Science.gov

Sample records for lx-17 hockey puck

  1. A comparison of the capacity of ice hockey goaltender masks for the protection from puck impacts.

    PubMed

    Nur, Sarah; Kendall, Marshall; Clark, J Michio; Hoshizaki, T Blaine

    2015-11-01

    Goaltenders in ice hockey are the only players that are on the ice for the entire game. Their position exposes them to impacts from collisions with other players, falls to the ice, and puck impacts. In competitive ice hockey leagues, head injuries resulting from puck impacts have been reported with some cases resulting in ending the player's career. Considerable research has been conducted to assess the performance of hockey helmets; however, few have assessed the performance of goaltenders' masks. The purpose of this study was to compare the capacity of four goaltenders' masks for the protection from puck impact as measured by head acceleration and peak force. A Hybrid III headform was fitted with four different goaltender masks and impacted with a hockey puck in three locations at 25 m/s. The masks were found to vary in the level of protection they offered as the mask with the thickest liner resulted in lower forces than the thinnest mask for side impacts; however, the thinnest mask resulted in the lowest force for front impacts. Despite performance differences at specific locations, no one mask proved to be superior as peak acceleration and peak force values did not exceed the thresholds necessary for concussion. PMID:26644178

  2. Experimental Characterization of Ice Hockey Sticks and Pucks Rosanna L. Anderson, Lloyd V. Smith

    E-print Network

    Smith, Lloyd V.

    99164 Nomenclature ea Collision efficiency Fi Peak impact force I Mass moment of inertia mp Puck mass Q characterized in terms of their natural vibrational frequencies, mode shapes, and performance. A performance [4]. Thus, stronger players who generate increased stick speed, also achieve more shaft deflection

  3. Exploitation of a "hockey-puck" phenotype to identify pilus and biofilm regulators in Serratia marcescens through genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Robert M Q; Stella, Nicholas A; Brothers, Kimberly M; Polaski, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    Pili are essential adhesive determinants for many bacterial pathogens. A suppressor mutation screen that takes advantage of a pilus-mediated self-aggregative "hockey-puck" colony phenotype was designed to identify novel regulators of type I pili in Serratia marcescens. Mutations that decreased pilus biosynthesis mapped to the fimABCD operon; to the genes alaT, fkpA, and oxyR; upstream of the flagellar master regulator operon flhDC; and to an uncharacterized gene encoding a predicted DUF1401 domain. Biofilm formation and pilus-dependent agglutination assays were used to characterize the relative importance of the identified genes in pilus biosynthesis. Additional mutagenic or complementation analysis was used to verify the role of candidate genes in pilus biosynthesis. Presented data support a model that CRP negatively regulates pilus biosynthesis through increased expression of flhDC and decreased expression of oxyR. Further studies are warranted to determine the mechanism by which these genes mediate pilus biosynthesis or function. PMID:26640000

  4. LX-17 and ufTATB Data for Corner-Turning, Failure and Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Lauderbach, L; Garza, R; Vitello, P; Hare, D E

    2010-02-03

    Data is presented for the size (diameter) effect for ambient and cold confined LX-17, unconfined ambient LX-17, and confined ambient ultrafine TATB. Ambient, cold and hot double cylinder corner-turning data for LX-17, PBX 9502 and ufTATB is presented. Transverse air gap crossing in ambient LX-17 is studied with time delays given for detonations that cross.

  5. Temperature-dependent shock initiation of LX-17 explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.; Druce, R.L.; Moua, K.

    1995-02-01

    LX-17 samples, heated to temperatures up to 250 C, were impacted by 3 to 10-mm-wide, 50.8-mm-long strips of 0.13-mm-thick Kapton polyimide film at velocities up to 7.7 km/s. The Kapton strips were laminated onto a thin aluminum bridge foil and were launched to the desired velocity by discharging a capacitor bank through the foil, causing the foil to explode. The LX-17 samples were confined in a steel holder and heated in an oven to the desired temperature. After the capacitor bank was charged, the LX-17 sample in its steel holder was remotely drawn out of the oven on rails and positioned over the bridge-foil/Kapton-strip laminate. When the sample was in position, the bank was discharged, launching the Kapton strip against the LX-17 surface. The shock initiation threshold was measured for 3, 7, and 10-mm-wide strips at room temperature, 200 C and 250 C. The authors found a significant reduction in the velocity threshold and in the critical area for initiation when the samples were heated. The authors compare the results with the earlier data of Bloom, who measured the initiation threshold of LX-17 over the density range 1.8--1.91 g/cm{sup 3} at room temperature and {minus}54 C. LX-17 has a large coefficient of thermal expansion, as reported by Urtiew, et al., which reduces its density significantly t elevated temperatures. They find that the change of shock initiation threshold with temperature is consistent with the change in sample density, using the relation between threshold and density reported by Bloom.

  6. Mechanical modeling of the plastic bonded explosive LX17 

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Kyle Martin

    2001-01-01

    The current research attempts to develop a model for a polycrystalline, composite solid with viscoelastic matrix known as LX17. It is a highly-filled plastic bonded explosive with a shelf-life of up to 50 years. Experimentation is too costly...

  7. Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) Calibration for LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq D

    2012-04-24

    The goal of this report is to summarize the results of a Detonation shock dynamics (DSD) calibration for the explosive LX-17. Considering that LX-17 is very similar to PBX 9502 (LX-17 is 92.5% TATB with 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder, while PBX 9502 is 95% TATB with 5% Kel-F 800 binder), we proceed with the analysis assuming many of the DSD constants are the same. We only change the parameters D{sub CJ}, B and {bar C}{sub 6} ({bar C}{sub 6} controls the how D{sub CJ} changes with pressing density). The parameters D{sub CJ} and {bar C}{sub 6} were given by Josh Coe and Sam Shaw's EOS. So, only B was optimized in fitting all the calibration data. This report first discusses some general DSD background, followed by a presentation of the available dataset to perform the calibration, and finally gives the results of the calibration and draws some conclusions. A DSD calibration of LX-17 has been conducted using the existing diameter effect data and shock shape records. The new DSD fit is based off the current PBX 9502 calibration and takes into account the effect of pressing density. Utilizing the PBX 9502 calibration, the effects of initial temperature can also be taken into account.

  8. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  9. LX-17 Corner-Turning and Reactive Flow Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H; Cook III, C F; Garza, R; Pastrone, R; Phillips, D; Roeske, F; Vitello, P; Molitoris, J

    2004-03-11

    We have performed a series of highly-instrumented experiments examining corner-turning of detonation. A TATB booster is inset 15 mm into LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% kel-F) so that the detonation must turn a right angle around an air well. An optical pin located at the edge of the TATB gives the start time of the corner-turn. The breakout time on the side and back edges is measured with streak cameras. Three high-resolution X-ray images were taken on each experiment to examine the details of the detonation. We have concluded that the detonation cannot turn the corner and subsequently fails, but the shock wave continues to propagate in the unreacted explosive, leaving behind a dead zone. The detonation front farther out from the corner slowly turns and eventually reaches the air well edge 180{sup o} from its original direction. The dead zone is stable and persists 7.7 {micro}s after the corner-turn, although it has drifted into the original air well area. Our regular reactive flow computer models sometimes show temporary failure but they recover quickly and are unable to model the dead zones. We present a failure model that cuts off the reaction rate below certain detonation velocities and reproduces the qualitative features of the corner-turning failure.

  10. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  11. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  12. First-Generation Jet Propulsion Laboratory "Hockey-Puck" Free-Flying Magnetometers for Distributed In-Situ Multiprobe Measurement of Current Density Filamentation in the Northern Auroral Zone: Enstrophy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, H.; Blaes, B.; Boehm, M.; Boykins, K.; Gibbs, J.; Goodman, W.; Lieneweg, U.; Lux, J.; Lynch, K.; Narvaez, P.

    2000-01-01

    The sub-orbital rocket mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to study filamentation phenomena in the northern Auroral zone. The Enstrophy mission test flies the JPL Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) concept. The FFM technology development task has been funded by NASA develop miniaturized, low-power, integrated "sensorcrafts". JPL's role was to design, integrate, test, and deliver four FFMs for deployment from the sounding rocket, allowing a unique determination of curl-B. This provides a direct measurement of magnetic-field-aligned current density along the rocket trajectory. A miniaturized three-axis fluxgate magnetometer was integrated with a 4-channel 22-bit sigma-delta Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), four temperature sensors, digital control electronics, seven (Li-SOCl2) batteries, two (4 deg x 170 deg field of view) sun-sensors, a fan-shaped-beam laser diode beacon, a (16 MHz) stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, Radio Frequency (RF) communication subsystem, and an antenna for approximately 15 minutes of operation where data was collected continuously and transmitted in three (3) bursts (approximately 26 seconds each) to ground station antennas at Poker Flat, Alaska. FFMs were stowed within two trays onboard the rocket during the rocket launch and were released simultaneously using the spinning action of the rocket at approximately 300 km altitude (approximately 100 sec. into the flight). FFMs were deployed with spin rate of approximately 17 Hz and approximately 3 m/sec linear velocity with respect to the rocket. For testing purposes while the rocket was in the launch pad and during flight prior to release of FFMs from the rocket, commands (such as "power on", "test", "flight", "power off', and clock "Reset" signal) were transmitted via a infrared Light Emitting Diode to an infrared detector in the FFM. Special attention was paid to low magnetic signature electronic design and choice of materials in packaging. The miniaturized fluxgate magnetometers had a range of 1-60000 nT with 0.1% full-scale linearity. The frequency range of interest for magnetic measurement was 10 mHz - 50 Hz. Digital data from the magnetometer's three axes were placed in a 4MB Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) in data packages (frames) formatted together with time tags and frame ID. After a specified time was elapsed, the data were Viterbi encoded and transmitted at a rate of 100 kbps (BPSK). Each of the four FFMs transmitted at different frequency. These carrier frequencies were in the range of 2200-2300 MHz. The antenna was a single patch on a high dielectric constant substrate covering one end-plate of the hockey-puck-sized unit. The local clocks aboard the FFMs were reset at the start of the mission and stayed synchronized within 3 msec during the mission. Position of each FFM with respect to the rocket is calculated by the knowledge of its release velocity (measured at exit point of the FFM launcher tract) providing an accuracy of 1 m over the maximum range of 3 km. Spatial and temporal nature of observants can be separated to within 3 m in space or 3 msec time interval.

  13. A Comparison of New TATBs, FK-800 binder and LX-17-like PBXs to Legacy Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, T M; DePiero, S C; Hoffman, D M

    2009-05-01

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzenes (TATBs) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives. Pressed pellets of the new explosives were less dense. New FK-800 binder was used to prepare LX-17-like plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) from new and wet aminated TATB. Some mechanical, thermal and performance characterization of the new binder and LX-17-like PBXs was done. Significant differences were found. The reason for a number of these differences is not well understood.

  14. Eye injuries in Canadian amateur hockey.

    PubMed

    Pashby, T J

    1979-01-01

    Two studies, one retrospective (1972 to 1973) and one prospective (1974 to 1975), CONcerning eye injuries incurred by hockey players were conducted by the Canadian Ophthalmological Society with questionnaires to its members. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed by age, type of injury, cause (i.e., hockey stick, puck, or other means), and results to visual acuity. The results were also designated by organized or unorganized participation. Almost 300 eye injuries were reported in each study. In the first study, 13.7% of the injured players became legally blind as a result of the injury; in the second study, 16% became legally blind. Organized hockey produced more injuries than unorganized hockey. The majority of the injuries were caused by the hockey stick. The injuries were both intraocular and extraocular. The group of 11- to 15-year olds received the highest number of injuries, and the older age group had the higher incidence of blindness. Studies have led to setting more rigid standards, altering rules of the game, and selecting face protectors for hockey players. Older players who care for their equipment prefer the plastic shield face protectors, and the younger players (who complain of fogging and scratching of the plastic) prefer mesh protectors through which neither the stick nor the puck can penetrate. New high sticking (above the shoulder level) rules were included in the 1976 official rule book for Canadian amateur hockey. PMID:474867

  15. Vulnerability of hot LX-17 to lightning strikes on exposed detonator and actuator cables

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, H.H.; Osher, J.E.; Von Holle, W.G.; Lee, R.S.; Moua, K.

    1993-12-01

    Capacitor bank discharges with peak currents up to 700 kA were used to explode test sections of detonator cable and launch the dielectric material on top of the exploding conductor as a fast flyer plate. Velocity of the launched material, pressure profiles from the impact of the launched material and impact marks formed in aluminum witness plates were used to study the stimulus that could be transmitted to high explosive in the vicinity of the exploding cable. To quantify the risk of initiating the main charge or booster insensitive high explosive (IHE) in a weapon, one must know the threshold stimulus required for shock initiation. LX-17 samples, heated to temperatures up to 250C were impacted by 3 to 10-mm-wide stripes of 0.12-mm-thick Kapton to determine the initiation threshold velocity at ambient and elevated temperatures, The strips simulate the impact of the cover coat of a flat detonator cable which has been exploded by a lighting strike. The data allow us to assess the likelihood that a lightning strike on the cable would be able to initiate a detonation of the LX- 17 main charge.

  16. Explosive Model Tarantula 4d/JWL++ Calibration of LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P A

    2008-09-30

    Tarantula is an explosive kinetic package intended to do detonation, shock initiation, failure, corner-turning with dead zones, gap tests and air gaps in reactive flow hydrocode models. The first, 2007-2008 version with monotonic Q is here run inside JWL++ with square zoning from 40 to 200 zones/cm on ambient LX-17. The model splits the rate behavior in every zone into sections set by the hydrocode pressure, P + Q. As the pressure rises, we pass through the no-reaction, initiation, ramp-up/failure and detonation sections sequentially. We find that the initiation and pure detonation rate constants are largely insensitive to zoning but that the ramp-up/failure rate constant is extremely sensitive. At no time does the model pass every test, but the pressure-based approach generally works. The best values for the ramp/failure region are listed here in Mb units.

  17. Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling on LX-17 to Understand the Reacted Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersall, Kevin; Garcia, Frank; Fried, Laurence; Tarver, Craig

    2013-06-01

    Experimental data from measurements of the reacted state of an energetic material are desired to incorporate reacted states in modeling by computer codes. In a case such as LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight), where the time dependent kinetics of reaction is still not fully understood and the reacted state may evolve over time, this information becomes even more vital. Experiments were performed to measure the reacted state of LX-17 using a double shock method involving the use of two flyer materials (with known properties) mounted on the projectile that send an initial shock through the material close to or above the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state followed by a second shock at a higher magnitude into the detonated material. By measuring the parameters of the first and second shock waves, information on the reacted state can be obtained. The LX-17 detonation reaction zone profiles plus the arrival times and amplitudes of reflected shocks in LX-17 detonation reaction products were measured using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes and an aluminum foil coated LiF window. A discussion of this work will include the experimental parameters, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, reactive CHEETAH and Ignition and Growth modeling, as well as possible future experiments. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Double shock experiments and reactive flow modeling on LX-17 to understand the reacted equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Garcia, Frank; Fried, Laurence E.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2014-05-01

    Experimental data from measurements of the reacted state of an energetic material are desired to incorporate reacted states in modeling by computer codes. In a case such as LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F by weight), where the time dependent kinetics of reaction is still not fully understood and the reacted state may evolve over time, this information becomes even more vital. Experiments were performed to measure the reacted state of LX-17 using a double shock method involving the use of two flyer materials (with known properties) mounted on the projectile that send an initial shock through the material close to or above the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state followed by a second shock at a higher magnitude into the detonated material. By measuring the parameters of the first and second shock waves, information on the reacted state can be obtained. The LX-17 detonation reaction zone profiles plus the arrival times and amplitudes of reflected shocks in LX-17 detonation reaction products were measured using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes and an aluminum foil coated LiF window. A discussion of this work will include the experimental parameters, velocimetry profiles, data interpretation, reactive CHEETAH and Ignition and Growth modeling, as well as detail on possible future experiments.

  19. Kick Dis Power Puck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    There is a new toy available that can be used to demonstrate many interesting physics principles. It is called the "Kick Dis Power Puck" and is basically a round plastic hovercraft with a soft cushion material around the perimeter (Fig. 1). It is a product of the Estes Company, which is well known for their model rockets, and is available from advertisers in this journal.1,2 The puck has a diameter of 19.5 cm and comes in two colors, red or green. The two samples I purchased had masses of 307 g and 303 g, respectively. There is a forceful, built-in fan, which is run by a rechargeable battery and powers the puck for about 30 minutes. A 9-V battery charger completes the package, which sells for about 45.

  20. Periodic Orbits on a Triangular Air Hockey Table By A. Baxter, J. Gemmer, K. Gerhart, S. Laverty, S. Weaver

    E-print Network

    Umble, Ron

    Periodic Orbits on a Triangular Air Hockey Table By A. Baxter, J. Gemmer, K. Gerhart, S. Laverty, S. Weaver Sponsored by Drs. Ron Umble and Zhoude Shao The Problem Examine periodic orbits on a triangular frictionless surface bounded by walls. · A triangular air hockey table with a bouncing puck. · Triangular

  1. [Ice hockey accidents].

    PubMed

    Müller, P; Biener, K

    1975-04-14

    The present study is based on 2680 ice hockey accidents encountered in Switzerland over a period of 5 years: 1880 injuries during matches are compared with 800 that took place in training. Age: the athletes injuried during training were younger that 20 in 40% of cases; 38% of injuries in matches occurred to players aged between 20 and 24. 25% of accidents were caused by blows from the stick, particularly as a result of "high sticking"; 5% by skates; 17% by the puck (hard rubber); 17% by collisions; the remainder by crashing against the barrier, falls on the ice, body checking, etc. The most frequent injuries (42%) involved head and face: 740 dental injuries about of the 1460 facial injuries and 160 cases of concussion. The injuries affected: the legs in 21% of cases; the feet in 11%; the arms in 11%; the hands in 7% and the trunk in 8%. The commonest types of injuries were crushings and bruisings; during matches, 13% of the 1880 lesions involved fractures, a quarter of which were the result of collisions. Preventive measures would require all players to wear a helmet to protect their head, face and mouth; protective barriers should be sufficiently high; the game and rules should be taught from school age on and fair play should be instilled. PMID:1128801

  2. Hockey, iPads, and Projectile Motion in a Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    With the increased availability of modern technology and handheld probeware for classrooms, the iPad and the Video Physics application developed by Vernier are used to capture and analyze the motion of an ice hockey puck within secondary-level physics education. Students collect, analyze, and generate digital modes of representation of physics…

  3. Formulation and Characterization of LX-17-2 from new FK 800 binder and WA, ATK, and BAE TATBs

    SciTech Connect

    DePiero, S C; Hoffman, D M

    2007-08-03

    Currently LLNL has no Kel-F 800 or wet-aminated TATB reserves for formulation. Although both materials are soon to be commercially available, their synthesis processes have changed and the explosive must be re-evaluated. In 2000 3M phased out the uses of perfluorooctanoyl (C8) derivatives due to environmental persistence and bioaccumulation issues. A C8 derivative was used as an emulsifier for making Kel F-800. In 2001 Kel F-800 was scheduled to be discontinued and the last Kel F-800 run was made in early 2002. LANL ordered 2M$ worth of Kel-F 800 for reserves and Pantex purchased several hundred pounds to satisfy mock needs. After four years, 3M has decided to introduce a Kel-F 800-like polymer based on a new emulsifier using the same chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride monomers and emulsion polymerization process. They have produced 3 batches and claim the 'new' FK-800 is indistinguishable from the 'old' Kel-F 800 in any of their testing parameters. In June-July 2006 3M scaled up a batch of about 800 pounds and have test quantities available. We have samples of the new FK-800 for evaluation. Neither wet nor dry-aminated TATB has been synthesized in the US in any significant quantity since about 1985 and significant quantities of LX-17-1 has not been formulated since about 1990. Over the last few years as part of a DOD MANTECH, ATK Thiokol and BAE Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HAAP) have produced moderate quantities of TATB ({approx}5 kg batches) with plans to scale up for DOD applications. Thiokol TATB is polycrystalline with an average particle size of about 40 m (similar to WA TATB) but HAAP TATB is only 5-6 {micro}m (similar to ultrafine). We have obtained small quantities of these materials for evaluation. The project (1) compares new FK-800 with old Kel-F 800 and FK-800 lots currently available at LLNL, (2) compares and characterizes new TATB with old TATB, (3) formulates new FK-800 with wet-aminated TATB and new TATBs in according to HAAP slurry coating procedure into LX-17-2, and (4) evaluates the mechanical and detonation performance characteristics of this insensitive high explosive (IHE). Priorities are to prove that these new materials can be formulated, pressed to density and machined; and that they contain no impurities which might cause compatibility issues. Since 3M, LANL, Pantex and AWE are currently evaluating the new FK-800, we plan to share data rather than repeating their work. Our effort is described.

  4. Hockey, iPads, and Projectile Motion in a Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2013-09-01

    With the increased availability of modern technology and handheld probeware for classrooms, the iPad and the Video Physics2 application developed by Vernier are used to capture and analyze the motion of an ice hockey puck within secondary-level physics education. Students collect, analyze, and generate digital modes of representation of physics phenomena using modern technologies to complement theoretical plots. This activity acknowledges hockey players' implicit understanding of the launch angle and initial velocity of a saucer pass as basic projectile motion while engaging students in authentic physics-based problem solving.

  5. Ice Hockey Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Franklin H.; Simonet, William T.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes the mechanisms, management, and prevention of each type of injury to which hockey players are prone. It surveys the injuries sustained by ice hockey players and discusses treatment of specific injuries, including those injuries to the head, eye, shoulder, hand, thigh, scalp, and face. (JL)

  6. A Hockey Hero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolduc, Matt

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of Will Poulos, a hockey player who has developmental and physical disabilities (mild mental retardation and left cerebral palsy). Will has overcome tremendous obstacles in his life. He was born at 28 weeks in 1986 at three pounds, one ounce, and 19 inches long. He was very sick; his odds for survival…

  7. Isolated scapula fracture: Ice hockey player without trauma

    PubMed Central

    Memi?o?lu, Serdar; Y?lmaz, Bar??; Akta?, Erdem; Kömür, Baran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Scapular fractures are generally occur from in high-energy traumas and are associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Presentation of case We present an unusual scapular fracture that occurred with a rare mechanism. A 23-year-old male patient who led an active sports life for 10 years and played ice hockey for the last 5 years. In a competition, he felt a sudden pain in his right scapula after hit the puck. He did not experience any direct trauma to his shoulder and there was no evidence of any pathological fracture. The fracture was isolated in the scapular body and it was classified as type 4, according to Hardegger classification. The was patient immobilized with a Velpau bandage for three weeks and then treated with physiotherapy for shoulder rehabilitation. Discussion The fracture mechanism was likely a disharmonius contracture of the agonist and antagonist muscles of the shoulder joint while hitting the puck. Conclusion Scapular fractures are generally seen along with other injuries, but in this case we wanted to emphasize that care has to been taken to diagnose an isolated scapular fracture while assessing shoulder pain. PMID:26587232

  8. Propagation or failure of detonation across an air gap in an LX-17 column: continuous time-dependent detonation or shock speed using the Embedded Fiber Optic (EFO) technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hare, D E; Chandler, J B; Compton, S M; Garza, R G; Grimsley, D A; Hernandez, A; Villafana, R J; Wade, J T; Weber, S R; Wong, B M; Souers, P C

    2008-01-16

    The detailed history of the shock/detonation wave propagation after crossing a room-temperature-room-pressure (RTP) air gap between a 25.4 mm diameter LX-17 donor column and a 25.4 mm diameter by 25.4 mm long LX-17 acceptor pellet is investigated for three different gap widths (3.07, 2.08, and 0.00 mm) using the Embedded Fiber Optic (EFO) technique. The 2.08 mm gap propagated and the 3.07 mm gap failed and this can be seen clearly and unambiguously in the EFO data even though the 25.4 mm-long acceptor pellet would be considered quite short for a determination by more traditional means such as pins.

  9. The Hockey/Art Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadeson, Harriet; Wirtz, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Ice hockey can be a violent sport as evidenced by the fighting among the members of an ice hockey team of 13-year-old boys from mixed racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two series of eight art sessions were used to help the boys develop respect for themselves and others, to solve conflicts without combat, and to build more positive…

  10. Head-Impact Mechanisms in Men's and Women's Collegiate Ice Hockey

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Bethany J.; Machan, Jason T.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Greenwald, Richard M.; Burmeister, Emily; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Concussion injury rates in men's and women's ice hockey are reported to be among the highest of all collegiate sports. Quantification of the frequency of head impacts and the magnitude of head acceleration as a function of the different impact mechanisms (eg, head contact with the ice) that occur in ice hockey could provide a better understanding of this high injury rate. Objective: To quantify and compare the per-game frequency and magnitude of head impacts associated with various impact mechanisms in men's and women's collegiate ice hockey players. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Collegiate ice hockey rink. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-three men and 31 women from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I ice hockey teams. Main Outcome Measure(s): We analyzed magnitude and frequency (per game) of head impacts per player among impact mechanisms and between sexes using generalized mixed linear models and generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures within players. Intervention(s): Participants wore helmets instrumented with accelerometers to allow us to collect biomechanical measures of head impacts sustained during play. Video footage from 53 games was synchronized with the biomechanical data. Head impacts were classified into 8 categories: contact with another player; the ice, boards or glass, stick, puck, or goal; indirect contact; and contact from celebrating. Results: For men and women, contact with another player was the most frequent impact mechanism, and contact with the ice generated the greatest-magnitude head accelerations. The men had higher per-game frequencies of head impacts from contact with another player and contact with the boards than did the women (P < .001), and these impacts were greater in peak rotational acceleration (P = .027). Conclusions: Identifying the impact mechanisms in collegiate ice hockey that result in frequent and high-magnitude head impacts will provide us with data that may improve our understanding of the high rate of concussion in the sport and inform injury-prevention strategies. PMID:25098659

  11. WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY HOCKEY GIRLS SKILLS CLINICS

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY HOCKEY GIRLS SKILLS CLINICS CLINIC 1: Saturday & Sunday, October 27.wesleyan.edu/athletics/wihockey/index.html TO SIGN UP QUESTIONS? CALL 860-685-2904 OR EMAIL JAMCKENNA@WESLEYAN.EDU #12;WESLEYAN HOCKEY GIRLS SKILLS ________________________ to participate in the WESLEYAN HOCKEY GIRLS SKILLS CLINIC offered by Wesleyan University beginning on or about

  12. Carleton University Ball Hockey Rules 1. Equipment

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    Carleton University Ball Hockey Rules 1. Equipment: Hockey sticks without a plastic blade MAY protector, trapper, blocker, jock, pads etc.) The league has two sets of goalie equipment available for use in case a goalie does not have own equipment. Standard sized hockey nets (4' by 6') will be used. Orange

  13. LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS OF ICE HOCKEY STICK PERFORMANCE

    E-print Network

    Smith, Lloyd V.

    the puck, deflecting, or loading the shaft. The stick may be viewed as a beam under a three-point are concerned with the technical aspects of shooting (Hoerner, 1989). The effect of stick stiffness on slap shot recoils, propelling the puck at a speed greater than the initial speed of the stick. The point

  14. Massachusetts Special Olympics Poly Hockey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Jim

    Poly Hockey is featured in this manual of instructions for coaches and teachers to use with mentally retarded boys and girls of all ages and ability levels. It is noted that the sport has been supported by the Board of Directors of the Special Olympics and has been used in Massachusetts for over 7 years. Explained is use of the game indoors, and…

  15. Visual Attentional Orienting in Developing Hockey Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enns, James T.; Richards, James C.

    1997-01-01

    Covert visual orienting was measured in 13 twelve-year-old and 11 fifteen-year-old hockey players and in 13 college students with no hockey training. Found that high-skill 15-year-olds were better able than all other groups to take advantage of the general alerting effect produced by the sudden onset of a cue. (MDM)

  16. Evaluation of cricket helmet performance and comparison with baseball and ice hockey helmets

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, A; Janda, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Protective helmets in sport are important for reducing the risk of head and facial injury. In cricket and other sports with projectiles, national test standards control the minimum helmet performance. However, there are few field data showing if helmets are effective in reducing head injury. Objectives: (a) To examine the performance of cricket helmets in laboratory tests; (b) to examine performance with regard to test standards, game hazards, and helmet construction; (c) to compare and contrast these findings with baseball and ice hockey helmets. Methods: Impact tests were conducted on a selection of helmet models: five cricket, two baseball, and two ice hockey. Ball to helmet impacts at speeds of 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s were produced using an air cannon and a Hybrid III dummy headform and neck unit. Free fall drop tests with a rigid headform on to a selection of anvils (flat rigid, flat deformable, and hemispherical rigid) were conducted. Resultant headform acceleration was measured and compared between tests. Results: At the lower speed impacts, all helmets produced a good reduction in headform acceleration, and thus injury risk. At the higher speed impacts, the effectiveness was less. For example, the mean maximum headform accelerations for all cricket helmets at each speed were: 67, 160, 316, and 438 g for 19, 27, 36, and 45 m/s ball speeds respectively. Drop tests on to a hemispherical anvil produced the highest accelerations. The variation in performance increased as the magnitude of the impact energy increased, in both types of testing. Conclusions: The test method used for baseball helmets in which the projectile is fired at the helmet may be superior to helmet drop tests. Cricket helmet performance is satisfactory for low speed impacts, but not for impacts at higher, more realistic, speeds. Baseball and ice hockey helmets offer slightly better relative and absolute performance at the 27 m/s ball and puck impacts. PMID:12893718

  17. NU Intramural Sports Ice Hockey Rules

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    with a band-aid. 3. GAME TIME IS FORFEIT TIME! The minimum number of players must have their Husky Cards with neck protection. No roller hockey pads will be allowed. #12;8. Exchanging equipment is not permitted

  18. Explanatory style among elite ice hockey athletes.

    PubMed

    Davis, H; Zaichkowsky, L

    1998-12-01

    Mentally tough' athletes show resilience and an ability to compete during adverse conditions. The present study investigated mental toughness and assessed causal explanations for positive and negative reactions to imagined events using Seligman's Attributional Style Questionnaire. Pessimistic Explanatory style on this scale is a risk factor for negative affect and behavior following negative events. 38 elite athletes in ice hockey were rated for mental toughness by the National Hockey League's scouts on consensually derived criteria. The comparison of players above and below the median split on mental toughness showed composite explanations for negative events that were more internal, stable and global for players above the median. Contrary to predictions, these results suggest that a Pessimistic Explanatory style may benefit hockey performance. PMID:9885080

  19. Ice hockey: a team physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Moslener, Matthew D; Wadsworth, L Tyler

    2010-01-01

    Ice hockey is an exciting sport that is growing in popularity in the United States. Injuries are a common part of the sport, with more injuries occurring in games compared with practice. Higher levels of competition have been shown to correlate with increased frequency of injury. Most frequently, injuries occur to the face, head, and neck, including concussions, contusions, lacerations, and dental injury. Lower extremity injuries include medial collateral ligament injury, meniscus tear, and high ankle sprains. Upper extremity injuries include acromioclavicular joint injury, glenohumeral dislocation, and various contusions and sprains. Groin and lower abdominal strains also are common. Women's hockey participation is increasing, with data that suggest injuries similar to those seen in men's hockey. PMID:20463495

  20. NU Intramural Sports Roller Hockey Rules

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    NU Intramural Sports Roller Hockey Rules GENERAL RULES: 1. All players must present their valid with a band-aid. 3. GAME TIME IS FORFEIT TIME! The minimum number of players must have their Husky Cards be responsible for collecting his team's IDs and registering their uniform numbers with the IM staff. 4. 3

  1. Hockey STAR: A Methodology for Assessing the Biomechanical Performance of Hockey Helmets.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Bethany; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing the protective capabilities of helmets is one of several methods of reducing brain injury risk in sports. This paper presents the experimental and analytical development of a hockey helmet evaluation methodology. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) formula combines head impact exposure with brain injury probability over the broad range of 227 head impacts that a hockey player is likely to experience during one season. These impact exposure data are mapped to laboratory testing parameters using a series of 12 impact conditions comprised of three energy levels and four head impact locations, which include centric and non-centric directions of force. Injury risk is determined using a multivariate injury risk function that incorporates both linear and rotational head acceleration measurements. All testing parameters are presented along with exemplar helmet test data. The Hockey STAR methodology provides a scientific framework for manufacturers to optimize hockey helmet design for injury risk reduction, as well as providing consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of hockey helmets. PMID:25822907

  2. Concussion among Swedish elite ice hockey players.

    PubMed Central

    Tegner, Y; Lorentzon, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of concussion in Swedish ice hockey and to establish a uniform grading and treatment model for concussions of different severity. METHODS: Frequency of concussion was investigated in two studies, one retrospective and one prospective. In the retrospective study, all Swedish elite ice hockey players (n = 265) were asked to answer a questionnaire on the number and treatment of previous concussions. Only concussions diagnosed by a doctor were recorded. The questionnaire was completed by 227 players (86%). In the prospective study, all injuries including concussions occurring during game and practice in the Swedish Elite League (n = 12 teams) were recorded during four years. The causes of injury, referees judgements, diagnosis, treatment, and time absent from ice hockey were registered on special cards. RESULTS: In the retrospective study, 51 out of 227 players (22%) in the Swedish Elite League reported at least one concussion. In the prospective study, 52 concussions were reported. The incidence of a concussion is at least one concussion every year/team or a yearly risk of about 5% for a player to sustain a concussion. Most concussions occurred during league play (81%). Body contact (checking or boarding) was the most common cause of concussions. The players were absent from full training and play on a mean of 6 d. CONCLUSIONS: As this injury is potentially dangerous it must be treated seriously according to a simple treatment model presented. In cases of repeated concussions during the same season, a longer period of time away from play is suggested. In players who have sustained several concussions over the years a thorough medical examination including EEG, CT/MRI, and neuropsychological tests should be performed. If any of these is pathological the player should be advised to give up ice hockey. PMID:8889123

  3. The Open Geospatial Consortium PUCK Standard: Building Sensor Networks with Self-Describing Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, T. C.; Broering, A.; del Rio, J.; Headley, K. L.; Toma, D.; Bermudez, L. E.; Edgington, D.; Fredericks, J.; Manuel, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sensor technology is rapidly advancing, enabling smaller and cheaper instruments to monitor Earth's environment. It is expected that many more kinds and quantities of networked environmental sensors will be deployed in coming years. Knowledge of each instrument's command protocol is required to operate and acquire data from the network. Making sense of these data streams to create an integrated picture of environmental conditions requires that each instrument's data and metadata be accurately processed and that "suspect" data be flagged. Use of standards to operate an instrument and retrieve and describe its data generally simplifies instrument software development, integration, operation and data processing. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) PUCK protocol enables instruments that describe themselves in a standard way. OGC PUCK defines a small "data sheet" that describes key instrument characteristics, and a standard protocol to retrieve the data sheet from the device itself. Data sheet fields include a universal serial number that is unique across all PUCK-compliant instruments. Other fields identify the instrument manufacturer and model. In addition to the data sheet, the instrument may also provide a "PUCK payload" which can contain additional descriptive information (e.g. a SensorML document or IEEE 1451 TEDS), as well as actual instrument "driver" code. Computers on the sensor network can use PUCK protocol to retrieve this information from installed instruments and utilize it appropriately, e.g. to automatically identify, configure and operate the instruments, and acquire and process their data. The protocol is defined for instruments with an RS232 or Ethernet interface. OGC members recently voted to adopt PUCK as a component of the OGC's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards. The protocol is also supported by a consortium of hydrographic instrument manufacturers and has been implemented by several of them (https://sites.google.com/site/soscsite/). Thus far PUCK has been deployed on oceanographic observatories in North America and Europe, and is generally applicable to environmental sensor networks. As an example we describe how PUCK can be used with other established and emerging OGC SWE standards to simplify configuration and operation of environmental sensor networks, and to automate assessment and processing of the sensor data. The PUCK specification is free of charge and can be downloaded along with tools to implement and use the standard from http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/puck.

  4. The evolution of subtle manoeuvres in simulated hockey Alan D. Blair ? & Elizabeth Sklar ??

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    engage in games with the aim of shooting a puck into the op­ posing goal during an allocated time period (Figure 1). Each player has a rectangular body 150mm by 50mm and a mass of 500 grams. The puck is circular in shape with a radius of 25mm and a mass of 100 grams. Collisions between the players, puck and walls

  5. The Ice Hockey Injury: A Case Study in Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Phil

    2004-01-01

    A high school hockey team is playing the last of three games in one day. The game gets rough, and the star player is slammed against the boards. Injured, he is escorted off the ice. This case follows his health as it deteriorates over the next several hours. Students are presented with the hockey player's symptoms, and they use their knowledge of…

  6. Bodychecking Rules and Concussion in Elite Hockey

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Laura; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Athletes participating in contact sports such as ice hockey are exposed to a high risk of suffering a concussion. We determined whether recent rule changes regulating contact to the head introduced in 2010–11 and 2011–12 have been effective in reducing the incidence of concussion in the National Hockey League (NHL). A league with a longstanding ban on hits contacting the head, the Ontario Hockey League (OHL), was also studied. A retrospective study of NHL and OHL games for the 2009–10 to 2011–12 seasons was performed using official game records and team injury reports in addition to other media sources. Concussion incidence over the 3 seasons analyzed was 5.23 per 100 NHL regular season games and 5.05 per 100 OHL regular season games (IRR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.50). When injuries described as concussion-like or suspicious of concussion were included, incidences rose to 8.8 and 7.1 per 100 games respectively (IRR 1.23; 95% CI 0.81, 1.32). The number of NHL concussions or suspected concussions was lower in 2009–10 than in 2010–11 (IRR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45, 0.83), but did not increase from 2010–11 to 2011–12 (IRR 1.05; 95% CI 0.80, 1.38). 64.2% of NHL concussions were caused by bodychecking, and only 28.4% of concussions and 36.8% of suspected concussions were caused by illegal incidents. We conclude that rules regulating bodychecking to the head did not reduce the number of players suffering concussions during NHL regular season play and that further changes or stricter enforcement of existing rules may be required to minimize the risk of players suffering these injuries. PMID:23874888

  7. International Toys in Space: Hockey - Duration: 2 minutes, 12 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cosmonauts Sergi Treschev and Valery Korzun discover ways to adapt the game of hockey while trying to overcome the challenges of playing the game in microgravity. Astronaut Peggy Whitson narrates t...

  8. Development of an autonomous robotic air hockey player

    E-print Network

    Vang, Bee, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Air hockey is a widely played sport in the United States and is expanding to other countries. It is usually played on a frictionless table between two or more people. The dependency of another individual makes it impossible ...

  9. Re-examining the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Gayton, William F; Perry, Scott M; Loignon, Andrew C; Ricker, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing shootout data from 2005 through 2008. Results indicated that teams involved in shootouts playing at their home arenas did not lose significantly more games at home than on the road. Results did not support the hypotheses that emphasize the roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey. PMID:21667767

  10. Periodic Orbits on a Triangular Air Hockey Table A Senior Thesis Submitted to the Department of

    E-print Network

    Umble, Ron

    Periodic Orbits on a Triangular Air Hockey Table A Senior Thesis Submitted to the Department 2 #12;Abstract We explore the existence of periodic orbits on a triangular air hockey table, also concerning more general triangles in section 3. 3 #12;Periodic Orbits in a Triangular Air Hockey Table

  11. "No Fear Comes": Adolescent Girls, Ice Hockey, and the Embodiment of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theberge, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between gender, physicality, and embodiment among Canadian adolescent girls who played ice hockey. Interview data indicated that the girls emphasized the importance of being aggressive (fearless in use of the body). Players understood that contrasts between men's hockey (more physical and aggressive) and women's hockey

  12. The evolution of subtle manoeuvres in simulated hockey Alan D. Blair ? & Elizabeth Sklar ??

    E-print Network

    Blair, Alan

    engage in games with the aim of shooting a puck into the op­ posing goal during an allocated time period a rectangular body 150mm by 50mm and a mass of 500 grams. The puck is circular in shape with a radius of 25mm and a mass of 100 grams. Collisions between the playe

  13. The evolution of subtle manoeuvres in simulated hockey Alan D. Blair?

    E-print Network

    Blair, Alan

    in games with the aim of shooting a puck into the op- posing goal during an allocated time period. One 150mm by 50mm and a mass of 500 grams. The puck is circular in shape with a radius of 25mm and a mass

  14. Injuries in Youth Hockey. On-Ice Emergency Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Bradford M.; Castaldi, Cosmo R.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the nature and frequency of injuries in youth hockey (which range from musculoskeletal injuries to life-threatening emergencies). Overall injury rates have decreased, but there is an increase in head, neck, and spine injuries. Those injuries that are serious demand prompt, skillful attention. A comprehensive format for on-ice management is…

  15. Asymmetry in body composition in female hockey players.

    PubMed

    Krzyka?a, M; Leszczy?ski, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a sport in which one side of the body is dominant, like field hockey, influences regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) distribution in particular body segments, and whether the sporting level is a determining factor. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method (Lunar Prodigy Advance; General Electric, Madison, USA) with the whole body scan was used to measure bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass in 31 female field hockey players divided according to their sporting level. The morphological asymmetry level was assessed between two body sides and body segments in athletes from the National Team (n=17) and from the Youth Team (n=14) separately and between groups. Bone mineral density in the lower extremity and of the trunk was significantly asymmetric in favor of the left side in the National Team. In the case of the Youth Team, only the trunk BMD indicated clear left-right difference with left side dominance. Both the lean mass and fat mass values were relatively higher on the left side of all body segments and it related to both analyzed groups of athletes. The present study shows that playing field hockey contributes to laterality in body composition and BMD and that the sporting level is a determining factor. In most cases the left side dominated. A greater asymmetry level was observed in more experienced female field hockey players. PMID:26077573

  16. Field Hockey; Lacrosse, June 1976-June 1978. NAGWS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Linda K., Ed.; Hess, Eleanor Kay, Ed.

    This guide for field hockey and lacrosse is one in a series of guides for 22 sports published by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS). Guides contain information on NAGWS-approved playing rules, officials' ratings, articles on teaching, coaching and organization, regulations governing national championships,…

  17. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Leiter, JR, Cordingley, DM, and MacDonald, PB. Aerobic development of elite youth ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 29(11): 3223-3228, 2015-Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ? 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ? 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups. PMID:26506063

  18. Benthic re-colonization in post-dredging pits in the Puck Bay (Southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymelfenig, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Graca, Bo?ena

    2006-07-01

    The stage of benthic re-colonization at a site formed by sand extraction was investigated some 10 years after the cessation of dredging. The examined post-dredging pit is one of five deep (up to 14 m) pits created with a static suction hopper on the sandy, flat and shallow (1-2 m) part of the inner Puck Bay (the southern Baltic Sea). The topography of the dredged area makes a specific trap for different kinds of organic matter. It is created by the small areas of post-dredging pits as compared to their depths. As a result, organic matter accumulation leads to anaerobic conditions and hydrogen sulfide formation. Macrofauna was not found to occur permanently in the deepest part (11 m) of the cup-shaped depression, which was characterized by its small area (0.2 km 2) and steep walls. However, permanent occurrence of meiofauna (max. 180 ind. 10 cm -2, mainly Nematoda) was noted. Undoubtedly, re-colonization of benthic fauna assemblages, typical of shallow and sandy seabed of the Puck Bay, will not follow in a natural way in the area of post-dredging pits. Also, it could not be expected that the re-colonization sequence would result in the formation of a structure similar to that of the natural depression (the Ku?nica Hollow).

  19. SPORT & RECREATION SERVICES-ICE HOCKEY INTRAMURALS RELEASE OF LIABILITY, WAIVER OF CLAIMS,

    E-print Network

    Kienzle, Stefan W.

    , or apparatus/equipment; impacting with other participants, referees, or equipment which includes, but is not limited to, game equipment such as: skates, pucks, sticks, helmets, goals; abrasions, bruises, blisters: _______________________Signature:________________________Date: The personal information is collected under aut

  20. SPORT & RECREATION SERVICES-ICE HOCKEY INTRAMURALS RELEASE OF LIABILITY, WAIVER OF CLAIMS,

    E-print Network

    Burg, Theresa

    , or apparatus/equipment; impacting with other participants, referees, or equipment which includes, but is not limited to, game equipment such as: skates, pucks, sticks, helmets, goals; abrasions, bruises, blisters: _______________________Signature:________________________Date: The personal information is collected under authorit

  1. Sport selection in under-17 male roller hockey.

    PubMed

    Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Vaz, Vasco; Simões, Filipe; Carvalho, Humberto M; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Figueiredo, António J; Pereira, Vanildo; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Malina, Robert M

    2012-12-01

    Characteristics of 32 international and 41 local under-17 (U-17) (14.5-16.5 years) roller hockey players were considered in the context of discrimination by competitive level using training history, anthropometry, skeletal maturation, and several laboratory and field performance tests. More international (42%) than local (22%) players were advanced in maturity status. International players had slightly less hockey experience (years), but had more practice sessions and match time (minutes) during the season. Local players were shorter and attained better performance in the 25-m dash, while international players performed better in sit-ups, ball throw and 20-m shuttle run. The fatigue index derived from the Wingate anaerobic test was higher among local players, while peak torques of knee extension and flexion were greater in international players. Stepwise discriminant function correctly classified 85% of players by competitive level based on grip strength, ratio of eccentric and concentric knee extension, number of training sessions, playing time and fatigue index. The results suggested an interaction among strength, anaerobic fitness and training plus game time as factors in discriminating international from local level players and by inference in the selection and development of youth roller hockey players. PMID:22867426

  2. The evolution of subtle manoeuvres in simulated hockey Alan D. Blair?

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    with the aim of shooting a puck into the op- posing goal during an allocated time period. One player may, with a goal at each end 150mm wide (Figure 1). Each player has a rectangular body 150mm by 50mm and a mass of 500 grams. The puck is circular in shape with a radius of 25mm and a mass of 100 grams. Collisions

  3. Estimating the Rate of Concussions in British Columbia Minor Hockey Using Community

    E-print Network

    Brennand, Tracy

    Estimating the Rate of Concussions in British Columbia Minor Hockey Using Community Volunteer of Concussions in British Columbia Minor Hockey Using Community Volunteer Collected Data. Examining Committee: Dr University Date Approved: ii #12;Abstract The rate of concussions has been examined in elite levels of ice

  4. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of siliciclastic, microbial laminated deposits from Puck Bay, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Malinski, E.; Witkowski, A.; Synak, E.; Szafranek, J.; Osterroht, C.; Pihlaja, K.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of siliciclastic, organic rich, microbial laminated deposits from the brackish-water environment of the Puck Bay (Southern Baltic Sea) were analyzed by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The distribution of extractable hydrocarbon fraction was examined. GC-MS investigations revealed that there occur n-alkanes from C/sub 16/ to C/sub 35/, hopanoids and isoprenoids (pristane and phytane). In spite of a number of subfossilized cyanobacteria and microalgae in the composition of the n-alkane fraction, long-chain alkanes predominate. High contents of C/sub 22/ and C/sub 24/ alkanes; relative abundance and variety of hopanoids (two of which have not been described previously) seems to be better indicators of the presence of cyanobacteria and microalgae and of their biodegraded remains.

  5. For immediate release --February 9, 2015 New book featuring local hockey stories to benefit

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    hockey stories to benefit KidSport From the dedicated moms and dads who started collecting stories from people with a southern Alberta connection I Get the Better I Was. "There are stories about guys who didn't go

  6. Reducing injury risk from body checking in boys' youth ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alison; Loud, Keith J; Brenner, Joel S; Demorest, Rebecca A; Halstead, Mark E; Kelly, Amanda K Weiss; Koutures, Chris G; LaBella, Cynthia R; LaBotz, Michele; Martin, Stephanie S; Moffatt, Kody

    2014-06-01

    Ice hockey is an increasingly popular sport that allows intentional collision in the form of body checking for males but not for females. There is a two- to threefold increased risk of all injury, severe injury, and concussion related to body checking at all levels of boys' youth ice hockey. The American Academy of Pediatrics reinforces the importance of stringent enforcement of rules to protect player safety as well as educational interventions to decrease unsafe tactics. To promote ice hockey as a lifelong recreational pursuit for boys, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the expansion of nonchecking programs and the restriction of body checking to elite levels of boys' youth ice hockey, starting no earlier than 15 years of age. PMID:24864185

  7. Seagrass vegetation and meiofauna enhance the bacterial abundance in the Baltic Sea sediments (Puck Bay).

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Emilia; Jankowska, Katarzyna; W?odarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the first report on bacterial communities in the sediments of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the shallow southern Baltic Sea (Puck Bay). Total bacterial cell numbers (TBNs) and bacteria biomass (BBM) assessed with the use of epifluorescence microscope and Norland's formula were compared between bare and vegetated sediments at two localities and in two sampling summer months. Significantly higher TBNs and BBM (PERMANOVA tests, P?

  8. Ice Hockey Summit II: zero tolerance for head hits and fighting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aynsley M; Stuart, Michael J; Dodick, David W; Roberts, William O; Alford, Patrick W; Ashare, Alan B; Aubrey, Mark; Benson, Brian W; Burke, Chip J; Dick, Randall; Eickhoff, Chad; Emery, Carolyn A; Flashman, Laura A; Gaz, Daniel V; Giza, Chris C; Greenwald, Richard M; Herring, Stanley A; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Hudziak, James J; Huston, John; Krause, David; LaVoi, Nicole; Leaf, Matt; Leddy, John J; MacPherson, Alison; McKee, Ann C; Mihalik, Jason P; Moessner, Anne M; Montelpare, William J; Putukian, Margot; Schneider, Kathryn J; Szalkowski, Ron; Tabrum, Mark; Whitehead, James R; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present currently known basic science and on-ice influences of sport-related concussion (SRC) in hockey, building upon the Ice Hockey Summit I action plan (2011) to reduce SRC. The prior summit proceedings included an action plan intended to reduce SRC. As such, the proceedings from Summit I served as a point of departure for the science and discussion held during Summit II (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, October 2013). Summit II focused on (1) Basic Science of Concussions in Ice Hockey: Taking Science Forward, (2) Acute and Chronic Concussion Care: Making a Difference, (3) Preventing Concussions via Behavior, Rules, Education, and Measuring Effectiveness, (4) Updates in Equipment: Their Relationship to Industry Standards, and (5) Policies and Plans at State, National, and Federal Levels To Reduce SRC. Action strategies derived from the presentations and discussion described in these sectors were voted on subsequently for purposes of prioritization. The following proceedings include the knowledge and research shared by invited faculty, many of whom are health care providers and clinical investigators. The Summit II evidence-based action plan emphasizes the rapidly evolving scientific content of hockey SRC. It includes the most highly prioritized strategies voted on for implementation to decrease concussion. The highest-priority action items identified from the Summit include the following: (1) eliminate head hits from all levels of ice hockey, (2) change body checking policies, and (3) eliminate fighting in all amateur and professional hockey. PMID:25757010

  9. Career/Life Transition Needs of National Hockey League Players and Career-Life Transition Needs of National Hockey League Players: Spouses Perspectives. Final Reports Prepared for the National Hockey League Players' Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blann, Wayne; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    Two surveys were conducted regarding the career and life transition needs of National Hockey League (NHL) players and their spouses. The Professional Athletes' Career Transition Inventory was distributed to player representatives and members of eight NHL teams. Results revealed that 85 percent of players believed it important that help be provided…

  10. A comparison of the epidemiology of ice hockey injuries between male and female youth in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Forward, Karen E; Seabrook, Jamie A; Lynch, Tim; Lim, Rodrick; Poonai, Naveen; Sangha, Gurinder S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hockey is played by youth across Canada, and its popularity has increased dramatically among females in the past decade. Despite this, there has been little epidemiological research comparing the injury patterns of young female and male hockey players. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare injuries sustained by female and male youth hockey players using the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database. METHODS: In the present cross-sectional, retrospective comparison study, the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database was used to identify all hockey-related injuries sustained by children seven to 17.5 years of age over a 15-year period (January 1995 to December 2009). Exclusion criteria included paid professional players and children with injuries sustained while playing road hockey. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met by 33,233 children (2637 [7.9%] females and 30,596 [92.1%] males). Compared with males, females reported proportionately more soft tissue injuries (39.8% versus 32.6%; P<0.01) and sprains/strains (21.1% versus 17.6%; P<0.01). Males experienced more fractures (27.1% versus 18.2%; P<0.01) and were most often injured through body checking (42.8% versus 25.7%; P<0.01). Females showed a trend toward increased concussion with age, and were most often injured through collisions (28.6% versus 24.6%; P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with males, female hockey players sustained proportionately more soft tissue injures and sprains/strains, and showed a trend toward concussions in late adolecence. Males experienced more fractures, shoulder injuries and injuries due to body checking. Further research is required to identify risk factors for injury in female youth hockey players and to target injury prevention. PMID:25382998

  11. In situ calibration of the Gamma Reaction History instrument using reference samples ("pucks") for areal density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, N. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Hsu, H. H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Wilson, D. C.; Stoeffl, W. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Miller, E. K.; Grafil, E.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Duffy, T.

    2013-11-01

    The introduction of a sample of carbon, for example a disk or "puck", near an imploding DT-filled capsule creates a source of 12C gamma rays that can serve as a reference for calibrating the response of the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) detector [1]. Such calibration is important in the measurement of ablator areal density ??R?abl in plastic-ablator DT-filled capsules at OMEGA [2], by allowing ??R?abl to be inferred as a function of ratios of signals rather than from absolute measurements of signal magnitudes. Systematic uncertainties in signal measurements and detector responses therefore cancel, permitting more accurate measurements of ??R?abl.

  12. Game Intensity Analysis of Elite Adolescent Ice Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Stanula, Arkadiusz; Roczniok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine ice-hockey players’ playing intensity based on their heart rates (HRs) recorded during a game and on the outcomes of an incremental maximum oxygen uptake test. Twenty ice-hockey players, members of the Polish junior national team (U18), performed an incremental test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max) in the two week’s period preceding 5 games they played at the World Championships. Players’ HRs at the first and second ventilatory thresholds obtained during the test were utilized to determine intensity zones (low, moderate, and high) that were subsequently used to classify HR values recorded during each of the games. For individual intensity zones, the following HRs expressed as mean values and as percentages of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) were obtained: forwards 148–158 b·min?1 (79.5–84.8% HRmax), 159–178 b·min?1 (85.4–95.6% HRmax), 179–186 b·min?1 (96.1–100.0% HRmax); defensemen 149–153 b·min?1 (80.0–82.1% HRmax), 154–175 b·min?1 (82.6–94.0% HRmax), 176–186 b·min?1 (94.5–100.0% HRmax). The amount of time the forwards and defensemen spent in the three intensity zones expressed as percentages of the total time of the game were: 54.91 vs. 55.62% (low), 26.40 vs. 22.38% (moderate) and 18.68 vs. 22.00% (high). The forwards spent more time in the low intensity zone than the defensemen, however, the difference was not statistically significant. The results of the study indicate that using aerobic and anaerobic metabolism variables to determine intensity zones can significantly improve the reliability of evaluation of the physiological demands of the game, and can be a useful tool for coaches in managing the training process. PMID:25713682

  13. Integration of the functional movement screen into the National Hockey League Combine.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Chip P; Kuropkat, Christiane; Gumieniak, Robert J; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K

    2015-05-01

    The sport of ice hockey requires coordination of complex skills involving musculoskeletal and physiological abilities while simultaneously exposing players to a high risk for injury. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) was developed to assess fundamental movement patterns that underlie both sport performance and injury risk. The top 111 elite junior hockey players from around the world took part in the 2013 National Hockey League Entry Draft Combine (NHL Combine). The FMS was integrated into the comprehensive medical and physiological fitness evaluations at the request of strength and conditioning coaches with affiliations to NHL teams. The inclusion of the FMS aimed to help develop strategies that could maximize its utility among elite hockey players and to encourage or inform further research in this field. This study evaluated the outcomes of integrating the FMS into the NHL Combine and identified any links to other medical plus physical and physiological fitness assessment outcomes. These potential associations may provide valuable information to identify elements of future training programs that are individualized to athletes' specific needs. The results of the FMS (total score and number of asymmetries identified) were significantly correlated to various body composition measures, aerobic and anaerobic fitness, leg power, timing of recent workouts, and the presence of lingering injury at the time of the NHL Combine. Although statistically significant correlations were observed, the implications of the FMS assessment outcomes remain difficult to quantify until ongoing assessment of FMS patterns, tracking of injuries, and hockey performance are available. PMID:25719918

  14. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Hockey Players: Nutrition Knowledge and Education.

    PubMed

    Reading, Karen J.; McCargar, Linda J.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    1999-01-01

    Athletes often have inadequate nutrition knowledge and poor nutritional habits, which can have a negative impact on athletic performance. This study assessed the nutrition knowledge of competitive adolescent and young adult male hockey players, and examined the impact of a nutrition intervention program, Sport Nutrition for the Athletes of Canada (SNAC). Before the intervention, nutrition knowledge was tested in 175 adolescent and young adult male hockey players. The intervention was provided as part of a hockey camp curriculum and was based on the SNAC workbook, which emphasizes achieving a balanced diet with adequate energy and fluid intake. After the intervention, nutrition knowledge was assessed in a subgroup of 33 hockey players. The pre-intervention nutrition knowledge score was 45% (n = 175), which suggests this population had little sport nutrition knowledge. Nutrition knowledge scores two weeks after the intervention showed no meaningful improvement in the subgroup. The results of this study suggest that the SNAC nutrition intervention program offered under the conditions of this study, did not effectively improve nutrition knowledge in adolescent and young adult male hockey players. PMID:11551328

  15. Gender Differences in Head Impacts Sustained by Collegiate Ice Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Brainard, Lindley L.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Crisco, Joseph J.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Maerlender, Arthur C.; Greenwald, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to quantify the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts sustained by male and female collegiate ice hockey players over two seasons of play. Methods Over two seasons, 88 collegiate athletes (51 female, 37 male) on two female and male NCAA varsity ice hockey teams wore instrumented helmets. Each helmet was equipped with 6 single-axis accelerometers and a miniature data acquisition system to capture and record head impacts sustained during play. Data collected from the helmets were post-processed to compute linear and rotational acceleration of the head as well as impact location. The head impact exposure data (frequency, location, and magnitude) were then compared across gender. Results Female hockey players experienced a significantly lower (p < 0.001) number of impacts per athlete exposure than males (female: 1.7 ± 0.7; male: 2.9 ± 1.2). The frequency of impacts by location was the same between gender (p > 0.278) for all locations except the right side of the head, where males received fewer impacts than females (p = 0.031). Female hockey players were 1.1 times more likely than males to sustain an impact less than 50 g while males were 1.3 times more likely to sustain an impact greater than 100 g. Similarly, males were 1.9 times more likely to sustain an impact with peak rotational acceleration greater than 5,000 rad/s2 and 3.5 times more likely to sustain an impact greater than 10,000 rad/s2. Conclusions Although the incidence of concussion has typically been higher for female hockey players than male hockey players, female players sustain fewer impacts and impacts resulting in lower head acceleration than males. Further study is required to better understand the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that lead to higher rates of concussion for females that have been previously reported. PMID:21716150

  16. The past, present, and future of hockey-stick-shaped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E.-Joon

    2014-02-01

    Recently, the liquid crystalline materials with a bent-core mesogen have attracted attentions because their interesting properties such as polarity and biaxiality of the mesophase. There are several types of bent-core mesogenic structures have been reported, for instance, banana-shaped, V-shaped molecules, boomerang-shaped, hockey stick-shaped, and Yshaped molecules. In this study, the liquid crystals and the reactive mesogens with the hockey-stick shaped mesogens will be described concerning with the structure-property relationship.

  17. [Evaluation of consumption of selected nutrients in a group of hockey players during the preparation period].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate consumption level of selected vitamins and mineral ingredients in a group of 70 competitive hockey players during the preparation period. The analysis of quantity eating rations was conducted on the base of dietary interview about consumption within 72 hrs preceding the research. The research shows that the analyzed eating rations contain non-balanced amount of vitamins: excessive supply of vitamin A (1271.9 mg) (according to Ziemlanski standards) and its deficit (according to Celejowa standards) and also excessive supply of vitamin E (316.3 mg). Eating rations of hockey players are deficient in vitamin C (62.5 mg) regarding standards for this group of sportsmen. Average supply of vitamin B2 (1.7 mg) may also be insufficient. The research proved also non-balanced supply of some mineral ingredients in eating rations of hockey players. The supply of phosphorus (1529.3 mg) exceeded advisable norms whereas calcium supply was insufficient. Average taking magnesium (342.9 mg) was within standards and iron (15.3 mg) covered the demands according to Ziemlanski standards, however; it was insufficient regarding Celejowa standards for hockey-players. PMID:21365861

  18. Trajectories of Affective States in Adolescent Hockey Players: Turning Point and Motivational Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Patrick; Amiot, Catherine E.; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal trajectories of positive and negative affective states with a sample of 265 adolescent elite hockey players followed across 3 measurement points during the 1st 11 weeks of a season. Latent class growth modeling, incorporating a time-varying covariate and a series of predictors assessed at the onset of the season,…

  19. Describing Strategies Used by Elite, Intermediate, and Novice Ice Hockey Referees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, David J.; Ste-Marie, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Much is known about sport officials' decisions (e.g., anticipation, visual search, and prior experience). Comprehension of the entire decision process, however, requires an ecologically valid examination. To address this, we implemented a 2-part study using an expertise paradigm with ice hockey referees. Purpose: Study 1 explored the…

  20. Relative Age Effects and the PhD 1 Revisiting Gladwell's Hockey Players

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Relative Age Effects and the PhD 1 Revisiting Gladwell's Hockey Players: Influence of Relative Age examine the influence of relative age effects (RAE) upon whether someone earns the PhD. Drawing, or conclusions contained in this report. #12;Relative Age Effects and the PhD 2 1. INTRODUCTION Parental

  1. Checking in: An Analysis of the (Lack of) Body Checking in Women's Ice Hockey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaving, Charlene; Roberts, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of women's ice hockey in North America, players continue to face limitations because of the prohibition of body checking. In this paper, we argue from a liberal feminist philosophical perspective that this prohibition reinforces existing traditional stereotypes of female athletes. Because the women's game does not…

  2. Ice Hockey Players Using a Weighted Implement when Training on the Ice: A Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Timothy W.; Tvoric, Bojan; Walker, Bruce; Noonan, Dom; Sibla, Janeene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for improving hockey players' performance using a weighted implement on the ice. Forty-eight players were tested using a grip strength dynamometer. They also were assessed on their abilities to stick-handle. The participants were randomly placed into a control or research group. The…

  3. Receiving Video-Based Feedback in Elite Ice-Hockey: A Player's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lee J.; Potrac, Paul; Groom, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide some rich insights into how an elite ice-hockey player responded to his coaches' pedagogical delivery of video-based feedback sessions. Data for this study were gathered through a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews and a reflective log relating to those interviews. The interviews were…

  4. A test of motor skill-specific action embodiment in ice-hockey players.

    PubMed

    Ong, Nicole T; Lohse, Keith R; Chua, Romeo; Sinnett, Scott; Hodges, Nicola J

    2014-07-01

    To further our understanding of the role of the motor system in comprehending action-related sentences, we compared action experts (athletes) to visual experts (fans) and novices when responding with an action-specific effector (either hand or foot). These conditions allowed inferences about the degree and specificity of embodiment in language comprehension. Ice hockey players, fans and novices made speeded judgments regarding the congruence between an auditorily presented sentence and a subsequently presented picture. Picture stimuli consisted of either hockey or everyday items. Half of these pictures 'matched' the action implied in the preceding sentence. Further, the action in these images involved either primarily the hand or the foot. For everyday items, action-matched items were responded to faster than action-mismatched items. However, only the players and fans showed the action-match effect for hockey items. There were no consistent effector-stimuli compatibility effects, nor skill-based interactions with compatibility, suggesting that the action-match effect was not based on motor ability per se, but rather a construction of the action based on knowledge or visual experience with the hockey related sentences. PMID:24818535

  5. Table Hockey: Attack or Linking? Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy with an Autistic Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, May

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some issues that might arise when one considers having a table hockey game in the therapy room, and describes how an autistic boy, aged four-and-a-half when starting treatment, used that game. The unfolding process from withdrawal to separateness, intersubjectivity and playfulness is illustrated by the progress of two years of…

  6. Time-motion analysis of elite field hockey, with special reference to repeated-sprint activity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Matt; Lawrence, Steven; Rechichi, Claire; Bishop, David; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel

    2004-09-01

    Limited information exists about the movement patterns of field-hockey players, especially during elite competition. Time-motion analysis was used to document the movement patterns during an international field-hockey game. In addition, the movement patterns of repeated-sprint activity were investigated, as repeated-sprint ability is considered to be an important fitness component of team-sport performance. Fourteen members of the Australian men's field-hockey team (age 26+/-3 years, body mass 76.7+/-5.6 kg, VO2max 57.9+/-3.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); mean+/-s) were filmed during an international game and their movement patterns were analysed. The majority of the total player game time was spent in the low-intensity motions of walking, jogging and standing (46.5+/-8.1, 40.5+/-7.0 and 7.4+/-0.9%, respectively). In comparison, the proportions of time spent in striding and sprinting were 4.1+/-1.1 and 1.5+/-0.6%, respectively. Our criteria for 'repeated-sprint' activity (defined as a minimum of three sprints, with mean recovery duration between sprints of less than 21 s) was met on 17 occasions during the game (total for all players), with a mean 4+/-1 sprints per bout. On average, 95% of the recovery during the repeated-sprint bouts was of an active nature. In summary, the results suggest that the motion activities of an elite field-hockey competition are similar to those of elite soccer, rugby and Australian Rules football. In addition, the investigation of repeated-sprint activity during competition has provided additional information about the unique physiological demands of elite field-hockey performance. PMID:15513278

  7. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. Methods: We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. Results: We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2–5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Interpretation: Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required. PMID:23209118

  8. Learning Sequential Motor Tasks Christian Daniel1, Gerhard Neumann1, Oliver Kroemer1 and Jan Peters1,2

    E-print Network

    . The puck can only be moved by shooting another puck at it. The robot has three shots to move the puck movements that finally result in scoring a point. Such a behavior requires strategic decisions on what type hockey task. The robot has to hit a puck into one of three target zones which yield different rewards

  9. The Protective Effect of Kevlar ® Socks Against Hockey Skate Blade Injuries: A Biomechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Nauth, Aaron; Aziz, Mina; Tsuji, Matthew; Whelan, Daniel B.; Theodoropoulos, John S.; Zdero, Rad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Several recent high profile injuries to elite players in the National Hockey League (NHL) secondary to skate blade lacerations have generated significant interest in these injuries and possible methods to protect against them. These injuries are typically due to direct contact of the skate blade of another player with posterior aspect of the calf resulting in a range of potential injuries to tendons or neurovascular structures. The Achilles tendon is most commonly involved. Kevlar® reinforced socks have recently become available for hockey players to wear and are cited as providing possible protection against such injuries. However, there has been no investigation of the possible protective effects of Kevlar® reinforced socks against skate blade injuries, and it is currently unknown what protective effects, if any, that these socks provide against these injuries. The proposed study sought to address this by conducting a biomechanical investigation of the protective effects of Kevlar® reinforced socks against Achilles tendon injuries in a simulated model of skate blade injury using human cadaver limbs. This novel investigation is the first to address the possible benefits to hockey players of wearing Kevlar® reinforced socks. Methods: Seven matched pairs of human cadaver lower limbs were fitted with a Kevlar ® reinforced sock comprised of 60% Kevlar®/20% Coolmax® polyester/18 % Nylon/12% Spandex (Bauer Elite Performance Skate Sock) on one limb and a standard synthetic sock comprised of 51% polyester/47% nylon/2% spandex (Bauer Premium Performance Skate Sock) on the contralateral limb as a control. Each limb was then mounted on a Materials Testing System (MTS) with the ankle dorsiflexed to 90° and the knee held in full extension using a custom designed jig. Specimens were then impacted with a hockey skate blade directed at the posterior calf, 12 cm above the heel, at an angle of 45° and a speed of 31m/s, to a penetration depth of 4.3 cm, to simulate a typical ice hockey injury. Peak force, energy and power were calculated from the force-displacement data collected from the 7 matched pair trials. The cadavers were then dissected to identify the extent of the injury the skin and Achilles tendon from blade impact. Analysis of variance was used to test for a significant difference between the groups. Results: None (0/7) of the achilles tendons were lacerated when protected with Kevlar® reinforced socks; whereas all (7/7) achilles tendons tested using the standard synthetic sock were completely severed (Figure 1). Peak force (4030 +/- 1191 N vs. 2037 +/- 729 N), energy (81.4 +/- 38.9 J vs. 26.3 +/- 13.2 J) and power (471.2 +/- 166.7 W vs. 258.3 +/- 93.5 W) were all significantly (p<0.05) increased in the Kevlar® reinforced sock group compared to the standard synthetic sock group in our testing model (Figures 2 and 3). Conclusion: The Kevlar® reinforced socks provided significantly more cut resistance and were able to withstand a significantly larger peak force, energy and power from skate blade impact and prevent achilles tendon laceration when compared to standard synthetic hockey socks in a biomechanical testing model using human cadaver limbs. This is the first investigation to address the benefits of wearing Kevlar® reinforced hockey socks in a simulated model of hockey skate injuries and our results suggest a significant protective effect from the use of Kevlar® reinforced socks against hockey skate injuries.

  10. Biomechanics of head impacts associated with diagnosed concussion in female collegiate ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bethany J; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Greenwald, Richard M; Raukar, Neha P; Chu, Jeffrey J; McAllister, Thomas W; Flashman, Laura A; Maerlender, Arthur C; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Crisco, Joseph J

    2015-07-16

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that female athletes may be at a greater risk of concussion than their male counterparts. The purpose of this study was to examine the biomechanics of head impacts associated with diagnosed concussions in a cohort of female collegiate ice hockey players. Instrumented helmets were worn by 58 female ice hockey players from 2 NCAA programs over a three year period. Kinematic measures of single impacts associated with diagnosed concussion and head impact exposure on days with and without diagnosed concussion were evaluated. Nine concussions were diagnosed. Head impact exposure was greater in frequency and magnitude on days of diagnosed concussions than on days without diagnosed concussion for individual athletes. Peak linear accelerations of head impacts associated with diagnosed concussion in this study are substantially lower than those previously reported in male athletes, while peak rotational accelerations are comparable. Further research is warranted to determine the extent to which female athletes' biomechanical tolerance to concussion injuries differs from males. PMID:25913243

  11. An On-Ice Measurement Approach to Analyse the Biomechanics of Ice Hockey Skating

    PubMed Central

    Buckeridge, Erica; LeVangie, Marc C.; Stetter, Bernd; Nigg, Sandro R.; Nigg, Benno M.

    2015-01-01

    Skating is a fundamental movement in ice hockey; however little research has been conducted within the field of hockey skating biomechanics due to the difficulties of on-ice data collection. In this study a novel on-ice measurement approach was tested for reliability, and subsequently implemented to investigate the forward skating technique, as well as technique differences across skill levels. Nine high caliber (High) and nine low caliber (Low) hockey players performed 30m forward skating trials. A 3D accelerometer was mounted to the right skate for the purpose of stride detection, with the 2nd and 6th strides defined as acceleration and steady-state, respectively. The activity of five lower extremity muscles was recorded using surface electromyography. Biaxial electro-goniometers were used to quantify hip and knee angles, and in-skate plantar force was measured using instrumented insoles. Reliability was assessed with the coefficient of multiple correlation, which demonstrated moderate (r>0.65) to excellent (r>0.95) scores across selected measured variables. Greater plantar-flexor muscle activity and hip extension were evident during acceleration strides, while steady state strides exhibited greater knee extensor activity and hip abduction range of motion (p<0.05). High caliber exhibited greater hip range of motion and forefoot force application (p<0.05). The successful implementation of this on-ice mobile measurement approach offers potential for athlete monitoring, biofeedback and training advice. PMID:25973775

  12. Explosive Model Tarantula V1/JWL++ Calibration of LX-17: #2

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2009-05-01

    Tarantula V1 is a kinetic package for reactive flow codes that seeks to describe initiation, failure, dead zones and detonation simultaneously. The most important parameter is P1, the pressure between the initiation and failure regions. Both dead zone formation and failure can be largely controlled with this knob. However, V1 does failure with low settings and dead zones with higher settings, so that it cannot fulfill its purpose in the current format. To this end, V2 is under test. The derivation of the initiation threshold P0 is discussed. The derivation of the initiation pressure-tau curve as an output of Tarantula shows that the initiation package is sound. A desensitization package is also considered.

  13. A model for predicting the evolution of damage in the plastic bonded explosive LX17 

    E-print Network

    Seidel, Gary Don

    2002-01-01

    Viscoelastic cohesive zones are employed within the framework of a finite element code to model a two-phase particle-reinforced composite material consisting of a relatively stiff aggregate embedded in a copolymer binder. The composite of interest...

  14. Development of hydroacoustical techniques for the monitoring and classification of benthic habitats in Puck Bay: Modeling of acoustic waves scattering by seagrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raczkowska, A.; Gorska, N.

    2012-12-01

    Puck Bay is an area of high species biodiversity belonging to the Coastal Landscape Park of Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA) and is also included in the list of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and covered by the protection program "Natura 2000". The underwater meadows of the Puck Bay are important for Europe's natural habitats due to their role in enhancing the productivity of marine ecosystems and providing shelter and optimal feeding conditions for many marine organisms. One of the dominant species comprising the underwater meadows of the Southern Baltic Sea is the seagrass Zostera marina. The spatial extent of underwater seagrass meadows is altered by pollution and eutrophication; therefore, to properly manage the area one must monitor its ecological state. Remote acoustic methods are useful tools for the monitoring of benthic habitats in many marine areas because they are non-invasive and allow researchers to obtain data from a large area in a short period of time. Currently there is a need to apply these methods in the Baltic Sea. Here we present an analysis of the mechanism of scattering of acoustic waves on seagrass in the Southern Baltic Sea based on the numerical modeling of acoustic wave scattering by the biological tissues of plants. The study was conducted by adapting a model developed on the basis of DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation) developed by Stanton and Chu (2005) for fluid-like objects, including the characteristics of the Southern Baltic seagrass. Input data for the model, including the morphometry of seagrass leaves, their angle of inclination and the density plant cover, was obtained through the analysis of biological materials collected in the Puck Bay in the framework of a research project financed by the Polish Government (Development of hydroacoustic methods for studies of underwater meadows of Puck Bay, 6P04E 051 20). On the basis of the developed model, we have analyzed the dependence of the target strength of a single seagrass leaf and the strength of surface scattering from the orientation of the leaves relative to the direction of incidence of the acoustic wave. The influences of the acoustic properties of the biological plant tissue and acoustic frequency were also examined in regards to these dependencies. It was found that the target strength of the seagrass leaf depends on the angle of inclination relative to the direction of incidence of the acoustic wave; furthermore, target strength was found to be sensitive to the frequency of the wave and the value of density and speed sound contrasts. These parameters also affect the nature of the oscillations depending on the target strenght to the angle of inclination of sea grass leaves. We have also performed a prognosis of surface scattering strength variability for sea grass meadows of Zostera marina in Puck Bay. The results obtained in this study are important for interpretation of acoustic measurements carried out in the underwater meadows of Puck Bay. Thus, they contribute to the development of non-invasive and fast acoustic monitoring methods.

  15. The Assessment of Airway Maneuvers and Interventions in University Canadian Football, Ice Hockey, and Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, J. Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Baylis, Penny-Jane; Troutman, Tracy; Aljufaili, Mahmood; Correa, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Managing an airway in an unconscious athlete is a lifesaving skill that may be made more difficult by the recent changes in protective equipment. Different airway maneuvers and techniques may be required to help ventilate an unconscious athlete who is wearing full protective equipment. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of different airway maneuvers with football, ice hockey, and soccer players wearing full protective equipment. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University sports medicine clinic. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 146 university varsity athletes, consisting of 62 football, 45 ice hockey, and 39 soccer players. Intervention(s): Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three investigators then evaluated the effectiveness of different bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation techniques in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while inline cervical spine immobilization was maintained. Main Outcome Measure(s): The effectiveness of 1-person BVM ventilation (1-BVM), 2-person BVM ventilation (2-BVM), and inline immobilization and ventilation (IIV) was judged by each investigator for each athlete using a 4-point rating scale. Results: All forms of ventilation were least difficult in soccer players and most difficult in football players. When compared with 1-BVM, both 2-BVM and IIV were deemed more effective by all investigators for all athletes. Interference from the helmet and stabilizer were common reasons for difficult ventilation in football and ice hockey players. Conclusions: Sports medicine professionals should practice and be comfortable with different ventilation techniques for athletes wearing full equipment. The use of a new ventilation technique, termed inline immobilization and ventilation, may be beneficial, especially when the number of responders is limited. PMID:21391796

  16. The Impact of a Sports Vision Training Program in Youth Field Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Sebastian; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a sports vision training program improves the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training. The choice reaction time task at the D2 board (Learning Task I), the functional field of view task (Learning Task II) and the multiple object tracking (MOT) task (Transfer Task) were assessed before and after the intervention and again six weeks after the second test. Analyzes showed significant differences between the two groups for the choice reaction time task at the D2 board and the functional field of view task, with significant improvements for the intervention group and none for the control group. For the transfer task, we could not find statistically significant improvements for either group. The results of this study are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications. Key pointsPerceptual training with youth field hockey playersCan a sports vision training program improve the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training?The intervention was performed in the “VisuLab” as DynamicEye® SportsVision Training at the German Sport University Cologne.We ran a series of 3 two-factor univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on both within subject independent variables (group; measuring point) to examine the effects on central perception, peripheral perception and choice reaction time.The present study shows an improvement of certain visual abilities with the help of the sports vision training program. PMID:24150071

  17. Skating mechanics of change-of-direction manoeuvres in ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Antoine; Turcotte, René A; Pearsall, David J

    2014-11-01

    Ice hockey requires rapid transitions between skating trajectories to effectively navigate about the ice surface. Player performance relates in large part to effective change-of-direction manoeuvres, but little is known about how those skills are performed mechanically and the effect of equipment design on them. The purpose of this study was to observe the kinetics involved in those manoeuvres as well as to compare whether kinetic differences may result between two skate models of varying ankle mobility. Eight subjects with competitive ice hockey playing experience performed rapid lateral (90°) left and right change-of-direction manoeuvres. Kinetic data were collected using force strain gauge transducers on the blade holders of the skates. Significantly greater forces were applied by the outside skate (50-70% body weight, %BW) in comparison to the inside skate (12-24%BW, p < 0.05). Skate model and turn direction had no main effect, though significant mixed interactions between leg side (inside/outside) with skate model or turn direction (p < 0.05) were observed, with a trend for left-turn dominance. This study demonstrates the asymmetric dynamic behaviour inherent in skating change-of-direction tasks. PMID:25419626

  18. “I Went to a Fight the Other Night and a Hockey Game Broke Out”

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmied, Nadav; Espindola, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Background: The current study explored the relationship between fighting behavior and passage of time, across games and seasons, in an attempt to assess if violent behavior in hockey is impulsive or intentional. Hypothesis: Before engaging in fighting behavior, players assess the utility of their actions and thus will fight less when the game is on the line (third period) and when champions are crowned (postseason). Methods: An archival exploration utilizing open access databases from multiple Internet sources. Results: During the 2010-2011 National Hockey League (NHL) season, players were significantly less likely to be involved in a fight as the game was coming to a close than in its early stages. In addition, data from the past 10 NHL seasons showed that players were significantly more violent in preseason games than during the regular season. They were also least likely to be involved in a fight during the postseason. Conclusion: The converging evidence suggests that players take into account the penalties associated with fighting and are less likely to engage in violence when the stakes are high, such as at the end of a game or a season. This implies, in turn, that major acts of aggression in the league are more likely to be calculated rather than impulsive. The findings suggest that a more punitive system should diminish fighting behavior markedly. PMID:24427418

  19. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60?min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ? peak power (p<0.003) and ? mean power (p<0.02). Additionally, IG demonstrated a faster ? sprint (p<0.02) and a trend (p=0.08) for faster ? endurance test time to completion for IG. These results indicate that hockey players may utilize short-term HIIT to elicit positive effects in muscle thickness, power and on-ice performance. PMID:25329432

  20. King-Devick test normative reference values for professional male ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, M V; Holm, A; Peltonen, K; Luoto, T M; Iverson, G L; Hokkanen, L

    2015-06-01

    The King-Devick (K-D) test, a measure of processing speed, visual tracking, and saccadic eye movements, has shown promise as a supplemental screening test following concussion. However, limited normative data for this test have been published.The K-D test was administered to 185 professional ice hockey players as a preseason baseline test in seasons 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. Their average age was 23.8 years (median?=?22.0 years, range?=?16-40 years). The average K-D score was 40.0?s (SD?=?6.1?s, range?=?24.0-65.7?s). K-D test performance showed no association with age, education, or the number of self-reported previous concussions in this sample. The association between trials 1 and 2 of the K-D test was good (ICC?=?0.92, Pearson?=?0.93). Normative values of the K-D test for professional male ice hockey players are reported. K-D test performance did not vary by age, education, or concussion history in this study. PMID:25138698

  1. Effects of Carbohydrate Intake Before and During An Ice Hockey Game on Blood and Muscle Energy Substrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Clermont; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the effect of a supplemental carbohydrate intake for seven elite ice hockey players before and during a game demonstrated that the supplement could result in less glycogen usage per distance skated, which had important implications for athletes who may participate in more than one game a day. (Author/CB)

  2. The effects of team diversity on a team process and team performance in the National Hockey League 

    E-print Network

    Waltemyer, David Scott

    2009-05-15

    and managers, while also contributing to the theoretical body of literature for sport and diversity research. This research examined National Hockey League teams and players during a three year period (2001-2004). English Canadians made up 42.5% of the players...

  3. Division I Hockey Players Generate More Power Than Division III Players During on- and Off-Ice Performance Tests.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Ben J; Fitzgerald, John S; Dietz, Calvin C; Ziegler, Kevin S; Ingraham, Stacy J; Baker, Sarah E; Snyder, Eric M

    2015-05-01

    Current research has found anthropometric and physiological characteristics of hockey players that are correlated to performance. These characteristics, however, have never been examined to see whether significant differences exist between on- and off-ice performance markers at different levels of play; Division I, Elite Junior, and Division III. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences that may exist between these characteristics in Division I (24), Elite Junior (10), and Division III hockey (11) players. Forty-five (age: 18-24 years) hockey players completed anthropometric, on-ice, and off-ice tests to ascertain average measures for each division of play. On-ice testing was conducted in full hockey gear and consisted of acceleration, top-speed, and on-ice repeated shift test (RST). Off-ice tests included vertical jump, Wingate, grip strength, and a graded exercise test performed on a skating treadmill to ascertain their (Equation is included in full-text article.). Division I players had significantly lower body fat than their Division III peers (p = 0.004). Division I players also scored significantly better on measures of anaerobic power; vertical jump (p = 0.001), Wingate peak power (p = 0.05), grip strength (p = 0.008), top speed (p = 0.001), and fastest RST course time (p = 0.001) than their Division III counterparts. There was no significant difference between Division I and Elite Junior players for any on- or off-ice performance variable. The results of this study indicate that performance differences between Division I and Division III hockey players seem to be primarily because of the rate of force production. PMID:25436625

  4. Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 1: Susceptibility-weighted imaging study in male and female ice hockey players over a single season

    PubMed Central

    Helmer, Karl G.; Pasternak, Ofer; Fredman, Eli; Preciado, Ronny I.; Koerte, Inga K.; Sasaki, Takeshi; Mayinger, Michael; Johnson, Andrew M.; Holmes, Jeffrey D.; Forwell, Lorie; Skopelja, Elaine N.; Shenton, Martha E.; Echlin, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Object Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports-related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which are small, hypointense lesions on T2*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small hypointensities that may be subtle signs of chronic and acute damage due to both subconcussive and concussive injury. The goal was to investigate how the burden of these hypointensities change over time, over a playing season, and postconcussion, compared with subjects who did not suffer a medically observed and diagnosed concussion. Methods Images were obtained in 45 university-level adult male and female ice hockey players before and after a single Canadian Interuniversity Sports season. In addition, 11 subjects (5 men and 6 women) underwent imaging at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after concussion. To identify subtle changes in brain tissue and potential CMBs, nonvessel clusters of hypointensities on SWI were automatically identified and a hypointensity burden index was calculated for all subjects at the beginning of the season (BOS) and the end of the season (EOS), in addition to postconcussion time points (where applicable). Results A statistically significant increase in the hypointensity burden, relative to the BOS, was observed for male subjects at the 2-week postconcussion time point. A smaller, nonsignificant rise in the burden for all female subjects was also observed within the same time period. The difference in hypointensity burden was also statistically significant for men with concussions between the 2-week time point and the BOS. There were no significant changes in burden for nonconcussed subjects of either sex between the BOS and EOS time points. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the burden between male and female subjects in the nonconcussed group at both the BOS and EOS time points, with males having a higher burden. Conclusions This method extends the utility of SWI from the enhancement and detection of larger (> 5 mm) CMBs that are often observed in more severe TBI, to concussion in which visual detection of injury is difficult. The hypointensity burden metric proposed here shows statistically significant changes over time in the male subjects. A smaller, nonsignificant increase in the burden metric was observed in the female subjects. PMID:24490839

  5. Planets and Pucks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueningsen, Christopher; Krawiec, Wesley

    1993-01-01

    Presents a simple activity designed to allow students to experimentally verify Kepler's second law, sometimes called the law of equal areas. It states that areas swept out by a planet as it orbits the Sun are equal for equal time intervals. (PR)

  6. Heat transfer in ice hockey halls: measurements, energy analysis and analytical ice pad temperature profile

    E-print Network

    Andrea Ferrantelli; Klaus Viljanen

    2015-06-30

    We consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed temperature data of both the ice pad and the air above the ice rink are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We solve the heat equation in the ice slab in transient regime, and obtain a general analytical formula for the temperature profile. This solution is then applied to the resurfacing process by using our measurements as (time-dependent) boundary conditions (b.c.), and compared to an analogous numerical computation with good agreement. Our analytical formula is given with implicit initial condition and b.c., therefore it can be used not only in ice halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.

  7. [Analysis of the behavior of the coach in relation to violence in minor league hockey].

    PubMed

    Trudel, P; Guertin, D; Bernard, D; Boileau, R; Marcotte, G

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify if, during games, the behavior of ice hockey coaches at the bantam level tends to incite players to use roughness and to infringe upon the rules of the game, as the Néron report (1977) states. The video recording of 27 games using a split-screen technique made it possible to view simultaneously the players in action as well as the coaches' behavior. Analysis of the videotapes revealed that the coaches (n = 11) at the bantam level often exhort their players to put more intensity in their physical contacts (legal body checking), but they more often encouraged them to control themselves and avoid penalties. In general, the coaches displayed very little behavior that encouraged violent actions from the players. PMID:1647855

  8. CHRONIC LEG PAIN IN A DIVISION II FIELD HOCKEY PLAYER: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Julie; Becker, Jonathan A.; Hazle, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Exertional compartment syndromes in athletes represent a diagnostic and management challenge for clinicians. The clinical presentation of exertional compartment syndrome is similar to other more common musculoskeletal disorders. A lack of special tests or unique diagnostic identifiers for use in decision making by out?patient clinicians complicates early recognition of this disorder and may delay optimal management. The purpose of this case report is to retrospectively explore the clinical presentation and the decision?making during the course of care of a field hockey athlete eventually determined to have exertional compartment syndrome. Suggestions to assist in recognition and guidance in patient management are included as well as the procedures required for differential diagnosis. Procedures utilized during conservative care are also described in detail. Level of Evidence: 5 (Single Case Report) PMID:24567863

  9. Stages and demands in the careers of Canadian National Hockey League players.

    PubMed

    Battochio, Randy C; Stambulova, Natalia; Schinke, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Researchers have identified some demands of Canadian National Hockey League (NHL) players, yet there is little direction for players hoping to reach the lucrative league. The objectives of this study were to identify the stages, statuses and demands in Canadian NHL players' careers and propose an empirical career model of Canadian NHL players. In total, 5 rookies, 5 veterans and 13 retirees had their interviews undergo an interpretive thematic analysis. Prospects face the NHL combine, training camp and minor league assignment. While developing into NHL players, rookies deal with NHL call-ups, team competition and formative production while sophomores seemed preoccupied by the opposition. Prime veterans become All-Stars by garnering point production and challenging for the Stanley Cup while seasoned veterans remain relevant through training camps. A discussion about the model's viability is followed by applications for sport psychology researchers and practitioners. PMID:26087366

  10. Do Canadian collegiate hockey players accurately perceive body composition changes after unmonitored training and diet?

    PubMed

    Prokop, Neal W; Duncan, Lindsay R; Andersen, Ross E

    2015-10-01

    Collegiate athletes often use nutritional programs and supplements to elicit body composition changes in muscle or fat. It is unknown if athletes can accurately perceive their fluctuations in body composition, yet their understanding may help them make more accurate interpretations regarding the success of potential nutrition or exercise regimens. The purpose of this study was to investigate if collegiate hockey players could accurately perceive a change in body composition during a 3-month period within their regular season, in which no predetermined nutritional or exercise program was provided. Twenty-four male Canadian collegiate hockey players completed preseason and midseason body composition assessments using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Immediately before the midseason scan, players attempted to accurately match their perceived fluctuation in composition, with predetermined categorical ranges of relative body composition and strength. Two-thirds of players and one-half of players accurately perceived changes in arm-lean and arm-fat tissue, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of players did not accurately perceive gains or losses of lean or fat tissue within their leg and overall body. Although some athletes partially detected changes in the lean and fat tissue of particular regions, the vast majority of players cannot detect the type, or amount of tissue gained and lost across the overall body. Body composition assessments, rather than an athlete's perceptions, should be used to help interpret the success of a sport nutrition or exercise program. Athletes should be aware that physiologic adaptations might take place unnoticed, which could affect the acceptance and adherence of nutrition or exercise interventions. PMID:26394260

  11. Recreational Ice Hockey Injuries in Adult Non-Checking Leagues: A United States Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Pasqualino; Mattson, Douglas J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze injuries among adult recreational ice hockey players. This was an observational prospective cohort study with data collected on injuries sustained during one season in the adult recreational ice hockey leagues of Oneida County, NY. The injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures. The most common anatomic region injured was the head/neck/face (35%). Collisions were most often reported as the mechanism of injury (44%). Fracture was the most common diagnosis. Of players wearing face protection (full cage or shield, or partial visor/half shield), none suffered facial injuries, while all facial injuries reported were to players not wearing facial protection. The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures. A lack of protective equipment was associated with 38% of injuries and 24% of injuries involved penalties. A history of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players with 28% re-injuring the same body part. This study’s findings suggested various strategies to address player injuries such as mandatory full facial protection and shoulder pads, strict enforcement of game rules, and game rule modifications (no body checking). Further research is needed on the role of preventive rehabilitation in players with previous injury history. Key Points The injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures, similar to previous Canadian literature. The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures. 38% of injuries involved a lack of protective equipment and 24% of injuries involved penalties. Full facial protection and shoulder pads should be compulsory. Strict enforcement of game rules is necessary. History of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players. PMID:24431962

  12. Recreational ice hockey injuries in adult non-checking leagues: a United States perspective.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Pasqualino; Mattson, Douglas J

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze injuries among adult recreational ice hockey players. This was an observational prospective cohort study with data collected on injuries sustained during one season in the adult recreational ice hockey leagues of Oneida County, NY. The injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures. The most common anatomic region injured was the head/neck/face (35%). Collisions were most often reported as the mechanism of injury (44%). Fracture was the most common diagnosis. Of players wearing face protection (full cage or shield, or partial visor/half shield), none suffered facial injuries, while all facial injuries reported were to players not wearing facial protection. The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures. A lack of protective equipment was associated with 38% of injuries and 24% of injuries involved penalties. A history of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players with 28% re-injuring the same body part. This study's findings suggested various strategies to address player injuries such as mandatory full facial protection and shoulder pads, strict enforcement of game rules, and game rule modifications (no body checking). Further research is needed on the role of preventive rehabilitation in players with previous injury history. Key PointsThe injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures, similar to previous Canadian literature.The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures.38% of injuries involved a lack of protective equipment and 24% of injuries involved penalties.Full facial protection and shoulder pads should be compulsory.Strict enforcement of game rules is necessary.History of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players. PMID:24431962

  13. Tsunami Hockey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    An important issue that vexes tsunami warning centers (TWCs) is when to cancel a tsunami warning once it is in effect. Emergency managers often face a variety of pressures to allow the public to resume their normal activities, but allowing coastal populations to return too quickly can put them at risk. A TWC must, therefore, exercise caution when cancelling a warning. Kim and Whitmore (2013) show that in many cases a TWC can use the decay of tsunami oscillations in a harbor to forecast when its amplitudes will fall to safe levels. This technique should prove reasonably robust for local tsunamis (those that are potentially dangerous within only 100 km of their source region) and for regional tsunamis (whose danger is limited to within 1000km of the source region) as well. For ocean-crossing destructive tsunamis such as the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami, however, this technique may be inadequate. When a tsunami propagates across the ocean basin, it will encounter topographic obstacles such as seamount chains or coastlines, resulting in coherent reflections that can propagate great distances. When these reflections reach previously-impacted coastlines, they can recharge decaying tsunami oscillations and make them hazardous again. Warning center scientists should forecast sea-level records for 24 hours beyond the initial tsunami arrival in order to observe any potential reflections that may pose a hazard. Animations are a convenient way to visualize reflections and gain a broad geographic overview of their impacts. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has developed tools based on tsunami simulations using the RIFT tsunami forecast model. RIFT is a linear, parallelized numerical tsunami propagation model that runs very efficiently on a multi-CPU system (Wang et al, 2012). It can simulate 30-hours of tsunami wave propagation in the Pacific Ocean at 4 arc minute resolution in approximately 6 minutes of real time on a 12-CPU system. Constructing a 30-hour animation using 1 minute simulated time steps takes approximately 50 minutes on the same system. These animations are generated quickly enough to provide decision support for emergency managers whose coastlines may be impacted by the tsunami several hours later. Tsunami reflections can also aid in determining the source region for those tsunamis generated by non-seismic mechanisms without a clear source such as meteotsunamis, tsunamis generated by meteorological phenomena. A derecho that crossed the New Jersey coast and entered the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 1500 UTC June 13, 2013 generated a meteotsunami that struck the northeast coast of the US causing several injuries. A DART sensor off Montauk, NY, recorded tsunami waves approximately 200 minutes apart. We show how the arrival times of the tsunamis recorded by this DART can help to constrain the source region of the meteotsunami. We also examine other reflections produced by the Haida Gwaii 2012, Tohoku 2011, and other tsunamis.

  14. A prospective study of concussions among National Hockey League players during regular season games: the NHL-NHLPA Concussion Program

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Brian W.; Meeuwisse, Willem H.; Rizos, John; Kang, Jian; Burke, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 1997, the National Hockey League (NHL) and NHL Players’ Association (NHLPA) launched a concussion program to improve the understanding of this injury. We explored initial postconcussion signs, symptoms, physical examination findings and time loss (i.e., time between the injury and medical clearance by the physician to return to competitive play), experienced by male professional ice-hockey players, and assessed the utility of initial postconcussion clinical manifestations in predicting time loss among hockey players. Methods We conducted a prospective case series of concussions over seven NHL regular seasons (1997–2004) using an inclusive cohort of players. The primary outcome was concussion and the secondary outcome was time loss. NHL team physicians documented post-concussion clinical manifestations and recorded the date when a player was medically cleared to return to play. Results Team physicians reported 559 concussions during regular season games. The estimated incidence was 1.8 concussions per 1000 player-hours. The most common postconcussion symptom was headache (71%). On average, time loss (in days) increased 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41–3.62) for every subsequent (i.e., recurrent) concussion sustained during the study period. Controlling for age and position, significant predictors of time loss were postconcussion headache (p < 0.001), low energy or fatigue (p = 0.01), amnesia (p = 0.02) and abnormal neurologic examination (p = 0.01). Using a previously suggested time loss cut-point of 10 days, headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.33–3.54) and low energy or fatigue (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04–2.85) were significant predictors of time loss of more than 10 days. Interpretation Postconcussion headache, low energy or fatigue, amnesia and abnormal neurologic examination were significant predictors of time loss among professional hockey players. PMID:21502355

  15. A Comparison of Somatic Variables of Elite Ice Hockey Players from the Czech ELH and Russian KHL.

    PubMed

    Kutá?, Petr; Sigmund, Martin

    2015-03-29

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the basic morphological variables of contemporary elite ice hockey players, compare the parameters of players in the top Russian ice hockey league (KHL) with those of the top Czech ice hockey league (ELH), and to evaluate the parameters of players according to their position in the game. The research participants included 30 KHL players (mean age: 27.1 ± 5.1 years) and 25 ELH players (mean age: 26.4 ± 5.8 years). We determined body height, body mass, and body composition (body fat, fat-free mass, segmental fat analysis). All measurements were performed at the end of preseason training. The KHL players had the following anthropometric characteristics: body height 182.97 ± 5.61 cm (forward) and 185.72 ± 3.57 cm (defenseman), body mass 89.70 ± 5.28 kg (forward) and 92.52 ± 4.01 kg (defenseman), body fat 10.76 ± 0.63 kg (forward) and 11.10 ± 0.48 kg (defenseman), fat-free mass 78.94 ± 4.65 kg (forward) and 81.42 ± 3.52 kg (defenseman). The values for ELH players were as follows: body height 182.06 ± 5.93 cm (forward) and 185.88 ± 7.13 cm (defenseman), body mass 88.47 ± 7.06 kg (forward) and 89.36 ± 10.91 kg (defenseman), body fat 12.57 ± 2.89 kg (forward) and 11.91 ± 3.10 kg (defenseman), fat-free mass 75.93 ± 6.54 kg (forward) and 77.46 ± 7.89 kg (defenseman). The results indicate that it is beneficial to ice hockey players to have increased body mass and lower body fat, which leads to higher muscle mass, thus enabling a player to perform at the highest level and meet the specific challenges of the game. PMID:25949747

  16. A Comparison of Somatic Variables of Elite Ice Hockey Players from the Czech ELH and Russian KHL

    PubMed Central

    Kutá?, Petr; Sigmund, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the basic morphological variables of contemporary elite ice hockey players, compare the parameters of players in the top Russian ice hockey league (KHL) with those of the top Czech ice hockey league (ELH), and to evaluate the parameters of players according to their position in the game. The research participants included 30 KHL players (mean age: 27.1 ± 5.1 years) and 25 ELH players (mean age: 26.4 ± 5.8 years). We determined body height, body mass, and body composition (body fat, fat-free mass, segmental fat analysis). All measurements were performed at the end of preseason training. The KHL players had the following anthropometric characteristics: body height 182.97 ± 5.61 cm (forward) and 185.72 ± 3.57 cm (defenseman), body mass 89.70 ± 5.28 kg (forward) and 92.52 ± 4.01 kg (defenseman), body fat 10.76 ± 0.63 kg (forward) and 11.10 ± 0.48 kg (defenseman), fat-free mass 78.94 ± 4.65 kg (forward) and 81.42 ± 3.52 kg (defenseman). The values for ELH players were as follows: body height 182.06 ± 5.93 cm (forward) and 185.88 ± 7.13 cm (defenseman), body mass 88.47 ± 7.06 kg (forward) and 89.36 ± 10.91 kg (defenseman), body fat 12.57 ± 2.89 kg (forward) and 11.91 ± 3.10 kg (defenseman), fat-free mass 75.93 ± 6.54 kg (forward) and 77.46 ± 7.89 kg (defenseman). The results indicate that it is beneficial to ice hockey players to have increased body mass and lower body fat, which leads to higher muscle mass, thus enabling a player to perform at the highest level and meet the specific challenges of the game. PMID:25949747

  17. Performance and Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Hockey League Players

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Harris, Joshua D.; Cole, Brian J.; Frank, Rachel M.; Fillingham, Yale A.; Ellman, Michael B.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in male National Hockey League (NHL) players. Purpose: To determine (1) the return to sport (RTS) rate in the NHL following ACL reconstruction, (2) performance on RTS, and (3) the difference in RTS and performance between players who underwent ACL reconstruction and controls. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: NHL players undergoing ACL reconstruction were evaluated. All demographic data were analyzed. Matched controls were selected from the NHL during the same years as those undergoing ACL reconstruction. The “index year” (relative to the number of years of experience in the NHL) in controls was the same as the year that cases underwent ACL reconstruction. RTS and performance in the NHL were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. Bonferroni correction was used in the setting of multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 36 players (37 knees) meeting the inclusion criteria underwent ACL reconstruction while in the NHL. Thirty-five players were able to RTS in the NHL (97%), and 1 player returned to the international Kontinental Hockey League. Of the players who RTS in the NHL, 100% were able to RTS the season after ACL reconstruction (mean, 7.8 ± 2.4 months). Length of career in the NHL after ACL reconstruction was 4.47 ± 3.3 years. The revision rate was 2.5%. There were significantly more cases playing in the NHL at 3 (P = .027) and 4 (P = .029) years following surgery compared with controls (index year). After ACL reconstruction, player performance was not significantly different from preinjury performance. Following ACL reconstruction (or index year in controls), cases played significantly more minutes, took more shots, had better shooting percentages, and scored more goals and points than did controls (P < .01 for all). Control players did not significantly outperform cases after ACL reconstruction in any performance measure. Conclusion: There is a high RTS rate in the NHL following ACL reconstruction. All players who RTS did so the season following surgery. Performance following ACL reconstruction was not significantly different from preinjury. Cases performed better than did controls in several performance measures. Controls did not outperform cases in any measured performance variable. PMID:26535359

  18. Can injury in major junior hockey players be predicted by a pre-season functional movement screen – a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Khaled; Cashman, Glenn; Howitt, Scott; West, Bill; Murray, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool that is commonly used to predict the occurrence of injury. Previous studies have shown that a score of 14 or less (with a maximum possible score of 21) successfully predicted future injury occurrence in athletes. No studies have looked at the use of the FMS to predict injuries in hockey players. Objective: To see if injury in major junior hockey players can be predicted by a preseason FMS. Methods: A convenience sample of 20 hockey players was scored on the FMS prior to the start of the hockey season. Injuries and number of man-games lost for each injury were documented over the course of the season. Results: The mean FMS score was 14.7+/?2.58. Those with an FMS score of ?14 were not more likely to sustain an injury as determined by the Fisher’s exact test (one-tailed, P = 0.32). Conclusion: This study did not support the notion that lower FMS scores predict injury in major junior hockey players. PMID:25550667

  19. A Cool Sport Full of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hache, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Of all sports, ice hockey is possibly the one with the widest array of physics elements in it. The game provides many examples that can bring physics to life in the classroom. Ice hockey (or just "hockey" as many Canadians would say) sees athletes sliding on ice at high speeds and in various ways, shooting and slapping pucks, and colliding against…

  20. [Peripubertal longitudinal study by echocardiography of left heart development in a group of ice hockey players].

    PubMed

    Maingourd, Y; Bourges-Petit, E; Tanguy, C; Quintard, J M; Medelli, J; Freville, M

    1990-03-01

    The modalities of left ventricular (LV) adaptation (dilatation and/or hypertrophy) to exercise are not as well known in children as in adults. Therefore, the authors followed up 11 national ice hockey players, initially aged 10, following an eight hour per week training schedule for a period of 5 years. M mode echocardiographic studies were carried out each year during the training period to measure LV internal dimensions, wall thickness, myocardial mass and contractility (fractional shortening and systolic stress index). The evolution of these parameters was evaluated (Student's test) by two year peripubertal periods (10-12 years: 12-14 years) and compared in absolute values and in rate of growth with the standardised values indexed to body surface area reported by Henry. Between 10 and 12 years of age, the LV internal dimensions (a good indicator of LV volume in healthy children) increased significantly (p less than 0.05) and LV mass increased very significantly (p less than 0.01). The LV internal dimensions were normal at the outset and remained in the upper limits of normality reported by Henry with a normal rate of growth. Myocardial mass was normal at the age of 10 and its rate of growth was also normal. Between 12 and 14 years of age, the increase in LV internal dimensions was not statistically significant but myocardial mass increased very significantly (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2108631

  1. Aerobic capacity of competitive ice hockey players 10-15 years old.

    PubMed

    Maingourd, Y; Libert, J P; Bach, V; Jullien, H; Tanguy, C; Freville, M

    1994-01-01

    Oxygen uptakes (VO2) recorded at anaerobic threshold and at the end of a maximal exercise (VO2 max) and their relation to left ventricular function were analyzed in 11 young ice hockey players during an incremental exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The children, highly trained, participated annually during 6 years (from the age of 10-15 years) in laboratory tests. The maturative status of the subjects was evaluated from peak height velocity (PHV). Heart rate was recorded by electrocardiogram. Oxygen uptake, CO2 production, respiratory frequency, pulmonary ventilation (VE) were recorded at rest and every 30 s during exercise through a Rudolph valve connected to a calibrated oxycon gas analyser. The anaerobic threshold was determined by a non-invasive method from pulmonary ventilation curves. Left ventricular volumes at end-systole and end-diastole were obtained, at rest, by M mode echocardiography. Results showed that both VO2 at anaerobic threshold and VO2max were positively correlated with body mass or with age of PHV. The increments were constant from year to year. At anaerobic threshold, the ratio VO2/VO2max was independent of maturative age. Similar findings were observed when considering VE except after the years of PHV where there was a remarkable increase in pulmonary ventilation. The results indicate that the growth of each cardiorespiratory component is optimalized with body size increase in order to keep constant the aerobic response to exercise. As judged by the explained variance of the different linear regression analyses between resting left ventricular dimensions and VO2, cardiac volume was of minimal importance in determining VO2. In the postpubertal period, stroke volume accounted for 26.7% of VO2 at anaerobic threshold and 30.0% of VO2max. This suggests that local changes occurring at muscular level are of paramount importance in determining the aerobic capacity of highly trained boys. PMID:7823416

  2. Muscle Oxygen Changes following Sprint Interval Cycling Training in Elite Field Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ben; Hamilton, David K.; Cooper, Chris E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Sprint Interval Cycling (SIT) on muscle oxygenation kinetics and performance during the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT). Twenty-five women hockey players of Olympic standard were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP) and a control group (CON). The EXP group performed six additional SIT sessions over six weeks in addition to their normal training program. To explore the potential training-induced change, EXP subjects additionally completed 5 x 30s maximal intensity cycle testing before and after training. During these tests near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measured parameters; oxyhaemoglobin + oxymyoglobin (HbO2+ MbO2), tissue deoxyhaemoglobin + deoxymyoglobin (HHb+HMb), total tissue haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation (TSI %) were taken. In the EXP group (5.34±0.14 to 5.50±0.14m.s-1) but not the CON group (pre = 5.37±0.27 to 5.39±0.30m.s-1) significant changes were seen in the 30-15IFT performance. EXP group also displayed significant post-training increases during the sprint cycling: ?TSI (?7.59±0.91 to ?12.16±2.70%); ?HHb+HMb (35.68±6.67 to 69.44±26.48?M.cm); and ?HbO2+ MbO2 (?74.29±13.82 to ?109.36±22.61?M.cm). No significant differences were seen in ?tHb (?45.81±15.23 to ?42.93±16.24). NIRS is able to detect positive peripheral muscle oxygenation changes when used during a SIT protocol which has been shown to be an effective training modality within elite athletes. PMID:25807517

  3. Head Impact Exposure in Male and Female Collegiate Ice Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Bethany J.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Greenwald, Richard M.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Flashman, Laura A.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify head impact exposure (frequency, location and magnitude of head impacts) for individual male and female collegiate ice hockey players and to investigate differences in exposure by sex, player position, session type, and team. Ninety-nine (41 male, 58 female) players were enrolled and 37,411 impacts were recorded over three seasons. Frequency of impacts varied significantly by sex (males: 287 per season, females: 170, p<0.001) and helmet impact location (p<0.001), but not by player position (p=0.088). Head impact frequency also varied by session type; both male and female players sustained more impacts in games than in practices (p<0.001), however the magnitude of impacts did not differ between session types. There was no difference in 95th percentile peak linear acceleration between sexes (males: 41.6g, females: 40.8g), but 95th percentile peak rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were greater for males than females (4424, 3409 rad/s2, and 25.6, 22.3, respectively). Impacts to the back of the helmet resulted in the greatest 95th percentile peak linear accelerations for males (45.2g) and females (50.4g), while impacts to the side and back of the head were associated with the greatest 95th percentile peak rotational accelerations (males: 4719, 4256 rad/sec2, females: 3567, 3784 rad/sec2 respectively). It has been proposed that reducing an individual’s head impact exposure is a practical approach for reducing the risk of brain injuries. Strategies to decrease an individual athlete’s exposure need to be sport and gender specific, with considerations for team and session type. PMID:24210478

  4. Iron Metabolism in Field Hockey Players During an Annual Training Cycle.

    PubMed

    Podgórski, Tomasz; Kry?ciak, Jakub; Konarski, Jan; Domaszewska, Katarzyna; Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Strzelczyk, Ryszard; Pawlak, Maciej

    2015-09-29

    Post-physical training changes in iron metabolism in the human body often occur. To fully describe these processes, fifteen male Polish National Team field hockey players (age 27.7 ± 5.2 years, body mass 72.8 ± 7.6 kg and body height 177.1 ± 5.7 cm) were examined in three phases of an annual training cycle: preparatory (T1), competitive (T2) and transition (T3). To assess aerobic fitness, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated. Based on the iron concentration, the changes in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) and other selected haematological indicators (haemoglobin, erythrocytes, mean corpuscular haemoglobin - MCH) in iron metabolism were estimated. The average values of maximum oxygen uptake increased from 54.97 ± 3.62 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) in T1 to 59.93 ± 3.55 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) in T2 (p<0.05) and then decreased to 56.21 ± 4.56 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) in T3 (p<0.05). No statistically significant changes in the erythrocyte count were noted. The MCH and haemoglobin concentration decreased between T1 and T2. The maximal exercise test caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the plasma iron concentration during the competition and transition phases. Progressive but non-significant increases in resting iron concentration, TIBC and UIBC in the analysed annual training cycle were noted. To show global changes in iron metabolism in the human body, it is necessary to determine additional variables, i.e. UIBC, TIBC, haemoglobin, MCH or the erythrocyte count. The direction of changes in iron metabolism depends on both the duration and intensity of the physical activity and the fitness level of the subjects. Dietary intake of iron increases the level of this trace element and prevents anaemia associated with training overloads. PMID:26557195

  5. Head impact exposure in male and female collegiate ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bethany J; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Greenwald, Richard M; Chu, Jeffrey J; McAllister, Thomas W; Flashman, Laura A; Maerlender, Arthur C; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Crisco, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify head impact exposure (frequency, location and magnitude of head impacts) for individual male and female collegiate ice hockey players and to investigate differences in exposure by sex, player position, session type, and team. Ninety-nine (41 male, 58 female) players were enrolled and 37,411 impacts were recorded over three seasons. Frequency of impacts varied significantly by sex (males: 287 per season, females: 170, p<0.001) and helmet impact location (p<0.001), but not by player position (p=0.088). Head impact frequency also varied by session type; both male and female players sustained more impacts in games than in practices (p<0.001), however the magnitude of impacts did not differ between session types. There was no difference in 95th percentile peak linear acceleration between sexes (males: 41.6 g, females: 40.8 g), but 95th percentile peak rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were greater for males than females (4424, 3409 rad/s(2), and 25.6, 22.3, respectively). Impacts to the back of the helmet resulted in the greatest 95th percentile peak linear accelerations for males (45.2 g) and females (50.4 g), while impacts to the side and back of the head were associated with the greatest 95th percentile peak rotational accelerations (males: 4719, 4256 rad/sec(2), females: 3567, 3784 rad/sec(2) respectively). It has been proposed that reducing an individual's head impact exposure is a practical approach for reducing the risk of brain injuries. Strategies to decrease an individual athlete's exposure need to be sport and gender specific, with considerations for team and session type. PMID:24210478

  6. Iron Metabolism in Field Hockey Players During an Annual Training Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Podgórski, Tomasz; Kry?ciak, Jakub; Konarski, Jan; Domaszewska, Katarzyna; Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Strzelczyk, Ryszard; Pawlak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Post-physical training changes in iron metabolism in the human body often occur. To fully describe these processes, fifteen male Polish National Team field hockey players (age 27.7 ± 5.2 years, body mass 72.8 ± 7.6 kg and body height 177.1 ± 5.7 cm) were examined in three phases of an annual training cycle: preparatory (T1), competitive (T2) and transition (T3). To assess aerobic fitness, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated. Based on the iron concentration, the changes in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) and other selected haematological indicators (haemoglobin, erythrocytes, mean corpuscular haemoglobin - MCH) in iron metabolism were estimated. The average values of maximum oxygen uptake increased from 54.97 ± 3.62 ml·kg?1·min?1 in T1 to 59.93 ± 3.55 ml·kg?1·min?1 in T2 (p<0.05) and then decreased to 56.21 ± 4.56 ml·kg?1·min?1 in T3 (p<0.05). No statistically significant changes in the erythrocyte count were noted. The MCH and haemoglobin concentration decreased between T1 and T2. The maximal exercise test caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the plasma iron concentration during the competition and transition phases. Progressive but non-significant increases in resting iron concentration, TIBC and UIBC in the analysed annual training cycle were noted. To show global changes in iron metabolism in the human body, it is necessary to determine additional variables, i.e. UIBC, TIBC, haemoglobin, MCH or the erythrocyte count. The direction of changes in iron metabolism depends on both the duration and intensity of the physical activity and the fitness level of the subjects. Dietary intake of iron increases the level of this trace element and prevents anaemia associated with training overloads. PMID:26557195

  7. Quantification of the Demands During an Ice-Hockey Game Based on Intensity Zones Determined From the Incremental Test Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stanula, Arkadiusz J; Gabry?, Tomasz T; Roczniok, Robert K; Szmatlan-Gabry?, Urszula B; Ozimek, Mariusz J; Mostowik, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    Stanula, A, Gabry?, T, Roczniok, R, Szmatlan-Gabry?, U, Ozimek, M, and Mostowik, A. Quantification of the demands during an ice-hockey game based on intensity zones determined from the incremental test outcomes. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 176-183, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine ice-hockey players' playing intensity based on their heart rates (HRs) recorded during a game and on the outcomes of an incremental maximum oxygen uptake test. Sixteen ice-hockey players, members of the Polish national team junior (U20), performed an incremental test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in the 2 week's period preceding 4 games they played at the World Championships. Players' HRs at the first and second ventilatory thresholds obtained during the test were used to determine intensity zones (low, moderate, and high) that were subsequently used to classify HR values recorded during each of the games. For individual intensity zones, the following HRs expressed as mean values and as percentages of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) were obtained: forwards, 143-151 b·min (HRmax, 75.2-79.5%), 152-176 b·min (HRmax, 80.0-92.4%), 177-190 b·min (HRmax, 92.9-100.0%); defensemen, 127-139 b·min (HRmax, 69.4-75.8%), 140-163 b·min (HRmax, 76.4-89.0%), 164-184 b·min (HRmax, 89.5-100.0%). The amounts of time the forwards and defensemen spent in the 3 intensity zones expressed as percentages of the total time of the game were the following: 58.75% vs. 44.29% (low), 21.95% vs. 25.84% (moderate), and 19.30% vs. 29.87% (high). The forwards spent average more time in the low-intensity zone than did the defensemen, with the difference being statistically significant in periods 1 and 2 (61.44% vs. 44.21% at p ? 0.001 and 59.14% vs. 47.23% at p ? 0.01, respectively). The results of the study indicate that a method using aerobic and anaerobic metabolism parameters to determine intensity zones can significantly improve the reliability of evaluation of the physiological demands of the game and can be a useful tool for coaches in managing the training process. PMID:26154153

  8. Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part I - mechanical dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Tlougan, Brook E; Mancini, Anthony J; Mandell, Jenny A; Cohen, David E; Sanchez, Miguel R

    2011-09-01

    Figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters experience a range of dermatologic conditions and tissue-related injuries on account of mechanical trauma, infectious pathogens, inflammatory processes and environmental factors related to these competitive pursuits. Sports medicine practitioners, family physicians, dermatologists and coaches should be familiar with these skin conditions to ensure timely and accurate diagnosis and management of affected athletes. This review is Part I of a subsequent companion review and provides a comprehensive review of mechanical dermatoses experienced by ice-skating athletes, including skater's nodules and its variants, pump bumps, piezogenic pedal papules, talon noir, skate/lace bite, friction bullae, corns and calluses, onychocryptosis, skater's toe and skate blade-induced lacerations. These injuries result from friction, shear forces, chronic pressure and collisions with surfaces that occur when athletes endure repetitive jump landings, accelerated starts and stops and other manoeuvres during rigorous training and competition. Ill-fitting skates, improper lacing techniques and insufficient lubrication or protective padding of the foot and ankle often contribute to the development of skin conditions that result from these physical and mechanical stresses. As we will explain, simple measures can frequently prevent the development of these conditions. The treatment of skater's nodules involves reduction in chronic stimulation of the malleoli, and the use of keratolytics and intralesional steroid injections; if malleolar bursitis develops, bursa aspirations may be required. Pump bumps, which result from repetitive friction posteriorly, can be prevented by wearing skates that fit correctly at the heel. Piezogenic pedal papules may be treated conservatively by using heel cups, compressive stockings and by reducing prolonged standing. Talon noir usually resolves without intervention within several weeks. The treatment of skate bite is centred on reducing compression by the skate tongue of the extensor tendons of the anterior ankle, which can be accomplished by use of proper lacing techniques, increasing pliability of the skate tongue and using protective padding, such as Bunga Pads™. Anti-inflammatory medications and cold compresses can also help reduce inflammation. Friction bullae are best managed by careful lancing of painful blisters and application of petrolatum or protective dressings to accelerate healing; preventative measures include the use of well fitting skates, proper lacing techniques and moisture-wicking socks. Corns and calluses are similarly best prevented by the use of well fitted skates and orthotic devices. Symptomatic, debridement reduces the irritant effect of the thick epidermis, and can be accomplished by soaking the area in warm water followed by paring. Application of creams with high concentrations of urea or salicylic acid can also soften callosities. Cases of onychocryptosis benefit from warm soaks, antibiotic ointments and topical steroids to reduce inflammation, but sometimes chemical or surgical matricectomies are required. Preventative measures of both onychocryptosis and skater's toe include cutting toenails straight across to allow for a more equal distribution of forces within the toe box. Finally, the prevention and treatment of lacerations, which constitute a potentially fatal type of mechanical injury, require special protective gear and acute surgical intervention with appropriate suturing. The subsequent companion review of skin conditions in ice skaters will discuss infectious, inflammatory and cold-induced dermatoses, with continued emphasis on clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. PMID:21846161

  9. The role of visual perception measures used in sports vision programmes in predicting actual game performance in Division I collegiate hockey players.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Biberdorf, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the growing field of sports vision little is still known about unique attributes of visual processing in ice hockey and what role visual processing plays in the overall athlete's performance. In the present study we evaluated whether visual, perceptual and cognitive/motor variables collected using the Nike SPARQ Sensory Training Station have significant relevance to the real game statistics of 38 Division I collegiate male and female hockey players. The results demonstrated that 69% of variance in the goals made by forwards in 2011-2013 could be predicted by their faster reaction time to a visual stimulus, better visual memory, better visual discrimination and a faster ability to shift focus between near and far objects. Approximately 33% of variance in game points was significantly related to better discrimination among competing visual stimuli. In addition, reaction time to a visual stimulus as well as stereoptic quickness significantly accounted for 24% of variance in the mean duration of the player's penalty time. This is one of the first studies to show that some of the visual skills that state-of-the-art generalised sports vision programmes are purported to target may indeed be important for hockey players' actual performance on the ice. PMID:25142869

  10. NON-SURGICAL TREATMENT OF A PROFESSIONAL HOCKEY PLAYER WITH THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SPORTS HERNIA: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, J. Scott; Parker, Andrew; MacDonald, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report Background: Injury or weakness of lower abdominal attachments and the posterior inguinal wall can be symptoms of a “sports hernia” and an underlying source of groin pain. Although several authors note conservative treatment as the initial step in the management of this condition, very little has been written on the specific description of non-surgical measures. Most published articles favoring operative care describe poor results related to conservative management; however they fail to report what treatment techniques comprise non-operative management. Case Presentation: The subject of this case report is a professional ice hockey player who sustained an abdominal injury in a game, which was diagnosed as a sports hernia. Following the injury, structured conservative treatment emphasized core control and stability with progressive peripheral demand challenges. Intrinsic core control emphasis continued throughout the treatment progression and during the functional training prior to return to sport. Outcome: The player completed his recovery with return to full competition seven weeks post injury, and continues to compete in the NHL seven years later. Discussion: Surgical intervention has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the “sports hernia.” However it is the authors' opinion that conservative care emphasizing evaluation of intrinsic core muscular deficits and rehabilitation directed at addressing these deficits is an appropriate option, and should be considered prior to surgical intervention. PMID:22319682

  11. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and use of painkillers among adolescent male ice hockey players in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Selanne, Harri; Ryba, Tatiana V.; Siekkinen, Kirsti; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Hakonen, Harto; Mikkelsson, Marja; Kujala, Urho M.

    2014-01-01

    Participating in competitive sport increases the risk for injuries and musculoskeletal pain among adolescent athletes. There is also evidence that the use of prescription drugs has increased among sport club athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of painkillers among young male ice hockey players (IHP) in comparison to schoolboys (controls) and its relation to the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and problems during activities and sleeping. Information was gathered through a questionnaire, completed by 121 IHP and compared to the responses of 618 age-matched controls. Results showed that monthly existing pain was at 82% for IHP, and 72% for controls, though IHP had statistically more musculoskeletal pain in their lower limbs (56% vs. 44%), lower back (54% vs. 35%), and buttocks (26% vs. 11%). There were no group differences in the neck, upper back, upper limb, or chest areas. The disability index was statistically similar for both groups, as musculoskeletal pain causing difficulties in daily activities and sleeping was reported by a minority of subjects. Despite this similarity, IHP used more painkillers than controls (18% vs. 10%). Further nuanced research is encouraged to compare athletes and non-athletes in relation to painkillers. PMID:25750794

  12. Serum SNTF Increases in Concussed Professional Ice Hockey Players and Relates to the Severity of Postconcussion Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Siman, Robert; Shahim, Pashtun; Tegner, Yelverton; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Smith, Douglas H

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers for diffuse axonal injury could have utilities for the acute diagnosis and clinical care of concussion, including those related to sports. The calpain-derived ?II-spectrin N-terminal fragment (SNTF) accumulates in axons after traumatic injury and increases in human blood after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in relation to white matter abnormalities and persistent cognitive dysfunction. However, SNTF has never been evaluated as a biomarker for sports-related concussion. Here, we conducted longitudinal analysis of serum SNTF in professional ice hockey players, 28 of whom had a concussion, along with 45 players evaluated during the preseason, 17 of whom were also tested after a concussion-free training game. Compared with preseason levels, serum SNTF increased at 1?h after concussion and remained significantly elevated from 12?h to 6 days, before declining to preseason baseline. In contrast, serum SNTF levels were unchanged after training. In 8 players, postconcussion symptoms resolved within a few days, and in these cases serum SNTF levels were at baseline. On the other hand, for the 20 players withheld from play for 6 days or longer, serum SNTF levels rose from 1?h to 6 days postconcussion, and at 12-36?h differed significantly from the less-severe concussions (p=0.004). Serum SNTF exhibited diagnostic accuracy for concussion, especially so with delayed return to play (area under the curve=0.87). Multi-variate analyses of serum SNTF and tau improved the diagnostic accuracy, the relationship with the delay in return to play, and the temporal window beyond tau alone. These results provide evidence that blood SNTF, a biomarker for axonal injury after mTBI, may be useful for diagnosis and prognosis of sports-related concussion, as well as for guiding neurobiologically informed decisions on return to play. PMID:25419578

  13. Multiple Off-Ice Performance Variables Predict On-Ice Skating Performance in Male and Female Division III Ice Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Janot, Jeffrey M.; Beltz, Nicholas M.; Dalleck, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if off-ice performance variables could predict on-ice skating performance in Division III collegiate hockey players. Both men (n = 15) and women (n = 11) hockey players (age = 20.5 ± 1.4 years) participated in the study. The skating tests were agility cornering S-turn, 6.10 m acceleration, 44.80 m speed, modified repeat skate, and 15.20 m full speed. Off-ice variables assessed were years of playing experience, height, weight and percent body fat and off-ice performance variables included vertical jump (VJ), 40-yd dash (36.58m), 1-RM squat, pro-agility, Wingate peak power and peak power percentage drop (% drop), and 1.5 mile (2.4km) run. Results indicated that 40-yd dash (36.58m), VJ, 1.5 mile (2.4km) run, and % drop were significant predictors of skating performance for repeat skate (slowest, fastest, and average time) and 44.80 m speed time, respectively. Four predictive equations were derived from multiple regression analyses: 1) slowest repeat skate time = 2.362 + (1.68 x 40-yd dash time) + (0.005 x 1.5 mile run), 2) fastest repeat skate time = 9.762 - (0.089 x VJ) - (0.998 x 40-yd dash time), 3) average repeat skate time = 7.770 + (1.041 x 40-yd dash time) - (0.63 x VJ) + (0.003 x 1.5 mile time), and 4) 47.85 m speed test = 7.707 - (0.050 x VJ) - (0.01 x % drop). It was concluded that selected off-ice tests could be used to predict on-ice performance regarding speed and recovery ability in Division III male and female hockey players. Key points The 40-yd dash (36.58m) and vertical jump tests are significant predictors of on-ice skating performance specific to speed. In addition to 40-yd dash and vertical jump, the 1.5 mile (2.4km) run for time and percent power drop from the Wingate anaerobic power test were also significant predictors of skating performance that incorporates the aspect of recovery from skating activity. Due to the specificity of selected off-ice variables as predictors of on-ice performance, coaches can elect to assess player performance off-ice and focus on other uses of valuable ice time for their individual teams. PMID:26336338

  14. Multiple Off-Ice Performance Variables Predict On-Ice Skating Performance in Male and Female Division III Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Janot, Jeffrey M; Beltz, Nicholas M; Dalleck, Lance D

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if off-ice performance variables could predict on-ice skating performance in Division III collegiate hockey players. Both men (n = 15) and women (n = 11) hockey players (age = 20.5 ± 1.4 years) participated in the study. The skating tests were agility cornering S-turn, 6.10 m acceleration, 44.80 m speed, modified repeat skate, and 15.20 m full speed. Off-ice variables assessed were years of playing experience, height, weight and percent body fat and off-ice performance variables included vertical jump (VJ), 40-yd dash (36.58m), 1-RM squat, pro-agility, Wingate peak power and peak power percentage drop (% drop), and 1.5 mile (2.4km) run. Results indicated that 40-yd dash (36.58m), VJ, 1.5 mile (2.4km) run, and % drop were significant predictors of skating performance for repeat skate (slowest, fastest, and average time) and 44.80 m speed time, respectively. Four predictive equations were derived from multiple regression analyses: 1) slowest repeat skate time = 2.362 + (1.68 x 40-yd dash time) + (0.005 x 1.5 mile run), 2) fastest repeat skate time = 9.762 - (0.089 x VJ) - (0.998 x 40-yd dash time), 3) average repeat skate time = 7.770 + (1.041 x 40-yd dash time) - (0.63 x VJ) + (0.003 x 1.5 mile time), and 4) 47.85 m speed test = 7.707 - (0.050 x VJ) - (0.01 x % drop). It was concluded that selected off-ice tests could be used to predict on-ice performance regarding speed and recovery ability in Division III male and female hockey players. Key pointsThe 40-yd dash (36.58m) and vertical jump tests are significant predictors of on-ice skating performance specific to speed.In addition to 40-yd dash and vertical jump, the 1.5 mile (2.4km) run for time and percent power drop from the Wingate anaerobic power test were also significant predictors of skating performance that incorporates the aspect of recovery from skating activity.Due to the specificity of selected off-ice variables as predictors of on-ice performance, coaches can elect to assess player performance off-ice and focus on other uses of valuable ice time for their individual teams. PMID:26336338

  15. Psychometric properties and reference values for the ImPACT neurocognitive test battery in a sample of elite youth ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    McKay, Carly D; Brooks, Brian L; Mrazik, Martin; Jubinville, Andrea L; Emery, Carolyn A

    2014-03-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine psychometric properties and reference values for ImPACT in a sample of 704 elite ice hockey players aged 13-17. Baseline ImPACT tests were completed at the beginning of the 2011-2012 season. Players aged 16-17 had better visual motor processing speed, adjusted R(2) = .0522, F(2, 45) = 10.79, ? = 2.87, p < .001, and impulse control, adjusted R = .0185, F(2,45) = 7.46, ? = -1.35, p = .001, than younger players, and girls had greater total symptom ratings than boys (z = -3.47, p = .0005). There were no other sex- or age-related differences in neurocognitive performance, and no effect of previous concussion on ImPACT scores. Reference values with cut-off scores are presented. PMID:24389705

  16. Position-specific performance indicators that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful teams in elite women's indoor field hockey: implications for coaching.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Don; Peters, Derek M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to establish median performance profiles for the six playing positions in elite women's indoor hockey and then identify whether these position-specific profiles could discriminate between qualifying (top four), mid-table and relegated teams in the 2011-2012 England Hockey premier league. Successful passing in relegated teams was significantly lower (P < 0.008) than in mid-table and qualifying teams in four of the five outfield positions. Furthermore, the right backs of qualifying teams demonstrated significantly fewer (P < 0.008) unsuccessful passes (x? = 15.5 ± CLs 15.0 and 10.0, respectively) and interceptions (x? = 4.0 ± CLs 4.0 and 3.0, respectively) than relegated teams (x? = 19.5 ± CLs 21.0 and 17.0; x? = 7.5 ± CLs 8.0 and 6.0, respectively). Finally, the right forwards of relegated teams demonstrated significantly fewer (P < 0.008) successful interceptions (x? = 4.0 ± CLs 5.0 and 4.0, respectively) than qualifying teams (x? = 5.0 ± CLs 6.0 and 3.0, respectively) and significantly more (P < 0.008) unsuccessful interceptions (x? = 5.5 ± CLs 6.0 and 4.0, respectively) than mid-table teams (x? = 3.0 ± CLs 3.0 and 2.0, respectively). Based on these findings, coaches should adapt tactical strategies and personnel deployment accordingly to enhance the likelihood of preparing a qualifying team. Research should build from these data to examine dribbling, pressing and patterns of play when outletting. PMID:26051852

  17. Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part II - cold-induced, infectious and inflammatory dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Tlougan, Brook E; Mancini, Anthony J; Mandell, Jenny A; Cohen, David E; Sanchez, Miguel R

    2011-11-01

    Participation in ice-skating sports, particularly figure skating, ice hockey and speed skating, has increased in recent years. Competitive athletes in these sports experience a range of dermatological injuries related to mechanical factors: exposure to cold temperatures, infectious agents and inflammation. Part I of this two part review discussed the mechanical dermatoses affecting ice-skating athletes that result from friction, pressure, and chronic irritation related to athletic equipment and contact with surfaces. Here, in Part II, we review the cold-induced, infectious and inflammatory skin conditions observed in ice-skating athletes. Cold-induced dermatoses experienced by ice-skating athletes result from specific physiological effects of cold exposure on the skin. These conditions include physiological livedo reticularis, chilblains (pernio), Raynaud phenomenon, cold panniculitis, frostnip and frostbite. Frostbite, that is the literal freezing of tissue, occurs with specific symptoms that progress in a stepwise fashion, starting with frostnip. Treatment involves gradual forms of rewarming and the use of friction massages and pain medications as needed. Calcium channel blockers, including nifedipine, are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for the major nonfreezing cold-induced dermatoses including chilblains and Raynaud phenomenon. Raynaud phenomenon, a vasculopathy involving recurrent vasospasm of the fingers and toes in response to cold, is especially common in figure skaters. Protective clothing and insulation, avoidance of smoking and vasoconstrictive medications, maintaining a dry environment around the skin, cold avoidance when possible as well as certain physical manoeuvres that promote vasodilation are useful preventative measures. Infectious conditions most often seen in ice-skating athletes include tinea pedis, onychomycosis, pitted keratolysis, warts and folliculitis. Awareness, prompt treatment and the use of preventative measures are particularly important in managing such dermatoses that are easily spread from person to person in training facilities. The use of well ventilated footgear and synthetic substances to keep feet dry, as well as wearing sandals in shared facilities and maintaining good personal hygiene are very helpful in preventing transmission. Inflammatory conditions that may be seen in ice-skating athletes include allergic contact dermatitis, palmoplantar eccrine hidradenitis, exercise-induced purpuric eruptions and urticaria. Several materials commonly used in ice hockey and figure skating cause contact dermatitis. Identification of the allergen is essential and patch testing may be required. Exercise-induced purpuric eruptions often occur after exercise, are rarely indicative of a chronic venous disorder or other haematological abnormality and the lesions typically resolve spontaneously. The subtypes of urticaria most commonly seen in athletes are acute forms induced by physical stimuli, such as exercise, temperature, sunlight, water or particular levels of external pressure. Cholinergic urticaria is the most common type of physical urticaria seen in athletes aged 30 years and under. Occasionally, skaters may develop eating disorders and other related behaviours some of which have skin manifestations that are discussed herein. We hope that this comprehensive review will aid sports medicine practitioners, dermatologists and other physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of these dermatoses. PMID:21985216

  18. ITEM QUANTITY LOCATION RPI Tag AC Connectors

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    Accelerometer Demo 2 2C21 Shelf J, bottom Adjusting Screws 2C41 Drawer 181 Air Flow Indicator 2C41 Drawer 171 Air Hockey Table 1 2C21 Under table, rear Air Pucks - Small Plastic 12 2C21 Shelf D, two from top Air Balls - Plastic --- Assorted 2C41 Drawer 004 Balls - Red Foam --- 1/2" 2C41 Drawer 002 Balls - With Hole

  19. Campus Computing Looks Ahead: Tracking the Digital Puck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines data from the 2002 Campus Computing Survey to determine trends in information technology in higher education and future possibilities. Discusses Web portals; electronic commerce capabilities, including use of credit cards; budget challenges, including budget cuts; and mobile technology and wireless networks. (LRW)

  20. The 'Patient experience' revolution.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Doug; Zavadsky, Matt

    2014-02-01

    We're arguably at the most pivotal time in our young profession. The ACA has provided EMS an unprecedented opportunity to become a part of the healthcare system, a move that many of us have dreamed about for decades. We need to pay attention to the changing dynamics of the environment in which we operate. The factors that currently impact hospitals, doctors and other healthcare providers will also impact us sooner than we think. Take the time to help shape our future and how we participate in this new healthcare system. It's time to focus on the patient and the patient's experience with our service. Wayne Gretzky said two important things during an interview when he was asked what makes him such a great hockey player. One was, "You miss 100% of the shots you don't take." The other was, "A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be. I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has been." Our advice to you is to go ahead, take the shot, get ahead of the other team and focus on improved customer satisfaction sooner rather than later. PMID:24660359

  1. ReviewsGCSE Book Review: Modular Science for AQA GCSE Book Review: Modular Science for Edexcel GCSE Book Review: Revise for GCSE Science (Edexcel Modular Foundation and Higher) GCSE Book Review: AQA GCSE Physics, AQA GCSE Physics Additions Book Review: Studying Maths and its Applications Book Review: Medical Physics, 2nd edition Book Review: The Physics of Hockey Book Review: Nine Crazy Ideas In Science Book Review: Light and Dark Talking Point: The Skeptical Environmentalist Places To Visit: Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth, Powys Resources: Sources of Energy Web Watch: Terence, this is stupid stuff...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    GCSE BOOK REVIEWS (162) Modular Science for AQA Modular Science for Edexcel Revise for GCSE Science (Edexcel Modular Foundation and Higher) AQA GCSE Physics, AQA GCSE Physics Additions BOOK REVIEWS (166) Studying Maths and its Applications Medical Physics, 2nd edition The Physics of Hockey Nine Crazy Ideas In Science Light and Dark TALKING POINT (169) The Skeptical Environmentalist PLACES TO VISIT (170) Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth, Powys RESOURCES (172) Sources of Energy WEB WATCH (173) Terence, this is stupid stuff...

  2. A Cool Sport Full of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haché, Alain

    2008-10-01

    Of all sports, ice hockey is possibly the one with the widest array of physics elements in it. The game provides many examples that can bring physics to life in the classroom. Ice hockey (or just "hockey" as many Canadians would say) sees athletes sliding on ice at high speeds and in various ways, shooting and slapping pucks, and colliding against each other. The interaction between the skate blade and the ice is a problem of great physical complexity. The question "Why is ice so slippery?" has puzzled generations of scientists and, surprisingly, clear answers have come relatively recently. There is even some optics involved in hockey: how many sports are watched behind tempered glass (or Plexiglas) windows? The optical and mechanical properties of these materials are worth a physics classroom discussion. In this paper, I will review a few topics discussed at length in my book The Physics of Hockey.1,2 Interested readers may also find additional articles on our website.3

  3. Using action observation to study superior motor performance: a pilot fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Carl-Johan; Lundström, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to (1) capture the superior performance of expert athletes and (2) capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional blood flow while presenting videos of a hockey player shooting a puck toward a hockey goal. The videos (a total of 120) where stopped at different time frames with different amount of information provided, creating a paradigm with three different levels of difficulty to decide the fate of a shot. Since this was only a pilot study, we first tested the paradigm behaviorally on six elite expert hockey players, five intermediate players, and six non-hockey playing controls. The results showed that expert hockey players were significantly (p < 0.05) more accurate on deciding the fate of the action compared to the others. Thus, it appears as if the paradigm can capture superior performance of expert athletes (aim 1). We then tested three of the hockey players and three of the controls on the same paradigm in the MRI scanner to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action anticipation. The imaging results showed that when expert hockey players observed and correctly anticipated situations, they recruited motor and temporal regions of the brain. Novices, on the other hand, relied on visual regions during observation and prefrontal regions during action decision. Thus, the results from the imaging data suggest that different networks of the brain are recruited depending on task experience (aim 2). In conclusion, depending on the level of motor skill of the observer, when correctly anticipating actions different neural systems will be recruited. PMID:24348365

  4. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Cromwell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor contro ller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram packag e that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position s ensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44 -pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus , RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPI O), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier.

  5. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  6. October 20, 2015 Volume 5, No. 10 "WHERE THE PUCK IS GOING" SURVEY RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Farnsworth, George - Department of Biology, Xavier University

    Insurance Futures Team-Based Healthcare 54.5% 43.6% 42.6% 41.6% 36.6% 36.6% 1. Big Data 2. Volume to Value 3 is going", what are the top 3 big ideas/trends healthcare administrators must prepare for by 2025 (in 10 of saying that is, "What jobs or skill-sets will evolve the most in the next 10 years"? 1. Big Data Manager

  7. Reconstructions of paleoclimate: Beyond the hockey stick. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nychka, D. W.; Li, B.

    2010-12-01

    Our understanding of past climate before the instrumental record is based on a variety of indirect information gleaned from climate proxies. Some well studied proxies include tree ring width and density, lake sediments, pollen indices and temperatures from bore holes. Combining such observations and including physical constraints on the target climate processes is well suited to recent methods in Bayesian statistics and is in contrast to previous methods used for paleoclimate reconstruction. This talk gives an introduction to this new perspective. To reconstruct past temperatures a traditional approach views the proxies as imperfect "thermometers" and calibrates them with instrument observations during a period where both are present. With this calibration one uses the proxies to predict temperature in other periods. This direct approach has the disadvantage that is it difficult to quantify the uncertainty of the reconstruction and to account for proxies that respond to temperature at different temporal and spatial scales. In addition, when different subsets of proxies are available for different reconstruction periods it is problematic to produce a single consistent and continuous reconstruction. A Bayesian hierarchical method demands more assumptions on the target climate process but also produces a more consistent analysis that addresses these shortcomings. The basic idea is to divide the statistical model into three distinct levels: a data level where the proxy measurement is related to the climate process, a process level that asserts a statistical model for the climate process and finally a level that puts prior distributions on unknown statistical parameters. With these statistical models in place, the relationships are inverted using Bayes theorem to give a distribution of the climate process given the proxy data and instrumental record. In the past, this inversion has been difficult to carry out analytically but with more abundant computational resources these computations can now be done using Monte Carlo techniques (e.g. Markov Chain Monte Carlo). Although this hierarchy of statistical models may seem to require more assumptions some of these need to be tacitly assumed in more traditional approaches. Also, assumptions on the climate process can build in basic climate constraints, such as energy balances, that are both reasonable and can produce a more accurate reconstruction. As an example, a reconstruction for Northern Hemisphere annual temperatures will be presented. This reconstruction takes advantage of several forcing series (e.g CO2 concentrations) as covariates and also provides an ensemble of reconstructions to convey the uncertainty in the analysis. This framework is also suitable for reconstructions of spatial fields and of several climate variables, such as temperature and precipitation, simultaneously.

  8. Video Gaming Promotes Concussion Knowledge Acquisition in Youth Hockey Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, David; Bradley, Nori L.; Paras, Bradley, Williamson, Ian J.; Bizzochi, James

    2006-01-01

    While the positive uses for video games in an educational setting have also been established, the educational aim is usually made explicit. The goal of this research was to develop a video game wherein the educational aspect was implicitly embedded in the video game, such that the gameing activity remained interesting and relevant. Following a…

  9. Insulin Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    When Programmable Implantable Medication System (PIMS) is implanted in human body, it delivers precise programmed amounts of insulin over long periods of time. Mini-Med Technologies has been refining the Technologies since initial development at APL. The size of a hockey puck, and encased in titanium shell, PIMS holds about 2 1/2 teaspoons of insulin at a programmed basal rate. If a change in measured blood sugar level dictates a different dose, the patient can vary the amount of insulin delivered by holding a small radio transceiver over the implanted system and dialing in a specific program held in the PIMS computer memory. Insulin refills are accomplished approximately 4 times a year by hypodermic needle.

  10. Momentum Conservation in Hover Puck Collisions M. J. Madsen, and D. E. Krause, Department of Physics, Wabash College,

    E-print Network

    Madsen, Martin John

    . We present here another video recording technique using high-speed industrial machine vision cameras the collision. Machine Vision Camera Setup We use a black-and-white Guppy F033-B machine vision camera made-time video data. #12;Fig. 1. The machine-vision camera setup used to capture the video of a collision between

  11. Support Based Measures Applied to Ice Hockey Scoring Summaries: Extended Version

    E-print Network

    Regina, University of

    effective with which players and under what circumstances [8]. Sports data is plentiful on the World Wide, data mining techniques are being applied to sports data [5, 8]. For example, IBM developed the Advanced, shots blocked, etc. and also detecting patterns in these statistics, such as which plays are most

  12. An Examination of the Relative Age Effect in Developmental Girls' Hockey in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristy L.; Weir, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that athletes may be provided with greater opportunities for success depending on the position of their birthdate in a sport's selection year. While the effect has been well established in men's sports, less is known about women's sports. This study examined the RAE in developmental girls'…

  13. Tracking and recognizing actions of multiple hockey players using the boosted particle filter

    E-print Network

    Little, Jim

    , 2366 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 20 March attention because of their potential applications in smart sur- veillance systems, advanced human­computer interfaces, and sport video analysis. In the past decade, there has been intensive research and giant strides

  14. A Markov Game Model for Valuing Player Actions in Ice Hockey

    E-print Network

    Schulte, Oliver

    Possession Value EPV: a Q-function for basketball [2]. Spatial-temporal model based on tracking data. · Total(Home,Defensive) 1 1 1 5 missed shot(Away,Offensive) 1 1 1 6 shot(Away,Offensive) 1 1 1 7 giveaway(Away,Defensive) 1 1 1 8 takeaway(Home,Offensive) 1 1 1 9 missed shot(Away,Offensive) 1 1 1 10 goal(Home,Offensive) 4

  15. Hockey Night in Canada and Waltzing Matilda: Examining Culture in a Global Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Michele; Tate, Joanne

    This paper, the result of a collaboration between professors at the University of Calgary in Canada and Ararat Community College in Victoria (Australia), was presented at the 2001 Teaching the in Community Colleges Conference, "Teaching and Learning: What Have We Discovered and Where Are We Headed?" In this paper, the authors describe their…

  16. Coach Selections and the Relative Age Effect in Male Youth Ice Hockey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, David J.; Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Young, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; when relatively older children possess participation and performance advantages over relatively younger children) are frequent in male team sports. One possible explanation is that coaches select players based on physical attributes, which are more likely witnessed in relatively older athletes. Purpose: To determine if…

  17. The Validity and Reliability of a Performance Assessment Procedure in Ice Hockey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeau, Luc; Richard, Jean-Francois; Godbout, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background: Coaches and physical educators must obtain valid data relating to the contribution of each of their players in order to assess their level of performance in team sport competition. This information must also be collected and used in real game situations to be more valid. Developed initially for a physical education class context, the…

  18. Microstructure of nematic amorphous block copolymers: Dependence on the nematic volume fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, M.; Goldbeck-Wood, G.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.; Fraaije, J. G. E. M.

    2003-05-01

    We present a model for the structure formation in nematic amorphous copolymers and simulation results for a two-dimensional (2D) implementation. The model is based on a dynamic mean-field method, which allows one to specify the polymer system on two different levels of detail. On the detailed level the nematic amorphous block copolymer molecules are represented by a wormlike chain, characterized by three profiles defining its architecture. The first profile sets the sequence of different monomer types along the chain. The second distinguishes whether individual segments do or do not contribute to the nematic order. The third profile defines how the stiffness varies along the chain. On the coarsened level the system is described in terms of density distributions representing the different monomer species and an orientation distribution for the local alignment of the nematic segments. The simulations investigate how the volume fraction of the nematic component effects the resulting mesostructure. With increasing volume fraction of the nematic block 2D equivalents of "hockey puck" micelles and smectic-C and smectic-A-like structures are found.

  19. Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps

    SciTech Connect

    Jaouadi, A.; Gaaloul, N.; Viaris de Lesegno, B.; Pruvost, L.; Telmini, M.; Charron, E.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order l allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two, and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasihomogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a 'finger' or of a 'hockey puck' in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of the same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  20. Heat transfer at the mold-metal interface in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys project. Quarterly project status report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Pehlke, R.D.; Hao, S.W.

    1998-06-30

    Extensive progress in development of an HTC (heat transfer coefficient) Evaluator and in the preparation of the experiments at CMI and Amcast have been achieved in the last three months. The interface of the HTC Evaluator has been developed in Visual C++ for the PC platform. It provides a tool to collect and store the published data on heat transfer coefficients in a database for further analysis. It also supports the mathematical model for evaluation of heat transfer coefficients. More than 100 papers related to this project have been cited and most of them have been collected. The preparation of the experiments at CMI is almost completed. A hockey-puck mold has been selected for the experiments for squeeze casting and semi-solid casting. A direct cavity pressure measurement system was purchased from Kistler. The pressure probes and data acquisition software as well as the necessary accessories have been delivered. The instrumented mold modification has been designed and the modifications completed. At Amcast Automotive, a new wheel-like mold for low-pressure permanent mold casting was designed. The CAD file for mold fabrication has been generated. The modeling of the casting has been done. An extensive survey on the ultrasonic gap formation measurement was fulfilled. It is concluded that the ultrasonic probe is capable of measuring a gap under the authors` casting conditions. In the last three months, four project meetings has been organized and held with the industrial partners.

  1. SERVICE DES ACTIVITS SPORTIVES Programme intra-muros

    E-print Network

    'U.L. : Âge : Cochez votre ou vos choix: Arbitre : Basketball Marqueur : Basketball Hockey Hockey Hockey Arbitre-marqueur Marqueur- chronométreur (11,28 $/heure) BASKETBALL (rencontre = 1,25 h) 22,31 $/rencontre

  2. Measurement of Hybrid III Head Impact Kinematics Using an Accelerometer and Gyroscope System in Ice Hockey Helmets.

    PubMed

    Allison, Mari A; Kang, Yun Seok; Maltese, Matthew R; Bolte, John H; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2015-08-01

    Helmet-based instrumentation is used to study the biomechanics of concussion. The most extensively used systems estimate rotational acceleration from linear acceleration, but new instrumentation measures rotational velocity using gyroscopes, potentially reducing error. This study compared kinematics from an accelerometer and gyroscope-containing system to reference measures. A Hybrid III (HIII) adult male anthropometric test device head and neck was fit with two helmet brands, each instrumented with gForce Tracker (GFT) sensor systems in four locations. Helmets were impacted at various speeds and directions. Regression relationships between GFT-measured and reference peak kinematics were quantified, and influence of impact direction, sensor location, and helmet brand was evaluated. The relationship between the sensor output and the reference acceleration/velocity experienced by the head was strong. Coefficients of determination for data stratified by individual impact directions ranged from 0.77 to 0.99 for peak linear acceleration and from 0.78 to 1.0 for peak rotational velocity. For the data from all impact directions combined, coefficients of determination ranged from 0.60 to 0.80 for peak resultant linear acceleration and 0.83 to 0.91 for peak resultant rotational velocity. As expected, raw peak resultant linear acceleration measures exhibited large percent differences from reference measures. Adjustment using regressions resulted in average absolute errors of 10-15% if regression adjustments were done by impact direction or 25-40% if regressions incorporating data from all impact directions were used. Average absolute percent differences in raw peak resultant rotational velocity were much lower, around 10-15%. It is important to define system accuracy for a particular helmet brand, sensor location, and impact direction in order to interpret real-world data. PMID:25476162

  3. Secrets of Success In the fall of 1979, Bill Wenmark, a former ice hockey player from Deephaven, Minnesota,

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    training schedules are fine, but everyone is different. Be willing to adapt your training to your ability and coaches. Get the best advice. 5. Think positive. You are a special person. Reward yourself with self will help prevent injury. 10. Try it out. Test anything you might encounter during a marathon in practice

  4. Employment Law, Negotiation, and the Business Environment: A Cooperative Collective Bargaining Negotiation of the National Hockey League Lockout of 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocchetti, Corey A.

    2008-01-01

    Employment law is a "must-cover" subject in business environment courses. Comparing the plethora of topics requiring coverage with the limited time devoted to employment law during a typical academic term, other important employment subjects--such as negotiation and collective bargaining--commonly receive short shrift. This article offers a…

  5. For Immediate Release --Tuesday, March 17, 2015 Debut of IME's 2015 City Y'd Street Hockey Tournament

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    YMCA The University of Lethbridge's Integrated Management Experience (IME fundraising vehicle this year, and plans to raise money through the $500 entry fee.kenney@uleth.ca Brent Neumann, Integrated Management Experience program 403-998-7214 brent

  6. Heat transfer at the mold-metal interface in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys project. Annual project status report for the period October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Pehlke, R.D.; Hao, S.W.

    1998-09-30

    In the first year of this three-year project, substantial progress has been achieved. This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting is being conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigations of squeeze casting and semi-solid casting at CMI-Tech Center, and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive. U-M did an initial geometry which was defined for ProCAST to solve, and then a geometry half the size was defined and solved using the same boundary conditions. A conceptual mold geometry was examined and is represented as an axisymmetric element.Furthermore, the influences of the localized heat transfer coefficients on the casting process were carefully studied. The HTC Evaluator has been proposed and initially developed by the U-M team. The Reference and the Database Modules of the HTC Evaluator have been developed, and extensively tested. A series of technical barriers have been cited and potential solutions have been surveyed. At the CMI-Tech Center, the Kistler direct cavity pressure measurement system has been purchased and tested. The calibrations has been evaluated. The probe is capable of sensing a light finger pressure. The experimental mold has been designed and modified. The experimental mold has been designed and modified. The first experiment is scheduled for October 14, 1998. The geometry of the experimental hockey-puck casting has been given to the U-M team for numerical analysis.

  7. Modeling Hemispheric Detonation Experiments in 2-Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Vitello, P A; Druce, R L; Phillips, D; Lee, R; Mudge, S; Roeske, F

    2006-06-22

    Experiments have been performed with LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder) to study scaling of detonation waves using a dimensional scaling in a hemispherical divergent geometry. We model these experiments using an arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) hydrodynamics code, with reactive flow models based on the thermo-chemical code, Cheetah. The thermo-chemical code Cheetah provides a pressure-dependent kinetic rate law, along with an equation of state based on exponential-6 fluid potentials for individual detonation product species, calibrated to high pressures ({approx} few Mbars) and high temperatures (20000K). The parameters for these potentials are fit to a wide variety of experimental data, including shock, compression and sound speed data. For the un-reacted high explosive equation of state we use a modified Murnaghan form. We model the detonator (including the flyer plate) and initiation system in detail. The detonator is composed of LX-16, for which we use a program burn model. Steinberg-Guinan models5 are used for the metal components of the detonator. The booster and high explosive are LX-10 and LX-17, respectively. For both the LX-10 and LX-17, we use a pressure dependent rate law, coupled with a chemical equilibrium equation of state based on Cheetah. For LX-17, the kinetic model includes carbon clustering on the nanometer size scale.

  8. SnapShot: Visualization to Propel Ice Hockey Analytics Hannah Pileggi, Charles D. Stolper, J. Michael Boyle, and John T. Stasko, Senior Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    championships in their leagues and players strive to be the highest ranking athlete at their positions. In professional sports, the money flows to those who win. Winning dictates player salaries, team salary caps in the American League record 20-game win streak of the 2002 Oakland Athletics of Major League Baseball

  9. Establishing the Test-Retest Reliability & Concurrent Validity for the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST) in Adolescent Male Ice Hockey Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Allan; Faught, Brent E.; Przysucha, Eryk; McPherson, Moira; Montelpare, William

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST). This was an on-ice field anaerobic test that measured average peak power and was validated with 3 anaerobic lab tests: (a) vertical jump, (b) the Margaria-Kalamen stair test, and (c) the Wingate Anaerobic Test. The…

  10. [Effect of shoe shaft and shoe sole height on the upper ankle joint in lateral movements in floorball (uni-hockey)].

    PubMed

    Avramakis, E; Stakoff, A; Stüssi, E

    2000-09-01

    Improvements of the shoe design to increase ankle stability have been discussed for a number of years. This accounts also for floorball where the incidence of ankle injuries is very high. The purpose of the present study was to describe the influence of the shoe upper on a typical floorball sideward cutting movement. A film analysis was conducted (200 Hz) where the achilles tendon angle beta was measured on the shoe as well as within the shoe. Subjects were twelve active floorball players who performed a defined sideward cutting movement with a low-cut and high-cut shoe as well as in the barefoot condition. The results of part 1 of the study showed the stabilizing effect of the shoe upper with respect to supination. The range of supination of the barefoot inside the shoe (between touchdown and maximum) of the low-cut shoe (23.7 degrees +/- 5.7 degrees) was decreased when using the high-cut shoe (12.3 degrees +/- 4.6 degrees). In addition, a reduced shoe sole thickness and an anisotropic shoe sole design showed reducing effects on supination. Part 2 of the study showed significant differences in supination between two different touchdown techniques. With a forefoot touchdown supination was much less (12.0 degrees +/- 4.8 degrees) than with a touchdown in the neutral position (31.7 degrees +/- 4.2 degrees; p < 0.001). Furthermore, possibilities to improve the design of future floorball shoes are discussed. PMID:11081246

  11. The Westmount Arena Fire 

    E-print Network

    Gales, John

    A short article on the origins of professional ice hockey in Canada. The article describes an early fire of an arena in Westmount Montreal, QC. This fire's impact on professional ice hockey is discussed as well as initial details about...

  12. Sports and Concussions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of all sports, not just contact sports like football and hockey. As long as people play sports, ... sports, such as: helmet-to-helmet tackles in football getting checked against the boards in hockey heading ...

  13. Meniscus Tears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common sports injury, particularly in contact sports like football and hockey. Meniscus tears can range from minor ... knee while playing a contact sport, such as football, hockey, or rugby, where the knee may be ...

  14. Are recovered memories accurate? 

    E-print Network

    Gerkens, David

    2005-08-29

    4 / soccer 4 / soccer 5 / swimming 6 / tennis 5 / swimming 7 / track 8 / hockey 7 / track 9 / volleyball 10 / golf 8 / hockey 11 / polo 12 / racquetball 9 / volleyball 13 / rugby 14 / softball 10 / golf 15 / skiing 16...

  15. Campus Recreation Advisory Committee Tuesday, November 30, 2010

    E-print Network

    Chen, Deming

    Outdoor Roller Hockey Pad- Ed Morford (power point attached) o Don't monitor usage in regards to community on o Contacted roller hockey club and reported that they don't use the roller hockey pad o Information weeks of break CRCE will be open, includes Freer, and last week of break ARC will be opened o Number

  16. The Annals of Applied Statistics 2013, Vol. 7, No. 3, 14971524

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Shane T.

    are relatively common, such as in basketball, but as neither of these condi- tions exists for hockey, we use observations. The study of goal-based team sports--ice hockey, field hockey, basketball, soc- cer and lacrosse and assists, de- fensive statistics such as blocked shots and a goaltender's saves, and combinations

  17. Debunking The Pretty Picture Myth: Teaching Basic Physics Using Color Maps

    E-print Network

    Cole, Rod

    Debunking The Pretty Picture Myth: Teaching Basic Physics Using Color Maps #12;Exercise 2.1 Three.2 Use a charge with the same sign as the puck to shoot the puck toward a charge of the opposite sign for a point particle moving with a constant velocity. Use the Biot-Savart law to find the direction

  18. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Crowell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor controller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram package that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position sensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44-pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus, RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPIO), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier. This controller replaces air cooling with conduction cooling via a high-thermal-conductivity epoxy casting. A secondary advantage of the relatively good heat conductivity that comes with ultra-small size is that temperature differences within the controller become smaller, so that it is easier to measure the hottest temperature in the controller with fewer temperature sensors, or even one temperature sensor. Another size-sensitive design feature is in the approach to electrical noise immunity. At a very small size, where conduction paths are much shorter than in conventional designs, the ground becomes essentially isopotential, and so certain (space-consuming) electrical noise control components become unnecessary, which helps make small size possible. One winding-current sensor, applied to all of the windings in fast sequence, is smaller and wastes less power than the two or more sensors conventionally used to sense and control winding currents. An unexpected benefit of using only one current sensor is that it actually improves the precision of current control by using the "same" sensors to read each of the three phases. Folding the encoder directly into the controller electronics eliminates a great deal of redundant electronics, packaging, connectors, and hook-up wiring. The reduction of wires and connectors subtracts substantial bulk and eliminates their role in behaving as EMI (electro-magnetic interference) antennas. A shared knowledge by each motor controller of the state of all the motors in the system at 500 Hz also allows parallel processing of higher-level kinematic matrix calculations.

  19. Miniature Free-Flying Magnetometer Utilizing System-On-A-Chip Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eyre, F. B.; Blaes, B. R.

    2001-01-01

    Four Free-Flying Magnetometers (FFMs), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Enstrophy mission, were successfully deployed from the payload of a sounding rocket launched from Poker Flats, Alaska on February 11, 1999. The FFMs functioned successfully by synchronously measuring the vector magnetic field at 4 points separate from the payload and at relative distances up to 3 km, and communicated their data, in bursts, to the ground. This is the first time synchronized in-situ multipoint measurements of the Earth's magnetic field utilizing miniature spin-stabilized "sensorcraft" have been performed. The data they provided have enabled, for the first time, the direct measure of field-aligned current density and are enabling new science by determining the fine-scale structure of the currents in the Earth's ionosphere involved in the production of aurora. These proof-of-concept "hockey puck" (80 mm diameter, 38 mm height, 250 gram mass) FFMs were built using off-the-shelf commercial, industrial, and military grade surface-mount electronic components. Radiation-hard electronics was not required for the Enstrophy mission's short sub-orbital flight. The successful design, implementation, and flight demonstration of this 1st generation FFM design has provided a solid base for further development of a 2nd generation FFM design for planetary science applications. A reliable ultra-miniature radiation-hard 2nd-generation FFM utilizing System-On-A-Chip (SOAC) technologies is proposed. This design would be targeted for long-term planetary missions to investigate magnetospheric field configurations in regions having small-scale structure and to separate spatial and temporal variations. A fleet of short-lived (expendable) FFMs would be deployed into a targeted region to gather multiprobe vector magnetic field data. The FFMs would be ejected from a parent spacecraft at a speed of a few m/sec and would cover spatial volumes of order tens of kilometers for times of order one hour. The parent spacecraft would carry a sufficient number of FFMs for multiple deployments. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Reactive Flow Modeling of the Interaction of TATB Detonation Waves with Inert Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; McGuire, E M

    2002-07-01

    The Ignition & Growth model for the shock initiation and detonation of solid explosives is applied to calculating the main features of detonation waves in the triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) based high explosives LX-17, PBX 9502 and EDC-35. Under detonation conditions, TATB based explosives exhibit reaction zone lengths of 2 to 3 mm depending on the interactions between the detonation wave and the surrounding inert materials. This paper describes comparisons of Ignition & Growth calculations with data from several two- and three-dimensional experiments in which various materials are used to confine the TATB based explosives. The calculated unconfined failure diameters of PBX 9502 are normalized to the measured values at five initial temperatures. Failure diameters for LX-17 are then estimated by changing only the fraction ignited near the shock front. Fabry-Perot data on spherically divergent LX-17 snowball experiments is also compared to calculations. Calculated detonation velocities, wave front curvatures, and metal acceleration velocities are compared to experimental detonation data for TATB-based high explosives in tantalum, copper, PMMA, brass, and beryllium confinement. Three-dimensional prism failure test results on PBX 9502 are also stimulated using the ALE3D code.

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  2. Helpful Minneapolis/St. Paul Websites City Pages: http://www.citypages.com/calendar/

    E-print Network

    Dahlberg, E. Dan

    Field (Twins Baseball), Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome (Vikings football), TCF Bank Stadium (Gophers college sports), Mariucci Arena (Gophers Hockey), Target Center (Timberwolves and Lynx Basketball) #12

  3. york university english language institute

    E-print Network

    · Dentist · Travel agency · Post office · Banking services · Sports and fitness facilities · Art galleries: hockey, football, baseball, soccer and basketball · Toronto's airport is the easiest access point

  4. INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Revised 06/24/15 UOSR 2015

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    SPORTS Archery Roller Hockey Tennis Baseball Rowing Triathlon Bowling Rugby Ultimate Frisbee Cycling Ski & Snowboard Wheelchair Sports Lacrosse Soccer Paintball Surfing DANCE & RECREATION CLUBS Aikido

  5. Racial and Gender Report Card, 2003: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Hiring Practices of the National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, Women's National Basketball Association, and NCAA and Its Member Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapchick, Richard E.

    This is the 12th issue of the "Racial and Gender Report Card," which assesses hiring practices of women and people of color in U.S. professional and amateur sports and sporting organizations. It considers the composition of players, coaches, and front office/athletic department employees in the leading sports organizations. Each organization is…

  6. "Will Weather Change Forever? Anticipating Meteorology in 2040" Page 1 of 7

    E-print Network

    , especially when they're about the future." But also the words of Google founder Larry Page, who said he great Wayne Gretzky, who said the secret to his success was that he skated to where the puck was going

  7. S.BERETANIASTREET UNIVERSITY AVENUE

    E-print Network

    Hawaiian Bank Puck's Alley Varsity Building Varsity Place Lot S.KINGSTREET COYNESTREET YOUNGSTREET S Andrews Outdoor Theatre Law School Moore Hall VISITO R PARKING Founders' Gate LO W ER CAM PUS RO AD

  8. S.BERETANIASTREET UNIVERSITY AVENUE

    E-print Network

    Hawaiian Bank Puck's Alley Varsity Building Varsity Place Lot Dole Street Offices Multipurpose Building Andrews Outdoor Theatre Law School VISITO R PARKING Founders' Gate LO W ER CAM PUS RO AD Johnson Hall

  9. The Effect of Role Ambiguity on Competitive State Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Mark R.; Bray, Steven R.; Eys, Mark A.; Carron, Albert V.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between role ambiguity and precompetition state anxiety among high school athletes playing field hockey. Surveys of male and female field hockey players in the United Kingdom indicated that ambiguity concerning the scope of one's offensive responsibilities was predictive cognitive state anxiety, while ambiguity…

  10. Multimed Tools Appl DOI 10.1007/s11042-010-0722-9

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    mixture HMM hockey event model could be a very useful tool for hockey game analysis. Keywords Event content and computer vision analysis is dominated by content-based image and video indexing and retrieval in Multimedia (EiMM09) in conjunction with ACM Multimedia 2009, October 19­24, 2009, Beijing, China. X. Wang · X

  11. Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Galvin, David

    Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013 January 30, 2013 Math 10120 (Spring 2013) Counting (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 2 / 9 #12;Poker hands A poker hand consists (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 3 / 9 #12;Notre Dame Hockey Notre dame hockey has a 26

  12. J Neurosurg / February 4, 2014 DOI: 10.3171/2013.12.JNS132090

    E-print Network

    .4 million individuals in the US every year.12 The incidence of concussion is likely much higher, as not all those who sustain a concussion Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 2. Microstructural white matter alterations in acutely concussed ice hockey players: a longitudinal free-water MRI study Clinical article Ofer

  13. Big Data? Why Share? User data aggregated in cloud

    E-print Network

    Livshits, Ben

    · Control information release Browsing history User interest profile Distill Top: Computers: Security: Internet: Privacy Top: Arts: Movies: Genres: Film Noir Top: Sports: Hockey: Ice Hockey Top: Science: Math like to learn your top interests. We will let them know you are interested in: · Science · Technology

  14. Pro Sports Interest in Canada #2 Football Now More Popular Than Baseball in Canada

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    __________________________________________________________________________________ Football Now More Popular Than Baseball in Canada Second only to hockey Way back in February of 1942 ­ just was hockey, 17% said baseball, and just 8% said football. Basketball ­ despite being invented by a Canadian things do change. Today, baseball has been surpassed by pro football as the second most popular sport

  15. Incorporating Word Correlation Knowledge into Topic Modeling Pengtao Xie, Diyi Yang and Eric Xing

    E-print Network

    sex team insurance weapons women hockey private child homosexual players cost police homosexuality 3 Topic 4 gun sex team government guns men game money weapons homosexuality hockey private control play health control child player costs kill ass fans company deaths sexual teams companies LDA on 20

  16. {jhchang, btzhang}@scai.snu.ac.kr . (sparseness)

    E-print Network

    .space Recreation (2000) Rec.autos, rec.motorcycles rec.sport.baseball, rec.sport.hockey #12;. 2 . Helmholtz machine dwn dwp dwn dwn wp m dp wp dwp dwpdpwI 2 ( %) `Recreation' 4 `autos' `motorcycle', `baseball' `hockey, bmw, bikes, ama, road, rider 2 game, time, year, baseball, play, good, games, league, season, team 3

  17. Score a Facilities Hat Trick: Strategic Goals for Successful Hiring, Training, and Team Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loy, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Granted, it might be a bit of a stretch to find comparable attributes between an ice hockey team and facilities management organizations. However, if you are open-minded to the possibility and begin to analyze each of these entities, you will find there are some distinct similarities. Ice hockey is a fast-paced and ever-changing game, much like a…

  18. by A. Fam and S. Rizkalla LABORATORY SIMULATION OF IMPACT LOADING ON

    E-print Network

    and commonly used in automotive vehicle windshields.4 In this paper, how- ever, the term laminated glassby A. Fam and S. Rizkalla LABORATORY SIMULATION OF IMPACT LOADING ON LAMINATED GLASS FOR ICE HOCKEY indus- tries. In ice hockey arenas, glass is typically used as a shield to protect spectators

  19. The CMU Monarch Project's adhockey Visualization Tool

    E-print Network

    Johnson, David B.

    The CMU Monarch Project's ad­hockey Visualization Tool For ns Scenario and Trace Files The CMU Monarch Project Release 1.1.0 November 19, 1998 ad­hockey is a Perl/Tk program that can assist in the creation of scenario files for use by the CMU Monarch extensions to ns and the visualizations

  20. By Hayden Pritchard Texas A&M Archery

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    . Ice Hockey vs. TCU Spirit Ice Arena November 8 & 9, 5:45pm M & W Volleyball 4 v4 PEAP November 10, 12 Engineering major. At the age of 15, he bowled his first perfect game and has racked up 12 more since then. Hayden Pritchard is class of 2014 Chemical Engineering major. Before joining A&M's Ice Hockey club, he

  1. Safety in Team Sports. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)

  2. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT6 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 6 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT6 experiment was fired on April 1, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT6, 160 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 54.2 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 64.5 microseconds at the central axis. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 55 millimeters at 14.1 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1860 meters per second. At 55 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2408 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.77. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 227 kilobars at 20.1 microseconds, indicating a late time chemical reaction in the LX-17 dead-zone. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 1.7 microseconds.

  3. Detonator cable initiation system safety investigation: Consequences of energizing the detonator and actuator cables

    SciTech Connect

    Osher, J.; Chau, H.; Von Holle, W.

    1994-03-01

    This study was performed to explore and assess the worst-case response of a W89-type weapons system, damaged so as to expose detonator and/or detonator safing strong link (DSSL) cables to the most extreme, credible lightning-discharge, environment. The test program used extremely high-current-level, fast-rise-time (1- to 2-{mu}s) discharges to simulate lightning strikes to either the exposed detonator or DSSL cables. Discharges with peak currents above 700 kA were required to explode test sections of detonator cable and launch a flyer fast enough potentially to detonate weapon high explosive (HE). Detonator-safing-strong-link (DSSL) cables were exploded in direct contact with hot LX-17 and Ultrafine TATB (UFTATB). At maximum charging voltage, the discharge system associated with the HE firing chamber exploded the cables at more than 600-kA peak current; however, neither LX-17 nor UFTATB detonated at 250{degree}C. Tests showed that intense surface arc discharges of more than 700 kA/cm in width across the surface of hot UFTATB [generally the more sensitive of the two insensitive high explosives (IHE)] could not initiate this hot IHE. As an extension to this study, we applied the same technique to test sections of the much-narrower but thicker-cover-layer W87 detonator cable. These tests were performed at the same initial stored electrical energy as that used for the W89 study. Because of the narrower cable conductor in the W87 cables, discharges greater than 550-kA peak current were sufficient to explode the cable and launch a fast flyer. In summary, we found that lightning strikes to exposed DSSL cables cannot directly detonate LX-17 or UFTATB even at high temperatures, and they pose no HE safety threat.

  4. Bigplate: an oblique angle explosive EOS test

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S; Avara, R; Fried, L; Janzen, J; McGuire, E; Souers, P C; Wu, B

    1998-04-16

    Bigplate is an advanced explosive equation of state (EOS) test. It consists of a point detonator driving a large disc (100 mm radius) of explosive, which pushes a 0.5 mm thick copper or tantalum plate. The plate is observed by a five-beam Fabry-Perot interferometer, which has beams at 0, 10, 20,40 and 80 mm on the plate. A short Fabry gives the jump-off to high accuracy; a long Fabry runs out to I0-15 microsec. A detailed error analysis is given, with the final velocity measurements considered good to ±0.066 mm/microsec. Jump-offs are measured to 0.01-0.02 microsec. Spall is seen in all shots, which creates a time delay on both the first and second velocity plateaus. A 0.1 microsec delay in jump-off of unknown origin is also seen at 80 mm. In order of decreasing explosive ideality, the explosives tired have been LX-14, LX-04 and LX-17. To partially negate the time delays, the data and code runs are overlaid at each radial position between the first and second plateaus. Traditional JWL's model LX-14 and LX-04 within accuracy, but not so for LX-17. The spall may be partly modeled using the pmin model but high resolution zoning is required. At longer times, spall does not appear to affect the explosive energetics. Because it includes diagonal zone crossing, Bigplate occupies a location between simple plate and cylinder tests and truly complex geometries. Hence, an EOS that fails Bigplate is not likely to move on to more complex issues. Bigplate is an excellent test bed for radically new EOS's, and the initial LX-17 runs done with Equilibrium and KINETIC CHEETAH are promising.

  5. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

    1994-01-04

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

  6. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, Jack L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Von Holle, William G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

  7. Free-Flying Magnetometer Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B.; Javadi, H.; Spencer, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) is an autonomous "sensorcraft" developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Enstrophy sounding rocket mission. This mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University and JPL. The science goal of the mission was the study of current filamentation phenomena in the northern auroral region through multipoint measurements of magnetic field. The technical objective of the mission was the proof of concept of the JPL FFM design and the demonstration of an in-situ multipoint measurement technique employing many free-flying spacecraft. Four FFMs were successfully deployed from a sounding rocket launched from Poker Flats, Alaska on February 11, 1999. These hockey-puck-sized (80 mm diameter, 38 mm. height, 250 gram mass) free flyers each carry a miniature 3-axis flux-gate magnetometer that output +/- 2 V signals corresponding to a +/- 60,000 nT measurement range for each axis. The FFM uses a synchronized four-channel Sigma(Delta) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) having a dynamic range of +/- 2.5V and converting at a rate of 279 samples/second/channel. Three channels are used to digitize the magnetometer signals to 17-bit (1.144 nT/bit) resolution. The fourth ADC channel is multiplexed for system monitoring of four temperature sensors and two battery voltages. The FFM also contains two sun sensors, a laser diode which emits a fan-shaped beam, a miniature S-band transmitter for direct communication to the ground station antennas, an ultra-stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, an integrated data subsystem implemented in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a 4 Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) for data storage and Lithium Thionyl Chloride batteries for power. Communicating commands to the FFM prior to deployment is achieved with an infrared (IR) link. The FFM IR receiver responds to 9-bit pulse coded signals that are generated by an IR Light Emitting Diode (LED) in the payload for turning FFM power on or off and placing the FFM in a test mode or flight mode. The IR links are also used to synchronize (zero) the clocks onboard all the FFMs through a reset pulse originating from the payload GPS receiver that is issued when the FFMs are in flight mode. The FPGA based data subsystem manages continuous data collection from the four ADC channels and sun sensors, formatting and storing the data to SRAM, and controlling downlink transmission. The transmitter is powered only after a 2547 frame SRAM buffer has been filled (approx. 5 minutes of data). The data is Viterbi encoded and sent to the S-band transmitter via a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) buffer who's output is clocked at 100 bits/second. After the 26-second transmission, the transmitter is turned off to reduce noise coupling to the sensitive magnetometer. The data subsystem control consists of a master state machine that performs data flow management and is interfaced through a prioritized interrupt scheme to state machines that service the ADC, sun sensors and transmitter FIFO. Continuous data collection prevents the missing of data during transmission and provides implicit time tagging of the data acquired by the ADC because of synchronization with the TCXO clock.

  8. Comprehensive Characterization of Voids and Microstructure in TATB-based Explosives from 10 nm to 1 cm: Effects of Temperature Cycling and Compressive Creep

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, T M; Lauderbach, L; Gagliardi, F; Cunningham, B; Lorenz, K T; Lee, J I; van Buuren, T; Call, R; Landt, L; Overturf, G

    2010-02-26

    This paper outlines the characterization of voids and Microstructure in TATB-based Explosives over several orders of magnitude, from sizes on the order of 10 nm to about 1 cm. This is accomplished using ultra small angle x-ray scattering to investigate voids from a few nm to a few microns, ultra small angle neutron scattering for voids from 100 nm to 10 microns, and x-ray computed microtomography to investigate microstructure from a few microns to a few centimeters. The void distributions of LX-17 are outlined, and the microstructure of LX-17 is presented. Temperature cycling and compressive creep cause drastically different damage to the microstructure. Temperature cycling leads to a volume expansion (ratchet growth) in TATB-based explosives, and x-ray scattering techniques that are sensitive to sizes up to a few microns indicated changes to the void volume distribution that had previously accounted for most, but not all of the change in density. This paper presents the microstructural damage larger than a few microns caused by ratchet growth. Temperature cycling leads to void creation in the binder poor regions associated with the interior portion of formulated prills. Conversely, compressive creep causes characteristically different changes to microstructure; fissures form at binder-rich prill boundaries prior to mechanical failure.

  9. Probabilistic Threshold Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Gresshoff, M; Hrousis, C A

    2010-03-09

    The Probabilistic Shock Threshold Criterion (PSTC) Project at LLNL develops phenomenological criteria for estimating safety or performance margin on high explosive (HE) initiation in the shock initiation regime, creating tools for safety assessment and design of initiation systems and HE trains in general. Until recently, there has been little foundation for probabilistic assessment of HE initiation scenarios. This work attempts to use probabilistic information that is available from both historic and ongoing tests to develop a basis for such assessment. Current PSTC approaches start with the functional form of the James Initiation Criterion as a backbone, and generalize to include varying areas of initiation and provide a probabilistic response based on test data for 1.8 g/cc (Ultrafine) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder). Application of the PSTC methodology is presented investigating the safety and performance of a flying plate detonator and the margin of an Ultrafine TATB booster initiating LX-17.

  10. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  11. Presidential Committee on Athletics &

    E-print Network

    Peate, David W.

    Fleet o Sport Admin o Assist AD with Football and Men's Basketball o Baseball o Field Hockey o Wrestling o Assist with Soccer, Swimming & Diving, Tennis o Football o Men's Basketball o Women's Basketball

  12. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 90% of these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed ... body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, ...

  13. TABLE OF CONTENTS Our Mission 2

    E-print Network

    Lotze, Heike K.

    - 902-494-2002 Dal Tigers Basketball Youth Development & Girls Only - 902-494-8972 Dal Tigers Basketball Co-ed, Boys Only & Shooting - 902-494-2738 Dal Tigers Hockey - 902-494-3375 Dal Tigers Soccer - 902

  14. Halifax Truro | Nova Scotia | Canada What does it mean to be a

    E-print Network

    Lotze, Heike K.

    exchange and study abroad opportunities in more than 43 countries $140MILLIONIN FUNDED RESEARCH EACH YEAR, local fashionistas to hockey heroes, Halifax is a small city that feels big. Feel like a bOaT Trip? Grab

  15. What Are Knee Problems?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... impact, such as in an automobile accident or football tackle. The medial and lateral collateral ligaments are ... These blows frequently occur in sports such as football or hockey. Ligament injuries are treated with: Ice ...

  16. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... playing sports? Teens who play contact sports, like football and soccer, are most likely to have a ... the things you love — like running or playing football, field hockey, or softball — can be frustrating. If ...

  17. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... playing sports? Teens who play contact sports (like football) or sports that feature swift, abrupt movements such ... the things you love — like running or playing football, field hockey, or softball — can be frustrating. Recovering ...

  18. Sports and Exercise Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of injury almost as much as playing football without shoulder pads? Using the wrong — or improperly ... helmets : They're important for sports such as football, hockey, baseball, softball, biking, skateboarding, inline skating, skiing, ...

  19. Expert Tips for Preventing Kids' Sports Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pads, are also essential. "Most major organized sports -- football, baseball, hockey, lacrosse -- have done a good job ... consequences," he cautioned. And parents should know that football isn't the only team sport where kids ...

  20. Concussions in the NHL: A narrative review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Izraelski, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Ice hockey has been identified as a sport with a high risk for concussions. Given the health sequelae associated with the injury, a great deal of attention has been placed on its diagnosis, management and return-to-play protocols. The highest level of ice hockey in North America is played in the National Hockey League (NHL), and concussions pose a serious threat to the health of the players and the game itself. Unfortunately, the scientific literature on concussions in ice hockey is derived mostly from research conducted on youth and amateur levels of play, leaving a gap in our knowledge at the professional level. This narrative review attempts to summarize what is known about concussion incidence, mechanisms of injury and risk factors in the NHL. PMID:25550658

  1. 16 CFR 1203.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Helmets specifically marketed for exclusive use in a designated activity, such as skateboarding, rollerblading, baseball, roller hockey, etc., would be excluded from this definition because the specific focus of their marketing...

  2. 16 CFR 1203.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Helmets specifically marketed for exclusive use in a designated activity, such as skateboarding, rollerblading, baseball, roller hockey, etc., would be excluded from this definition because the specific focus of their marketing...

  3. Rich Prior Knowledge in Learning for NLP

    E-print Network

    --- --- ----- -- -- --- ---- --- --- --- --- -- --------- ------- ---- -- --- --- ----- -- -- --- ---- --- --- --- --- -- --------- ------- ---- -- --- --- ----- -- -- --- ---- --- --- --- --- -- --------- ------- ---- -- --- --- ----- -- -- --- ---- --- --- --- --- -- --------- ------- ---- -- --- --- ----- -- -- --- ---- --- --- --- --- -- --------- ------- ---- -- --- --- ----- -- -- --- ---- --- --- --- --- -- --------- ------- ---- -- Documents Labels newsgroups classification baseball Mac politics ... hit Apple senate ... Braves Macintosh when word w is present · label is often hockey or baseball when game is present p(y|x) = 1 Z(x) exp

  4. 16 CFR 1203.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Helmets specifically marketed for exclusive use in a designated activity, such as skateboarding, rollerblading, baseball, roller hockey, etc., would be excluded from this definition because the specific focus of their marketing...

  5. 16 CFR 1203.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Helmets specifically marketed for exclusive use in a designated activity, such as skateboarding, rollerblading, baseball, roller hockey, etc., would be excluded from this definition because the specific focus of their marketing...

  6. 16 CFR 1203.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Helmets specifically marketed for exclusive use in a designated activity, such as skateboarding, rollerblading, baseball, roller hockey, etc., would be excluded from this definition because the specific focus of their marketing...

  7. Protect Your Eyes When You Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injuries include: basketball, baseball, softball, ice hockey, tennis, soccer, volleyball, football, fishing, and golf. Studies show that protective eyewear does not hinder the player’s sight while participating in athletics. In fact, some ...

  8. 6/26/09 11:38 PMThat Shot Was Out? A Clue on When to Challenge a Call -NYTimes.com Page 1 of 3http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/24/sports/tennis/24tennis.html?ref=sports

    E-print Network

    Whitney, David

    Wastes Too Fast 2. Well: Can You Get Fit in Six Minutes a Week? 3. Pastor Urges His Flock to Bring Guns COLLEGE FOOTBALL PRO BASKETBALL COLLEGE BASKETBALL HOCKEY SOCCER GOLF TENNIS GLOBAL SPORTS BUY TICKETS

  9. Concussions in the NHL: A narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Izraelski, Jason

    2014-12-01

    Ice hockey has been identified as a sport with a high risk for concussions. Given the health sequelae associated with the injury, a great deal of attention has been placed on its diagnosis, management and return-to-play protocols. The highest level of ice hockey in North America is played in the National Hockey League (NHL), and concussions pose a serious threat to the health of the players and the game itself. Unfortunately, the scientific literature on concussions in ice hockey is derived mostly from research conducted on youth and amateur levels of play, leaving a gap in our knowledge at the professional level. This narrative review attempts to summarize what is known about concussion incidence, mechanisms of injury and risk factors in the NHL. PMID:25550658

  10. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...smokeless tobacco: (i) To a sports team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event or any other sporting or entertainment event determined by the Secretary to be covered by paragraph...

  11. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...smokeless tobacco: (i) To a sports team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event or any other sporting or entertainment event determined by the Secretary to be covered by paragraph...

  12. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...smokeless tobacco: (i) To a sports team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event or any other sporting or entertainment event determined by the Secretary to be covered by paragraph...

  13. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...smokeless tobacco: (i) To a sports team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event or any other sporting or entertainment event determined by the Secretary to be covered by paragraph...

  14. 10 CFR 1042.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  15. 31 CFR 28.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  16. 10 CFR 5.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  17. 7 CFR 15a.41 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...contact sport. For the purposes of this part, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity. A...

  18. 22 CFR 146.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  19. 29 CFR 36.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  20. 18 CFR 1317.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  1. 32 CFR 196.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  2. 18 CFR 1317.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  3. 22 CFR 229.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  4. 40 CFR 5.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  5. 7 CFR 15a.41 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...contact sport. For the purposes of this part, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity. A...

  6. 22 CFR 146.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  7. 7 CFR 15a.41 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...contact sport. For the purposes of this part, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity. A...

  8. 49 CFR 25.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  9. 45 CFR 2555.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  10. 41 CFR 101-4.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  11. 38 CFR 23.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  12. 14 CFR 1253.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  13. 15 CFR 8a.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  14. 14 CFR 1253.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  15. 36 CFR 1211.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  16. 44 CFR 19.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  17. 44 CFR 19.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  18. 6 CFR 17.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  19. 28 CFR 54.450 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity....

  20. 7 CFR 15a.41 - Athletics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...contact sport. For the purposes of this part, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (c) Equal opportunity. A...

  1. Coming of Age: Sports Fiction for YAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ron

    1982-01-01

    This annotated list of 26 citations covering sports fiction includes stories on football, basketball, wrestling, softball, hockey, volleyball, soccer, and baseball for young adults. It is arranged alphabetically by author with grade levels indicated. A brief introduction is provided. (EJS)

  2. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the hip flexors. Runners, people who do martial arts, and football, soccer, and hockey players are more ... kidney disease, or have had stomach ulcers or internal bleeding in the past. Do not take more ...

  3. Testicular Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... re speeding along on your bike and you hit a big bump. All result in one really ... participating in sports where your testicles might get hit or kicked, like football, hockey, soccer, or karate. ...

  4. 10 CFR 434.401 - Electrical power and lighting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cafeterias, hamburger and sandwich stores, bakeries, ice cream parlors, cookie stores, and all other kinds of... Recreation Only 1.0 Handball/Racquetball/Squash: Club 1.3 Tournament 2.6 Hockey, Ice: Amateur 1.3 College...

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading FY98 Year End Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will immobilize plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report summarizes FY98 Can Loading work completed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project and it includes summaries of reports on Can Size, Equipment Review, Preliminary Concepts, Conceptual Design, and Preliminary Specification. Plant trip reports for the Greenville Automation and Manufacturing Exposition, Rocky Flats BNFL Pu repackaging glovebox line, and vendor trips are also included.

  6. Deep drawing of uranium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R J; Lundberg, M R

    1987-01-19

    A procedure was developed to fabricate uranium forming blanks with high ''draw-ability'' so that cup shapes could be easily and uniformly deep drawn. The overall procedure involved a posttreatment to develop optimum mechanical and structural properties in the deep-drawn cups. The fabrication sequence is casting high-purity logs, pucking cast logs, cross-rolling pucks to forming blanks, annealing and outgassing forming blanks, cold deep drawing to hemispherical shapes, and stress relieving, outgassing, and annealing deep-drawn parts to restore ductility and impart dimensional stability. The fabrication development and the resulting fabrication procedure are discussed in detail. The mechanical properties and microstructural properties are discussed.

  7. Techniques for Teachers Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Includes a simple technique to demonstrate Millikan's oil drop experiment, an environmental studies experiment to measure dissolved oxygen in water samples, and a technique to demonstrate action-reaction. Science materials described are the Pol-A-Star Tomiscope, Nuffield chemistry film loops, air pucks and pH meters. (JR)

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  9. Development of the Molecular Adsorber Coating for Spacecraft and Instrument Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin

    2011-01-01

    On-orbit Molecular Contamination occurs when materials outgas and deposit onto very sensitive interior surfaces of the spacecraft and instruments. The current solution, Molecular Adsorber Pucks, has disadvantages, which are reviewed. A new innovative solution, Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC), is currently being formulated, optimized, and tested. It is a sprayable alternative composed of Zeolite-based coating with adsorbing properties.

  10. Flat Polishing for TEM sample preparation Things you will need to buy or borrow

    E-print Network

    Devoret, Michel H.

    slip off the tube, using ~ 100 rpm and a moderate pressure from the counter-weight. 3. If your wafer with crystal bond wax Puck thickness control. Turn clockwise to lower sample toward polishing wheel #12;5 Ready OR FIXED UNDER A HAT. 2. Place the aluminum platen on the polishing wheel, and affix a sheet of 600 grit

  11. Remote Equipment Development for the Plutonium Ceramification Test Facility at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.

    2001-01-05

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant will immobilize legacy nuclear materials in a ceramic material in the form of ''pucks'' and prepare it for permanent disposal. The Plutonium Ceramification Test Facility is being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to demonstrate proof-of-process with plant prototypic equipment, and will include a puck handling system to reduce operator exposure to radiation, to enhance operator safety, and to increase system throughput. Equipment has been selected and designed to meet the system requirements. The puck handling system is a custom-designed electromechanical unit that is configured to provide the required work envelope while fitting within the spatial constraints imposed by the glove box. Its work envelope is large relative to the spatial constraints in order to maximize its potential utility for non-routine operations such as recovery operations and housekeeping. A custom gripper was also designed to work within the severe spatial constraints imposed by other process equipment. A puck weighing/measuring station and a vacuum tool were also developed to meet system requirements. The equipment has undergone initial independent testing and is being installed to test its operation as part of the overall system.

  12. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the advantages in using the Daedalon Air Table, which supplies compressed air to the pucks instead of the table surface itself. Describes methods for constructing an electronic null detector using a Weston type galvanometer and an integrated circuit operational amplifier. Also describes a redesigned and improved sound-level meter. (CS)

  13. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles describe the use of a lever to transfer energy between pucks on a frictionless surface, a demonstration of the principle of conservation of linear momentum, the construction of an inexpensive joulemeter, the design and construction of a simple logic demonstration board using integrated circuits, mounting of Geiger-counters to…

  14. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Developing a Sustainable Food Outlet for UBC Food Services in the New Beaty

    E-print Network

    listing provided by 43 CAN Lighting 11. CNA Lighting's full LED Puck Lights product listing 44 provided Management 18 G. Serving Ware 20 H. Lighting and Interior Material 22 i) Lighting 22 ii) Interior Materials comparison of energy use and light output between 42 standard incandescent bulbs and ES-qualified CFLs 9. CNA

  15. A Preponderance of Elastic Properties of Alpha Plutonium Measured Via Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, Tarik A.; Farrow, Adam M.; Freibert, Franz J.

    2012-06-06

    Samples of {alpha} plutonium were fabricated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility. Cylindrical samples were machined from cast pucks. Precision immersion density and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements were completed on 27 new samples, yielding elastic moduli measurements. Mechanical tests were performed in compression yielding stress-strain curves as a function of rate, temperature and phase.

  16. Condensed and Enriched: Images of the Miniature and of the World of Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Susan

    Research into the portrayal of miniature human-like characters in the fictional narratives of art and literature suggests that profound values abound in the miniature. The paper discusses two examples of fairy miniatures, Rudyard Kipling's "Puck" and J. M. Barrie's "Tinker Bell." Little characters, whatever their provenance, can be dressed up in…

  17. Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajian, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…

  18. Shopping for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, John; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes inexpensive science materials for doing science activities using the steps in the learning cycle: engage, explore, explain, extend, and evaluate. The hands-on activities help students construct knowledge of dissolving and filtering, chemical reactions, conductivity of metals, heat absorption, motion (frictionless puck), sound production…

  19. PP HH YY SS II CC AA LL PP RR OO PP EE RR TT YY MM EE AA SS UU RR EE MM EE NN TT SS YY SS TT EE MM Q u a n t u m D e s i g n

    E-print Network

    Liu, J. Ping

    PP HH YY SS II CC AA LL PP RR OO PP EE RR TT YY MM EE AA SS UU RR EE MM EE NN TT SS YY SS TT EE MM Sample puck "Keyed" bottom connector SS YY SS TT EE MM FF EE AA TT UU RR EE SS 1 Much of the versatility

  20. 76 FR 66205 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S-76A Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the Docket You may examine the docket that contains the... FR 35469, August 16, 1982), requires a puck-to-disc inspection of rotor brake, part number (P/N..., 1981. AD 2003-04-15, issued February 14, 2003 (68 FR 8994, February 27, 2003), requires...

  1. UALBERTAMEDICINEVOL. 1 ISSUE 2 EDUCATING. DISCOVERING. IMPROVING LIVES.

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    obscure the forest. The trees at our medical school have in- cluded accreditations, health authority reor of age. Wayne Gretzky won Stanley Cups skating where the puck wasn't. This is called vision. This faculty for the aging of its diverse peoples, while defending the world from the global threats of viruses, overpop

  2. Energetic materials destruction using molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-04-29

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. LLNL has built a small-scale unit to test the destruction of HE using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process. In addition to the high explosive HMX, destruction has been carried out on RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. Also destroyed was a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, destruction has been carried out on a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, and PBX-9404.

  3. GAUGE RUN-TO-DETONATION DATA AND FAILURE/DEAD ZONE MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P; Vandersall, K S

    2009-06-26

    Previous shock initiation run-to-detonation experiments on energetic materials were plotted with distance and time to get a single distance/time to detonation. Modern shots utilize enough gauges so that the distance-time data can be differentiated, which shows not only the usual inflection pressure point before detonation, referred to here as P{sub b}, but also a second, low-pressure inflection, referred to here as P{sub a}, that marks rapid ramp-up of the initiation. An analysis of the TATB based LX-17 and PBX 9502 in addition to the LLM-105 based RX-55 data shows that both P{sub a} and P{sub b} increase linearly with the initiation pressure created by the flyer plate. This contradicts the current method in the Tarantula failure/dead zone model, which uses constant pressure boundaries between reaction regions. Modeling changes required by the new data will be considered.

  4. TARANTULA 2011 in JWL++

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Haylett, D; Vitello, P

    2011-10-27

    Using square zoning, the 2011 version of the kinetic package Tarantula matches cylinder data, cylinder dead zones, and cylinder failure with the same settings for the first time. The key is the use of maximum pressure rather than instantaneous pressure. Runs are at 40, 200 and 360 z/cm using JWL++ as the host model. The model also does run-to-detonation, thin-pulse initiation with a P-t curve and air gap crossing, all in cylindrical geometry. Two sizes of MSAD/LX-10/LX-17 snowballs work somewhat with these settings, but are too weak, so that divergent detonation is a challenge for the future. Butterfly meshes are considered but do not appear to solve the issue.

  5. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT3 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 3 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT3 was fired on March 12, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT3, 120 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 41.7 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 65.0 microseconds at 10 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 40 millimeters at 10.9 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1636 meters per second. At 40 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2056 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.80. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 64.6 kilobars at 15.7 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 2.2 microseconds.

  6. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT7 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 7 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT7 experiment was fired on April 3, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT7, 160 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The PDV earliest signal extinction was 50.7 microseconds at 45 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 65.0 microseconds at 20 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 55 millimeters and at 15.2 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1447 meters per second. At 65 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2360 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.61. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 49 kilobars at 23.3 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 4.6 microseconds.

  7. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT4 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 4 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT4 was fired on March 19, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT4, 120 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 64 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 44.9 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 69.5 microseconds at 10 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 50 millimeters at 13.3 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1558 meters per second. At 40 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2019 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.77. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 98.6 kilobars at 15.0 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 0.7 microseconds.

  8. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT5 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 5 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT5 was fired on March 17, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT5, 160 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 40.0 microseconds at 45 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 64.9 microseconds at 20 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 55 millimeters at 12.8 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1877 meters per second. At 65 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2277 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.82. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 78 kilobars at 11.9 and 21.2 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 4.1 microseconds.

  9. In-Situ Monitoring of the Microstructure of TATB-based Explosive Formulations During Temperature Cycling using Ultra-small Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, T M; Hoffman, D M; van Buuren, T; Lauderbach, L; Ilavsky, J; Gee, R H; Maiti, A; Overturf, G; Fried, L

    2008-02-06

    TATB (1,3,5 triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), an extremely insensitive explosive, is used both in plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) and as an ultra-fine pressed powder (UFTATB). With both PBXs and UFTATB, an irreversible expansion occurs with temperature cycling known as ratchet growth. In TATB-based explosives using Kel-F 800 as binder (LX-17 and PBX-9502), additional voids, sizes hundreds of nanometers to a few microns account for much of the volume expansion caused by temperature cycling. These voids are in the predicted size regime for hot-spot formation during ignition and detonation, and thus an experimental measure of these voids is important feedback for hot-spot theory and for determining the relationship between void size distributions and detonation properties. Also, understanding the mechanism of ratchet growth allows future choice of explosive/binder mixtures to minimize these types of changes to explosives, further extending PBX shelf life. This paper presents the void size distributions of LX-17, UFTATB, and PBXs using commercially available Cytop M, Cytop A, and Hyflon AD60 binders during temperature cycling between -55 C and 70 C. These void size distributions are derived from ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS), a technique sensitive to structures from about 10 nm to about 2 mm. Structures with these sizes do not appreciably change in UFTATB, indicating voids or cracks larger than a few microns appear in UFTATB during temperature cycling. Compared to Kel-F 800 binders, Cytop M and Cytop A show relatively small increases in void volume from 0.9% to 1.3% and 0.6% to 1.1%, respectively, while Hyflon fails to prevent irreversible volume expansion (1.2% to 4.6%). Computational mesoscale models of ratchet growth and binder wetting and adhesion properties point to mechanisms of ratchet growth, and are discussed in combination with the experimental results.

  10. MARINO RECREATION CENTER Monday, July 5 Monday, July 12, 2010

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    for Basketball 5:00am ­ 11:45pm Court 3: Open for Basketball Friday 5:00am ­ 6:00pm Court 1: Open for Hockey 5:00am ­ 6:00pm Court 2: Open for Basketball 5:00am ­ 11:45pm Court 3: Open for Basketball 6:00pm ­ 11 Court 1: Open for Hockey 8:00am ­ 8:45pm Court 2: Open for Basketball 8:00am ­ 8:45pm Court 3: Open

  11. Spectrophotometry of Small Uranian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrs, A. D.; Zellner, B.; Wells, E. N.; Buratti, B.; Currie, D.; Seidelmann, K.; Pascu, D.

    1996-09-01

    We observed the inner Uranian satellites Miranda, Puck, Portia, and Juliet over the wavelength range 0.25 to 0.80 microns. The observations were made 18 August 1996 with the red channel of the Faint Object Spectrograph of the HST, using the prism disperser. Miranda and Puck were definitely detected, with blue reflectance spectra over the range observed. Continuum slopes between -5 and -10 % per 1000 Angstroms$ are observed. Confirmation of detections of Portia and Juliet require more extensive analysis of the scattered light background and solar spectrum. Preliminary analysis indicates that they too are blue, at least in the 0.6 to 0.8 micron range. This work is based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This work was supported by STScI Grant GO-6487.

  12. Coupling of plasticity and damage in glass fibre reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvale Joki, R.; Grytten, F.; Osnes, H.

    2012-08-01

    This study addresses the nonlinear stress-strain response in glass fibre reinforced polymer composite laminates. Loading and unloading of these laminates indicate that the nonlinear response is caused by both damage and plasticity. A user defined material model is implemented in the finite element code LS-DYNA. The damage evolution is based on the Puck failure criterion [1], and the plastic behaviour is based on the quadratic Hill yield criterion for anisotropic materials [2].

  13. Ant-inspired sorting by robots: the importance of initial clustering.

    PubMed

    Melhuish, Chris; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Scholes, Sam; Horsfield, Ian; Welsby, Fred

    2006-04-22

    For engineers the prospect of scalable collective robot systems is very appealing. Such systems typically adopt a decentralized approach in their control and coordination mechanism, which employs local sensing and action as well as limited communication. Under these constraints and informed by research on Temnothorax ants, two puck sorting algorithms were tested in a combination of simulation and with real robots. Both algorithms employed puck density as a cue. Only the overall local density, irrespective of puck type, was found to be required which offers the prospect for a more simple mechanism than had been previously considered. For one algorithm, this density cue was used both for picking up and dropping items and is, therefore, referred to as the 'double density' algorithm (DD). In the second algorithm, density was used as a cue only for picking up. Depositing an item was governed by the distance travelled which was specific to the type of item being carried. This was referred to as the 'single density' algorithm (SD). Unlike the DD it was found that, for the SD, the clustering of items is a necessary pre-condition for sorting. Results from ant experiments also showed that sorting is carried out in two phases: a primary clustering episode followed by a spacing phase. This strongly suggests that clustering may also be a precondition for spacing in ants. PMID:16849233

  14. Sport in Canada During the Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappage, Ronald S.

    The author discusses the effect of the Great Depression upon sport in Canada. The difficulties of hockey and football teams are contrasted with the success of professional wrestling, horseracing, and bicycling. The economic plight of professional players who were not allowed to return to the "amateur" rank is discussed. Increased participation in…

  15. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey

  16. (1) Outils de communication : page web ddie au tournoi de golf, programme de la journe, papier lettre et/ou communiqu de presse et affiche des remerciements aux commanditaires.

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    sport d'excellence des Carabins de l'Université de Montréal regroupe près de 450 athlètes qui étudient à provinciale et nationale en badminton, cheerleading, football, golf, hockey (féminin), natation, rugby, ski alpin, soccer et volleyball. UNE APPROCHE GAGNANTE Le programme de sport d'excellence des Carabins, qui

  17. (1) Outils de communication : page web ddie au tournoi de golf, programme de la journe, billet du tournoi, papier lettre et/ou communiqu de presse et affiche des remerciements aux commanditaires.

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    DANS L'ENCADREMENT DES ÉTUDIANTS-ATHLÈTES Le programme de sport d'excellence des Carabins de l, cheerleading, football, golf, hockey (féminin), natation, rugby, ski alpin, soccer et volleyball. UNE APPROCHE sans contredit que l'approche de l'UdeM, favorisant la combinaison sport et études, peut mener aux plus

  18. Staying at the Top: Playing Position and Performance Affect Career Length in Professional Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joseph; Koz, Dan; Kungl, Ann-Marie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Schorer, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to understand the process of skill acquisition and decline, researchers have largely neglected a critical aspect of this development--maximizing time at the highest levels of achievement. This study examined length of career for professional athletes in basketball, football, ice hockey, and baseball and considers whether career length…

  19. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Licensed as of 03/2015

    E-print Network

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    /Marvel Heroes Program Basketball Jerseys & shorts Russell/Marvel Heroes Program Football Jerseys Russell/Marvel Heroes Program Hockey Jerseys Russell/Marvel Heroes Program Shooting Shirts & tear-away pants Russell Program Basketball Jerseys & Shorts Russell/Marvel Heroes Program Football Jerseys Russell/Marvel Heroes

  20. Studies of Television and Youth Sports: Laboratory/Field Research on the Effects of Pro-Social and Anti-Social TV Models on Children/Youth in Sport/Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This study investigates the question of whether or not exposure to televised professional sports affects the social behavior of young people who themselves actively engage in those sports. Lacrosse, hockey, baseball were monitored on television, with students questioned about the impact the behavior of the players (pro-social and anti-social) has…

  1. DOI 10.1515/jqas-2012-0001JQAS 2013; 9(1): 97111 Robert B. Gramacy*, Shane T. Jensen and Matt Taddy

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Shane T.

    player on the ice for a goal. However, plus-minus scores measure only the marginal effect of players, do. Keywords: Bayesian shrinkage; lasso; logistic regression; regularization; sports analytics. *Corresponding Player performance in hockey is difficult to quantify due to the continuity of play, frequent line

  2. Tracking People in Broadcast Sports Angela Yao1

    E-print Network

    Eckmiller, Rolf

    to team sports such as football and hockey, in which there is wide view of the playing field and athletes. We demonstrate the tracker's effectiveness on the UCF Sports Dataset [9], a collection of footageTracking People in Broadcast Sports Angela Yao1 , Dominique Uebersax1 , Juergen Gall1 and Luc Van

  3. BRUCE BARTLETT LENZ PECKHAM Curriculum Vitae March, 2015

    E-print Network

    Peckham, Bruce B.

    : The Closing of Resonance Horns for Periodically Forced Oscillators Thesis Advisor: Richard P. Mc Bifurcation Theory Resonance Phenomena Forced and Coupled Oscillators, Noninvertible Maps, Ecological, Morristown, N.J. Sept., 1979 - June,1982 - taught Math, Physics, Computer Science - coached soccer, hockey

  4. Pupils' Perceptions of and Experiences in Team Invasion Games: A Case Study of a Scottish Secondary School and Its Three Feeder Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John; Wang, C. K. John

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that young children in schools in Scotland cannot relate to the activities that are taught in the more "traditional" PE curriculum, activities that predominately include team invasion games (TIG) such as basketball, soccer and hockey (Scottish Executive, 2004). However, one of the issues with this claim is that it does not…

  5. Practical Applications of the Compound Pendulum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Peter F.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of the application of compound pendulum theory to the practical measurement of the moments of inertia of human beings, farm tractors, and sailing boats are presented. Suggests developing laboratory experiments to measure moments of inertia of hockey sticks, golf clubs, and frisbees, among others. (Author/SK)

  6. Construct-a-Glove. Science by Design Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulis, Lee

    This book is one of four books in the Science-by-Design Series created by TERC and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). It offers high school students a challenging, hands-on opportunity to compare the function and design of many types of handwear from a hockey mitt to a surgical glove, and design and test a glove to their own…

  7. The National Association for Girls and Women in Sport: 110 Years of Promoting Social Justice and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladda, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    From writing the first Guidebooks for hockey, soccer, swimming, track and field, and basketball, to lobbying Congress to strive for equity and equal opportunities for girls, the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) has been and continues to be the beacon in education to advance fairness and equity in sports. As NAGWS enters…

  8. Combining Textual Pre-game Reports and Statistical Data for Predicting Success

    E-print Network

    Inkpen, Diana

    with an accuracy over 64.3% [2]. Data mining techniques have been used to analyze ice hockey and create a modelCombining Textual Pre-game Reports and Statistical Data for Predicting Success in the National data and statistics collected during previous games. The last two classifiers use pre-game textual

  9. Athletes' Evaluations of Their Head Coach's Coaching Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    This study provided initial validity evidence for multidimensional measures of coaching competency derived from the Coaching Competency Scale (CCS). Data were collected from intercollegiate men's (n = 8) and women's (n = 13) soccer and women's ice hockey teams (n = 11). The total number of athletes was 585. Within teams, a multidimensional…

  10. Biography Today: Sports Series. Profiles of People of Interest to Young Readers. Volume 3, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Laurie Lanzen, Ed.; Abbey, Cherie D., Ed.

    This third volume is part of a series of biographies that profile individuals of interest to young people over the age of 9 years. The entries in this volume include Joe Dumars, basketball; Jim Harbaugh, football; Dominik Hasek, hockey; Michelle Kwan, figure skating; Rebecca Lobo, basketball; Greg Maddux, baseball; Fatuma Roba, marathon running;…

  11. Winthrop House Has a new pair of

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Inside &ONLINE Winthrop House Has a new pair of housemasters, Ronald Sullivan Jr. and Stephanie contest, played amid the strains of the rockin' Harvard band (above), women's hockey bat- tle," "Dragnet," and "Driving Miss Daisy," Aykroyd is also the leader of the Blues BrothersBand.AykroydisafounderoftheHouse

  12. Some Ways of Helping Underachievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willings, David; Greenwood, Bill

    1990-01-01

    A program of intervention called therapeutic tutoring to help underachievers is described. Intervention centers around students' loci of control, through a process of identifying areas in which students feel empowered and relating academic experiences to these areas. Academic exercises based on Monopoly, cricket, rugby, soap operas, field hockey,…

  13. A Case Study of Wikis and Student-Designed Games in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Casey, Ashley; Tarter, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the incorporation of wiki technology within physical education. Boys from two classes at a school in the United Kingdom were divided into small teams and given the task of creating a new game in a same genre as football, hockey, netball or rugby. Each team had a wiki on which were recorded all the plans and developments of…

  14. Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

    1985-01-01

    Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

  15. 76 FR 43259 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY, Application for Manufacturing Authority, North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...Authority, North American Tapes, LLC, (Textile Athletic Tape), Watertown, NY A request...tape (e.g., trainers, hockey) with textile backing material for the U.S. market...are woven cotton and polyester/cotton textile fabrics (duty rates: 10.5,...

  16. Transition into College Sports: The Freshman Student-Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Dean; And Others

    Changes in attitude, motivation, and values take place in the academic, athletic, and social areas of student-athletes' lives during their freshman year of college. Twenty incoming college freshman athletes involved in "revenue" sports (football, basketball, and ice hockey) participated in this study and were interviewed in the fall and again in…

  17. J Neurosurg / February 4, 2014 DOI: 10.3171/2013.12.JNS132093

    E-print Network

    adult popu- Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 1. Susceptibility-weighted imaging study in male, Massachusetts; and 12 The Elliott Sports Medicine Clinic, Burlington, Ontario, Canada Object. Concussion subconcussive and concussive injury. The goal was to investi- gate how the burden of these hypointensities

  18. J Neurosurg / February 4, 2014 DOI: 10.3171/2013.12.JNS132092

    E-print Network

    S-related concussion is an important public health problem given the annual incidence of ap- proximately 300,000 sports-related concussions in the US alone.12,49 Concussion, a subset of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI),15 is caused by high-speed acceler- Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 3. White matter microstructure in ice

  19. An Analysis of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Polymer Matrix Composite Sandwich Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Roberts, Gary D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Zheng, Diahua; Averbeck, Timothy; Roth, Donald J.; Jeanneau, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Structural sandwich materials composed of triaxially braided polymer matrix composite material face sheets sandwiching a foam core are being utilized for applications including aerospace components and recreational equipment. Since full scale components are being made from these sandwich materials, it is necessary to develop proper inspection practices for their manufacture and in-field use. Specifically, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques need to be investigated for analysis of components made from these materials. Hockey blades made from sandwich materials and a flat sandwich sample were examined with multiple NDE techniques including thermographic, radiographic, and shearographic methods to investigate damage induced in the blades and flat panel components. Hockey blades used during actual play and a flat polymer matrix composite sandwich sample with damage inserted into the foam core were investigated with each technique. NDE images from the samples were presented and discussed. Structural elements within each blade were observed with radiographic imaging. Damaged regions and some structural elements of the hockey blades were identified with thermographic imaging. Structural elements, damaged regions, and other material variations were detected in the hockey blades with shearography. Each technique s advantages and disadvantages were considered in making recommendations for inspection of components made from these types of materials.

  20. Pro Sports Interest in Canada #1 CFL and Pro Football on a Roll in Year of 101st

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    __________________________________________________________________________________ CFL and Pro Football on a Roll in Year of 101st Grey Cup Hockey Still No. 1, but Football Now Entrenched as No. 2 in Canada A new national survey has found fan interest in pro football to be remarkably interest in the NFL than the CFL. That said, combined interest in pro football is slightly higher than

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Two Serial Gene Expression Experiments | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Stuart G. Baker, 2014 Introduction This program fits biologically relevant response curves in comparative analysis of the two gene expression experiments involving same genes but under different scenarios and at least 12 responses. The program outputs gene pairs with biologically relevant response curve shapes including flat, linear, sigmoid, hockey stick, impulse and step curves.

  2. "Emerging" Sports for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Debra E.

    1994-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association has recently introduced nine new sports to intercollegiate athletics: team handball, archery, badminton, bowling, crew, ice hockey, squash, synchronized swimming, and water polo. The initiative is intended to encourage colleges to create more athletic opportunities for women. It sets scholarship limits…

  3. A Group Vocational Project for LD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmakos, Maria; Decker, Lawrence A.

    1977-01-01

    Designing and building a hockey table offered upper school students at Ashbourne School in Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, vocational and academic instruction, opportunities to channel aggressive and sexual impulses, experiences that enhanced self-image, healthy peer relationships, and opportunities for individual initiative and involvement. (JG)

  4. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... marketing, promotional, or other activities; (D) Is a temporary structure constructed, designated, and... team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event or any other sporting or entertainment event determined by the Secretary to be covered by paragraph...

  5. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... marketing, promotional, or other activities; (D) Is a temporary structure constructed, designated, and... team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event or any other sporting or entertainment event determined by the Secretary to be covered by paragraph...

  6. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... marketing, promotional, or other activities; (D) Is a temporary structure constructed, designated, and... team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event or any other sporting or entertainment event determined by the Secretary to be covered by paragraph...

  7. BIN BROOK | LENT TERM 2006 | 1 Bin BrookROBINSON COLLEGE MAGAZINE LENT TERM 2006

    E-print Network

    Flynn, E. Victor

    AND EVENTS Pembroke House (named after the founder's Cambridge College) is situated in Gilgil, fairly centrally within Kenya and just below the equator. Gilgil itself is a splendid blend of junkyard and market of a period. Being a small school, everyone was in the sports teams. My under nine hockey team manfully

  8. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... marketing, promotional, or other activities; (D) Is a temporary structure constructed, designated, and... team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event or any other sporting or entertainment event determined by the Secretary to be covered by paragraph...

  9. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... marketing, promotional, or other activities; (D) Is a temporary structure constructed, designated, and... team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event or any other sporting or entertainment event determined by the Secretary to be covered by paragraph...

  10. Modifying Intramural Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    1981-01-01

    Standard sports rules can be altered to improve the game for intramural participants. These changes may improve players' attitudes, simplify rules for officials, and add safety features to a game. Specific rule modifications are given for volleyball, football, softball, floor hockey, basketball, and soccer. (JN)

  11. Sports, Youth and Character: A Critical Survey. CIRCLE Working Paper 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Roughly forty million boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 18 take part in organized athletic activities, most of which are not school-based. Boys and girls play in sports as varied as swimming, baseball, soccer, wrestling, and field hockey. The great majority participate in "recreational" leagues in which teams enroll all-comers, compete…

  12. A Survey to Determine to What Extent Ohlone College Is Meeting the Needs of Student Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John

    A questionnaire was administered to all 1978 fall quarter student athletes at Ohlone College (California) to assess their goals and needs, and to find out to what degree student experience matched expectation. There was an 86% (N=85) response rate from the varsity men and women teams (volleyball, field hockey, soccer, water polo, and football).…

  13. The Role of Personal Experience in the Neural Processing of Action-Related Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ian M.; Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Cieslak, Matthew; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Small, Steven L.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how auditory language processing is modified by a listener's previous experience with the specific activities mentioned in the speech. In particular, we asked whether neural responses related to language processing depend on one's experience with the action-based content of this language. Ice-hockey players and novices passively…

  14. Proceedings of the ACL Interactive Poster and Demonstration Sessions, pages 2932, Ann Arbor, June 2005. c 2005 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-print Network

    for the International Space Station Manny Rayner, Beth Ann Hockey, Nikos Chatzichrisafis, Kim Farrell ICSI Overview Astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) spend a great deal of their time performing procedure browser that has recently been deployed on the International Space Sta- tion (ISS), is to the best

  15. Regressing Team Performance on Collective Efficacy: Considerations of Temporal Proximity and Concordance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Paiement, Craig A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree collective efficacy judgments based on summative team performance capabilities exhibited different levels of prediction for three additive intervals of team performance in women's ice hockey. Collective efficacy beliefs of 12 teams were assessed prior to Friday's game and Saturday's game…

  16. Questionable Supervision by Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas H.; Gimbert, Tonya L.

    2013-01-01

    According to Court records, student Pedro Godoy (Godoy) filed a suit against the school district (Central Islip Union Free School District) and teacher Otis R. Scerbo (Scerbo), seeking to recover damages for personal injuries allegedly sustained by Godoy while participating in a game of floor hockey during physical education class. Scerbo (the…

  17. The Development of Ojibway Language Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant-Williams, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    Revitalization of the Nishinaabeg language started in 1998 with the development of language materials. A committee on Nishinaabemwin orthography advised on the development of the text and writing system. Teaching methods follow the four parts of Medicine Wheel teachings: spiritual, emotional, physical, and mental. An interactive hockey game and a…

  18. Parity and Predictability of Competitions E. BenNaim, 1, # F. Vazquez, 1, 2, + and S. Redner 1, 2, #

    E-print Network

    Ben-Naim, Eli

    League Baseball (MLB), the National Hockey League (NHL), the National Basketball Associa­ tion (NBA.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 x 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 F(x) NFL NBA NHL MLB (a) FIG. 1: Winning fraction distribution

  19. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  20. Community Outreach and Engagement Molly E. Donovan, University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension

    E-print Network

    relationships in the community which, ultimately, strengthens the community's social fabric and develops new members are involved in civic life, from volunteering on a town committee to coaching youth hockey, taking care of local trails, or joining the garden club. All of these activities add to the health

  1. 0% 10% 20% 30% Employment Agency (4)

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Robert

    Global Spectrum Event Manager Bangor ME National Hockey League Account Executive New York NY NFL Network, June, and August 2013 bachelor's degree recipients who completed a major in sport management or human Pre-K Teacher Smithtown NY Hospitality & Food Service Management employer position title location

  2. Climate change: Flawed science, or

    E-print Network

    innovation Dilemma... Vicious Circle #12;1. Climate Change - Weather vs. climate - The greenhouse effect controversy #12;Hockey stick controversy explained #12;Natural climate change 1. Earth's orbit 2. Solar climate change #12;CO2 emissions and the Suess-effect fingerprint #12;Big changes ahead! #12;Climate

  3. Leadership Development of Team Captains in Collegiate Varsity Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandzol, Christian; Perlis, Susan; Draina, Lois

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the leadership development of team captains and student-athletes engaged in NCAA Division III intercollegiate athletics at 6 private institutions of higher education. Student-athletes in the sports of men's and women's soccer, women's field hockey, men's and women's cross country, and women's tennis completed the 2nd edition of…

  4. UNIVERSITYMAGAZINE SPRING2015|VOL32|No1

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    focused on women's and disability rights. SERVICE Students in the Falk College-based Sport Management Club University and supermodel Emme '85 are shaping the future of apparel design for full-figured women. 26Healing in the fall and winter sports seasons. Alyssa Manley '16 (right) was one of three field hockey players

  5. Sports for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    When Saul Lerner became director of physical education, athletics, and health for the Bellmore-Merrick (New York) School District 14 years ago, football, soccer, basketball, and floor hockey were staples of most physical education classes on Long Island and around the rest of the country. The mindset of physical educators was to emphasize sports…

  6. Mathematics Algebra/Topology Seminar

    E-print Network

    Varisco, Marco

    Daniel Goldfarb Niskayuna HS An Application Of Persistent Homology To Hockey Analytics Thursday, October library) to generate the persistence bar-codes. TeamPlex is applied to players as data points the Corsi number) correlates with two bar-code characteristics: greater sparsity reflected in the longer

  7. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  8. The Lived Experience of a Doctoral Student: The Process of Learning and Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callary, Betina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The PhD experience is often a transition from student to future faculty member, which involves considerable learning and development (Glaze, 2002; Hockey, 2004). Using a lifelong learning perspective (Jarvis, 2009), the purpose of this article is to explore, through a reflective self-study, my process of learning throughout the PhD degree. In this…

  9. Alpine Skiing in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez-Gimenez, Antonio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Many students settle indoors in the winter. However, this does not mean that winter should be a period of time with no physical activity. Several snow activities could be practiced during those months, such as ice-skating, ice-hockey, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, or snowboarding. In order to counteract the tendency for…

  10. 1998 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenoweth, Karin; Evelyn, Jamilah

    1998-01-01

    Announces the Sports Scholars Awards for 1998. One male and one female college athlete are profiled, and others are named for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, riflery, bowling, football, wrestling, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, swimming/diving, gymnastics, crew, tennis, golf, volleyball, track/field, cross country, downhill skiing, and…

  11. STRATEGIC LOCATION. ENDLESS OPPORTUNITY.

    E-print Network

    Linsley, Braddock K.

    Chamber of Commerce. Baseball Basketball (m+w) Cross Country (m+w) Field Hockey (w) Indoor Track (m Government and industry. Here, in the capital of New York, the world of government and policy is at your fingertips. This is a hub for state agencies responsible for everything from transportation to health care

  12. Sports Involvement and Academic Achievement: A Study of Malaysian University Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuan, Chun Cheng; Yusof, Aminuddin; Shah, Parilah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Factors that influence the academic achievement of Malaysian university athletes were investigated using 156 field hockey players from several universities. The relationship between team subculture, parental influence, the learning environment, support systems, financial aid, training factors, academic assistance, socialization, and stress level…

  13. The Analysis of the Thinking Styles and Creativity of the Sports Students Studying in the Different Fields of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Meric

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the creativity and thinking levels of athletes studying at the different college departments; 61 female and 75 male athletes, a total of 136 ice-hockey players have participated in the research. As data collection tools, Thinking Styles Inventory and The Creativity Scale have been used in the study. SPSS 15.0 for Windows…

  14. Five Year Overview of Sport Injuries: The NAIRS Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from a survey of institutional members of the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) are presented and discussed. Included are tables showing injuries reported in high schools and colleges and universities for male and female athletes in baseball, basketball, football, gymnastics, soccer, wrestling, field hockey, track and…

  15. Athletes, Doctors, and Lawyers with First Names Beginning with "D" Die Sooner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    For many people, names have symbolic power that extends to their timing of death. This study examined the relationship between the symbolic significance of the first letters in the names of professional athletes (baseball, football, hockey, and basketball) and their longevity. A similar analysis was performed for doctors (radiologists,…

  16. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  17. MISC Report to Faculty Council, Nov. 30th Tech Fund Design Workshop

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    of November) Resume & Cover letter DO's & DON'T's (Nov. 13) Tour of the Hockey Hall of Fame ArchivesMISC Report to Faculty Council, Nov. 30th 2012 Tech Fund Design Workshop Oct. 28th and Nov. 4th, 11 and Resource Centre (Nov. 19) SLA CBC libraries and archives tour (Oct. 11) Cover letter workshop with Ulla de

  18. Moisture Outgassing Rates from TATB-Formulations: Experiments and Kinetic Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Dinh, L N; Small IV, W

    2009-07-29

    Moisture outgassing rates from materials are of interest and importance to a variety of different fields. Because water can attack and accelerate decomposition, aging, or rusting of various parts, the assembly of an apparatus with 'wet' materials can shorten the lifetime of the apparatus. Outgassing of moisture from materials can be quite slow and a material that is seemingly dry at the time of assembly may slowly release water over years. This slow release of water will compromise the other constituents of the apparatus (e.g. electrical components, metals, organic materials) and shorten the lifetime of the apparatus. For apparatuses that are expensive or laborious to construct, it is especially important to understand and be able to predict the mechanisms and rates of water release from various materials. Such an understanding can support the development of accurate estimates of the apparatus's serviceable age and may allow for mitigation strategies in order to protect other parts from water. Energetic materials such as TATB based PBX-9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F 800) and LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F) pose a particularly challenging problem because they are heterogeneous materials with potentially many different sources and mechanisms of water release. Water molecules could be adsorbed into the polymeric binder matrix, trapped in occlusions within the polymer and the TATB crystals/particles, or trapped within defect sites in the TATB crystal. Finally, many studies indicate that water is a decomposition product under rapid heating conditions, at high temperatures and/or high pressure. Previous studies have measured the water release rate(s) from LX-17 or PBX-9502 prill/powder in order to establish oven drying times prior to use. These studies limited their time frame to a few days or a week of drying. Other studies have looked at the rate of water release of large pressed parts contained in sealed containers. Finally, some studies have looked at the rate of water diffusion through pressed parts, or the effects of wet vs. dry machining, or the influence of the synthesis methods in the amount of water present. There are a few different models that have been developed to predict the rate of water release from LX-17 or PBX-9502. These models are, to some extent, limited by the limitations of the experiments. Because all these experiments looked at water release over a relatively short period of time and left the samples relatively undamaged, they serve as a lower bound. In this work, we perform experiments and develop models that can serve as an upper bound on the rate and amount of water that can be released. Our experimental approach is to use temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and monitor the rate and amount of water release as a function of temperature. We analyzed our experimental data using two different kinetic analysis methods (isoconversional analysis and nth-order Arrhenius kinetic fits) and used the results to make predictions. The suitability of these kinetic analysis methods as well as the applicability of these experiments to long term aging (e.g. years) issues are discussed. Using the kinetics from our experiments, we predict the water release at temperature and timescales relevant to the existing literature. Based on our analysis and comparison with older data, the kinetic model(s) developed in this work serve as a relatively accurate (i.e. order of magnitude) method for predicting the water release under a variety of thermal histories.

  19. Creep Testing Plastic-Bonded Explosives in Uni-axial Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, F J; Cunningham, B J

    2008-03-13

    High fidelity measurements of time-dependent strain in the plastic-bonded explosives LX-17-1 and PBX 9502 have been performed under constant, uni-axial, compressive load using a custom designed apparatus. The apparatus uses a combination of extensometers and linear variable differential transformers coupled with a data acquisition system, thermal controls, and gravitational loading. The materials being tested consist of a crystalline explosive material mixed with a polymeric binder. The behavior of each material is related to the type of explosive and to the percentage and type of binder. For any given plastic-bonded explosive, the creep behavior is also dependent on the stress level and test temperature. Experiments were conducted using a 3 x 3 stress-temperature matrix with a temperature range of 24 C to 70 C and with stresses ranging from 250-psi to 780-psi. Analysis of the data has shown that logarithmic curve fits provide an accurate means of quantification and facilitate a long-term predictive capability. This paper will discuss the design of the apparatus, experimental results, and analyses.

  20. A frictional work predictive method for the initiation of solid high explosives from low-pressure impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S.K.; Green, L.G.; Lee, C.G.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of these tests was to provide information that would aid in the prediction of HE response in accident situations where the initiating stimulus was less than that required for direct shock initiation. Before these tests were run, a prediction of threshold impact velocity was made (70m/s) using a rough average of previously reported threshold factional work from skid tests (1 cal/cm{sub 2}) and the experimental value for coefficient of friction of 0.5({plus_minus}) measured in the same tests for PBX-9404. The actual testing proved the threshold impact velocity to be much less, and the pretest prediction was not only wrong, it was not conservative. This work presents a methodology for more accurately predicting the reaction threshold for HE involved in an accident such as an airplane crash or a severe land transportation accident. The main focus of this work is on LX-10-1 (94.5% 5.5% Viton A binder, density 1.86g/cm{sup 3}). Additional work was done on LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% KelF binder, density 1.90g/cm{sub 3}), a very insensitive explosive. The explicit two-dimensional finite element code, DYNA2D, was used to model the tests and predict the HE response. The finite element mesh of the projectile and target were generated using MAZE. The post-processing of the DYNA2D analysis was done with ORION.

  1. Dynamic Characterization of Mock Explosive Material Using Reverse Taylor Impact Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ferranti, L; Gagliardi, F J; Cunningham, B J; Vandersall, K S

    2010-03-25

    The motivation for the current study is to evaluate the dynamic loading response of an inert mock explosive material used to replicate the physical and mechanical properties of LX-17-1 and PBX 9502 insensitive high explosives. The evaluation of dynamic material parameters is needed for predicting the deformation behavior including the onset of failure and intensity of fragmentation resulting from high velocity impact events. These parameters are necessary for developing and validating physically based material constitutive models that will characterize the safety and performance of energetic materials. The preliminary study uses a reverse Taylor impact configuration that was designed to measure the dynamic behavior of the explosive mock up to and including associated fragmentation. A stationary rod-shaped specimen was impacted using a compressed-gas gun by accelerating a rigid steel anvil attached to a sabot. The impact test employed high-speed imaging and velocity interferometry diagnostics for capturing the transient deformation of the sample at discrete times. Once established as a viable experimental technique with mock explosives, future studies will examine the dynamic response of insensitive high explosives and propellants.

  2. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R; Fried, L; Campbell, G; Saab, A; Kotovsky, J; Carter, C; Chang, J

    2009-10-11

    As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material supply issues, ever-increasing lifecycle costs, and loss of technical expertise across the weapons complex. For example, non-nuclear materials are becoming increasingly difficult to replace because manufacturing methods and formulations have evolved in such a way as to render formerly available materials unprofitable, unsafe, or otherwise obsolete. Subtle formulation changes in available materials that occur without the knowledge of the weapons community for proprietary reasons have frequently affected the long-term performance of materials in the nuclear weapon environment. Significant improvements in performance, lifetime, or production cost can be realized with modern synthesis, modeling, and manufacturing methods. For example, there are currently supply and aging issues associated with the insensitive high explosive formulations LX-17 and PBX 9502 that are based on triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F, neither of which are commercially available today. Assuring the reliability of the stockpile through surveillance and regularly scheduled Life Extension Programs is an increasingly expensive endeavor. Transforming our current stockpile surveillance--a system based on destructive testing of increasingly valuable assets--to a system based on embedded sensors has a number of potential advantages that include long-term cost savings, reduced risk associated with asset transportation, state-of-health assessments in the field, and active management of the stockpile.

  3. The Piece Wise Linear Reactive Flow Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Souers, P C

    2005-08-18

    For non-ideal explosives a wide range of behavior is observed in experiments dealing with differing sizes and geometries. A predictive detonation model must be able to reproduce many phenomena including such effects as: variations in the detonation velocity with the radial diameter of rate sticks; slowing of the detonation velocity around gentle corners; production of dead zones for abrupt corner turning; failure of small diameter rate sticks; and failure for rate sticks with sufficiently wide cracks. Most models have been developed to explain one effect at a time. Often, changes are made in the input parameters used to fit each succeeding case with the implication that this is sufficient for the model to be valid over differing regimes. We feel that it is important to develop a model that is able to fit experiments with one set of parameters. To address this we are creating a new generation of models that are able to produce better fitting to individual data sets than prior models and to simultaneous fit distinctly different regimes of experiments. Presented here are details of our new Piece Wise Linear reactive flow model applied to LX-17.

  4. Initiation Pressure Thresholds from Three Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2007-02-28

    Pressure thresholds are minimum pressures needed to start explosive initiation that ends in detonation. We obtain pressure thresholds from three sources. Run-to-detonation times are the poorest source but the fitting of a function gives rough results. Flyer-induced initiation gives the best results because the initial conditions are the best known. However, very thick flyers are needed to give the lowest, asymptotic pressure thresholds used in modern models and this kind of data is rarely available. Gap test data is in much larger supply but the various test sizes and materials are confusing. We find that explosive pressures are almost the same if the distance in the gap test spacers are in units of donor explosive radius. Calculated half-width time pulses in the spacers may be used to create a pressure-time curve similar to that of the flyers. The very-large Eglin gap tests give asymptotic thresholds comparable to extrapolated flyer results. The three sources are assembled into a much-expanded set of near-asymptotic pressure thresholds. These thresholds vary greatly with density: for TATB/LX-17/PBX 9502, we find values of 4.9 and 8.7 GPa at 1.80 and 1.90 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively.

  5. Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-06-01

    The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels! PMID:12119866

  6. Using Masculine Capital to Understand the Role of a Sport Program in the Lives of Men From a Western Canadian Inner City.

    PubMed

    Holt, Nicholas L; Scherer, Jay; Koch, Jordan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of a sport program in the lives of homeless men with severe mental illnesses and addictions. Interviews were conducted with eight men who attended a floor hockey program, and data examined using categorical-content narrative methodology. Five themes captured the role of the floor hockey program in the men's lives: (a) relationships with program leader, (b) therapy, (c) community, (d) action, and (e) achievement. These themes were interpreted using theories of masculinity (Connell, 1995; Gough, 2014). Relationships with the program leader and other men, and ways in which they were allowed to play with physicality, provided opportunities to accumulate masculine capital (i.e., ways in which competence in traditionally masculine behaviors provides masculine credit). Practically, the findings suggest that sport program delivery for men such as those in this study can be enhanced by providing opportunities for accruing masculine capital. PMID:26524098

  7. Rotational spectrum and ring-puckering vibration in 2,5-dihydrofuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamañan, Rosa M.; Lopez, Juan C.; Alonso, José L.

    1987-07-01

    The rotational spectrum of 2,5-dihydrofuran has been analyzed in the frequency region of 26.5-40.0 GHz. From the ground state inertial defect and the variation of the rotational parameters with the ring-pucking quantum number, a strictly planar ring equilibrium configuration has been established. A single-minimum one-dimensional potential function of the quadratic-quartic type has been estimated for the ring-puckering vibration. From the Stark shifts, the electric dipole moment in the ground and several excited states has been obtained.

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Project - Can-In-Canister Hardware Development/Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.

    2001-02-15

    This paper covers the design, development and testing of the magazines (cylinders containing cans of plutonium-ceramic pucks) and the rack that holds them in place inside the waste glass canister. Several magazine and rack concepts were evaluated to produce a design that gives the optimal balance between resistance to thermal degradation and facilitation of remote handling. This paper also reviews the effort to develop a jointed robotic arm that can remotely load seven magazines into defined locations inside a stationary canister working only through the 4 inch (102mm) diameter canister throat.

  9. System-level design of an RFID sweat electrolyte sensor patch.

    PubMed

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, M; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh K; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, I; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive RFID sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of mM ionic solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smart-phone app (in-vitro tests). PMID:25570878

  10. Catastrophic spine injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Prior, Chris

    2005-02-01

    Catastrophic spine injuries in sports are rare but tragic events. The sports with the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing and snowboarding, rugby, cheerleading, and baseball. A common mechanism of injury for all at-risk sports is an axial compression force to the top of the head with the neck slightly flexed. We review common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for spine injuries in the at-risk sports. PMID:15659279

  11. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena - Wisconsin, 2014.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-01-01

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning (1); 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0% (2,3). Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation. PMID:26583915

  12. High Island Blues: the Sport of Birding in the Novels of Ann Cleeves

    E-print Network

    Wedge, Philip

    2005-09-01

    on the suspect list. Somewhat ironically, Mick was clubbed with one of the trail boundary stakes and then stabbed with a wood chisel used to carve wooden birds (253), fairly unusual murder weapons to say the least. Rather than a baseball bat or hockey stick... terns, petrels, shearwaters and jaegers (7). Ann Cleeves' detective, retired Home Office investigator George Palmer-Jones, typically solves murders linked to the core of competitive birders, or "twitchers," who pursue rare sightings of species...

  13. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  14. Geology of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, S. K.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A geological analysis of six of the Uranus satellites observed in detail by Voyager 2 is presented. All of the satellites except the smallest, Puck, show evidence of cryovolcanic resurfacing: global on the largest four satellites, local in the spectacular coronae on Miranda. The cryovolcanic materials exhibit a range of albedos and morphologies, which are interpreted to reflect a variety of compositions and conditions of eruption at least as complex as those which occur on earth. Eruptions are predominantly large fissure flows that produce extensive flood deposits. Possible evidence of small circular vents and cryoclastic volcanic activity is seen on Miranda and Ariel. All of the satellites except Puck also have extensive sets of grabens and riftlike canyons that show remarkable similarity of pattern: intersection sets trending roughly NW-SW and NE-SW in the low latitudes grading into E-W trends near the poles. As a group, the Uranian satellites are somewhat more active geologically than similarly sized Saturnian satellites.

  15. Molecular Adsorber Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  16. OGC standards for end-to-end sensor network integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headley, K. L.; Broering, A.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Toma, D.; Del Rio, J.; Bermudez, L. E.; Zedlitz, J.; Johnson, G.; Edgington, D.

    2010-12-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth's environment, and more are planned for the future. Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, more intelligent, and more reliable. But due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observing systems is not straightforward, requiring development of driver software and manual tedious configuration. Use of standard protocols and formats can improve and automate the process of sensor installation, operation, and data processing. The Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative defines standards which make sensors available over the Web through standardized formats and Web Service interfaces by hiding the heterogeneity of sensor protocols from the application layer. Current SWE standards do not deal with actual sensor protocols, and the connection between sensors and SWE services is usually established by manually adapting the internals of the SWE service implementation to the specific sensor interface. Such sensor "drivers" have to be built for each kind of sensor interface, which leads to extensive efforts in developing large-scale systems. To tackle this issue we have developed a model for Sensor Interface Descriptors (SID) which enables the declarative description of sensor interfaces, including the definition of the communication protocol, sensor commands, processing steps and metadata association. The model is designed as a profile and extension of OGC SWE's Sensor Model Language standard. In this model, a SID is defined in XML for each kind of sensor protocol. SID instances for particular sensor types can be reused in different scenarios and can be shared among user communities. A SID interpreter can be built which translates between various sensor protocols and SWE protocols, hence closing the described interoperability gap. The SID interpreter is independent of any particular sensor technology, and can communicate with any sensor whose protocol can be described by a SID. The SID interpreter transfers retrieved sensor data to a Sensor Observation Service, and transforms tasks submitted to a Sensor Planning Service to actual sensor commands. The proposed SWE PUCK protocol complements SID by providing a standard way to associate a sensor with a SID, thereby completely automating the sensor integration process. PUCK protocol is implemented in sensor firmware, and provides a means to retrieve a universally unique identifer, metadata and other information from the device itself through its communication interface. Thus the SID interpreter can retrieve a SID directly from the sensor through PUCK protocol. Alternatively the interpreter can retrieve the sensor’s SID from an external source, based on the unique sensor ID provided by PUCK protocol. In this presentation, we describe the end-to-end integration of several commercial oceanographic instruments into a sensor network using PUCK, SID and SWE services. We also present a user-friendly, graphical tool to generate SIDs and tools to visualize sensor data.

  17. Recent advances in the molten salt technology for the destruction of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-11-01

    The DOE has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The authors have demonstrated the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for the treatment of explosives and explosive-containing wastes on a 1.5 kilogram of explosive per hour scale and are currently building a 5 kilogram per hour unit. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic material waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a crucible containing a molten salt, in this case a eutectic mixture of Na, K, and Li carbonates. The following pure component DOE and DoD explosives have been destroyed in LLNL`s experimental unit at their High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K-6, NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following formulations were also destroyed: Comp B, LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, PBX-9404, and XM46, a US Army liquid gun propellant. In this 1.5 kg/hr unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NOx were found to be well below 1T. In addition to destroying explosive powders and molding powders the authors have also destroyed materials that are typical of real world wastes. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the information obtained on the smaller unit, the authors have constructed a 5 kg/hr MSD unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. This unit is currently under shakedown tests and evaluation.

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Slow Energy Release in Non-Ideal Carbon Rich Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Fried, L; Glaesemann, K; Souers, C

    2006-06-20

    We present here the first self-consistent kinetic based model for long time-scale energy release in detonation waves in the non-ideal explosive LX-17. Non-ideal, insensitive carbon rich explosives, such as those based on TATB, are believed to have significant late-time slow release in energy. One proposed source of this energy is diffusion-limited growth of carbon clusters. In this paper we consider the late-time energy release problem in detonation waves using the thermochemical code CHEETAH linked to a multidimensional ALE hydrodynamics model. The linked CHEETAH-ALE model dimensional treats slowly reacting chemical species using kinetic rate laws, with chemical equilibrium assumed for species coupled via fast time-scale reactions. In the model presented here we include separate rate equations for the transformation of the un-reacted explosive to product gases and for the growth of a small particulate form of condensed graphite to a large particulate form. The small particulate graphite is assumed to be in chemical equilibrium with the gaseous species allowing for coupling between the instantaneous thermodynamic state and the production of graphite clusters. For the explosive burn rate a pressure dependent rate law was used. Low pressure freezing of the gas species mass fractions was also included to account for regions where the kinetic coupling rates become longer than the hydrodynamic time-scales. The model rate parameters were calibrated using cylinder and rate-stick experimental data. Excellent long time agreement and size effect results were achieved.

  19. Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

    1998-04-23

    The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

  20. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium standards in various locations in the test drum. Due to necessity to dispense the blank test drum an alternative method of baseline determination was established during field measurements. Count rates of ambient background were corrected by the differences between observed background and blank test drum count rates which were previously determined over a series of measurements. Only 31 drums out of 352 counted during the intensive measurement campaign at T-Plant were determined to be Suspect TRU. 25 of these drums were re-measured at the WRAP facility using the SuperHENC. Of the 25 drums measured, 21 were confirmed to be TRU and the remaining four LLW.

  1. Comparison of Recent Modeled and Observed Trends in Total Column Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, S. B.; Weatherhead, E. C.; Stevermer, A.; Austin, J.; Bruehl, C.; Fleming, E. L.; deGrandpre, J.; Grewe, V.; Isaksen, I.; Pitari, G.; Portmann, R. W.; Rognerud, B.; Rosenfield, J. E.; Smyshlyaev, S.; Nagashima, T.; Velders, G. J. M.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Xia, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison of trends in total column ozone from 10 two-dimensional and 4 three-dimensional models and solar backscatter ultraviolet-2 (SBUV/2) satellite observations from the period 1979-2003. Trends for the past (1979-2000), the recent 7 years (1996-2003), and the future (2000-2050) are compared. We have analyzed the data using both simple linear trends and linear trends derived with a hockey stick method including a turnaround point in 1996. If the last 7 years, 1996-2003, are analyzed in isolation, the SBUV/2 observations show no increase in ozone, and most of the models predict continued depletion, although at a lesser rate. In sharp contrast to this, the recent data show positive trends for the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres if the hockey stick method with a turnaround point in 1996 is employed for the models and observations. The analysis shows that the observed positive trends in both hemispheres in the recent 7-year period are much larger than what is predicted by the models. The trends derived with the hockey stick method are very dependent on the values just before the turnaround point. The analysis of the recent data therefore depends greatly on these years being representative of the overall trend. Most models underestimate the past trends at middle and high latitudes. This is particularly pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere. Quantitatively, there is much disagreement among the models concerning future trends. However, the models agree that future trends are expected to be positive and less than half the magnitude of the past downward trends. Examination of the model projections shows that there is virtually no correlation between the past and future trends from the individual models.

  2. Effects of bright light treatment on psychomotor speed in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tulppo, Mikko P.; Jurvelin, Heidi; Roivainen, Eka; Nissilä, Juuso; Hautala, Arto J.; Kiviniemi, Antti M.; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.; Takala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north) when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days). A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both) treatment was given every morning between 8 and 12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time × group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024) but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308). Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year. PMID:24860513

  3. Spinal injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

    2008-02-01

    Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:18295084

  4. Spinal injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

    2009-02-01

    Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:19084763

  5. MARINO CENTER Monday, November 23 Monday, November 30, 2015

    E-print Network

    :00am ­ 6:00am Court 2: Open for Basketball 5:00am ­ 12:45am Court 3: Open for Basketball 6:00am ­ 7 for Hockey 7:00am ­ 8:00pm Court 2: Open for Basketball 6:00pm ­ 8:00pm Court 1: Closed: Wrestling Club 8:00pm ­ 10:00pm Court 1: Open for Basketball 8:00pm ­ 10:00pm Court 2: Closed: W.Volleyball Club 10:00pm

  6. What is the most interesting team sport?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Federico; Ben-Naim, Eli; Redner, Sidney

    2006-03-01

    What is the most interesting team sport? We answer this question via an extensive statistical survey of game scores, consisting of more than 1/4 million games in over a century. We propose the likelihood of upsets as a measure of competitiveness. We demonstrate the utility of this measure via a comparative analysis of several popular team sports including soccer, baseball, hockey, basketball, and football. We also develop a mathematical model, in which the stronger team is favored to win a game. This model allows to us conveniently estimate the likelihood of upsets from the more easily-accessible standings data.

  7. Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, W. )

    1994-03-01

    Fitness in the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) arena involves understanding and coping with business cycles: supply and demand. This becomes increasingly more important as the industry globalizes and matures. Competitive-edge thinking needs to look hard at the forces that influence business cycles. Recognition of potential pitfalls is very important when considering: future capacity expansion, mergers and acquisitions, market departure, plant closure, potential product substitution, etc. Understanding pricing mechanisms and the workings of hockey-stick profitability profiles help HPI operators endure cycle downturns and prepare plants to maximize profits for the next upswing. The paper discusses characteristic trends, cycles in the hydrocarbon processing industry, current conditions, and mitigating cycle effects.

  8. Athletes' evaluations of their head coach's coaching competency.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicholas D; Feltz, Deborah L; Maier, Kimberly S; Wolfe, Edward W; Reckase, Mark D

    2006-03-01

    This study provided initial validity evidence for multidimensional measures of coaching competency derived from the Coaching Competency Scale (CCS). Data were collected from intercollegiate men's (n = 8) and women's (n = 13) soccer and women's ice hockey teams (n = 11). The total number of athletes was 585. Within teams, a multidimensional internal model was retained in which motivation, game strategy, technique, and character building comprised the dimensions of coaching competency. Some redundancy among the dimensions was observed. Internal reliabilities ranged from very good to excellent. Practical recommendations for the CCS are given in the Discussion section. PMID:16646358

  9. Validation of the historical adulthood physical activity questionnaire (HAPAQ) against objective measurements of physical activity

    E-print Network

    Besson, Herve; Harwood, Ceryl A.; Ekelund, Ulf; Finucane, Francis M.; McDermott, Christopher J.; Shaw, Pamela J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2010-06-24

    life, such as passing a test/exam or winning the lottery? ? Sample of life calendar: Decade 80 - 89 YEAR?World Events?Housing?Education/Work?Life Events?Health?Travel?Others??1980 ?John Lennon shot Ronald Regan became president????????1981... years old? For how many years did you do this sport and on average how many hours per week? ?Years?Hours per week?Minutes per week??Swimming?????Cycling ?????Running?????Football, rugby or hockey ?????Cricket ?????Volleyball, basketball or netball...

  10. Traumatic Laryngeal Fracture in a Collegiate Basketball Player

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeffery D.; Shuler, Franklin D.; Mo, Bi; Gibbs, Scott R.; Belmaggio, Tom; Giangarra, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Laryngotracheal trauma is a rare condition that accounts for less than 1% of blunt trauma. Laryngotracheal fractures are uncommon in sports, even in settings where athletes are more vulnerable, including football, basketball, and hockey. If a laryngeal injury is suspected, immediate evaluation is required to avoid a delay in the diagnosis of a potentially life-threatening injury. A collegiate basketball player sustained an unusual fracture involving the cricoid and thyroid cartilage during practice. This case illustrates the importance of rapid identification and early management of patients with blunt laryngotracheal trauma in sports. PMID:24427402

  11. Fabrication and properties of CNTs reinforced polymeric matrix nanocomposites for sports applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, A.; Khalid, F. A.

    2014-06-01

    The polymeric matrix composites have found extensive applications in sports because of high strength to weight ratio, ease of processing, and longer life. This work was carried out to study the properties of different sections of composite field hockey sticks and the influence of carbon nanotubes on their properties. The samples were fabricated by compression molding process. The increase in mechanical properties by the incorporation of carbon nanotubes is correlated with the process parameters to consider enhancement in the overall performance of the stick sections.

  12. Finite element analysis of hypervelocity impact behaviour of CFRP-Al/HC sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical response of CFRP-Al/HC (carbon fibre-reinforced/epoxy composite face sheets with Al honeycomb core) sandwich panels to hyper-velocity impact (up to 1 km/s) is studied using a finite-element model developed in ABAQUS/Explicit. The intraply damage of CFRP face sheets is analysed by mean of a user-defined material model (VUMAT) employing a combination of Hashin and Puck criteria, delamination modelled using cohesive-zone elements. The damaged Al/HC core is assessed on the basis of a Johnson Cook dynamic failure model while its hydrodynamic response is captured using the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The results obtained with the developed finite-element model showed a reasonable correlation to experimental damage patterns. The surface peeling of both face sheets was evident, with a significant delamination around the impact location accompanied by crushing HC core.

  13. Children's Perception and Interpretation of Robots and Robot Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamjee, Sajida; Griffiths, Frances; Palmer, Julie

    Technology is advancing rapidly; especially in the field of robotics. The purpose of this study was to examine children's perception and interpretation of robots and robot behaviour. The study was divided into two phases: phase one involved 144 children (aged 7-8) from two primary schools drawing a picture of a robot and then writing a story about the robot that they had drawn. In phase two, in small groups, 90 children observed four e-puck robots interacting within an arena. The children were asked three questions during the observation: 'What do you think the robots are doing?', 'Why are they doing these things?' and 'What is going on inside the robot?' The results indicated that children can hold multiple understandings of robots simultaneously. Children tend to attribute animate characteristics to robots. Although this may be explained by their stage of development, it may also influence how their generation integrates robots into society.

  14. Robot vision system for remote plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-03-13

    Tons of weapons-usable plutonium has been declared surplus to the national security needs of the United States. The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a US Department of Energy sponsored program to place excess plutonium in a stable form and make it unattractive for reuse. A vision system was developed as part of PIP robotic and remote systems development. This vision system provides visual feedback to a can-loading robot that places plutonium/ceramic pucks in stainless steel cans. Inexpensive grayscale CCD cameras were used in conjunction with an off-the-shelf video capture card and computer to build an effective two-camera vision system. Testing demonstrates the viability of this technology for use in the Plutonium Immobilization Project facility, which is scheduled to begin operations in 2008.

  15. Genetic-Algorithm Seeding Of Idiotypic Networks For Mobile-Robot Navigation

    E-print Network

    Whitbrook, Amanda; Garibaldi, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Robot-control designers have begun to exploit the properties of the human immune system in order to produce dynamic systems that can adapt to complex, varying, real-world tasks. Jernes idiotypic-network theory has proved the most popular artificial-immune-system (AIS) method for incorporation into behaviour-based robotics, since idiotypic selection produces highly adaptive responses. However, previous efforts have mostly focused on evolving the network connections and have often worked with a single, pre-engineered set of behaviours, limiting variability. This paper describes a method for encoding behaviours as a variable set of attributes, and shows that when the encoding is used with a genetic algorithm (GA), multiple sets of diverse behaviours can develop naturally and rapidly, providing much greater scope for flexible behaviour-selection. The algorithm is tested extensively with a simulated e-puck robot that navigates around a maze by tracking colour. Results show that highly successful behaviour sets can...

  16. RIMPAC 08: Naval Oceanographic Office glider operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Kevin L.; Grembowicz, Ken; Bricker, Bruce; Crossland, Steve; Bryant, Danielle; Torres, Marc; Giddings, Tom

    2009-05-01

    The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) Glider Operations Center (GOC) supported its first joint-mission exercise during Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 08, a multi-national naval exercise conducted during July 2008 near the Hawaiian Islands. NAVOCEANO personnel deployed four Seagliders from USNS SUMNER for Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) operations and four Slocum gliders for Mine Warfare (MIW) operations. Each Seaglider was equipped with a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 41cp CTD and Wet Labs, Inc. bb2fl ECO-puck optical sensor. The instrumentation suite on the Slocum gliders varied, but each Slocum glider had an SBE 41cp CTD combined with one of the following optical sensors: a Wet Labs, Inc. AUVb scattering sensor, a Wet Labs, Inc. bb3slo ECO-puck backscattering sensor, or a Satlantic, Inc. OCR radiometer. Using Iridium communications, the GOC had command and control of all eight gliders, with Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and DoD contractors serving as glider pilots. Raw glider data were transmitted each time a glider surfaced, and the subsequent data flow included processing, quality-control procedures, and the generation of operational and tactical products. The raw glider data were also sent to the Naval Research Laboratory at Stennis Space Center (NRLSSC) for fusion with satellite data and modeled data (currents, tides, etc.) to create optical forecasting, optical volume, and electro-optical identification (EOID) performance surface products. The glider-based products were delivered to the ASW and MIW Reach Back Cells for incorporation into METOC products and for dissemination to the Fleet. Based on the metrics presented in this paper, the inaugural joint-mission operation was a success.

  17. Development and Testing of Molecular Adsorber Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin; Hasegawa, Mark; Straka, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The effect of on-orbit molecular contamination has the potential to degrade the performance of spaceflight hardware and diminish the lifetime of the spacecraft. For example, sensitive surfaces, such as optical surfaces, electronics, detectors, and thermal control surfaces, are vulnerable to the damaging effects of contamination from outgassed materials. The current solution to protect these surfaces is through the use of zeolite coated ceramic adsorber pucks. However, these pucks and its additional complex mounting hardware requirements result in several disadvantages, such as size, weight, and cost related concerns, that impact the spacecraft design and the integration and test schedule. As a result, a new innovative molecular adsorber coating was developed as a sprayable alternative to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination. In this study, the formulation for molecular adsorber coatings was optimized using various binders, pigment treatment methods, binder to pigment ratios, thicknesses, and spray application techniques. The formulations that passed coating adhesion and vacuum thermal cycling tests were further tested for its adsorptive capacity. Accelerated molecular capacitance tests were performed in an innovatively designed multi-unit system containing idealized contaminant sources. This novel system significantly increased the productivity of the testing phase for the various formulations that were developed. Work performed during the development and testing phases has demonstrated successful application of molecular adsorber coatings onto metallic substrates, as well as, very promising results for the adhesion performance and the molecular capacitance of the coating. Continued testing will assist in the qualification of molecular adsorber coatings for use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  18. Academic Characteristics of Orthopedic Team Physicians Affiliated With High School, Collegiate, and Professional Teams.

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine the academic involvement and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians at high school, college, and professional levels of sport. Through Internet and telephone queries, we identified 1054 team physicians from 362 institutions, including 120 randomly selected high schools and colleges and 122 professional teams (baseball, basketball, football, hockey). For all physicians included in the study, we performed a comprehensive search of the Internet and of a citation database to determine academic affiliations, number of publications, and h-index values. Of the 1054 physicians, 678 (64%) were orthopedic surgeons. Percentage of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with an academic medical center was highest in professional sports (64%; 173/270) followed by collegiate sports (36%; 98/275) and high school sports (20%; 27/133). Median number of publications per orthopedic team physician was significantly higher in professional sports (30.6) than in collegiate sports (10.7) or high school sports (6). Median number of publications by orthopedic physicians also varied by sport, with the highest number in Major League Baseball (37.9; range, 0-225) followed by the National Basketball Association (32.0; range, 0-227) and the National Football League (30.4; range, 0-460), with the lowest number within the National Hockey League (20.7; range, 0-144). Academic affiliation and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians vary by competition level and professional sporting league. PMID:26566551

  19. Realistic uncertainties on Hapke model parameters from photometric measurement

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Hapke proposed a convenient and widely used analytical model to describe the spectro-photometry of granular materials. Using a compilation of the published data, Hapke (2012, Icarus, 221, 1079-1083) recently studied the relationship of b and c for natural examples and proposed the hockey stick relation (excluding b>0.5 and c>0.5). For the moment, there is no theoretical explanation for this relationship. One goal of this article is to study a possible bias due to the retrieval method. We expand here an innovative Bayesian inversion method in order to study into detail the uncertainties of retrieved parameters. On Emission Phase Function (EPF) data, we demonstrate that the uncertainties of the retrieved parameters follow the same hockey stick relation, suggesting that this relation is due to the fact that b and c are coupled parameters in the Hapke model instead of a natural phenomena. Nevertheless, the data used in the Hapke (2012) compilation generally are full Bidirectional Reflectance Diffusion Function (B...

  20. Threshold effect in lead-induced peripheral neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Landrigan, P.J.; Feldman, R.G.; Silbergeld, E.K.; Baker, E.L. Jr.; von Lindern, I.H.

    1988-01-01

    We previously demonstrated a negative correlation between blood lead level and motor nerve conduction velocity in 202 asymptomatic 5 to 9-year-old children living near a lead smelter in Idaho. Blood lead levels ranged from 13 to 97 micrograms/dL. To determine whether a threshold exists between blood lead level and maximal motor nerve conduction velocity, we conducted three regression analyses on these data: a ''hockey stick'' regression, a logistic regression, and a quadratic regression. We found evidence for a threshold in all three analyses: at a blood level of 30 micrograms/dL in the ''hockey stick'' regression, at 20 micrograms/dL in the logistic, and at 25 to 30 micrograms/dL in the quadratic. Neither age, sex, socioeconomic status, nor duration of residence near the smelter significantly modified the relationship. These analyses confirm that asymptomatic increased lead absorption causes slowing of nerve conduction, but they also indicate that measurement of maximal motor nerve conduction velocity is an insensitive screen for low-level lead toxicity.

  1. Born at the Wrong Time: Selection Bias in the NHL Draft

    PubMed Central

    Deaner, Robert O.; Lowen, Aaron; Cobley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) occur when those who are relatively older for their age group are more likely to succeed. RAEs occur reliably in some educational and athletic contexts, yet the causal mechanisms remain unclear. Here we provide the first direct test of one mechanism, selection bias, which can be defined as evaluators granting fewer opportunities to relatively younger individuals than is warranted by their latent ability. Because RAEs are well-established in hockey, we analyzed National Hockey League (NHL) drafts from 1980 to 2006. Compared to those born in the first quarter (i.e., January–March), those born in the third and fourth quarters were drafted more than 40 slots later than their productivity warranted, and they were roughly twice as likely to reach career benchmarks, such as 400 games played or 200 points scored. This selection bias in drafting did not decrease over time, apparently continues to occur, and reduces the playing opportunities of relatively younger players. This bias is remarkable because it is exhibited by professional decision makers evaluating adults in a context where RAEs have been widely publicized. Thus, selection bias based on relative age may be pervasive. PMID:23460902

  2. Paths to expertise in portuguese national team athletes.

    PubMed

    Leite, Nuno; Baker, Joseph; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by expert team sport athletes in the earlier stages of the long- term athlete development. Experts in roller-hockey (n = 19), volleyball (n = 14), soccer (n = 42) and basketball (n = 37) provided detailed information about the sporting activities they undertook throughout their careers. Results showed considerable variation between and within sports; however, generally, athletes began participating in sports between 6 and 10 years of age. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific (team, individual and combat) sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. Our results suggest that involvement in multiple sports during early stages of development is an alternative to early specialization and add further evidence of the complexity of skill acquisition in sport. Key pointsAlthough most athletes began sport participation between 6 and 10 years of age, there was significant variation across groups suggesting considerable flexibility in the pathways to expertise.The path to expertise in volleyball was clearly distinct from the paths of basketball, soccer and roller-hockey.There is a considerable involvement in sports other than the athlete's primary sport, suggesting early specialization is not required for these sports.The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. PMID:24149598

  3. Epidemiological considerations of concussions among intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Swanik, C Buz; Sachs, Michael L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine epidemiological trends of concussions among 15 different intercollegiate sports during the 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000 seasons. Data were collected using the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System (ISS). For the 15 sports studied during the 3 academic years, the NCAA ISS documented 3,535 team-seasons, 40,547 reportable injuries, 5,566,924 practice athlete exposures (AEs), and 1,090,298 game AEs. Concussions accounted for 6.2% of all reported injuries during this 3-year study. Of all the reported injuries, women lacrosse players (13.9%) reported the highest percentage of suffering a concussion during a game followed by women's soccer (11.4%), men's ice hockey (10.3%), men's lacrosse (10.1%), football (8.8%), women's basketball, (8.5%), field hockey (7.2%), men's soccer (7.0%), wrestling (6.6%), men's basketball (5.0%), baseball (4.2%), and women's volleyball (4.1%). Female athletes from all 7 sports were found to be at a lower risk for suffering concussions during practice sessions than the 8 male sports. However, female athletes were found to be at a greater risk for suffering concussions during games compared to male athletes. Injury trends over the 3- year period indicate concussions continue to be on the rise for athletes participating in collegiate football, men's soccer, and women's and men's basketball. PMID:12734071

  4. Knee injuries account for the sports-related increased risk of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Thelin, N; Holmberg, S; Thelin, A

    2006-10-01

    Increased risk of osteoarthritis has been found among athletes active in different kinds of sports. Knee injury is an established risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. In this population-based case-control study we investigated the risk of knee osteoarthritis with respect to sports activity and previous knee injuries. A total of 825 cases with x-ray-verified femorotibial osteoarthritis were identified at six hospitals in southern Sweden. The cases were matched (age, sex and residential area) with 825 controls from the general population. Mailed questionnaire data on sports activity for more than 1 year after the age of 16, knee injuries and confounding variables (weight, height, heredity, smoking and occupation) were collected and analyzed using logistic regression models. The response frequency was 89%. Among men knee osteoarthritis was related to soccer (odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.2), ice hockey (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0) and tennis (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8) but not to track and field sports, cross-country skiing, and orienteering. After adjustment for confounding variables soccer and ice hockey remained significantly related to knee osteoarthritis, but after adjustment for knee injuries no significant relation remained. The sports-related increased risk for knee osteoarthritis was explained by knee injuries. PMID:16978252

  5. Trunk bend and twist coordination is affected by low back pain status during running.

    PubMed

    Seay, Joseph F; Van Emmerik, Richard E A; Hamill, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has related differences in pelvis-trunk coordination to low back pain (LBP) status. In addition, repetitive motions involving bending and twisting have been linked to high incidence of LBP. The purpose of this study was to examine trunk sagittal motion - axial rotation ('bend and twist') coordination during locomotion in three groups of runners classified by LBP status (LBP: current low back pain; RES: resolved low back pain and CTR: control group with no history of LBP). Trunk kinematic data were collected as running speed was systematically increased on a treadmill. Within-segment coordination between trunk sagittal and transverse planes of motion (trunk lean and axial rotation, respectively) was calculated using continuous relative phase (CRP), and coordination variability was defined as the between stride cycle standard deviation of CRP (CRPvar). Bend-twist coordination was more in-phase for the LBP group than CTR (p = 0.010) regardless of running speed. No differences in CRPvar were found between the groups. The results from our coordination (CRP) analysis were sensitive to LBP status and suggest that multi-plane interactions of the trunk should be considered in the assessment of LBP. This analysis also has potential for athletically oriented tasks that involve multi-plane interactions of the trunk, particularly ones that contain asymmetric action, such as sweep rowing or a shot on goal in field hockey or ice hockey. PMID:24313829

  6. The effect of leg preference on postural stability in healthy athletes.

    PubMed

    Huurnink, Arnold; Fransz, Duncan P; Kingma, Idsart; Hupperets, Maarten D W; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2014-01-01

    In research regarding postural stability, leg preference is often tested and controlled for. However, leg preference may vary between tasks. As athletes are a group of interest for postural stability testing, we evaluated the effect of five leg preference tasks categorization (step up, hop, ball kick, balance, pick up) on single-leg postural stability of 16 field hockey athletes. The 'center of pressure speed' was calculated as the primary outcome variable of single-leg postural stability. Secondary variables were 'mean length of the GRF vector in the horizontal plane', 'mean length of the ankle angular velocity vector', and 'mean length of the hip angular velocity vector', as well as the separate outcomes per degree of freedom. Results showed that leg preference was inconsistent between leg preference tasks. Moreover, the primary and secondary variables yielded no significant difference between the preferred and non-preferred legs, regardless of the applied leg preference task categorization (p>0.05). The present findings do not support the usability of leg preference tasks in controlling for bias of postural stability. In conclusion, none of the applied leg preference tasks revealed a significant effect on postural stability in healthy field hockey athletes. PMID:24239407

  7. Mandatory mouthguard rules for high school athletes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    High school athletes seem particularly predisposed to dental injury, but athletic mouthguards have an excellent track record of success in reducing the severity and incidence of dental injuries in sports. Therefore, it has been suggested that mouthguards be made mandatory for high school athletes who participate in sports with risk of injury. The National Federation of State High School Associations currently recommends that mouthguards be mandated for high school football, lacrosse, ice hockey, and field hockey players as well as for wrestlers who are wearing orthodontic appliances. Different states have tried to mandate additional sports with varying degrees of success. This article summarizes the process that leads to rule changes for high school athletes at the national level and discusses the history of 4 states-Minnesota, Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts-that have tried to mandate mouthguards for different sports. Common complaints that lead to the cessation of mouthguard rules, such as speech considerations, breathing ability, and cleanliness, are discussed. PMID:26545273

  8. Acute aerobic exercise and information processing: modulation of executive control in a Random Number Generation task.

    PubMed

    Audiffren, Michel; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Zagrodnik, James

    2009-09-01

    The immediate and short-term aftereffects of a bout of aerobic exercise on young adults' executive functions were assessed. Sixteen participants performed a Random Number Generation (RNG) task, which measured two aspects of executive function, before, during, and after ergometer cycling exercise. In a separate session, participants completed the same sequence of testing while seated on an ergometer without pedaling. Results suggest that aerobic exercise: (1) selectively influences RNG indices related to the ability to alternate ascending and descending runs throughout the entire exercise bout; (2) induces a shift to a less effortful number generation strategy, particularly during the first few minutes of the exercise; and (3) has no significant influence on RNG performance as soon as the exercise terminates. The strategic adjustments observed during the exercise are interpreted in the framework of Hockey's [Hockey, G. R. J. (1997). Compensatory control in the regulation of human performance under stress and high workload: A cognitive-energetical framework. Biological Psychology, 45, 73-93.] compensatory control model and suggest that concurrent effortful processes induced by cycling exercise may draw upon available attention resources and influence executive processing. PMID:19632661

  9. Influence of birth quarter on the rate of physical activities and sports participation.

    PubMed

    Larouche, Richard; Laurencelle, Louis; Grondin, Simon; Trudeau, François

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential influence of birth quarter on the frequency of physical activity and participation in specific activities during adulthood. We used data from one national and one provincial survey, the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey and the 1998 Quebec Social and Health Survey (Enquête sociale et de santé du Québec) respectively. We analysed the distribution of participants at each level of practice of a given leisure activity and work-related physical activity. In the Canadian Community Health Survey, a relative age effect was found for participation in soccer in the 25- to 60-year-old population. However, for volleyball, a significant relative age effect was also observed but with over-representation of the last quarters of the year for the whole population and for men aged 12-60 years. In the Quebec Social and Health Survey, significant differences in the frequency of distribution without a relative age effect were revealed for participation in women's ice hockey, work-related physical activity level, and stage of change for physical activity. Overall, the data indicate that the systematic relative age effect reported in other studies for some competitive sports, such as ice hockey and soccer, is not as prevalent in leisure physical activities during adulthood. This may reflect lower competitive selection and attrition in population physical activity compared with competitive sports in younger athletes. PMID:20397099

  10. Effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on sprint time in a sled-towing exercise.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Cooper, James E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise. The coefficients of friction of four common sports surfaces (a synthetic athletics track, a natural grass rugby pitch, a 3G football pitch, and an artificial grass hockey pitch) were determined from the force required to tow a weighted sled across the surface. Timing gates were then used to measure the 30-m sprint time for six rugby players when towing a sled of varied weight across the surfaces. There were substantial differences between the coefficients of friction for the four surfaces (micro = 0.21-0.58), and in the sled-towing exercise the athlete's 30-m sprint time increased linearly with increasing sled weight. The hockey pitch (which had the lowest coefficient of friction) produced a substantially lower rate of increase in 30-m sprint time, but there were no significant differences between the other surfaces. The results indicate that although an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise is affected by the coefficient offriction of the surface, the relationship relationship between the athlete's rate of increase in 30-m sprint time and the coefficient of friction is more complex than expected. PMID:23898689

  11. Solving the energy dilemma at Seven Bridges Ice Arena

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.

    1996-08-01

    Seven Bridges Ice Arena with three ice skating rinks is among the largest ice skating facilities in the US. A complete fitness center, pro shop, second level observation gallery, restaurant, aerobics room, dance studio and children`s play room round out the 120,000 ft{sup 2} (11,215 m{sup 2}) world class facility. The Olympic Hockey League ice rink has seating for 800 spectators; and the National Hockey League ice rink has 1,200 spectator seats. The collegiate ice sheet has participant seating only. When building the one-year-old facility, the management initially solicited HVAC design/build system plans based on the usual Package Roof Top (RTU) heat/cool units or split system parameters. Such a plan could have been a disaster because high energy costs have contributed directly to the closing of 20 rinks in the Chicago area. This article describes a HVAC system that would take advantage of every Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECO) possible to ensure the economic well being of this property. This included a plan that uses the refrigeration for both cooling and heating, which eliminated the need for commercial packaged units.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion modeling for the worst-case detonation accident at the proposed Advanced Hydrotest Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M., LLNL

    1996-10-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) was requested to estimate credible worst-case dose, air concentration, and deposition of airborne hazardous materials that would result from a worst-case detonation accident at the proposed Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHT) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Consequences were estimated at the closest onsite facility, the Device Assembly Facility (DOFF), and offsite location (intersection of Highway and U.S. 95). The materials considered in this analysis were weapon-grade plutonium, beryllium, and hydrogen fluoride which is a combustion product whose concentration is dependent upon the quantity of high explosives. The analysis compares the calculated results with action guidelines published by the Department of Defense in DoD 5100.52-M (Nuclear Weapon Accident Response Procedures). Results indicate that based on a one kg release of plutonium the whole body radiation dose could be as high as 3 Rem at the DOFF. This level approaches the 5 Rem level for which the Department of Defense requires respiratory protection, recommends sheltering and the consideration of evacuation. Deposition levels at the DOFF could approach 6 uCi/m{sup 2} for which the Department of Defense recommends access on a need-only basis and suggests that a possible controlled evacuation might be required. For a one kg release of plutonium, the dose at the nearest off-site location could reach 0.5. At this level, the Department of Defense suggests that sheltering be considered. For a one kg release of beryllium, the peak 5-minute concentration at the DOFF could be as as 20% of 6xlO{sup -3} mg/m{sup 2} which is the applicable by Response Planning Guideline (ERPG-1). At the nearest offsite location, the beryllium concentrations from a one kg release would be two orders of magnitude less than the same guideline. For the detonation of 100 kg of the explosive LX-17, the concentration of hydrogen fluoride at both the DOFF and the nearest offsite location would be four orders of magnitude less than the lowest applicable Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG-1). The calculations and analysis reported here indicate that emergency response planning for such an accident at the present proposed location of the ABF should include provisions for the protection of personnel located at the DOFF and their possible evacuation.

  13. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this pilot unit we have successfully destroyed liquid gun propellant and dimethylsulfoxide containing HMX in continuous, long-duration runs.

  14. A Study of Detonation Diffraction in the Ignition-and-Growth Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kapila, A K; Schwendeman, D W; Bdzil, J B; Henshaw, W D

    2006-04-14

    Heterogeneous high-energy explosives are morphologically, mechanically and chemically complex. As such, their ab-initio modeling, in which well-characterized phenomena at the scale of the microstructure lead to a rationally homogenized description at the scale of observation, is a subject of active research but not yet a reality. An alternative approach is to construct phenomenological models, in which forms of constitutive behavior are postulated with an eye on the perceived picture of the micro-scale phenomena, and which are strongly linked to experimental calibration. Most prominent among these is the ignition-and-growth model conceived by Lee and Tarver. The model treats the explosive as a homogeneous mixture of two distinct constituents, the unreacted explosive and the products of reaction. To each constituent is assigned an equation of state, and a single reaction-rate law is prescribed for the conversion of the explosive to products. It is assumed that the two constituents are always in pressure and temperature equilibrium. The purpose of this paper is to investigate in detail the behavior of the model in situations where a detonation turns a corner and undergoes diffraction. A set of parameters appropriate for the explosive LX-17 is selected. The model is first examined analytically for steady, planar, 1-D solutions and the reaction-zone structure of Chapman-Jouguet detonations is determined. A computational study of two classes of problems is then undertaken. The first class corresponds to planar, 1-D initiation by an impact, and the second to corner turning and diffraction in planar and axisymmetric geometries. The 1-D initiation, although interesting in its own right, is utilized here as a means for interpretation of the 2-D results. It is found that there are two generic ways in which 1-D detonations are initiated in the model, and that these scenarios play a part in the post-diffraction evolution as well. For the parameter set under study the model shows detonation failure, but only locally and temporarily, and does not generate sustained dead zones. The computations employ adaptive mesh refinement and are finely resolved. Results are obtained for a rigid confinement of the explosive. Compliant confinement represents its own computational challenges and is currently under study. Also under development is an extended ignition-and-growth model which takes into account observed desensitization of heterogeneous explosives by weak shocks.

  15. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes. PMID:16272269

  16. Prevention of catastrophic injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but severely debilitating events. Catastrophic injuries are divided into two etiologic categories: direct and indirect. Direct injuries are those resulting directly from participation in a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States, whereas ice hockey, pole vaulting, gymnastics, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries per 100,000 male participants. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect or nontraumatic injuries are caused by systemic failure resulting from exertion while participating in a sport and include cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration. Indirect deaths in athletes are predominantly caused by cardiovascular conditions such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease. PMID:17472322

  17. The Physics of Sports: A Physicist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faller, James

    2006-10-01

    In this talk, I will present a physicist's way of looking at various aspects of sports. In particular, I will focus the discussion on how one might improve or enhance performance by thinking as a physicist about the processes involved. Examples that will be discussed will range from why hockey sticks are (today) curved to why good (basketball) dribbling should be ``heard.'' I will present several examples of the benefits of effecting efficiency in motion. This talk will draw on portions of presentations that I have given in the Boulder-Denver area during the past 30 years on the physics of sports. In all these presentations, my purpose was to teach and develop student interest in physics while talking about -- and showing the relevance of physics to -- sports.

  18. Polychloride monoanions from [Cl3]- to [Cl9]- : a Raman spectroscopic and quantum chemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Robin; Haller, Heike; Ellwanger, Mathias; Riedel, Sebastian

    2012-04-27

    Polychloride monoanions stabilized by quaternary ammonium salts are investigated using Raman spectroscopy and state-of-the-art quantum-chemical calculations. A regular V-shaped pentachloride is characterized for the [N(Me)(4)][Cl(5)] salt, whereas a hockey-stick-like structure is tentatively assigned for [N(Et)(4)][Cl(2)???Cl(3)(-)]. Increasing the size of the cation to the quaternary ammonium salts [NPr(4)](+) and [NBu(4)](+) leads to the formation of the [Cl(3)](-) anion. The latter is found to be a pale yellow liquid at about 40 °C, whereas all the other compounds exist as powders. Further to these observations, the novel [Cl(9)](-) anion is characterized by low-temperature Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with quantum-chemical calculations. PMID:22461376

  19. Acute myocardial infarction in a young adult: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Coskun, K O; Coskun, S T; El Arousy, M; Parsa, M Amin; Beinert, B; Körtke, H; Bairaktaris, A; Sabin, G V; Körfer, R

    2006-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death related to sports in young patients can have many causes. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary abnormalities, and myocarditis make up about half of the causes of sudden cardiac death after sports. Screening for all athletes is important to prevent such episodes. This involves yearly examinations including clinical examinations, stress echocardiograms, echocardiography, and laboratory investigations. Also, behavioral follow up should be addressed, as cocaine administration and doping can both lead to cardiac problems and sudden cardiac death after sports. We present a case of a 17-year-old boy who collapsed after an ice hockey competition as a result of an acute myocardial infarction, which was first represented by ventricular fibrillation. We also review the main causes of sudden cardiac death in such young athletes and the main investigations that have to be performed to reach the proper diagnosis and etiology of the condition. PMID:16966870

  20. Sports and health: equivalence or contrariety.

    PubMed

    Radi?, Borislav; Radi?, Petra; Durakovi?, Din

    2014-12-01

    Playing sports is a widely known method of health promotion. Balanced exercise and diet are keys to healthy life. However, sports activities can cause different injuries, from joint to head injuries. Although head injuries cause a variety of acute and chronic disorders, they are often undertreated. There are 1.6 million injured people examined at emergency departments throughout Europe every year. In sports like boxing, football, soccer, hockey, handball, basketball and bicycling, head injuries occur at a frequency of 4% to 22%. Particularly significant are chronic difficulties that occur after recurrent head injuries, i.e. cognitive deficits and changes in electroencephalogram. Qualifications of professional personnel are insufficient for professional evaluation and treatment of head injuries. The best way for sports to become an important link in health and disease prevention is to go back to sports basics while using acquired scientific knowledge. PMID:25868311

  1. Emergent Properties Delineate Marine Ecosystem Perturbation and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Link, Jason S; Pranovi, Fabio; Libralato, Simone; Coll, Marta; Christensen, Villy; Solidoro, Cosimo; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Whether there are common and emergent patterns from marine ecosystems remains an important question because marine ecosystems provide billions of dollars of ecosystem services to the global community, but face many perturbations with significant consequences. Here, we develop cumulative trophic patterns for marine ecosystems, featuring sigmoidal cumulative biomass (cumB)-trophic level (TL) and 'hockey-stick' production (cumP)-cumB curves. The patterns have a trophodynamic theoretical basis and capitalize on emergent, fundamental, and invariant features of marine ecosystems. These patterns have strong global support, being observed in over 120 marine ecosystems. Parameters from these curves elucidate the direction and magnitude of marine ecosystem perturbation or recovery; if biomass and productivity can be monitored effectively over time, such relations may prove to be broadly useful. Curve parameters are proposed as possible ecosystem thresholds, perhaps to better manage the marine ecosystems of the world. PMID:26456382

  2. Non-operative treatment of a fracture to the coracoid process with acromioclavicular dislocation in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Vera; Prall, Wolf Christian; Ockert, Ben; Haasters, Florian

    2014-08-01

    Coracoid process fractures are rare and often associated with dislocations of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. There is little evidence about the treatment of these injuries in adolescents, but the few case reports published recommend surgery. We report a case of a dislocated epiphyseal fracture to the base of the coracoid process with AC joint dislocation in a 14-year-old ice-hockey player following direct impact to his left shoulder. Since magnetic resonance tomography revealed intact AC and coracoclavicular ligaments, we initiated non-operative treatment with immobilization and unloading of the shoulder by an abduction brace allowing limited rotation for 6 weeks. This treatment resulted in complete recovery after 8 weeks and return to full sports on first league level after 3 month. In conclusion, non-operative treatment of coracoid base fractures with concomitant AC-joint injury in the adolescent can result in excellent functional results and early recovery. PMID:25317314

  3. Extending validity evidence for multidimensional measures of coaching competency.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicholas D; Wolfe, Edward W; Maier, Kimberly S; Feltz, Deborah L; Reckase, Mark D

    2006-12-01

    This study extended validity evidence for multidimensional measures of coaching competency derived from the Coaching Competency Scale (CCS; Myers, Feltz, Maier, Wolfe, & Reckase, 2006) by examining use of the original rating scale structure and testing how measures related to satisfaction with the head coach within teams and between teams. Motivation, game strategy, technique, and character building comprised the dimensions of coaching competency. Data were collected from athletes (N = 585) nested within intercollegiate men's (g = 8) and women's (g = 13) soccer and women's ice hockey (g = 11) teams (G = 32). Validity concerns were observed for the original rating scale structure and the predicted positive relationship between motivation competency and satisfaction with the coach between teams. Validity evidence was offered for a condensed post hoc rating scale and the predicted relationship between motivation competency and satisfaction with the coach within teams. PMID:17243220

  4. [Sports-related concussions in youths].

    PubMed

    Minodier, P; Guillaume, J-M; Coudreuse, J-M; Viton, J-M; Jouve, J-L; Merrot, T

    2015-04-01

    Mild head trauma can be associated with concussion, defined as transient brain function impairment without radiological findings. Sports-related concussion is also reported in pediatrics (rugby, ice hockey, football, boxing, etc.). Misdiagnosis can lead to persistent neurocognitive signs with athletic and academic problems. Consensual tools are available, but they are not well-known by first-line doctors, coaches, and patients or parents. Concussed players should not be allowed to return to the field on the same day. Return to play should be gradual over 3weeks or more. School activities may need to be modified to favor cognitive rest. Prevention is based on risk information and knowledge transfer, rule changes, and protective helmets, whose effectiveness is not always proven. PMID:25497367

  5. Overview of the Anik C satellites and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, F. H.

    An overview of the important technical characteristics of the Anik C series of Canadian communications satellites is presented. The system was launched as part of the Telesat Communications payload of the Space Shuttle in 1982. Among the services the system will in the near future provide are: a 27 MHz channel bandwidth television service for pay-TV distribution in Canada; two TV channels for hockey broadcasts and a transportable TV system; a heavy-voice route telephone service for five major Canadian cities; and a telephone system for business voice and data communications. Services anticipated for Anik-C satellites later in the decade include a Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) voice and data communications system for British Columbia and the Maritime Provinces, and a direct-to-home broadcast service to be sold to television markets in the United States.

  6. Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches' interpersonal styles.

    PubMed

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches' need-supportive (ISS-C) and controlling interpersonal (CCBS) styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs. PMID:26388808

  7. A prospective study of injuries in licensed floorball players.

    PubMed

    Wikström, J; Andersson, C

    1997-02-01

    Injuries occurring among 457 licensed floorball players in the Swedish National League were analysed prospectively during the season from 1993 to 1994. Fifty-one (11%) players sustained 58 injuries. The majority (76%) of the injuries were due to trauma mostly during the gama (55%). Twenty-three (52%) of the traumatic injuries were caused by an opponent or a stick. Ankle sprain (35%) was the most common diagnosis. Injury severity classified with regard to time of absence from sport participation were similarly distributed for minor (36%), moderate (29%) and major (35%) injuries. The total rate of injury was 2.5 per 1000 hours for female and 2.6 for male players. Although this rate is lower than for contact sports like soccer and ice-hockey, we feel that further investigation of floorball injuries and improvement of protection devices would be valuable. PMID:9089903

  8. Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches' interpersonal styles

    PubMed Central

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches' need-supportive (ISS-C) and controlling interpersonal (CCBS) styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs. PMID:26388808

  9. Staying in the game: the 10-step approach to sustaining geriatrics education in hospitalists and subspecialty providers.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Suzanne M; Brandt, Lynsey E; Chang, Anna; Chao, Serena H; Corcoran, Amy M; Miller, Rachel; Harper, G Michael; Levine, Sharon A; Medina-Walpole, Annette

    2014-08-01

    Geriatrics as a field has been fortunate to have the support of several philanthropic organizations to advance geriatrics education and training in the past two decades. Awardees of such grants were presented with unparalleled opportunities to develop new and innovative educational initiatives affecting learners at multiple levels and in multiple disciplines and specialties. The lessons learned from the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation initiatives about effect and sustainability are invaluable to the ongoing strategic development of geriatrics nationally. This article highlights successful educational initiatives developed at four institutions with past and current Donald W. Reynolds Foundation funding. Following an ice hockey playbook, this article identifies 10 strategies and initiatives to "stay in the geriatrics game" by training hospitalists and subspecialty providers. The authors' collective experience suggests that geriatrics educational initiatives can not only influence provider education, but also improve the care of older adults in multiple settings. PMID:25040491

  10. Scoring dynamics across professional team sports: tempo, balance and predictability

    E-print Network

    Merritt, Sears

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing interest in quantifying and modeling the scoring dynamics within professional sports games, relative little is known about what patterns or principles, if any, cut across different sports. Using a comprehensive data set of scoring events in nearly a dozen consecutive seasons of college and professional (American) football, professional hockey, and professional basketball, we identify several common patterns in scoring dynamics. Across these sports, scoring tempo---when scoring events occur---closely follows a common Poisson process, with a sport-specific rate. Similarly, scoring balance---how often a team wins an event---follows a common Bernoulli process, with a parameter that effectively varies with the size of the lead. Combining these processes within a generative model of gameplay, we find they both reproduce the observed dynamics in all four sports and accurately predict game outcomes. These results demonstrate common dynamical patterns underlying within-game scoring dynamics across prof...

  11. Solar energy for a community recreation center

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 58,000 ft/sup 2/ recreation center in Shenandoah, Georgia is described. Rooftop solar collectors and reflectors serve as a basis for the active solar heating and cooling systems. The recreation center clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar application in a recreation setting; economically, however, results are shown to be mixed. Although effective in the heating mode, solar cooling is considered as questionable in terms of a reasonable payoff period. A computer model predicts a payoff period of 11 years based on 1977 energy prices. The design and construction costs of the solar heating and cooling system ($726,000) was 90% financed by ERDA. A hockey-size ice rink and a gymnasium plus locker rooms and meeting rooms comprised the major part of the floor space. Problems encountered and operation of the facility are described. (MJJ)

  12. The morphological, structural and physical properties of ultra-thick C-axis oriented barium ferrite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranov, Yanko Alexandrov

    Nowadays most of the existing circulators and phase shifters are the building blocks of high-performance phased-array radars and communications systems. Ferrite reciprocal and nonreciprocal components currently used in transmit/receive (T/R) modules, however are costly and bulky. The focus of this work was a detailed in-depth investigation of the phenomena surrounding the growth, characterization and modeling of ultra-thick film C-axis oriented Barium Hexaferrite films, which will integrate excellent magnetic properties, miniature size and low losses. Polycrystalline structures have been engineered using the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and Modified Liquid Phase Epitaxy (MLPE) reflow techniques. Unfortunately the Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) showed only mediocre physical quality and magnetic properties of the films do not support a further pursue of these techniques. This research introduces the novel Modified Injection Molding (MIM) technique for fabrication of ultra-thick M-type Barium Ferrite films that can be possibly utilized as monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) devices with operating range from 1 to 100GHZ. This is an extremely low cost production, with very high rate of repetition and success. The fabricated magnetic pucks show an average coercivity of 4500 Oe, a squareness SQ= Mr/Ms = 0.93 and a magnetization saturation 4piM S above 4500 Gauss. Polycrystalline self-biased BaM films with thickness of up to 2mm have been compared to films produced by PECVD, PLD and MLPE grown samples on different substrates. Due to the low growth rate, the PECVD and PLD techniques should not be considered for industrial application. The MLPE technique has shown some very promising signs: polycrystalline films, and excellent c-axis orientation of the magnetic moment. The coercivity of the MLPE grown thick films > 400 micron was found to be about 700 Oe. The films obtained using MIM give unlimited physical dimensions of the fabricated films. For actual simulation and possible application as a monolithic microwave integrated circuit device, a BaFe12O19 puck was fabricated with thickness of 500 mum and a radius of 450 mum. The research conducted shows this new technique will prove to be cost effective and with much higher efficiency than the other conventional techniques for thin film fabrication.

  13. Can pre-season fitness measures predict time to injury in varsity athletes?: a retrospective case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability to determine athletic performance in varsity athletes using preseason measures has been established. The ability of pre-season performance measures and athlete’s exposure to predict the incidence of injuries is unclear. Thus our purpose was to determine the ability of pre-season measures of athletic performance to predict time to injury in varsity athletes. Methods Male and female varsity athletes competing in basketball, volleyball and ice hockey participated in this study. The main outcome measures were injury prevalence, time to injury (based on calculated exposure) and pre-season fitness measures as predictors of time to injury. Fitness measures were Apley’s range of motion, push-up, curl-ups, vertical jump, modified Illinois agility, and sit-and-reach. Cox regression models were used to identify which baseline fitness measures were predictors of time to injury. Results Seventy-six percent of the athletes reported 1 or more injuries. Mean times to initial injury were significantly different for females and males (40.6% and 66.1% of the total season (p?hockey or basketball. Conclusions When accounting for exposure, gender, sport and fitness measures, prediction of time to injury was influenced most heavily by gender and sport. PMID:22824555

  14. Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Popadic Gacesa, Jelena Z; Barak, Otto F; Grujic, Nikola G

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the values of anaerobic energetic capacity variables in athletes engaged in different sport disciplines and to compare them in relation to specific demands of each sport. Wingate anaerobic tests were conducted on 145 elite athletes (14 boxers, 17 wrestlers, 27 hockey players, 23 volleyball players, 20 handball players, 25 basketball players, and 19 soccer players). Three variables were measured as markers of anaerobic capacity: peak power, mean power, and explosive power. The highest values of peak power were measured in volleyball 11.71 +/- 1.56 W.kg and basketball players 10.69 +/- 1.67 W.kg, and the difference was significant compared with the other athletes (p hockey players (p > 0.05). The measured results show the influence of anaerobic capacity in different sports and the referral values of these variables for the elite male athletes. Explosive power presented a new dimension of anaerobic power, i.e., how fast maximal energy for power development can be obtained, and its values are high in all sports activities that demand explosiveness and fast maximal energy production. Coaches or other experts in the field could, in the future, find useful to follow and improve, through training process, one of the variables that is most informative for that sport. PMID:19387405

  15. Exercise capacity is associated with endothelin-1 release during emotional excitement in coronary artery disease patients.

    PubMed

    Tulppo, Mikko P; Piira, Olli-Pekka; Hautala, Arto J; Kiviniemi, Antti M; Miettinen, Johanna A; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2014-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, IL-6, and catecholamines are increased and heart rate variability [SD of normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN)] decreased during emotional excitement, but individual responses vary. We tested the hypothesis that exercise capacity is associated with physiological responses caused by real-life emotional excitement. We measured the plasma levels of ET-1, IL-6, catecholamines, heart rate, and SDNN in enthusiastic male ice hockey spectators (n = 51; age, 59 ± 9 years) with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) at baseline and during the Finnish National Ice Hockey League's final play-off matches. Maximal exercise capacity (METs) by bicycle exercise test and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured on a separate day. ET-1 response from baseline to emotional excitement correlated with maximal METs (r = -0.30; P = 0.040). In a linear stepwise regression analysis age, body mass index (BMI), METs, LVEF, basal ET-1, and subjective experience of excitement were entered the model as independent variables to explain ET-1 response. This model explained 27% of ET-1 response (P = 0.003). Maximal METs were most strongly correlated with ET-1 response (? = -0.45; partial correlation r = -0.43; P = 0.002), followed by BMI (? = -0.31; partial correlation r = -0.31; P = 0.033) and LVEF (? = -0.30; partial correlation r = -0.33; P = 0.023). Exercise capacity may protect against further cardiovascular events in CAD patients, because it is associated with reduced ET-1 release during emotional excitement. PMID:24878772

  16. Realistic uncertainties on Hapke model parameters from photometric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Frédéric; Fernando, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    The single particle phase function describes the manner in which an average element of a granular material diffuses the light in the angular space usually with two parameters: the asymmetry parameter b describing the width of the scattering lobe and the backscattering fraction c describing the main direction of the scattering lobe. Hapke proposed a convenient and widely used analytical model to describe the spectro-photometry of granular materials. Using a compilation of the published data, Hapke (Hapke, B. [2012]. Icarus 221, 1079-1083) recently studied the relationship of b and c for natural examples and proposed the hockey stick relation (excluding b > 0.5 and c > 0.5). For the moment, there is no theoretical explanation for this relationship. One goal of this article is to study a possible bias due to the retrieval method. We expand here an innovative Bayesian inversion method in order to study into detail the uncertainties of retrieved parameters. On Emission Phase Function (EPF) data, we demonstrate that the uncertainties of the retrieved parameters follow the same hockey stick relation, suggesting that this relation is due to the fact that b and c are coupled parameters in the Hapke model instead of a natural phenomena. Nevertheless, the data used in the Hapke (Hapke, B. [2012]. Icarus 221, 1079-1083) compilation generally are full Bidirectional Reflectance Diffusion Function (BRDF) that are shown not to be subject to this artifact. Moreover, the Bayesian method is a good tool to test if the sampling geometry is sufficient to constrain the parameters (single scattering albedo, surface roughness, b, c , opposition effect). We performed sensitivity tests by mimicking various surface scattering properties and various single image-like/disk resolved image, EPF-like and BRDF-like geometric sampling conditions. The second goal of this article is to estimate the favorable geometric conditions for an accurate estimation of photometric parameters in order to provide new constraints for future observation campaigns and instrumentations.

  17. Isolation and preliminary characterization of u. v. -sensitive mutants from the human cell line EUE

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorio, R.; Frosina, G.; Abbondandolo, A.

    1983-01-01

    Five u.v. light-sensitive clones were isolated in the EUE cell line by means of a modified form of the original 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR)-light method worked out by Puck and Kao for the isolation of nutritional mutants. A cell population was mutagenized with ethylmethanesulfonate. After the expression time, cells were u.v.-irradiated and incubated with BUdR to label excision patches in repair proficient cells. A subsequent irradiation with black light caused DNA strand breakage in BUdR-substituted cells. During BUdR treatment, hydroxyurea and a fluorochrome (Hoechst 33258) were added to possibly enhance the analogue incorporation into DNA and to increase the photolability of BUdR containing sequences, respectively. Out of 192 colonies selected with this method, 38 were isolated and tested for their u.v.-sensitivity. Five of them showed significant, reproducible differences with respect to the parental line. As a partial characterization, the five u.v.-sensitive clones were assayed for unscheduled (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation after exposure to u.v. light, by means of liquid scintillation spectrometry and autoradiography. In all clones. DNA repair synthesis was significantly decreased with respect to the parental line.

  18. Failure Criteria for FRP Laminates in Plane Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.

    2003-01-01

    A new set of six failure criteria for fiber reinforced polymer laminates is described. Derived from Dvorak's fracture mechanics analyses of cracked plies and from Puck's action plane concept, the physically-based criteria, denoted LaRC03, predict matrix and fiber failure accurately without requiring curve-fitting parameters. For matrix failure under transverse compression, the fracture plane is calculated by maximizing the Mohr-Coulomb effective stresses. A criterion for fiber kinking is obtained by calculating the fiber misalignment under load, and applying the matrix failure criterion in the coordinate frame of the misalignment. Fracture mechanics models of matrix cracks are used to develop a criterion for matrix in tension and to calculate the associated in-situ strengths. The LaRC03 criteria are applied to a few examples to predict failure load envelopes and to predict the failure mode for each region of the envelope. The analysis results are compared to the predictions using other available failure criteria and with experimental results. Predictions obtained with LaRC03 correlate well with the experimental results.

  19. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C

    2015-06-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors. PMID:25398174

  20. Implementation and Evaluation of Four Interoperable Open Standards for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Mohammad Ali; Liang, Steve H L; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, researchers are focusing on a new use of the Internet called the Internet of Things (IoT), in which enabled electronic devices can be remotely accessed over the Internet. As the realization of IoT concept is still in its early stages, manufacturers of Internet-connected devices and IoT web service providers are defining their proprietary protocols based on their targeted applications. Consequently, IoT becomes heterogeneous in terms of hardware capabilities and communication protocols. Addressing these heterogeneities by following open standards is a necessary step to communicate with various IoT devices. In this research, we assess the feasibility of applying existing open standards on resource-constrained IoT devices. The standard protocols developed in this research are OGC PUCK over Bluetooth, TinySOS, SOS over CoAP, and OGC SensorThings API. We believe that by hosting open standard protocols on IoT devices, not only do the devices become self-describable, self-contained, and interoperable, but innovative applications can also be easily developed with standardized interfaces. In addition, we use memory consumption, request message size, response message size, and response latency to benchmark the efficiency of the implemented protocols. In all, this research presents and evaluates standard-based solutions to better understand the feasibility of applying existing standards to the IoT vision. PMID:26402683

  1. Implementation and Evaluation of Four Interoperable Open Standards for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Jazayeri, Mohammad Ali; Liang, Steve H. L.; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, researchers are focusing on a new use of the Internet called the Internet of Things (IoT), in which enabled electronic devices can be remotely accessed over the Internet. As the realization of IoT concept is still in its early stages, manufacturers of Internet-connected devices and IoT web service providers are defining their proprietary protocols based on their targeted applications. Consequently, IoT becomes heterogeneous in terms of hardware capabilities and communication protocols. Addressing these heterogeneities by following open standards is a necessary step to communicate with various IoT devices. In this research, we assess the feasibility of applying existing open standards on resource-constrained IoT devices. The standard protocols developed in this research are OGC PUCK over Bluetooth, TinySOS, SOS over CoAP, and OGC SensorThings API. We believe that by hosting open standard protocols on IoT devices, not only do the devices become self-describable, self-contained, and interoperable, but innovative applications can also be easily developed with standardized interfaces. In addition, we use memory consumption, request message size, response message size, and response latency to benchmark the efficiency of the implemented protocols. In all, this research presents and evaluates standard-based solutions to better understand the feasibility of applying existing standards to the IoT vision. PMID:26402683

  2. EPICS controlled sample mounting robots at the GM/CA CAT.

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, O. A.; Benn, R.; Corcoran, S.; Devarapalli, S.; Fischetti, R.; Hilgart, M.; Smith, W. W.; Stepanov, S.; Xu, S.; Biosciences Division

    2007-11-11

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the advanced photon source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction [R.F. Fischetti, et al., GM/CA canted undulator beamlines for protein crystallography, Acta Crystallogr. A 61 (2005) C139]. The facility consists of three beamlines; two based on canted undulators and one on a bending magnet. The scientific and technical goals of the CAT emphasize streamlined, efficient throughput for a variety of sample types, sizes and qualities, representing the cutting edge of structural biology research. For this purpose all three beamlines are equipped with the ALS-style robots [C.W.Cork, et al. Status of the BCSB automated sample mounting and alignment system for macromolecular crystallography at the Advanced Light Source, SRI-2003, San-Francisco, CA, USA, August 25-29, 2003] for an automated mounting of cryo-protected macromolecular crystals. This report summarizes software and technical solutions implemented with the first of the three operational robots at beamline 23-ID-B. The automounter's Dewar can hold up to 72 or 96 samples residing in six Rigaku ACTOR magazines or ALS-style pucks, respectively. Mounting of a crystal takes approximately 2 s, during which time the temperature of the crystal is maintained near that of liquid nitrogen.

  3. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-01-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  4. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-05-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  5. A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chary, Sathya; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly

    2013-02-01

    Geckos utilize a robust reversible adhesive to repeatedly attach and detach from a variety of vertical and inverted surfaces, using structurally anisotropic micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures. These fibers, when suitably articulated, are able to control the real area of contact and thereby generate high-to-low van der Waals forces. Key characteristics of the natural system include highly anisotropic adhesion and shear forces for controllable attachment, a high adhesion to initial preload force ratio (??) of 8-16, lack of inter-fiber self-adhesion, and operation over more than 30?000 cycles without loss of adhesion performance. A highly reusable synthetic adhesive has been developed using tilted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) half-cylinder micron-scale fibers, retaining up to 77% of the initial value over 10?000 repeated test cycles against a flat glass puck. In comparison with other gecko-inspired adhesives tested over 10?000 cycles or more thus far, this paper reports the highest value of ??, along with a large shear force of ˜78 kPa, approaching the 88-226 kPa range of gecko toes. The anisotropic adhesion forces are close to theoretical estimates from the Kendall peel model, quantitatively showing how lateral shearing articulation in a manner similar to the gecko may be used to obtain adhesion anisotropy with synthetic fibers using a combination of tilt angle and anisotropic fiber geometry.

  6. Finite element based damage assessment of composite tidal turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Edward M.; Leen, Sean B.; Kennedy, Ciaran R.; Goggins, Jamie

    2015-07-01

    With significant interest growing in the ocean renewables sector, horizontal axis tidal current turbines are in a position to dominate the marketplace. The test devices that have been placed in operation so far have suffered from premature failures, caused by difficulties with structural strength prediction. The goal of this work is to develop methods of predicting the damage level in tidal turbines under their maximum operating tidal velocity. The analysis was conducted using the finite element software package Abaqus; shell models of three representative tidal turbine blades are produced. Different construction methods will affect the damage level in the blade and for this study models were developed with varying hydrofoil profiles. In order to determine the risk of failure, a user material subroutine (UMAT) was created. The UMAT uses the failure criteria designed by Alfred Puck to calculate the risk of fibre and inter-fibre failure in the blades. The results show that degradation of the stiffness is predicted for the operating conditions, having an effect on the overall tip deflection. The failure criteria applied via the UMAT form a useful tool for analysis of high risk regions within the blade designs investigated.

  7. Adsorbers for in-situ collection and at-sea gamma analysis of dissolved thorium-234 in seawater. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.C.; Buesseler, K.O.

    1994-07-01

    Two polypropylene cartridge types (Beta Pure and Hytrex II) were tested in the laboratory as adsorbers for in-situ collection of dissolved Thorium-234 (234Th) in seawater. Using a uranyl nitrate tracer, we determined that a MnO2 impregnated 3.25-inch Hytrex II cartridge with a flow rate of 8 liters/minute would collect 234Th with a greater than 60% efficiency. The smaller size and composition of the 3.25 inch Hytrex II cartridge enabled it to be pressed into a permanent 1-inch puck for direct gamma counting. This protocol significantly reduced the handling between collection and counting. When field tested in the Gulf of Maine as a large volume (> 500 liters) collector, the new adsorbers produced a greater than 80% collection efficiency and a dissolved 234Th concentration which was consistent with independent samples collected at the same station and depth. These adsorbers were used successfully for the in-situ collection of 234Th in large volumes of seawater during the 1992 NOAA and NSF sponsored JGOFS EqPac program, with a mean collection efficiency of 0.79 +/-9% (n = 104 cartridge pairs). jg p.3.

  8. Experimental investigation of the failure envelope of unidirectional carbon-epoxy composite under high strain rate transverse and off-axis tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Peter; Ploeckl, Marina; Koerber, Hannes

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical response of the carbon-epoxy material system HexPly IM7-8552 was investigated under transverse tension and combined transverse tension / in-plane shear loading at quasi-static and dynamic strain rates. The dynamic tests of the transverse tension and off-axis tension specimens were carried out on a split-Hopkinson tension bar system, while the quasi-static reference tests were performed on a standard electro-mechanical testing machine. Digital image correlation was used for data reduction at both strain rate regimes. For the high rate tests, the strain rate in loading direction was adjusted to reach approximately the same strain rate value in the fracture plane for each specimen. The measured axial strengths were transformed from the global coordinate system into the combined transverse tension-shear stress space of the material coordinate system and compared with the Puck Mode A criterion for inter-fibre failure. A good correlation between the experimental data and the predicted failure envelopes was found for both investigated strain rate regimes.

  9. Combining Environment-Driven Adaptation and Task-Driven Optimisation in Evolutionary Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Haasdijk, Evert; Bredeche, Nicolas; Eiben, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Embodied evolutionary robotics is a sub-field of evolutionary robotics that employs evolutionary algorithms on the robotic hardware itself, during the operational period, i.e., in an on-line fashion. This enables robotic systems that continuously adapt, and are therefore capable of (re-)adjusting themselves to previously unknown or dynamically changing conditions autonomously, without human oversight. This paper addresses one of the major challenges that such systems face, viz. that the robots must satisfy two sets of requirements. Firstly, they must continue to operate reliably in their environment (viability), and secondly they must competently perform user-specified tasks (usefulness). The solution we propose exploits the fact that evolutionary methods have two basic selection mechanisms–survivor selection and parent selection. This allows evolution to tackle the two sets of requirements separately: survivor selection is driven by the environment and parent selection is based on task-performance. This idea is elaborated in the Multi-Objective aNd open-Ended Evolution (monee) framework, which we experimentally validate. Experiments with robotic swarms of 100 simulated e-pucks show that monee does indeed promote task-driven behaviour without compromising environmental adaptation. We also investigate an extension of the parent selection process with a ‘market mechanism’ that can ensure equitable distribution of effort over multiple tasks, a particularly pressing issue if the environment promotes specialisation in single tasks. PMID:24901702

  10. Combining environment-driven adaptation and task-driven optimisation in evolutionary robotics.

    PubMed

    Haasdijk, Evert; Bredeche, Nicolas; Eiben, A E

    2014-01-01

    Embodied evolutionary robotics is a sub-field of evolutionary robotics that employs evolutionary algorithms on the robotic hardware itself, during the operational period, i.e., in an on-line fashion. This enables robotic systems that continuously adapt, and are therefore capable of (re-)adjusting themselves to previously unknown or dynamically changing conditions autonomously, without human oversight. This paper addresses one of the major challenges that such systems face, viz. that the robots must satisfy two sets of requirements. Firstly, they must continue to operate reliably in their environment (viability), and secondly they must competently perform user-specified tasks (usefulness). The solution we propose exploits the fact that evolutionary methods have two basic selection mechanisms-survivor selection and parent selection. This allows evolution to tackle the two sets of requirements separately: survivor selection is driven by the environment and parent selection is based on task-performance. This idea is elaborated in the Multi-Objective aNd open-Ended Evolution (monee) framework, which we experimentally validate. Experiments with robotic swarms of 100 simulated e-pucks show that monee does indeed promote task-driven behaviour without compromising environmental adaptation. We also investigate an extension of the parent selection process with a 'market mechanism' that can ensure equitable distribution of effort over multiple tasks, a particularly pressing issue if the environment promotes specialisation in single tasks. PMID:24901702

  11. Thermoelectric Power Generation from Lanthanum Strontium Titanium Oxide at Room Temperature through the Addition of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue; Norman, Colin; Srivastava, Deepanshu; Azough, Feridoon; Wang, Li; Robbins, Mark; Simpson, Kevin; Freer, Robert; Kinloch, Ian A

    2015-07-29

    The applications of strontium titanium oxide based thermoelectric materials are currently limited by their high operating temperatures of >700 °C. Herein, we show that the thermal operating window of lanthanum strontium titanium oxide (LSTO) can be reduced to room temperature by the addition of a small amount of graphene. This increase in operating performance will enable future applications such as generators in vehicles and other sectors. The LSTO composites incorporated one percent or less of graphene and were sintered under an argon/hydrogen atmosphere. The resultant materials were reduced and possessed a multiphase structure with nanosized grains. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites decreased upon the addition of graphene, whereas the electrical conductivity and power factor both increased significantly. These factors, together with a moderate Seebeck coefficient, meant that a high power factor of ?2500 ?Wm(-1)K(-2) was reached at room temperature at a loading of 0.6 wt % graphene. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) was achieved when 0.6 wt % graphene was added (ZT = 0.42 at room temperature and 0.36 at 750 °C), with >280% enhancement compared to that of pure LSTO. A preliminary 7-couple device was produced using bismuth strontium cobalt oxide/graphene-LSTO pucks. This device had a Seebeck coefficient of ?1500 ?V/K and an open voltage of 600 mV at a mean temperature of 219 °C. PMID:26095083

  12. Research of marine sensor web based on SOA and EDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongguo; Dou, Jinfeng; Guo, Zhongwen; Hu, Keyong

    2015-04-01

    A great deal of ocean sensor observation data exists, for a wide range of marine disciplines, derived from in situ and remote observing platforms, in real-time, near-real-time and delayed mode. Ocean monitoring is routinely completed using sensors and instruments. Standardization is the key requirement for exchanging information about ocean sensors and sensor data and for comparing and combining information from different sensor networks. One or more sensors are often physically integrated into a single ocean `instrument' device, which often brings in many challenges related to diverse sensor data formats, parameters units, different spatiotemporal resolution, application domains, data quality and sensors protocols. To face these challenges requires the standardization efforts aiming at facilitating the so-called Sensor Web, which making it easy to provide public access to sensor data and metadata information. In this paper, a Marine Sensor Web, based on SOA and EDA and integrating the MBARI's PUCK protocol, IEEE 1451 and OGC SWE 2.0, is illustrated with a five-layer architecture. The Web Service layer and Event Process layer are illustrated in detail with an actual example. The demo study has demonstrated that a standard-based system can be built to access sensors and marine instruments distributed globally using common Web browsers for monitoring the environment and oceanic conditions besides marine sensor data on the Web, this framework of Marine Sensor Web can also play an important role in many other domains' information integration.

  13. Orbital analysis of the inner Uranian satellites from Hubble images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Robert S.; Showalter, Mark R.; de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-11-01

    The thirteen inner moons of Uranus form a densely-packed and possibly chaotic system. Numerical simulations show that several groups of moons exhibit complex resonant interactions, and Mab shows as-yet unexplained variations in its orbit. However, the masses of these moons are currently unknown, limiting the insights that can be gained from numerical simulations. Using over 650 long-exposure images taken during 2003-2013 by the Hubble Space Telescope through broadband filters, we have obtained astrometry for eleven of Uranus’s inner moons, comprising the Portia group (Bianca to Perdita) plus Puck and Mab; attempts to measure the positions of Cordelia and Ophelia are on-going. Using these measurements, which are frequently accurate to 0.05 pixels or less, we have derived Keplerian orbital elements including the influence of Uranus’s oblateness. The elements show year-to-year variations that are statistically significant and indicate the role of mutual perturbations among the moons. We are also using this information to place new constraints on the masses of these moons. We will present our most recent findings.

  14. Bacterial growth rates are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the rate of growth of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ?30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250?T were used. Growth rate was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species. PMID:25721476

  15. Use of piezoelectric dampers for improving the feel of golf clubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Emanuele; Spangler, Ronald L., Jr.; Pandell, Tracy

    1999-06-01

    Several sports are based upon a tool (club, bat, stick) striking an object (ball, puck) across a field of play. Anytime two structures collide, vibration is created by the impact of the two. The impact of the objects excites the structural modes of the tool, creating a vibration that can be felt by the player, especially if the hit is not at a `sweet spot'. Vibration adversely affects both feel and performance. This paper explains how piezoelectric dampers were developed to reduce vibration and improve the feel of ball-impact sporting goods such as golf clubs. The paper describes how the dynamic characteristics of a golf club were calculated, at first in the free-free condition, and then during its operation conditions (the swing of the club, and the impact with the ball). The dynamic characteristics were used to develop a damper that addressed a specific, or multiple, modes of interest. The damper development and testing are detailed in this paper. Both objective laboratory tests and subjective player tests were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the piezoelectric dampers. The results of the tests, along with published medical data on the sensitivity of the human body, were used to draw a correlation between human feel and vibration reduction.

  16. Jack Rabbit Pretest Shadowplate Drawings For TATB IHE Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; McDaniel, D W

    2009-07-10

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) series consisted of 5 focused hydrodynamic experiments 2021E PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT7. They were fired in March and April of 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. These experiments measured deadzone formation and impulse gradients created during the detonation of TATB based insensitive high explosive. When setting up computer simulations of the Jack Rabbit Pretest series, the modeler or code developer can execute simulations with increasing degrees of refinement using detail found in the shadowplate design. The easiest way to get started is by treating the shadowplate in each experiment as a monolithic homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The simulation of detonation would begin as a point initiation below the center, bottom surface of the shadowplate. The detonation running through the ultrafine TATB booster can be simulated using program burn and then switched over to a reactive flow detonation model as the detonation front crosses the boundary into the main charge LX-17 IHE. A modeler wanting to further refine the simulation and progression of shock through the shadowplate can use the more detailed shadowplate design information presented in this document. The source drawings are included in Appendix A of this document. Their titles and drawing numbers are listed. Each experiment's shadowplate consists of two major components. A 303 stainless steel shape that defines the outer dimensions of shadowplate and a cylindrical 303 stainless steel detonator housing that is located in a closely machined pocket in the shape. The SIMPLE ASSY drawing accurately represents the dimensions of the outer shape, it's machined cylindrical pocket, and detonator body which is treated as a monolithic, homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The detonator body cross section shows an accurately dimensioned void where the slapper flyer barrel, LX-16 (pressed PETN) pellet, and pellet can flyer barrel are located. The FULL ASSY drawing accurately represents the dimensions of the outer shadowplate shape and it's machined pocket. The detonator dimensions and materials are detailed in cross section and exploded view. All diameters, thicknesses, and materials are called out in the drawing. You will notice that the detonator includes a multilayer slapper assembly with two layers of electrically insulating Kapton sandwiching the copper foil bridge circuit. The Kapton insulated circuit is sandwiched between two thin stainless steel sheets. This slapper assembly is secured to the detonator body with two screws. There is a 0.25 mm gap between the slapper assembly and the outer shadowplate shape. The stainless steel detonator body contains an off-center titanium wheel. This titanium wheel is secured to the detonator body with one screw and two pins to maintain position and orientation of the pellet can assembly in the center of the detonator body. The titanium wheel contains a tantalum/tungsten washer and pellet can assembly. The pellet can assembly consists of a pressed LX-16 initiator pellet contained in an extruded aluminum foil can. It may be useful for the modeler to include some of the details of the shadowplate and detonator design to further refine simulations of the Jack Rabbit Pretest experiments. These details may be relevant to the progression of shock originating from the PETN initiation pellet and ultrafine TATB booster that propagates through the shadowplate.

  17. Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute.

    PubMed

    Dascombe, B J; Karunaratna, M; Cartoon, J; Fergie, B; Goodman, C

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63/72; 87.5+/-12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female (31/36; 86.1+/-13.9%) and male (32/36; 88.9+/-11.1%) athletes. Kayakers (6.0+/-2.9) consumed a higher number of nutritional supplements than swimmers (4+/-2.2), field hockey (1.5+/-1.0), rowing (2.4+/-1.4), waterpolo (2.3+/-2.4), athletics (2.5+/-1.9) and netball (1.7+/-1.0) athletes. The athletes believed that nutritional supplements are related to performance enhancements (47/72; 65.3%), positive doping results (45/72; 62.5%), and that heavy training increases supplement requirements (47/72; 65.3%). The cohort was equivocal as to their health risks (40/72; 55.6%) or their need with a balanced diet (38/72; 52.8%). The most popular supplements were minerals (33/72; 45.8%), vitamins (31/72; 43.1%), other (23/72; 31.9%), iron (22/72; 30.6%), caffeine (16/72; 22.2%), protein (12/72; 16.7%), protein-carbohydrate mix (10/72; 13.9%), creatine (9/72; 12.5%) and glucosamine (3/72; 4.2%). The majority of supplementing athletes (n=63) did not know their supplements active ingredient (39/63; 61.9%), side effects (36/63; 57.1%) or mechanism of action (34/63; 54.0%) and admitted to wanting additional information (36/63; 57.0%). Only half of the athletes knew the recommended supplement dosages (33/63; 52.4%). The performance enhancing perception may explain the large proportion of athletes that reported using nutritional supplements, despite over half of the athletes believing that supplements are not required with a balanced diet and can cause positive doping violations. PMID:19775936

  18. Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Varies by Sport in Healthy Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Brooks, M Alison; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Objectives To describe performance and asymmetry on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) by sex and sport, and to determine if differences exist within a collegiate athlete population. Background Performance on the SEBT may differ between sexes and levels of competition, though the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. Investigation of performance and asymmetry differences between sports is limited. Sex- and sport-specific reference values likely need to be determined to best assess SEBT performance. Methods Performance on the SEBT was retrospectively reviewed in 393 healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from 8 sports. Means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all variables. Normalized reach distance (percent limb length) and asymmetry between limbs were compared for the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions and for the composite (COMP) score using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of sex by sport, and a 1-way ANOVA to separately compare sports within each sex. Results Average normalized reach distance ranged from 62% to 69%, 84% to 97%, and 99% to 113% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively, and from 82% to 92% in the COMP score. Normalized asymmetry ranged from 3% to 4%, 5% to 8%, and 5% to 6% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively. A significant sex-by-sport interaction (P = .039) was observed in the ANT direction, with a sex effect for soccer players (P<.001; men less than women). Significant differences were observed in the PL and PM directions and in the COMP score among women's teams, with women's ice hockey players reaching the farthest (COMP, 90.0%). Among men's teams, significant differences were observed in all directions and in the COMP score. Men's ice hockey players (COMP, 91.9%) and wrestlers achieved the farthest distances (COMP, 88.8%). Conclusion Performance on the SEBT varies by team, with a difference between sexes also present for soccer. Performance on the SEBT and potential injury risk should be interpreted within the context of the athlete's sport. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(10):772-780. Epub 24 Aug 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5777. PMID:26304643

  19. Sports activity and the use of cigarettes and snus among young males in Finland in 1999-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the relationship between sports activity and smoking among adolescents and young adults report contradictory results. We examined the association between sports activity (intensity and type of sport) and the current use of snus (Swedish snuff), cigarette smoking, and the combined use of cigarettes and snus (dual use) among young males in Finland. Methods Data were collected from 16,746 male conscripts who completed a survey during the first days of their conscription during the years 1999-2010 (median age 19 years, response rate 95%). Main outcome measures were self-reported daily/occasional use of snus, cigarette smoking, and dual use. The association between sports activity, type of sport, and several sociodemographic background variables was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Over the study period (1999-2010), the prevalence of cigarette smoking decreased from 42% to 34%, while snus use increased from 5% to 12%, and dual use increased from 7% to 13% (p < 0.001). Compared with no physical activity, regular competitive sports activity (defined as high-intensity sports activity) was positively associated with use of snus (odds ratio [OR] 10.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-13.5) and negatively with cigarette smoking (OR 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3). When stratified by type of sport in multivariate models, ice hockey was most strongly associated with snus use (OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-1.9) and dual use (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.8-2.3) compared with those not playing ice-hockey, followed by other team sports for snus use (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.8) and dual use (OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.6-2.0) compared with those not participating in other team-sports. Conclusions Our results show a clear association between snus use and intensity and type of training. Team sports were associated with increased use of snus and dual use compared with no participation in team sports. These findings should be acknowledged when planning and implementing preventive strategies. PMID:22439614

  20. Automated Data Quality Assurance using OGC Sensor Web Enablement Frameworks for Marine Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Daniel; Bghiel, Ikram; del Rio, Joaquin; Hidalgo, Alberto; Carreras, Normandino; Manuel, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    Over the past years, environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Therefore, many sensor networks are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. But due to the large number of sensor manufacturers, accompanying protocols and data encoding, automated integration and data quality assurance of diverse sensors in an observing systems is not straightforward, requiring development of data management code and manual tedious configuration. However, over the past few years it has been demonstrated that Open-Geospatial Consortium (OGC) frameworks can enable web services with fully-described sensor systems, including data processing, sensor characteristics and quality control tests and results. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The data management software which enables access to sensors, data processing and quality control tests has to be implemented and the results have to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this contribution, we describe a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) OGC PUCK protocol - a simple standard embedded instrument protocol to store and retrieve directly from the devices the declarative description of sensor characteristics and quality control tests, (2) an automatic mechanism for data processing and quality control tests underlying the Sensor Web - the Sensor Interface Descriptor (SID) concept, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor which serves as a generic data management mechanism - designed as a profile and extension of OGC SWE's SensorML standard. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to the OBSEA Observatory, and can be used to demonstrate the ability to assess data quality for temperature, salinity, air pressure and wind speed and direction observations off the coast of Garraf, in the north-eastern Spain.

  1. Seasonality in vegetation biometrics and its effects on sediment characteristics and meiofauna in Baltic seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowska, Emilia; W?odarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Balazy, Piotr; Kuli?ski, Karol

    2014-02-01

    Seagrass meadows can act as ecosystem engineers, i.e., organisms that modify the availability of resources to other organisms. However, their possible positive impacts depend on the characteristics of the vegetation, and these can vary strongly seasonally. This study assesses seasonal variability in macrophyte taxonomic composition and seagrass biometrics in the temperate Baltic Sea eelgrass meadows. We hypothesize that the anticipated strong seasonality in vegetation cover induces parallel seasonal changes in seagrass engineering effects as indicated by changes in sediment characteristics and meiozoobenthic abundance, composition and diversity. Macrophytes, sediments, and fauna were sampled at two locations in the Puck Bay from vegetated bottoms and bare sands five times in one year. Zostera marina vegetation occurred throughout the year and showed strong seasonality with the highest values of shoot density, leaf length, and biomass in July (202.3 ± 30.0 95% CI shoots m-2) and the lowest in March (55.4 ± 15.0 shoots m-2). POC was significantly higher in vegetated sands, and these effects were evident throughout the study period regardless of variability in macrophyte vegetation. The density and diversity of meiofauna did not differ between the seagrass beds and bare sands even in summer months when vegetation was best developed. The lack of an effect of the seagrass meadows on the meiofauna can be explained by the relatively low shoot density and biomass of the studied seagrass meadows and/or higher macrobenthic predation on the vegetated bottom compared to bare sands. However, both the canopies of macrophytes and the effects of the vegetation on benthic systems could increase substantially over the course of the gradual, natural restoration of the seagrass meadows.

  2. Photo-regulation in microphytobenthos from intertidal mudflats and non-tidal coastal shallows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pniewski, Filip F.; Biskup, Paulina; Bubak, Iwona; Richard, Pierre; Lata?a, Adam; Blanchard, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated seasonal changes in the photo-regulatory mechanisms of microphytobenthos found in intertidal mudflats (Aiguillon Bay, the Atlantic, France) and non-tidal sandy coastal shallows (Puck Bay, the Baltic, Poland) based on photosynthetic pigment characteristics and the estimates of photosynthetic parameters obtained through oxygen evolution measurements. The intertidal communities consisted of motile diatom species typical of epipelon. The non-tidal microphytobenthos was composed of epipsammic species mostly belonging to four taxonomic groups chiefly contributing to the assemblage biomass, namely cyanobacteria, euglenophytes, green algae and diatoms (comprising mainly small-sized species). The epipelon was low light acclimated as shown by the lower values of photoprotective/photosynthetic (PPC/PSC) carotenoids and diatoxanthin/diadinoxanthin (Dt/Dd) ratios. In contrast, the epipsammon exhibited features of high light acclimation (high PPC/PSC and Dt/Dd ratios). In both microphytobenthos types, the photosynthetic capacity (Pm) showed the same seasonal variation pattern and there were no statistically significant differences between the investigated sites in corresponding seasons (P > 0.05). In both assemblage types, the photosynthetic efficiency at limiting irradiance (?) decreased over time. The epipelon had higher ? compared to the epipsammon. Seasonal changes of the photoacclimation index (Ek) estimated for the epipelic communities reflected variations observed in Pm, whereas in the epipsammon an increasing trend in Ek values was observed. Ek was always higher for the epipsammon when comparing analogous seasons, which further corroborated low and high light acclimation in the epipelic and epipsammic communities, respectively. The presence of the photoinhibition parameter (?) in the epipelon and the lack of it in the epipsammon suggested that the latter was resistant to high irradiance and the physiological mechanisms were sufficient to protect it from photoinhibition. In the epipelon, a downturn in photosynthetic rates showed that it was susceptible to high light intensities, suggesting that physiological photoprotective mechanisms must be supported by behavioural photoacclimation in order to avoid damaging light influence.

  3. Comparing Phoebe's 2005 opposition surge in four visible light filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C.; Verbiscer, A. J.; Chanover, N. J.; Holtzman, J. A.; Helfenstein, P.

    2011-04-01

    We observed Phoebe for 13 nights over a period of 55 days before, during, and after the 2005 Saturn opposition with the New Mexico State University (NMSU) 1-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO) in Sunspot, NM and characterized the width and magnitude of Phoebe's opposition surge in BVRI filters. Our observations cover a phase angle range of 4.87° to 0.0509°. We use a Hapke reflectance model incorporating shadow hiding and coherent backscatter to investigate the wavelength dependence of Phoebe's opposition surge. We find a significant opposition surge magnitude of 55-58% between phase angles of 5° and 0°. We find the strongest opposition surge for phase angles less than 2° in the I-band. The coherent backscatter angular width is on the order of 0.50°. We find Phoebe's albedo to be spectrally flat within our error limits, with a B-band albedo of 0.0855 ± 0.0031, a V-band albedo of 0.0856 ± 0.0023, an R-band albedo of 0.0843 ± 0.0020, and an I-band albedo of 0.0839 ± 0.0023. We compare Phoebe's albedo, color, and opposition surge magnitudes and slopes with those of other outer solar system bodies and find similarities to Centaurs, Nereid, Puck, and Comets 19P/Borrelly, 9P/Tempel 1, and 81P/Wild 2. We find that this comparison supports the idea that Phoebe originated in the Kuiper Belt. We also discuss the caveats of using results from a Hapke reflectance model to derive specific surface particle properties.

  4. Habitat-related patterns of soft-bottom macrofaunal assemblages in a brackish, low-diversity system (southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soko?owski, Adam; Zió?kowska, Marcelina; Zgrundo, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Coastal areas provide a high variety of sedimentary habitats that influence the structure of resident fauna even on small geographical scales. Therefore, examinations of spatial variations in benthic assemblages require background knowledge of the environmental and biotic heterogeneity of habitats in order to understand ecological processes in such areas. The effect of habitat-related abiotic and biological variables on macrofaunal benthic assemblages was studied seasonally in 2010 and 2011 in the brackish, semi-enclosed Puck Lagoon (Gulf of Gda?sk, southern Baltic Sea). Based on macrophytal biomass, two discrete benthic regions were identified in the lagoon: a region of large biomass and a region of few macrophytes. The quality of the surface sediment organic matter (measured as C/Nsed ratio), depth, and benthic macrophyte composition accounted for within-region variation, which led to the identification of four habitats. Shallow sandy sediments with low C/Nsed ratios provide high quality sedimentary food for animals that, together with species-rich, dense macrophyte vegetation, support diverse assemblages. High C/Nsed ratios and peat outcrops in shallow sands exert a negative effect on macrofaunal diversity. Two deeper sandy habitats with less massive, species-poor vegetation tend to host distinct faunal assemblages of higher abundance and biomass. The importance of benthic vegetation for macrofaunal assemblages in the southern Baltic Sea is suggested to stem from its complex spatial structure that offers a number of microniches for infaunal and epifaunal species. The effect of macrophytes on benthic faunal assemblages was consistent throughout most of the year with the strongest influence in summer when macrophytes reached the highest biomass.

  5. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  6. Fractures and refractures in intercollegiate athletes. An eleven-year experience.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, J A; Fleagle, S B; Kalenak, A

    1981-01-01

    This report on fractures and refractures in intercollegiate athletes covers an 11-year period from the early Fall of 1968 through the Spring of 1979. Two hundred thirty-one fractures occurred in 219 athletes. Of these athletes, 185 were male and 34 were female. Fractures occurred in 18 sports. Of these 18, football, basketball, wrestling, and soccer led in number for Men's (M) teams, and gymnastics, lacrosse, and volleyball led for Ladies' (L) teams. (Because of this institution's early involvement with Title IX, and the strong position taken by our administration, our teams are designated Gentlemen (Men for short), which constitute the LIONS, and Ladies, which make up the LADY LIONS.) No fractures were noted in the other 11 intercollegiate teams of cheerleading (M and L), bowling (M and L), golf (M and L), fencing (L), rifle (coed), tennis (M and L), and volleyball (M). Boxing, ice hockey, rugby, soccer, and synchronized swimming are club sports at the Pennsylvania State University and are not included in this study. The most common of the 17 fracture sites were the finger, hand, face, foot, nose, and leg, regardless of sport or gender. Fourteen of fifteen refractures occurred in collision/contact sports, and essentially the same mechanical forces caused both fractures. In football most fractures occurred during highly successful seasons. PMID:7316018

  7. State-of-the-art sports facility's HVAC

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, M.K. )

    1994-08-01

    This article describes the HVAC systems design to keep Cleveland's new Gateway sports and entertainment complex comfortable. This magnificent new facility embraces the 42,000-seat Jacobs Field, with its natural grass playing surface, and the 21,000-seat Arena at Gateway (the official name will be announced at its August 1 opening). The Arena is the new home of the Cleveland Cavaliers NBA basketball team and the Lumberjacks IHL ice hockey team. Other events that will be held here include arena football, circuses, ice shows, and concerts. It is anticipated that the Arena will be in use in excess of 200 days a year for these and other functions. The ballpark and the arena are separated by Gateway Plaza, a large illuminated public space that also will be the site of various entertainment events. An air conditioned pedestrian bridge, approximately 0.7 miles in length, connects the Arena with the Regional Transit Authority's downtown rapid transit station. Other enclosed walkways connect the Arena with two parking garages (3,158 vehicles total) and the larger garage with Jacobs Field.

  8. The effect of emotional state on taste perception.

    PubMed

    Noel, Corinna; Dando, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception can be modulated by a variety of extraneously applied influences, such as the manipulation of emotion or the application of acute stress. To evaluate the effect of more commonplace day-to-day emotional variation on taste function, taste intensity ratings and hedonic evaluations were collected from approximately 550 attendees following men's hockey games spanning the 2013-2014 season, a period encompassing 4 wins, 3 losses, and 1 tie. Since different outcomes at competitive sporting events are shown to induce varying affective response, this field study presented a unique environment to evaluate the effect of real-life emotional manipulations on our perception of taste, where previous research focused more on extraneous manipulation within a laboratory environment. Analysis revealed that positive emotions correlated with enhanced sweet and diminished sour intensities while negative emotions associated with heightened sour and decreased sweet tastes. Theoretically, both an increase in sweet and a decrease in sour taste intensity would drive acceptance of a great number of foods. Indeed, hedonic ratings for samples that were less liked (and parenthetically mostly sweet and sour in nature), selectively increased as positive affect grew, possibly due to the perceived decrease in sourness and increase in sweetness. The results of this field study indicate that emotional manipulations in the form of pleasantly or unpleasantly perceived real-life events can influence the intensity perception of taste, driving hedonics for less acceptable foods. These results suggest that such modulation of taste perception could play a role in emotional eating. PMID:26122754

  9. Relationship Between ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Physical Abilities in Polish Athletes.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Mazur-Ró?ycka, Joanna; Michalski, Radoslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between ?-actinin 3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism and physical abilities of male athletes performing various sports (volleyball, ice hockey, canoeing, swimming). One hundred eighty-five subjects were recruited for the study. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and power output in countermovement jump and spike jump (SPJ) and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups. The R577X polymorphism of ACTN3 was typed using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed that RR genotype carriers develop greater power output in SPJ than RX and XX individuals (44.6 ± 11.1, 42.6 ± 11.0, and 38.4 ± 7.9 W·kg(-1) for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively) and height of jump in SPJ (0.537 ± 0.075, 0.523 ± 0.072, and 0.498 ± 0.053 m for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively). Muscle strength did not differ between genotype groups. This suggests that the ACTN3 gene has a greater impact on determining dynamic movements than influencing static muscle strength. PMID:25734782

  10. The Dark Side of Authenticity: Feeling "Real" While Gambling Interacts with Enhancement Motives to Predict Problematic Gambling Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lister, Jamey J; Wohl, Michael J A; Davis, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Engaging in activities that make people feel authentic or real is typically associated with a host of positive psychological and physiological outcomes (i.e., being authentic serves to increase well-being). In the current study, we tested the idea that authenticity might have a dark side among people engaged in an addictive or risky behavior (gambling). To test this possibility, we assessed gamblers (N = 61) who were betting on the National Hockey League playoff games at a sports bar. As predicted, people who felt authentic when gambling reported behavior associated with problem gambling (high frequency of betting) as well as problematic play (a big monetary loss and a big monetary win). Moreover, such behavior and gambling outcomes were particularly high among people who were motivated to gamble for the purpose of enhancement. The interaction of feeling authentic when betting and gambling for purposes of enhancing positive emotions proved especially troublesome for problematic forms of play. Implications of authenticity as a potential vulnerability factor for sports betting and other types of gambling are discussed. PMID:24817496

  11. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut manoeuvres in compression shorts: implications for return to sport after groin injury.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Jamison, Steven T; McNally, Michael P; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention of or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large, eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography (EMG) of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut manoeuvres in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all P < 0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  12. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  13. Engineering challenges of the acoustics of a political convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randorff, Jack E.

    2002-05-01

    The acoustical challenges encountered during the 2000 Republican Convention are discussed. The convention has held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's First Union Center. This venue is a dual-purpose facility catering to professional basketball and professional ice hockey. The acoustical needs of the delegates and the broadcast audience are discussed. The technical performance requirements of convention sound reinforcement and media network broadcast feed are outlined. The necessary technical and performance trade-offs are enumerated with respect to the physical constraints, schedule requirements, budget limitations, and technical planning committee expectations. The conversion of a major sporting arena to a large-scale meeting room with reverberation times and general room conditions conducive to good listening was a significant undertaking. The site had been chosen for a preliminary screening visit approximately 2 years before. This presentation is a followup to ``Acoustics of Political Conventions-A Review,'' delivered at the Acoustical Society of America 139th Meeting in Atlanta in June 2000, 2 months before the convention in Philadelphia.

  14. American Fisheries Society 136th Annual Meeting Lake Placid, NY 10-14 September, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Einhouse, D.; Walsh, M.G.; Keeler, S.; Long, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The New York Chapter of the American Fisheries Society and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation invite you to experience the beauty of New York's famous Adirondack Park as the American Fisheries Society (AFS) convenes its 136th Annual Meeting in the legendary Olympic Village of Lake Placid, NY, 10-14 September 2006. Our meeting theme "Fish in the Balance" will explore the interrelation between fish, aquatic habitats, and man, highlighting the challenges facing aquatic resource professionals and the methods that have been employed to resolve conflicts between those that use or have an interest in our aquatic resources. As fragile as it is beautiful, the Adirondack Region is the perfect location to explore this theme. Bordered by Mirror Lake and its namesake, Lake Placid, the Village of Lake Placid has small town charm, but all of the conveniences that a big city would provide. Whether its reliving the magic of the 1980 hockey team's "Miracle on Ice" at the Lake Placid Olympic Center, getting a panoramic view of the Adirondack high peaks from the top of the 90 meter ski jumps, fishing or kayaking in adjacent Mirror Lake, hiking a mountain trail, or enjoying a quiet dinner or shopping excursion in the various shops and restaurants that line Main Street, Lake Placid has something for everyone.

  15. Effects of wearing compression garments on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity in temperate environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Laurence A; Dawson, Brian; Maloney, Shane K

    2009-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal match-day attire alone (NORM) on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity. Ten match-fit field hockey players twice performed 4x15min exercise bouts consisting of repeated cycles of intermittent, varied-intensity 20m shuttle running (Loughborough intermittent shuttle test), once in COMP and once in NORM. Testing was conducted in an indoor gymnasium (ambient conditions: approximately 17 degrees C, approximately 60% relative humidity). Participants acted as their own controls. Heart rate (HR), 15m sprint time, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration, sweat rate and body core temperature (T(core)) were similar between trials (p>0.05). Mean skin temperature (T(skin)) was significantly higher in COMP than NORM (p<0.05). Overall, CGs worn as a baselayer during simulated team sport exercise in temperate ambient conditions had no thermoregulatory benefits nor any detrimental effects on T(core), physiological performance or dehydration. However, the higher T(skin) may affect individual preference for wearing CGs as an undergarment during team sports. PMID:18078787

  16. Raising the ante on the climate debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    Almost alone in the world of science, there is a substantial U.S. effort to discredit some basic conclusions in the global warming debate. There are always legitimate reasons to query scientific conclusions, but the tenor of the debate has taken on a flavor of its own. Since the epicenter of the dispute is in Washington, D.C., the suspicion arises that not all of the discussion is business-as-usual scientific disagreement.The most recent example of the heightening level of the dispute involves a 23 June 2005 letter from U.S. Rep. Joe Barton (R-Tex.), chair of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, to Michael Mann (University of Virginia) and his collaborators, Raymond Bradley (University of Massachusetts) and Malcolm Hughes (University of Arizona). The dispute centers on the much discussed “hockey stick” reconstruction of Mann et al. [1998,1999]. In those reconstructions, the twentieth century warming stands well above Northern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations of the last 1000 years. Other investigators, using some of the same data but with different approaches, have also reconstructed temperatures of the last millennium (see Mann et al. [2003] for a summary discussion). In general, there is more agreement than disagreement among the various reconstructions. The differences stem mainly from the scaling of the oscillations, but in all cases the late twentieth century is anomalous in a millennial context.

  17. Cognitive effects of one season of head impacts in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Flashman, L.A.; Maerlender, A.; Greenwald, R.M.; Beckwith, J.G.; Tosteson, T.D.; Crisco, J.J.; Brolinson, P.G.; Duma, S.M.; Duhaime, A.-C.; Grove, M.R.; Turco, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season negatively affects cognitive performance in collegiate contact sport athletes. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study at 3 Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association athletic programs. Participants were 214 Division I college varsity football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets that recorded the acceleration-time history of the head following impact, and 45 noncontact sport athletes. All athletes were assessed prior to and shortly after the season with a cognitive screening battery (ImPACT) and a subgroup of athletes also were assessed with 7 measures from a neuropsychological test battery. Results: Few cognitive differences were found between the athlete groups at the preseason or postseason assessments. However, a higher percentage of the contact sport athletes performed more poorly than predicted postseason on a measure of new learning (California Verbal Learning Test) compared to the noncontact athletes (24% vs 3.6%; p < 0.006). On 2 postseason cognitive measures (ImPACT Reaction Time and Trails 4/B), poorer performance was significantly associated with higher scores on several head impact exposure metrics. Conclusion: Repetitive head impacts over the course of a single season may negatively impact learning in some collegiate athletes. Further work is needed to assess whether such effects are short term or persistent. PMID:22592370

  18. Effect of head impacts on diffusivity measures in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ford, James C.; Flashman, Laura A.; Maerlender, Arthur; Greenwald, Richard M.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Bolander, Richard P.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Turco, John H.; Raman, Rema; Jain, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season affects white matter diffusion measures in collegiate contact sport athletes. Methods: A prospective cohort study at a Division I NCAA athletic program of 80 nonconcussed varsity football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets that recorded the acceleration-time history of the head following impact, and 79 non–contact sport athletes. Assessment occurred preseason and shortly after the season with diffusion tensor imaging and neurocognitive measures. Results: There was a significant (p = 0.011) athlete-group difference for mean diffusivity (MD) in the corpus callosum. Postseason fractional anisotropy (FA) differed (p = 0.001) in the amygdala (0.238 vs 0.233). Measures of head impact exposure correlated with white matter diffusivity measures in several brain regions, including the corpus callosum, amygdala, cerebellar white matter, hippocampus, and thalamus. The magnitude of change in corpus callosum MD postseason was associated with poorer performance on a measure of verbal learning and memory. Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between head impact exposure, white matter diffusion measures, and cognition over the course of a single season, even in the absence of diagnosed concussion, in a cohort of college athletes. Further work is needed to assess whether such effects are short term or persistent. PMID:24336143

  19. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Acute Management of the Cervical Spine–Injured Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E; Boden, Barry P; Courson, Ronald W; Decoster, Laura C; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Norkus, Susan A; Rehberg, Robb S; Waninger, Kevin N

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, team physicians, emergency responders, and other health care professionals with recommendations on how to best manage a catastrophic cervical spine injury in the athlete. Background: The relative incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sports is low compared with other injuries. However, cervical spine injuries necessitate delicate and precise management, often involving the combined efforts of a variety of health care providers. The outcome of a catastrophic cervical spine injury depends on the efficiency of this management process and the timeliness of transfer to a controlled environment for diagnosis and treatment. Recommendations: Recommendations are based on current evidence pertaining to prevention strategies to reduce the incidence of cervical spine injuries in sport; emergency planning and preparation to increase management efficiency; maintaining or creating neutral alignment in the cervical spine; accessing and maintaining the airway; stabilizing and transferring the athlete with a suspected cervical spine injury; managing the athlete participating in an equipment-laden sport, such as football, hockey, or lacrosse; and considerations in the emergency department. PMID:19478836

  20. Rare Manifestation of a c.290 C>T, p.Gly97Glu VCP Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Jerath, Nivedita U.; Crockett, Cameron D.; Moore, Steven A.; Shy, Michael E.; Weihl, Conrad C.; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Grider, Tiffany; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Zuchner, Stephan; Swenson, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The valosin-containing protein (VCP) regulates several distinct cellular processes. Consistent with this, VCP mutations manifest variable clinical phenotypes among and within families and are a diagnostic challenge. Methods. A 60-year-old man who played ice hockey into his 50's was evaluated by electrodiagnostics, muscle biopsy, and molecular genetics. Results. With long-standing pes cavus and toe walking, our patient developed progressive weakness, cramps, memory loss, and paresthesias at age 52. An axonal sensorimotor neuropathy was found upon repeated testing at age 58. Neuropathic histopathology was present in the quadriceps, and exome sequencing revealed the VCP mutation c.290 C>T, p.Gly97Glu. Conclusions. Our patient reflects the clinical heterogeneity of VCP mutations, as his neurological localization is a spectrum between a lower motor neuron disorder and a hereditary axonal peripheral neuropathy such as CMT2. Our case demonstrates a rare manifestation of the c.290 C>T, pGly97Glu VCP mutation. PMID:25878907

  1. Origin of weak layer contraction in de Vries smectic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Yoon, HyungGuen; Dey, Sonal; Kumar, Satyendra

    2014-03-01

    Structural investigations of the de Vries smectic-A (SmA) and smectic-C (SmC) phases of four mesogens containing a trisiloxane end segment reveal a linear molecular conformation in the SmA phase and a bent conformation resembling a hockey stick in the SmC phase. The siloxane and the hydrocarbon parts of the molecule tilt at different angles relative to the smectic layer normal and are oriented along different directions. For the compounds investigated, the shape of orientational distribution function (ODF) is found to be sugarloaf shaped and not the widely expected volcano like with positive orientational order parameters: ?P2? = 0.53-0.78, ?P4? = 0.14-0.45, and ?P6?˜0.10. The increase in the effective molecular length, and consequently in the smectic layer spacing caused by reduced fluctuations and the corresponding narrowing of the ODF, counteracts the effect of molecular tilt and significantly reduces the SmC layer contraction. Maximum tilt of the hydrocarbon part of the molecule lies between approximately 18° and 25° and between 6° and 12° for the siloxane part. The critical exponent of the tilt order parameter, ?˜0.25, is in agreement with tricritical behavior at the SmA-SmC transition for two compounds and has lower value for first-order transition in the other compounds with finite enthalpy of transition.

  2. Traumatic brain injury: endocrine consequences in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability in young adults with consequences ranging from physical disabilities to long-term cognitive, behavioral, psychological and social defects. Recent data suggest that pituitary hormone deficiency is not infrequent among TBI survivors; the prevalence of reported hypopituitarism following TBI varies widely among published studies. The most common cause of TBI is motor vehicle accidents, including pedestrian-car and bicycle car encounters, falls, child abuse, violence and sports injuries. Prevalence of hypopituitarism, from total to isolated pituitary deficiency, ranges from 5 to 90 %. The time interval between TBI and pituitary function evaluation is one of the major factors responsible for variations in the prevalence of hypopituitarism reported. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI in children and adolescents is common. Adolescence is a time of growth, freedom and adjustment, consequently TBI is also common in this group. Sports-related TBI is an important public health concern, but many cases are unrecognized and unreported. Sports that are associated with an increased risk of TBI include those involving contact and/or collisions such as boxing, football, soccer, ice hockey, rugby, and the martial arts, as well as high velocity sports such as cycling, motor racing, equestrian sports, skiing and roller skating. The aim of this paper is to summarize the best evidence of TBI as a cause of pituitary deficiency in children and adults. PMID:24030696

  3. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

    PubMed Central

    Mez, Jesse; Stern, Robert A.; McKee, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE, previously called punch drunk and dementia pugilistica) has a rich history in the medical literature in association with boxing, but has only recently been recognized with other contact sports, such as football and ice hockey, as well as with military blast injuries. CTE is thought to be a neurodegenerative disease associated with repeated concussive and subconcussive blows to the head. There is characteristic gross and microscopic pathology found in the brain, including frontal and temporal atrophy, axonal degeneration, and hyperphosphorylated tau and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 pathology. Clinically, there are characteristic progressive deficits in cognition (memory, executive dysfunction), behavior (explosivity, aggression), mood (depression, suicidality), and motor function (parkinsonism), which correlate with the anatomic distribution of brain pathology. While CTE shares clinical and neuropathological traits with other neurodegenerative diseases, the clinical syndrome and the neuropathology as a whole are distinct from other neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the CTE literature to date. We also draw on the literature from mild traumatic brain injury and other neurodegenerative dementias, particularly when these studies provide guidance for future CTE research. We conclude by suggesting seven essential areas for future CTE research. PMID:24136455

  4. Cerebral Concussion: Causes, Effects, and Risks in Sports.

    PubMed

    Powell, John W.

    2001-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the causes, effects, and risks associated with concussion in sports. BACKGROUND: Concussion is an injury associated with sports and is most often identified with boxing, football, ice hockey, and the martial arts. In addition, recent research has shown that concussion occurs in many different sports. In the decade of the 1990s, concussion became a primary issue for discussion among the media, sports sponsors, sports medicine professionals, and athletes. DESCRIPTION: Concussion is an injury that results from a wide variety of mechanisms and has numerous signs and symptoms that are common to different types of injury. Continued improvement in prevention and management strategies for concussion requires a strong body of research from a variety of different disciplines. It is essential that research efforts focus on both prevention and management and that researchers and clinicians work closely toward their common goals. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Until the research community is able to provide sound recommendations for the prevention and management of the concussion, the care of the injured player falls squarely on the clinician. It is important for sports medicine professionals to continue to stay up to date on the advances in understanding concussions and how to care individually for each player who sustains a concussion. PMID:12937501

  5. Performance affect in soccer players: an application of the IZOF model.

    PubMed

    Hanin, Y; Syrjä, P

    1995-05-01

    Individual patterns of positive-negative affect (PNA) were studied in 25 Olympic level soccer players (age 17-21). Recall idiographic scaling following the methodology of the individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) model was used to identify PNA items related to each player's effective and ineffective game performance. Individual zones for each item were then estimated on the Borg's Category Ratio (CR-10) scale. Optimal and non-optimal PNA patterns were revealed in the selection of idiosyncratic items, their intensity ranges and functions. All PNA items were functionally either facilitating (23.1%), debilitating (42.3%), or both (34.6%). Significant differences in PNA content and intensity (zones) were revealed only at intra- and inter-individual but not at the group level. Pre-game negative ineffective affect in successful players anticipated two days before the important tournament deviated more from non-optimal zones than in less successful players. The data support the findings obtained in ice-hockey and extend Hanin's IZOF model to performance PNA in soccer. Implications for idiographic assessments and application of the IZOF model in team sports are suggested. PMID:7657421

  6. Couple and individual adjustment for 2 years following a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; George, William H

    2006-12-01

    Follow-up data across 2 years were obtained on 130 of 134 couples who were originally part of a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy (TBCT vs. IBCT; A. Christensen et al., 2004). Both treatments produced similar levels of clinically significant improvement at 2 years posttreatment (69% of IBCT couples and 60% of TBCT couples). Both treatments showed a "hockey-stick" pattern of change in which satisfaction dropped immediately after treatment termination but then increased for most of follow-up. The break point when couples reversed courses and gained in satisfaction occurred sooner for IBCT than TBCT couples, and those couples who stayed together generally fared better in IBCT than in TBCT. Finally, there was evidence of greater stability during follow-up in IBCT than in TBCT couples. There was little change in individual functioning over follow-up, but when change occurred it was strongly related to change in marital satisfaction. Given that this sample was selected for its significant and chronic distress, the data are encouraging about the long-term impact of behavioral couple therapy. PMID:17154747

  7. Sports-related eye injuries: floorball endangers the eyes of young players.

    PubMed

    Leivo, T; Puusaari, I; Mäkitie, T

    2007-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of different sports-related eye injuries and to identify injury types to enable recommendations to be made about the use of protective eyewear. The study population comprises all 565 eye trauma patients examined at the Ophthalmology Emergency Clinic of the Helsinki University Central Hospital over a 6-month period. Data were collected from patient histories and questionnaires. In addition, three severe floorball eye injury cases are presented. Of the 565 eye traumas, 94 (17%) were sports related. Of these, 42 (45%) were associated with floorball. Countrywide, in Finland, estimated over 300 (+95% CI 228-415) floorball eye injuries occur annually. The mean age of floorball patients was 22 years. The most common finding (55%) in sports injury patients was hyphema. Clinically severe eye injuries during this period accounted for one-fourth of all cases. During the study period, no eye injury was found in an organized junior ice hockey, where facial protection is mandatory. Floorball is estimated to belong to the highest risk group in sports, and thus, the use of protective eyewear is strongly recommended. We conclude that national floorball federations should make protective eyewear mandatory. PMID:17076824

  8. 'NASA Invention of the Year' Controls Noise and Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Developed at NASA's Langley Research Center, the Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) is designed to control vibration, noise, and deflections in composite structural beams and panels. Smart Material Corporation specializes in the development of piezocomposite components, and licensed the MFC technology from Langley in 2002. To date, Smart Material Corporation has sold MFCs to over 120 customers, including such industry giants as Volkswagen, Toyota, Honda, BMW, General Electric, and the tennis company, HEAD. The company estimates that its customers have filed at least 100 patents for their various unique uses of the technology. In addition, the company's product portfolio has grown to include piezoceramic fibers and fiber composites, piezoceramic actuators and sensors, and test equipment for these products. It also offers a compact, lightweight power system for MFC testing and validation. Consumer applications already on the market include piezoelectric systems as part of audio speakers, phonograph cartridges and microphones, and recreational products requiring vibration control, such as skis, snowboards, baseball bats, hockey sticks, and tennis racquets.

  9. Perfectionistic profiles among elite athletes and differences in their motivational orientations.

    PubMed

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Mahoney, John; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Donovan, Robert J; Parkes, Jarred

    2012-04-01

    Although there is an emerging body of research that has examined perfectionistic clusters in the general population, few studies have explored such profiles in athlete samples. The purposes of this research were to explore perfectionistic profiles within a sample of elite athletes and the differences between them on key motivational variables. A sample of 423 elite athletes (179 males, 244 females) aged between 14 and 66 years (M = 25.64; SD = 8.57) from a variety of team (e.g., rowing, hockey, baseball, rugby) and individual sports (e.g., cycling, athletics, triathlon, gymnastics) completed a multisection questionnaire including measures of sport perfectionism, motivation regulation, achievement goals, and fear of failure. Cluster analyses revealed the existence of three perfectionism profiles, namely, nonperfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and adaptive perfectionists. Subsequent analyses generally supported the robustness of these perfectionism profiles in terms of differential motivational orientations (achievement goals, fear of failure, and motivation regulation) in hypothesized directions. Overall, the differences in motivational orientations between the three clusters supported a categorical conceptualization of perfectionism. PMID:22605360

  10. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  11. Assessing whether black uniforms affect the decisions of Turkish soccer referees: is finding of Frank and Gilovich's study valid for Turkish culture?

    PubMed

    Tiryaki, M Sefik

    2005-02-01

    Frank and Gilovich (1988) found that teams with black uniforms were penalized by referees more than other teams that did not wear black uniforms in the U.S. National Football League (NFL), and the U.S. National Hockey League (NHL). This finding was examined for the referees in the Turkish Premier Soccer League (TPSL) for the soccer teams wearing or not wearing black uniforms during actual games. 30 male referees' (ages 22-45 years, M = 34.8) decisions were analyzed in a total of 2142 Turkish premier soccer league games played in 7 seasons. Using the number of red and yellow cards and penalty kicks teams drew as a penalty decision criteria, no significant differences were found between Turkish soccer teams wearing black uniforms or those not and the number of penalty kicks. This result, which was different from that of Frank and Gilovich's work, was discussed in relation to the social psychological point of view of different cultures and societies. PMID:15773692

  12. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: the dangers of getting "dinged"

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a form of neurodegeneration that results from repetitive brain trauma. Not surprisingly, CTE has been linked to participation in contact sports such as boxing, hockey and American football. In American football getting "dinged" equates to moments of dizziness, confusion, or grogginess that can follow a blow to the head. There are approximately 100,000 to 300,000 concussive episodes occurring in the game of American football alone each year. It is believed that repetitive brain trauma, with or possibly without symptomatic concussion, sets off a cascade of events that result in neurodegenerative changes highlighted by accumulations of hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43). Symptoms of CTE may begin years or decades later and include a progressive decline of memory, as well as depression, poor impulse control, suicidal behavior, and, eventually, dementia similar to Alzheimer's disease. In some individuals, CTE is also associated with motor neuron disease similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Given the millions of athletes participating in contact sports that involve repetitive brain trauma, CTE represents an important public health issue. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the etiology of CTE. It is now known that those instances of mild concussion or "dings" that we may have previously not noticed could very well be causing progressive neurodegenerative damage to a player's brain. In the future, focused and intensive study of the risk factors could potentially uncover methods to prevent and treat this disease. PMID:23984220

  13. When Is It Too Early for Single Sport Specialization?

    PubMed

    Feeley, Brian T; Agel, Julie; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in youth sports participation with a concomitant increase in early year-round training in a single sport. Many factors contribute to the desire of parents and coaches to encourage early single sport specialization, including the desire to give the young athlete an edge in competition, pursuit of scholarships, and potential professional status, and the ability to label a young athlete as elite at an early age. Despite these perceived advantages, some data suggest that early sport specialization does not lead to a competitive advantage over athletes who participate in multiple sports. Although the data are limited, there is some evidence that early sport specialization may put the young athlete at risk for overuse injuries. The focus of this review is to highlight the evidence regarding early sport specialization and risk for injury; discuss the risk factors for overuse injury in high-risk sports including ice hockey, swimming, gymnastics, and baseball; and discuss future potential research that would help define the risk of injury for young athletes who participate in early sport specialization. PMID:25825379

  14. RELIABILITY AND CRITERION VALIDITY OF A NOVEL CLINICAL TEST OF SIMPLE AND COMPLEX REACTION TIME IN ATHLETES.

    PubMed

    Eckner, James T; Richardson, James K; Kim, Hogene; Joshi, Monica S; Oh, Youkeun K; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-06-01

    Slowed reaction time (RT) represents both a risk factor for and a consequence of sport concussion. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and criterion validity of a novel clinical test of simple and complex RT, called RT(clin), in contact sport athletes. Both tasks were adapted from the well-known ruler drop test of RT and involve manually grasping a falling vertical shaft upon its release, with the complex task employing a go/no-go paradigm based on a light cue. In 46 healthy contact sport athletes (24 men; M = 16.3 yr., SD = 5.0; 22 women: M age = 15.0 yr., SD = 4.0) whose sports included soccer, ice hockey, American football, martial arts, wrestling, and lacrosse, the latency and accuracy of simple and complex RT(clin) had acceptable test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities and correlated with a computerized criterion standard, the Axon Computerized Cognitive Assessment Tool. Medium to large effect sizes were found. The novel RT(clin) tests have acceptable reliability and criterion validity for clinical use and hold promise as concussion assessment tools. PMID:26106803

  15. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  16. Secular trend: morphology and performance.

    PubMed

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Schipman, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Danial, Mario; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In a context of morphological expansion of the general population, how do athletes follow such a pattern of anthropometric growth? Is there any relation to performance? Biometric data including mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and age were collected for 50,376 American athletes representing 249,336 annual performers playing in professional baseball, football, ice hockey and basketball. Distributions by mass in National Football League (NFL) players are described by periods. Field goals have been studied in relation to players' height in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Between 1871 and 2011, athletes from the four sports have increased significantly in mass, height and BMI, following a multi-exponential function series. Consequently, biometric differences between athletes and the general population are increasing gradually. Changes in the mass distribution within the NFL show the emergence of a biometrical specificity in relation to the field position. At the professional level, performance remains structured around precise biometric values. In the NBA, a height-attractor at 201.3 ± 6.3 cm for the best scorers is invariant, regardless of the level of play. These results suggest that laws of growth and biometrics drive high-level sport and organise performance around the specific constraint of each field position. Discrepancies between some mass and height developments question the (disproportionate) large mass increase (relative to the height increase) during the 1980s and 1990s. PMID:24580142

  17. Classification of Sporting Activities Using Smartphone Accelerometers

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Edmond; Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework that allows for the automatic identification of sporting activities using commonly available smartphones. We extract discriminative informational features from smartphone accelerometers using the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Despite the poor quality of their accelerometers, smartphones were used as capture devices due to their prevalence in today's society. Successful classification on this basis potentially makes the technology accessible to both elite and non-elite athletes. Extracted features are used to train different categories of classifiers. No one classifier family has a reportable direct advantage in activity classification problems to date; thus we examine classifiers from each of the most widely used classifier families. We investigate three classification approaches; a commonly used SVM-based approach, an optimized classification model and a fusion of classifiers. We also investigate the effect of changing several of the DWT input parameters, including mother wavelets, window lengths and DWT decomposition levels. During the course of this work we created a challenging sports activity analysis dataset, comprised of soccer and field-hockey activities. The average maximum F-measure accuracy of 87% was achieved using a fusion of classifiers, which was 6% better than a single classifier model and 23% better than a standard SVM approach. PMID:23604031

  18. A survey of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in indoor ice arenas in Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Paulozzi, L.J. ); Spengler, R.F.; Vogt, R.L.; Carney, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Because of the history of health problems traceable to the exhaust of ice resurfacing machines, state sanitarians used detector tubes to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) levels in enclosed ice arenas in Vermont during high school hockey games. Five of eight arenas had average game CO measurements of 30 ppm carbon monoxide or more. Two of the three periods of play had average CO readings in excess of 100 ppm in one arena. Only six arenas had the complete series of nitrogen dioxide measurements. One had an average game NO[sub 2] level of 1.2 ppm. Two had one or more periods of play that averaged in excess of 0.5 ppm. Despite the ample documentation of the hazards of operating combustion-powered resurfacing machines inside enclosed ice arenas, a significant portion of the arenas had undesirable levels of carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide. Ice arenas should be routinely monitored for air contaminants. Considerations should be given to the purchase of electric ice resurfacing machines for new arenas and arenas that have air contamination that cannot be resolved with ventilation.

  19. Photometric parameter maps of the Moon derived from LROC WAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; Denevi, B. W.; Boyd, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Spatially resolved photometric parameter maps were computed from 21 months of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images. Due to a 60° field-of-view (FOV), the WAC achieves nearly global coverage of the Moon each month with more than 50% overlap from orbit-to-orbit. From the repeat observations at various viewing and illumination geometries, we calculated Hapke bidirectional reflectance model parameters [1] for 1°x1° "tiles" from 70°N to 70°S and 0°E to 360°E. About 66,000 WAC images acquired from February 2010 to October 2011 were converted from DN to radiance factor (I/F) though radiometric calibration, partitioned into gridded tiles, and stacked in a time series (tile-by-tile method [2]). Lighting geometries (phase, incidence, emission) were computed using the WAC digital terrain model (100 m/pixel) [3]. The Hapke parameters were obtained by model fitting against I/F within each tile. Among the 9 parameters of the Hapke model, we calculated 3 free parameters (w, b, and hs) by setting constant values for 4 parameters (Bco=0, hc=1, ?, ?=0) and interpolating 2 parameters (c, Bso). In this simplification, we ignored the Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect (CBOE) to avoid competing CBOE and Shadow Hiding Opposition Effect (SHOE). We also assumed that surface regolith porosity is uniform across the Moon. The roughness parameter (?) was set to an averaged value from the equator (× 3°N). The Henyey-Greenstein double lobe function (H-G2) parameter (c) was given by the 'hockey stick' relation [4] (negative correlation) between b and c based on laboratory measurements. The amplitude of SHOE (Bso) was given by the correlation between w and Bso at the equator (× 3°N). Single scattering albedo (w) is strongly correlated to the photometrically normalized I/F, as expected. The c shows an inverse trend relative to b due to the 'hockey stick' relation. The parameter c is typically low for the maria (0.08×0.06) relative to the highlands (0.47×0.16). Since c controls the fraction of backward/forward scattering in H-G2, lower c for the maria indicates more forward scattering relative to the highlands. This trend is opposite to what was expected because darker particles are usually more backscattering. However, the lower albedo of the maria is due to the higher abundance of ilmenite, which is an opaque mineral that scatters all of the light by specular reflection from the its surface. If their surface facets are relatively smooth the ilmenite particles will be forward scattering. Other factors (e.g. grain shape, grain size, porosity, maturity) besides the mineralogy might also be affecting c. The angular-width of SHOE (hs) typically shows lower values (0.047×0.02) for the maria relative to the highlands (0.074×0.025). An increase in hs for the maria theoretically suggests lower porosity or a narrower grain size distribution [1], but the link between actual materials and hs is not well constrained. Further experiments using both laboratory and spacecraft observations will help to unravel the photometric properties of the surface materials of the Moon. [1] Hapke, B.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012. [2] Sato, H. et al.: 42nd LPSC, abstract #1974, 2011. [3] Scholten, F. et al.: JGR, 117, E00H17, 2012. [4] Hapke, B.: Icarus, 221(2), p1079-1083, 2012.

  20. Glacial/Interglacial Record of Planktic Foraminifera From the Upwelling Area off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtadi, M.; Hebbeln, D.; Wefer, G.

    2002-12-01

    The southern part of the Peru-Chile Current (PCC) is among the least studied regions of the world ocean compared to other Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC). The PCC stands out as the EBC with the longest N-S extension (over 20° of latitude) and a strong continuous upwelling regime resulting in a very high biological productivity and an intense cycling of carbon making the PCC to an important part of the global carbon cycle. We analyzed three gravity cores from the Chilean continental margin between 24° and 30° S to observe the intensity of upwelling and productivity in the PCC during the LGM and the Holocene deduced from planktic foraminifera assemblages. Core GeoB 3375-1 was recovered during the CHIPAL-Expedition of RV Sonne (SO-102) off the Norte Chico, while cores GeoB 7112-5 off Antofagasta and GeoB 7139-2 off Coquimbo were retrieved during the PUCK-Expedition of RV Sonne (SO-156). The age models for the cores are based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates and stable oxygen isotope data correlated with the SPECMAP stack. Examination of the faunal composition showed the dominance of six species, which account on average for more than 90% of the total planktic foraminiferal assemblage. The dominant species are N. pachyderma dex. (~30%), G. bulloides (~27%), N. pachyderma sin. (~25%), N. dutertrei (~2%), G. glutinata (~2%) and G. inflata (~6%). Absolute concentrations of planktic foraminifera show a distinct maximum during the LGM. After lower levels during the early Holocene, the concentration drops to very low middle-late Holocene levels. The total planktic foraminifera assemblage shows a considerable change in the species composition between 14 and 12 kyr BP manifested by the distinct relative decrease of the cold water species N. pachyderma sin. and G. inflata opposed by the increase of the relatively warmer water species N. pachyderma dex. and N. dutertrei. Thus, warmer water species become dominant at 12 kyr BP. During the LGM, the species composition and high proportions of G. bulloides and N. pachyderma sin. as well as the total accumulation rates of planktic foraminifera point to a relatively high productivity in the surface waters which can be attributed to strong, but variable coastal upwelling. After 12 kyr BP, changes in the species composition of planktic foraminifera point to a considerable warming. After 8 kyr BP, the foraminiferal accumulation rates drop significantly, indicating low productivity for most of the middle to late Holocene, which is also reflected in the species composition. Thus, the foraminiferal record suggests that more Subtropical Surface Water has been advected to the study area after 12 kyr BP.