching to either one-pill or two-pill DAPT (ΔPRU=0.4 vs 0.0, p=0.939). In prior aspirin users, PRU was decreased by 73.7 in one-pill DAPT and 77.5 in two-pill DAPT group, with no differences between them (p=0.499). The incidence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity at eight weeks, defined as PRU≥235 in Western people, was 34.8 % in one-pill DAPT group and 37.6 % in two-pill DAPT group (p=0.380), and that defined as PRU ≥275 in Oriental people was 17.7 vs 21.7 % (p=0.129). Independent predictors of high platelet reactivity on clopidogrel were female gender, increasing age, and diabetes. Study drugs were well tolerated. In conclusion, FDC one-pill DAPT showed similar efficacy to two-pill DAPT in terms of platelet reactivity in patients receiving DES in Korea. PMID:27029284

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of low density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes in Korea: single-pill regimen (amlodipine/atorvastatin) versus double-pill regimen (amlodipine+atorvastatin)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Ho; Ko, Su-Kyoung; Cha, Bong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Single-pill combination therapy (amlodipine/atorvastatin) might be more effective than double-pill therapy (amlodipine+atorvastatin) in patients with diabetes and concomitant hypertension requiring statin therapy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of a single-pill with that of double-pill for control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, with the ultimate goal of cardiovascular disease prevention, in these patients using a cost-effectiveness analysis model that considered medication adherence. METHODS: Effectiveness was defined as the percentage (%) attainment of target LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL) based on adherence for each therapy. Adherence was defined as compliance to medication (≥80% proportion of days covered). A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were adherent and target goal attainment based on adherence level. The annual medication costs were based on the adherence levels for each regimen. The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) was calculated as the cost per % attainment of the target LDL-C level. RESULTS: The ACER for the single-pill regimen was lower than for the double-pill regimen (4,123 vs. 6,062 Korean won per 1% achievement of target goal). Compared with the double-pill, the medication costs were approximately 32% lower with the single-pill. CONCLUSION: A single-pill for reductions in LDL-C is cost-effective compared with double-pill in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25773438

  15. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2016-02-01

    The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women's empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight. PMID:26927398

  16. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  17. Real-time electronic adherence monitoring is feasible, comparable to unannounced pill counts, and acceptable

    PubMed Central

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Ybarra, Michele; Monk, Alexandra; Ragland, Kathleen; Weiser, Sheri D.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Second generation electronic medication adherence monitors provide real-time data on pill bottle opening behavior. Feasibility, validity, and acceptability, however, have not been established. Med-eMonitor is a multi-compartment adherence device with reminder and education capacity that transmits data through a telephone connection. Monthly adherence levels were measured for 52 participants over approximately three months using the Med-eMonitor (unadjusted and adjusted for participant confirmed dosing) and unannounced pill counts. HIV RNA was assessed before and after the three-month period. Acceptability of Med-eMonitor was determined. Over 92% of Med-eMonitor data was transmitted daily. Unannounced pill counts significantly correlated with adjusted Med-eMonitor adherence (r=0.29, p=0.04). HIV RNA significantly correlated with unannounced pill counts (r=−0.34, p=0.02), and trended toward a significant correlation with unadjusted Med-eMonitor adherence (r=−0.26; p=0.07). Most, but not all, participants liked using the Med-eMonitor. Med-eMonitor allows for real-time adherence monitoring and potentially intervention, which may be critical for prolonging treatment success. PMID:21448728

  18. Medicine and the law. The postcoital pill and intrauterine device: contraceptive or abortifacient?

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1983-05-01

    The use of the postcoital pill and the IUD might be illegal under British law if, as some groups contend, conception is defined as fertilization of the ovum. An amendment stipulating that conception includes implantation would erase the potential conflict between the law and current practice or dictionary definitions of conception. PMID:6133073

  19. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  20. Modal analysis of wake fields and its application to elliptical pill-box cavity with finite aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H. ); Chen, K.W.; Yang, J.S. )

    1990-11-15

    The potential of the wake-field produced by a bunch of relativistic charged particles passing through a pill-box cavity is expressed by using Floquet's theorem, and an obvious requirement that the energy gain over all acceleration cavity of many pill boxes must be proportional to the number of pill boxes, based on the previous modal approach (BWW theory). It is found that the wake-field is consisted of two classes of modes: the longitudinal modes which are independent of the aperture and the pill-box gap, the hybrid (pill-box) modes which are dependent of the pill-box gap. The wake field is predominated by the fundamental longitudinal mode whose wavelength is on the order of the effective diameter of the cavity, and its magnitude is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the cavity for practical cavities with small apertures. Both longitudinal and transverse wake fields due to the longitudinal modes in an elliptical pill box cavity are expressed analytically in a closed series form by solving exactly the longitudinal eigenmode equation in the elliptical cylindrical coordinates in terms of Mathieu functions. It is found that both longitudinal and transverse wake fields whose amplitudes per driving charge are greater than 100 MV/m/{mu}C can be generated in an elliptical cavity.

  1. Modal analysis of wake fields and its application to elliptical pill-box cavity with finite aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chen, K. W.; Yang, J. S.

    1990-11-01

    The potential of the wake-field produced by a bunch of relativistic charged particles passing through a pill-box cavity is expressed by using Floquet's theorem, and an obvious requirement that the energy gain over all acceleration cavity of many pill boxes must be proportional to the number of pill boxes, based on the previous modal approach (BWW theory). It is found that the wake-field is consisted of two classes of modes: the longitudinal modes which are independent of the aperture and the pill-box gap, the hybrid (pill-box) modes which are dependent of the pill-box gap. The wake field is predominated by the fundamental longitudinal mode whose wavelength is on the order of the effective diameter of the cavity, and its magnitude is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the cavity for practical cavities with small apertures. Both longitudinal and transverse wake fields due to the longitudinal modes in an elliptical pill box cavity are expressed analytically in a closed series form by solving exactly the longitudinal eigenmode equation in the elliptical cylindrical coordinates in terms of Mathieu functions. It is found that both longitudinal and transverse wake fields whose amplitudes per driving charge are greater than 100 MV/m/μC can be generated in an elliptical cavity.

  2. Effect of sour tea (Lipicom) pill versus captopril on the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Ali-Reza; Akbari, Hossein; Soleimani, Saeid; Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Tamadon, Mohamad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines are traditionally prescribed to manage blood pressure. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate effect of sour tea pill containing the herb’s extract versus captopril on the treatment of hypertension. Patients and Methods: In our crossover clinical trial 20 patients were enrolled in the study and advised for life style modification then the participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. Sour tea pills was prescribed at a dose of 500 mg and captopril at a dose of 12.5 mg twice daily. In order to improve precision and final measurement, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed both prior and after measuring the hypertension in 2 successive visits. After 6 weeks of therapy, the methods changed and 6 weeks later ABPM was performed three times (baseline, at end of the 6th and 12th week). The 2 groups were merged together before data analysis. Results: Of the 20 patients, 13 (65%) were male and 7 (35%) were female. No significant difference of sex, age, and job was detected between 2 groups (P ≥ 0.05). Mean decreasing in systolic blood pressure was 7.75 ± 8.3 and 13.3 ± 16.1 mm Hg in the captopril and sour tea groups, respectively. Also, mean decline in diastolic blood pressure decreases was 2.15 ± 4.14 and 5.8 ± 7.8 mm Hg for captopril and sour tea groups, respectively. No side effect was observed in the sour tea pill group in the study. Conclusion: According to the effect of sour tea pill on decreasing blood pressure, without giving priority over captopril, sour tea pill containing the herb’s extract can be prescribed as an adjuvant therapy for lowering the prescribed dosage of captopril. PMID:26468478

  3. Syndrome of iron pill inhalation in four patients with accidental tablet aspiration: Severe airway complications are described

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, U.; Battistoni, P.; Batzella, S.; Iacono, R. Dello; Lucantoni, G.; Galluccio, G.

    2015-01-01

    Iron pill inhalation represents a uncommon cause of syntomatic endobronchial foreign bodies. Unlike foreign body, the direct contact of iron tablet onto the bronchial mucosa results in severe bronchial damage in addition to obstruction and local irritation. Four patients with Iron Pill Inhalation Syndrome are described. All but one patient developed irreversible bronchial stenosis as late post inflammatory complication. Bronchoscopic features and clinical evolution are described in order to reduce the risk of severe side-effects in patients highly suspected for iron pill aspiration. PMID:26236596

  4. Syndrome of iron pill inhalation in four patients with accidental tablet aspiration: Severe airway complications are described.

    PubMed

    Caterino, U; Battistoni, P; Batzella, S; Iacono, R Dello; Lucantoni, G; Galluccio, G

    2015-01-01

    Iron pill inhalation represents a uncommon cause of syntomatic endobronchial foreign bodies. Unlike foreign body, the direct contact of iron tablet onto the bronchial mucosa results in severe bronchial damage in addition to obstruction and local irritation. Four patients with Iron Pill Inhalation Syndrome are described. All but one patient developed irreversible bronchial stenosis as late post inflammatory complication. Bronchoscopic features and clinical evolution are described in order to reduce the risk of severe side-effects in patients highly suspected for iron pill aspiration. PMID:26236596

  5. Behavioral evidence for internal factors affecting duration of conglobation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Crustacea). Short communication.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Hiroe; Moriyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Pill bugs individually walked an experimental pathway, then were induced to conglobate with a puff of air. After recovering, they were stimulated again. Sixty of 80 pill bugs conglobated both times, first moving either antennae (A) or legs (L) during recovery. Both AA and LL groups showed a significant positive correlation between first (t1) and second (t2) conglobation times. In the AL group, pathway locomotion time (t0) was significantly positively correlated to both t1 and t2. We conclude that pill bugs determine conglobation time based partly on their previous states. PMID:22776477

  6. Facilitators of Adherence to the Study Pill in the FEM-PrEP Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Corneli, Amy; Perry, Brian; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Malamatsho, Fulufhelo; Van Damme, Lut

    2015-01-01

    Introduction FEM-PrEP did not demonstrate a reduction in HIV acquisition because of low study pill adherence. Yet, plasma and intracellular drug concentrations indicated that some participants had evidence of recent pill use. We conducted a follow-up study to identify, among other topics, participants’ reasons for taking the study pill. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were conducted with 88 FEM-PrEP participants. Participants were purposefully selected based on their adherence drug concentrations collected during FEM-PrEP and placed into three adherence interview groups: “high,” “moderate,” and “none/scarce.” Participants in the high and moderate groups described reasons why they adhered most or some of the time, including factors that facilitated their adherence. Participants in all groups described what they believed made it possible for other FEM-PrEP participants to adhere. In addition, 224 FEM-PrEP participants reported on their reasons for taking the study pills through a quantitative, audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. Results Five themes were identified from the SSIs as facilitating factors of adherence: 1) participants’ support for the research, 2) HIV risk reduction, 3) routine formation and use of tools, 4) adherence counseling, and 5) partner awareness and support. Participants described similar facilitators when they spoke about other participants’ adherence. Among the 172 participants who reported in ACASI that they had taken a study pill, wanting to help answer the research question was the most frequently stated reason for taking the pills (94%, n = 161). We also found evidence of preventive misconception. Conclusions Adherence was facilitated by personal motivations, such as risk reduction and interest in the research outcome, and by adherence strategies consisting of external

  7. Pill Burden in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Germany: Subanalysis From the Prospective, Noninterventional PROVIL Study.

    PubMed

    Blüher, Matthias; Kurz, Ira; Dannenmaier, Simone; Dworak, Markus

    2015-04-01

    IN BRIEF Type 2 diabetes and its associated comorbidities often require polypharmacotherapy, which may result in poor adherence to treatment. This study evaluated, using subjective patient and physician questionnaire surveys, the impact of pill burden and its associated consequences on patients treated with vildagliptin as add-on to metformin, a fixed-dose combination of vildagliptin/metformin, or another dual oral antidiabetic therapy. Patients' responses were also analyzed by age (<65 or ≥65 years). The surveys revealed that a high pill count in antidiabetic therapy constitutes a large burden for patients with type 2 diabetes. Treating physicians are aware of the problems that result from a high pill burden, and a majority of them prefer prescribing fixed-dose combinations that have better efficacy and tolerability to reduce pill burden. PMID:25897184

  8. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ujuju, Chinazo; Adebayo, Samson B; Anyanti, Jennifer; Oluigbo, Obi; Muhammad, Fatima; Ankomah, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs). This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method This study is based on findings from a ‘mystery client’ approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills); user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons) necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical

  9. Neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is improved by the Ruyi Zhenbao pill in a rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TIAN; DUAN, SIJIN; WANG, HAIPING; SUN, SHAN; HAN, BING; FU, FENGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill on neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion following reperfusion. The rats received intragastrically either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control and model groups) or Ruyi Zhenbao pill at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg. Neurological function was assessed by cylinder, adhesive and beam-walking tests after 14-day Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis were detected using immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Treatment with 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg Ruyi Zhenbao for 14 days significantly improved neurological function, and increased the number of von Willebrand Factor- and neuronal nuclear antigen-positive cells in the ischemic hemisphere of rats. Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment also significantly enhanced the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF in the ischemic hemisphere. The results demonstrated that the Ruyi Zhenbao pill improved neurological function following ischemia in rats. The mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill are associated with increasing the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF, and subsequently promoting neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the ischemic zone. PMID:26893831

  10. 'Stratified Contraception': Emergency Contraceptive Pills and Women's Differential Experiences in Contemporary India.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Available without prescriptions in India since 2005, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and their advertisements have provided women with increased contraceptive options and a vocabulary to talk about their reproductive lives. I draw on long-term fieldwork with women in urban India about ECPs, demonstrating a new form of 'stratified contraception' enabled by these pills and their advertisements. I posit that there are within India spaces that replicate the luxuries and privileges of the global North. These material conditions, I suggest, are replicated when it comes to contraception as there are hubs of women consumers of contraception and contraceptive advertising that participate in an 'imagined cosmopolitanism' within the global South in close proximity to 'contraceptive ghettos.' Moving beyond simplistic binaries, I outline three major stratifications along which women experience this medical technology and outline the implications for women and their contraceptive choices when notions of northern privilege exist in the 'South.' PMID:24901232

  11. Abraham Lincoln's blue pills. Did our 16th president suffer from mercury poisoning?

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, N; Feldman, R G; Greaves, I A

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that Abraham Lincoln took a medicine called "blue mass" or "blue pill," commonly prescribed in the 19th century. What is now hardly known is that the main ingredient of blue mass was finely dispersed elemental mercury. As his friends understood, mercury was often prescribed for melancholy or "hypochondriasis," a condition Lincoln famously endured. Mercury in the form of the blue pill is a potential neurotoxin, which we have demonstrated by recreating and testing the recipe. We present the testimony of many of Lincoln's contemporaries to suggest that Lincoln suffered the neurobehavioural consequences of mercury intoxication but, perhaps crucial to history, before the main years of his presidency; he was astute enough to recognize the effects and stop the medication soon after his inauguration. PMID:11482002

  12. Comparison of contraceptive implant adopters and pill users in a family planning clinic in Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Weisman, C S; Plichta, S B; Tirado, D E; Dana, K H

    1993-01-01

    All 133 women who began using the Norplant contraceptive implant between August and December of 1991 at a Planned Parenthood clinic in Baltimore were compared with a sample of 112 women who obtained prescriptions for the pill at the same clinic during the same time period. A multivariate analysis found that women of Medicaid are significantly more likely than those who are self-paying to select the implant rather than the pill. Similarly, compared with women who have had no children, those who have had two or more are also significantly more likely to choose the implant. However, adolescents and women who have had an abortion are no more likely than other women to select the implant. PMID:8262172

  13. Swallowable smart pills for local drug delivery: present status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Rosa; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Smart pills were originally developed for diagnosis; however, they are increasingly being applied to therapy - more specifically drug delivery. In addition to smart drug delivery systems, current research is also looking into localization systems for reaching the target areas, novel locomotion mechanisms and positioning systems. Focusing on the major application fields of such devices, this article reviews smart pills developed for local drug delivery. The review begins with the analysis of the medical needs and socio-economic benefits associated with the use of such devices and moves onto the discussion of the main implemented technological solutions with special attention given to locomotion systems, drug delivery systems and power supply. Finally, desired technical features of a fully autonomous robotic capsule for local drug delivery are defined and future research trends are highlighted. PMID:26118473

  14. Knowledge and perceptions of emergency contraceptive pills among a college-age population: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Harper, C; Ellertson, C

    1995-01-01

    Results from focus-group discussions with a population of university students who have convenient access to emergency contraceptive pills show that basic awareness about this method is high, although specific knowledge on appropriate use, such as the time limit for use, the level of effectiveness and the possible side effects, is lacking. Approval of the method is widespread among both female and male students, although students did voice anxieties about irresponsible use and the lack of protection against the human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases. Many of their concerns stem from incomplete information about how the regimen works. Students noted how rarely emergency contraceptive pills are discussed, and were curious to know more. They asked for routine education on the method, as well as more general discussion. PMID:7589355

  15. Knowledge about missed contraceptive pills among married women at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Rahila; Aba Al Khail, Bahaa Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are one of the most reliable methods of contraception. However, lack of knowledge about oral contraceptive use and inconsistent pill-taking might result in decreased efficacy. The study reported here aimed to explore women’s knowledge about oral contraceptive use and assess the factors associated with knowledge about OCPs among users. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between April and June 2014. We included married, non-pregnant women >18 years old who had used a combined 21-day OCP for at least 3 months prior to recruitment. A questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ demographic information. It also assessed their knowledge about OCPs. Data were entered into and analyzed using SPSS software. Results A total of 357 women were recruited. Of these, 57.7% reported they knew what to do after missing one or two pills, but only 18.3% knew exactly what to do after missing more than two pills consecutively. Postgraduate women had a significantly higher knowledge score than illiterate women (P=0.002) and those who had completed at least primary education (P=0.001). Conversely, there was no difference in knowledge scores between Saudi and expatriate women (P=0.2). Monthly incomes (P=0.2) and mode of OCP selection (P=0.2) were also not significantly associated with knowledge scores. Conclusion Women had poor knowledge about OCP use. Appropriate measures should be taken to educate women about proper oral contraceptive use. PMID:25792813

  16. Images of American sexuality in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L; Trussell, James

    2006-11-01

    The debate over emergency contraceptive pill access in the United States revolves around speculations about Americans' sexual lives. The recently released internal U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) memo that expresses fears that adolescents will form "sex-based cults" around emergency contraceptive pills echoes arguments made against the nonprescription switch at the 2003 FDA hearings. In these hearings, opponents argued that nonprescription access would lead to adolescent promiscuity and disease transmission and that adult predators would use the drug to facilitate the sexual abuse of young women. In contrast, proponents of expanded access to emergency contraceptive pills overwhelmingly portrayed their model user as a responsible adult who experiences a torn condom during consensual sex. These imaginations of American sexuality are tied to competing models of the role of medical providers in women's sexual decision making. Opponents of the nonprescription switch argued that women need a learned intermediary, not only to determine their need for emergency contraception, but also to educate them about proper sexual behavior and protect them from abuse. Proponents advocated putting more responsibility for sexual health decision making in the hands of women, not doctors, and complained about the moralizing scrutiny of medical providers. In the absence of nonprescription access to emergency contraception, advance prescription of emergency contraceptive pills can ensure that contraceptive education is not tied to a specific sexual act and therefore not perceived as a judgment about women's sexual decisions. However, advance prescription does not help women who lack access to health care or women who make sexual and contraceptive decisions without consulting physicians. PMID:17077255

  17. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity. PMID:27273551

  18. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  19. [Reexaminations of dosages in Shanghanlun: comparison of the dosages among decoctions, pills and powder formulations].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper reveals the dosages of decoctions in Shanghanlun in relation of pills and powder formulations, and obtains following results. At the first examination of the system of weight, while Taohongjing shows three kinds of system of weight; [(1)1liang is equivalent to 14 g. (2) 1liang = 7 g (3) 1liang = 1.4 g], he describes the necessity of the corrective system of weight among the decoctions, the pills and the powder formulations. After Song dynasty, Zhusanfa, which is the method of preparing the decoction by placing powder ingredients of prescriptions in water and simmer, have been mainly adopted. In the term of Zhusanfa, although the whole quantities of prescriptions are written with the ancient weight unit, the notation of the dosage is indicated by the current weight unit, Qian. In Shanghanlun, since the dosage form seems to have been changed from the pills or the powders into the decoction, some of decoctions contain impractical dose for decoction. PMID:21796994

  20. Single-pill triple-combination therapy: an alternative to multiple-drug treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2011-11-01

    Hypertension (HTN) affects an estimated 76.4 million US adults. Despite improvements in blood pressure (BP) control rates and the availability of effective antihypertensive agents, only 50% of these individuals achieve BP control. It is now recognized that many patients will require ≥ 2 antihypertensive agents to achieve BP control. Both the current US and reappraisal of the 2007 European guidelines include dual-combination regimens among recommended treatments for initial HTN therapy. For patients requiring 3 drugs, the combination of agents with complementary mechanisms of action (ie, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blocker, calcium channel blocker, and diuretic) has been recognized as rational and effective. Three single-pill triple-drug combinations have recently been approved for use in HTN in the United States: valsartan (VAL)/amlodipine (AML)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ); olmesartan medoxomil (OM)/AML/HCTZ; and aliskiren (ALI)/VAL/HCTZ. Triple-combination regimens have resulted in a greater proportion of patients achieving BP control compared with dual-combination regimens, with significantly lower BP levels documented after only 2 weeks at maximum doses. Single-pill combinations offer convenience to address barriers to BP control such as poor adherence to therapy and therapeutic inertia. Additional benefits of combining antihypertensive agents from different classes include improved efficacy, safety, and reduction of cardiovascular risk. In patients with essential HTN for whom dual therapy is inadequate, single-pill triple-drug therapy can offer a simplified and effective treatment strategy. PMID:22104451

  1. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats. PMID:24051215

  2. Physiologic and psychologic symptoms associated with use of injectable contraception and 20 µg oral contraceptive pills

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Odom, Susan D.; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare menstrual, physiologic, and psychologic symptoms over 2 years among women initiating use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or an oral contraceptive pill with a reduced pill-free interval, and those not using hormonal contraception. Methods A total of 608 women reported their experience regarding 17 symptoms prior to initiating contraception and every 6 months thereafter for 24 months. Longitudinal relationships between symptoms and contraceptives were assessed after adjusting for age, visits, and baseline status of symptoms. Results Oral contraceptive pills were protective against mastalgia (OR = 0.7), cramping (OR = 0.5), hair loss (OR = 0.6), acne (OR = 0.4), nervousness (OR = 0.5), and mood swings (OR = 0.7). DMPA was protective against bloating (OR = 0.5) and mood swings (OR = 0.7), but caused weight gain (OR = 2.3), bleeding episodes >20 days (OR = 13.4), and missed periods (OR = 96.9). Both methods caused intermenstrual bleeding. Conclusion Evidence-based data regarding beneficial and adverse symptoms associated with these methods may help clinicians counsel patients appropriately prior to contraceptive initiation. PMID:18599013

  3. Urea kinetics in healthy young women: minimal effect of stage of menstrual cycle, contraceptive pill and protein intake.

    PubMed

    McClelland, I S; Jackson, A A

    1996-08-01

    Urea kinetics were measured using prime/intermittent oral doses of [15N15N]urea, on five separate protocols in thirteen normal young women. Each woman underwent either two or three study protocols. Measurements were made at day 12 and day 22 of the menstrual cycle, whilst consuming their habitual protein intake in seven women not taking the contraceptive pill and in six women taking the contraceptive pill. In three women taking the pill, and three not taking the pill, urea kinetics were measured whilst taking a diet in which the intake was restricted to 55 g protein/d. There was no difference in the rate of urea production, urea excretion or urea hydrolysis between the women taking the pill and those not taking the pill at day 22. In the women not taking the pill there was no difference in any measure between day 12 and day 22. In the women taking the pill there was a significant difference in the disposal of urea N to excretion or hydrolysis on day 12 compared with day 22, with a relative decrease in excretion and enhancement of hydrolysis at day 12 compared with day 22. On the restricted diet, an intake of 55 g protein/d represented 77% of the habitual intake and urea production, excretion and hydrolysis were reduced to about 84% of the rate found on the habitual intake. In paired studies the reduction in urea production was statistically significant, and there was a statistically significant linear relationship between urea production and either intake or the sum of intake plus hydrolysis. The within-individual variability for urea production was about 10%, for excretion 15% and for hydrolysis 44%. The between-individual variability for intake was about 17% on the habitual intake. The variability for production, excretion and hydrolysis (14, 13, 36%) was less in the women not taking the contraceptive pill than in those taking the pill 23, 32, 42% respectively). The variability was reduced on the controlled low intake of 55 g protein compared with the habitual

  4. Effect of a “pill mill” law on opioid prescribing and utilization: The case of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Lyapustina, Tatyana; Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Ramji, Alim F.; Faul, Mark; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Background States have attempted to reduce prescription opioid abuse through strengthening the regulation of pain management clinics; however, the effect of such measures remains unclear. We quantified the impact of Texas’s September 2010 “pill mill” law on opioid prescribing and utilization. Methods We used the IMS Health LRx LifeLink database to examine anonymized, patient-level pharmacy claims for a closed cohort of individuals filling prescription opioids in Texas between September 2009 and August 2011. Our primary outcomes were derived at a monthly level and included: (1) average morphine equivalent dose (MED) per transaction; (2) aggregate opioid volume; (3) number of opioid prescriptions; and (4) quantity of opioid pills dispensed. We compared observed values with the counterfactual, which we estimated from pre-intervention levels and trends. Results Texas’s pill mill law was associated with declines in average MED per transaction (−0.57 mg/month, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.09, −0.057), monthly opioid volume (−9.99 kg/month, CI −12.86, −7.11), monthly number of opioid prescriptions (−12,200 prescriptions/month, CI −15,300, −9,150) and monthly quantity of opioid pills dispensed (−714,000 pills/month, CI −877,000, −550,000). These reductions reflected decreases of 8.1–24.3% across the outcomes at one year compared with the counterfactual, and they were concentrated among prescribers and patients with the highest opioid prescribing and utilization at baseline. Conclusions Following the implementation of Texas’s 2010 pill mill law, there were clinically significant reductions in opioid dose, volume, prescriptions and pills dispensed within the state, which were limited to individuals with higher levels of baseline opioid prescribing and utilization. PMID:26778760

  5. Water-compatible imprinted pills for sensitive determination of cannabinoids in urine and oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Cela-Pérez, M Concepción; Bates, Ferdia; Jiménez-Morigosa, Cristian; Lendoiro, Elena; de Castro, Ana; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, M Victoria

    2016-01-15

    A novel molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) methodology followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed using cylindrical shaped molecularly imprinted pills for detection of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in urine and oral fluid (OF). The composition of the molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) was optimized based on the screening results of a non-imprinted polymer library (NIP-library). Thus, acrylamide as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker were selected for the preparation of the MIP, using catechin as a mimic template. MISPE pills were incubated with 0.5 mL urine or OF sample for adsorption of analytes. For desorption, the pills were transferred to a vial with 2 mL of methanol:acetic acid (4:1) and sonicated for 15 min. The elution solvent was evaporated and reconstituted in methanol:formic acid (0.1%) 50:50 to inject in LC-MS/MS. The developed method was linear over the range from 1 to 500 ng mL(-1) in urine and from 0.75 to 500 ng mL(-1) in OF for all four analytes. Intra- and inter-day imprecision were <15%. Extraction recovery was 50-111%, process efficiency 15.4-54.5% and matrix effect ranged from -78.0 to -6.1%. Finally, the optimized and validated method was applied to 4 urine and 5 OF specimens. This is the first method for the determination of THC, THC-COOH, CBN and CBD in urine and OF using MISPE technology. PMID:26718187

  6. The origins of the giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Raupach, Michael J; Sierwald, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Giant pill-millipedes (order Sphaerotheriida) are large-bodied millipedes without poison glands which can roll-up into a complete ball. Their disconnected area of distribution spanning South Africa, Madagascar, India, SE Asia, Australia and New Zealand makes them interesting model organisms for biogeographic studies. The here presented phylogeny is based on a molecular dataset covering all areas of distribution with a special focus on Madagascar, where some species of giant pill-millipedes show island gigantism, reaching the size of a baseball. For our study, two mitochondrial genes (partial 16S rRNA and COI) as well as the complete nuclear 18S rDNA were sequenced. While many recent vertebrate studies hint that the ancestors of the recent Malagasy fauna crossed the >350 km wide Mozambique Channel several times, no such crossing was discovered in the Sphaerotheriida. For the first time in a molecular phylogenetic study of soil arthropods, a Madagascar-India group, the family Arthrosphaeridae, is recovered, hinting to a Gondwanan origin of the Sphaerotheriida. The Malagasy-Indian family Arthrosphaeridae forms a monophyletic, statistically well-supported group in all obtained trees. The giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar are paraphyletic because the Malagasy genus Sphaeromimus is the sister-taxon of the Indian Arthrosphaera. In Sphaeromimus, an ecotone shift occurred only once: the spiny forest species Sphaeromimus musicus forms the sister-clade to the species collected in rainforests and littoral rainforests. The two species of the Malagasy genus Zoosphaerium which express island gigantism form a monophyletic group in some trees, but these trees lack good statistical support. Deeper nodes inside the Sphaerotheriida, like the position of the Australian genera Procyliosoma and Epicyliosoma, the Southeast Asian family Zephroniidae and the South African genus Sphaerotherium could not be resolved. This study is the first genetic study inside the order Sphaerotheriida

  7. The Pill Really Can Be Mightier Than the Sword: A Response to Recent Commentaries.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm; Graves, Alisha

    2016-03-01

    We appreciate the four commentaries that add new material and fresh perspectives to our article "The pill is mightier than the sword." In emphasizing the role of voluntary family planning and girls' education as achievable strategies with a potential to make the world a more peaceable place, we did not mean to oversimplify or disregard the intrinsic complexity of human conflict. On the whole, the commentators support and add to our thesis, although we question Pillai and Ya-Chien Wang's suggestion that we may have overstated the unique human predisposition to kill our own species. We present additional data on male team aggression. PMID:26927598

  8. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported. PMID:24722681

  9. Promiscuity and pill: etiologic agents in the genesis of cervical malignancy.

    PubMed

    Leppäluoto, P A

    1977-01-01

    An 800% increase in the number of "suspicious" Papanicolaou smears from young women have been reported since 1970. In cases diagnosed from tissue specimens as "surface dysplasia," the majority of patients gave histories of use of birth control pills and sexual promiscuity. Sexually active women have an increased incidence of cervical ectopy. In cervical ectopy the endocervical columnar cells are exposed to the acid vaginal content. Development of squamous metaplasia may result. An ideal contraceptive would be one contributing to the preservation of a healthy cervical epithelium without ectopy, and a healthy vaginal content as shown by the presence of Doderlein flora. These conditions would serve to prevent cervical malignancy. PMID:266326

  10. A pill-box shaped vacuum window connected with circular waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Kunihito; Arai, Hiroyuki; Goto, Naohisa

    1987-07-01

    From an analysis of the boundary value problem for the pill-box shaped window connected with circular waveguides, the reflection coefficient from the input side and the field distributions inside the window are derived. The window structure boundary is reduced by even and odd excitation, and the integral equation is solved by the method of moments. The E(z) field on the dielectric surface is shown to be primarily related to the edge effect at the junction between the window and the circular waveguide, and the E(z) field in the window is found to be smaller than that for a rectangular waveguide.

  11. [Zoely, a combined oral contraceptive, monophasic pill containing estradiol and nomegestrol acetate].

    PubMed

    Pintiaux, A; Gaspard, U; Nisolle, M

    2012-03-01

    A new combined oral contraceptive called Zoely has just been marketed in Belgium. It contains nomegestrol acetate, a progestin known for its high contraceptive reliability based on its antigonadotropic power and long half-life. This progestin is associated with estradiol and Zoely is devoid of ethinyl estradiol, which is the usual component of the majority of combined oral contraceptives and is primarily responsible for thrombotic side effects of the pill. The compositon and type of regimen of this new oral contraceptive contribute to its efficacy and excellent clinical tolerance. PMID:22611833

  12. The Pill Really Can Be Mightier Than the Sword: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Malcolm; Graves, Alisha

    2016-01-01

    We appreciate the four commentaries that add new material and fresh perspectives to our article "The pill is mightier than the sword." In emphasizing the role of voluntary family planning and girls’ education as achievable strategies with a potential to make the world a more peaceable place, we did not mean to oversimplify or disregard the intrinsic complexity of human conflict. On the whole, the commentators support and add to our thesis, although we question Pillai and Ya-Chien Wang’s suggestion that we may have overstated the unique human predisposition to kill our own species. We present additional data on male team aggression. PMID:26927598

  13. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general population, and…

  14. A pill for HIV prevention: déjà vu all over again?

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Sepkowitz, Kent A

    2013-06-01

    Recent FDA approval of tenofovir-emtricitabine for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a form of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has led to concern about implementation of this strategy. Fifty years ago, a very similar national and international debate occurred when the oral contraceptive pill ("the Pill" or "OCP") was approved. Contentious issues included OCP safety, cost, and the potential impact on sexual behavior--many of the same concerns being voiced currently about PrEP. In this article, we review the social and medical history of OCP, drawing parallels with the current PrEP debate. We also explore the key areas where PrEP differs from its forbear: lower efficacy, presence of drug resistance, and a more circumscribed (and marginalized) target population. A thoughtful approach to PrEP implementation, bearing in mind the historical insights gained from the 1960s, might serve as well as we begin this new chapter in the control of the HIV epidemic. PMID:23408681

  15. An Incidental Finding of a Radiopaque Pill following Cervical Spinal Surgery in a Parkinson's Disease Patient.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Sub; Choi, Soo-Jung; Yoo, Byoungwoo; Han, Koon Hee; Park, Jong Kyu; Lee, Young-Seok; Park, Jin Hoon

    2015-09-01

    There are previous reports of the identification of radiopaque medications on abdominal X-rays or computed tomography (CT). We describe an interesting case of the incidental identification of a radiopaque medication on cervical spinal CT following cervical spinal surgery. A sixty seven-year-old male patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) visited our emergency center with a C5-6 dislocation and fracture. Surgery was performed with open reduction and pedicle screw fixation through the posterior approach. No abnormal events occurred during the perioperative period. However, a radiopaque incidental foreign body in front of the C6 vertebrae was found on a cervical spinal CT and X-rays that were performed as routine examinations on postoperative day 3. After 6 hours, we performed gastrofibroscopy (GFS) but were unable to find anything. Therefore, we checked all of his medications related to the neck and check X-ray again. One enteric-coated pill he had taken exhibited strong radiodensity. Although our patient underwent an unnecessary GFS, every spinal surgeon should keep in mind that radiopaque pills can appear similar to spinal instruments on X-ray and CT. In addition, we should also know the associated dysphagia is a possible cause of the delayed passage of medicine in PD with or without cervical osteophytes. PMID:26512272

  16. Designing a flashcard with knowledge pills for learning to solve chemistry exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the proposed tool combines a flashcards-based method with knowledge pills. The framework has three levels: definition of problem for a teacher; the quiz; use of the quiz for the student. The tool could provide predefined or automatically generated exercises of chemicals. Students could practise where and whenever they like via the Internet. Theirs answers would be registered automatically by the tool and if the students have doubts about any of the questions, they can see a knowledge pill with a teacher explanation about the solution of the exercise. Moreover, they would be able to check their scores from the tests. Once the flashcards were designed and produced, the opinions of other lecturers and students about them were considered. Both groups considered that the tool could be useful to improve the students' learning process. For future work, this design will be used with the students and its effectiveness will be analysed.

  17. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2016-01-01

    The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women’s empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight. PMID:26927398

  18. Statistico epidemiological study of changes in the vaginal flora of contraceptive pill users in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Fares, E; El-Ghazzawi, E; Bedwani, R N

    1979-01-01

    A stratified random sample of 1000 women with proportionate allocation according to district of residence was taken from normal females living in Alexandria, Egypt, and attending family planning centers in order to understand social-pathological changes in the vaginal flora of oral contraceptive (OC) users. Cases were examined over 18 months, and all cases were given a combined OC. Bacteriology and pH changes in vaginal flora were determined after 18 months. Results of the bacteriological examination revealed a positive correlation between those having a vaginal discharge and pH above 5, mixed infection, and illiteracy. As the duration of pill use increased, so did the incidence of monilla, staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic streptococci, gram negative bacilli, trichomonas vaginalis, and hemophilus vaginalis, whereas lactobacilli decreased. Duration of pill use also corresponded to increase in vaginal pH. Longer duration of OC use, practice of bad hygiene, and illiteracy were factors associated with an alkaline pH, changed pattern of vaginal flora, and greater susceptibility to infection by staph aureus and E. coli. PMID:44312

  19. Paramagnetic Salt Pill Design for Magnetic Refrigerators Used In-Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, C.; Benford, D. J.; Richards, P. L.

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is described which was designed for use in the multiband imaging photometer for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). This refrigerator was required to cool bolometric detectors for infrared and millimetre waves to 0.1 K. A paramagnetic salt pill with a number of novel features was developed to meet the stringent requirements for an ADR used in space. An unusual paramagnetic salt, chromic caesium alum (CCA), is used to meet the requirement of thermal stability under the bake-out temperatures used in commissioning space cryogenic vacuum systems. The cycle time for the refrigerator has been reduced to almost-equal-to 30 min by attention to thermal time constants and by growing the CCA salt directly on to an array of gold wires. Crystal growing procedures were developed to overcome problems with the low solubility of CCA in water. The salt pill is sealed in stainless steel to retain water of hydration and is constructed of materials which are not corroded by commonly used paramagnetic salts.

  20. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter. PMID:27385872

  1. De-constructing 'choice': the social imperative and women's use of the birth control pill.

    PubMed

    Granzow, Kara

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the social construction of 'choice' in women's use of the oral contraceptive birth control pill. Using social and historical critiques of neo-liberalism, it is argued that the contemporary priority placed on 'choice' positions women in contradictory ways-requiring them to be both 'choosing' reproductive subjects and reproductive subjects with very few options. The paper works to de-construct contemporary understandings of choice and finds that women's use of the birth control pill is less an exercise of idealized individual agency than it is an act of repetition, tied to ambiguity around what a lived experience of choice might be. To elaborate elements of the theoretical discussion, findings from a qualitative study of women's use of the oral contraceptive are discussed. These reveal that women's articulations of 'choice' challenge the notion of genuinely available and viable alternatives for women, and demonstrate how the use of a technology can silence understandings of contraception as something other than an individual responsibility. PMID:17364713

  2. Antigonadotropic progestogens as contraceptive agents in women with contraindication to combined pill.

    PubMed

    Maitrot-Mantelet, Lorraine; Agopian, Anahid; Gompel, Anne

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic progestogens belong to different pharmacological classes and are mixed steroids. They display different properties due to their various affinities to the different steroid receptors. In addition, the dosage used can modify their side effects. Normethyltestosterone used at minimal doses, also called progestogen only pill (POP), constitute the standard recommended hormonal contraception for women with vascular and metabolic contraindications to combined pill (COC). However, POP efficacy and gynecological tolerance are limited. We have developed for more than 20 years in France the use of two pregnane derivatives as contraceptive agents in women with contraindication to COC. Chlormadinone acetate and cyproterone acetate have different antigonadotropic potencies but remain neutral on vascular risk. We have analyzed the efficacy, vascular and gynecological tolerances in 187 women with systemic lupus erythematous with or without antiphospholipids. Venous thrombosis and arterial events rates were lower than those reported in the literature. The current experience in women with thrombophilia is similar as reported in a series of 150 patients. In addition, we have also used antigonadotropic progestins in women with hereditary angioedema (HAE) types I, II or III. HAE symptoms can be induced or worsened by COC. We could demonstrate a significant improvement of the symptoms in most women with HAE under antigonadotropic progestins. Gynecological and general tolerances were satisfactory. In conclusion, antigonadotropic progestins could have clinical positive benefits as contraceptive agents in women with contraindication to COC. PMID:25961217

  3. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  4. Methamphetamine Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... but not a rush. Other effects include irritability/aggression, anxiety, nervousness, convulsions, and insomnia. What are their ... full-blown toxic psychosis (often exhibited as violent, aggressive behavior). This violent, aggressive behavior is usually coupled ...

  5. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students’ Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants’ willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory. PMID:26903909

  6. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P < 0.001). Their biomass increased during post-monsoon, summer and monsoon in the plantation ( P < 0.001), but not in forest ( P > 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  7. [Identification of yougui and jisheng shenqi pills with FTIR and EDS fingerprint spectra by new visual comparison].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Shuang; Zou, Hua-Bin; Tian, Fang; Du, Ai-Qin; Dong, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Xin-Ling

    2011-09-01

    FTIR combined with EDS fingerprint spectra was first applied to the identification of two kind of traditional Chinese compound formulae-Yougui pill and Jisheng shenqi pills, which have the similar composition The IR FPS of extraction of two kinds of pills extracted with chloroform were measured by liquid membrane method. The exclusively characteristic peak groups of these two kinds of formulae were theoretically established based on the Shapiro-Wilk W testing method,and the characteristic radicals and compound species corresponding to each characteristic peak were determined. Meanwhile, EDS fingerprint spectra of the two kinds of original powders were also measured which can reflect the element species and content information. Based on the three kinds of information (characteristic peak groups, radicals and compound species, different elements), Yougui and Jisheng shenqi pills were identified quickly, precisely and reliably. In this method, infrared fingerprint spectra possess the similar ability with chromatograph fingerprint spectra in identification of traditional Chinese compound formulae. The results show that the new visual comparison method is suitable for identifying traditional Chinese compound formulae with the same dosage-form and similar composition. PMID:22097837

  8. 'Clueless about contraception': the introduction and circulation of the contraceptive pill in state-socialist Poland (1960s-1970s).

    PubMed

    Ignaciuk, Agata

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the introduction of the pill into the state-socialist Polish market in the late 1960s and its circulation over the following decade. Abortion, legalised for socio-economic reasons in 1956, had been available practically on demand since 1959, and there were no legal obstacles to contraception. The pill first appeared in Poland in the early 1960s, but was not widely available in pharmacies until 1969, when the local pharmaceutical industry began production. Throughout the 1970s, only two brands were widely available: Femigen and Angravid. The pill played a marginal role in family planning during the 1960s and 1970s in Poland, with cycle-observation, backed by the possibility of a legal abortion, being the main resource for birth control. This was due to structural limits to the distribution of the pill on a centrally-planned market closed to Western pharmaceutical companies, cultural patterns of sexual behaviour, and the availability of abortion. PMID:26054213

  9. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students' Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory. PMID:26903909

  10. Cure for empire: the 'Conquer-Russia-Pill', pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the making of patriotic Japanese, 1904-45.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoi-Eun

    2013-04-01

    Seirogan, a popular anti-diarrhoeal pill, is arguably one of the most successful pharmaceutical products of modern Japan. What is less known is that the Japanese army initially developed Seirogan during the Russo-Japanese War as the ‘Conquer-Russia-Pill’, which was later marketed to the public by private manufacturers. Previous scholars have emphasised the top–down governmental method of mobilising private sectors to manipulate public opinion for the cause of external imperialist expansion and domestic stability during wartime Japan. But the matrix that the Conquer-Russia-Pill allows us to glimpse is an inverted power relation among the state, commercial sectors, and imperial citizens. While the Japanese government remained indifferent if not hostile to jingoistic pharmaceutical manufacturers who could easily disrupt international relations, pharmaceutical companies quickly recognised and exploited the opportunities that the Conquer-Russia-Pill and its symbolism provided under the banner of the empire. In turn, Japanese consumers reacted to commercial sermons carefully anchored in patriotic and militaristic discourses and images by opening their wallets. In other words, the popularity of the Conquer-Russia-Pill was a culmination of the convergence of a governmental initiative to enhance military capabilities, the commercial ingenuity of pharmaceutical manufacturers, and a consumer response to patriotic exhortations. PMID:24070348

  11. Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and

  12. Serum metabolomics strategy for understanding pharmacological effects of ShenQi pill acting on kidney yang deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yang; Zhou, Xiaohang; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Aihua; Guan, Yu; Lin, Shanhua; Kong, Ling; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2016-07-15

    Kidney yang deficiency syndrome, a diagnostic pattern in Chinese medicine, is similar with clinical features of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. The aim of this present study was to explore low molecular mass differentiating metabolites between control group and model group of kidney yang deficiency rats induced with corticosterone as well as the therapeutic effect of Shen Qi Pill, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula for treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome in China. This study utilized ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization synapt quadrupole time-of-flight high definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-SYNAPT-QTOF-HDMS) to identify the underlying biomarkers for clarifying mechanism of Shen Qi Pill in treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome based on metabolite profiling of the serum samples and in conjunction with multivariate and pathway analysis. Meanwhile, blood biochemistry assay and histopathology were examined to identify specific changes in the model group rats. Distinct changes in the pattern of metabolites were observed by UPLC-HDMS. The changes in metabolic profiling were restored to their baseline values after treatment with Shen Qi Pill according to the combined with a principal component analysis (PCA) score plots. Altogether, the current metabolomics approach based on UPLC-HDMS and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) demonstrated 27 ions (18 in the negative mode, 9 in the positive mode, 17 ions restored by Shen Qi Pill). These results indicated that effectiveness of Shen Qi Pill in Kidney yang deficiency syndrome rats induced a substantial change in the metabolic profiles by regulating the biomarkers and adjusting the metabolic disorder. It suggested that the metabolomics approach was a powerful approach for elucidation of pathologic changes of Chinese medicine syndrome and action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26747643

  13. A randomized controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stip, Emmanuel; Vincent, Philippe D.; Sablier, Juliette; Guevremont, Catherine; Zhornitsky, Simon; Tranulis, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR) is about 49.5% in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we compared AAR obtained by the DoPill® and the BARS, in order to verify whether the DoPill® provides reliable assessment of medication adherence. Methods: The DoPill® is a smart pill dispenser that beeps and flashes at the appropriate time of the day. Each of its 28 compartments is covered by a plastic lamina that, when taken off, sends a signal to the pharmacist. Patients were randomized to the DoPill® or treatment as usual groups for 6 weeks. The BARS was used as a reference measure. Results: Forty-six percent of patients were deemed to be non-adherent with antipsychotic medication. The mean AAR was 67% after 6 weeks. DoPill® recorded better AAR than some of those found in the literature and were lower than the BARS estimate we found. Conclusion: These results suggest that DoPill® is a valid tool that provides more reliable and objective data for the clinician about their patient’s adherence, than existing assessment tools like the BARS. Furthermore, the device may help patients successfully manage their medication regimen. PMID:23950746

  14. [Intervention effect of Tibetan patent medicine Ruyi Zhenbao pills in acute ischemic stroke in rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-ying; Wu, Wei-jie; Tan, Rui; Xie, Bin; Zhong, Zhen-dong; He, Jing-ping; Chen, Yao; Kang, Xin-li

    2015-02-01

    Ischemic stroke is a primary cause of death and long-term disability all over the world. This disease is resulted from ischemia and hypoxia in brain tissues because of insufficient blood supply and causes a series of physiochemical metabolism disorders and physiological dysfunction. Its high disability ratio has bright huge burdens to society, governments and families. However, there is not efficacious medicine to treat it. In this study, a right middle cerebral artery occlusion was established in rats to observe the multi-path and multi-aspect intervention effects of Tibetan patent medicine Ruyi Zhenbao pills in reducing injuries to Nissl bodies, cerebral edema and inflammatory reactions and preventing cellular apoptosis, in order to lay a foundation for defining its therapeutic mechanism in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:26084187

  15. [The "morning after pill": the impact of the Supreme Court ruling in the medical field].

    PubMed

    Cossío-Díaz, José Ramón

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the Court's ruling regarding the constitutionality of the Official Norm "NOM-046-SSA2-2005". Jalisco's Governor challenged the validity of the referred norm arguing that it was against articles 4, 5, 14, 16, 20, 21, 29, 31-V, 49, 73, 74, 89-I, 123, 124 y 133 of the Federal Constitution. The Supreme Court disregarded Governor's claim and determined that the members of the National Health System are obliged to offer and give the "day after pill" to sexual violation victims. According to article 5 of General Health Law, the National Health System includes private and public hospitals, whether they are local or federal. This means that all these health institutions have the obligation to observe the dispositions contained in the appealed Official Norm Given the significance of the Court's ruling in the medical sphere, in this article the most relevant issues of the Court decision and its implications are analyzed. PMID:20964067

  16. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers. PMID:18853641

  17. Cell turnover in the "resting" human breast: influence of parity, contraceptive pill, age and laterality.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, T. J.; Ferguson, D. J.; Raab, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological identification of cell multiplication (mitosis) and cell deletion (apoptosis) within the lobules of the "resting" human breast is used to assess the response of the breast parenchyma to the menstrual cycle. The responses are shown to have a biorhythm in phase with the menstrual cycle, with a 3-day separation of the mitotic and apoptotic peaks. The study fails to demonstrate significant differences in the responses between groups defined according to parity, contraceptive-pill use or presence of fibroadenoma. However, significant differences are found in the apoptotic response according to age and laterality. The results highlight the complexity of modulating influences on breast parenchymal turnover in the "resting" state, and prompt the investigation of other factors as well as steroid hormones and prolactin in the promotion of mitosis. The factors promoting apoptosis in the breast are still not clear. PMID:7126427

  18. Review on the Applications and Molecular Mechanisms of Xihuang Pill in Tumor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiujun; Lin, Jinyin; Liu, Rui; Gao, Yebo; He, Shulin; Xu, Xinyao; Hua, Baojin; Li, Conghuang; Hou, Wei; Zheng, Honggang; Bao, Yanju

    2015-01-01

    Xihuang pill (XH) is a complementary and alternative medicine that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of tumors since the 18th century. XH has clinical effects on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and bone metastasis. XH can also inhibit the growth of tumor cells and cancer stem cells, prevent tumor invasion and angiogenesis, and regulate the tumor microenvironment. XH is composed of Ru Xiang (olibanum), Mo Yao (Commiphora myrrha), She Xiang (Moschus), and Niu Huang (Calculus bovis). Some of the compounds found in these ingredients exert multiple antitumor effects and may synergize with the other ingredients. We aimed to summarize the clinical applications and molecular mechanisms of XH and its chemical composition. This review will provide potential new strategies and alternative perspectives for tumor treatments and basic research into complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:26170886

  19. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Time-Released Garlic Powder Pills.

    PubMed

    Karagodin, Vasily P; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is believed to produce beneficial changes in different cardiovascular risk factors, thus possessing antiatherosclerotic properties. The hypotensive and cholesterol-lowering effects were investigated in two studies in men with mild arterial hypertension and in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Eight-week treatment resulted in the reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.2% (P=0.008) and 4.0% (P=0.014), respectively. In hypolipidemic study, the 12-week treatment resulted in a decrease in LDL cholesterol by 11.8% (P=0.002), while HDL cholesterol increased by 11.5% (P=0.013). In men with cerebral atherosclerosis it has been demonstrated that 14-days treatment inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 25.4% (P<0.05) and increased plasma fibrinolytic activity by 22.4% (P<0.05). One more study was performed in high-risk patients to evaluate the changes of prognostic cardiovascular risk that was calculated using algorithms derived from Framingham and Muenster Studies. Twelve-months treatment lowered 10-years prognostic risk of CHD by 13.2% in men (P=0.005), and by 7.1% in women (P=0.040). Ten-year prognostic risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden coronary death was lowered by 26.1% in men (P=0.025). The Atherosclerosis Monitoring and Atherogenicity Reduction Study (AMAR) was designed to estimate the effect of two-year treatment with garlic powder pills on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. A significant correlation has been revealed between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity and the changes in carotid intima-media thickness (r=0.144, P=0.045). Evidence obtained from these studies as well as series of double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trials indicates that garlic powder pills are effective for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26561055

  20. Oral contraceptive pill use and menstrual cycle phase are associated with altered resting state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Nicole; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Goharzad, Azaadeh; Cahill, Larry

    2014-04-15

    At rest, brain activity can be characterized not by an absence of organized activity but instead by spatially and temporally correlated patterns of activity. In this experiment, we investigated whether and to what extent resting state functional connectivity is modulated by sex hormones in women, both across the menstrual cycle and when altered by oral contraceptive pills. Sex hormones have been shown to have important effects on task-related activity, but few studies have investigated the extent to which they can influence the behavior of functional networks at rest. These hormones are dramatically altered by the use of hormonal contraception, which is used by approximately 100 million women worldwide. However, potential cognitive side effects of hormonal contraception have been given little attention. Here, we collected resting state data for naturally-cycling women (n=45) and women using combined oral contraceptive pills (n=46) and evaluated the differences in resting state activity between these two groups using independent component analysis. We found that in the default mode network and in a network associated with executive control, resting state dynamics were altered both by the menstrual cycle and by oral contraceptive use. Specifically, the connectivity of the left angular gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex were different between groups. Because the anterior cingulate cortex and left middle frontal gyrus are important for higher-order cognitive and emotional processing, including conflict monitoring, changes in the relationship of these structures to the functional networks with which they interact may have important consequences for attention, affect, and/or emotion regulation. PMID:24365676

  1. ARB-based single-pill platform to guide a practical therapeutic approach to hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Massimo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Kreutz, Reinhold; Laurent, Stéphane; Manolis, Athanasios J

    2014-06-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk for the development of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal diseases. Thus, effective treatment of high blood pressure is an important strategy for reducing disease burden; however, in spite of the availability of numerous effective therapies only 30-40 % of patients with hypertension achieve the recommended blood pressure goals of <140/90 mmHg. Lack of adherence to therapy and reluctance to intensify therapy are cited frequently to explain the discrepancy between potential and attained outcomes. Adherence is closely related to the tolerability, effectiveness and complexity of therapy. Therapeutic inertia may be influenced by concerns over tolerability, as well as the lack of clear preferences for therapies when managing patients with risk factors and comorbidities. Effective and well-tolerated single pill combination therapies are now available that improve adherence and simplify treatment. The combination of a renin-angiotensin system blocker with a calcium channel blocker and a diuretic improves adherence to therapy. We have devised a practical tool for orienting the application of well-tolerated single pill 2/3 drug fixed dose combination therapies in clinical situations commonly encountered when treating hypertensive patients. This approach employs the angiotensin receptor blocker olmesartan alone or in combinations with amlodipine and/or hydrochlorothiazide. This platform is based on clinical evidence, guidelines, best practice, and clinical experience where none of these is available. We believe it will increase the percentage of hypertensive patients who achieve blood pressure control when applied as part of an integrative approach that includes regular follow-up and instruction on lifestyle changes. PMID:24532183

  2. How to uncoil your partner—"mating songs" in giant pill-millipedes (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesener, Thomas; Köhler, Jörn; Fuchs, Stefan; van den Spiegel, Didier

    2011-11-01

    The stridulation of the giant pill-millipede genus Sphaerotherium from South Africa, one of only three groups of millipedes that produce sounds, was studied. One hundred one stridulation series of a total of nine different species ( Sphaerotherium dorsaloide, Sphaerotherium hanstroemi, Sphaerotherium mahaium, Sphaerotherium similare, Sphaerotherium punctulatum, Sphaerotherium convexitarsum, Sphaerotherium dorsale, Sphaerotherium rotundatum, and Sphaerotherium perbrincki) were analyzed. Stridulation sounds are produced only with a special field of ribs on the posterior surface of the posterior telopod, which is actively moved over a field of sclerotized nubs on the inner margin of the anal shield. The Sphaerotherium male usually stridulates only when in contact with a female to initiate mating. This seems to prevent the female from volvating into a ball or stimulate the female to uncoil when already rolled in. The sound analyzes revealed a broad frequency spectrum in all stridulation sounds produced, without obvious differences in frequency distribution among species. However, the temporal pattern of the stridulation varies greatly between species and seems to be species-specific, arguing for a species recognition function of the stridulation during courtship behavior. A single species ( S. punctulatum) was found to stridulate during mating while three species also show postcopulatory stridulation. Apparently, pill-millipedes are not capable of acoustic perception, as no hearing organs are known, indicating that the communication is mainly based on perception of temporal vibration patterns, and not of the acoustic signal itself. The need to overcome the rolling-in reflex of the female is developed as a hypothesis why stridulation exists only in millipedes able to coil into a ball, and apparently evolved four times independently in the superorder Oniscomorpha.

  3. Factors affecting the decision to hospitalise children admitted to the emergency department due to non-fatal suicide attempts by pills

    PubMed Central

    Gokalp, Gamze; Anil, Murat; Bal, Alkan; Bicilioglu, Yuksel; Kamit Can, Fulya; Anil, Ayse Berna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Suicide attempts (SAs) in the paediatric age group represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to examine the factors affecting the decision to hospitalize children with a diagnosis of non-fatal SA by pills. Methods: Children <18 years of age admitted with SA by pills during 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: Group-I comprised hospitalised patients and Group-II included those who were discharged from the PED. These two groups were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics recorded upon PED admission. Results: A total of 196 patients were included in the study. The number of pills taken for self-poisoning in Group-I (median: 20 pills) was higher than that in Group-II (median: 12 pills) (p < 0.001), and the rate of pathological findings during the first paediatric psychiatric consultation was higher in Group-I (91.1%) than in the Group-II (54.8%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Factors affecting the disposition decision in cases of children who performed non-fatal SA via pills included the amount of medication taken for the suicide attempt and the presence of psychiatric disorders, as determined by a paediatric psychiatrist during the acute phase. PMID:27375723

  4. Efficacy of a reduced pill burden on therapeutic adherence to calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplant recipients: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Garofalo, Gianluca; Borrelli, Silvio; Vitale, Sossio; Torino, Massimiliano; Capone, Domenico; Russo, Luigi; Pisani, Antonio; Carrano, Rosa; Gallo, Riccardo; Federico, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nonadherence in a cohort of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and to evaluate prospectively whether more intense clinical surveillance and reduced pill number enhanced adherence. Patients and methods The study was carried out in 310 stable RTRs in whom adherence, life satisfaction, and transplant care were evaluated by specific questionnaires (time 0). The patients under tacrolimus (TAC; bis in die [BID]) were then shifted to once-daily TAC (D-TAC) to reduce their pill burden (Shift group) and were followed up for 6 months to reevaluate the same parameters. Patients on cyclosporin or still on BID-TAC constituted a time-control group. Results The prevalence of nonadherence was 23.5% and was associated with previous rejection episodes (P<0.002), and was inversely related to Life Satisfaction Index, anxiety, and low glomerular filtration rate (minimum P<0.03). Nonadherent patients were significantly less satisfied with their medical care and their relationships with the medical staff. A shift from BID-TAC to D-TAC was performed in 121 patients, and the questionnaires were repeated after 3 and 6 months. In the Shift group, a reduction in pill number was observed (P<0.01), associated with improved adherence after 3 and 6 months (+36%, P<0.05 versus basal), with no change in controls. Decreased TAC trough levels after 3 and 6 months (−9%), despite a slight increase in drug dosage (+6.5%), were observed in the Shift group, with no clinical side effects. Conclusion The reduced pill burden improves patients’ compliance to calcineurin-inhibitors, but major efforts in preventing nonadherence are needed. PMID:24470756

  5. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. Material/Methods Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. Results Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. Conclusions In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy. PMID:27459306

  6. Review of the safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the combined dienogest/estradiol valerate contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Guida, Maurizio; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Scala, Mariamaddalena; Fernandez, Loredana Maria Sosa; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to define the role of the combined dienogest (DNG)/estradiol valerate (E2V) contraceptive pill, in terms of biochemistry, metabolic and pharmacological effects and clinical application as well. E2V is the esterified form of 17β-estradiol (E2), while dienogest is a fourth-generation progestin with a partial antiandrogenic effect. The cycle stability is achieved with 2 to 3 mg DNG, supporting contraceptive efficacy. In this new oral contraceptive, E2V is combined with DNG in a four-phasic dose regimen (the first two tablets contain 3 mg E2V; the next five tablets include 2 mg E2V + 2 mg DNG, followed by 17 tablets with 2 mg E2V + 3 mg DNG; followed by two tablets with 1 mg E2V only, and finally two placebo tablets). Duration and intensity of scheduled withdrawal bleeding are lower with this contraceptive pill, whereas the incidence and the intensity of intra-cyclic bleeding are similar to the other oral contraceptive. With this new pill the levels of high density lipoprotein increased, while the levels of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and D-dimer remained relatively unchanged; the levels of sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol binding globulin, thyroxine binding globulin increased. The most frequently reported adverse events are: breast pain, headache, acne, alopecia, migraine, increase of bodyweight. The satisfaction rate is about 79.4%. PMID:21151673

  7. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. RESULTS Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy. PMID:27459306

  8. Exploring knowledge and attitudes about emergency contraceptive pills among university students in Jamaica. A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, A; Becker, D; Fletcher, H; Garcia, S; Mitchell, S

    2004-01-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are an important option for university students who may be at high risk for unplanned pregnancies. In the Caribbean, little research has been carried out on university student's knowledge and opinions of this method. This study uses qualitative methodology to explore knowledge and opinions on ECPs among university students attending The University of the West Indies (UWI) Mona campus. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 71) with female and male university students at The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, in March 2000. The group discussions lasted approximately two hours. We tape-recorded discussions and then transcribed and analyzed them by coding responses according to themes. General knowledge of ECPs was high, but students lacked specific information about the method such as its time frame and its mechanism of action. Most students supported the method, especially after learning correct information. However, several students were concerned about its side effects and the potential for abuse or irresponsible use by young adults. Although the university students in this study lacked detailed information about ECPs, their opinion toward the method was favourable. We suggest further research to investigate the prevalence of misinformation about the method among other groups of Jamaicans. PMID:15114892

  9. Establishment of the method for screening the potential targets and effective components of huatuo reconstruction pill.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ke-Zhu; Jiang, Yun-Gen; Zuo, Ying; Li, Ai-Xiu

    2014-06-01

    Huatuo reconstruction pill (HTRP) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription that mainly treats for hemiplegia and postoperation of brain stroke. Existing pharmacological studies have previously shown that HTRP could inhibit in vitro thrombosis, delay platelet adhesion, dilate blood vessels, and improve the microcirculation disturbances. In this paper, we chiefly concerned about the potential targets of HTRP and tried to figure out the active components of it. Computer-aided drug design method was emploied to search for the active components and explain the mechanism between the targets and the small molecules at molecular lever. The potential targets of this compound pharmaceutics were searched through relevant pharmacological studies and three pharmacophore models which involved the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor, the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HT2A) were constructed by Discotech method of Sybyl. Thus, the candidate compounds which agreed with the pharmacophore models were obtained by the virtual screening to the known ingredients of HTRP. Based on that, sequence and structure prediction of the unknown targets were realized by homology modeling which were used for molecular docking with those candidate compounds. Results showed that three compounds, which may prove to be valid to these targets, got higher scores than the existing corresponding inhibitors after molecular docking, including ferulic acid, onjixanthone I and albiflorin. And the three molecules may refer to the singificant substances to the total compounds of HTRP which were effective to the disease. PMID:25172450

  10. Systematic review of compound danshen dropping pill: a chinese patent medicine for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao; Chen, Keji

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This paper systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound Danshen dropping pill (CDDP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing CDDP with no intervention, placebo, or conventional western medicine, were retrieved. Data extraction and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and evaluated the strength of evidence on prespecified outcomes. Results. Seven RCTs enrolling 1215 patients were included. CDDP was associated with statistically significant reductions in the risk of cardiac death and heart failure compared with no intervention based on conventional therapy for AMI. In addition, CDDP was associated with improvement of quality of life and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the safety of CDDP was unproven for the limited data. The quality of evidence for each outcome in the main comparison (CDDP versus no intervention) was "low" or "moderate." Conclusion. CDDP showed some potential benefits for AMI patients, such as the reductions of cardiac death and heart failure. However, the overall quality of evidence was poor, and the safety of CDDP for AMI patients was not confirmed. More evidence from high quality RCTs is warranted to support the use of CDDP for AMI patients. PMID:23843882

  11. Systematic Review of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill: A Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Chen, Keji

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This paper systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound Danshen dropping pill (CDDP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing CDDP with no intervention, placebo, or conventional western medicine, were retrieved. Data extraction and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and evaluated the strength of evidence on prespecified outcomes. Results. Seven RCTs enrolling 1215 patients were included. CDDP was associated with statistically significant reductions in the risk of cardiac death and heart failure compared with no intervention based on conventional therapy for AMI. In addition, CDDP was associated with improvement of quality of life and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the safety of CDDP was unproven for the limited data. The quality of evidence for each outcome in the main comparison (CDDP versus no intervention) was “low” or “moderate.” Conclusion. CDDP showed some potential benefits for AMI patients, such as the reductions of cardiac death and heart failure. However, the overall quality of evidence was poor, and the safety of CDDP for AMI patients was not confirmed. More evidence from high quality RCTs is warranted to support the use of CDDP for AMI patients. PMID:23843882

  12. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  13. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  14. Presence and formation of cobalamin analogues in multivitamin-mineral pills.

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, H; Binder, M J; Kolhouse, J F; Smythe, W R; Podell, E R; Allen, R H

    1982-01-01

    Because the origin of cobalamin (vitamin B12) analogues in animal chows and animal and human blood and tissues is unknown, we investigated the possibility that multivitamin interactions might convert cobalamin to cobalamin analogues. We homogenized three popular multivitamin-mineral pills in water, incubated them at 37 degrees C for 2 h, and isolated the cobalamin. Using paper chromatography we observed that 20-90% of the cobalamin was present as cobalamin analogues. Studies using CN-[57Co]cobalamin showed that these analogues were formed due to the concerted action of vitamin C, thiamine, and copper on CN-cobalamin. These cobalamin analogues are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of mice and either fail to stimulate or actually inhibit cobalamin-dependent enzymes when injected parenterally. We conclude that CN-cobalamin can be converted to potentially harmful cobalamin analogues by multivitamin-mineral interactions and that these interactions may be responsible for the presence of cobalamin analogues in animal chows and animal and human blood and tissues. PMID:6126492

  15. Oral contraceptive pill use is associated with localized decreases in cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Nicole; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCs), which are used to prevent pregnancy by the majority of women in the United States, contain steroid hormones that may affect the brain’s structure and function. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that OC use is associated with differences in brain structure using a hypothesis-driven, surface-based approach. In 90 women, (44 OC users, 46 naturally-cycling women), we compared the cortical thickness of brain regions that participate in the salience network and the default mode network, as well as the volume of subcortical regions in these networks. We found that OC use was associated with significantly lower cortical thickness measurements in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. These regions are believed to be important for responding to rewards and evaluating internal states/incoming stimuli, respectively. Further investigations are needed to determine if cortical thinning in these regions are associated with behavioral changes, and also to identify whether OC use is causally or only indirectly related to these changes in brain morphology. PMID:25832993

  16. Yueju Pill Rapidly Induces Antidepressant-Like Effects and Acutely Enhances BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenda; Zhou, Xin; Yi, Nan; Jiang, Lihua; Tao, Weiwei; Wu, Runjie; Wang, Dan; Jiang, Jingjing; Ge, Xiaoyin; Wang, Yuyue; Wu, Haoxin; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The traditional antidepressants have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy, and the emerging fast-acting antidepressant ketamine has adverse behavioral and neurotoxic effects. Yueju pill, an herb medicine formulated eight hundred years ago by Doctor Zhu Danxi, has been popularly prescribed in China for alleviation of depression-like symptoms. Although several clinical outcome studies reported the relative short onset of antidepressant effects of Yueju, this has not been scientifically investigated. We, therefore, examined the rapid antidepressant effect of Yueju in mice and tested the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that acute administration of ethanol extract of Yueju rapidly attenuated depressive-like symptoms in learned helpless paradigm, and the antidepressant-like effects were sustained for at least 24 hours in tail suspension test in ICR mice. Additionally, Yueju, like ketamine, rapidly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, whereas the BDNF mRNA expression remained unaltered. Yueju rapidly reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), leading to desuppression of BDNF synthesis. Unlike ketamine, both the BDNF expression and eEF2 phosphorylation were revered at 24 hours after Yueju administration. This study is the first to demonstrate the rapid antidepressant effects of an herb medicine, offering an opportunity to improve therapy of depression. PMID:23710213

  17. Thin CVD-diamond RF Pill-Box vacuum windows for LHCD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, G. L.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cardinali, A.; Cesario, R.; Mirizzi, F.; Schettini, G.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    The preliminary assessment of a Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the DEMOnstration power plant (DEMO) is mainly focused on the R&D needs of the less conventional RF components of the Main Transmission Line (MTL) and of the launcher. 500 kW, CW klystrons will be used to deliver the RF power to independent Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) launcher modules at 5 GHz. This paper describes the criteria followed to investigate the optimum solution for the RF window used as vacuum barrier between the MTL and the launcher, an open issue in the LHCD system for ITER too. The best candidate, capable of withstanding a power level of, or above, 0.5 MW in CW operation and to satisfy the electrical and thermonuclear requirements, is a Pill-Box assembly, based on a thin single disk of CVD-diamond as dielectric, water cooled at the edge. A thickness of 3 mm, much shorter than half a wavelength of the TE°11 mode in the dielectric as in the conventional window (unfeasible and too expensive with CVD-diamond at these frequencies), is sufficient to limit the exerted stress at the edge under the fracture stress for a maximum pressure applied of 0.9 MPa. In this paper the simulation results of conventional and thin CVD-diamond vacuum windows are presented comparing S-parameters, losses and electric fields in both matching condition and with VSWR = 2, using WR284 and WR229 as input/output rectangular waveguide.

  18. A pill-box design, flow type, gas scintillation proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, S. P.; Sharma, R. C.; Bhati, S.; Somasundaram, S.

    1982-07-01

    A gas scintillation proportional counter of "pill-box" design, operated with argon +2.5% nitrogen gas in continuous flow, has been developed. An energy resolution of 1.6% is obtained for 239Pu α-particles emitted from a mixed nuclide source of 239Pu- 241Am - 244Cm and injected into the counter parallel to the anode. The risetime of the scintillation pulse is found to be less than 0.5 μs. Measurements have been made of charge and light gain factors as a function of anode voltage. It is found that for a given anode voltage, the scintillation pulse amplitude increases sharply with the addition of nitrogen to argon and reaches a maximum at about 2.5% and then decreases slowly, whereas the charge pulse amplitude reduces monotonically. Nitrogen improvement factors with the addition of 2.5% nitrogen to argon are found to be different for two photomultipliers with different photocathode responses. The improvement in energy resolution as a result of addition of nitrogen to argon is discussed. Comments are made on the intrinsic energy resolution capabilities of such a counter.

  19. What’s in a Label? Ecstasy Sellers’ Perceptions of Pill Brands†

    PubMed Central

    Duterte, Micheline; Jacinto, Camille; Sales, Paloma; Murphy, Sheigla

    2009-01-01

    This article presents selected findings from a qualitative study of Ecstasy sellers and their sales practices, knowledge of distribution networks, buyer-seller relationships, and self-reported drug use. In-depth interviews were conducted with 80 men and women who had sold five or more hits of Ecstasy five or more times in the six months prior to the interview. Study participants described their perceptions of the various types of Ecstasy they had distributed or used themselves. The participants had experience with a variety of Ecstasy labels, from the popular “Blue Dolphin” tablets to the powdered form called “Molly.” We tracked pill brand mentions on Ecstasy-related websites to compare with interviewees’ descriptions of Ecstasy brands. This study examines Ecstasy sellers’ ideas about the role of brand names in Ecstasy markets and their relationship to their beliefs about different types of Ecstasy’s purity and quality. We demonstrate that considering Ecstasy branding increases our understanding of buyer and seller relationships. PMID:19455907

  20. Pill Burden Influences the Association Between Time-Based Prospective Memory and Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Younger But Not Older HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, David P; Weber, Erica; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Avci, Gunes; Woods, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is associated with antiretroviral (ARV) adherence in HIV, but little is known about how pill burden and age might affect this association. One hundred seventeen older (≥50 years) and 82 younger (<50 years) HIV-infected adults were administered a measure of PM in the laboratory and subsequently were monitored for ARV adherence for 30 days using the Medication Event Monitoring System. In the older group, better time-based PM performance was associated with higher likelihood of adherence, irrespective of pill burden. Within the younger sample, time-based PM was positively related to adherence only in participants with lower pill burdens. Younger HIV-infected individuals with higher pill burdens may overcome the normal effects of time-based PM on adherence through compensatory medication-taking strategies, whereas suboptimal use of these strategies by younger HIV-infected individuals with lower pill burdens may heighten their risk of ARV nonadherence secondary to deficits in time-based PM. PMID:27160771

  1. The effects of ethinylestradiol and progestins ("the pill") on cognitive function in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Andrea; Wu, YeeWen Candace; Williams, Amy S; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-12-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs), often referred to as "the pill", are the most commonly employed form of reversible contraception. OCs are comprised of combined synthetic estrogen and progestin, which work to suppress ovulation and subsequently protect against pregnancy. To date, almost 200 million women have taken various formulations of OC, making it one of the most widely consumed classes of medication in the world. While a substantial body of literature has been dedicated to understanding the physical effects of OCs, much less is known about the long term consequences of OC use on brain anatomy and the associated cognitive effects. Accumulating evidence suggests that sex hormones may significantly affect human cognition. This phenomenon has been commonly studied in older populations, such as in post-menopausal women, while research in healthy, pre-menopausal women remains limited. The current review focused on the effects of OCs on human cognition, with the majority of studies comparing pre-menopausal OC users to naturally cycling women. Human neuroimaging data and animal studies are also described herein. Taken together, the published findings on OC use and human cognition are varied. Of those that do report positive results, OC users appear to have improved verbal memory, associative learning and spatial attention. We recommend future research to employ blinding procedures and randomised designs. Further, more detailed information pertaining to the specific generation and phasic type of OCs, as well as menstrual cycle phase of the OC non-users should be considered to help unmask the potential impact of OC use on human cognition. PMID:25266552

  2. Effect and Mechanism of QiShenYiQi Pill on Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shichao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Background To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Material/methods Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were randomized into 3 groups: model, valsartan, and QSYQ groups. Rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were used as the control group. Rats were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks, and we weighed rat body mass, heart mass, and left ventricular mass. Myocardium sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome. Myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. Results QSYQ reduced HMI and LVMI, as well as the histological score of hearts and CVF, which further decreased over time, and its effect was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, QSYQ inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF, and its effect on lowering CTGF was significantly greater than that of valsartan. In addition, after 8 weeks, QSYQ also inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of CTGF, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial TGF-β1. Conclusions This study provides evidence that QSYQ can improve cardiac remodeling of experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis, which is related to the mechanism of regulation of TGF-β1 CTGF. PMID:26946470

  3. Suxiao Jiuxin Pill Induces Potent Relaxation and Inhibition on Contraction in Human Artery and the Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Qin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jun; Tong, Yong-Ling; Xiong, Song-Jin; Liu, Li-Hua; Wang, Lei; He, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Suxiao Jiuxin Pill, a compound Chinese traditional medicine with main components of tetramethylpyrazine and borneol, is widely used for antiangina treatment in China but its pharmacological effect on human blood vessels is unknown. We investigated the effect and possible mechanism of SJP in the human internal mammary artery (IMA, n = 78) taken from patients undergoing coronary surgery. SJP caused full relaxation in KCl- (99.4 ± 10.5%, n = 6) and U46619- (99.9 ± 5.6%, n = 6) contracted IMA. Pretreatment of IMA with plasma concentrations of SJP (1 mg/mL), calculated from the plasma concentration of its major component borneol, significantly depressed the maximal contraction to KCl (from 35.8 ± 6.0 mN to 12.6 ± 5.6 mN, P = 0.03) and U46619 (from 19.4 ± 2.9 mN to 5.7 ± 2.4 mN, P = 0.007) while SJP at 10 mg/mL abolished the subsequent contraction. Endothelium denudation and inhibition of eNOS significantly altered the SJP-induced relaxation without changes of eNOS expression. We conclude that SJP has a potent inhibitory effect on the vasoconstriction mediated by a variety of vasoconstrictors in human arteries. The vasorelaxation involves both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Thus, the effect of SJP on human arteries demonstrated in this study may prove to be particularly important in vasorelaxing therapy in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24808920

  4. Semi-Classical Dynamics of an Electron in a Wide Pill-Box; Non-Uniform Azimuthal Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masale, M.

    The influence of a spatially dependent magnetic field on the orbital motion of an electron in a wide pill-box is evaluated. Expressions for the velocity components perpendicular to the magnetic flux lines are obtained. these form the basis for the derivations of the analytical expressions for the particle trajectories. The results for the special case when the initial radial velocity is zero are suggestive of potential applications, for example, current- amplification'or the generation of high magnetic fields in semiconductor nanostructures. A brief discussion of the overall results is also given in the context of the problem of the critical field of a current-carrying type II superconducting cylinder.

  5. Low-loss and lightweight on-board 20 GHz-band pill-box-type directional filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtomo, I.; Kumazawa, H.

    1987-05-01

    An on-board channel multiplexer using pill-box-shaped TM(310) travelling-wave cavities with high unloaded Q-factor has been developed in the 20 GHz band. The measured branching loss of a three-cavity filter is 0.27 dB at a resonant frequency of 19.99 GHz. The weight of the filter made of thin-walled super-Invar is 71 g. Its size is 4.5 x 4.6 x 5.1 cm.

  6. Electronic pill-boxes in the evaluation of antihypertensive treatment compliance: comparison of once daily versus twice daily regimen.

    PubMed

    Andrejak, M; Genes, N; Vaur, L; Poncelet, P; Clerson, P; Carré, A

    2000-02-01

    The objective was to compare the compliance of hypertensive patients treated with captopril twice daily or trandolapril once daily. After a 2-week placebo period, hypertensive patients (diastolic BP 95-115 mm Hg) were randomly allocated to trandolapril 2 mg once daily or to captopril 25 mg twice daily for 6 months. Trandolapril and captopril were packed in electronic pill-boxes equipped with a microprocessor that recorded date and time of each opening (MEMS). Patients' compliance was assessed both by standard pill-count and by electronic monitoring. Blood pressure was measured using a validated semi-automatic device at the end of the placebo period and of the treatment period. One hundred sixty-two patients entered the study. Compliance data were evaluable for 133 patients (62 in the captopril group and 71 in the trandolapril group). Treatment groups were comparable at baseline except for age (P = .046). Using electronic pill-box, overall compliance was 98.9% in the trandolapril group and 97.5% in the captopril group (P = .002). The percentage of missed doses was 2.6% in the trandolapril group and 3.3% in the captopril group (P = .06). The percentage of delayed doses was 1.8% in the trandolapril group and 11.7% in the captopril group (P = .0001). The percentage of correct dosing periods, ie, a period with only one correct recorded opening, was 94.0% in the trandolapril group and 78.1% in the captopril group (P = .0001). Results were unchanged when adjusted for age. At the end of the study, 41% of patients in the trandolapril group and 27% in the captopril group (NS) had their blood pressure normalized (systolic BP <140 and diastolic BP <90 mm Hg). In this 6-month study, the electronic pill-box allowed refined analysis of compliance of hypertensive patients. Patients' compliance with once daily trandolapril was higher than with twice daily captopril. The between-group difference is mainly explained by an increase in delayed doses in the twice daily group. PMID

  7. Patents, pills and politics: the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken

    2004-11-01

    There is tension between the need of the pharmaceutical innovator for intellectual property protection and the need of society for equitable and affordable access to innovative drugs. The recent Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement provides a nice illustration of this interplay between patents, pills and politics. This article provides a brief history of patent law as applied to pharmaceuticals, describes how the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme got caught up in AUSFTA negotiations, analyses the clauses that are likely to impact upon the PBS and describes the political process that reviewed and ultimately amended the AUSFTA. PMID:15527402

  8. "Pregnancy and labour cause more deaths than oral contraceptives": The debate on the pill in the Spanish press in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gómez, Teresa; Ignaciuk, Agata

    2015-08-01

    From 1941 to 1978, Franco's regime in Spain banned all contraceptive methods. The pill started circulating in Spain from the 1960s, officially as a drug used in gynaecological therapy. However, in the following decade it was also increasingly used and prescribed as a contraceptive. This paper analyses debates about the contraceptive pill in the Spanish daily newspaper ABC and in two magazines, Blanco y Negro and Triunfo, in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes that the debate on this contraceptive method was much more heterogeneous than might be expected given the Catholic-conservative character of the dictatorship. The daily press focused on the adverse effects of the drug and magazines concentrated on the ethical and religious aspects of the pill and discussed it in a generally positive light. Male doctors and Catholic authors dominated the debate. PMID:24259515

  9. Cardiotonic Pill Reduces Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Increasing EET Concentrations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meijuan; Hao, Haiping; Jiang, Lifeng; Wei, Yidan; Zhou, Fang; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Jingwei; Ji, Hui; Wang, Guangji; Ju, Wenzheng; Li, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating data suggest that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, both cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), play important roles in cardiovascular diseases. For many years, the cardiotonic pill (CP), an herbal preparation derived from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in China for the treatment of coronary artery disease. However, its pharmacological mechanism has not been well elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of the CP on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) and AA P450 enzyme metabolism in rats (in vivo) and H9c2 cells (in vitro). The results showed that CP dose dependently (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/d; 7 days) mitigated MIRI in rats. The plasma concentrations of EETs in CP-treated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) rats (40 mg/kg/d; 7 days) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in controls. Cardiac Cyp1b1, Cyp2b1, Cyp2e1, Cyp2j3, and Cyp4f6 were significantly induced (P < 0.05); CYP2J and CYP2C11 proteins were upregulated (P < 0.05); and AA-epoxygenases activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) after CP (40 mg/kg/d; 7 days) administration in rats. In H9c2 cells, the CP also increased (P < 0.05) the EET concentrations and showed protection in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) cells. However, an antagonist of EETs, 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid, displayed a dose-dependent depression of the CP's protective effects in H/R cells. In conclusion, upregulation of cardiac epoxygenases after multiple doses of the CP-leading to elevated concentrations of cardioprotective EETs after myocardial I/R-may be the underlying mechanism, at least in part, for the CP's cardioprotective effect in rats. PMID:27149899

  10. Pregnancy is more dangerous than the pill: A critical analysis of professional responses to the Yaz/Yasmin controversy.

    PubMed

    Geampana, Alina

    2016-10-01

    The fourth and most recent generation of hormones used in oral contraceptives has stirred a significant amount of debate regarding the safety of these compounds. Drospirenone, a new type of synthetic hormone used in popular oral contraceptives Yaz and Yasmin, has been found by epidemiologists to increase the risk of blood clots when compared to the previous generations of pills. North American regulatory bodies have investigated the health risks of drospirenone and concluded that the increased risks do not require pulling the new contraceptive technology off the market. Instead, the FDA and Health Canada along with several medical associations have actively managed the Yaz/Yasmin controversy through official statements and press releases between 2010 and 2014. This study provides an analysis of these documents and how risk information about drospirenone-containing pills has been presented to the public. The analysis addresses a gap in our knowledge about cultural factors that impact contraceptive risk assessment. Prevalent risk models used by professionals are highlighted and examined through the use of critical discourse analysis methods. More specifically, this paper highlights the main strategies used to put drospirenone risks into perspective and classify it as safe. I argue that while risks related to pregnancy and the postpartum period are overly-emphasized, other risks are downplayed through a selection process underscored by normative beliefs about women's bodies and sexuality. Future research needs to address consumer perspectives and bridge the gap between lay and scientific risk/benefit assessment of oral contraceptives. PMID:27522113

  11. Role of pill-taking, expectation and therapeutic alliance in the placebo response in clinical trials for major depression

    PubMed Central

    Leuchter, Andrew F.; Hunter, Aimee M.; Tartter, Molly; Cook, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pill-taking, expectations and therapeutic alliance may account for much of the benefit of medication and placebo treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Aims To examine the effects of medication, placebo and supportive care on treatment outcome, and the relationships of expectations and therapeutic alliance to improvement. Method A total of 88 participants were randomised to 8 weeks of treatment with supportive care alone or combined with double-blind treatment with placebo or antidepressant medication. Expectations of medication effectiveness, general treatment effectiveness and therapeutic alliance were measured (trial registration at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00200902). Results Medication or placebo plus supportive care were not significantly different but had significantly better outcome than supportive care alone. Therapeutic alliance predicted response to medication and placebo; expectations of medication effectiveness at enrolment predicted only placebo response. Conclusions Pill treatment yielded better outcome than supportive care alone. Medication expectations uniquely predicted placebo treatment outcome and were formed by time of enrolment, suggesting that they were shaped by prior experiences outside the clinical trial. PMID:25213159

  12. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation: Oral Contraception’s Effects on Fertility, Abortion, and Maternal & Child Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how oral contraception’s diffusion to young unmarried women affected the number and parental characteristics of children born to these women. In the short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and increases in both the share of children born with low birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility while increasing the share of children with college-educated mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later ages. These effects differ from those of abortion legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that abortion and the pill are on average used for different purposes by different women, but on the margin some women substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12. PMID:22389533

  13. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  14. Investigating Birth Control: Comparing Oestrogen Levels in Patients Using the Ortho Evra[R] Patch versus the Ortho-Cyclen[R] Pill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent drug studies have investigated the incidence of blood clots among patients using the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch. In this article, the author describes an investigation of oestrogen levels in the body resulting from the application of the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch versus daily use of Ortho-Cyclen[R] birth control pills.…

  15. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  16. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  17. Economic evaluation of a single-pill triple antihypertensive therapy with valsartan, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide against its dual components.

    PubMed

    Stafylas, Panagiotis; Kourlaba, Georgia; Hatzikou, Magda; Georgiopoulos, Dimitrios; Sarafidis, Pantelis; Maniadakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the first available single-pill triple combination antihypertensive therapy containing valsartan (V), amlodipine (A) and hydrochlorothiazide (H), with each of the same components dual combinations in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. A Markov model with eight health states was constructed. The short-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on blood pressure was extrapolated through the Hellenic SCORE and Framingham risk equations, estimating the long-term survival and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) saved. Costs and outcomes were evaluated over lifetime, divided into annual cycles and discounted at 3.0 % with 2013 as reference year. The analysis was conducted by the Greek third-party-payer perspective. The triple combination treatment cost was estimated at €16,525 compared to €15,480 for V/A, €14,125 for V/H and €11,690 for A/H. The QALYs saved with the triple combination were 12.76 vs. 12.64, 12.61 and 12.38 for double combinations respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the triple combination versus V/A and A/H was far lower than the Greek GDP per capita (€8,690/QALY and €12,695/QALY, respectively) and really close for V/H (€16,192/QALY), suggesting V/A/H combination to be cost-effective. Extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. The probability that the triple combination is cost effective was more than 90 % at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €18,000/QALY. This is the first study to evaluate the cost-utility of a single-pill triple combination. The single-pill V/A/H therapy is a cost-effective antihypertensive choice for the treatment of moderate to severe hypertension, compared to its dual components. PMID:26097434

  18. Faced with a double-edged risk: Ugandan university students' perception of the emergency contraceptive pill in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Mirembe, Florence M; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-03-01

    Whereas in high-income countries potential users of Emergency Contraception (EC) have information and access to emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), it has remained secretive in low-income countries like Uganda. Although several studies have been conducted in relation to EC, few have addressed users' perceptions. The objective of our study was to explore perceptions of EC by university students in Kampala, Uganda. Seven focus group discussions and four key informant interviews were conducted at Makerere University, Kampala. The transcribed data was analyzed for content and recurrent themes. Participants expressed ambivalence about ECPs. The method was generally recommended but only to the "right people", in this context being those aged eighteen years and more. There were reservations surrounding provision of ECPs like similarity with abortion and fear of side effects. Users' and potential-users' perceptions are crucial in the accessibility and utilization of ECPs. PMID:20687265

  19. Comparison of knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions between teachers and guardians regarding the emergency contraceptive pill in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sripichyakan, Kasara; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat

    2006-03-01

    Teachers and guardians (parents or authorized persons) are expected to collaborate in educating female students about emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) but it is unknown whether they have similar perspectives on ECPs. This study aimed to compare their knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions regarding ECPs. Questionnaires were distributed to 720 female teachers and guardians of eight randomly selected high schools and vocational schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand. There were significantly more teachers who knew about the existence of ECPs than guardians. More guardians reported some accurate information regarding ECPs than did teachers. More teachers than guardians believed that the use of ECPs was not morally wrong. Both teachers and guardians had similar experience with ECP use and similar agreement in teaching female adolescents about ECPs. The teachers and guardians had some different opinions on teaching barriers. It is suggested that both teachers and guardians are suited to teach female adolescents about ECPs, but they need preparation in different aspects. PMID:16451426

  20. The pharmacokinetic characters of simvastatin after co-administration with Shexiang Baoxin Pill in healthy volunteers' plasma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice. PMID:26830535

  1. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-08-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs. PMID:22698049

  2. [Isolation and mass spectrometric analysis of antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of roasted pills of Asini Corii Colla].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Chen; Yan, Li-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Gao, Jian-Ping; Chen, Liang-Mian; Wang, Jin-Yu; Tong, Yan; Zhang, Gui-Feng

    2013-04-01

    A fraction named GFC-1 with high antioxidant activities in vitro was isolated from the enzymatic hydrolysates of roasted pills of Asini Corii Colla, and the peptides in this fraction were identified. The enzymatic hydrolysates were isolated and purified with anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-25 filtration chromatography successively. GFC-1, a fraction isolated from the hydrolysates, exhibited the highest DPPH and ABTS scavenging capacity (DPPH 47. 95% at 2.0 g x L(-1) and ABTS 97.20% at 0.40 g x L(-1). Nine peptides from GFC-1 were identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS coupled with TurboSEQUEST search software and Swiss-Prot data base, and a high repetition core sequence GPAGPP*GPP* was also found. PMID:23847950

  3. Developing suitable service systems. The private sector is now a main source for a majority of condom and pill users.

    PubMed

    Pham Ba Nhat

    1995-01-01

    The January 1993 Resolution on Population and Family Planning adopted by the Central Committee of the Community Party of Vietnam proposed to implement an effective family planning program, promoting a small family norm, population reduction, and a stable population size. Family planning services, including the distribution of contraception, are now being provided through the health sector, population and family planning committees, and commercial outlets including private and nongovernmental organization clinics. The private sector is a major source for a majority of condom and oral contraceptive pill users. The author describes successful efforts to promote family planning services at the community level in Vietnam. The training of family planning service providers in family planning counseling is also briefly discussed. Since 1993, the mass media has been advertising contraceptives with high frequency, causing a favorable impact upon clients and communities for the acceptance of a small family norm. PMID:12320326

  4. The Rationale and Design of the Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schnipper, Jeffrey L.; Roumie, Christianne L.; Cawthon, Courtney; Businger, Alexandra; Dalal, Anuj K.; Mugalla, Ileko; Eden, Svetlana; Jacobson, Terry A.; Rask, Kimberly J.; Vaccarino, Viola; Gandhi, Tejal K.; Bates, David W.; Johnson, Daniel C.; Labonville, Stephanie; Gregory, David; Kripalani, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Background Medication errors and adverse drug events are common after hospital discharge, due to changes in medication regimens, suboptimal discharge instructions, and prolonged time to follow-up. Pharmacist-based interventions may be effective in promoting the safe and effective use of medications, especially among high risk patients such as those with low health literacy. Methods and Results The Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) study is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 academic centers – Vanderbilt University Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or acute decompensated heart failure were randomized to usual care or intervention. The intervention consisted of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient pharmacist counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and tailored telephone follow-up after discharge. The primary outcome is the occurrence of serious medication errors in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are health care utilization, disease-specific quality of life, and cost effectiveness. Enrollment was completed September 2009. A total of 862 patients were enrolled, and 430 patients were randomized to receive the intervention. Analyses will determine whether the intervention was effective in reducing serious medication errors, particularly in patients with low health literacy. Conclusions The PILL-CVD study was designed to reduce serious medication errors after hospitalization through a pharmacist-based intervention. The intervention, if effective, will inform health care facilities on the use of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and patient follow-up after discharge. Clinical Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00632021, NCT00632021 PMID:20233982

  5. Analysis of bioactive components and pharmacokinetic study of herb-herb interactions in the traditional Chinese patent medicine Tongmai Yangxin Pill.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Li, Hongfa; Liu, Yuanxue; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-02-20

    Tongmai Yangxin (TMYX) Pill is a traditional Chinese patent medicine, composed of eleven Chinese medicinal herbs. It has been used to treat coronary heart disease for several decades. In this study, six male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with TMYX methanol extract, and a serum pharmacochemistry technique was used to screen absorbed bioactive compounds by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. By comparing MS spectra to the published literature data, 40 bioactive components were identified. The results indicated that almost 45% of the absorbed compounds were from Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC). Subsequently, a reliable HPLC method was used to determine the concentrations of liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma following oral administration of GC or the combination of GC and Ramulus Cinnamomi (GZ). The results showed that GZ enhanced the absorption of four bioactive components: liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid. The data demonstrate that herb combination in TMYX Pill exhibit a synergistic action. PMID:26771134

  6. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xue Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-15

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  7. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-01

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  8. Soft X-Ray Stimulated Bremsstrahlung In Traveling Longitudinal Electric Wake-Fields Of Two-Beam Pill-Box Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chen, K. W.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    The amplification of laser light in a free electron laser (FEL) due to stimulated bremsstrahlung in a traveling longitudinal undulating electric field is derived. It is shown that this FEL provides sufficient gain to be used as a coherent radiation source down to the soft x-ray regime. It is suggested that, among other possibilities, the wake-field produced in a two-beam elliptical or annular pill-box cavity is suitable for the required traveling longitudinal undulating electric field.

  9. Soft X-ray stimulated bremsstrahlung in traveling longitudinal electric wake-fields of two-beam pill-box cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chen, K. W.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    The amplification of laser light in a free electron laser (FEL) due to stimulated bremsstrahlung in a traveling longitudinal undulating electric field is derived. It is shown that this FEL provides sufficient gain to be used as a coherent radiation source down to the soft X-ray regime. It is suggested that, among other possibilities, the wake-field produced in a two-beam elliptical or annular pill-box cavity is suitable for the required traveling longitudinal undulating electric field.

  10. The Prescription of the Morning-After Pill in a Berlin Emergency Department Over a Four-Year Period - User Profiles and Reasons for Use.

    PubMed

    David, M; Radke, A-M; Pietzner, K

    2012-05-01

    Questions: There are no current health care studies from Germany regarding the "morning-after pill". This paper will use routine data to analyse details regarding the users' profiles, reasons for using it and the utilisation of hospital outpatient facilities. Patient Collective and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all triage sheets in the emergency department of the Virchow Hospital Campus/Charité University Hospital, Berlin, over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010 that were coded with the ICD diagnosis Z30 (= contraception advice) and statistical processing of the associated administrative data. Results: 860 triage sheets were included in the analysis. The emergency department is used most frequently for the prescription of the "morning-after pill" at the weekend. The average age of the users was 25.1 years. The most common reason cited for needing emergency contraception was unprotected sexual intercourse, with the second-most common being "condom failure". Around half of the women attended the department within 12 hours of having unprotected sex. Less than 2 % (n = 14) of all women decided against a prescription of emergency contraceptive after counselling. Conclusions: The user profile and reasons for using emergency oral contraception correlate largely with the information contained in international literature. Although the "morning-after pill" is probably prescribed mainly in general practices in Germany, and despite the availability of new drugs with a permitted post-exposure interval of up to 120 hours after unprotected sex, there appears to still be a high demand for counselling and prescriptions of the "morning-after pill" in the context of the emergency department. PMID:25298542

  11. The 'chest pain kit' study: A 'pill in the pocket' concept to improve the pre-hospital therapy of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kralev, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The 'pill in the pocket' concept is an established therapy for atrial fibrillation. The current guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction endorse the concept that faster time to reperfusion is associated with important reductions in morbidity and mortality. The mechanical reperfusion and outcome of these patients is significantly supported by dual antiplatelet therapy. There is no data comparing the effect of early self-application by the patient ('pill in the pocket') versus application by the emergency doctor of dual antiplatelet therapy and a factor Xa inhibitor in case of severe chest pain. In patients with a high risk of developing an acute coronary syndrome and previously selected by a cardiologist, early self-application of dual antiplatelet therapy and a factor Xa inhibitor (e.g. fondaparinux) immediately after calling the emergency doctor might be of significance in cases of acute coronary syndrome or pulmonary embolism. In particular, in less developed areas where it might take a long time for the emergency doctor to arrive, this 'pill in the pocket' concept may be significant. PMID:20865688

  12. Monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen Pills using micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint coupled with prediction of antioxidant activity and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhengchao; Sun, Wanyang; Sun, Guoxiang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint method combined with quantification was developed and validated to evaluate the quality of Fufang Danshen Pills, a traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases, in which the tetrahedron optimization method was first used to optimize the background electrolyte solution. Subsequently, the index of the fingerprint information amount of I was performed as an excellent objective indictor to investigate the experimental conditions. In addition, a systematical quantified fingerprint method was constructed for evaluating the quality consistency of 20 batches of test samples obtained from the same drug manufacturer. The fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative determination of two components showed that the quality consistency of the test samples was quite good within the same commercial brand. Furthermore, the partial least squares model analysis was used to explore the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between active components and antioxidant activity in vitro, which can be applied for the assessment of anti-oxidant activity of Fufang Danshen pills and provide valuable medicinal information for quality control. The result illustrated that the present study provided a reliable and reasonable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen pills. PMID:27279557

  13. Clinical Experience with the PillCam Patency Capsule prior to Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Real-World Experience.

    PubMed

    Römmele, C; Brueckner, J; Messmann, H; Gölder, S K

    2016-01-01

    Background. In patients with known or suspected risk factors for gastrointestinal stenosis, the PillCam patency capsule (PC) is given before a video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in order to minimize the risk of capsule retention (CR). CR is considered unlikely upon excretion of the PC within 30 hours, excretion in an undamaged state after 30 hours, or radiological projection to the colon. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of 38 patients with risk factors for CR, who received a PC from 02/2013 to 04/2015 at Klinikum Augsburg. Results. Sixteen of our 38 patients observed a natural excretion after a mean time of 34 hours past ingestion. However, only 8 patients observed excretion within 30 hours, as recommended by the company. In 20 patients passage of the PC into the colon was shown via RFID-scan or radiological imaging (after 33 and 45 hours, resp.). Only 2 patients showed a pathologic PC result. In consequence, 32 patients received the VCE; no CR was observed. Conclusion. Our data indicates that a VCE could safely be performed even if the PC excretion time is longer than 30 hours and the excreted PC was not screened for damage. PMID:26880902

  14. Arachidonic acid metabolomic study of BPH in rats and the interventional effects of Zishen pill, a traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Bian, Qiaoxia; Wang, Weihui; Wang, Nannan; Peng, Yan; Ma, Wen; Dai, Ronghua

    2016-09-01

    Zishen pill (ZSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The study used a metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-MS/MS to profile arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic changes and to investigate the interventional mechanisms of ZSP in testosterone- induced BPH rats. In order to explore the potential therapeutic effect of ZSP, rat models were constructed and orally administrated with ZSP. Plasma and urine samples were collected after four weeks and then eleven potential biomarkers (15-HETE, 12-HETE, TXA2, 5-HETE, AA, PGI2, PGF2α, 8-HETE, PGD2, PGE2 and LTB4) were identified and quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was carried out with gradient elution using a mobile phase comprised of 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution (pH=3.3) (A) and acetonitrile: methanol (80:20, V/V) (B), and each AA metabolites was measured using electrospray ionization source with negative mode and multiple reaction monitoring. The eleven biomarkers in BPH group rat plasma and urine were significant higher than those in sham group rats. Using the potential biomarkers as a screening index, the results suggest that ZSP can potentially reverse the process of BPH by partially regulating AA metabolism through refrain the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX). This study demonstrates that a metabolomic strategy is useful for identifying potential BPH biomarkers and investigating the underlying mechanisms of a TCM in BPH treatment. PMID:27262108

  15. Effect of Oral Contraceptive Pills on the Blood Serum Enzymes and DNA Damage in Lymphocytes Among Users.

    PubMed

    Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul; Akhtar, Nishat; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2016-07-01

    The continuous use of synthetic hormones as contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement therapy among women is increasing day by day. The widespread use of different formulations as oral contraceptives by women throughout their reproductive cycle has given rise to a serious concern for studying the effects of oral contraceptives on enzymatic profile and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among users. The present study was carried out on women taking oral contraceptives. The study was based on the questionnaire having the information of reproductive history, fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding and other disease. The profile of the blood serum enzymes i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aminotransferases (SGOT and SGPT), serum proteins (albumin and globulin) and DNA damage in lymphocytes was studied among users and non-users. The results of the present study suggest that OCs not only effects enzymatic activity but also results in DNA damage that may vary with the duration of using oral contraceptives. A significant increase in LDH, GGT, SGPT, SGOT, globulin and decrease in ALP as well as albumin was found among users as compared to non-users. The observed DNA damage was more in users as compared to non-users. Hormonal contraceptives seem to exert DNA damage and also have significant effects on blood serum enzymes. PMID:27382200

  16. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

  17. Studies on the analgesic activities of Jia-Yuan-Qing pill and its safety evaluation in mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Teng, Li-rong; Song, Jing-jing; Meng, Qing-fan; Lu, Jia-hui; Zhang, Wei-wei; Wei, Kang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Di; Teng, Le-sheng

    2014-09-01

    The analgesic activity of Porcellio laevis Latreille, Rhizoma Corydalis, and Radix Cynanchi Paniculati have been reported in recent years. A new formula named Jia-Yuan-Qing pill (JYQP) is therefore created by combining the three herbs at 9:7:7 ratio according to traditional Chinese theories. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of JYQP as a novel painkiller in various models. Acute toxicity test was applied to evaluate the safety of JYQP. Acetic-acid-induced writhing, hot plate test, formalin test, and naloxone-pretreated writhing test were employed to elaborate the analgesic activity of JYQP and its possible mechanism. A bone cancer pain mouse model was performed to further assess the effect of JYQP in relieving cancer pain. Test on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms was conduct to examine the physical dependence of mice on JYQP. Data revealed that JYQP reduced writhing and stretching induced by acetic acid; however, this effect could not be blocked by naloxone. JYQP specifically suppressed the phase II reaction time in formalin-treated mice; meanwhile, no analgesic effect of JYQP in hot plate test was observed, indicating that JYQP exerts analgesic activity against inflammatory pain rather than neurogenic pain. Furthermore, JYQP could successfully relieve bone cancer pain in mice. No physical dependence could be observed upon long-term administration in mice. Collectively, our present results provide experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of JYQP as an effective and safe agent for pain treatment. PMID:24677096

  18. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills for the Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Zhang, Junhua; Yao, Chen; Liu, Baoyan; Gao, Xiumei; Ren, Ming; Cao, Hongbao; Dai, Guohua; Weng, Weiliang; Zhu, Sainan; Wang, Hui; Xu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Boli

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several types of drugs have been recommended for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). However, these conventional strategies have several limitations, such as low adherence, high cost, and side effects during long time use. Novel approaches to this problem are still needed. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness and safety of Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ), a multi-ingredient Chinese patent medicine, for the secondary prevention of MI. Methods and Findings. A total of 3505 eligible patients were randomly assigned to QSYQ group (1746 patients) or aspirin group (1759). Patients took their treatments for 12 months. The final follow-up visit took place 6 months after the end of the trial drugs. The 12-month and 18-month estimated incidences of the primary outcome were 2.98% and 3.67%, respectively, in the QSYQ group. The figures were 2.96% and 3.81% in the aspirin group. No significant difference was identified between the groups. Conclusions. This trial did not show significant difference of primary and secondary outcomes between aspirin and QSYQ in patients who have had an MI. Though inconclusive, the result suggests that QSYQ has similar effects to aspirin in the secondary prevention of MI. PMID:23935677

  19. Compound Danshen Dripping Pill for Treating Early Diabetic Retinopathy: A Randomized, Double-Dummy, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Qin, Yali; Yuan, Wei; Deng, Hui; Zhang, Youhua; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-dummy, double-blind study was to observe the therapeutic effects of compound Danshen dripping pill (CDDP) in treating early diabetic retinopathy (DR). All the 57 type 2 diabetes cases in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) stage were divided into two groups randomly: 28 cases treated with CDDP as the treated group and 29 cases treated with calcium dobesilate as the control group. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the treated group was significantly improved after treatment when compared to that before treatment (P < 0.05). Mean defect (MD) of visual field, hemorrhage area of the fundus, microaneurysm number, fluorescent leakage area, and capillary nonperfusion area evaluated by visual field, fundus photography, and fundus fluorescein angiography in the treated group had the same results as BCVA. However, there was no statistical difference in each index between the two groups. No obvious adverse events with clinical significance occurred. Our present study showed that CDDP has a similar improvement and safety to calcium dobesilate for NPDR. In future DR treatments, CDDP may function as the auxiliary drug. PMID:26457110

  20. Knowledge and Use of Emergency Contraceptive Pill: An Analysis of Perception and Practice among Unmarried Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Neetu; Mathur, Rakhi; Bakhshi, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to collect evidence with respect to perception and practice of unmarried women toward the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Materials and Methods: Non-probability purposive sampling was used to select respondents. A total of 250 respondents were administered the tools for the study, of which 228 were considered for analysis. Results and Discussion: Descriptive statistics showed that nearly 87% of the respondents were aware of ECPs and there was a significant difference in the knowledge of ECP of the respondents by type of the institution they had studied. More than half of the (52%) respondents admitted to have boyfriends of which 16% were sexually involved and were using some form of contraception. Nearly 84% of the respondents used ECP, which superseded the use of other contraceptives. It was further found that around two-third respondents were using ECP regularly. The reason that “ECP did not hinder pleasure” and that it was handy in case of “unplanned contact” were the most cited reasons for using ECP as a regular contraceptive. Conclusion: The fact that ECPs was preferred over condom and was used regularly shows that the respondents were at a risk of sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus. Health-care providers could be the most authentic source of information for orienting young women toward the use of safe sexual practices. PMID:26664845

  1. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

  2. Safety, efficacy, actions, and patient acceptability of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive pills in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Breech, Lesley L; Braverman, Paula K

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is estimated to affect 3%-8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs) were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 μg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality. PMID:21072278

  3. Effects of Compound Dan-shen Root Dropping Pill on hemorheology in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Yuhui; Zeng, Zhu; Sun, Dagong; Ka, Weibo; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Zhixin; Wen, Zongyao

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Compound Dan-shen Root Dropping Pill (CDRDP) (Tasly Group, Tianjing, China) on hemorheology and biorheology of dogs suffering from hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet. Eighteen dogs were randomly divided into two groups: the high-fat diet group (H group); the control group (C group), fed with a standard laboratory diet. Six month later, six dogs in the H group were chosen as the drug-taking group (D group), to which CDRDP was administered, fed with the same diet as H group. In the 4th month, blood was taken from the veins of the dogs, and blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), RBC hemorheological indexes as well as malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione transferase (GSH-ST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in plasma and erythrocytes were measured. Compared with H group, TC, TG, plasma MDA levels, the whole blood viscosity, RBC osmotic fragility and the value of CHOL (cholesterol)/PL (phospholipid) of the membrane of D group decreased, however, erythrocyte GSH-ST, histopathological changes in liver, deformation index (DI), orientation index (DI)or, small deformation index (DI)d, electrophoresis ratio and microfluidity of the membrane lipid bilayer of RBCs, increased distinctly. CDRDP can improve micro-hemorheological characteristics, therefore has a significant therapy application of hyperlipidemia. PMID:15665423

  4. Safety, efficacy, actions, and patient acceptability of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive pills in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Breech, Lesley L; Braverman, Paula K

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is estimated to affect 3%–8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs) were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 μg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality. PMID:21072278

  5. Antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of aliskiren/amlodipine single- pill combinations in patients with an inadequate response to aliskiren monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Glorioso, Nicola; Thomas, Mathew; Troffa, Chiara; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Patel, Samir; Baek, Inyoung; Zhang, Jack

    2012-11-01

    Many patients with hypertension will require multiple antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) control. This double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of aliskiren/amlodipine single-pill combinations (SPCs) in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension who were non-responsive to aliskiren monotherapy. After a 4-week run-in with aliskiren 300 mg, patients with mean sitting diastolic BP (msDBP) ≥ 90 and < 110 mmHg were randomized to oncedaily aliskiren/ amlodipine 300/10 mg or 300/5 mg, or aliskiren 300 mg for 8 weeks. Aliskiren/amlodipine SPCs provided significantly greater mean reductions in mean sitting systolic BP/msDBP (300/10 mg, 18.0/13.1 mmHg; 300/5 mg, 14.4/10.5 mmHg) than aliskiren 300 mg (6.4/5.8 mmHg) at week 8 endpoint. This represents additional mean reductions of 11.6/7.2 mmHg (300/10 mg) and 8.0/4.7 mmHg (300/5 mg) over aliskiren alone (both p < 0.0001). Significantly more patients achieved BP control ( < 140/90 mmHg) with aliskiren/amlodipine 300/10 mg (65.5%) and 300/5 mg (56.6%) than with aliskiren (31.5% both p < 0.0001). Aliskiren, alone and in combination with amlodipine, was well tolerated, with a slightly higher incidence of adverse events with SPCs (29.0-30.1%) than with monotherapy (22.7%). In conclusion, aliskiren/amlodipine SPCs offer an effective next step for patients who have an inadequate BP response to aliskiren alone. PMID:22303910

  6. Use of electronic pill boxes to assess risk of poor treatment compliance: results of a large-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Vaur, L; Vaisse, B; Genes, N; Elkik, F; Legrand, C; Poggi, L

    1999-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the predictive factors of treatment compliance in hypertensive patients. This was an open large-scale multicenter study where mild to moderate essential hypertensive patients received trandolapril (2 mg) once daily for 30 to 60 days in addition to their usual treatment. Trandolapril was packed in electronic pill boxes that registered date and time of each opening. The main compliance parameters were the percentage of missed doses, the percentage of delayed doses, and the percentage of correct dosing periods. Predictive factors of poor compliance (correct dosing periods < 80%) were determined using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Two thousand one hundred seventy-three patients aged 60 +/- 12 years were analyzed. Of the total patients 37% were poor compliers; 29% of patients forgot more than 10% of doses and 36% of patients delayed more than 10% of doses. Ranked predictive factors of poor compliance were: age < 60 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.80 [1.49 to 2.17], P = .0001), the Paris area (OR, 1.70 [1.32 to 2.19], P = .0001), smokers (OR, 1.65 [1.29 to 2.11], P = .0001), monotherapy (OR, 1.40 [1.14 to 1.72], P = .0012), and baseline diastolic blood pressure > or = 100 mm Hg (OR, 1.21 [1.01 to 1.46], P = .044). Therefore, we conclude that young hypertensives, large city dwellers, and smokers are more likely to be poor compliers. The presence of some of these characteristics might incite the physician either to encourage patient compliance or to prescribe antihypertensive drugs that have an effect that persists even beyond 24 h. PMID:10232497

  7. A review of the benefits of early treatment initiation with single-pill combinations of telmisartan with amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Julian; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses the rationale for earlier use of single-pill combinations (SPCs) of antihypertensive drugs, with a focus on telmisartan/amlodipine (T/A) and telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide (T/H) SPCs. Compared with the respective monotherapies, the once-daily T/A and T/H SPCs have been shown to result in significantly higher blood pressure (BP) reductions, BP goal rates, and response rates in patients at all stages of hypertension. As expected, BP reductions are highest with the highest dose (T80/A10 and T80/H25) SPCs. Subgroup analyses of the telmisartan trials have reported the efficacy of both SPCs to be consistent, regardless of the patients’ age, race, and coexisting diabetes, obesity, or renal impairment. In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, the T/A combination provides superior 24-hour BP-lowering efficacy compared with either treatment administered as monotherapy. Similarly, the T/H SPC treatment provides superior 24-hour BP-lowering efficacy, especially in the last 6 hours relative to other renin–angiotensin system inhibitor-based SPCs. The T/A SPC is associated with a lower incidence of edema than amlodipine monotherapy, and the T/H SPC with a lower incidence of hypokalemia than hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy. Existing evidence supports the use of the T/A SPC for the treatment of hypertensive patients with prediabetes, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome, due to the metabolic neutrality of both component drugs, and the use of the T/H SPC for those patients with edema or in need of volume reduction. PMID:24082785

  8. Awareness and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills among young people in the entertainment places, Vientiane City, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency Contraception is not officially available to the public sector in Laos. The potential of emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is well documented in developed countries, but in Laos no studies of ECPs exist. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) in Vientiane, the capital city of the Lao PDR. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 young adults in entertainment venues by using the convenience sampling between May to July, 2007. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview. Participants were asked about socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes related to ECPs, and source of information about ECPs. Data analysis was performed with chi-square test and logistic regression (p < .05). Results Only 22.4 percent of respondents had heard of ECPs and of these only 17.9 percent knew the correct time-frame for effective use. Most of the respondents (85%) agreed on the need for ECPs to be available in Laos and 66.8 percent stated that they would use them should the need arise, if they were available. Among those who said they would not use ECPs, 63.8 percent were concerned about possible health effects, or other side effects. Awareness of ECPs was associated with increasing age (OR = 2.78, p = .025) and male sex (OR = 2.91, p = .010). Conclusions There is needed to provide effective health education about the method, timing of use, and how to obtain ECPs through both informal, peer channels, and also through formal channels such as health care providers. PMID:23514104

  9. [Study on action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis based on techniques of gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Song, Xiang-gang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

    2015-08-01

    Action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis were discussed based on gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint in this paper. First, gene expression profiles of atherosclerotic carotid artery tissues and histologically normal tissues in human body were collected, and were screened using significance analysis of microarray (SAM) to screen out differential gene expressions; then differential genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG pathway analysis; to avoid some genes with non-outstanding differential expression but biologically importance, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed, and 7 chemical ingredients with higher negative enrichment score were obtained by Cmap method, implying that they could reversely regulate the gene expression profiles of pathological tissues; and last, based on the hypotheses that similar structures have similar activities, 336 ingredients of compound Danshen dripping pills were compared with 7 drug molecules in 2D molecular fingerprints method. The results showed that 147 differential genes including 60 up-regulated genes and 87 down regulated genes were screened out by SAM. And in GO analysis, Biological Process ( BP) is mainly concerned with biological adhesion, response to wounding and inflammatory response; Cellular Component (CC) is mainly concerned with extracellular region, extracellular space and plasma membrane; while Molecular Function (MF) is mainly concerned with antigen binding, metalloendopeptidase activity and peptide binding. KEGG pathway analysis is mainly concerned with JAK-STAT, RIG-I like receptor and PPAR signaling pathway. There were 10 compounds, such as hexadecane, with Tanimoto coefficients greater than 0.85, which implied that they may be the active ingredients (AIs) of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis (CAs). The present method can be applied to the research on material

  10. Multi-constituent cardiovascular pills (MCCP)--challenges and promises of population-based prophylactic drug therapy for prevention of heart attack.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Michael J; Naghavi, Morteza

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) are highly co-prevalent but poorly identified and treated. The Screening for Heart Attack Prevention and Education (SHAPE) Task Force from the Association for Eradication of Heart Attack (AEHA) has recently proposed a new strategy that recommends screening for subclinical atherosclerosis and implementing aggressive treatment of "vulnerable patients". The Task Force has also envisioned future developments that may shift mass screening strategies to mass prophylactic therapy. The "Polypill" concept, introduced by Wald and Law suggests a combination of statin, low-dose antihypertensives, aspirin and folic acid, in a single pill, taken prophylactically by high risk population can cut CVD event rates by as much as 80%. In this communication, we review the challenges and promises of such a strategy. "Polypill" is but one of an astronomical number of possible multiconstituent pills (MCCP). Attractive as the MCCP concept is, it lacks evidence from randomized controlled trials, and begs numerous questions about the credibility of the concept, the design and synthesis of such complex pills, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, bioequivalence, "class" vs. unique properties, interactions, evidence of clinical efficacy and safety, regulatory approval, post-marketing surveillance, prescription vs. over-the-counter use, responsibility for initiating and monitoring therapy, patient education, counterfeiting and importation, reimbursement, advertisement, patent protection, commercial viability, etc. If these issues are favorably addressed, MCCP stand to dramatically change the manner in which CVD is prevented particularly in developing societies. Notwithstanding, assuming low commercial interests, realizing the promises of MCCP will demand serious attention from national public health policymakers. The clinical and regulatory implications of population-based secondary prevention (which rely on a different evidence base