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Sample records for lycopersicon esculentum miller

  1. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    PubMed

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-01

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  2. Genetic Resources of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. esculentum) and Wild Relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is an important vegetable, with a worldwide area of 4 million hectares and a production of 108.5 million tons. Tomato area has increased by 38% and production has increased by 45% in the past ten years, with most of this increase in China, which has...

  3. Meiosis in sesquidiploid hybrids of Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum lycopersicoides

    PubMed Central

    Rick, Charles M.; De Verna, Joseph W.; Chetelat, Roger T.; Stevens, M. Allen

    1986-01-01

    We have synthesized diploid hybrids between Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum lycopersicoides and have converted them to allotetraploids. Two sesquidiploids, having two complements of the former parent and one of the latter, have been obtained by backcrossing the former parent with the alloploid. In meiosis of the sesquidiploid the L. esculentum chromosomes exhibit strong preferential pairing, consistently forming 12 bivalents, whereas the S. lycopersicoides chromosomes remain unpaired. This chromosomal comportment conforms with expectations based on meiosis of the 2x and 4x hybrids. Condensation of the S. lycopersicoides univalents is retarded in early diakinesis but their development appears normal at later stages. Presumably as a consequence of the orderly behavior of the L. esculentum bivalents and consequent contribution to each gamete, fertility of the sesquidiploids is higher than in L. esculentum autotriploids. The normally strict self-incompatibility is somewhat relaxed in the sesquidiploids. Extra S. lycopersicoides chromosomes can be transmitted from the sesquidiploid as pistillate parent, and the aneuploid progeny are viable. Establishment of alien addition races and their utilization to transmit desired genes from S. lycopersicoides to L. esculentum are anticipated. Images PMID:16593702

  4. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses. PMID:21138066

  5. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) seeds: new flavonols and cytotoxic effect.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Taveira, Marcos; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-10

    In this study, seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MS(n)-ESI. Fourteen flavonoids were identified, including quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin derivatives, with 13 of them being reported for the first time in tomato seeds. The major identified compounds were quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside. A significant cell proliferation inhibition (>80%), against rat basophile leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, was observed with this extract (IC(50) = 5980 microg/mL). For acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, a concentration-dependent effect was verified (IC(20) = 2400 microg/mL). The same behavior was noted regarding antioxidant capacity, evaluated against DPPH (IC(10) = 284 microg/mL), nitric oxide (IC(25) = 396 microg/L), and superoxide radicals (IC(25) = 3 microg/mL). PMID:20131841

  6. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, Emmanuel O; Adeeyo, Olusola A; Falokun, Olutunde P; Yusuf, Uthman A; Oyerinde, Abiodun; Adeleke, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. AIM: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum: Source of antioxidants) paste (TP) was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II) acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyse the results obtained. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life–death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. CONCLUSION: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19562072

  7. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb. PMID:23734449

  8. Attenuated Lead Induced Apoptosis in Rat Hepatocytes in the Presence of Lycopersicon Esculentum.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Khaki, Arash; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Anjarani, Soghra; Dadgarnejad, Manochehr; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud; Rastegar, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Lead (Pb), has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems. In the present study, the damage of Pb on the Liver tissue apoptosis was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum as an antioxidants source was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Eighteen Wistar rats, randomized into three groups (n=6), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1%Lead acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml/day of Lycopersicon esculentum. Treatments were for three months. The obtained results showed that lead acetate caused significant reductions in the liver weight, plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration but Lycopersicon esculentum have an inhibitory effect on LA liver adverse effect. So, it can be concluded that Lycopersicon esculentum have a significant protective effect on liver lead acetate adverse effects as well as, lead acetate-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27309264

  9. Purification and some properties of a lectin from the fruit juice of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, D C

    1980-01-01

    In the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plant, the fruit juice was found to be the richest source of agglutinating activity. The lectin responsible could be inhibited by oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, and this property was exploited to purify the lectin by affinity adsorption on trypsin-treated erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein that cross-reacts immunologically with the lectin from Datura stramonium (thorn-apple). PMID:7378052

  10. Effect of polymers in solution culture on growth and mineral composition of tomatoes. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.

    1986-05-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Tropic) plants were grown for 26 days from transplanting in full nutrient solution with and without polymers in nutrient solution at two different pH values. An aninoic polyacrylamide and a polysaccharide (from guar bean) each at 100 mg L/sup -1/ in solution slightly improved yields at both pH values. A cationic polymer at the same concentration decreased yields. There were no apparent nutritional reasons for the effects. 1 table.

  11. Sexual hybridization of Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum rickii by means of a sesquidiploid bridging hybrid.

    PubMed Central

    DeVerna, J W; Rick, C M; Chetelat, R T; Lanini, B J; Alpert, K B

    1990-01-01

    A sesquidiploid hybrid having two genomes of Lycopersicon esculentum and one of Solanum lycopersicoides served as a pistillate bridging parent in crosses with Solanum rickii to produce L. esculentum x S. rickii hybrid progeny. Of the four progeny obtained, one (GH2754) was diploid and three were aneuploid with extra S. lycopersicoides chromosomes. The hybrids had morphological features of both parents, but attributes of the wild parent dominated. The hybrid nature of the four progeny was confirmed by isozyme, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and cytological analyses. A mean of 9.15 bivalents was observed in pollen mother cells of GH2754. A high level of pollen abortion was seen in all hybrids. Crosses of the hybrids with staminate S. rickii yielded one backcross individual, revealing a very low, but certain level of female fertility. Colchicine treatment of GH2754 generated one promising amphidiploid hybrid, which exhibited strong preferential chromosome pairing (94% of the examined cells had 24 bivalents) and appreciable pollen fertility (43% stainable). Chromosome pairing, isozyme, and restriction fragment length polymorphism data support a very close relationship between the two Solanum spp. and a much greater distance between them and L. esculentum, but the data do not discriminate between them in respect to their distances from the latter. The cytological and molecular observations, previous reports of successful transfer of traits from S. lycopersicoides to L. esculentum, and our hybridization of L. esculentum x S. rickii suggest good prospects for gene transfer from S. rickii to L. esculentum. Images PMID:11607124

  12. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-01

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text]. PMID:19765690

  13. Investigation of the effects of cadmium by micro analytical methods on Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. roots.

    PubMed

    Colak, G; Baykul, M C; Gürler, R; Catak, E; Caner, N

    2014-09-01

    The interactions between cadmium stress and plant nutritional elements have been investigated on complete plant or at the level of organs. This study was undertaken to contribute to the exploration of the physiological basis of cadmium phytotoxicity. We examined the changes in the nutritional element compositions of the root epidermal cells of the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. at the initial growth stages that is known as the most sensitive stage to the stress. Effects of cadmium stress on the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were examined by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis) assay performed with using low vacuum (∼ 24 Pascal) Scanning Electron Microscopy. In the analysis performed at the level of root epidermal cells, some of the macro- and micronutrient contents of the cells (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, copper, and zinc levels) were found to change when the applying toxic concentrations of cadmium. There was no change in the manganese and sodium content of the epidermal cells. It was concluded that the changes in nutritional element composition of the cells can be considered as an effective parameter in explaining the physiological mechanisms of cadmium-induced growth inhibition. PMID:25194735

  14. Nitrogen Requirements for Growth and Early Fruit Development of Drip-Irrigated Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of continuous application of small quantities of nitrogen (N) in irrigation water and N applied as starter on growth and development of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), from transplanting to beginning of fruit set, was studied in two experiments: a pot experiment and a f...

  15. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses. PMID:24397881

  16. Infection of Cultured Thin Cell Layer Roots of Lycopersicon esculentum by Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Radin, D N; Eisenback, J D

    1991-10-01

    A new aseptic culture system for studying interactions between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Meloidogyne incognita is described. Epidermal thin cell layer explants from peduncles of tomato produced up to 20 adventitious roots per culture in 4-9 days on Murashige &Scoog medium plus kinetin and indole acetic acid. Rooted cultures were transferred to Gamborg's B-5 medium and inoculated with infective second-stage juveniles. Gall formation was apparent 5 days after inoculation and egg production by mature females occurred within 25 days at 25 C in the susceptible genotypes Rutgers and Red Alert. Resistant genotypes LA655, LA656, and LA1022 exhibited a characteristic hypersensitive response. This system provides large numbers of cultured root tips for studies on the molecular basis of the host-parasite relationship. PMID:19283152

  17. Effect of glutathione on phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Mendum, M.L.; Gupta, S.C.; Goldsbrough, P.B. )

    1990-06-01

    Growth of cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFNT-Cherry, in the presence of cadmium is inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Cell growth and phytochelatin synthesis are restored to cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine by the addition of glutathione to the medium. Glutathione stimulates the accumulation of phytochelatins in cadmium treated cells, indicating that availability of glutathione can limit synthesis of these peptides. Exogenous glutathione causes a disproportionate increase in the level of smaller phytochelatins, notably ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 2}-Gly. In the presence of buthionine sulfoximine and glutathione, phytochelatins that are produced upon exposure to cadmium incorporate little ({sup 35}S)cysteine, indicating that these peptides are probably not synthesized by sequential addition of cysteine and glutamate to glutathione.

  18. Detection and quantitation of resveratrol in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Ragab, Amr S; Van Fleet, Jennifer; Jankowski, Boris; Park, Joon-Hyun; Bobzin, Steven C

    2006-09-20

    Resveratrol is a stilbene phytoalexin well-known for its presence in grape, wine, and peanut. As a result of its antioxidant and chemopreventative properties, it has gained much attention as a functional food ingredient. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the detection of resveratrol, its 3-glucopyranoside piceid, and the cis isomers of both compounds has been developed and used to quantitate the levels of these compounds in the skin of commercially available tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The resveratrol concentration remains relatively stable during fruit maturation, reaching a maximum concentration in the skin of 18.4 +/- 1.6 microg/g dry weight at 4 weeks postbreaker. No stilbenes were detected in the flesh of tomato fruit. PMID:16968079

  19. Biomarker discovery and gene expression responses in Lycopersicon esculentum root exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Bai, Lili; Xie, Yujia; Liu, Xinhui; Cui, Baoshan

    2015-12-15

    Gene expression analysis has shown particular promise for the identification of molecular biomarkers that can be used for further evaluation of potential toxicity of chemicals present in agricultural soil. In the study, we focused on the development of molecular markers to detect Pb toxicity in agricultural soil. Using the results obtained from microarray analysis, twelve Pb-responsive genes were selected and tested in different Pb concentrations to examine their concentration-response characteristics using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). All the Pb treatments set in our study could generally induce the differential expression of the 12 genes, while the lowest observable adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) of Pb for seed germination, root elongation, biomass and structural modification derived from 1,297, 177, 177, and 1,297 mg Pb/kg soil, respectively, suggesting that the transcriptional approach was more sensitive than the traditional end points of death, growth, and morphology for the evaluation of Pb toxicity. The relative expression of glycoalkaloid metabolism 1 (P=-0.790), ethylene-responsive transcription factor ERF017 (P=-0.686) and CASP-like protein 4C2 (P=-0.652) demonstrates a dose-dependent response with Pb content in roots, implying that the three genes can be used as sensitive bioindicators of Pb stress in Lycopersicon esculentum. PMID:26252993

  20. Ozone-induced changes in host-plant suitability: interactions of Keiferia lycopersicella and Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  1. Morphological and transcriptional responses of Lycopersicon esculentum to hexavalent chromium in agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Guo; Hou, Jing; Liu, Xin-Hui; Cui, Bao-Shan; Bai, Jun-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) on living organisms through the food chain raise the immediate need to assess the potential toxicological impacts of Cr(VI) on human health. Therefore, the concentration-dependent responses of 12 Cr(VI)-responsive genes selected from a high-throughput Lycopersicon esculentum complementary DNA microarray were examined at different Cr concentrations. The results indicated that most of the genes were differentially expressed from 0.1 mg Cr/kg soil, whereas the lowest-observable-adverse-effect concentrations of Cr(VI) were 1.6 mg Cr/kg soil, 6.4 mg Cr/kg soil, 3.2 mg Cr/kg soil, and 0.4 mg Cr/kg soil for seed germination, root elongation, root biomass, and root morphology, respectively, implying that the transcriptional method was more sensitive than the traditional method in detecting Cr(VI) toxicity. Dose-dependent responses were observed for the relative expression of expansin (p = 0.778), probable chalcone-flavonone isomerase 3 (p = -0.496), and 12S seed storage protein CRD (p = -0.614); therefore, the authors propose the 3 genes as putative biomarkers in Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1751-1758. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26627465

  2. Regulation of gene expression by ethylene during Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit development.

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, J E; Cordes, S; Read, E; Fischer, R L

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of gene expression by the plant hormone ethylene by cloning mRNAs that accumulate in unripe tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum) exposed to exogenous ethylene. The response to exogenous ethylene is rapid; within 30-120 min we detect an increase in the cloned mRNA concentrations. DNA sequence analysis indicates that one of the ethylene-inducible genes is related to a gene encoding wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor I. We have measured ethylene production during fruit development and detect low basal levels in unripe fruit and much higher levels in ripening fruit. Blot hybridization experiments show that expression of the cloned genes is developmentally regulated by ethylene during fruit ripening: the mRNAs produced by these genes are more abundant in ripe fruit than in unripe fruit, and this mRNA accumulation is repressed by a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, norbornadiene. However, during fruit development some of the cloned mRNAs begin to accumulate when ethylene production is at a basal level, whereas other mRNAs begin to accumulate later when the endogenous ethylene concentration increases, suggesting that gene expression during fruit development can be activated by ethylene in two ways. In some cases gene expression is primarily activated by an increase in sensitivity to basal ethylene levels, whereas in other cases it may be regulated by an increase in ethylene concentration. Images PMID:3472237

  3. Phosphate-Regulated Induction of Intracellular Ribonucleases in Cultured Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Andreas; Abel, Steffen; Jost, Wolfgang; Beintema, Jaap J.; Glund, Konrad

    1992-01-01

    Four intracellular RNases were found to be induced in cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells upon phosphate starvation. Localization studies revealed three (RNases LV 1-3) in the vacuoles and one (RNase LX) outside these organelles. All of these RNases were purified to homogeneity and were shown to be type I RNases on the basis of type of splitting, substrate, and base specificity at the cleavage site, molecular weight, isoelectric point, and pH optimum. Moreover, RNase LV 3 was shown by fingerprinting of tryptic digests on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing the N terminus and two tryptic peptides to be structurally very similar to a recently characterized extracellular RNase LE which is also phosphate regulated (Nürnberger et al. [1990] Plant Physiol 92: 970-976; Jost et al. [1991] Eur J Biochem 198: 1-6). Expression of the four intracellular RNases is induced by depleting the cells of phosphate and repressed by adding phosphate. Our studies indicate that higher plants, in addition to secreting enzymes for scavanging phosphate under starvation conditions, also induce intracellularly emergency rescue systems. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668816

  4. Development of Multi-Component Transplant Mixes for Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Martinez-Ochoa, N.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of combinations of organic amendments, phytochemicals, and plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) germination, transplant growth, and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluated. Two phytochemicals (citral and benzaldehyde), three organic amendments (pine bark, chitin, and hemicellulose), and three bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Brevibacterium iodinum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were assessed. Increasing rates of benzaldehyde and citral reduced nematode egg viability in vitro. Benzaldehyde was 100% efficacious as a nematicide against juveniles, whereas citral reduced juvenile viability to less than 20% at all rates tested. Benzaldehyde increased tomato seed germination and root weight, whereas citral decreased both. High rates of pine bark or chitin reduced plant growth but not seed germination, whereas low rates of chitin increased shoot length, shoot weight, and root weight; improved root condition; and reduced galling. The combination of chitin and benzaldehyde significantly improved tomato transplant growth and reduced galling. While each of the bacterial isolates contributed to increased plant growth in combination treatments, only Brevibacterium iodinum applied alone significantly improved plant growth. PMID:19265957

  5. Metabolism of fenitrothion and conjugation of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki

    2003-08-13

    The metabolism of (14)C-labeled fenitrothion (Sumithion, [O,O-dimethyl-O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)phosphorothioate]) in tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Ponderosa) grown in the greenhouse equipped with quartz glass was conducted to investigate the effect of sunlight on the behavior of fenitrothion and to elucidate the detailed structure of conjugated metabolites. Tomato plants (BBCH 85) were topically treated with (14)C-labeled fenitrothion twice with a 2 week interval between applications. At 15 days after the second application, more than half of the recovered (14)C was detected as unaltered fenitrothion, glucose, and cellobiose esters of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (NMC) in extracts from tomato fruit. The photoinduced formation of the S-methyl isomer of fenitrothion via thiono-thiolo rearrangement was detected only in the surface rinse but at trace amounts. In the whole tomato fruit, fenitrothion, the S isomer, NMC-beta-glucoside, and NMC cellobioside were detected at 34.16, 1.28, 7.47, and 15.07% of the recovered (14)C, respectively. Trace amounts of the oxon analogue of fenitrothion were detected only on tomato leaves. The chemical structure of the cellobiose conjugate of NMC, 1-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, was determined by spectroscopic analyses (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, NMR), using the metabolite obtained from leaves and stems of tomato plant hydroponically grown with (14)C-labeled NMC. PMID:12903963

  6. Environmental controls over methanol production, emission, and δ13C values from Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P.; Giebel, B. M.; Mak, J. E.; Riemer, D. D.; Swart, P. K.; Lerdau, M.

    2009-12-01

    Phytogenic methanol is the dominant source of methanol to the atmosphere, where it is the second most abundant organic compound. Beyond methanol’s role in atmospheric chemistry, it is an indicator of plant function and is linked to plant wound response. Methanol emissions are considered to be a by-product of cell wall expansion and, more specifically, the demethylation of pectin by pectin methylesterase (PME) in cell walls. Production of methanol was investigated in mature and immature tomato Lycopersicon esculentum via measurement of methanol flux, foliar PME activity, and methanol extraction from leaf, root, and stem tissues. δ13C values for mature and immature methanol emissions were also measured using a GC-IRMS system. Environmental control over methanol production and emission was studied by changing temperature and light while holding stomatal conductance constant. As seen previously, mature leaf methanol emissions were significantly less than immature emissions. Surprisingly, preliminary results suggest mature leaf methanol production to be similar to immature leaves, indicating an enhanced metabolic sink for methanol in mature leaves. These data enhance our understanding of methanol production, a term which is not well constrained in current methanol flux models.

  7. Enzymic cross-linkage of monomeric extensin precursors in vitro. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Everdeen, D.S.; Kiefer, S.; Willard, J.J.; Muldoon, E.P.; Dey, P.M.; Li, Xiongbiao; Lamport, D.T.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Rapidly growing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cell suspension cultures contain transiently high levels of cell surface, salt-elutable, monomeric precursors to the covalently cross-linked extensin network of the primary cell wall. Thus, the authors purified a highly soluble monomeric extensin substrate from rapidly growing cells, and devised a soluble in vitro cross-linking assay based on Superose-6 fast protein liquid chromatography separation, which resolved extensin monomers from the newly formed oligomers within 25 minutes. Salt elution of slowly growing (early stationary phase) cells yielded little or no extensin monomers but did give a highly active enzymic preparation that specifically cross-linked extensin monomers in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, judging from: (a) a decrease in the extensin monomer peak on fast protein liquid chromatography gel filtration, (b) appearance of oligomeric peaks, and (c) direct electron microscopical observation of the cross-linked oligomers. The cross-linking reaction had a broad pH optimum between 5.5 and 6.5. An approach to substrate saturation of the enzyme required extensin monomer concentrations of 20 to 40 milligrams per milliliter. Preincubation with catalase completely inhibited the cross-linking reaction, which was highly dependent on hydrogen peroxide and optimal at 15 to 50 micromolar. They therefore identified the cross-linking activity as extensin peroxidase.

  8. A 610 KB YAC CLONE HARBORS 7 CM OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) DNA THAT INCLUDES THE MALE STERILE 14 GENE AND A HOTSPOT FOR RECOMBINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen development requires both sporophytic and gametophytic gene expression. We are using a map-based cloning technique to isolate sporophytic genes which, when mutant, cause pollen abortion and a male sterile (ms) phenotype in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). We have genetically characterized on...

  9. Modification of fatty acid composition in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by expression of a borage delta6-desaturase.

    PubMed

    Cook, David; Grierson, Don; Jones, Craigh; Wallace, Andrew; West, Gill; Tucker, Greg

    2002-06-01

    The improvement of nutritional quality is one potential application for the genetic modification of plants. One possible target for such manipulation is the modification of fatty acid metabolism. In this work, expression of a borage delta6-desaturase cDNA in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) has been shown to produce gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:83 delta6,9,12) and octadecatetraenoic acid (OTA; 18:4 delta6,9,12,15) in transgenic leaf and fruit tissue. This genetic modification has also, unexpectedly, resulted in a reduction in the percentage of linoleic acid (LA 18:2 delta9,12) and a concomitant increase in the percentage of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 delta9,12,15) in fruit tissue. These changes in fatty acid composition are thought to be beneficial for human health. PMID:12059112

  10. Cadmium-sulfide crystallites in Cd-(. gamma. EC) sub n G peptide complexes from tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, R.N.; White, C.A.; Winge, D.R. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City )

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponically grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill cv Golden Boy) exposed to 100 micromolar cadmium sulfate produced metal-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes containing acid-labile sulfur. The properties of the complexes resemble those of the cadmium-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes from Schizo-saccharomyces pombe and Candida glabrata known to contain a cadmium sulfide crystallite core. The crystallite is stabilized by a sheath of peptides of general structure ({gamma}Glu-Cys){sub n}-Gly. The cadmium-peptide complexes of tomato contained predominantly peptides of n{sub 3}, n{sub 4}, and n{sub 5}. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the tomato cadmium-sulfide-peptide complex contained CdS crystallite core particles smaller than 2.0 nanometers in diameter.

  11. Leaf biochemistry of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. at different stages of plant development as affected by mercury treatment.

    PubMed

    Gauba, Nidhi; Mahmooduzzafar; Siddiqi, T O; Umar, S; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2007-04-01

    The effect of mercury (Hg) on the biochemical parameters of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill leaf was studied. Application of mercuric chloride in varying concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM HgCl2 kg(-1) sand) caused significant reduction that went up to 89% and 72% chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents respectively (at flowering stage), 69% in carotenoid content, 64% in total soluble protein content and 91% in nitrate reductase activity (all at post-flowering stage). The amounts of nitrate and proline increased maximally (151% and 143% respectively) at the flowering stage, whereas total soluble sugar enhanced by 57% at the post-flowering stage. Changes observed in most of the parameters, were concentration dependent. Such studies seem to be able to discover suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. PMID:17915770

  12. Effect of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on apoptosis in the rat cerebellum, following prenatal and postnatal exposure to an electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Köktürk, Sibel; Yardimoglu, Melda; Celikozlu, Saadet D; Dolanbay, Elif Gelenli; Cimbiz, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The expansion of mobile phone technology has raised concerns regarding the effect of 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on the central nervous system. At present, the developing human brain is regularly exposed to mobile telephones, pre- and postnatally. Several studies have demonstrated the acute effects of EMF exposure during pre- or postnatal periods; however, the chronic effects of EMF exposure are less understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the chronic effects of EMF on the pre- and postnatal rat cerebellum. The control group was maintained in the same conditions as the experimental groups, without the exposure to EMF. In the EMF1 group, the rats were exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods (until postnatal day 80). In the EMF2 group, the rats were also exposed to EMF pre- and postnatally; in addition, however, they were provided with a daily oral supplementation of Lycopersicon esculentum extract (∼2 g/kg). The number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the rats in the control and experimental groups were then counted. The neurodegenerative changes were studied using cresyl violet staining, and these changes were evaluated. In comparison with the control animals, the EMF1 group demonstrated a significant increase in the number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the cerebellum (P<0.001). However, in comparison with the EMF1 group, the EMF2 group exhibited significantly fewer caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells in the cerebellum. In the EMF1 group, the Purkinje neurons were revealed to have undergone dark neuron degenerative changes. However, the presence of dark Purkinje neurons was reduced in the EMF2 group, compared with the EMF1 group. The results indicated that apoptosis and neurodegeneration in rats exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods may be reduced with Lycopersicon esculentum extract therapy. PMID:23935717

  13. Cell Wall Metabolism in Ripening Fruit (VII. Biologically Active Pectin Oligomers in Ripening Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruits).

    PubMed

    Melotto, E.; Greve, L. C.; Labavitch, J. M.

    1994-10-01

    A water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble extract of autolytically inactive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pericarp tissue contains a series of galacturonic acid-containing (pectic) oligosaccharides that will elicit a transient increase in ethylene biosynthesis when applied to pericarp discs cut from mature green fruit. The concentration of these oligosaccharides in extracts (2.2 [mu]g/g fresh weight) is in excess of that required to promote ethylene synthesis. Oligomers in extracts of ripening fruits were partially purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their compositions are described. Pectins were extracted from cell walls prepared from mature green fruit using chelator and Na2CO3 solutions. These pectins are not active in eliciting ethylene synthesis. However, treatment of the Na2CO3-soluble, but not the chelator-soluble, pectin with pure tomato polygalacturonase 1 generates oligomers that are similar to those extracted from ripening fruit (according to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis) and are active as elicitors. The possibility that pectin-derived oligomers are endogenous regulators of ripening is discussed. PMID:12232350

  14. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses. PMID:26337714

  15. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmers' varieties in northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers' varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample. PMID:22922837

  16. The growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hypocotyls in the light and in darkness differentially involves auxin.

    PubMed

    Kraepiel, Y; Agnes, C; Thiery, L; Maldiney, R; Miginiac, E; Delarue, M

    2001-11-01

    Light and auxin antagonistically regulate hypocotyl elongation. We have investigated the physiological interactions of light and auxin in the control of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hypocotyl elongation by studying the auxin-insensitive mutant diageotropica (dgt). The length of the hypocotyls of the dgt mutant is significantly reduced when compared to the wild type line Ailsa Craig (AC) in the dark and under red light, but not under the other light conditions tested, indicating that auxin sensitivity is involved in the elongation of hypocotyls only in these conditions. Similarly, the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphtylphtalamic] acid (NPA) differentially affects elongation of dark- or light-grown hypocotyls of the MoneyMaker (MM) tomato wild type. Using different photomorphogenic mutants, we demonstrate that at least phytochrome A, phytochrome B1 and, to a much lesser extent [correction of extend], cryptochrome 1, are necessary for a switch from an auxin transport-dependent elongation of hypocotyls in the dark to an auxin transport-independent elongation in the light. Interestingly, the dgt mutant and NPA-treated seedlings exhibit a looped phenotype only under red light, indicating that the negative gravitropism of hypocotyls also differentially involves auxin in the various light conditions. PMID:12088031

  17. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolublization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we’ve identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Bioinformatic screening of the tomato genome yielded eight EP candidates, which contained a putative signal sequence and a predicted pI near 4.6. Biochemical fractionation of tomato culture media followed by proteomic detection further refined our list of EP candidates to three, with the lead candidate designated (CG5). To test for EP crosslinking activity, we cloned into a bacterial expression vector the CG5 open-reading frame from tomato cDNA. The CG5 was expressed in E. coli, fractionated from inclusion bodies, and folded in vitro. The peroxidase activity of CG5 was assayed and quantified by ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay. Subsequent extensin crosslinking assays showed that CG5 can covalently crosslink authentic tomato P1 extensin and P3-type extensin analogs in vitro supporting our hypothesis that CG5 encodes a tomato EP. PMID:25446231

  18. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. PMID:20006894

  19. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    PubMed

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases. PMID:26347324

  20. Aftereffect conditions of prolonged space flight on physiological and biochemical processes and plant resistance Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. to pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya

    2016-07-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - one of the most popular vegetables in Ukraine, they are a valuable product of therapeutic and dietetic foods because they contain a significant amount of nutrients and essential to the human body minerals and vitamins, but by the content of carotenoids - lycopene and β-carotene - is a powerful antioxidant. Therefore, tomato plants can be used successfully to astronauts on long space flights. We aftereffect was studied factors of space flight on the variety of tomato seeds Mir-1, which lasted (6 years) were on an orbital space station "Mir". Then, also after long-term storage in 2011, seeds were sown in the laboratory and received seedlings grown in field conditions Kiev region. The resulting seeds of the tomato crop in 2011 ("Space" and still) we used in our subsequent field studies in Kyiv and Poltava regions. We have previously shown that the "space" seeds had shown in 2011-2012 increased resistance to viruses PVY and PVM natural infectious background. Therefore, it is necessary continue the investigation and started to observe in future years, including 2015 and to analyze the results obtained. Because plants grown constantly in the field natural infectious background, there was a high probability of their defeat pathogens of different nature, including viruses. The works of many authors proved reduce the concentration of carotene and lycopene in tomatoes with the defeat of viruses (Raithak, 2012). In addition, the control plants were observed symptoms of such that is a viral infection, namely in 2011 - leaves curl in 2012 - except leaves curl and even mosaics. The research results were confirmed in 2013, namely on the plants of "space" seed no symptoms of, and in control - detection of potato virus Y (method RT-PCR) and symptoms of leaf curl and mosaic. During the bearing samples were taken leaves of the options and experiment conducted determination of photosynthetic pigments. It should be emphasized that in plant

  1. Structural and kinetic properties of a novel purple acid phosphatase from phosphate-starved tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Gale G; Raghothama, Kashchandra G; Plaxton, William C

    2004-01-01

    An intracellular acid phosphatase (IAP) from P(i)-starved (-P(i)) tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) suspension cells has been purified to homogeneity. IAP is a purple acid phosphatase (PAP), as the purified protein was violet in colour (lambda(max)=546 nm) and was insensitive to L-tartrate. PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining and peptide mapping demonstrated that the enzyme exists as a 142 kDa heterodimer composed of an equivalent ratio of glycosylated and structurally dissimilar 63 (alpha-subunit) and 57 kDa (beta-subunit) polypeptides. However, the nine N-terminal amino acids of the alpha- and beta-subunits were identical, exhibiting similarity to the deduced N-terminal portions of several putative plant PAPs. Quantification of immunoblots probed with rabbit anti-(tomato acid phosphatase) immune serum revealed that the 4-fold increase in IAP activity due to P(i)-deprivation was correlated with similar increases in the amount of antigenic IAP alpha- and beta-subunits. IAP displayed optimal activity at pH 5.1, was activated 150% by 10 mM Mg(2+), but was potently inhibited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), molybdate, vanadate, fluoride and P(i). Although IAP demonstrated broad substrate selectivity, its specificity constant ( V (max)/ K (m)) with phosphoenolpyruvate was >250% greater than that obtained with any other substrate. IAP exhibited significant peroxidase activity, which was optimal at pH 9.0 and insensitive to Mg(2+) or molybdate. This IAP is proposed to scavenge P(i) from intracellular phosphate esters in -P(i) tomato. A possible secondary IAP role in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species is discussed. IAP properties are compared with those of two extracellular PAP isoenzymes that are secreted into the medium of -P(i) tomato cells [Bozzo, Raghothama and Plaxton (2002) Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 6278-6286]. PMID:14521509

  2. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    PubMed

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p < 0.05) than T. iridipennis due to their larger colony demand and low reward provide by tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p < 0.05) even though the average weight and size of tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods. PMID:24783783

  3. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit growth and ripening as related to the biomechanical properties of fruit skin and isolated cuticle.

    PubMed

    Bargel, Hendrik; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2005-03-01

    The control of growth rate and the mechanical integrity of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit has been attributed to the exocarp. This study focused on the biomechanics of the fruit skin (FS) comprising cuticle, epidermis and a few subdermal cell layers, and the enzymatically isolated cuticular membrane (CM) during fruit growth and ripening. Morphology and mechanical properties of the FS and the CM of three cultivars were analysed separately at three distinct ripening stages by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and one-dimensional tension testing, respectively. Both were subject to significant cultivar-specific changes. Thickness of the CM increased during ripening from 7.8-8.6 to 9.9-15.7 microm and exceeded by far that of the epidermal cell wall. The mechanical properties, such as modulus of elasticity, strength, and failure strain, were highest in the FS for all cultivars at any stage, with only one exception; however, the cuticle largely mirrored these properties throughout fruit maturation. Stiffness of both isolated CM and FS increased from immature to fully ripe fruits for all cultivars, while failure stress and failure strain displayed a tendency to decrease for two of them. Stress-strain behaviour of the CM could be described as strain softening, mostly linear elastic throughout, and strain hardening, and was subject to growth-related changes. The FS displayed strain hardening throughout. The results indicate evidence for the cuticle to become increasingly important as a structural component for the integrity of the tomato fruit in addition to the epidermis. A supplementary putative model for tomato fruit growth is proposed. PMID:15710631

  4. Microvascular circulation at cool, normal and warm temperatures in rat leg muscles examined by histochemistry using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hisashi; Kurose, Tomoyuki; Nosaka, Shinnosuke; Kawamata, Seiichi

    2014-07-01

    Local cooling and/or warming of the body are widely used for therapy. For safer and more effective therapy, microvascular hemodynamics needs to be clarified. To examine blood circulation in rat leg muscles at 20, 30, 37 and 40°C, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled Lycopersicon esculentum lectin was injected into the cardiac ventricle. Endothelial cells of open and functioning blood vessels were labeled by this lectin for 3 min and detected by immunostaining for lectin. The percentage of open and functioning capillaries of leg muscles by the avidin-biotin method was 89.8±3.3% at 37°C, while capillaries were unclear or unstained at 20 and 30°C, probably due to a decrease of blood flow. The results using the tyramide-dinitrophenol method were 58.6±15.0% at 20°C, 68.5±12.3% at 30°C, 83.8±5.7% at 37°C and 83.3±7.8% at 40°C. The value at 20°C was significantly different from those at 37 and 40°C. The results by the tyramide-biotin method were 85.5±5.3% at 20°C, 87.3±9.7% at 30°C, 94.7±3.6% at 37°C and 92.5±2.1% at 40°C. Based on these results, it was concluded that the blood flow of each capillary considerably decreased at 20 and 30°C and probably increased at 40°C, whereas the proportion of open and functioning capillaries was essentially unchanged. PMID:24998628

  5. Behavior and pollination efficiency of Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) on greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in subtropical México.

    PubMed

    Cauich, Orlando; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Macias-Macias, José Octavio; Reyes-Oregel, Vicente; Medina-Peralta, Salvador; Parra-Tabla, Victor

    2004-04-01

    The acclimation, foraging behavior, and pollination efficiency of stingless bees of the species Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson were evaluated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants cultivated in two greenhouses. The greenhouses were divided into three areas of 16 m2, and one of the following treatments was used for pollination: stingless bees (SB), mechanical vibration (MV), and no pollination (NP). Observations were conducted once a week from 0800 to 1600 hours during 2 mo. The acclimation of the bees to the greenhouses was estimated by the number of bees that did not return to the hive (lost bees) and by comparing the population of the colonies (brood and adults). The foraging activity of the bees across the day was evaluated by comparing the number of foragers per hour. The influence of environmental variables on the foraging activity was also analyzed. The pollination efficiency was compared among treatments through the percentage of fruit set, weight of individual fruit, kilograms of fruit produced per square meter, and the number of seed per fruit. The bees started foraging on the flowers approximately 7 d after the colonies were introduced to the greenhouse. There was a decline in the population of the colonies across the experiment, but colonies did not die out. Correlations of environmental variables with the foraging activity of the bees showed that none of them had a significant influence on pollen foraging. However, water collection was positively correlated with the temperature and negatively correlated with the humidity inside the greenhouse. The estimation of the pollination efficiency per treatment showed that there were significant differences in fruit set in SB (83 +/- 4.2) and MV (78.5 +/- 6.4) compared with NP (52.6 +/- 7.6). However, the average weight of the fruit was similar for the three treatments (65 g). There were significant differences for seed number in SB (200 +/- 15.3) and MV (232 +/- 21.4) compared with NP (120 +/- 16

  6. Phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin precludes Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Lycopersici infection in Lycopersicon esculentum via induction of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, S; Sarada, D V L

    2015-01-01

    Binding of phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin (PDP) modulated activity of fungal endopolygalacturonase in silico. Induced fit docking study of PDP with endopolygalacturonase (1HG8) showed a bifurcated hydrogen bond interaction with the protein at Lys 244 with a docking score of -3.6 and glide energy of -37.30 kcal/mol. Docking with endopolygalacturonase II (1CZF) resulted hydrogen bond formation with Lys 258 with a docking score of -2.3 and glide energy of -30.42 kcal/mol. It was hypothesized that this modulation favors accumulation of cell wall fragments (oligogalacturonides) which act as elicitors of plant defense responses. In order to prove the same, in vivo studies were carried out using a formulation developed from PDP (PDP 5EC) on greenhouse grown Lycopersicon esculentum L. The formulation was effective at different concentrations in reduction of seed infection, improvement of vigor and control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection in L. esculentum. At a concentration of 2 %, PDP 5EC significant reduction in seed infection (95.83 %), improvement in seed vigor (64.31 %) and control of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection (96.15 %) were observed. Further application of PDP 5EC to L. esculentum challenged with F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici significantly increased the activity of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, namely, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and enhanced the total phenolic content when compared to the control. PMID:25374140

  7. An Interspecific Backcross of Lycopersicon Esculentum X L. Hirsutum: Linkage Analysis and a Qtl Study of Sexual Compatibility Factors and Floral Traits

    PubMed Central

    Bernacchi, D.; Tanksley, S. D.

    1997-01-01

    A BC(1) population of the self-compatible tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild self-incompatible relative L. hirsutum f. typicum was used for restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage analysis and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of reproductive behavior and floral traits. The self-incompatibility locus, S, on chromosome 1 harbored the only QTL for self-incompatibility indicating that the transition to self-compatibility in the lineage leading to the cultivated tomato was primarily the result of mutations at the S locus. Moreover, the major QTL controlling unilateral incongruity also mapped to the S locus, supporting the hypothesis that self-incompatibility and unilateral incongruity are not independent mechanisms. The mating behavior of near-isogenic lines carrying the L. hirsutum allele for the S locus on chromosome 1 in an otherwise L. esculentum background support these conclusions. The S locus region of chromosome 1 also harbors most major QTL for several floral traits important to pollination biology (e.g., number and size of flowers), suggesting a gene complex controlling both genetic and morphological mechanisms of reproduction control. Similar associations in other flowering plants suggest that such complex may have been conserved since early periods of plant evolution or else reflect a convergent evolutionary process. PMID:9335620

  8. An interspecific backcross of Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum: linkage analysis and a QTL study of sexual compatibility factors and floral traits.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, D; Tanksley, S D

    1997-10-01

    A BC1 population of the self-compatible tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild self-incompatible relative L. hirsutum f. typicum was used for restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage analysis and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of reproductive behavior and floral traits. The self-incompatibility locus, S, on chromosome 1 harbored the only QTL for self-incompatibility indicating that the transition to self-compatibility in the lineage leading to the cultivated tomato was primarily the result of mutations at the S locus. Moreover, the major QTL controlling unilateral incongruity also mapped to the S locus, supporting the hypothesis that self-incompatibility and unilateral incongruity are not independent mechanisms. The mating behavior of near-isogenic lines carrying the L. hirsutum allele for the S locus on chromosome 1 in an otherwise L. esculentum background support these conclusions. The S locus region of chromosome 1 also harbors most major QTL for several floral traits important to pollination biology (e.g., number and size of flowers), suggesting a gene complex controlling both genetic and morphological mechanisms of reproduction control. Similar associations in other flowering plants suggest that such complex may have been conserved since early periods of plant evolution or else reflect a convergent evolutionary process. PMID:9335620

  9. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere. PMID:22382378

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-01

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2‧-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm-1, being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Antioxidant-enzyme reaction to the oxidative stress due to alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Chahid, Karim; Laglaoui, Amin; Zantar, Said; Ennabili, Abdeslam

    2015-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) becomes one of the world's foremost vegetables, and its world production and consumption have increased fairly quickly. The capacity to induce oxidative stress in tomato plant, exposed to three xenobiotics such as alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb, was investigated by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) rate; also, we studied the response of tomato to this stress by assessing the response of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). The effect of the insecticides was observed using four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) for germinating seeds and only the recommended concentration in agriculture (100%) for growing plants. Our results show an important accumulation of MDA, demonstrating the increase of lipid peroxidation in consequence of the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to insecticide treatment. In response to this oxidative stress in tomato seedlings and plants, the activities of antioxidant-enzyme system were generally enhanced. The electrophoretic analysis showed also the apparition of new isoenzymes as the case for CAT and POD. PMID:26178835

  12. Humic substances can modulate the allelopathic potential of caffeic, ferulic, and salicylic acids for seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Monaci, Linda; Senesi, Nicola

    2005-11-30

    The capacity of a leonardite humic acid (LHA), a soil humic acid (SHA), and a soil fulvic acid (SFA) in modulating the allelopathic potential of caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and salicylic acid (SA) on seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated. Lettuce showed a sensitivity greater than that of tomato to CA, FA, and SA phytotoxicity, which was significantly reduced or even suppressed in the presence of SHA or SFA, especially at the highest dose, but not LHA. In general, SFA was slightly more active than SHA, and the efficiency of the action depended on their concentration, the plant species and the organ examined, and the allelochemical. The daily measured residual concentration of CA and FA decreased drastically and that of SA slightly in the presence of germinating seeds of lettuce, which were thus able to absorb and/or enhance the degradation of CA and FA. The adsorption capacity of SHA for the three allelochemicals was small and decreased in the order FA > CA > SA, thus suggesting that adsorption could be a relevant mechanism, but not the only one, involved in the "antiallelopathic" action. PMID:16302757

  13. Cloning, expression, and mapping of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase cDNA from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-Ping; Li, Han-Xia; Ouyang, Bo; Zhang, Jun-Hong; Ye, Zhi-Biao

    2006-08-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP, EC 2.7.7.22) catalyzes the synthesis of GDP-D-mannose and represents the first committed step in plant ascorbic acid biosynthesis. Using potato GMP cDNA sequence as a querying probe, 65 highly homologous tomato ESTs were obtained from dbEST of GenBank and the putative cDNA sequence of tomato GMP was assembled. The full-length GMP cDNA of tomato was cloned by RACE-PCR with primers designed according to the assembled cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA sequence contained a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1,086 bp, which encoded 361 amino acid residues. This gene was designated as LeGMP (GenBank accession No. AY605668). Homology analysis of LeGMP showed a 96% identity with potato GMP and the deduced amino acid showed 99%, 97%, 91% and 89% homology with GMP from potato, tobacco, alfalfa and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that LeGMP was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of tomato; but the expression levels varied. LeGMP was mapped to 3-D using 75 tomato introgression lines (ILs), each containing a single homozygous RFLP-defined chromosome segment from the green-fruited species Lycopersicon pennellii. PMID:16939010

  14. Exposure of Lycopersicon esculentum to microcystin-LR: effects in the leaf proteome and toxin translocation from water to leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Campos, Alexandre; Azevedo, Joana; Neves, Joana; Freitas, Marisa; Guzmán-Guillén, Remédios; Cameán, Ana María; Renaut, Jenny; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2014-06-01

    Natural toxins such as those produced by freshwater cyanobacteria have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. However, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. The aim of this work was to investigate microcystin-LR (MC-LR) toxicity in Lycopersicon esculentum and the toxin accumulation in this horticultural crop. Adult plants (2 month-old) grown in a greenhouse environment were exposed for 2 weeks to either pure MC-LR (100 μg/L) or Microcystis aeruginosa crude extracts containing 100 μg/L MC-LR. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured, leaf proteome investigated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF, and toxin bioaccumulation assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. Variations in several protein markers (ATP synthase subunits, Cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur, oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins) highlight the decrease of the capacity of plants to synthesize ATP and to perform photosynthesis, whereas variations in other proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit and ribose-5-phosphate isomerase) suggest an increase of carbon fixation and decrease of carbohydrate metabolism reactions in plants exposed to pure MC-LR and cyanobacterial extracts, respectively. MC-LR was found in roots (1635.21 μg/kg fw), green tomatoes (5.15-5.41 μg/kg fw), mature tomatoes (10.52-10.83 μg/kg fw), and leaves (12,298.18 μg/kg fw). The results raise concerns relative to food safety and point to the necessity of monitoring the bioaccumulation of water toxins in agricultural systems affected by cyanotoxin contamination. PMID:24921194

  15. Effect of Two Plant Species, Flax (Linum usitatissinum L.) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), on the Diversity of Soilborne Populations of Fluorescent Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Lemanceau, P.; Corberand, T.; Gardan, L.; Latour, X.; Laguerre, G.; Boeufgras, J.; Alabouvette, C.

    1995-01-01

    Suppression of soilborne disease by fluorescent pseudomonads may be inconsistent. Inefficient root colonization by the introduced bacteria is often responsible for this inconsistency. To better understand the bacterial traits involved in root colonization, the effect of two plant species, flax (Linum usitatissinum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), on the diversity of soilborne populations was assessed. Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from an uncultivated soil and from rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and root tissue of flax and tomato cultivated in the same soil. Species and biovars were identified by classical biochemical and physiological tests. The ability of bacterial isolates to assimilate 147 different organic compounds and to show three different enzyme activities was assessed to determine their intraspecific phenotypic diversity. Numerical analysis of these characteristics allowed the clustering of isolates showing a high level (87.8%) of similarity. On the whole, the populations isolated from soil were different from those isolated from plants with respect to their phenotypic characteristics. The difference in bacteria isolated from uncultivated soil and from root tissue of flax was particularly marked. The intensity of plant selection was more strongly expressed with flax than with tomato plants. The selection was, at least partly, plant specific. The use of 10 different substrates allowed us to discriminate between flax and tomato isolates. Pseudomonas fluorescens biovars II, III, and V and Pseudomonas putida biovar A and intermediate type were well distributed among the isolates from soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane. Most isolates from root tissue of flax and tomato belonged to P. putida bv. A and to P. fluorescens bv. II, respectively. Phenotypic characterization of bacterial isolates was well correlated with genotypic characterization based on repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting. PMID:16534950

  16. Exposure of Lycopersicon Esculentum to Microcystin-LR: Effects in the Leaf Proteome and Toxin Translocation from Water to Leaves and Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Campos, Alexandre; Azevedo, Joana; Neves, Joana; Freitas, Marisa; Guzmán-Guillén, Remédios; Cameán, Ana María; Renaut, Jenny; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2014-01-01

    Natural toxins such as those produced by freshwater cyanobacteria have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. However, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. The aim of this work was to investigate microcystin-LR (MC-LR) toxicity in Lycopersicon esculentum and the toxin accumulation in this horticultural crop. Adult plants (2 month-old) grown in a greenhouse environment were exposed for 2 weeks to either pure MC-LR (100 μg/L) or Microcystis aeruginosa crude extracts containing 100 μg/L MC-LR. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured, leaf proteome investigated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF, and toxin bioaccumulation assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. Variations in several protein markers (ATP synthase subunits, Cytochrome b6-f complex iron-sulfur, oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins) highlight the decrease of the capacity of plants to synthesize ATP and to perform photosynthesis, whereas variations in other proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit and ribose-5-phosphate isomerase) suggest an increase of carbon fixation and decrease of carbohydrate metabolism reactions in plants exposed to pure MC-LR and cyanobacterial extracts, respectively. MC-LR was found in roots (1635.21 μg/kg fw), green tomatoes (5.15–5.41 μg/kg fw), mature tomatoes (10.52–10.83 μg/kg fw), and leaves (12,298.18 μg/kg fw). The results raise concerns relative to food safety and point to the necessity of monitoring the bioaccumulation of water toxins in agricultural systems affected by cyanotoxin contamination. PMID:24921194

  17. Mechanisms and genetic control of interspecific crossing barriers in Lycopersicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschler, M.A. ); McCormick, S. . Plant Gene Expression Center)

    1993-03-27

    This study employs Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii as model systems to study the interspecific reproductive barriers unilateral incongruity (UI), hybrid breakdown and interspecific aberrant ratio syndrome (IARS).

  18. Mechanisms and genetic control of interspecific crossing barriers in Lycopersicon. Second yearly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschler, M.A.; McCormick, S.

    1993-03-27

    This study employs Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii as model systems to study the interspecific reproductive barriers unilateral incongruity (UI), hybrid breakdown and interspecific aberrant ratio syndrome (IARS).

  19. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D. ); Oosterhuis, D.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  20. Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2010-09-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens. PMID:20542109

  1. Purification of pectin methylesterase from Lycopersicon esculentum and its application.

    PubMed

    Kant, Shashi; Gupta, Reena

    2012-11-01

    Pectin methylesterase (PME) (3.1.1.11) is the pectin degrading enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of pectin methylester group, resulting in de-esterification. PME is widely distributed in plants, fungi, yeast and bacteria. In the present study, PME was extracted from tomato by using 8.8% NaCl (4°C). The crude enzyme precipitated with 60% ammonium sulphate resulted in 1.02 fold purification of the enzyme. The purification was done by ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Cellulose column. This resulted in 1.82 fold purification of the enzyme. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was determined by SDS-PAGE which was found to be 34.0 kDa. During characterization of the purified enzyme, the maximum activity was found at temperature 50°C, pH 6.5, reaction time 45 min. Citrus pectin was the best substrate for maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme did not require any metal ion to express its activity, enzyme was found to be very stable at 4°C and at 50°C the enzyme was stable upto 2 h as it retained 70% of its activity. The K(m) and V(max) values of the enzyme were found to be 0.115 mg/ml and 1.03 μmol/ml/min. PME enhanced the pectin degradation process in apple juice clarification in combination with polygalacturonase and increased %T(650) from 1.7% to 5.6%. PMID:22512653

  2. Chloroplast DNA evolution and phylogenetic relationships in Lycopersicon

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Zamir, Daniel

    1982-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA was purified from 12 accessions that represent most of the species diversity in the genus Lycopersicon (family Solanaceae) and from 3 closely related species in the genus Solanum. Fragment patterns produced by digestion of these DNAs with 25 different restriction endonucleases were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In all 15 DNAs, a total of only 39 restriction site mutations were detected among 484 restriction sites surveyed, representing 2,800 base pairs of sequence information. This low rate of base sequence change is paralleled by an extremely low rate of convergent change in restriction sites; only 1 of the 39 mutations appears to have occurred independently in two different lineages. Parsimony analysis of shared mutations has allowed the construction of a maternal phylogeny for the 15 accessions. This phylogeny is generally consistent with relationships based on morphology and crossability but provides more detailed resolution at several places. All accessions within Lycopersicon form a coherent group, with two of the three species of Solanum as outside reference points. Chloroplast DNA analysis places S. pennellii firmly within Lycopersicon, confirming recent studies that have removed it from Solanum. Red-orange fruit color is shown to be a monophyletic trait in three species of Lycopersicon, including the cultivated tomato, L. esculentum. Analysis of six accessions within L. peruvianum reveals a limited amount of intraspecific polymorphism which, however, encompasses all the variation observed in L. chilense and L. chmielewskii. It is suggested that these latter two accessions be relegated to positions within the L. peruvianum complex. Images PMID:16593219

  3. Lycopersicon assays of chemical/radiation genotoxicity for the study of environmental mutagens.

    PubMed

    Grant, William F; Owens, Elizabeth T

    2002-07-01

    From a literature survey, 21 chemicals are tabulated that have been evaluated in 39 assays for their clastogenic effects in Lycopersicon. Nineteen of the 21 chemicals are reported as giving a positive reaction (i.e. causing chromosome aberrations). Of these, five are reported positive with a dose response. In addition, 23 assays have been recorded for six types of radiation, all of which reacted positively. The results of 102 assays with 32 chemicals and seven types of radiation tested for the induction of gene mutations are tabulated, as well as 20 chemicals and/or radiation in combined treatments. The Lycopersicon esculentum (2n=24) assay is a very good plant bioassay for assessing chromosome damage both in mitosis and meiosis and for somatic mutations induced by chemicals and radiations. The Lycopersicon bioassay has been shown to be as sensitive and as specific an assay as other plant genotoxicity assays, such as Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba, Crepis capillaris, Pisum sativum and Allium cepa and should be considered in further studies in assessing clastogenicity. Tests using L. esculentum can be made for a spectrum of mutant phenotypes of which many are identifiable in young seedlings. PMID:12088718

  4. Mechanisms and genetic control of interspecific crossing barriers in Lycopersicon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschler, M.A.

    1997-04-30

    Deficiency of Lycopersicon esculentum allele (E) was observed from the RFLP and isozyme data of the F{sub 2} populations derived from the cross L. esculentum x L. pennellii. The genome composition of the F{sub 2} populations containing L. pennellii cytoplasm (F{sub 2}{sup Lp4}) has a lower proportion of the homozygous L. pennellii (PP) genotypes and a higher proportion of heterozygote (EP) genotypes than that of the F{sub 2} populations containing L. esculentum cytoplasm (F{sub 2}{sup Le}). A lower proportion of the L. pennellii alleles (P) was also observed in F{sub 2}{sup Lp4} as compared to F{sub 2}{sup Le} when each marker locus was tested individually. To study the effects of gametic and zygotic selection on segregation distortion, the expected patterns of segregation at a marker locus were derived for ten selection models with gametic or zygotic selection at a hidden linked locus. Segregation distortion caused by four of the selection models studied can be uniquely identified by the patterns of significance expected for the likelihood ratio tests at the marker loci. Comparison of the chromosomal regions associated with specific selection models across populations (of this experiment and previous publications) indicated that the segregation distortion observed in chromosome 10 is associated with zygotic selection affecting both arms of the chromosome, and cytoplasm substitution has the effect of decreasing the segregation distortion on the long arm of the chromosome.

  5. Recurrent Miller Fisher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Geetha; Bhargavan, P V

    2004-07-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillan Barre syndrome characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. Recurrences are exceptional with Miller Fisher syndrome. We are reporting a case with two episodes of MFS within two years. Initially he presented with partial ophthalmoplegia, ataxia. Second episode was characterized by full-blown presentation characterized by ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia. CSF analysis was typical during both episodes. Nerve conduction velocity study was fairly within normal limits. MRI of brain was within normal limits. He responded to symptomatic measures initially, then to steroids in the second episode. We are reporting the case due to its rarity. PMID:15645989

  6. Quantitative trait locus analysis of leaf dissection in tomato using Lycopersicon pennellii segmental introgression lines.

    PubMed Central

    Holtan, Hans E E; Hake, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Leaves are one of the most conspicuous and important organs of all seed plants. A fundamental source of morphological diversity in leaves is the degree to which the leaf is dissected by lobes and leaflets. We used publicly available segmental introgression lines to describe the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the difference in leaf dissection seen between two tomato species, Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii. We define eight morphological characteristics that comprise the mature tomato leaf and describe loci that affect each of these characters. We found 30 QTL that contribute one or more of these characters. Of these 30 QTL, 22 primarily affect leaf dissection and 8 primarily affect leaf size. On the basis of which characters are affected, four classes of loci emerge that affect leaf dissection. The majority of the QTL produce phenotypes intermediate to the two parent lines, while 5 QTL result in transgression with drastically increased dissection relative to both parent lines. PMID:14668401

  7. Natural Variation in the Pto Pathogen Resistance Gene Within Species of Wild Tomato (Lycopersicon). I. Functional Analysis of Pto Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Laura E.; Langley, Charles H.; Bernal, Adriana J.; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    Disease resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in the cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, and the closely related L. pimpinellifolium is triggered by the physical interaction between plant disease resistance protein, Pto, and the pathogen avirulence protein, AvrPto. To investigate the extent to which variation in the Pto gene is responsible for naturally occurring variation in resistance to Pst, we determined the resistance phenotype of 51 accessions from seven species of Lycopersicon to isogenic strains of Pst differing in the presence of avrPto. One-third of the plants displayed resistance specifically when the pathogen expressed AvrPto, consistent with a gene-for-gene interaction. To test whether this resistance in these species was conferred specifically by the Pto gene, alleles of Pto were amplified and sequenced from 49 individuals and a subset (16) of these alleles was tested in planta using Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays. Eleven alleles conferred a hypersensitive resistance response (HR) in the presence of AvrPto, while 5 did not. Ten amino acid substitutions associated with the absence of AvrPto recognition and HR were identified, none of which had been identified in previous structure-function studies. Additionally, 3 alleles encoding putative pseudogenes of Pto were isolated from two species of Lycopersicon. Therefore, a large proportion, but not all, of the natural variation in the reaction to strains of Pst expressing AvrPto can be attributed to sequence variation in the Pto gene. PMID:15944360

  8. Brassinosteroids protect Lycopersicon esculentum from cadmium toxicity applied as shotgun approach.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Shamsul; Hasan, S Aiman; Hayat, Qaiser; Ahmad, Aqil

    2010-03-01

    Surface-sterilized seeds of two tomato cultivars (cv. K-25 and Sarvodya) were soaked in 100 microM CdCl(2) for 8 h (shotgun approach). The resulting 59-day-old seedlings were sprayed with 10(-8) M of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) or 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) to their foliage. Both cultivars showed significantly different response to Cd stress. Cadmium severely restricted the growth, photosynthetic efficiency, and activity of nitrate reductase (E.C. 1.6.6.1) and carbonic anhydrase (E.C. 4.2.1.1) in Sarvodya as compared to K-25. However, the activities of antioxidative enzymes were significantly higher in K-25. This result may be considered an indication of better tolerance of the K-25 cultivars to Cd stress. Moreover, the spray of both the brassinosteroids (HBL/EBL) were found very effective in neutralizing the adverse effects generated by metals that reflect in better photosynthetic performance by the cultivars. An interesting aspect of this study is that HBL or EBL spray caused a further increase in proline content and antioxidative enzyme activities, which were already enhanced by Cd stress. This effect of brassinosteroids (HBL/EBL) was more pronounced in K-25 than in Sarvodya, representing the tolerance and adoptable behavior of K-25. PMID:19842014

  9. Antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic activity of natural oleoresin from greenhouse grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Eustolia; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Pedraza-Aboytes, Gustavo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2009-03-01

    Natural oleoresins rich in lycopene were obtained from two varieties of tomato (Zedona and Gironda) and their nutraceutical potential (antioxidant and antimutagenic capacity) was evaluated. Both oleoresins had a high content of lycopene, 58.33+/-1.67 mg/g (Zedona) and 63.97+/-0.80 mg/g (Gironda). The antioxidant activity (AA) of the oleoresins by beta-carotene method were 56.4-74.5% (Zedona) and 51-72.8% (Gironda), while when using the free radical stable 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method, the antiradical activity (ARA) was determined to be 18.2-32.7% (Zedona) and 16.6-26.7% (Gironda) for the concentrations tested that of 200-400 microM equivalents of lycopene. The antimutagenic activity of the oleoresins was tested against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using the microsuspension assay, both varieties had a very high antimutagenic potential against AFB1 (60-66%).These results suggest the NCRT can be taken advantage to obtaining rich oleoresin in lycopene with a nutraceutical value. PMID:19020978

  10. First Report of Dodder Transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus to Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening”, caused by the fastidious a-proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. L. americanus (Lam) and Ca. L. africanus, is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide (1). Las was first detected in South Florida in 2005, and has spread throu...

  11. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase behaviors regarding heat- and pressure-induced inactivation.

    PubMed

    Crelier, S; Robert, M C; Claude, J; Juillerat, M A

    2001-11-01

    The combined high pressure/thermal (HP/T) inactivation of tomato pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) was investigated as a possible alternative to thermal processing classically used for enzyme inactivation. The temperature and pressure ranges tested were from 60 degrees C to 105 degrees C, and from 0.1 to 800 MPa, respectively. PME, a heat-labile enzyme at ambient pressure, is dramatically stabilized against thermal denaturation at pressures above atmospheric and up to 500-600 MPa. PG, however, is very resistant to thermal denaturation at 0.1 MPa, but quickly and easily inactivated by combinations of moderate temperatures and pressures. Selective inactivation of either PME or PG was achieved by choosing proper combinations of P and T. The inactivation kinetics of these enzymes was measured and described mathematically over the investigated portion of the P/T plane. Whereas medium composition and salinity had little influence on the inactivation rates, PME was found less sensitive to both heat and pressure when pH was raised above its physiological value. PG, on the other hand, became more labile at higher pH values. The results are discussed in terms of isoenzymes and other physicochemical features of PME and PG. PMID:11714361

  12. Management of root-knot nematode in tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill, with biogas slurry.

    PubMed

    Jothi, G; Pugalendhi, S; Poornima, K; Rajendran, G

    2003-09-01

    The effect of biogas slurry application on the severity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, attack on tomato cv. Co-1, was tested in the green house with two levels of biogas slurry: 5% and 10% (w/w) added to soil. Both the number (3 fruits/plant) and fruit yield (35.2 g/plant) of tomato increased significantly with 10% (w/w) biogas slurry. The plants amended with biogas slurry put up more vegetative growth and tended to flower and fruit much earlier than did those of the control. The nematode population in the soil decreased thus decreasing the severity of nematode attack. PMID:12699936

  13. EVALUATION OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AS NATURAL POSTHARVEST DISEASE CONTROL OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils with fungicidal activities were identified in vitro; these were oregano, thyme, lemongrass, and cilantro. Essential oil components in those plants with antimicrobial activity were carvacrol, thymol, citral, and trans-2-decenal, respectively. Vapors of thyme, oregano and lemongrass, ...

  14. Differential effects of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) matrix on the volatility of important aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Yair; Mayer, Florian; Takeoka, Gary R; Buttery, Ron G; Ben-Oliel, Gad; Rabinowitch, Haim D; Naim, Michael

    2003-01-29

    Significant tomato matrix effects on the volatility of certain fresh tomato odorants were found. The concentrations of odorants such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone, in crushed fresh tomato fruit obtained by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), resulting from a tomato matrix calibration curve were 5.5-, 2-, and 12-fold higher, respectively, than those calculated by calibration based on buffer solutions. Static headspace analyses indicated that, in most cases, the tomato matrix significantly retains the odorants relative to the buffer solution. Thus, the concentration of odorants in the headspace of tomato is lower than expected compared to a simple matrix such as buffer. CaCl(2), although needed in crushed fruit tissue to block enzymatic activity, was found to interact specifically with 2-isobutylthiazole, reducing its content in the headspace by at least 6-fold. If a matrix effect is found, analysis of the odorant molecule contents in the headspace rather than in the food is recommended in order to better evaluate their access to the olfactory receptors. PMID:12537448

  15. Influence of Quinclorac Drift on the Accumulation and Movement of Herbicide in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quinclorac is a commonly used herbicide in rice and drift of this compound has been suspected of causing injury to off-target tomato fields throughout Arkansas. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of simulated quinclorac drift on tomato growth and development. Data indicated that residu...

  16. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors. PMID:15128037

  17. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  18. Influence of modified atmosphere and ethylene levels on quality attributes of fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Irene; Lafuente, María T; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

    2016-10-15

    Controlling storage atmosphere is a key factor for delaying postharvest fruit quality loss. The objective of this study is to evaluate its influence on physico-chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality attributes of two tomato fruit cultivars (Delizia and Pitenza) that respectively have a short- and long-storage life. To that end, the effect of two types of bags with different gas permeability, combined or not with an ethylene sorbent, on tomato organoleptic and nutritional properties were compared during fruit storage at 13°C. CO2 and O2 were critical factors for controlling tomato postharvest behaviour. Weight loss, firmness, color and visual quality were only affected by bag permeability just as total sugar content and acidity for Pitenza tomatoes. (trans)-2-Hexenal also appears to be related with CO2 and O2 levels. Lycopene, total phenols (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents were also affected by the packaging form and the storage length. Ethylene removal in combination with MAP led to a higher content in TP and AA in the short-life tomato cultivar. PMID:27173554

  19. 01-NIF Dedication: George Miller

    ScienceCinema

    George Miller

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Lab Director George Miller.

  20. 01-NIF Dedication: George Miller

    SciTech Connect

    George Miller

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Lab Director George Miller.

  1. Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric Thomas; Cleaves, Henderson James; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason; Zhou, Manshui; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1953, Stanley Miller reported the production of biomolecules from simple gaseous starting materials, using apparatus constructed to simulate the primordial Earth's atmosphere-ocean system. Miller introduced 200 ml of water, 100 mmHg of H2, 200mmHg of CH4, and 200mmHg of NH3 into the apparatus, then subjected this mixture, under reflux, to an electric discharge for a week, while the water was simultaneously heated. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide the reader with a general experimental protocol that can be used to conduct a Miller-Urey type spark discharge experiment, using a simplified 3 L reaction flask. Since the experiment involves exposing inflammable gases to a high voltage discharge, it is worth highlighting important steps that reduce the risk of explosion. The general procedures described in this work can be extrapolated to design and conduct a wide variety of electric discharge experiments simulating primitive planetary environments.

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic studies of a wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor I gene in Lycopersicon species.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Brown, W E; Graham, J S; Pearce, G; Fox, E A; Dreher, T W; Ahern, K G; Pearson, G D; Ryan, C A

    1986-10-01

    A gene coding for proteinase inhibitor I, whose expression is induced in tomato leaves (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Bonny Best) in response to wounding or insect attacks, was isolated from a genomic library and characterized. The nucleotide sequence revealed that the gene is complete and encodes the sequence of an inhibitor I cDNA that was previously isolated from a cDNA library prepared from wound-induced mRNA from tomato leaves. This gene is located 13.1 kilobase pairs (kbp) upstream from an inhibitor II gene. The wound-inducible gene is interrupted by two intervening sequences of 445 and 404 bp, situated within the codons of amino acids 17 and 47, respectively, of the open reading frame. In addition to the presence of putative regulatory sequences, TATAAA and CCACT, two copies of an imperfect direct repeat approximately 100 bp long were identified in the 5'-flanking region. Phylogenetic comparisons of wound-inducible inhibitor I genes within the genomes of various Lycopersicon species revealed that the repeat is found in seven ancestral species of tomato. PMID:3463966

  3. An Interview with Ron Miller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercogliano, Chris; Becker, Ellen; Leue, Mary

    1998-01-01

    Ron Miller, founder of the journal "Holistic Education Review," discusses his intellectual background in humanistic psychology and historical studies, definition of holism in education, the holistic approach as an answer to the reductionist and fragmented modern era, founding of the journal as a form of activism, and the incremental nature of…

  4. Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, James H.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Zhou, Manshui; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1953, Stanley Miller reported the production of biomolecules from simple gaseous starting materials, using an apparatus constructed to simulate the primordial Earth's atmosphere-ocean system. Miller introduced 200 ml of water, 100 mmHg of H2, 200 mmHg of CH4, and 200 mmHg of NH3 into the apparatus, then subjected this mixture, under reflux, to an electric discharge for a week, while the water was simultaneously heated. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide the reader with a general experimental protocol that can be used to conduct a Miller-Urey type spark discharge experiment, using a simplified 3 L reaction flask. Since the experiment involves exposing inflammable gases to a high voltage electric discharge, it is worth highlighting important steps that reduce the risk of explosion. The general procedures described in this work can be extrapolated to design and conduct a wide variety of electric discharge experiments simulating primitive planetary environments. PMID:24473135

  5. Conducting miller-urey experiments.

    PubMed

    Parker, Eric T; Cleaves, James H; Burton, Aaron S; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P; Zhou, Manshui; Bada, Jeffrey L; Fernández, Facundo M

    2014-01-01

    In 1953, Stanley Miller reported the production of biomolecules from simple gaseous starting materials, using an apparatus constructed to simulate the primordial Earth's atmosphere-ocean system. Miller introduced 200 ml of water, 100 mmHg of H2, 200 mmHg of CH4, and 200 mmHg of NH3 into the apparatus, then subjected this mixture, under reflux, to an electric discharge for a week, while the water was simultaneously heated. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide the reader with a general experimental protocol that can be used to conduct a Miller-Urey type spark discharge experiment, using a simplified 3 L reaction flask. Since the experiment involves exposing inflammable gases to a high voltage electric discharge, it is worth highlighting important steps that reduce the risk of explosion. The general procedures described in this work can be extrapolated to design and conduct a wide variety of electric discharge experiments simulating primitive planetary environments. PMID:24473135

  6. Cadmium-sulfide crystallites in Cd-. gamma. -glutamyl peptide complexes from Lycopersicon and Daucus

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, R.N. ); Winge, D.R. )

    1989-04-01

    Hydroponically-grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill. cv stone) and suspension-cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota L.) exposed to 100 {mu}M cadmium salts produced metal-{gamma}-glutamyl peptide complexes containing acid labile sulfur. The properties of the complexes resemble the Cd-{gamma}-glutamyl complexes from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida glabrata, known to contain a CdS crystallite core. The crystallite core is stabilized by a coating of peptides of the general structure ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub n}-Gly. The Cd-peptide complexes contain predominantly peptides of n{sub 2}, n{sub 3}, n{sub 4} and n{sub 3}desGly. Zn-peptide complexes were also isolated from carrot cultures grown in MS medium supplemented with 2 mM Zn and cysteine. Results of preliminary characterization of these complexes are consistent with the presence of a colloidal particle similar to that of the Cd-complexes.

  7. Stress and Specificity: Reply to Miller (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Thomas F.; Spanovic, Marija; Miller, Norman

    2009-01-01

    T. F. Denson, M. Spanovic, and N. Miller (2009) meta-analytically tested the hypotheses that specific appraisals and emotions would predict cortisol and immune responses to laboratory stressors and emotion inductions. Although the cortisol data supported the integrated specificity hypothesis, G. E. Miller (2009) raised questions concerning the…

  8. J. Hillis Miller's Virtual Reality of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosso, Kurt; Harp, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    We set out to investigate Miller's curious assertion--curious for a deconstructionist committed to a critique of the old metaphysics of presence--that literary works preexist their being written down. We find a basis for this sense of the preexistence of the literary work in Miller's insights about the performative dynamics of reading and writing.…

  9. Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Huidong; du, Hongxia; Fang, Liping; Dong, Zhan; Guan, Shuai; Fan, Wenjing; Chen, Zilei

    2016-06-01

    Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder. PMID:26995029

  10. Effective removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) industrial processing waste.

    PubMed

    Sayğılı, Hasan; Güzel, Fuat

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon (TAC) prepared under optimized conditions with ZnCl2 activation from a new precursor; tomato industrial processing waste (TW), was applied as an adsorbent to remove tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The factors (TAC dosage, initial TC concentration, contact time, ionic strength and solution temperature) affecting the adsorption process were examined at natural pH (5.7) of TAC-TC system in aqueous solution. Kinetic data was found to be best complied by the pseudo-second order model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the equilibrium data could be represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity was identified as 500.0mgg(-1) at 308K. PMID:27177317

  11. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-04-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  12. Short term changes in methanol emission and pectin methylesterase activity are not directly affected by light in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Li, L.; Timko, M. P.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Plants are an important source of atmospheric methanol (MeOH), the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Factors regulating phytogenic MeOH production are not well constrained in current MeOH emission models. Previous studies have indicated that light may have a direct influence on MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, it was predicted that light would stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. MeOH emissions normalized for stomatal conductance (gs) did not, however, increase with light over short time scales (20-30 min). After experimentally controlling for gs and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. The results clearly demonstrate that light does not directly influence short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Our data suggest that substrate limitation may be important in regulating MeOH production over short time scales. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production may increase understanding of MeOH emission dynamics at the seasonal time scale.

  13. Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) that overexpress cAPX exhibits enhanced tolerance to UV-B and heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, are by-products of biological redox reactions. ROS can denature enzymes and damage important cellular components. Plants have developed antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate ...

  14. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C. PMID:23881317

  15. Effect of organic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) extract on the genotoxicity of doxorubicin in the Drosophila wing spot test

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of organic tomatoes (ORTs) reduces the risk of harmful effects to humans and the environment caused by exposure to toxic agrochemicals. In this study, we used the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) of wing spots in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate the genotoxicity of ORT and the effect of cotreatment with ORT on the genotoxicity of Doxorubicin® (DXR, a cancer chemotherapeutic agent) that is mediated by free radical formation. Standard (ST) cross larvae were treated chronically with solutions containing 25%, 50% or 100% of an aqueous extract of ORT, in the absence and presence of DXR (0.125 mg/mL), and the number of mutant spots on the wings of emergent flies was counted. ORT alone was not genotoxic but enhanced the toxicity of DXR when administered concomitantly with DXR. The ORT-enhanced frequency of spots induced by DXR may have resulted from the interaction of ORT with the enzymatic systems that catalyze the metabolic detoxification of this drug. PMID:21637658

  16. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results. PMID:26603051

  17. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer' varieties in Northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-03-01

    The nutritional and antioxidant composition of four tomato Portuguese farmer' varieties widely cultivated in homegardens was determined. The analysed components included macronutrients, individual profiles of sugars and fatty acids by chromatographic techniques, hydrophilic antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenolics, flavonols and anthocyanins, and lipophilic antioxidants such as tocopherols, β-carotene and lycopene. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and TBARS formation inhibition. One of the four varieties, which is locally known as round tomato or potato tomato, proved to be the most powerful in antioxidant activity (EC50 values≤1.63 mg/ml), phenolic compounds (phenolics 31.23 mg ClAE/g extract, flavonols 6.36 mg QE/g extract and anthocyanins 3.45 mg ME/g extract) and carotenoids (β-carotene 0.51 mg/100 g and lycopene 9.49 mg/100 g), while the so-called yellow tomato variety revealed interesting nutritional composition, including higher fructose (3.42 g/100 g), glucose (3.18 g/100 g), α-linolenic acid (15.53%) and total tocopherols (1.44 mg/100 g) levels. Overall, these farmer' varieties of garden tomato cultivated in the Northeastern Portuguese region could contribute as sources of important antioxidants related to the prevention of chronic diseases associated to oxidative stress, such as cancer and coronary artery disease. PMID:22154854

  18. Biochar filters reduced the toxic effects of nickel on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) grown in nutrient film technique hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Ahmed; El-Banna, Mostafa F; Gao, Bin

    2016-04-01

    This work used the nutrient film technique to evaluate the role of biochar filtration in reducing the toxic effects of nickel (Ni(2+)) on tomato growth. Three hydroponic treatments: T1 (control), T2 (with Ni(2+)), and T3 (with Ni(2+) and biochar) were used in the experiments. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy was used to characterize the pre- and post-treatment biochar samples. The results illustrated that precipitation, ion exchange, and complexation with surface functional groups were the potential mechanisms of Ni(2+) removal by biochar. In comparison to the control, the T2 treatment showed severe Ni-stress with alterations in cell wall structure, distortions in cell nucleus, disturbances in mitochondrial system, malformations in stomatal structure, and abnormalities in chloroplast structure. The biochar filters in T3 treatment reduced dysfunctions of cell organelles in root and shoot cells. Total chlorophyll concentration decreased by 41.6% in T2 treatment. This reduction, however, was only 20.8% due to the protective effect of the biochar filters. The presence of Ni(2+) in the systems reduced the tomato fruit yield 58.5% and 31.9% in T2 and T3, respectively. Nickel concentrations reached the toxic limit in roots, shoots, and fruits in T2, which were not observed in T3. Biochar filters in T3 also minimized the dramatic reductions in nutrients concentration in roots, shoots, and fruits, which occurred in T2 treatment due to the severe Ni-stress. Findings from this work suggested that biochar filters can be used on farms as a safeguard for wastewater irrigation. PMID:26866963

  19. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  20. Folate content in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ). influence of cultivar, ripeness, year of harvest, and pasteurization and storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, M Dolores; Pérez-Conesa, Darío; García-Alonso, Javier; Ros, Gaspar; Periago, M Jesús

    2009-06-10

    The effects of cultivar, on-vine ripening, and year of harvest on the folate content of raw tomatoes were studied. Folate content in hot-break tomato puree (HTP) subjected to pasteurization at different temperatures and its evolution during the shelf life of tomato juice were also investigated. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate) was the only folate compound identified in raw tomatoes and HTP, but tetrahydrofolate (H(4)-folate) was 10% of the folate detected in tomato juice. The content of folates in raw tomatoes ranged from 4.1 to 35.3 microg/100 g of fresh weight and was highly influenced by all of the factors studied. No clear trend of folate content with ripening stage was observed. The extractability of 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate from HTP increased significantly after pasteurization at 98 degrees C for 40 s, but higher temperatures decreased its content. Tomato juice showed folate losses during storage independent of the storage temperature. Folate losses were higher when tomato juice was packed in glass bottles than in Tetra Pak. PMID:19449809

  1. A Role for the Surrounding Fruit Tissues in Preventing the Germination of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Tannis; Bewley, J. Derek

    1992-01-01

    During tomato seed development the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) concentration peaks at about 50 d after pollination (DAP) and then declines at later stages (60-70 DAP) of maturation. The ABA concentration in the sheath tissue immediately surrounding the seed increases with time of development, whereas that of the locule declines. The water contents of the seed and fruit tissues are similar during early development (20-30 DAP), but decline in the seed tissues between 30 and 40 DAP. The water potential and the osmotic potential of the embryo are lower than that of the locular tissue after 35 DAP also. Seeds removed from the fruit at 30, 35, and 60 DAP and placed ex situ on 35 and 60 DAP sheath and locular tissue are prevented from germinating. Development of 30 DAP seeds is maintained or promoted by the ex situ fruit tissue with which they are in contact. Their germination is inhibited until subsequent transfer to water, and germination is normal, i.e. by radicle protrusion, and viable seedlings are produced, compared with 30 DAP seeds transferred directly to water; more of these seeds germinate, but by hypocotyl extension, and seedling viability is very poor. Isolated seeds at 35 and 60 DAP re-placed in contact with fruit tissues only germinate when transferred to water after 7 d. At 30 DAP, isolated seeds are insensitive to ABA at physiological concentrations in that they germinate as if on water, albeit by hypocotyl extension. At higher concentrations germination occurs by radicle protrusion. Osmoticum prevents germination, but there is some recovery upon subsequent transfer to water. Seeds at 35 DAP are very sensitive to ABA and exhibit little or no germination, even upon transfer to water. The response of the isolated seeds to osmoticum more closely approximates that to incubation on the ex situ fruit tissues than does their response to ABA. This is also the case for isolated 60 DAP seeds, whose germination is not prevented by ABA, but only by the osmoticum; these seeds are inhibited when in contact with ex situ fruit tissues also. It is proposed that the osmotic environment within the tissues of the tomato fruit plays a greater role than endogenous ABA in preventing precocious germination of the developing seeds. PMID:16653081

  2. Rapid inactivation of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase is responsible for oxidative modification to Rubisco in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Lang; Shen, Lin; Wang, Jia-Qi; Sheng, Ji-Ping

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the sensitive site of antioxidant systems in chloroplast under cadmium stress and its consequence on reactive oxygen species production and action, the sub-organellar localization of chloroplast superoxide dismutases (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and ascorbic peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) isoenzymes and changes of enzymes activities under cadmium stress were investigated in tomato seedlings. Two APX isoforms, one thylakoid-bound and one stromal, were detected. Cd at 50 microM induced a moderate increase of SOD activities but a rapid inactivation of both APX isoenzymes. APX inactivation was mainly related to the decrease of ascorbate concentration, as supported by in vitro treatment of exogenous ascorbate and APX kinetic properties under Cd stress. H2O2 accumulation in chloroplast, as a consequence of APX inactivation, was associated with a 60% loss of Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) activity, which could be partially accounted for by a 10% loss of Rubisco content. Protein oxidation assay found that the Rubisco large subunit was the most prominent carbonylated protein; the level of carbonylated Rubisco large subunit increased fivefold after Cd exposure. Thiol groups in the Rubisco large subunit were oxidized, as indicated by non-reducing electrophoresis. Treating crude extract with H2O2 resulted in a similar pattern of protein oxidation and thiols oxidation with that observed in Cd-treated plants. Our study indicates that APXs in the chloroplast is a highly sensitive site of antioxidant systems under Cd stress, and the inactivation of APX could be mainly responsible for oxidative modification to Rubisco and subsequent decrease in its activity. PMID:18713375

  3. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  4. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food. PMID:20110103

  5. Mapping quantitative trait loci in inbred backcross lines of Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (LA1589).

    PubMed

    Doganlar, Sami; Frary, Anne; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Tanksley, Steven D

    2002-12-01

    Although tomato has been the subject of extensive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping experiments, most of this work has been conducted on transient populations (e.g., F2 or backcross) and few homozygous, permanent mapping populations are available. To help remedy this situation, we have developed a set of inbred backcross lines (IBLs) from the interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum cv. E6203 and L. pimpinellifolium (LA1589). A total of 170 BC2F1 plants were selfed for five generations to create a set of homozygous BC2F6 lines by single-seed descent. These lines were then genotyped for 127 marker loci covering the entire tomato genome. These IBLs were evaluated for 22 quantitative traits. In all, 71 significant QTLs were identified, 15% (11/71) of which mapped to the same chromosomal positions as QTLs identified in earlier studies using the same cross. For 48% (34/71) of the detected QTLs, the wild allele was associated with improved agronomic performance. A number of new QTLs were identified including several of significant agronomic importance for tomato production: fruit shape, firmness, fruit color, scar size, seed and flower number, leaf curliness, plant growth, fertility, and flowering time. To improve the utility of the IBL population, a subset of 100 lines giving the most uniform genome coverage and map resolution was selected using a randomized greedy algorithm as implemented in the software package MapPop (http://www.bio.unc.edu/faculty/vision/lab/ mappop/). The map, phenotypic data, and seeds for the IBL population are publicly available (http://soldb.cit.cornell.edu) and will provide tomato geneticists and breeders with a genetic resource for mapping, gene discovery, and breeding. PMID:12502266

  6. Miller experiments in atomistic computer simulations

    PubMed Central

    Saitta, Antonino Marco; Saija, Franz

    2014-01-01

    The celebrated Miller experiments reported on the spontaneous formation of amino acids from a mixture of simple molecules reacting under an electric discharge, giving birth to the research field of prebiotic chemistry. However, the chemical reactions involved in those experiments have never been studied at the atomic level. Here we report on, to our knowledge, the first ab initio computer simulations of Miller-like experiments in the condensed phase. Our study, based on the recent method of treatment of aqueous systems under electric fields and on metadynamics analysis of chemical reactions, shows that glycine spontaneously forms from mixtures of simple molecules once an electric field is switched on and identifies formic acid and formamide as key intermediate products of the early steps of the Miller reactions, and the crucible of formation of complex biological molecules. PMID:25201948

  7. The Miller volcanic spark discharge experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Adam P; Cleaves, H James; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L

    2008-10-17

    Miller's 1950s experiments used, besides the apparatus known in textbooks, one that generated a hot water mist in the spark flask, simulating a water vapor-rich volcanic eruption. We found the original extracts of this experiment in Miller's material and reanalyzed them. The volcanic apparatus produced a wider variety of amino acids than the classic one. Release of reduced gases in volcanic eruptions accompanied by lightning could have been common on the early Earth. Prebiotic compounds synthesized in these environments could have locally accumulated, where they could have undergone further processing. PMID:18927386

  8. Reply to J Brand-Miller

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are surprised Dr Brand-Miller questions whether we have chosen appropriate foods for diets with different glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in our recent study (1). In the same protocol as the one she questions, we have previously reported (2) that a subgroup of the same population who h...

  9. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms. PMID:26322863

  10. Prebiotic Soup-Revisiting the Miller Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    'Isn't life wonderful?' sang Alma Cogan and Les Howard in their almost forgotten 1953 hit. That same year, Stanley L. Miller raised the hopes of understanding the origin of life when on 15 May, Science published his paper on the synthesis of amino acids under conditions that simulated primitive Earth's atmosphere. Miller had applied an electric discharge to a mixture of CH4, NH3, H2O, and H2 - believed at the time to be the atmospheric composition of early Earth. Surprisingly, the products were not a random mixture of organic molecules, but rather a relatively small number of biochemically significant compounds such as amino acids, hydroxy acids, and urea. With the publication of these dramatic results, the modem era in the study of the origin of life began.

  11. Prebiotic Soup: Revisiting the Miller Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Isn't life wonderful? sang Alma Cogan and Les Howard in their almost forgotten 1953 hit. That same year, Stanley L. Miller raised the hopes of understanding the origin of life when on 15 May, Science published his paper on the synthesis of amino acids under conditions that simulated primitive Earth's atmosphere. Miller had applied an electric discharge to a mixture of CH4, NH3, H2O, and H2 - believed at the time to be the atmospheric composition of early Earth. Surprisingly, the products were not a random mixture of organic molecules. but rather a relatively small number of biochemically significant compounds such as amino acids, hydroxy acids, and urea. With the publication of these dramatic results, the modern era in the study of the origin of life began.

  12. Miller Fisher syndrome presenting as palate paralysis.

    PubMed

    Noureldine, Mohammad Hassan A; Sweid, Ahmad; Ahdab, Rechdi

    2016-09-15

    We report a 63-year old patient who presented to our care initially with a hypernasal voice followed by ataxia, ptosis, dysphonia, and paresthesias. The patient's history, physical examination, and additional tests led to a Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) diagnosis. Palatal paralysis as an inaugurating manifestation of MFS is quite rare and requires special attention from neurologists and otolaryngologists. Although it may present as benign as an acute change in voice, early diagnosis and prompt management may prevent further complications. PMID:27609285

  13. Ordering Chaos: Eva Miller--Multnomah County Library, Portland, OR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Eva Miller has a knack for creating order out of disorder. She single-handedly brought Oregon's virtual reference service, Answerland, live in just under 90 days, says Rivkah Sass, now director of the Omaha Public Library. Miller created its web site, designed the graphics, developed marketing materials, and recruited and trained librarians--all…

  14. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF WHITE MILLER LAKE AND UPSTREAM FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF WHITE MILLER LAKE AND UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, White Miller Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 6.9 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  15. Miller-Urey Synthesis in The Nuclei of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Hoyle, F.

    1999-10-01

    The most promising venues for the synthesis of prebiotic molecules by Miller-Urey type processes may be found near the centres of galaxies. Explosions of supermassive stars would produce the basic chemical elements necessary to make molecules in high-density mass flows that are then acted upon by ionizing radiation, thus simulating the conditions needed for Miller-Urey type processing.

  16. Miller-Urey Synthesis in the Nuclei of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Hoyle, F.

    1998-06-01

    The most promising venues for the synthesis of prebiotic molecules by Miller-Urey type processes may be found near the centres of galaxies. Explosions of supermassive stars would produce the basic chemical elements necessary to make molecules in high-density mass flows that are then acted upon by ionizing radiation, thus simulating the conditions needed for Miller-Urey type processing.

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of Ecologic on Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tomato Plant, Lycopersicon esculenum

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Debora C.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Lawrence, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    Nonchemical methods and strategies for nematode management including cultural methods and engineered measures have been recommended as an alternative to methyl bromide (a major soil fumigant), due to its role in the depletion of the ozone layer. Hence, an international agreement has recently been reached calling for its reduced consumption and complete phasing out. This present research evaluates the potential of Ecologic, a biological, marine shell meal chitin material, as a soil amendment management agent for root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, control, and its effect on the growth of Floradel tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum. To accomplish this goal, studies were conducted during which, experimental pots were set up in greenhouse environments using sterilized soil inoculated with 5,000 root-knot eggs per 1500 g soil. There were 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments were: No chitin; 50 g chitin; 100 g chitin; and 200 g chitin. A two-week wait period following Ecologic amendment preceded Floradel tomato planting to allow breakdown of the chitin material into the soil. Fresh and dry weights of shoot and root materials were taken as growth end-points. A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was obtained with regard to the growth rate of L. esculentum at 100 g chitin treatment compared to the control with no chitin. Mean fresh weights of Floradel tomato were 78.0 ± 22.3g, 81.0 ± 20.3g, 109.0 ± 25.4g and 102.0 ± 33.3g at 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. The analysis of root knot nematode concentrations indicated a substantial effect on reproduction rate associated with chitin amendment. Study results showed a significant decrease in both root knot nematode eggs and juveniles (J2) at 100g and 200g Ecologic chitin levels, however, an increase in nematode concentrations was recorded at the 50g Ecologic chitin level (p ≤ 0.05). The mean amounts of J2 population, as expressed per 1500cm3 soil, were 49,933 ± 38,819, 86,050

  18. Three-year comparative study of polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars grown under organic and conventional conditions.

    PubMed

    Anton, Dea; Matt, Darja; Pedastsaar, Priit; Bender, Ingrid; Kazimierczak, Renata; Roasto, Mati; Kaart, Tanel; Luik, Anne; Püssa, Tõnu

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, four tomato cultivars were grown under organic and conventional conditions in separate unheated greenhouses in three consecutive years. The objective was to assess the influence of the cultivation system on the content of individual polyphenols, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes. The fruits were analyzed for total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant capacity by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Individual phenolic compounds were analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Among 30 identified and quantified polyphenols, significantly higher contents of apigenin acetylhexoside, caffeic acid hexoside I, and phloretin dihexoside were found in all organic samples. The content of polyphenols was more dependent on year and cultivar than on cultivation conditions. Generally, the cultivation system had minor impact on polyphenols content, and only a few compounds were influenced by the mode of cultivation in all tested cultivars during all three years. PMID:24811708

  19. Investigating the direct and indirect influences of light on short-term changes in methanol production and emission in Lycopersicon esculentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P.; Li, L.; Timko, M.; Mak, J. E.; Lerdau, M.

    2010-12-01

    Plant-produced methanol (MeOH) is the largest source of MeOH to the atmosphere where it is the second most abundant organic gas after methane. Current MeOH emission models are limited by their inability to predict changes in MeOH production in plants, a process still not well understood. Previous modeling studies indicated that light may have a direct influence on phytogenic MeOH production. As light is known to regulate cell wall expansion, we predicted light to stimulate MeOH production through the pectin methylesterase (PME) pathway. After normalizing MeOH emissions for stomatal conductance, we were unable to detect a MeOH emission response to light over short time scales (20-30min). After experimentally controlling for stomatal conductance and temperature, no light activation of PME activity or MeOH emission was observed. Our results clearly demonstrate the lack of a direct influence of light on short-term changes in MeOH production and emission. Future investigation of the long-term impacts of light on MeOH production is needed as light history may be an important factor for predicting MeOH emission over diurnal and seasonal time scales.

  20. Functional analyses of nanoparticle toxicity: a comparative study of the effects of TiO2 and Ag on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram; Jun, Heeju; Waldman, Bruce; Roh, Jinkyu; Kim, Younghun; Yi, Jongheop; Lee, Eun Ju

    2013-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs), increasingly used in industry, enter and migrate through biological ecosystems. NPs may create some acute toxicity, but their overall effects on living organisms remain largely unknown. In particular, the behavior of NPs in natural conditions and their consequent ecological effects are still poorly understood. In this study, we developed methods to test the phytotoxicity of two distinctly different NPs, one aerosol (nano-TiO2), and the other colloidal silver (AgNP), by specifically considering their tendencies to agglomerate and form precipitates. First we examined effects of these NPs on germination and root elongation. While exposure to neither of these NPs resulted in acute toxicity on germination, silver NPs caused significantly decreased root elongation at every concentration we tested. We found that the hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs were much smaller than those of nano-TiO2, which induced higher uptake and phytotoxicity. Based on the agglomeration behavior of the NPs, greenhouse trials were run using commercial soil, for nano-TiO2, and Hoagland's solution, for AgNP. Phytotoxicity of silver NPs in the mature plants was demonstrated by lower chlorophyll contents, higher superoxide dismutase activity and less fruit productivity, while nano-TiO2 resulted in higher superoxide dismutase activity at the highest concentration (5000mg/kg). Both nano-TiO2 and AgNPs were taken up into plant stems, leaves and fruits. Our results suggest that further studies of the ecological effects of nanoparticles and steps to mitigate appropriate management strategies are required. PMID:23651654

  1. Dissipation of deltamethrin, triazophos, and endosulfan in ready mix formulations in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Aman

    2015-09-01

    Persistence of delltamethrin, endosulfan, and triazophos in egg plant and tomato was studied following application of two ready mix formulations of insecticides viz. deltametrhin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000; 0.75% deltamethrin + 29.5% endosulfan) and deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus; 1% deltamethrin + 35% triazophos) at recommended (1.0 L/ha and double dose 2.0 L/ha). The residues of deltamethrin persisted till 7 and 5 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively, in the ready mix formulation of Cobra 5000 whereas endosulfan persisted till 15 and 10 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively. Dissipation of the insecticides followed first-order kinetics with half-life values of deltamethrin and endosulfan ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 and 1.4 to 1.7 days, respectively, for both the vegetables. In case of combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus), deltamethrin persisted beyond 5 days in both tomato and egg plant fruits, while triazophos persisted till 10 days in both the vegetables. Residues of deltamethrin and triazophos dissipated with half-life of 2.6-4.2 and 1.7-4.1 days, respectively, on tomato and egg plant fruits. Based on the Codex MRL limits, a safe waiting period of 5 and 3 days is suggested for tomato and egg plant, respectively, for the ready mix formulation of deltamethrin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000), and 5-day waiting period is suggested for tomato and egg plant for the combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos. PMID:25966882

  2. Potential pollinators of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), in open crops and the effect of a solitary bee in fruit set and quality.

    PubMed

    Santos, A O R; Bartelli, B F; Nogueira-Ferreira, F H

    2014-06-01

    We identified native bees that are floral visitors and potential pollinators of tomato in Cerrado areas, described the foraging behavior of these species, and verified the influence of the visitation of a solitary bee on the quantity and quality of fruits. Three areas of tomato crops, located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were sampled between March and November 2012. We collected 185 bees belonging to 13 species. Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) analis Spinola, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the most abundant. Ten species performed buzz pollination. Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Paratrigona lineata (Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) could also act as pollinators. The fruit set and number of seeds obtained from the pollination treatment by E. analis were higher than those in the control group. Our results allowed the identification of potential tomato pollinators in Cerrado areas and also contributed information regarding the impact of a single species (E. analis) on fruit set and quality. Although most of the visiting bees show the ability for tomato pollination, there is an absence of adequate management techniques, and its usage is difficult with the aim of increasing the crop production, which is the case for E. analis. Species such as Melipona quinquefasciata, P. lineata, and A. mellifera, which are easy to handle, are not used for pollination services. Finally, it is suggested that a combination of different bee species that are able to pollinate the tomato is necessary to prevent the super-exploitation of only a single species for pollination services and to guarantee the occurrence of potential pollinators in the crop area. PMID:25026657

  3. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Bruna L. B.; Arruda, Fernanda C. O.; Reis, Patrícia P.; Felix, Tainara F.; Santos, Priscila P.; Rafacho, Bruna P.; Gonçalves, Andrea F.; Claro, Renan T.; Azevedo, Paula S.; Polegato, Bertha F.; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A. H.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415–539); T group: 273 (258–297) µm2; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement. PMID:26610560

  4. Effects of soil conditioners on emergence and growth of tomato-cotton, and lettuce seedlings. [Lycopersicon esculentum; Gossypium hirsutum; Lactuea sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the extent to which seedling emergence and plant growth can be improved with use of new soil conditioners. The early findings regarding polymeric soil conditioners are still valid today, with the exception that much lower application rates are needed today, and different application methodology is available.

  5. Application of a LED-based reflectance sensor for the assessing in situ the lycopene content of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Tuccio, Lorenza; Agati, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    Nondestructive in situ determination of the antioxidant lycopene of fresh tomato fruits is of large interest for the growers, willing to optimize the harvest time for high quality products. For this, we developed a portable LED-based colorimeter which was able to measure reflectance spectra of whole tomatoes in the 400-750 nm range. The tomato skins from the same samples were then frozen in liquid nitrogen, extracted with an acetone/ethanol/hexane mixture and analyzed by means of a spectrophotometer for their lycopene content. Concentration of lycopene was varying between 70 and 550 mg/Kg fresh weight skin. Partial Least Square regression was used to correlate spectral data to the tomato lycopene content. The multivariate processing of the reflectance data showed that lycopene content could be nicely predicted with a coefficient of determination R2=0.945 and a root mean square error of cross-validation RMSECV=57 mg/Kg skin fresh weight. These results suggest that portable, low-cost and compact LED-based sensors appear to be promising instruments for the nondestructive assessment of tomato lycopene even in the field.

  6. Nitric oxide modulates Lycopersicon esculentum C-repeat binding factor 1 (LeCBF1) transcriptionally as well as post-translationally by nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Prakriti; Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production increases in the cold stress. This cold enhanced NO manifests its effect either by regulating the gene expression or by modulating proteins by NO based post-translational modifications (PTMs) including S-nitrosylation. CBF (C-repeat binding factor) dependent cold stress signaling is most studied cold stress-signaling pathway in plants. SNP (sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor) treatment to tomato seedlings showed four fold induction of LeCBF1 (a cold inducible CBF) transcript in cold stress. S-nitrosylation as PTM of CBF has not been analyzed till date. In silico analysis using GPS-SNO 1.0 software predicted Cys 68 as the probable site for nitrosylation in LeCBF1. The 3D structure and motif prediction showed it to be present in the beta hairpin loop and hence available for S-nitrosylation. LeCBF1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. LeCBF1 accumulated in the inclusion bodies, which were solubilized under denaturing conditions and purified after on column refolding by Ni-NTA His tag affinity chromatography. Purified LeCBF1 resolved as a 34 kDa spot with a slightly basic pI (8.3) on a 2-D gel. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identified it as LeCBF1 and western blotting using anti-LeCBF1 antibodies confirmed its purification. Biotin switch assay and neutravidin affinity chromatography showed LeCBF1 to be S-nitrosylated in presence of GSNO (NO donor) as well as endogenously (without donor) in cold stress treated tomato seedlings. Dual regulation of LeCBF1 by NO at both transcriptional as well as post-translational level (by S-nitrosylation) is shown for the first time. PMID:26255539

  7. The Effects Of Surfactants, Mixing Time, Nozzle Types, Spray Volumes And Simulated Rain On 1-MCP Efficacy On Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted with a WP formulation of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; AgroFresh, Spring House, PA) to determine the effects of surfactants, spray volume, nozzle type and rain fastness on the efficacy of 1-MCP to protect tomato plants from the epinastic effects of ethaphon. 1-MCP at 25 and 50 ...

  8. Evaluation of the effect of dietary lycopene, the main carotenoid in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), on the in vivo renal reducing ability by a radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance method.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazutaka; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Oteki, Takaaki; Matsumoto, Gaku; Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2011-04-13

    Although it has been reported that dietary lycopene, the main carotenoid in tomato, improved drug-induced nephropathy, there are no reports on the effect of orally administered lycopene on the in vivo renal reducing (i.e., antioxidant) ability. The radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method is a unique technique by which the in vivo reducing ability of an experimental animal can be studied. In this study, the in vivo changes in the renal reducing ability of rats orally administered lycopene were investigated using a 700 MHz EPR spectrometer equipped with a surface-coil-type resonator. Rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing lycopene. After 2 weeks, in vivo EPR measurements were conducted. The renal reducing ability of lycopene-treated rats was significantly greater than that of the control. This is the first verification of in vivo antioxidant enhancement via dietary lycopene administration. PMID:21381743

  9. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Arruda, Fernanda C O; Reis, Patrícia P; Felix, Tainara F; Santos, Priscila P; Rafacho, Bruna P; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Claro, Renan T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415-539); T group: 273 (258-297) µm²; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement. PMID:26610560

  10. Therapeutic and Prophylactic Potential of Morama (Tylosema esculentum): A Review.

    PubMed

    Chingwaru, Walter; Vidmar, Jerneja; Kapewangolo, Petrina T; Mazimba, Ofentse; Jackson, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Tylosema esculentum (morama) is a highly valued traditional food and source of medicine for the San and other indigenous populations that inhabit the arid to semi-arid parts of Southern Africa. Morama beans are a rich source of phenolic acids, flavonoids, certain fatty acids, non-essential amino acids, certain phytosterols, tannins and minerals. The plant's tuber contains griffonilide, behenic acid and starch. Concoctions of extracts from morama bean, tuber and other local plants are frequently used to treat diarrhoea and digestive disorders by the San and other indigenous populations. Information on composition and bioactivity of phytochemical components of T. esculentum suggests that the polyphenol-rich extracts of the bean testae and cotyledons have great potential as sources of chemicals that inhibit infectious microorganisms (viral, bacterial and fungal, including drug-resistant strains), offer protection against certain non-communicable diseases and promote wound healing and gut health. The potential antinutritional properties of a few morama components are also highlighted. More research is necessary to reveal the full prophylactic and therapeutic potential of the plant against diseases of the current century. Research on domestication and conservation of the plant offers new hope for sustainable utilisation of the plant. PMID:26206567

  11. Arthur Miller Wins a Peace Prize: Teaching, Literature, and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopald, Meredith

    1992-01-01

    Describes how a high school student was able to express powerful feelings and achieve some kind of reconciliation with his father through his therapeutic exploration of Arthur Miller's play "Death of a Salesman." (PRA)

  12. Determination of heavy metals in soil and different parts of Diplazium esculentum (medicinal fern)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasim, Hind S.; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kadhum, A. A. H.

    2014-09-01

    Diplazium esculentum is a widely used medicinal fern in Malaysia and other regions worldwide. Heavy metals in plants should be determined because prolonged human intake of toxic trace elements, even at low doses, results in organ malfunction and causes chronic toxicity. Hence, substantial information should be obtained from plants that grow on soils containing high concentrations of heavy metals. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of soil and heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in different parts of D. esculentum and soil, which were collected from the fern garden of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Results showed that heavy metals were highly accumulated in D. esculentum roots.

  13. Phenolic profile of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2007-09-19

    Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves phenolic compounds were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolics were carried out in a total of 36 samples of quince leaves from three different geographical origins of Northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and Central Portugal (Covilhã) and three collection months (June, August, and October of 2006). These leaves presented a common phenolic profile composed by nine compounds: 3- O-, 4- O- and 5- O-caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-3- O-galactoside, quercetin-3- O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3- O-glycoside, kaempferol-3- O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside. 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid was the major phenolic compound (36.2%), followed by quercetin 3- O-rutinoside (21.1%). Quince leaves are characterized by higher relative contents of kaempferol derivatives than fruits (pulps, peels, and seeds), especially in what concerns kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside (12.5%). C. oblonga leaves total phenolic content was very high, varying from 4.9 to 16.5 g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.3 g/kg dry matter), indicating that these leaves can be used as a good and cheap source of bioactive constituents. Significantly differences were observed in 3- O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acids contents, according to geographical provenance and harvesting month, suggesting a possible use of these compounds as geographical origin and/or maturity markers. PMID:17711340

  14. The Miller׳s knot as an alternative to the surgical knotting? Characterization of the mechanical behavior.

    PubMed

    Ortillés, A; Rodríguez, J; Calvo, B

    2014-10-01

    Several types of materials and surgical suture patterns are used in conventional surgery. Their combination with an appropriate knot is the basis for correct tissue apposition and healing. Knot security is essential to prevent loosening or slipping before the suture line is completely closed. Nevertheless, the knot itself is the weakest link in any surgical handling. The aim of this study is to determine and compare the mechanical behavior of four surgical knot types (square knot, surgeon׳s knot, square slipknot and Miller׳s knot) performed with three different suture materials (absorbable monofilament glyconate, non-absorbable monofilament polyamide and absorbable braided polyglycolic acid) in a non-biological experimental in vitro model (a tube of synthetic material with non-linear mechanical behavior). The mechanical properties of each suture material are also compared. Ten samples were mechanically tested for each suture and knot using a uniaxial tensile test until complete sample rupture. The failure Cauchy stress and stretch were calculated. The Cauchy stress at 5%, 10% and 15% strain and standard deviation were compared for each suture and knot type. The results demonstrated that all the suture materials had statistically significant differences in their non-linear mechanical behavior. Absorbable monofilament glyconate was the most compliant suture with the greatest tensile strength, while absorbable braided polyglycolic acid was the stiffest. Regardless of the suture type used, the Miller׳s knot had the greatest failure Cauchy stress and stretch, while the square, surgeon׳s and square slipknot had the lowest. In all cases, the Miller׳s knot was more compliant and had greater tensile strength than the other knots. The square knot, surgeon׳s knot, and square slipknot had statistically significant similarities in their mechanical behavior. Therefore, the Miller׳s knot could be classified as the gold standard and an alternative to the surgical knotting

  15. Pairing Relationships Among Feldspathic Lunar Meteorites from Miller Range, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Range ice fields have been amongst the most prolific for lunar meteorites that ANSMET has searched [1-3]. Six different stones have been recovered during the 2005, 2007, and 2009 field seasons: MIL 05035 (142 g), MIL 07006 (1.4 g), MIL 090034 (196 g), MIL 090036 (245 g), MIL 090070 (137 g), and MIL 090075 (144 g). Of these, the five stones collected during the 2007 and 2009 seasons are feldspathic breccias. Previous work on the Miller Range feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) has suggested that they are not all paired with each other [4-5]. Here we examine the pairing relationships among the Miller Range FLMs using petrography in concert with traceand major-element compositions.

  16. New Insights into Prebiotic Chemistry from Old Archived Miller Extracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Following the discovery of an archived set of samples from Stanley Miller's early experiments, analyses were undertaken to better understand the diversity of compounds produced from electric discharges acting on reducing gas mixtures. The paper chromatography methods that Miller used in the 1950s were only capable of detecting a few amino acids and were unable to provide substantial quantitative data relative to today's techniques. Current analytical techniques are much more sensitive and selective, and are capable of precisely quantifying a much larger range of amino acids and their enantiomeric abundances. In one study, preserved dried samples produced by Miller using a lesser-known volcanic apparatus which differed from Miller's classic apparatus in that it utilized an aspirator that injected steam into the electric discharge chamber, simulating a volcanic eruption. The volcanic apparatus produced a wider variety of amino acids than the classic configuration. Prebiotic compounds synthesized in these environments may have locally accumulated where they could have undergone further processing. An additional preserved set of samples from an experiment conducted in 1958 were also found in Miller's archived collection. These samples which had been generated using a mixture of CH4, NH3, H2S and CO2 were collected, catalogued, and stored by Miller, but for unknown reasons were never studied. In our analyses a total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordial environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of amino butyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment

  17. 48 CFR 1252.228-73 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.106-470, insert the following clause: Notification of Miller Act Payment Bond... prime contract. (a) The prime contract is subject to the Miller Act, (40 U.S.C. 3131 et al), under...

  18. Obscenity Law Since Miller: Another Troublesome Balancing Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haan, David H.

    A 1973 Supreme Court decision ("Miller v. California") established the system of defining obscenity on the local level according to the following criteria: first, prurient appeal and patent offensiveness are to be determined by a community rather than by a national standard; second, sexually explicit materials are judged obscene only if specified…

  19. Perry Miller and the Puritans: A Literary Scholar's Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Everett

    1981-01-01

    Critiques historian Perry Miller's treatment of the Puritans in American history for 1) inattentiveness to individual differences, 2) focus on theology, 3) failure to recognize the importance of typologies (biblical analogies) and metaphors to the Puritans, and 4) stressing the importance of the Puritan mind over their emotional lives. (AM)

  20. 12. The Miller Hardware building, located on the corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. The Miller Hardware building, located on the corner of 10th and State Streets, dates from ca. 1872, and was originally built as the office and canal store of Norton & Co. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  1. 45. LAZ LEVIN AND GUY MILLER, PHOTOGRAPHERS STARBOARD SIDE ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. LAZ LEVIN AND GUY MILLER, PHOTOGRAPHERS STARBOARD SIDE ELEVATION, TAKEN ON THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER NEAR HER HOMEPORT, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  2. 48 CFR 1252.228-73 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1252.228-73 Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection. As prescribed in guidance at (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.106-470, insert the following clause: Notification of Miller Act Payment Bond... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of Miller...

  3. 48 CFR 1252.228-73 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1252.228-73 Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection. As prescribed in guidance at (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.106-470, insert the following clause: Notification of Miller Act Payment Bond... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of Miller...

  4. 48 CFR 1252.228-73 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1252.228-73 Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection. As prescribed in guidance at (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.106-470, insert the following clause: Notification of Miller Act Payment Bond... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of Miller...

  5. Uncanny Exposures: A Study of the Wartime Photojournalism of Lee Miller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvio, Paula M.

    2009-01-01

    Taking the World War II photojournalism of Lee Miller as my point of departure, this article has several purposes. First, it introduces the wartime photojournalism of Lee Miller to education. I situate Miller's use of surrealist photography within emerging curricular discourses that take as axiomatic the significance of the unconscious in…

  6. Grouping Miller-Nicely by linear vector space rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhlakoti, Suvrat; Allen, Jont B.; Larsen, Erik

    2001-05-01

    Human speech recognition has been studied using response to CV speech stimuli. Miller and Nicely (1955) studied such data in the form of confusion matrices to obtain insight into the psychological structure of the phone in noise. Here, the confusion matrices are modeled as phone coordinates in a high dimensional perceptual vector space. The model generalizes to an eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) [Allen (2004)]. This is followed by agglomerative hierarchical clustering of the transformed data, and an automated process is used to identify the main clusters. The resulting EVD clustering is very similar to other Miller-Nicely groupings, based on both production and MDS derived features, but is more model based. It was found that there is a gradual and highly consistent change in the clustering of sounds, independent of cluster size and configuration. By examining the change in similarity between various speech sounds, it is hoped that perceptual features may be uniquely identified.

  7. Mark Miller, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Mark Miller joined DCP's Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group from the Wake Forest School of Medicine, where he was a Professor in the Department of Cancer Biology and Director of Graduate Studies. Prior to that, he was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. He worked for NCI as a Senior Staff Fellow at the Frederick Cancer Research Facility in the Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis. |

  8. Petrography and Geochemistry of Lunar Meteorite Miller Range 13317

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 13317 is a 32-g lunar meteorite collected during the 2013-2014 ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) field season. It was initially described as having 25% black fusion crust covering a light- to dark-grey matrix, with numerous clasts ranging in size up to 1 cm; it was tenta-tively classified as a lunar anorthositic breccia. Here we present the petrography and geochemistry of MIL 13317, and examine possible pairing relationships with previously described lunar meteorites.

  9. Controversies and challenges of vaccination: an interview with Elizabeth Miller.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Although strong evidence exists that the benefits of vaccination by far outweigh potential adverse events, controversy still exists. This has led opponents of vaccination to question its safety, efficacy and necessity. In an interview with Professor Elizabeth Miller, we discuss the continuum of beliefs held by vaccine refusers and hesitators, the resulting health consequences, and ways in which health professionals and industry regulators can help promote transparency to better convey the substantial health benefits of vaccination. PMID:26472230

  10. Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the

  11. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Robl, D.; Thimoteo, S.S.; de Souza, G.C.C.F.; Beux, M.R.; Dalzoto, P.R.; Pinheiro, R.L.; Pimentel, I.C.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil. PMID:24948920

  12. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  13. Amending Miller's Pyramid to Include Professional Identity Formation.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Steinert, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    In 1990, George Miller published an article entitled "The Assessment of Clinical Skills/Competence/Performance" that had an immediate and lasting impact on medical education. In his classic article, he stated that no single method of assessment could encompass the intricacies and complexities of medical practice. To provide a structured approach to the assessment of medical competence, he proposed a pyramidal structure with four levels, each of which required specific methods of assessment. As is well known, the layers are "Knows," "Knows How," "Shows How," and "Does." Miller's pyramid has guided assessment since its introduction; it has also been used to assist in the assessment of professionalism.The recent emphasis on professional identity formation has raised questions about the appropriateness of "Does" as the highest level of aspiration. It is believed that a more reliable indicator of professional behavior is the incorporation of the values and attitudes of the professional into the identity of the aspiring physician. It is therefore proposed that a fifth level be added at the apex of the pyramid. This level, reflecting the presence of a professional identity, should be "Is," and methods of assessing progress toward a professional identity and the nature of the identity in formation should be guided by currently available methods. PMID:26332429

  14. 48 CFR 53.301-274 - Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond. 53.301-274 Section 53.301-274 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond. ER30OC98.022 ER30OC98.023...

  15. 48 CFR 53.301-274 - Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond. 53.301-274 Section 53.301-274 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond. ER30OC98.022 ER30OC98.023...

  16. 48 CFR 53.301-274 - Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond. 53.301-274 Section 53.301-274 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond. ER30OC98.022 ER30OC98.023...

  17. 48 CFR 3052.228-90 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-90 Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.106-490... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Notification of Miller...

  18. 48 CFR 3052.228-90 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-90 Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.106-490... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of Miller...

  19. Legitimizing Technical Communication in English Departments: Carolyn Miller's "Humanistic Rationale for Technical Writing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Carolyn Miller's oft-cited "Humanistic Rationale for Technical Writing," published in 1979, tries to give technical communication faculty more cultural capital in English departments controlled by literature professors. Miller replaces a positivistic emphasis in technical communication pedagogy with rhetoric. She shows how technical knowledge is…

  20. 48 CFR 53.301-273 - Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond. 53.301-273 Section 53.301-273 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond. ER30OC98.020 ER30OC98.021...

  1. 48 CFR 53.301-274 - Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond. 53.301-274 Section 53.301-274 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Payment Bond. ER30OC98.022 ER30OC98.023...

  2. 48 CFR 53.301-273 - Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond. 53.301-273 Section 53.301-273 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond. ER30OC98.020 ER30OC98.021...

  3. 48 CFR 53.301-273 - Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond. 53.301-273 Section 53.301-273 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond. ER30OC98.020 ER30OC98.021...

  4. 48 CFR 53.301-273 - Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond. 53.301-273 Section 53.301-273 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Reinsurance Agreement for a Miller Act Performance Bond. ER30OC98.020 ER30OC98.021...

  5. 48 CFR 3052.228-90 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-90 Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.106-490... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of Miller...

  6. 48 CFR 3052.228-90 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-90 Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.106-490... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of Miller...

  7. Does Morality Harm Children? Alice Miller on Morality and Poisonous Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridley, William L.

    2006-01-01

    Alice Miller, the former psychoanalyst, has gained world renown for her controversial and provocative writings on child rearing. Miller contends that traditional child rearing practices--in schools, ecclesiastical settings, and the family--consist of physical and emotional cruelty that she labels "poisonous pedagogy." According to…

  8. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of employment as a miller. 79.53 Section 79.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.53 Proof of employment...

  9. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of employment as a miller. 79.53 Section 79.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.53 Proof of employment...

  10. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of employment as a miller. 79.53 Section 79.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.53 Proof of employment...

  11. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of employment as a miller. 79.53 Section 79.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.53 Proof of employment...

  12. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of employment as a miller. 79.53 Section 79.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.53 Proof of employment...

  13. An Interview with Frank Miller about the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Coll, Kenneth M.; Peters, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Frank Miller, a renowned addictions assessment authority who jointly initiated the updated Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) versions and helped establish the inventories in the addictions assessment mainstream. Among other things, Miller describes how he began working at the SASSI Institute…

  14. Maslow and Miller: An Exploration of Gender and Affiliation in the Journey to Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Kovacs-Long, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This article shows that although neither Abraham Maslow nor Jean Baker Miller reference each other in their writings, they are following different paths to the same conclusion: competence proceeds from connection. Miller and Maslow both describe a developmental model that applies equally to women and men. The conclusion of the authors of this…

  15. Investigating the Skoog-Miller Model for Organogenesis Using Sweet Potato Root Explants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which groups of students in a plant tissue culture course worked together to test application of the Skoog-Miller model (developed by Skoog and Miller in regeneration of tobacco experiments to demonstrate organogenesis) to sweet potato root explants. (ZWH)

  16. 76 FR 18151 - Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT; Miller West Fisher Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...The Forest Service will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Miller West Fisher Project. The Project includes timber harvest, fuels reduction, precommercial thinning, prescribed fire, watershed rehabilitation activities, pool creation in Miller Creek, improvement of trails and trailheads, fuels management and hazard tree removal in Lake Creek Campground, and......

  17. Adaptation: a contemporary view, revisiting Crichton-Miller's 1925 paper.

    PubMed

    Music, Graham

    2016-03-01

    In this paper I discuss a contemporary 'take' on the concept of adaptation in light of Crichton-Miller's original 1926 paper. I look briefly at some of the ways that contemporary thinking is both similar to and different from ideas of 90 years ago. In particular I think about how recent neurobiological findings, epigenetic research and attachment theory have cast new light on our understanding of the ways humans adapt to social and emotional environments. It looks at how psychiatric presentations which are seen as maladaptive might well have an adaptive origin in early life. In this account I emphasise how a more modern version of evolutionary theory can be developed, particularly one influenced by life history theory, and suggest that such ideas have powerful explanatory power as well as being based solidly in good research. PMID:26908879

  18. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status. PMID:26156861

  19. Tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon spp.) phylogenetic study: aligned genomic sequences for 47 markers used to analyze introgression in domesticated tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) is composed of 12 wild Solanum spp. and one domesticated (S. lycopersicum) taxon. Crop improvement for development of new cultivars and their spread to all regions of the globe has greatly relied on interspecific hybrid crosses with wild species taxa beginning i...

  20. [Silencing of Dominant Genes in Heterozygous Genotypes of Interspecific Hybrids Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. x C2026 F. homotropicum Ohnishi].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, N N; Fesenko, I N

    2016-04-01

    Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi is a very polymorphic self-pollinating species with homostylous flowers, which morphologically different lineages are differ also in ability to hybridize with F. esculentum Moench. (closely related outcrosser with heterostyly). A lineage C2026 F. homotropicum diverged from F. esculentum with forming noticeable pre-zygotic and post-zygotic barriers: the most successful interspecific crossing F esculentum x C2026 resulted wrinkled hybrid seeds germinated in Petri dishes. These interspecific hybrids and backcrosses F. esculentum x F₁, being heterozygous at loci DET/det, SHT/sht and homostyly gene of F. homotropicum, in our experiments often formed phenotype like a recessive homozygote for at least one of these genes, i.e. dominant alleles were silenced. Apparently, these effects can be caused by disorders of epigenetic regulation associated with the divergence of hybridized species. Such disorders, especially those that occur at the stage of seed development, represent one of the main experimentally confirmed mechanisms of pre-zygotic isolation between species. Apparently, F. esculentum and the lineage C2026 of F. homotropicum represent an example of intermediate stage of post-zygotic isolation development process which based on epigenetic deregulation of gene expression in the hybrids. Sometimes it may be revealed not only at the stage of seed development, but also at later stages of ontogenesis. PMID:27529977

  1. Review of the genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini) with description of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.; Montano, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American. PMID:25147458

  2. Miller City levee break and incipient meander cutoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, K.A.; Jacobson, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    On July 15, 1993, the flooding Mississippi River broke through a levee near Miller City, Ill., at the head of the Mississippi Embayment, approximately 55 km upstream from Cairo, Ill. Flow through the break crossed a high-amplitude meander bend and reentered the main channel approximately 24 km upstream from Cairo, bypassing 31 km of the river channel. The incipient meander cutoff is one of the more dramatic examples of geomorphic change accompanying the 1993 flood. Discharge and bathymetry data were collected in the incipient cutoff channel every other day during the 2 weeks before and after the flood peak. During the peak on August 7, as much as 8,100 m3/s, or approximately 25 percent of the Mississippi flood discharge, was bypassing the meander bend. The flow excavated an irregular channel in the flood plain up to 25 m deep. This irregular channel extends as far as 2 km downstream from the levee break. By August 25, as much as 2,900 m3/s was still flowing through the levee break; with recession of the flood, extensive sand deposits were exposed on the margins and downstream from the scoured areas. Preliminary data indicate that local relief, such as relict channels and preexisting county roads, affected the extent of new channel formation.

  3. Mathematical modeling on vacuum drying of Zizyphus jujuba Miller slices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Zuo, Li

    2013-02-01

    The thin-layer vacuum drying behavior of Zizyphus jujuba Miller slices was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 50, 60, and 70 °C and the mathematical models were used to fit the thin-layer vacuum drying of Z. jujuba slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. The drying rate was found to increase with temperature, thereby reducing the total drying time. It was found that Z. jujuba slices with thickness of 4 mm would be dried up to 0.08 kg water/kg dry matter in the range of 180-600 min in the vacuum dryer at the studied temperature range from 70 to 50 °C. The Midilli et al. model was selected as the most appropriate model to describe the thin-layer drying of Z. jujuba slices. The diffusivity coefficient increased linearly over the temperature range from 1.47 × 10(-10) to 3.27 × 10(-10) m(2)/s, as obtained using Fick's second law. The temperature dependence of the effective diffusivity coefficient followed an Arrhenius-type relationship. The activation energy for the moisture diffusion was determined to be 36.76 kJ/mol. PMID:24425895

  4. Pereskia aculeata Miller Flour: Metabolic Effects and Composition.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Guiguer, Élen Landgraf; Marinelli, Paulo Sérgio; do Santos Bueno, Patrícia Cincotto; Pescinini-Salzedas, Leticia Maria; Dos Santos, Mirele Cristine Batista; Oshiiwa, Marie; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório; de Menezes, Manoel Lima; Nicolau, Cláudia Cristina Teixeira; Otoboni, Alda Maria; de Alvares Goulart, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    Pereskia aculeata Miller is known in Brazil as ora-pro-nobis (OPN) and has been used commonly in the folklore medicine. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the composition and the effects of OPN flour on the metabolic profile and intestinal motility of Wistar rats. Animals were divided randomly into five groups (n = 10): G1 (control group) and G2 (treated with OPN flour). For the intestinal motility: G3 (control group), G4 (treated with senne), and G5 (treated with OPN flour). After 40 days, G1 and G2 were euthanized and metabolic profiles were analyzed (glycemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein [HDL-c], C reactive protein, AST, ALT, Lee Index, weight, and visceral fat). The flour of OPN was effective in reducing percentage of weight gain, visceral fat, levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, and increased HDL-c. Significance was also found in the distance covered by the activated charcoal from the pylorus to the beginning of the cecum, which was higher in animals treated with OPN. Our results indicate that OPN flour may bring health benefits, as the improvement of the intestinal motility, and it is associated with reduction of visceral fat and lipid profile, as well as the increase of HDL-c levels. With these results, we may suggest that the incorporation of this flour in different industrial products may be a convenient and effective way for the intake of healthier products. PMID:27583638

  5. Organic acids composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2008-11-15

    Organic acid profiles of 36 Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf samples, from three different geographical origins of northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and central Portugal (Covilhã), harvested in three collection months (June, August and October of 2006), were determined by HPLC/UV (214nm). Quince leaves presented a common organic acid profile, composed of six constituents: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. C. oblonga leaves total organic acid content varied from 1.6 to 25.8g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.5g/kg dry matter). Quinic acid was the major compound (72.2%), followed by citric acid (13.6%). Significant differences were found in malic and quinic acids relative abundances and total organic acid contents according to collection time, which indicates a possible use of these compounds as maturity markers. Between June and August seems to be the best period to harvest quince leaves for preparation of decoctions or infusions, since organic acids total content is higher in this season. PMID:26047441

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 ELEVATIONS - Shaker Church Family Barns, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, south edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION - Shaker Church Family Washhouse, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, centrally located in church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 ELEVATIONS - Shaker Church Family Barns, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, south edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION - Shaker Church Family Boys' Shop, East of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, centrally located in church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  10. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE - Sabbathday Lake Shaker Community Meetinghouse, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION, DETAIL OF FENCE - Shaker Ministry's Shop, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, Northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  12. Theoretical modification of the negative Miller capacitance during the switching transients of IGBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Teng; Yangjun, Zhu; Zhengsheng, Han; Tianchun, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) has negative Miller capacitance during switching transients. It has conventionally been attributed to the voltage dependency of the Miller capacitance. However this explanation has physical ambiguity, yet, it lacks a discussion of the conditions for the occurrence of negative Miller capacitance as well. We argue that it is the current dependence to the Miller capacitance that results in the negative case. In this paper, we provide a modification to the theoretical analysis of this phenomenon. The occurrence condition for it and the device parameters about it are discussed. It is discovered that the negative Miller capacitance must occur during the turn-off process for any IGBT, while it is relatively difficult during the turn-on process. At the device design level, the current gain of the PNP transistor in the IGBT is an important factor for the negative Miller capacitance. Project supported by the National Major Science and Technology Special Project (No. 2013ZX02305005-002), and the National Natural Science Foundation Major Program (No. 51490681).

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of radiologist Earl R. Miller, M.D., August 9 and 17, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Dr. Earl R. Miller was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research (OHRE). The interview covers Dr. Miller`s involvement with the Manhattan Engineer District, with total body irradiation, and heavy-ion therapy. Dr. Miller`s remembrances include wartime work on radiation exposure, Joe Hamilton, Neutron Therapy research, means of obtaining isotopes, consent forms, infinite laminograms, invention of a baby holder to alleviate exposure of radiological technicians in diagnostic procedures involving infants, and several personages.

  14. Nitrous oxide emission from wetland soil following single and seasonal split application of cattle manure to field tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill var. Heinz) and rape (Brassica napus, L. var. Giant) crops.

    PubMed

    Masaka, Johnson; Nyamangara, Justice; Wuta, Menas

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the contribution of manure applications to global atmospheric N2O loading is needed to evaluate agriculture's contribution to the global warming process. Two field experiments were carried out at Dufuya wetland (19°17'S; 29°21'E, 1260 m above sea level) to determine the effects of single and split manure applications on emissions of N2O from soil during the growing seasons of two rape and two tomato crops. Two field experiments were established. In the first experiment the manure was applied in three levels of 0, 15, and 30 Mg ha(-1) as a single application just before planting of the first tomato crop. In the second experiment the 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure application rates were divided into four split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) respectively, for each of the four cropping events. Single applications of 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure once in four cropping events had higher emissions of N2O than those recorded on plots that received split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) manure at least up to the second test crop. Thereafter N2O emissions on plots subjected to split applications of manure were higher or equal to those recorded in plots that received single basal applications of 30 Mg ha(-1) applied a week before planting the first crop. Seasonal split applications of manure to wetland vegetable crops can reduce emissions of N2O at least up to the second seasonal split application. PMID:27099826

  15. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yun, Bong-Kyoung; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hong, Su-Young; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes—rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP—have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. PMID:25966355

  16. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum).

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yun, Bong-Kyoung; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hong, Su-Young; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. PMID:25966355

  17. Mechanisms and genetic control of interspecific crossing barriers in lycopersicon. Progress report, First year, August 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschler, M.A.; McCormick, S.

    1992-12-31

    The goal of this program is to use Lycopersica esculentum and L. pennellii as a model system to study the interspecific reproductive barriers unilateral incongruity (UI), hybrid breakdown and interspecific aberrant ratio syndrome (IARS). Specifically we seek to determine the functional basis of UI including the timing of the failure of incongruous crosses, the developmental step(s) interrupted by UI, the tissue and genomes involved in UI.

  18. Branched Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in the Biosynthesis of Lycopersicon pennellii Glucose Esters 1

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Donald S.; Steffens, John C.

    1990-01-01

    Lycopersicon pennellii Corr. (D'Arcy) an insect-resistant, wild tomato possesses high densities of glandular trichomes which exude a mixture of 2,3,4-tri-O-acylated glucose esters that function as a physical impediment and feeding deterrent to small arthropod pests. The acyl moieties are branched C4 and C5 acids, and branched and straight chain C10, C11, and C12 acids. The structure of the branched acyl constituents suggests that the branched chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway participates in their biosynthesis. [14C]Valine and deuterated branched chain amino acids (and their oxo-acid derivatives) were incorporated into branched C4 and C5 acid groups of glucose esters by a process of transamination, oxidative decarboxylation and subsequent acylation. C4 and C5 branched acids were elongated by two carbon units to produce the branched C10-C12 groups. Norvaline, norleucine, allylglycine, and methionine also were processed into acyl moieties and secreted from the trichomes as glucose esters. Changes in the acyl composition of the glucose esters following sulfonylurea herbicide administration support the participation of acetohydroxyacid synthetase and the other enzymes of branched amino acid biosynthesis in the production of glucose esters. PMID:16667654

  19. Backside wear of Miller-Galante I and Insall-Burstein II tibial inserts.

    PubMed

    Taki, Naoya; Goldberg, Victor M; Kraay, Matthew J; Rimnac, Clare M

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the amount, type, and location of backside wear in the Miller-Galante I and Insall-Burstein II PE tibial inserts. A secondary objective was to determine if backside wear damage in these two designs was a function of clinical factors (patient height, weight, gender, age, and length of time of implantation), shelf life of the PE tibial insert, and tibial component thickness. Backside wear damage was assessed on 24 Miller-Galante I and 11 Insall-Burstein II tibial inserts (implantation time, 0.5-12.4 years). For both groups combined, implantation time was positively correlated to wear damage and to PE peg height into screw holes. The Miller-Galante I group had significantly larger PE pegs than the Insall-Burstein II group. The Miller-Galante I group had significantly more burnishing and larger PE pegs posteriorly than anteriorly. There was no correlation between insert shelf life before initial surgery and backside wear. The thinner the component, the larger the total damage scores in the Miller-Galante I group. This study supports the hypothesis that backside wear of PE tibial inserts may be influenced by design and component thickness and by clinical factors. PMID:15534543

  20. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity. PMID:27025067

  1. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  2. Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of European Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kiprovski, Biljana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Malencic, Djordje; Latkovic, Dragana

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate composition and content of phenolic compounds in seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars from Western, Central and Southeastern Europe grown in the Balkan area, and to compare them with cultivars from the Balkan. Mostly detected hydroxycinnamic acids in seeds of the investigated cultivars were caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives. More than ten different flavanols were detected in the investigated seeds, based on which all tested buckwheat cultivars were divided into two groups: those with high propelargonidins (epiafzelechin-epicatechin) and those with high procyanidins contents. 'Novosadska' had the highest level of phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavones and most of the flavonols. However, 'Bosna 1' and 'Bosna 2' were highlighted with the greatest rutin content (up to 46 times higher than in other cultivars). All buckwheat cultivars had quite high antioxidant capacity (more than 80% of neutralized radicals), yet, 'Novosadska', 'Godijevo', 'Spacinska 1' and 'Bamby' excelled. PMID:25952839

  3. Green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles using Fagopyrum esculentum leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Sharma, Pragya; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the use of ethnolic extract of Fagopyrum esculentum leaves for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. UV-visible spectroscopy analysis indicated the successful formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and were found to be spherical, hexagonal and triangular in shape with an average size of 8.3 nm. The crystalline nature of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) suggested the presence of organic biomolecules on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity tests against human HeLa, MCF-7 and IMR-32 cancer cell lines revealed that the gold nanoparticles were non-toxic and thus have potential for use in various biomedical applications.

  4. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T.; Artaev, Viatcheslav B.; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L.; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  5. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T; Artaev, Viatcheslav B; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  6. George Miller's magical number of immediate memory in retrospect: Observations on the faltering progression of science.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Nelson

    2015-07-01

    Miller's (1956) article about storage capacity limits, "The Magical Number Seven Plus or Minus Two . . .," is one of the best-known articles in psychology. Though influential in several ways, for about 40 years it was oddly followed by rather little research on the numerical limit of capacity in working memory, or on the relation between 3 potentially related phenomena that Miller described. Given that the article was written in a humorous tone and was framed around a tongue-in-cheek premise (persecution by an integer), I argue that it may have inadvertently stymied progress on these topics as researchers attempted to avoid ridicule. This commentary relates some correspondence with Miller on his article and concludes with a call to avoid self-censorship of our less conventional ideas. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25751370

  7. False-Positive Serum Botulism Bioassay in Miller-Fisher Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zeylikman, Yuriy; Shah, Vishal; Shah, Umang; Mirsen, Thomas R; Campellone, Joseph V

    2015-09-01

    We describe a patient with acute progressive weakness and areflexia. Both botulism and Miller-Fisher variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome were initial diagnostic considerations, and she was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and botulinum antitoxin. A mouse bioassay was positive for botulinum toxin A, although her clinical course, electrodiagnostic studies, and cerebrospinal fluid findings supported Miller-Fisher syndrome. This patient's atypical features offer points of discussion regarding the evaluation of patients with acute neuromuscular weakness and emphasize the limitations of the botulism bioassay. PMID:26301377

  8. 53. VIEW OF THE W.J. MILLER SAWMILL IN DAWSON AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF THE W.J. MILLER SAWMILL IN DAWSON AFTER FIRE DESTROYED THE MILL 1936. PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS SOME REMAINING STRUCTURES LOOKING EAST TO WEST ON SITE. LOCOMOTIVE WAS USED TO DELIVER LOGS TO I.P. MILLER SAWMILL AT WEST END OF MILL POND. BELOW LARGE BUILDING ARE TWO BAYS WHERE HOG FUEL WAS LOADED ONTO RAILROAD CARS. ON RIGHT SIDE OF LARGE STORAGE AREA. CENTER BUILDING ALONG RAILROAD IS BLACKSMITH SHOP. STRUCTURES WERE LATER TORN DOWN. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1938. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  9. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  10. 7 CFR 301.86-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following pale cyst nematode host crops: Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Pepper (Capsicum spp.) Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) (c)...

  11. Reflection and Outlook for the Future of Addictions Treatment and Training: An Interview with William R. Miller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jason B.; Madson, Michael B.

    2006-01-01

    The development of motivational interviewing (MI) has contributed to a significant change in the zeitgeist of substance abuse treatment. Dr. William Miller has been instrumental in the direction MI has taken. Dr. Miller helped develop MI, guide research and training initiatives, and as a result set a solid foundation for the future of MI. In this…

  12. The influence of emerging administrative scientists: an interview with Anne Miller.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-04-01

    This department highlights emerging nursing leaders and scientists demonstrating promise in advancing innovation and patient care leadership in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Anne Miller, PhD, BA, assistant professor jointly appointed to the Center of Interdisciplinary Health Workforce Studies and the School of Nursing at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. PMID:25803799

  13. A State Legislates Improvement in Reading and the Miller-Unruh Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, J.E.

    The state's role in reading instruction improvement in California is illustrated by the Miller-Unruh Reading Act of 1965 which aims to prevent and correct reading disabilities at the elementary school level and to provide funds and services for special reading instruction. It requires that the Stanford Reading Test be given in May each year to…

  14. von Braun and Miller in the S-IVB Orbital Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    During a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Congressional House Committee on Science and Astronautics toured the S-IVB workshop. Pictured here are MSFC's Dr. Wernher von Braun (standing) and Congressman Miller, Democratic representative of California (sitting on the ergometer bicycle) inside the workshop.

  15. Will Higher Education Pass "A Test of Leadership"? An Interview with Spellings Commission Chairman Charles Miller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Pat

    2007-01-01

    Charles Miller, former chairman of the University of Texas System's Board of Regents, chaired the recent Commission on the Future of Higher Education created by Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings. Here he is interviewed regarding the panel's widely discussed report, "A Test of Leadership," by Pat Callan, president of the National Center for…

  16. Children Exposed to Drugs in Utero: Their Scores on the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L.; Harris, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers was administered to 54 children who had been prenatally exposed to drugs. Results indicated a tendency toward the lower end of the spectrum with poorer performance identified on test items measuring tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular processing and language. (JOW)

  17. Anxiety Levels in Persons Who Stutter: Comments on the Research of Miller and Watson (1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ashley

    1994-01-01

    This article critiques the previous research of Miller and Watson (1992) which concluded there were no significant differences between stutterers and nonstutterers on measures of anxiety or depression. It notes confounding effects of previous treatment, self-diagnosis, and low number of subjects. It then offers guidelines for conducting more valid…

  18. West 73rd Street pedestrian underpass, with spur of old Miller ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West 73rd Street pedestrian underpass, with spur of old Miller Highway, Trump Place towers in background, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  19. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 VIEW OF STREET, SHOWING HERB HOUSE, BOYS' SHOP, AND OFFICE WOODSHED - Shaker Church Family Community, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  1. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 REAR ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 REAR ELEVATION AND SIDE ELEVATION WITH STAIR TOWER - Sabbathday Lake Shaker Community Meetinghouse, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 REAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 REAR AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, MEETINGHOUSE ON RIGHT - Shaker Ministry's Shop, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, Northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Miller/Swift, Photographers 1970 FRONT ELEVATION, DETAIL OF FENCE AND BELL - Shaker Ministry's Shop, West of State Route 26, South of North Raymond Road, Northwest edge of church family area, Sabbathday Lake Village, Cumberland County, ME

  4. 48 CFR 1252.228-73 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... at (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.106-470, insert the following clause: Notification of Miller Act Payment Bond... owed for work performed and materials delivery under the prime contract. (b) Persons believing that... is: (Name) (Street Address) (City, State, Zip Code) (Contact & Tel. No.) (End of clause)...

  5. 48 CFR 3052.228-90 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Act payment bond protection (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.106-490... right to sue the bonding surety under the Miller Act for amounts owned for work performed and materials... which has provided the payment bond under the prime contract is: (Name) (Street Address) (City,...

  6. 52. A VIEW OF W.J. MILLER SAWMILL, LOOKING WEST TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. A VIEW OF W.J. MILLER SAWMILL, LOOKING WEST TO EAST, AND SHOWING LOCATION OF BOILER HOUSE AND PLANER BUILDING BEFORE PLANER BUILDING AND BOILER HOUSE FOR HULL TO INCORPORATE INTO HIS SAWMILL COMPLETED IN 1939. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1934. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  7. Getting Back to the Main Point: A Reply to Miller et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2015-01-01

    Miller et al. have challenged the findings of our two previous studies, based largely on the assumption that our findings are biased due to the clinical sample used. However, they fail to address the primary tenet of our studies, namely, that clinicians will obtain different scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) depending on…

  8. A Tribute to Professor Rene H. Miller - A Pioneer in Aeromechanics and Rotary Wing Flight Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.; Johnson, Wayne; Scully, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Rene H. Miller (May 19, 1916 January 28, 2003), Emeritus H. N. Slater Professor of Flight Transportation, was one of the most influential pioneers in rotary wing aeromechanics as well as a visionary whose dream was the development of a tilt-rotor based short haul air transportation system. This paper pays a long overdue tribute to his memory and to his extraordinary contributions.

  9. Isolation and properties of a metalloproteinase from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Belozersky, M A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Voskoboynikova, N E

    1990-01-01

    A homogeneous preparation of metalloproteinase, purified 1000-fold, was obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds. The Mr of the enzyme, determined by SDS/PAGE, was 34,000 (it was 39,000 by gel chromatography). Its pH optimum was 8.0-8.2 with 13 S globulin, from buckwheat seeds, as substrate. Atomic-absorption spectroscopy revealed the presence of one Zn2+ ion per enzyme molecule. The enzyme was completely inhibited by EDTA (1 mM), zincone (1 mM) and 1, 10-phenanthroline (1 mM). The metalloproteinase performed limited proteolysis of the following seed storage proteins: 13 S globulin from buckwheat seeds and 11 S globulin from soybean (Glycine max) seeds. It hydrolysed three peptide bonds formed by the amino groups of Leu15, Tyr16 and Phe25 in the oxidized B-chain of insulin. In its main properties the enzyme is similar to metalloproteinases of animal and bacterial origin. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2268295

  10. W. D. Miller. The pioneer who laid the foundation for modern dental research.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2002-02-01

    Toothache has been the most ubiquitous ailment to plague mankind from time immemorial. Until the late 1700s, it was thought that the cause of this torment was the wriggling, in a carious tooth, of a worm. And early attempts at treatment were focused on driving the "worm" out. It was one of the world's greatest scientists, the dentist W. D. Miller, who, after extensive research, in 1891 published his epochal work, The Microorganisms of the Human Mouth, which set forth a new theory regarding the cause of dental caries. His postulating a "chemico-parasitic" origin of caries laid the basis for all the modern research in dentistry aimed at wiping this scourge out. Contemporary research has proven the worth of Miller's groundbreaking theory. PMID:11898270

  11. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  12. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  13. Nitrogen isotope fractionations in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and in the Miller-Urey reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, C.-C.; Clayton, R. N.; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen isotope fractionations have been measured in Fischer-Tropsch and Miller-Urey reactions in order to determine whether these processes can account for the large N-15/N-14 ratios found in organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites. Polymeric material formed in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction was enriched in N-15 by only 3 per mil relative to the starting material (NH3). The N-15 enrichment in polymers from the Miller-Urey reaction was 10-12 per mil. Both of these fractionations are small compared to the 80-90 per mil differences observed between enstatite chondrites and carbonaceous chondrites. These large differences are apparently due to temporal or spatial variations in the isotopic composition of nitrogen in the solar nebula, rather than to fractionation during the production of organic compounds.

  14. An unusual case of Miller Fisher syndrome presenting with proptosis and chemosis

    PubMed Central

    Waung, Maggie W.; Singer, Mike A.

    2012-01-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), a rare variant of Guillan-Barré syndrome, is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. In addition to this classic triad, symptoms may include bulbar palsy, weakness, and sensory loss. The anti-GQ1b IgG antibody is a sensitive and specific marker for MFS; it is found in more than 90% of affected patients. We describe an unusual case of MFS that presented with dramatic bilateral proptosis and chemosis. PMID:22499110

  15. Best Practices Case Study: John Wesley Miller Companies - Armory Park Del Sol, Tucson, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    Case study of John Wesley Miller Companies, who built two net zero energy homes plus 97 other solar homes in Tucson, AZ. Masonry block walls with rigid foam exterior sheathing, rigid foam over the roof deck plus R-38 in the attic, ducts in conditioned space, 4.2 kW and 5.7 kW photovoltaics and solar water heating yielded HERS scores of 0 on the two homes.

  16. Validation of the Graduate Record Examinations and the Miller Analogies Test in a Doctoral Program in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furst, Edward J.; Roelfs, Pamela J.

    1979-01-01

    The predictive validity of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) and the Miller Analogies Test (MAT) in a doctoral program in education was investigated. Results supported the use of the GRE but not the MAT. (Author/JKS)

  17. Inbreeding and genetic diversity analysis in a hatchery release population and clones of Rhopilema esculentum based on microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Mosang; Hu, Yulong; Wang, Weiji

    2016-07-01

    Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a hatchery release population of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomatidae). A total of 85 alleles were detected in 600 individuals. Within-population levels of observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity ranged from 0.152 to 0.839 (mean=0.464) and from 0.235 to 0.821 (mean=0.618), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.207 to 0.795 with an average of 0.580, indicating that the hatchery population maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Inbreeding levels were estimated in the hatchery population and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.203. This result revealed that a certain level of inbreeding occurred within the population. Meanwhile, we also determined genetic diversity at the clone level. Several polyps from the same scyphistomae were genotyped at the ten microsatellite loci and there was virtually no difference in their genotypes. Furthermore, we calculated the probabilities of exclusion. When both parents were known, the average exclusion probability of ten loci was 99.99%. Our data suggest that the ten microsatellite markers can not only be used to analyze the identity of individuals but they can also be applied to parentage identification. Our research provides a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic diversity detection and reasonable selection of R. esculentum hatchery populations. These findings support the use of releasing studies and conservation of R. esculentum germplasm resources.

  18. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects. PMID:27396192

  19. Effects of methyl jasmonate on accumulation of flavonoids in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Horbowicz, M; Wiczkowski, W; Koczkodaj, Danuta; Saniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    The jasmonates, which include jasmonic acid and its methyl ester (MJ), play a central role in regulating the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, and also are signaling molecules in environmental stresses. Synthesis of anthocyanins pigments is a final part of flavonoids pathway route. Accumulation of the pigments in young seedlings is stimulated by various environmental stresses, such as high-intensity light, wounding, pathogen attack, drought, sugar and nutrient deficiency. The anthocyanins take part in defense system against excess of light and UV-B light, and therefore it is probably main reason why young plant tissues accumulate enlarged levels of the pigments. The effects of exogenously applied MJ on level of anthocyanins, glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin and proanthocyanidins in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were studied. MJ decreased contents of all the found cyanidin glycosides and its aglycone in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. However contents of particular anthocyanins in cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings treated with the plant hormone were not significantly different from the control. Applied doses of MJ did not affect levels of quercetin, apigenin and luteolin glycosides in the analyzed parts of buckwheat seedlings: cotyledons and hypocotyls. On the other hand, treatment of buckwheat seedlings with MJ clearly stimulated of proanthocyanidins biosynthesis in hypocotyls. We suggest that methyl jasmonate induces in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings the leucocyanidin reductase or anthocyanidin reductase, possible enzymes in proanthocyanidins synthesis, and/or inhibits anthocyanidin synthase, which transforms leucocyanidin into cyanidin. According to our knowledge this is the first report regarding the effect of methyl jasmonate on enhancing the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in cultivated plants. PMID:21840829

  20. Morphology of Nectaries and Biology of Nectar Production in the Distylous Species Fagopyrum esculentum

    PubMed Central

    Cawoy, Valerie; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanisms of floral nectar production in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, Polygonaceae), a distylous pseudo-cereal, have received relatively little attention, prompting an investigation of the factors that regulate this process. The aim was to perform a refined study of the structures that secrete nectar and of the internal and external parameters influencing nectar volumes and sugar concentrations. Methods In order to control environmental parameters, plants were cultivated in growth rooms under controlled conditions. The structure of nectaries was studied based on histological sections from flowers and flower buds. Nectar was extracted using glass micropipettes and the sugar concentration was measured with a hand refractometer. Sugar concentration in the phloem sap was measured using the anthrone method. To test the influence of photosynthesis on nectar production, different light and defoliation treatments were applied. Key Results Unicellular trichomes were located in the epidermis at the ventral part of eight nectary glands situated on the flower receptacle alternately with stamens. Vascular bundles consisting of both phloem and xylem were identified at the boundary between a multilayered nectary parenchyma and a sub-nectary parenchyma with chloroplasts. A higher volume of nectar in thrum morphs was observed. No other difference was found in morphology or in sugar supply to inflorescences between morphs. Nectar secretion was strongly influenced by plant age and inflorescence position. Nectar volumes were higher in the upper inflorescences and during the flowering peak. Light had a dual role, (1) acting directly on reproductive structures to trigger flower opening, which conditions nectar secretion, and (2) stimulating photosynthetic activity, which regulates nectar accumulation in open flowers. Conclusions In buckwheat, nectar is secreted by trichomes and probably proceeds, at least in part, from phloem sap. Nectar secretion is

  1. Genetic diversity of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum in China based on AFLP analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Hongjin; Liu, Xiangquan; Zhang, Xijia; Jiang, Haibin; Wang, Jiying; Zhang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers were developed to assess the genetic variation of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomatidae). One hundred and seventy-nine loci from 56 individuals of two hatchery populations and two wild populations were genotyped with five primer combinations. The polymorphic ratio, Shannon's diversity index and average heterozygosity were 70.3%, 0.346 and 0.228 for the white hatchery population, 74.3%, 0.313, and 0.201 for the red hatchery population, 79.3%, 0.349, and 0.224 for the Jiangsu wild population, and 74.9%, 0.328 and 0.210 for the Penglai wild population, respectively. Thus, all populations had a relatively high level of genetic diversity. A specific band was identified that could separate the white from the red hatchery population. There was 84.85% genetic differentiation within populations. Individual cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) suggested that hatchery populations and wild populations could be divided. For the hatchery populations, the white and red populations clustered separately; however, for the wild populations, Penglai and Jiangsu populations clustered together. The genetic diversity at the clone level was also determined. Our data suggest that there are relatively high genetic diversities within populations but low genetic differentiation between populations, which may be related to the long-term use of germplasm resources from Jiangsu Province for artificial seeding and releasing. These findings will benefit the artificial seeding and conservation of the germplasm resources.

  2. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  3. Comparison of the clinical applicability of Miller's classification system to Kumar and Masamatti's classification system of gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Geeti; Puri, Komal; Bansal, Mansi; Jain, Deept; Khatri, Manish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of the present study were to (i) Find the percentage of recession cases that could be classified by application of Miller's and/or Kumar and Masamatti's classification of gingival recession, and (ii) compare the percentage of clinical applicability of Miller's criteria and Kumar and Masamatti's criteria to the total recessions present. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients (1089 recession cases) were included in the study wherein they were classified using both Miller's and Kumar and Masamatti's classification systems of gingival recession. Percentage comparison of the application of both classification systems was done. Results: Data analysis showed that though all the cases of the recession were classified by Kumar and Masamatti's classification, only 34.61% cases were classified by Miller's classification. 19.10% cases were completely (having only labial/buccal recession) classified. In 15.51% (out of 34.61%) cases, only buccal recession was classified according to Miller's criteria and included in this category, although these cases had both buccal and lingual/palatal recessions. Furthermore, 29.75% cases of recession with interdental loss and marginal tissue loss coronal to mucogingival junction (MGJ) remained uncategorized by Miller's classification; categorization of palatal/lingual recession was possible with Kumar and Masamatti's classification. Conclusion: The elaborative evaluation of both buccal and palatal/lingual recession by the Kumar and Masamatti's classification system can be used to overcome the limitations of Miller's classification system, especially the cases with interdental loss and having marginal tissue loss coronal to MGJ. PMID:26644724

  4. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  5. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity. PMID:26508401

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Defatted Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Flour in Water or Ethanol Heated using Microwave Irradiation at Varying Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has potential to be a nutritionally beneficial crop due to its high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. We explored new technologies to enhance buckwheat phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Buckwheat achenes were ground and flour was extracted for 15 ...

  7. Nest spacing, habitat selection, and behavior of waterfowl on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.; Duebbert, H.F.; Sharp, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The nesting behavior of a concentration of nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwalls (A. strepera) was studied on a 4.5-ha island in Miller Lake, North Dakota, in 1977. A single 0.59-ha clump of thick shrub contained 225 simultaneously active mallard nests on 10 May. During the peak nesting period, mallard nests were spaced an average of 2.7 m from conspecifics. Active nests of all species peaked at 327, spaced an average of 2.1 m apart. Nests were clustered in thick shrub with moderate numbers in open shrub and few in grassland. Nest placement was significantly related to the amount of vegetative screening although mammalian predators were absent on the island. Cover density appeared to be important to the nesting hens as vegetation screened nests from potential avian predators and from harassment by other conspecific nesting hens and drakes. Mallards and gadwalls nesting on this island used wetlands in >100 km2 around Miller Lake. During daylight hours in late April 1978, an average of 4.9 mallards/minute arrived at the island; a peak of 17.2 mallards/minute arrived at 0800. In late April 1978, as many as 26 mallard pairs/ha occurred on favored wetlands and behavioral aggression was intense. Yet, most mallard hens maintained adequate space to acquire food and other requisites. Mallards and gadwalls were sufficiently adaptable to successfully exploit the Miller Lake island and environments that resulted in high reproductive success. Other local breeding Anatidae because of behavioral constraints were unable to exploit the same situation.

  8. A neurophysiological study in children with Miller Fisher syndrome and Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wong, V

    1997-04-01

    Serial neurophysiological studies were performed in four children with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) (n = 2) and Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) (n = 2) to delineate the extent of subclinical neurological involvement. Nerve conduction study showed radiculo-neuropathy in both MFS and GBS. Somatosensory evoked potential study showed evidence of peripheral and central involvement of the neural pathway in both. Brainstem auditory evoked potential study showed peripheral auditory and brainstem involvement in MFS but was normal in GBS. This study provides neurophysiological evidence that MFS and GBS might possibly belong to the clinical spectrum of encephalo-myclo-radiculo-neuropathy (EMRN) with different extent of central and peripheral involvement. PMID:9134191

  9. Burton-Miller-type singular boundary method for acoustic radiation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhuo-Jia; Chen, Wen; Gu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes the singular boundary method (SBM) in conjunction with Burton and Miller's formulation for acoustic radiation and scattering. The SBM is a strong-form collocation boundary discretization technique using the singular fundamental solutions, which is mathematically simple, easy-to-program, meshless and introduces the concept of source intensity factors (SIFs) to eliminate the singularities of the fundamental solutions. Therefore, it avoids singular numerical integrals in the boundary element method (BEM) and circumvents the troublesome placement of the fictitious boundary in the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). In the present method, we derive the SIFs of exterior Helmholtz equation by means of the SIFs of exterior Laplace equation owing to the same order of singularities between the Laplace and Helmholtz fundamental solutions. In conjunction with the Burton-Miller formulation, the SBM enhances the quality of the solution, particularly in the vicinity of the corresponding interior eigenfrequencies. Numerical illustrations demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the present scheme on some benchmark examples under 2D and 3D unbounded domains in comparison with the analytical solutions, the boundary element solutions and Dirichlet-to-Neumann finite element solutions.

  10. A comparison of the Miller laryngoscope versus the prototype neonatal offset-blade laryngoscope in a manikin.

    PubMed

    Doreswamy, S M; Fusch, C; Selvaganapathy, R; Matharoo, H; Shivananda, S

    2016-03-01

    Laryngoscope blades used to intubate newborn babies are relatively bulky and frequently exert high pressure on the upper jaw. We tested a prototype neonatal offset-blade laryngoscope (NOBL) developed to overcome these limitations. Our aims were to compare the pressure on the upper jaw exerted by a size 0 Miller laryngoscope and the NOBL on a neonatal manikin, as well as the time taken to intubate the trachea and the area of view of the larynx. Twenty healthcare professionals with more than five years of experience in neonatal intensive care took part; the findings were assessed using pressure-sensitive film and photographs. High-pressure indentation occurred in 17 (85%) attempts using the Miller versus 1 (5%) using the NOBL (p = 0.0001). The median (IQR [range]) pressure exerted with the Miller laryngoscope was 455 (350-526 [75-650]) kPa vs 80 (0-133 [0-195]) kPa with the NOBL (p < 0.0001). The area of pressure exerted with the Miller laryngoscope was 68 (32-82 [0-110]) mm(2) vs 8 (0-23 [0-40]) mm(2) with the NOBL (p < 0.0001). The time to intubate was 8.3 (7.3-10.1[4-19]) s for the Miller and 8.0 (5.6-9.6 [4-13.5]) s for the NOBL (p < 0.0001). The area of view blocked by the Miller laryngoscope was 38% of the oral orifice versus 12% with the NOBL. We conclude that the NOBL significantly reduced undesired pressure on the upper jaw during tracheal intubation and improved the view of the larynx compared with a conventional laryngoscope. PMID:26685066

  11. Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Muir, Christopher D; Pease, James B; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL sign test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not share a common genetic basis, consistent with a scenario in which selection maintains trait covariation unconstrained by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium. Two large effect QTL for stomatal distribution colocalized with key genes in the stomatal development pathway, suggesting promising candidates for the molecular bases of adaptation in these species. Furthermore, macroevolutionary transitions between vastly different stomatal distributions may not be constrained when such large-effect mutations are available. Finally, genetic correlations between stomatal traits measured in this study and data on carbon isotope discrimination from the same ILs support a functional hypothesis that the distribution of stomata affects the resistance to CO2 diffusion inside the leaf, a trait implicated in climatic adaptation in wild tomatoes. Along with evidence from previous comparative and experimental studies, this analysis indicates that leaf traits are an important component of climatic niche adaptation in wild tomatoes and demonstrates that some trait transitions between species could have involved few, large-effect genetic changes, allowing rapid responses to new environmental conditions. PMID:25298519

  12. Antihypertensive Effect of Long-Term Oral Administration of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Collagen Peptides on Renovascular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p < 0.05), compared with model control group. However, the arterial blood pressure of normal rats showed no significant changes during long-term oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs’ kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP. PMID:22412809

  13. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    PubMed

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants. PMID:24679794

  14. Closeout of IE Bulletin 83-07: Apparently fraudulent products sold by Ray Miller, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A. )

    1991-03-01

    Documentation is provided in this report for the closeout of IE Bulletin 83-07 regarding apparently fraudulent products sold by Ray Miller, Inc., to nuclear power and fuel facilities. The bulletin and two supplements were issued to all holders of nuclear power reactor or fuel facility operating licenses or construction permits. Four actions were required of all affected facilities to provide assurance that fraudulent items are not used in safety-related applications, unless qualified by tests. Review of utility responses and NRC/Region inspection reports shows that the bulletin is closed for all of the 118 power facilities and for the two fuel facilities to which it was issued for action. Facilities where were shut down or had construction halted indefinitely or permanently at the time of issuance of this report are not included. It is concluded that all bulletin concerns have been resolved.

  15. Operations Manager Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). He was the AIRSAR operations manager for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The AIRSAR produces imaging data for a range of studies conducted by the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  16. Miller-Fisher Syndrome: Are Anti-GAD Antibodies Implicated in Its Pathophysiology?

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannopoulos, Sotirios; Theodoridou, Varvara; Argyropoulou, Ourania; Bostantjopoulou, Sevasti

    2016-01-01

    Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) is considered as a variant of the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and its characteristic clinical features are ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. Typically, it is associated with anti-GQ1b antibodies; however, a significant percentage (>10%) of these patients are seronegative. Here, we report a 67-year-old female patient who presented with the typical clinical features of MFS. Workup revealed antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in relatively high titers while GQ1b antibodies were negative. Neurological improvement was observed after intravenous gamma globulin and follow-up examinations showed a continuous clinical amelioration with simultaneous decline of anti-GAD levels which finally returned to normal values. This case indicates that anti-GAD antibodies may be associated with a broader clinical spectrum and future studies in GQ1b-seronegative patients could determine ultimately their clinical and pathogenetic significance in this syndrome. PMID:27239355

  17. Cerebral infarction 3 weeks after intravenous immunoglobulin for Miller Fisher syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intravenous immunoglobulin is considered generally safe and is used widely as proven, and sometimes empiric, treatment for an expanding list of autoimmune diseases. Thromboembolic complications following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are rare and there have been only five previous reports of stroke occurring within 2 to 10 days of infusion. This is the first report of cerebral infarction occurring after a longer latency of 3 weeks following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient presenting with Miller Fisher syndrome. Case presentation A previously well, 44-year-old Sri Lankan man progressively developed ophthalmoplegia, facial paralysis, ataxia and areflexia with neurophysiological and cerebrospinal fluid evidence consistent with the Miller Fisher syndrome. He made an unremarkable recovery with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (0.4g/kg/day for 5 days, total 180g), but developed a cerebral infarct with haemorrhagic transformation 25 days later. He was noted to have a low blood pressure. Extensive investigations ruled out vasculopathic, embolic, thrombophilic and inflammatory aetiologies. Circulating intravenous immunoglobulins combined with a low blood pressure was considered the most probable cause of his stroke. Conclusions Cerebral infarction following intravenous immunoglobulin is thought to be secondary to hyperviscosity, thromboemboli, vasculitis, or cerebral vasospasm and reported to occur after a short latency when the immunoglobulin load is highest. Even though the immunoglobulin load is halved by 3 weeks, our case suggests that that the predisposition to thromboembolism persists over a longer period and may result in vascular complications if synergised with other vascular risk factors. It is recommended that intravenous immunoglobulin be infused at a rate of not less than 8 hours per day and that factors predisposing to thromboembolism such as dehydration, immobilisation and low blood pressure be avoided for the duration of

  18. The Effects of Baker-Miller Pink on Physiological and Cognitive Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed and Regular Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Fourteen emotionally disturbed junior high students and 16 regular education students were exposed to 2 experimental conditions with white and Baker-Miller pink visual stimuli. Analysis revealed significant differences on systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not on pulse, grip strength, nor the Digit-Symbol test of the Wechsler Adult…

  19. A Short Study on the Validity of Miller's Theorem Applied to Transistor Amplifier High-Frequency Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, T. F., Jr.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Miller's Theorem in the determination of the high-frequency cutoff frequency of transistor amplifiers was recently challenged by a paper published in this TRANSACTIONS. Unfortunately, that paper provided no simulation or experimental results to bring credence to the challenge or to validate the alternate method of determination…

  20. 77 FR 62238 - Alan B. Miller and Universal Health Services; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Alan B. Miller and Universal Health Services; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid... practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the... following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent agreement, and the...

  1. Detection Strategies for Malingering with the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Its Underlying Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitacco, Michael J.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Rogers, Richard; Neumann, Craig S.; Miller, Holly A.; Gabel, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Two of the most widely used measures for the assessment of malingering in forensic populations are the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). The underlying dimensions of the SIRS have been well established in the literature, but the structure of the M-FAST remains relatively…

  2. Miller-Unruh Reading Center: The Comparison of Progress in Reading with Second and Third Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mildred C.

    The study reported was designed to test the hypothesis that no difference in reading achievement scores of second and third grade children requiring remediation would result between Ss receiving both regular classroom and Miller-Unruh Reading Center instruction and Ss receiving classroom instruction only. Reading Center instruction took a…

  3. Supercritical fluid extract of Lycium chinense Miller root inhibition of melanin production and its potential mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The mode of action of Lycium chinense Miller root extract in skin care has never been explored. In the present study, Lycium chinense Miller root was extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method. Methods In the present study, the components of the root extract were analyzed by HPLC. The effects of the extract on tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically; the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by Western blotting; the possible signaling pathways involved in the root extract-mediated depigmentation were also investigated using specific inhibitors. Results The results revealed that the SFE of Lycium chinense Miller root (2.37-7.11 mg/mL) effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreased the melanin content in B16F10 cells. The root extract also effectively decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Furthermore, the root extract decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The root extract also showed antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular ROS. Conclusions Our results indicate that the SFE of Lycium chinense Miller root inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by down-regulation of both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways or through its antioxidant properties. PMID:24972978

  4. Comparative sequencing in the genus Lycopersicon. Implications for the evolution of fruit size in the domestication of cultivated tomatoes.

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, T Clint; Tanksley, Steven D

    2002-01-01

    Sequence variation was sampled in cultivated and related wild forms of tomato at fw2.2--a fruit weight QTL key to the evolution of domesticated tomatoes. Variation at fw2.2 was contrasted with variation at four other loci not involved in fruit weight determination. Several conclusions could be reached: (1) Fruit weight variation attributable to fw2.2 is not caused by variation in the FW2.2 protein sequence; more likely, it is due to transcriptional variation associated with one or more of eight nucleotide changes unique to the promoter of large-fruit alleles; (2) fw2.2 and loci not involved in fruit weight have not evolved at distinguishably different rates in cultivated and wild tomatoes, despite the fact that fw2.2 was likely a target of selection during domestication; (3) molecular-clock-based estimates suggest that the large-fruit allele of fw2.2, now fixed in most cultivated tomatoes, arose in tomato germplasm long before domestication; (4) extant accessions of L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, the subspecies thought to be the most likely wild ancestor of domesticated tomatoes, appear to be an admixture of wild and cultivated tomatoes rather than a transitional step from wild to domesticated tomatoes; and (5) despite the fact that cerasiforme accessions are polymorphic for large- and small-fruit alleles at fw2.2, no significant association was detected between fruit size and fw2.2 genotypes in the subspecies--as tested by association genetic studies in the relatively small sample studied--suggesting the role of other fruit weight QTL in fruit weight variation in cerasiforme. PMID:12242247

  5. Mrs. Miller's Evolution in Teaching Science as Inquiry: A Case Study of a Teacher's Change in Responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    Calls for reform-based science instruction have highlighted inquiry as a critical component in science education (e.g. National Research Council [NRC], 1996, 2000, 2007). To date, there has been little research describing how teachers' classroom practice changes as they implement inquiry-based instruction. This study characterizes how an experienced elementary school teacher changed with respect to her responsiveness to student thinking (i.e. the degree to which she followed up on her students' ideas) as she implemented three iterations of an inquiry-based module on the water cycle. This research was guided by two overarching questions: (1) How can a teacher's responsiveness to student thinking be characterized?; and (2) How does one teacher, Mrs. Miller, change with respect to her responsiveness to her students' thinking over the course of three iterations of an inquiry-based module? In order to answer these questions, two distinct, yet complementary, methods of analysis were used. Method 1. Discourse analysis of classroom dialogue led to the operationalization of the "redirection." Redirections are teacher bids to "redirect" students' attention from one locus to another and reflect differing degrees of responsiveness, according to the degree to which the teacher takes up students' ideas. Initial quantitative analyses of Mrs. Miller's redirections showed that while she did change in her responsiveness to student thinking, the change was not linear. When Mrs. Miller's highly responsive redirections were analyzed, however, she seemed more likely to use highly responsive redirections to perpetuate students' potentially productive ideas during Implementation 2 and especially during Implementation 3. Such results suggested that Mrs. Miller grew in responsiveness over time. Method 2. Phenomenological analyses of Mrs. Miller's practice provided further support of her increased responsiveness to student thinking. Mrs. Miller seemed more willing to encourage students

  6. Inhibition of volatile compounds derived from fatty acid oxygenation with chilling and heating treatments and their influences on the oxylipin pathawy gene expression and enzyme activity levels in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexanal, Z-3-hexenal, E-2-hexenal, hexanol and Z-3-hexenol are major tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon) volatile aromas derived from oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Chilling or heating treatments suppress production of these C6 volatiles. The objective of this research was to determine the respon...

  7. Metabolomic analysis and differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in white- and red-flowered buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Soo-Yun; Thwe, Aye Aye; Seo, Jeong Min; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2013-11-01

    Red-flowered buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is used in the production of tea, juice, and alcohols after the detoxification of fagopyrin. In order to investigate the metabolomics and regulatory of anthocyanin production in red-flowered (Gan-Chao) and white-flowered (Tanno) buckwheat cultivars, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted. The transcriptions of FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeF3H, FeANS, and FeDFR increased gradually from flowering stage 1 and reached their highest peaks at flowering stage 3 in Gan-Chao flower. In total 44 metabolites, 18 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 7 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine were detected in Gan-Chao flowers. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified in Gan-Chao cultivar. The first component of the partial least-squares to latent structures-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that high amounts of phenolic, shikimic, and pyruvic acids were present in Gan-Chao. We suggest that transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanin contents, and metabolites have correlation in the red-flowered buckwheat Gan-Chao flowers. Our results may be helpful to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-flowered buckwheat. PMID:24083509

  8. Purification, molecular cloning and functional characterization of flavonoid C-glucosyltransferases from Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Yoshihisa; Usui, Shiori; Ito, Takamitsu; Kato, Akira; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2014-11-01

    C-Glycosides are characterized by their C-C bonds in which the anomeric carbon of the sugar moieties is directly bound to the carbon atom of aglycon. C-Glycosides are remarkably stable, as their C-C bonds are resistant to glycosidase or acid hydrolysis. A variety of plant species are known to accumulate C-glycosylflavonoids; however, the genes encoding for enzymes that catalyze C-glycosylation of flavonoids have been identified only from Oryza sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize), and have not been identified from dicot plants. In this study, we identified the C-glucosyltransferase gene from the dicot plant Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat). We purified two isozymes from buckwheat seedlings that catalyze C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxyflavanones, which are expressed specifically in the cotyledon during seed germination. Following purification we isolated the cDNA corresponding to each isozyme [FeCGTa (UGT708C1) and FeCGTb (UGT708C2)]. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both proteins demonstrated C-glucosylation activity towards 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, trihydroxyacetophenones and other related compounds with chemical structures similar to 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of plant glycosyltransferases shows that flavonoid C-glycosyltransferases form a different clade with other functionally analyzed plant glycosyltransferases. PMID:25142187

  9. Karyological investigations and new chromosome number reports in Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Nadjat; Amirouche, Rachid; Amirouche, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyological investigations were carried out on four species of Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) sampled in contrasting bioclimatic conditions of Algeria. The endemic Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel, 1874 was found to have a tetraploid cytotype 2n = 4x = 16 and an octoploid 2n = 8x = 32 which is a new report. The chromosome number 2n = 2x = 18 in Muscari comosum (Linnaeus, 1753) Miller, 1768 and Muscari maritimum Desfontaines, 1798 was in conformity with earlier reports. The latter species reveals a lesser bimodality of the karyotype. Within Muscari neglectum Gussone ex Tenore, 1842 pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) and very rare octoploid cytotype (2n = 8x = 72) have been reported in Algeria. Principal component analysis performed on basis of karyotype parameters, showed a segregation of the different cytotypes. This study provides new karyological information, which is discussed in a taxonomic context. PMID:27186346

  10. Karyological investigations and new chromosome number reports in Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Nadjat; Amirouche, Rachid; Amirouche, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Karyological investigations were carried out on four species of Bellevalia Lapeyrouse, 1808 and Muscari Miller, 1758 (Asparagaceae) sampled in contrasting bioclimatic conditions of Algeria. The endemic Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel, 1874 was found to have a tetraploid cytotype 2n = 4x = 16 and an octoploid 2n = 8x = 32 which is a new report. The chromosome number 2n = 2x = 18 in Muscari comosum (Linnaeus, 1753) Miller, 1768 and Muscari maritimum Desfontaines, 1798 was in conformity with earlier reports. The latter species reveals a lesser bimodality of the karyotype. Within Muscari neglectum Gussone ex Tenore, 1842 pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54) and very rare octoploid cytotype (2n = 8x = 72) have been reported in Algeria. Principal component analysis performed on basis of karyotype parameters, showed a segregation of the different cytotypes. This study provides new karyological information, which is discussed in a taxonomic context. PMID:27186346

  11. A case of Miller Fisher syndrome during preoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Yumiko; Ide, Yoshimi; Tajima, Shogo; Hosokawa, Yuko; Matsunuma, Ryoichi; Terada, Tatsuhiro; Waki, Michihiko; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Shiiya, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman with breast cancer received FEC treatment (5FU: 500 mg/m2, epirubicin: 100 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide: 500 mg/m2) every 3 weeks as preoperative chemotherapy. Fifteen days after her third cycle of FEC, she developed a cold. Diplopia occurred 4 days after developing the cold, and progressive paresthesia of the hands and weakness of the limbs occurred. She had ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and are flexia and was diagnosed with Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS). The cause of MFS during chemotherapy is believed to be caused by an immunological response to infection, or drug neurotoxicity. In our case, since the patient underwent an antecedent upper respiratory infection in the period of myelosuppression, her MFS was probably induced by the immunoreaction associated with this infection. Our patient underwent intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. After initiation of the treatment, her neurological symptoms improved, then, she received a fourth cycle of FEC and her remaining neurological symptoms did not worsen. Thus, we report a rare case of MFS developed in immunosuppression by chemotherapy and remind physicians of the alarming triad of MFS symptoms. PMID:26629243

  12. Compensation of the detector capacitance presented to charge-sensitive preamplifiers using the Miller effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Inyong; Kang, Taehoon; Wells, Byron T.; D'Aries, Lawrence J.; Hammig, Mark D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an integrated circuit design for a modified charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) that compensates for the effect of capacitance presented by nuclear radiation detectors and other sensors. For applications that require large area semiconductor detectors or for those semiconductor sensors derived from high permittivity materials such as PbSe, the detector capacitance can degrade the system gain and bandwidth of a front-end preamplifier, resulting in extended rise times and attenuated output voltage signals during pulse formation. In order to suppress the effect of sensor capacitance, we applied a bootstrap technique into a traditional CSA. The technique exploits the Miller effect by reducing the effective voltage difference between the two sides of a radiation detector which minimizes the capacitance presented to the differential common-source amplifier. This new configuration is successfully designed to produce effective gain even at high detector capacitance. The entire circuit, including a core CSA with feedback components and a bootstrap amplifier, are implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process with a 3.3 V supply voltage.

  13. Composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of some Acinos Miller species.

    PubMed

    Golubović, Tatjana; Palić, Radosav; Kitić, Dusanka; Stojanović, Gordana; Zlatković, Bojan; Ristić, Mihailo; Pavlović, Dragana

    2014-05-01

    GC and GC/MS analyses of the methanol extracts obtained from the aerial parts of six Acinos Miller species from Serbia and Montenegro were performed. Seventy-four constituents, accounting for 84.9-99.0% of the total composition of the extracts, were identified. The common feature of the A. suaveolens, A. majoranifolius and A. alpinus methanol extracts was the high content of monoterpenes, while the common feature of the A. graveolens, A. arvensis and A. hungaricus methanol extracts was the prevalence of sesquiterpenes. The total flavonoids, polyphenols and tannins content, as well as antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH assay) of the methanolic extracts were investigated. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the extract of A. alpinus which had high levels of all polyphenol classes examined. A disk diffusion method was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium pyogenes, Enterococcus sp., Micrococcus flavus, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli; fungi: Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The preliminary bioassay results indicated that the methanol extract of A. alpinus could be a possible source of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. PMID:25026735

  14. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Irailton Prazeres; da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Araújo, Janete Magali; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller, a medicinal plant found in Brazil which is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Among 65 endophytic fungi isolated, 18 fungi showed activity against at least one tested microorganism in preliminary screening, and the best results were obtained with Nigrospora sphaerica (URM-6060) and Pestalotiopsis maculans (URM-6061). After fermentation in liquid media and in semisolid media, only N. sphaerica demonstrated antibacterial activity (in Potato Dextrose Broth-PDB and in semisolid rice culture medium). In the next step, a methanolic extract from rice culture medium (NsME) and an ethyl acetate extract (NsEAE) from the supernatant of PDB were prepared and both exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The best result was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, for NsME and MIC and MBC values of 0.39 mg/mL and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively, for NsEAE. This study is the first report about the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi residing in I. suffruticosa leaves, in which the fungus N. sphaerica demonstrated the ability to produce bioactive agents with pharmaceutical potential, and may provide a new lead in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug candidates. PMID:25999918

  15. On the Miller-Tucker-Zemlin Based Formulations for the Distance Constrained Vehicle Routing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Imdat

    2010-11-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), is an extension of the well known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and has many practical applications in the fields of distribution and logistics. When the VRP consists of distance based constraints it is called Distance Constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (DVRP). However, the literature addressing on the DVRP is scarce. In this paper, existing two-indexed integer programming formulations, having Miller-Tucker-Zemlin based subtour elimination constraints, are reviewed. Existing formulations are simplified and obtained formulation is presented as formulation F1. It is shown that, the distance bounding constraints of the formulation F1, may not generate the distance traveled up to the related node. To do this, we redefine the auxiliary variables of the formulation and propose second formulation F2 with new and easy to use distance bounding constraints. Adaptation of the second formulation to the cases where new restrictions such as minimal distance traveled by each vehicle or other objectives such as minimizing the longest distance traveled is discussed.

  16. Miller Fisher Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Heterogeneity of Clinical Features and Focused Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Randall Z; Kaminskas, David A; Zagorski, Natalia M; Liow, Kore K

    2016-01-01

    Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a rare variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) that has a geographically variable incidence. It is largely a clinical diagnosis based on the cardinal clinical features of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia, however, other neurological signs and symptoms may also be present. Serological confirmation with the anti-GQ1b antibody is available and allows for greater diagnostic certainty in the face of confounding symptoms. A self-limiting course is typical of MFS. The following case report is that of a patient who presented with generalized weakness, somatic pain, inability to walk, and diplopia following an upper respiratory illness. The patient exhibited the classic triad of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia characteristic of MFS, but also had less typical signs and symptoms making for a more challenging diagnostic workup. Our suspected diagnosis of MFS was serologically confirmed with positive anti-GQ1b antibody titer and the patient was successfully treated with Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). PMID:27437164

  17. Amino Acids Generated from Hydrated Titan Tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey Electric Discharge Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. James, II; Neish, Catherine; Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Eric; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed tholins) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FDToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU) type electric discharge reactions. We find that most of the amino acids detected in low temperature MU CH4N2H2O electric discharge reactions are generated in Titan simulation reactions, as well as in previous simulations of Triton chemistry. This argues that many processes provide very similar mixtures of amino acids, and possibly other types of organic compounds, in disparate environments, regardless of the order of hydration. Although it is unknown how life began, it is likely that given reducing conditions, similar materials were available throughout the early Solar System and throughout the universe to facilitate chemical evolution.

  18. Miller Fisher Syndrome: A Case Report Highlighting Heterogeneity of Clinical Features and Focused Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yepishin, Ilya V; Allison, Randall Z; Kaminskas, David A; Zagorski, Natalia M; Liow, Kore K

    2016-07-01

    Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a rare variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) that has a geographically variable incidence. It is largely a clinical diagnosis based on the cardinal clinical features of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia, however, other neurological signs and symptoms may also be present. Serological confirmation with the anti-GQ1b antibody is available and allows for greater diagnostic certainty in the face of confounding symptoms. A self-limiting course is typical of MFS. The following case report is that of a patient who presented with generalized weakness, somatic pain, inability to walk, and diplopia following an upper respiratory illness. The patient exhibited the classic triad of ataxia, areflexia, and opthalmoplegia characteristic of MFS, but also had less typical signs and symptoms making for a more challenging diagnostic workup. Our suspected diagnosis of MFS was serologically confirmed with positive anti-GQ1b antibody titer and the patient was successfully treated with Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). PMID:27437164

  19. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats. PMID:25891093

  20. Optimizing the Betts-Miller-Janjic cumulus parameterization with Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-10-01

    The schemes of cumulus parameterization are responsible for the sub-grid-scale effects of convective and/or shallow clouds, and intended to represent vertical fluxes due to unresolved updrafts and downdrafts and compensating motion outside the clouds. Some schemes additionally provide cloud and precipitation field tendencies in the convective column, and momentum tendencies due to convective transport of momentum. The schemes all provide the convective component of surface rainfall. Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) is one scheme to fulfill such purposes in the weather research and forecast (WRF) model. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) has tried to optimize the BMJ scheme for operational application. As there are no interactions among horizontal grid points, this scheme is very suitable for parallel computation. With the advantage of Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture, efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials, it allows us to optimize the BMJ scheme. If compared to the original code respectively running on one CPU socket (eight cores) and on one CPU core with Intel Xeon E5-2670, the MIC-based optimization of this scheme running on Xeon Phi coprocessor 7120P improves the performance by 2.4x and 17.0x, respectively.

  1. Miller Fisher syndrome: brief overview and update with a focus on electrophysiological findings.

    PubMed

    Arányi, Z; Kovács, T; Sipos, I; Bereczki, D

    2012-01-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), a variant of the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. The annual incidence is around one patient per one million population. The antiganglioside anti-GQ1b IgG antibody has a role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, especially of ophthalmoplegia. The presence of this antibody in the serum can be identified in over 80% of the patients, peaking in the first week, whereas albuminocytological dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) appears later. The most consistent electrophysiological findings in MFS are reduced sensory nerve action potentials and absent H reflexes. More variability is seen with F waves and various investigations involving cranial structures. Although there are usually no abnormalities in MFS by routine neuroimaging, in a few cases, contrast enhancement of nerve roots and signs of central nervous system involvement were described supporting the hypothesis of an anti-GQ1b-syndrome, a continuum involving GBS, MFS, and Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. Owing to the lack of randomized trials, treatments used for GBS (intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis) are usually applied, although from retrospective analyses, the outcome was similar between treated and untreated subjects. The outcome of MFS is usually good with case fatality of < 5%. In the few autopsy cases, macroscopic abnormalities were generally not seen in the nervous system. Microscopic examination of the peripheral nervous system (including cranial nerves) showed segmental demyelination with minimal perivascular infiltration with normal spinal cord and brain stem. PMID:21631649

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Tunisian quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) pulp and peel polyphenolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Fattouch, Sami; Caboni, Pierluigi; Coroneo, Valentina; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Angioni, Alberto; Dessi, Sandro; Marzouki, Nejib; Cabras, Paolo

    2007-02-01

    Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit aqueous acetone extracts were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry were used for the identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content of the pulp and peel parts ranged from 37 to 47 and 105 to 157 mg/100 g of fresh weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) was the most abundant phenolic compound in the pulp (37%), whereas rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside) was the main one in the peel (36%). The radical scavenging potential of the extracts was determined and compared with that of synthetic antioxidants. The stronger properties corresponded to those obtained from peel material with a 70-80% inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts against different microorganism strains was also investigated. Quince peel extract was the most active for inhibiting bacteria growth with minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations in the range of 102-5 x 103 microg polyphenol/mL. It seems that chlorogenic acid acts in synergism with other components of the extracts to exhibit their total antimicrobial activities. PMID:17263500

  3. Amino acids generated from hydrated Titan tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey electric discharge products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleaves, H. James; Neish, Catherine; Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Eric; Fernández, Facundo M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2014-07-01

    Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed ‘tholins’) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FD/ToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU) type electric discharge reactions. We find that most of the amino acids detected in low temperature MU CH4/N2/H2O electric discharge reactions are generated in Titan simulation reactions, as well as in previous simulations of Triton chemistry. This argues that many processes provide very similar mixtures of amino acids, and possibly other types of organic compounds, in disparate environments, regardless of the order of hydration. Although it is unknown how life began, it is likely that given reducing conditions, similar materials were available throughout the early Solar System and throughout the universe to facilitate chemical evolution.

  4. Nutritive evaluation of a non-conventional leafy vegetable (Pereskia aculeata Miller).

    PubMed

    Takeiti, Cristina Y; Antonio, Graziella C; Motta, Eliana M P; Collares-Queiroz, Fernanda P; Park, Kil J

    2009-01-01

    Pereskia aculeata Miller is a native cactus that can be found in Brazil and is called 'ora-pro-nobis' (OPN). Many people from poor communities consume the dark green leaves of OPN as a vegetable. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the nutritional components in terms of proximate composition, minerals, vitamins, protein content and their in vitro protein digestibility. OPN leaves showed remarkable levels of total dietary fiber (39.1% dry basis), minerals (calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc) and vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid). Among amino acids, tryptophan was the most abundant (20.5% of the total amino acids) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed small peptides, inferior to 6.5 kDa, and four major bands (61 kDa, 53 kDa, 33 kDa, and 15 kDa). The protein digestibility corrected amino acid score showed the lowest value of sulfur-amino acids (Met+Cys). OPN leaves could be considered a good source of minerals, vitamins and amino acids, and may serve as a potential functional ingredient. PMID:19468927

  5. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  6. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Irailton Prazeres; da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Araújo, Janete Magali; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller, a medicinal plant found in Brazil which is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Among 65 endophytic fungi isolated, 18 fungi showed activity against at least one tested microorganism in preliminary screening, and the best results were obtained with Nigrospora sphaerica (URM-6060) and Pestalotiopsis maculans (URM-6061). After fermentation in liquid media and in semisolid media, only N. sphaerica demonstrated antibacterial activity (in Potato Dextrose Broth-PDB and in semisolid rice culture medium). In the next step, a methanolic extract from rice culture medium (NsME) and an ethyl acetate extract (NsEAE) from the supernatant of PDB were prepared and both exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The best result was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, for NsME and MIC and MBC values of 0.39 mg/mL and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively, for NsEAE. This study is the first report about the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi residing in I. suffruticosa leaves, in which the fungus N. sphaerica demonstrated the ability to produce bioactive agents with pharmaceutical potential, and may provide a new lead in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug candidates. PMID:25999918

  7. Stratigraphy and depositional history of Coyote Creek-Miller Creek Trend, Lower Cretaceous Fall River formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ryer, T.A.; Gustason, E.R.

    1985-05-01

    The Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend produces high-gravity, low-sulfur oil from a series of Fall River fields in an area generally characterized by west-southwestward monoclinal dip. The trend includes, from south to north, the Coyote Creek South, Coyote Creek, Donkey Creek, Kummerfeld, and Miller Creek fields. The Wood and West Moorcroft fields produce oil from very similar Fall River traps located several miles east and northeast, respectively, of Miller Creek. Only Donkey Creek includes structural closure; all of the other fields produce from purely stratigraphic traps. The reservoir sandstones are characterized by upward-fining sequences. These sequences locally replace and are generally easily distinguishable from two regionally correlative upward-coarsening sequences. Analyses of cores and nearby outcrops indicate that the upward-fining sequences accumulated on point bars of a meandering river; the upward-coarsening sequences were deposited on the fronts of northwestward-prograding deltas. Detailed mapping of the fluvial and delta-front facies demonstrates that the Coyote Creek-Miller Creek trend, together with the Wood and West Moorcroft fields, represents a meander-belt system that was contemporaneous with the younger of the two delta-front units. Each of the stratigraphic-type fields occurs at a convexity along the eastern edge of the irregularly shaped meander belt; each consists of numerous point bars. Clay plugs, which resulted from infilling of abandoned meander loops, were preferentially preserved along the margins of the meander belt, where they now serve as updip permeability barriers between the oil-bearing fluvial and water-wet delta-front sandstones.

  8. Geomorphic changes on the Mississippi River flood plain at Miller City, Illinois, as a result of the flood of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    1997-01-01

    During the 1993 floods on the upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the most dramatic changes to floodplains occurred at levee-break complexes where large discharges were concentrated through narrow breaks in levees. Scour and deposition associated with levee breaks adversely affected large areas of formerly productive bottomland. This case study of the levee-break complex at Miller City, Illinois, documents the geomorphic effects of a typical levee-break complex.

  9. Measurement of the Gaponov-Miller force produced in vacuum by tightly focused intense femtosecond laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aseyev, S. A. Mironov, B. N.; Minogin, V. G.; Chekalin, S. V.

    2011-05-15

    A method for measuring the Gaponov-Miller force (GMF) is demonstrated based on the deflection of a picosecond photoelectron beam exposed to tightly focused intense femtosecond laser radiation. It is shown experimentally that the action of this force produced by femtosecond laser pulses linearly depends on their intensity. The method can be used to verify the correctness of measuring the duration of an ultrashort electron bunch based on the GMF.

  10. The Microcosm within: An interview with William B. Miller, Jr., on the Extended Hologenome theory of evolution.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tam

    2015-01-01

    There is a singular unifying reality underlying every biologic interaction on our planet. In immunology, that which does not kill you makes you different. -William B. Miller, Jr. We are experiencing a revolution in our understanding of inner space on a par with our exponentially increasing understanding of outer space. In biology, we are learning that the genetic and epigenetic complexity within organisms is far deeper than suspected. This is a key theme in William B. Miller Jr.'s book, The Microcosm Within: Evolution and Extinction in the Hologenome. We are learning also that a focus on the human genome alone is misleading when it comes to who we really are as biological entities, and in terms of how we and other creatures have evolved. Rather than being defined by the human genome alone, we are instead defined by the "hologenome," the sum of the human genome and the far larger genetic endowment of the microbiome and symbiotic communities that reside within and around us. Miller is a medical doctor previously in private practice in Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona. This book is his first foray into evolutionary theory. His book could have been titled "The Origin of Variation" because this is his primary focus. He accepts that natural selection plays a role in evolution, but he demotes this mechanism to a less important role than the Modern Synthesis suggests. His main gripe, however, concerns random variation. He argues that random variation is unable to explain the origin and evolution of biological forms that we see in the world around us and in the historical record. Miller suggests that, rather than random variation as the engine of novelty, there is a creative impulse at the heart of cellular life, and even at the level of the genetic aggregate, that generates novelty on a regular basis. I probe this assertion in the interview below. He also highlights the strong role of "exogenous genetic assault" in variation and in his immunological model of evolution

  11. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  12. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  13. Preliminary report on uranium deposits in the Miller Hill area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    A sequence of radioactive rocks of Miocene (?) age, the Browns Park formation, in the Miller Hill area of southern Wyoming is more than 1,000 feet thick. The formation crops out in an area of approximately 600 square miles, and consists of a basal conglomerate, tuffs, tuffaceous limy sandstones, and thin persistent radioactive algal limestones. Uranium is concentrated in both algal limestones and in tuffaceous limy sandstones. The uranium is believed to have been deposited. at least in part with the sediments, rather than to have come in at a later date. The highest uranium values were found in a widespread algal limestone bed, which contains as much as 0. 15 percent uranium. Values of 0.01 percent uranium or more were obtained from 8 samples taken from approximately 220 feet of stratigraphic section in the Browns Park formation. This is the first reported occurrence of limestone source rock from Wyoming that has been found to contain a commercial grade of uranium. The economic possibilities of the area have not been determined adequately and no estimates of tonnage are warranted at the present time. An airborne radiometric survey was made by the Geophysics Branch of the Geological Survey, of the west half of the area, recommended by the writer for investigation. Ground check of all anomalies reported at that time showed that they were in localities where the background radiation was much higher than average. Additional localities with high background radiation were found on the ground in the area east of that which was flown.

  14. Organic Analysis in the Miller Range 090657 CR2 Chondrite: Part 2 Amino Acid Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Cao, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Berger, E. L.; Messenger, S.; Clemett, S. J.; Aponte, J. C.; Elsila, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of organic material, ranging from soluble discrete molecules to insoluble, unstructured kerogen-like components, as well as structured nano-globules of macromolecular carbon. The relationship between the soluble organic molecules, macromolecular organic material, and host minerals are poorly understood. Due to the differences in extractability of soluble and insoluble organic materials, the analysis methods for each differ and are often performed independently. The combination of soluble and insoluble analyses, when performed concurrently, can provide a wider understanding of spatial distribution, and elemental, structural and isotopic composition of organic material in primitive meteorites. Using macroscale extraction and analysis techniques in combination with in situ microscale observation, we have been studying both insoluble and soluble organic material in the primitive CR2 chondrite Miller Range (MIL) 090657. In accompanying abstracts (Cao et al. and Messenger et al.) we discuss insoluble organic material in the samples. By performing the consortium studies, we aim to improve our understanding of the relationship between the meteorite minerals and the soluble and insoluble organic phases and to delineate which species formed within the meteorite and those that formed in nebular or presolar environments. In this abstract, we present the results of amino acid analyses of MIL 090657 by ultra performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Amino acids are of interest because they are essential to life on Earth, and because they are present in sufficient structural, enantiomeric and isotopic diversity to allow insights into early solar system chemical processes. Furthermore, these are among the most isotopically anomalous species, yet at least some fraction are thought to have formed by aqueously-mediated processes during parent body alteration.

  15. Experimental measurements of plasma properties for Miller SG-100 torch with Mach I setting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.L.T.; Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E. )

    1991-10-01

    In this work measurements of plasma properties, including the fields of temperature, velocity and plasma composition have been completed for the Miller SG-100 plasma torch using argon-helium mixtures with the Mach 1 nozzle at 1 atm pressure. A computer-controlled system combining both spectroscopic and enthalpy probe diagnostics has been developed to allow temperature measurements covering a range from 2000--16000K which includes the plasma flame region which is of interest. The experimental results expose the dominant effects in different spatial areas of argon-helium plasma jets. In the center near the nozzle exit the temperatures exceed 10,000K, and strong diffusion exists due to the steep radial gradients of temperature and particle number densities. In the jet tail region where the temperatures are well below 10,000K and decay in axial and radial direction, the dominant effects in this area are strong cold gas entrainment associated with turbulence. Substantial discrepancies between temperatures evaluated from spectroscopic and enthalpy probe data are particularly severe in the jet fringes indicating that strong deviations from LTE may exist in the jet fringes. In addition, entrainment of the cold surrounding gas into the plasma jet causes severe discrepancies between spectrometric and enthalpy probe data. The validity of the two diagnostic methods will be discussed. The temperature profiles in argon-helium plasma jets are flatter and wider, and the velocities are higher than in a pure argon plasma jet. These features of argon-helium plasma jets may be beneficial for obtaining better performance in the plasma spraying process. 26 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Pinus halepensis Miller growing in West Northern of Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Fekih, Nadia; Allali, Hocine; Merghache, Salima; Chaïb, Faïza; Merghache, Djamila; El Amine, Mohamed; Djabou, Nassim; Muselli, Alain; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find new bioactive natural products, the chemical composition and to sudy the antibacterial activity of essential oil components extracted from the aerial parts of the Algerian aromatic plant Pinus halepensis Miller (P. halepensis) (needles, twigs and buds). Methods The essential oil used in this study was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus according to the European Pharmacopoeia. The chemical composition was investigated using GC-retention indices (RI) and GC-MS. Results Forty-nine compounds, representing 97.9% of the total collective oil, were identified. Essential oil was dominated by hydrocarbon compounds (80.6%) especially monoterpenes (65.5%). The major compounds from ten oils stations were: myrcene (15.2%-32.0%), α-pinene (12.2%-24.5%), E-β-caryophyllene (7.0%-17.1%), terpinolene (1.8%-13.3%), 2-phenyl ethyl isovalerate (4.8%-10.9%), terpinene-4-ol (1.0%-8.2 %) and sabinene (1.5%-6.3%). The intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of P. halepensis aerial parts essential oils from ten Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Essential oil samples were clustered in 2 groups by hierarchical cluster analysis, according to their chemical composition. The essential oil revealed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Lysteria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions These results suggest that the essential oil from P. halepensis may be a new potential source as natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  17. Global transcriptome analysis of Al-induced genes in an Al-accumulating species, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-12-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a species with high aluminum (Al) tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for external and internal detoxification of Al have been well studied, the molecular mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-responsive genes in the roots and leaves using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. RNA-Seq generated reads ranging from 56×10(6) to 93×10(6). A total of 148,734 transcript contigs with an average length of 1,014 bp were assembled, generating 84,516 unigenes. Among them, 31,730 and 23,853 unigenes were annotated, respectively, in the NCBI plant database and TAIR database for Arabidopsis. Of the annotated genes, 4,067 genes in the roots and 2,663 genes in the leaves were up-regulated (>2-fold) by Al exposure, while 2,456 genes in the roots and 2,426 genes in the leaves were down-regulated (<2-fold) A few STOP1/ART1 (SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1/AL RESISTANCE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1)-regulated gene homologs including FeSTAR1, FeALS3 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3), FeALS1 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE1), FeMATE1 and FeMATE2 (MULTIDRUG AND TOXIC COMPOUND EXTRUSION1 and 2) were also up-regulated in buckwheat, indicating some common Al tolerance mechanism across the species, although most STOP1/ART1-regulated gene homologs were not changed. Most genes involved in citric and oxalic acid biosynthesis were not significantly altered. Some transporter genes were highly expressed in the roots and leaves and responded to Al stress, implicating their role in Al tolerance and accumulation. Overall, our data provide a platform for further characterizing the functions of genes involved in Al tolerance and accumulation in buckwheat. PMID:25273892

  18. Simulation of organic molecule formation in solar system environments-The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space project overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, J. Michelle; Ehrenfruend, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Blum, Jurgen; Schrapler, Rainer; van Dongen, Joost; Palmans, Anja; Sephton, Mark A.; Martins, Zita; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ricco, Antonio

    The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) investigates the formation of potential prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment. The MUE experiment will be sent to and retrieved from the International Space Station (ISS), where it will be performed inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The goal of this space experiment is to understand prebiotic reactions in microgravity by simulating environments of the early solar nebula. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, lightning, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. These environments will be simulated in six fabricated vials containing various gas mixtures as well as solid particles. Two gas mixture compositions will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The particles will move repeatedly through a high-voltage spark discharge in microgravity, enabling chemical re-actions analogous to the original Miller-Urey experiment. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of interme-diates, initial products, and their distributions. Executing the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur in forming planetary systems. Analysis will be performed post-flight using chemical analytical methods. The anticipated results will provide information about chemical reaction pathways to form organic compounds in space environment, emphasizing abiotic chemical pathways and mechanisms that could have been crucial in the formation of biologically relevant compounds such as amino acids and

  19. Element abundances, patterns, and mobility in Nakhlite Miller Range 03346 and implications for aqueous alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopar, Julie D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Velbel, Michael A.; Norman, Marc D.; Vicenzi, Edward P.; Hallis, Lydia J.

    2013-07-01

    Nakhlite Miller Range (MIL) 03346 contains many secondary phases resulting from aqueous processes, including formation of poorly crystalline iddingsite-like veins in olivine, the precipitation of Ca-sulfates and Fe,K-sulfates from evaporating fluids, alteration of titanomagnetite to secondary Fe-oxides, and the dissolution of magmatic Ca-phosphates and residual glass in the mesostasis. A surprising variety of alteration products occur in association with olivine in MIL 03346, including: patches of incipiently-altered olivine, large Si-enriched olivine-hosted veins (up to 10 μm across) some of which are complex in morphology and are composed of several phases, small Fe,S(±K)-rich veinlets that crosscut the Si-enriched veins, Ca-sulfates filling cracks in olivine, and secondary Ca-phosphates. Elemental abundances and distributions in these alteration products are consistent with the mobilization of elements from readily dissolved phases in the mesostasis such as phosphates and residual glass. Under favorable weathering conditions, these phases dissolve more readily than pyroxenes, plagioclase, and even olivine at low pH. The occurrence (crosscut and devolatilized by the fusion crust) and composition of Si-enriched alteration veins in olivine are consistent with their formation on Mars. Si-enriched, poorly crystalline alteration products and secondary Ca-sulfates commonly occur in nakhlites, but the habit and composition of these alteration products differ between meteorites. Elemental distributions in these secondary phases suggest at least two episodes of alteration have affected MIL 03346, and subtle differences in secondary minerals and chemistry indicate that each nakhlite experienced its own unique alteration history either on Mars, Earth, or both. The variable Al content and range of morphologies of the olivine-hosted Si-enriched veins suggest variable alteration conditions consistent with a water-limited regime. If the secondary phases in MIL 03346 can be

  20. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in Sideritis italica (Miller) Greuter et Burdet essential oils.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Senatore, Felice; Gargano, Rosalba; Sorbo, Sergio; Del Pezzo, Marisa; Lavitola, Alfredo; Ritieni, Alberto; Bruno, Maurizio; Spatuzzi, Daniela; Rigano, Daniela; Vuotto, Maria Luisa

    2006-09-19

    Sideritis italica (Miller) Greuter et Burdet is a widespread Lamiacea in the Mediterranean region used in traditional medicine. Essential oils were antibacterial against nine ATCC and as many clinically isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity was also found against Helicobacter pylori: a dose-dependant inhibition was shown between 5 and 25 microg/ml. The antibacterial activity of the oils was expressed as MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) and MBCs (minimum bactericidal concentrations). At a concentration between 3.9 and 250 microg/ml the oils showed a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In particular the ATCC strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=3.9 microg/ml and 7.8 for flowerheads and leaves, respectively), Proteus mirabilis (MIC=15.6 and 7.8 microg/ml), Salmonella typhi (MIC=7.8 microg/ml) and Proteus vulgaris (MIC=15.6 microg/ml) were the most inhibited. Only Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed MBC at a concentration between 62.6 and 125 microg/ml. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils was evaluated by two cell free colorimetric methods: ABTS and DMPD; leaf oil is more active (4.29 +/- 0.02 trolox equivalents and 4.53 +/- 0.67 ascorbic acid equivalents by ABTS and DMPD, respectively). Finally the antioxidant activity of the essential oils was also evaluated by their effects on human whole blood leukocytes (WB) and on isolated polymorphonucleate (PMN) chemiluminescence. Comparing the effects of the oils from leaves and flowerheads on both PMN and WB chemiluminescence emission, we found no significant differences. Essential oils showed a dose-dependent and linear inhibitory activity on isolated PMN as well as on WB CL emission when PMA-stimulated. On the contrary, the inhibitory activity on resting cells was nonlinear. Our data represent an answer to the continual demand for new antibiotics and antioxidants for the continuous emergence of antibiotic

  1. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Miller Hill area, Carbon county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 65 square miles northwest of Miller Hill, Carbon county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomalies shown on the accompanying map cannot be interpreted in terms of either the radioactive content or the extent of the source materials. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to uranium, or to thorium, or to a combination of uranium and thorium. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. Any particular anomaly

  2. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  3. The Microcosm within: An interview with William B. Miller, Jr., on the Extended Hologenome theory of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2015-01-01

    There is a singular unifying reality underlying every biologic interaction on our planet. In immunology, that which does not kill you makes you different. -William B. Miller, Jr. We are experiencing a revolution in our understanding of inner space on a par with our exponentially increasing understanding of outer space. In biology, we are learning that the genetic and epigenetic complexity within organisms is far deeper than suspected. This is a key theme in William B. Miller Jr.'s book, The Microcosm Within: Evolution and Extinction in the Hologenome. We are learning also that a focus on the human genome alone is misleading when it comes to who we really are as biological entities, and in terms of how we and other creatures have evolved. Rather than being defined by the human genome alone, we are instead defined by the “hologenome,” the sum of the human genome and the far larger genetic endowment of the microbiome and symbiotic communities that reside within and around us. Miller is a medical doctor previously in private practice in Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona. This book is his first foray into evolutionary theory. His book could have been titled “The Origin of Variation” because this is his primary focus. He accepts that natural selection plays a role in evolution, but he demotes this mechanism to a less important role than the Modern Synthesis suggests. His main gripe, however, concerns random variation. He argues that random variation is unable to explain the origin and evolution of biological forms that we see in the world around us and in the historical record. Miller suggests that, rather than random variation as the engine of novelty, there is a creative impulse at the heart of cellular life, and even at the level of the genetic aggregate, that generates novelty on a regular basis. I probe this assertion in the interview below. He also highlights the strong role of “exogenous genetic assault” in variation and in his immunological model of

  4. Miller-Urey and Beyond: What Have We Learned About Prebiotic Organic Synthesis Reactions in the Past 60 Years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.

    2013-05-01

    The synthesis of amino acids in the Miller-Urey spark-discharge experiments in the early 1950s inspired a strong interest in experimental studies of prebiotic organic chemistry that continues today. Over the years, many of the basic building blocks of life as we know it have been synthesized in the laboratory from simple ingredients, including amino acids, sugars, nucleobases, and membrane-forming lipids. Questions remain, however, concerning whether the conditions that allow synthesis of these compounds in the laboratory accurately simulate those that might have been present on the early Earth, and a closer convergence between plausible prebiotic conditions and laboratory simulations remains a challenge for experimentalists.

  5. Understanding the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway through observation of four color variants of developing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nanai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway regulatory mechanisms leading to lycopene accumulation are well defined in the model fruit, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation of other carotenoids and flesh colors, however, are poorly understood. The variety ...

  6. IMPROVED TOLERANCE TO ENVIRONMENTALLY INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESSES IN TRANSGENIC TOMATO OVEREXPRESSING ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effect on oxidative stress resistance of overexpressing, in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants, a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX) gene derived from pea (Pisum sativum). Transformants were selected using Kanamycin resistance and confirmed by PCR, Southern and Nort...

  7. Changes in free amino acid, chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolic, and glycoalkaloid content in tomatoes during 11 stages of growth, and inhibition of cervical, lung, and lymphoma human cancer cells by green tomato extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and secondary metabolites that benefit nutrition and human health. The concentrations of these compounds are strongly influenced by the maturity of the tomato fruit on the vine. Widely consumed Korean tomato variety Doturakwor...

  8. Free amino acid, protein, and phenolic content and antioxidative and cancer cell-inhibiting activities of extracts of 11 greenhouse-grown tomato varieties and 13 tomato-based foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds that benefit nutrition and human health. The nature and concentrations of these compounds are strongly influenced by the agronomic practices, environmental conditions, tomato size, and maturity of the fr...

  9. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    PubMed

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (P<0.05) the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH, and SOM; pod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost

  10. The formation of organic molecules in solar system environments: The Miller-Urey Experiment in Space preflight overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Martins, Z.; Ricco, A.; Blum, J.; Schraepler, R.; van Dongen, J.; Palmans, A.; Sephton, M.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Miller-Urey Experiment in space (MUE) will investigate the formation of prebiotic organic compounds in the early solar system environment when it is sent to, and later retrieved from, the International Space Station in 2012. The dynamic environment of the solar nebula with the simultaneous presence of gas, particles, and energetic processes, including shock waves, electrical discharges, and radiation may trigger a rich organic chemistry leading to organic molecules. Two gas mixture compositions (CH4, NH3, H2 and N2, H2, CO) will be tested and subjected to continuous spark discharges for 48, 96, and 192 hours. Silicate particles will serve as surfaces on which thin water ice mantles can accrete. The experiment will be performed at low temperatures (-5 °C), slowing hydrolysis and improving chances of detection of initial products, intermediates and their abundances. Conducting the Miller-Urey experiment in the space environment (microgravity) allows us to simulate conditions that could have prevailed in the low gravity, energetic early solar nebula and provides insights into the chemical pathways that may occur as planetary systems form.

  11. Primordial synthesis of amines and amino acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-rich spark discharge experiment.

    PubMed

    Parker, Eric T; Cleaves, Henderson J; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P; Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L

    2011-04-01

    Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H(2)S, CH(4), NH(3), and CO(2). A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordial environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H(2)S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H(2)S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments. PMID:21422282

  12. Primordial Synthesis of Amines and Amino Acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-Rich Spark Discharge Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H2S, CH4, NH3, and CO2. A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordia! environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H2S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H2S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments.

  13. Miller-Dieker syndrome due to maternal cryptic translocation t(10;17)(q26.3;p13.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Masuno, Mitsuo; Imaizumi, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Mihoko; Kuroki, Yoshikazu

    1995-12-04

    We report on a 3-month-old girl with Miller-Dieker syndrome resulting from a maternal full-cryptic translocation t(10;17)(q26.3;p13.3) detectable only by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Parental studies using FISH are crucial for genetic counselling in cases of Miller-Dieker syndrome with submicroscopic deletion at 17p13.3. In a family with a parental cryptic translocation and high recurrence risk, prenatal diagnosis using FISH is feasible. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Effect of 1-methylcycloprene on tomato flavour components, shelf life and decay as influenced by harvest maturity and storage temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For years there have been reports of consumer dissatisfaction with fresh market tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicon; formerly known as Lycopersicon esculentum). In Florida, tomatoes are harvested green (GR), which includes mature green (MG) and immature green (IG) fruit, gassed with ethylene and stored a...

  15. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. PMID:27295343

  16. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  17. Understanding the Larson-Miller parameter. [for extrapolating stress rupture and creep properties of steels and superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furillo, F. T.; Purushothaman, S.; Tien, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    The Larson-Miller (L-M) method of extrapolating stress rupture and creep results is based on the contention that the absolute temperature-compensated time function should have a unique value for a given material. This value should depend only on the applied stress level. The L-M method has been found satisfactory in the case of many steels and superalloys. The derivation of the L-M relation is discussed, taking into account a power law creep relationship considered by Dorn (1965) and Barrett et al. (1964), a correlation expression reported by Garofalo et al. (1961), and relations concerning the constant C. Attention is given to a verification of the validity of the considered derivation with the aid of suitable materials.

  18. Risk and efficacy of human-enabled interspecific hybridization for climate-change adaptation: Response to Hamilton and Miller (2016)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Luikart, Gordon; Lowe, Winsor H.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Miller (2016) provide an interesting and provocative discussion of how hybridization and introgression can promote evolutionary potential in the face of climate change. They argue that hybridization—mating between individuals from genetically distinct populations—can alleviate inbreeding depression and promote adaptive introgression and evolutionary rescue. We agree that deliberate intraspecific hybridization (mating between individuals of the same species) is an underused management tool for increasing fitness in inbred populations (i.e., genetic rescue; Frankham 2015; Whiteley et al. 2015). The potential risks and benefits of assisted gene flow have been discussed in the literature, and an emerging consensus suggests that mating between populations isolated for approximately 50–100 generations can benefit fitness, often with a minor risk of outbreeding depression (Frankham et al. 2011; Aitken & Whitlock 2013; Allendorf et al. 2013).

  19. An investigation into critical aspects of a new form of low energy lunar transfer, the Belbruno-Miller trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krish, V.; Belbruno, E. A.; Hollister, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper documents an integrated Belbruno-Miller (B-M) trajectory and its corresponding injection period. The B-M trajectories use Weak Stability Boundaries (WSB) resulting from four-body perturbative dynamics between the earth, moon, sun, and spacecraft to significantly reduce maneuver requirements for lunar transfer. It is determined that the presented nominal trajectory has a viable 4-day injection period considering maneuver constraints. The nominal B-M trajectory produces saving varying from 150 m/s to 222 m/s over traditional Hohmann means thus pointing to the practical utility of the WSB method. Energy savings are extracted at the price of extended flight time of approximately 6-months. Usefulness of this procedure was recently dramatized by the Japanese spacecraft Hiten when it arrived a the moon on October 2, 1991 following its entry into B-M trajectory on April 25, 1991.

  20. Electrochemical Measurement of the β-Galactosidase Reporter from Live Cells: A Comparison to the Miller Assay.

    PubMed

    Tschirhart, Tanya; Zhou, Xinyi Y; Ueda, Hana; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Kim, Eunkyoung; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2016-01-15

    In order to match our ability to conceive of and construct cells with enhanced function, we must concomitantly develop facile, real-time methods for elucidating performance. With these, new designs can be tested in silico and steps in construction incrementally validated. Electrochemical monitoring offers the above advantages largely because signal transduction stems from direct electron transfer, allowing for potentially quicker and more integrated measurements. One of the most common genetic reporters, β-galactosidase, can be measured both spectrophotometrically (Miller assay) and electrochemically. However, since the relationship between the two is not well understood, the electrochemical methods have not yet garnered the attention of biologists. With the aim of demonstrating the utility of an electrochemical measurement to the synthetic biology community, we created a genetic construct that interprets and reports (with β-galactosidase) on the concentration of the bacterial quorum sensing molecule autoinducer-2. In this work, we provide a correlation between electrochemical measurements and Miller Units. We show that the electrochemical assay works with both lysed and whole cells, allowing for the prediction of one from the other, and for continuous monitoring of cell response. We further present a conceptually simple and generalized mathematical model for cell-based β-galactosidase reporter systems that could aid in building and predicting a variety of synthetic biology constructs. This first-ever in-depth comparison and analysis aims to facilitate the use of electrochemical real-time monitoring in the field of synthetic biology as well as to facilitate the creation of constructs that can more easily communicate information to electronic systems. PMID:26542230

  1. The effect of quince leaf (Cydonia oblonga miller) decoction on testes in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Hamideh; Ghabili, Kamyar; Alihemmati, Alireza; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Aslanabadi, Saeid; Adl, Farzad Hami; Ghavimi, Hamed; Hajhosseini, Laleh

    2013-01-01

    Current medical literature lacks any evidence of the protective effects of quince leaf on testes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf decoction on testicular injury and impaired spermatogenesis induced by hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. Eleven mature New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (hypercholesterolemia, n=3), group 2 (hypercholesterolemia plus quince treatment, n=6), and group 3 (control, n=2). Groups 1 and 2 received a cholesterol-enriched diet for six weeks. Group 2 received C. oblonga leaf decoction as drinking supplement as well. After six weeks, a normal diet was substituted in groups 1 and 2 for another six weeks. Group 3 (control group) was maintained throughout the study on a regular diet. At the end of the 12(th) week, the left testes of the animals were resected for light microscopic study with particular attention to the maturity of germ cells in seminiferous tubules using Johnsen's score. Increase in intertubular connective tissue and diameter of vessels, abundant spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes along the reduced germinal epithelium were noted in all rabbits of the group 1. The remaining animals in groups 2 and 3 had no significant changes in their testicular sections. The mean Johnsen's score of group 1 (4.20 ± 1.92) was significantly lower than that of group 2 (7.33 ± 0.52) and group 3 (7.05 ± 0.07). (P=0.01). In conclusion, quince leaf decoction (C. oblonga Miller) protected rabbit testes and spermatogenesis from damage induced by hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24146451

  2. Comparison of Pentax-AWS Airwayscope, Airtraq and Miller laryngoscope for tracheal intubation by novice doctors during infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation simulation: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ueki, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Noriyasu; Nishi, Shin-ichi; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Tashiro, Chikara

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines for infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation emphasize that all rescuers should minimize interruption of chest compressions, even for endotracheal intubation. We compared the utility of the Pentax-AWS Airway Scope (AWS) with an infant-sized Intlock (AWS-I), Airtraq laryngoscope (ATQ) and Miller laryngoscope during chest compressions on an infant manikin. Twenty-three novice doctors performed tracheal intubation on an infant manikin using the AWS-I, ATQ and Miller laryngoscope, with or without chest compressions. In Miller laryngoscope trials, one participant failed to secure the airway without chest compressions, while nine failed with compressions (P < 0.05). In ATQ trials, none of the participants failed without compressions, while six failed with compressions (P < 0.05). In AWS-I trials, all participants succeeded regardless of chest compressions. Intubation time was significantly longer with chest compressions with the Miller laryngoscope and ATQ, but not with the AWS-I. The AWS-I is an effective device for endotracheal intubation during chest compressions in infant simulations managed by novice doctors. PMID:23568017

  3. Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-11-01

    The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits. PMID:23210222

  4. First report on Cydonia oblonga Miller anticancer potential: differential antiproliferative effect against human kidney and colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Márcia; Silva, Branca M; Silva, Renata; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Bastos, Maria L

    2010-03-24

    The present study reports the phenolic profile and antiproliferative properties of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf and fruit (pulp, peel, and seed) against human kidney and colon cancer cells. The phenolic profiles of quince methanolic extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD). 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid was always one of the two major phenolic compounds present in all extracts, except for seed. Our results revealed that quince leaf and fruit extracts exhibited distinctive antiproliferative activities. The extracts from quince leaf showed concentration-dependent growth inhibitory activity toward human colon cancer cells (IC(50) = 239.7 +/- 43.2 microg/mL), while no effect was observed in renal adenocarcinoma cells. Concerning the fruit, seed extracts exhibited no effect on colon cancer cell growth, whereas strong antiproliferative efficiency against renal cancer cells was observed for the highest concentration assayed (500 microg/mL). The antiproliferative activity of pulp and peel extracts was low or absent in the selected range of extract concentrations. This is the first report showing that C. oblonga may be useful as a cancer chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:20192210

  5. Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Angelo, Gismondi; Canuti, Lorena; Lorena, Canuti; Grispo, Marta; Marta, Grispo; Canini, Antonella; Antonella, Canini

    2014-01-01

    UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts. PMID:24372191

  6. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-136-1945, Miller Thermal Technologies, Inc. , Appleton, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C.E.; Tubbs, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    In response to a management request, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at Miller Thermal Technologies, Inc., Appleton, Wisconsin. Thermal arc spraying (TAS) was used at this facility to apply metal and plastic coatings to substrates. The maximum measured levels of actinic, visible, and infrared radiation measured at the thermal spray system were 22 microwatts/square centimeter (microW/sq cm), 16.7 candelas/sq cm, and 170 microW/sq cm, respectively. Octave band and weighted noise measurements indicated values in excess of 101 decibels-A during operation which indicated that exposure could last no more than 1 hour to be in compliance with NIOSH guidelines. Selected metal-fume samples indicated a potential for exposure to hazardous concentrations of nickel, chromium, and iron. The authors conclude that workers were exposed to potentially hazardous optical radiation, excessive noise levels, and concentrations of toxic metal fumes. The authors recommend the use of appropriate eye, respiratory, and hearing protective equipment. Recommendations are included concerning ventilation system improvements and emergency equipment provisions.

  7. Syndrome de Miller Fisher avec anticorps anti GQ1b négatif au cours d'une pneumonie à Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Sini, Victor; Tegueu, Calixte Kuate; Nguefack, Séraphin; Boone, Mathieu; Roos-Weil, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Le Syndrome de Miller Fisher est caractérisé par l'association d'une ophtalmoplégie, d'une ataxie et d'une aréflexie ostéo-tendineuse. Une infection virale est le plus souvent retrouvée dans les jours ou semaines qui précèdent la symptomatologie. Nous rapportons un cas de syndrome de Miller Fisher survenu chez une femme de 75 ans, et ce au décours d'une infection pulmonaire à Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Les sérologies virales habituelles étaient négatives. Les anticorps anti GQ1b étaient absents. Il n'y avait pas de lésion du tronc cérébral à l'imagerie par résonnance magnétique. L’évolution clinique était favorable après perfusion d'immunoglobulines humaines polyvalentes et des macrolides en comprimés. La sérologie Mycoplasma pneumoniae doit être systématiquement recherchée dans le bilan du syndrome de Miller Fisher. PMID:24255728

  8. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-12-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  9. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  10. Aqueous corrosion of olivine in the Mars meteorite Miller Range (MIL) 03346 during Antarctic weathering: Implications for water on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velbel, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Several nakhlites (clinopyroxenite meteorites from Mars) contain olivine phenocrysts with corrosion features identical in size, shape and distribution to the smaller etch-pits of well-characterized weathered terrestrial olivine. Miller Range (MIL) 03346 is an Antarctic nakhlite find, recovered after long exposure to Antarctic conditions. The distribution of discrete olivine etch-pits almost exclusively within a few hundred microns of allocation MIL 03346,171's documentably exposed surface suggests that they formed by terrestrial weathering in Antarctica. The small size of olivine etch-pits in MIL 03346,171 relative to commonly much larger etch-pits in even incipiently weathered terrestrial examples suggests that the duration of its exposure to weathering conditions was short, or the weathering conditions to which it was exposed did not favor olivine corrosion (in the form of etch-pit formation), or both. Time-scales for the formation of etch-pits, estimated from experimentally determined dissolution rates of olivine over a range of pHs, are comparable to the measured terrestrial age of the meteorite and short relative to the time available for possible similar corrosion on Mars. Etch-pits of the observed size on MIL 03346 olivine phenocrysts would be relatively easy to form supraglacially under brief episodic acidic Antarctic conditions, but the terrestrial age of MIL 03346 is long enough that its olivine might have been weathered to the observed state by englacial films of alkaline Antarctic water. The paucity of similar etch-pits in olivine from the interior of MIL 03346 suggests that olivine in this Mars meteorite was exposed to even less aqueous alteration after iddingsitization during its 1.3 billion years on Mars than its exterior was subjected to during its Pleistocene-Holocene exposure to Antarctic weathering conditions.

  11. Commentary to Gorelenkova Miller and Mieyal (2015): sulfhydryl-mediated redox signaling in inflammation: role in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masashi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Maeda, Masao; Tanaka, Natsuko; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Yoshinaga, Masafumi

    2016-04-01

    Gorelenkova Miller and Mieyal (Arch Toxicol 89(9): 1439-1467, 2015) recently published a review paper suggesting that reversible cysteine plays a key role in redox-linked signal transduction via alteration of protein function, resulting in an association with many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Following their suggestions, we considered the correlation between sulfhydryl-mediated redox signaling and neurodegenerative diseases by focusing on RET proteins, a protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) potentially sited upstream of the signal transduction cascade. c-RET is the receptor for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands. c-RET has been reported to be involved in not only Hirschsprung disease via development of the enteric nervous system but also neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We also showed that c-RET might be associated with hearing loss via neurodegeneration of spiral ganglion neurons in the inner ear after birth in mice and humans. Moreover, we have reported that three kinds of oxidative stress, ultraviolet light-induced stress, osmotic stress and arsenic-induced stress, modulate kinase activity of RET-PTC1 without an extracellular domain as well as c-RET by conformational change of RET protein (dimerization) via disulfide bond formation. The oxidative stresses also modulate kinase activity of RET-PTC1 with cysteine 365 (C365) replaced by alanine with promotion of dimer formation, but not with cysteine 376 (C376) replaced by alanine. Since C376 of Ret-PTC-1 or its equivalent is most highly conserved and crucial for activity in PTKs, the cysteine could be one of major targets for oxidative stresses. PMID:26780347

  12. A study of the effects of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Etemad, M; Mahzouni, P

    2012-04-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) from Rosaceae family is a fruit tree cultivated in many countries mainly in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of quince juice (QJ) and quince hydroalcoholic extract (QHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) in rats. Rats were grouped (n=6) and fasted for 36 h before colitis induction. TNBS was instilled into the colon with a hydroalcoholic carrier and then treatments were made for 5 days starting 6 h after colitis induction with different doses of QJ (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), QHE (200, 500 & 800 mg/kg) orally, QJ (400 mg/kg) and QHE (200 and 500 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Albeit the examined doses of QJ and QHE were apparently effective to reduce the extent of UC lesions, only the greatest doses (500 and 800 mg/kg) resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/Length ratio as an illustrative of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished with quince treatments while the results correlated with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that QJ and QHE were effective to diminish inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis. Although QHE with different doses was effective in induced colitis, the dose and/or route of administration dependency was not confirmed. So quince fractions could be considered as a suitable anticolitic alternative, however further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting. PMID:23181087

  13. Miller field, a subtle upper Jurassic submarine fan trap in the South Viking Graben, United Kingdom sector, North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, N.M.; Brown, A.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The Miller field is situated at a depth of 4 km in the South Viking Graben, some 270 km northeast of Aberdeen, Scotland. The field was discovered in 1983 in previously relinquished UK Licence Blocks 16/7b and 16/8b. The discovery can be attributed to a detailed understanding of the regional sedimentological and seismic velocity models that predicted the presence of submarine fan sediments within a structural nose some 10 km away from the graben margin sediment source. The field reservoir comprises up to 100 m of oil-bearing Upper Jurassic, Brae Formation turbidites. Cores, electric logs, and well test analyses show the turbidites have excellent reservoir qualities. Porosity ranges from 12 to 23%, and net:gross ratios are typically greater than 0.75. The reservoir is highly productive with permeability typically in the range of 50 to 1200 md. The reservoir fluid is an undersaturated, CO{sub 2}-rich, sour, 37.5{degree} API oil sourced from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, which overlies and interfingers the reservoir. The oil is trapped by a subtle combination of structural and stratigraphic mechanisms., The field will be developed using 30 wells drilled from a single platform. A total of ten wells (five producers and five injectors) will be pre-drilled through a template prior to platform installation. The first of these was spudded in March 1989 in preparation for first oil production planned for early 1992. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be around 300 MM STB and 0.57 tcf of associated gas.

  14. A study of the effects of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Etemad, M.; Mahzouni, P.

    2012-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) from Rosaceae family is a fruit tree cultivated in many countries mainly in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of quince juice (QJ) and quince hydroalcoholic extract (QHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) in rats. Rats were grouped (n=6) and fasted for 36 h before colitis induction. TNBS was instilled into the colon with a hydroalcoholic carrier and then treatments were made for 5 days starting 6 h after colitis induction with different doses of QJ (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), QHE (200, 500 & 800 mg/kg) orally, QJ (400 mg/kg) and QHE (200 and 500 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Albeit the examined doses of QJ and QHE were apparently effective to reduce the extent of UC lesions, only the greatest doses (500 and 800 mg/kg) resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/Length ratio as an illustrative of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished with quince treatments while the results correlated with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that QJ and QHE were effective to diminish inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis. Although QHE with different doses was effective in induced colitis, the dose and/or route of administration dependency was not confirmed. So quince fractions could be considered as a suitable anticolitic alternative, however further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting. PMID:23181087

  15. Inherent point defects at the thermal higher-Miller index (211)Si/SiO{sub 2} interface

    SciTech Connect

    Iacovo, S.; Stesmans, A.

    2014-12-29

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out on the higher-Miller index (211)Si/SiO{sub 2} interface thermally grown in the temperature range T{sub ox} = 400–1066 °C to assess interface quality in terms of inherently incorporated point defects. This reveals the presence predominantly of two species of a P{sub b}-type interface defect (interfacial Si dangling bond), which, based on pertinent ESR parameters, is typified as P{sub b0}{sup (211)} variant, close to the P{sub b0} center observed in standard (100)Si/SiO{sub 2}—known as utmost detrimental interface trap. T{sub ox} ≳ 750 °C is required to minimize the P{sub b0}{sup (211)} defect density (∼4.2 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}; optimized interface). The data clearly reflect the non-elemental nature of the (211)Si face as an average of (100) and (111) surfaces. It is found that in oxidizing (211)Si at T{sub ox} ≳ 750 °C, the optimum Si/SiO{sub 2} interface quality is retained for the two constituent low-index (100) and (111) faces separately, indicating firm anticipating power for higher-index Si/SiO{sub 2} interfaces in general. It implies that, as a whole, the quality of a thermal higher-index Si/SiO{sub 2} interface can never surmount that of the low-index (100)Si/SiO{sub 2} structure.

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 18 (SHEFTH00410018) on Town Highway 41, crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHEFTH00410018 on Town Highway 41 crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 16.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Millers Run has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 50 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 50.9 mm (0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 1, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, which is evident in the moderate to severe fluvial erosion in the upstream reach. The Town Highway 41 crossing of the Millers Run is a 30-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 22.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening. The computed

  17. Miller Fisher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... sensory information to the spinal cord and brain. Magnetic resonance (MRI) or other imaging of the brain and/or spinal cord are usually normal. Spinal fluid protein is often elevated. Pure Fisher syndrome is ...

  18. Miller Fisher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 GBS/CIDP Foundation International The Holly Building 104 1/2 Forrest Ave. Narberth, PA 19072 info@gbs-cidp.org http://www.gbs-cidp.org Tel: ...

  19. Remote sensing and serological analysis of the resistance of tomato plants (Lycopersicon escylentum L.) to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Hristova, Dimitrina; Iliev, Ilko; Yanev, Tony

    Diseases caused by Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) are among the most important factors lim-iting tomato production worldwide, as they can completely destroy the crop. ToMV occurs in most countries of the world, and causes disease epidemics in many crops. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defence mechanism that plays a central role in disease re-sistance. SAR is induced by most pathogens that cause tissue necrosis. Spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence analysis were applied to establish injury of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon escylentum L.) infected with ToMV. Leaf spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence were registered by a portable Ocean Optics spectrometer USB 2000 in the visi-ble and near infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm) at a spectral resolution of 1.5 nm. As a model system, tomato plants of cultivar Nuton resistant to ToMV were used. The plants were grown in a green house under controlled conditions. They were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of untreated (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with ToMV. The other four groups were treated with following growth regulators: preparations Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin VS. On the next day, the tomato plants of these four groups were inoculated with ToMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method Double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). All analysis were performed on detached leaves from 20 uninfected and up to 20 leaves from infected plants on the 7th and 14th day after the inocu-lation. The differences between the reflectance spectra of virus-infected and uninfected leaves were analysed in the four most informative for green plants wavelength intervals: green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (690-710 nm) and near infrared (720-760 nm

  20. Enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. A route to elucidate the authenticity and origin of Rosa damascena Miller essential oils.

    PubMed

    Krupčík, Ján; Gorovenko, Roman; Špánik, Ivan; Sandra, Pat; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of Bulgarian and Turkish Rosa damascena Miller essential oils was performed by flow-modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using simultaneous detection of the second column effluent by flame ionization and quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Enantioselective separations were obtained by running the samples on 2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin column as the first column and on polyethylene glycol as the second column. The determination of enantiomeric or diastereomeric excess of some terpenoic solutes is a possible route for quality or authenticity control as well as for the elucidation of the country of origin. PMID:26235111

  1. Ab-initio simulations of higher Miller index Si:SiO2 interfaces for fin field effect transistor and nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongfei; Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John; Okuno, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Models of three representative higher Miller index interfaces, Si(310):SiO2, Si(410):SiO2, and Si(331):SiO2, have been built by an ab-initio molecular dynamics method. We show that each interface can be made as a fully bonded network without any defects and has a reasonable electronic structure for use in fin field effect transistors or gate-all-around nanowire devices. The differences in numbers of oxygen bridges are attributed to the intermediate sub-oxide components and the atomic step structure. The interface bonding schemes to passivate different densities of dangling bonds on different facets are also analyzed.

  2. Comparison of the Success of Two Techniques for the Endotracheal Intubation with C-MAC Video Laryngoscope Miller Blade in Children: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Renu; Sharma, Ankur; Ray, Bikash Ranjan; Kumar Pandey, Ravinder; Darlong, Vanlalnghka; Punj, Jyotsna; Chandralekha, Chandralekha; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ease of endotracheal intubation with C-MAC video laryngoscope (VLS) with Miller blades 0 and 1 has not been evaluated in children. Methods. Sixty children weighing 3–15 kg with normal airway were randomly divided into two groups. Intubation was done with C-MAC VLS Miller blade using either nonstyletted endotracheal tube (ETT) (group WS) or styletted ETT (group S). The time for intubation and total procedure, intubation attempts, failed intubation, blade repositioning or external laryngeal maneuver, and complications were recorded. Results. The median (minimum/maximum) time for intubation in group WS and group S was 19.5 (9/48) seconds and 13.0 (18/55) seconds, respectively (p = 0.03). The median (minimum/maximum) time for procedure in group WS was 30.5 (18/72) seconds and in group S was 24.5 (14/67) seconds, respectively (p = 0.02). Intubation in first attempt was done in 28 children in group WS and in 30 children in group S. Repositioning was required in 14 children in group WS and in 7 children in group S (p = 0.06). There were no failure to intubate, desaturation, and bradycardia in both groups. Conclusion. Styletted ETT significantly reduces time for intubation and time for procedure in comparison to nonstyletted ETT. PMID:27293429

  3. Comparison of the Success of Two Techniques for the Endotracheal Intubation with C-MAC Video Laryngoscope Miller Blade in Children: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Renu; Sharma, Ankur; Ray, Bikash Ranjan; Kumar Pandey, Ravinder; Darlong, Vanlalnghka; Punj, Jyotsna; Chandralekha, Chandralekha; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ease of endotracheal intubation with C-MAC video laryngoscope (VLS) with Miller blades 0 and 1 has not been evaluated in children. Methods. Sixty children weighing 3-15 kg with normal airway were randomly divided into two groups. Intubation was done with C-MAC VLS Miller blade using either nonstyletted endotracheal tube (ETT) (group WS) or styletted ETT (group S). The time for intubation and total procedure, intubation attempts, failed intubation, blade repositioning or external laryngeal maneuver, and complications were recorded. Results. The median (minimum/maximum) time for intubation in group WS and group S was 19.5 (9/48) seconds and 13.0 (18/55) seconds, respectively (p = 0.03). The median (minimum/maximum) time for procedure in group WS was 30.5 (18/72) seconds and in group S was 24.5 (14/67) seconds, respectively (p = 0.02). Intubation in first attempt was done in 28 children in group WS and in 30 children in group S. Repositioning was required in 14 children in group WS and in 7 children in group S (p = 0.06). There were no failure to intubate, desaturation, and bradycardia in both groups. Conclusion. Styletted ETT significantly reduces time for intubation and time for procedure in comparison to nonstyletted ETT. PMID:27293429

  4. Two-Stage Mucogingival Surgery with Free Gingival Autograft and Biomend Membrane and Coronally Advanced Flap in Treatment of Class III Millers Recession

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Renny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Gingival recession is an apical shift of the gingival margin with exposure of the root surface. This migration of the marginal tissue leads to esthetic concerns, dentin hypersensitivity, root caries, and cervical wear. It is, paradoxically, a common finding in patients with a high standard of oral hygiene, as well as in periodontally untreated populations with poor oral hygiene. Changing the topography of the marginal soft tissue in order to facilitate plaque control is a common indication for root coverage procedures and forms a major aspect of periodontal plastic surgeries. The regeneration of a new connective tissue attachment to denuded root surface is by allowing the selective coronal regrowth of periodontal ligament cells while excluding the gingival tissues from the root during wound healing by means of a barrier membrane. Case Presentation. This case reports a two-stage surgical technique for treatment of Miller's class III defect using free gingival autograft and type I absorbable collagen membrane (BioMend®, Zimmer Dental, USA)§. Conclusions. The 6-month follow-up of the case showed a significant increase in attached gingiva suggesting it as a predictable alternative in the treatment of Millers class III defects. PMID:27525131

  5. Fermentation of a milk-soymilk and Lycium chinense Miller mixture using a new isolate of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU101 and Bifidobacterium longum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Mei; Chiu, Chiu-Hsia; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2004-12-01

    A milk-soymilk mixture was fermented using Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU101 and Bifidobacterium longum BCRC11847 at different inoculum ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 2:1, and 5:1). When the inoculum ratio was 1:2, the cell numbers of both strains were balanced after 12 h of cultivation. The pH and titratable acidity were very similar at the various inoculum ratios of cultivation. The milk-soymilk mixture was supplemented with 5, 10, 15, and 20% Lycium chinense Miller juice and fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU101 and B. longum BCRC11847. Sensory evaluation results showed that supplementation with 5% Lycium chinense Miller juice improved the acceptability of the fermented milk-soymilk. The fermented beverage was stored at 4 degrees C for 14 days; variations in pH and titratable acidity were slight. The cell numbers of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU101 and B. longum BCRC11847 in the fermented beverage were maintained at 1.2x10(9) CFU/ml and 6.3x10(8) CFU/ml, respectively, after 14 days of storage. PMID:15662546

  6. Two-Stage Mucogingival Surgery with Free Gingival Autograft and Biomend Membrane and Coronally Advanced Flap in Treatment of Class III Millers Recession.

    PubMed

    Rath, Avita; Varma, Smrithi; Paul, Renny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Gingival recession is an apical shift of the gingival margin with exposure of the root surface. This migration of the marginal tissue leads to esthetic concerns, dentin hypersensitivity, root caries, and cervical wear. It is, paradoxically, a common finding in patients with a high standard of oral hygiene, as well as in periodontally untreated populations with poor oral hygiene. Changing the topography of the marginal soft tissue in order to facilitate plaque control is a common indication for root coverage procedures and forms a major aspect of periodontal plastic surgeries. The regeneration of a new connective tissue attachment to denuded root surface is by allowing the selective coronal regrowth of periodontal ligament cells while excluding the gingival tissues from the root during wound healing by means of a barrier membrane. Case Presentation. This case reports a two-stage surgical technique for treatment of Miller's class III defect using free gingival autograft and type I absorbable collagen membrane (BioMend®, Zimmer Dental, USA)(§). Conclusions. The 6-month follow-up of the case showed a significant increase in attached gingiva suggesting it as a predictable alternative in the treatment of Millers class III defects. PMID:27525131

  7. A Case of Concurrent Miller-Dieker Syndrome (17p13.3 Deletion) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Macmurdo, C

    2015-12-01

    Features of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS, 17p13.3 deletion syndrome, LIS1-associated lissencephaly) include classic lissencephaly, microcephaly, cardiac malformations, growth restriction, and characteristic facial changes. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) are known to have congenital cardiac malformations (in particular conotruncal defects), palatal abnormalities (especially velopharyngeal insufficiency), hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial features. This case report describes phenotypic characteristics of a patient with extremely rare instance of having both MDS and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that is unique in the medical literature. Prognosis in this concurrent phenotype is poor with our patient suffering from several malformations seen in both conditions and expiring in the neonatal period. PMID:27617133

  8. The Miller Range Nakhlites: A Summary of the Curatorial Subdivision of the Main Mass in Light of Newly Found Paired Masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin; McBridge, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2003-2004 ANSMET team re-covered a 715.2 g nakhlite from the Miller Range (MIL) region of the Transantarctic Mountains (MIL 03346). This was the first nakhlite for the US Antarctic meteorite program, and after the announcement in 2004 [1], JSC received over 50 requests for this sample for the Fall 2004 Meteorite Working Group meeting. Since then it has been subdivided into >200 splits, and distributed to approx.70 scientists around the world for study. The 2009-2010 ANSMET team recovered three additional masses of this nakhlite [2], making the total amount of mass 1.871 kg (Table 1). Given that the original find (MIL 03346) has been heavily studied and these new masses are available, we will present a comprehensive overview of the subdivision of the original mass as well as the scientific findings to date.

  9. Miller, Mulberry, Brewer, and Evered nominations. Hearing before Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Four presidential nominees were questioned by members of the committee and by 11 witnesses, who also made statements pertinent to the nomination: Daniel N. Miller, Jr., to be Ass't. Secy. of Interior for Energy and Minerals; Richard Mulberry, to be Inspector General, Dept. of Interior; Shelby T. Brewer to be Ass't. Secy. for Nuclear Energy; and J. Erich Evered, to be Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy. The statements and responses are followed by additional material submitted for the record and informational statements and responses of the nominees. The nominees were questioned about past activities and their policy goals as well as their plans for conducting their respective offices. (DCK)

  10. Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft in Combination with a Tunnel Technique for the Treatment of Miller Class II and III Gingival Recessions in Mandibular Incisors: Clinical and Esthetic Results.

    PubMed

    Nart, Jose; Valles, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the effect of the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) on root coverage in the mandibular anterior region. A sample of 15 Miller Class II and III recessions were treated in 15 patients using a SCTG with a tunnel technique. After a mean follow-up of 20.53 months, the mean percentage of root coverage was 83.25% for all treated recessions. Furthermore, a statistically significant increase of keratinized tissue was observed at the end of the evaluation period (2.66 mm; P = .001). The combination of tunnel technique and SCTG should be considered a treatment option to obtain root coverage in mandibular incisors with Class II and III recession defects. PMID:27333018

  11. Better P-curves: Making P-curve analysis more robust to errors, fraud, and ambitious P-hacking, a Reply to Ulrich and Miller (2015).

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2015-12-01

    When studies examine true effects, they generate right-skewed p-curves, distributions of statistically significant results with more low (.01 s) than high (.04 s) p values. What else can cause a right-skewed p-curve? First, we consider the possibility that researchers report only the smallest significant p value (as conjectured by Ulrich & Miller, 2015), concluding that it is a very uncommon problem. We then consider more common problems, including (a) p-curvers selecting the wrong p values, (b) fake data, (c) honest errors, and (d) ambitiously p-hacked (beyond p < .05) results. We evaluate the impact of these common problems on the validity of p-curve analysis, and provide practical solutions that substantially increase its robustness. PMID:26595842

  12. Comparative clinical evaluation of laterally positioned pedicle graft and subepithelial connective tissue graft in the treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession: A 6 months study

    PubMed Central

    Dulani, Kirti Satish; Bhavsar, Neeta Vijay; Trivedi, Sakshee Rahul; Trivedi, Rahul Anil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare clinical outcomes of laterally positioned pedicle graft (LPPG) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) for treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession defects, at the end of 6 months. Materials and Methods: Sixty Miller's Class I or II gingival recession defects (≥3 mm) (n = 30 each) on the labial aspect of anterior teeth were treated by either of the above techniques. Clinical parameters including recession depth (RD), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), percentage of root coverage (%RC), and complete RC were recorded at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Data were recorded and statistical analysis was done for both intergroup and intragroup. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test intragroup and Student's t-test intergroup. Results: In LPPG, RD decreased from 4.9 ± 0.99 mm to 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and WKG increased from 0.7 ± 0.87 to 4.5 ± 0.86 mm at 6 months, while in SCTG, RD decreased from 4.67 ± 1.12 mm to 0.46 ± 0.68 mm and WKG increased from 1.1 ± 0.99 to 5.33 ± 0.72 mm at 6 months postoperatively. The values of the soft tissue coverage remained stable for 6 months. Conclusions: Highly significant and effective soft tissue coverage was obtained by both techniques. LPPG resulted in effective soft tissue coverage for isolated deep narrow defects while SCTG in isolated and multiple, deep narrow and wide defects. PMID:26941517

  13. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction of fatty acids from quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Daneshvand, Behnaz; Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Raofie, Farhad

    2012-08-24

    Fatty acids of Cydonia oblonga Miller cultivated in Iran were obtained by supercritical (carbon dioxide) extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass spectrometric detections. The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (EI, 70eV). The experimental parameters of SFE such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, static and dynamic extraction time were optimized using a Central Composite Design (CCD) after a 2(5) factorial design. Pressure and dynamic extraction time had significant effect on the extraction yield, while the other factors (temperature, static extraction time and modifier volume) were not identified as significant factors under the selected conditions. The results of chemometrics analysis showed the highest yield for SFE (24.32%), which was obtained at a pressure of 353bar, temperature of 35°C, modifier (methanol) volume of 150μL, and static and dynamic extraction times of 10 and 60min, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of Fatty acids from C. oblonga Miller was optimized, using a rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions were as follows: solvent (n-hexane) volume, 22mL; extraction time, 30min; and extraction temperature, 55°C. This resulted in a maximum oil recovery of 19.5%. The extracts with higher yield from both methods were subjected to transesterification and GC-MS analysis. The results show that the oil obtained by SFE with the optimal operating conditions allowed a fatty acid composition similar to the oil obtained by UAE in optimum condition and no significant differences were found. The major components of oil extract were Linoleic, Palmitic, Oleic, Stearic and Eicosanoic acids. PMID:22824221

  14. Screening of Miners and Millers at Decreasing Levels of Asbestos Exposure: Comparison of Chest Radiography and Thin-Section Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Terra-Filho, Mario; Bagatin, Ericson; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Nápolis, Lara Maris; Neder, José Alberto; de Souza Portes Meirelles, Gustavo; Silva, C. Isabela; Muller, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chest radiography (CXR) is inferior to Thin-section computed tomography in the detection of asbestos related interstitial and pleural abnormalities. It remains unclear, however, whether these limitations are large enough to impair CXR´s ability in detecting the expected reduction in the frequency of these asbestos-related abnormalities (ARA) as exposure decreases. Methods Clinical evaluation, CXR, Thin-section CT and spirometry were obtained in 1418 miners and millers who were exposed to progressively lower airborne concentrations of asbestos. They were separated into four groups according to the type, period and measurements of exposure and/or procedures for controlling exposure: Group I (1940–1966/tremolite and chrysotile, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group II (1967–1976/chrysotile only, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group III (1977–1980/chrysotile only, initiated measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure) and Group IV (after 1981/chrysotile only, implemented measurements of exposure and a comprehensive procedures for controlling exposure). Results In all groups, CXR suggested more frequently interstitial abnormalities and less frequently pleural plaques than observed on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). The odds for asbestosis in groups of decreasing exposure diminished to greater extent at Thin-section CT than on CXR. Lung function was reduced in subjects who had pleural plaques evident only on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). In a longitudinal evaluation of 301 subjects without interstitial and pleural abnormalities on CXR and Thin-section CT in a previous evaluation, only Thin-section CT indicated that these ARA reduced as exposure decreased. Conclusions CXR compared to Thin-section CT was associated with false-positives for interstitial abnormalities and false-negatives for pleural plaques, regardless of the intensity of asbestos exposure

  15. Promotive effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharides on the inducing drought resistance of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruizhi; Jiang, Xiaolu; Guan, Huashi; Li, Xiaoxia; Du, Yishuai; Wang, Peng; Mou, Haijin

    2009-09-01

    In order to determine the role of alginate-derived oligosaccharides (ADO) in drought stress resistance of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) seedlings, the leaves were exposed to different concentrations of ADO (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30% and 0.50%) after drought stress was simulated by exposing the roots to 0.6 molL-1 PEG-6000 solution for 6 h. Changes in biomass, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA), free proline, total soluble sugars (TSS) and abscisic acid (ABA), the enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were measured to investigate the effects of ADO treatment. The results showed that the treatment with an ADO concentration of 0.20% exhibited the highest performance of drought stress resistance in the tomato seedlings by decreasing the electrolyte leakage and the concentration of MDA, increasing the contents of free proline, TSS and ABA, and increasing the activities of CAT, SOD, POD and PAL after treatment with ADO. It is suggested that changes in electrolyte leakage, MDA, osmotic solutes, ABA, anti-oxidative enzyme and PAL activities were responsible for the increased drought stress resistance in tomato seedlings. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of ADO treatment on enhancing the drought stress resistance of tomato seedlings.

  16. Comparison and examination of Bombus occidentalis and Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in tomato greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Robin; Winston, Mark L

    2004-08-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller (Solanaceae), greenhouses to compare the relative foraging effort of two bumble bee species, Bombus occidentalis Greene and Bombus impatiens Cresson, to examine interspecific competition between B. occidentalis and B. impatiens, and to determine whether bumble bee colonies grew to their full population potential in commercial tomato greenhouses. B. impatiens colonies had more brood and workers and made more foraging trips per hour than B. occidentalis colonies. However, B. impatiens returned to the colony without pollen loads and left their colonies without dropping off their pollen loads more frequently than B. occidentalis greenhouse colonies. Our data also suggest that the presence of B. impatiens had a detrimental effect on B. occidentalis populations. Furthermore, B. occidentalis colonies did not grow to their full population potential in tomato greenhouses, with fewer workers in greenhouse colonies than in colonies placed outside in a natural environment, or in colonies that were physically enclosed and protected from external mortality. Together, this study suggests that B. impatiens is a better pollinator than B. occidentalis. It also shows that unknown factors are limiting the size of B. occidentalis colonies in tomato greenhouses. PMID:15384352

  17. Behavior of Tamarixia triozae Females (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Attacking Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Effects of Three Pesticides on This Parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ana-Mabel; Chavarrieta, Juan-Manuel; Morales, Sinue-Isabel; Caudillo, Kiela-Briseida; Figueroa, José-Isaac; Diaz, Ovidio; Bujanos, Rafael; Gomez, Benjamín; Viñuela, Elisa; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    The parasitism and host feeding behavior of Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) females on Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) fourth instars that have infested tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) leaflets are described and quantified. Females took approximately 31.14 ± 4.39 min to search for their first suitable host. The recognition and handling times for oviposition were 2.66 ± 0.18 and 4.26 ± 0.39 min, respectively. T. triozae parasitized 4.66 ± 0.61 nymphs in a period of 6 h. The parasitoid explored and probed its host by walking along the margins of its body while antennating and repeatedly introducing the ovipositor beneath the nymph. The handling times before and during host feeding were 8.42 ± 0.67 and 8.29 ± 0.60 min, respectively. T. triozae females consumed 1.00 ± 0.00 B. cockerelli nymph after parasitizing 3.3 ± 0.48 nymphs. EPA-a refined soybean oil-imidacloprid, and abamectin caused between ~70 and 100% T. triozae adult mortality after a 48-h contact treatment with fresh pesticide residue and a 47-91% decrease (abamectin > imidacloprid > EPA) in adult emergence when parasitized B. cockerelli fourth instars were directly sprayed. These data suggest that the use of these insecticides in combination with T. triozae in integrated pest management programs should be carefully evaluated. PMID:26308801

  18. New Insecticides for Management of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl, a Virus Vectored by the Silverleaf Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H. A.; Giurcanu, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse studies using a randomized complete block design were carried out to evaluate the effect of six insecticides on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Miller) (Solanales: Solanaceae), seedlings that were inoculated with whiteflies from a TYLCV colony in cages 3, 7, or 14 d after treatment with insecticide. The purpose was to reveal differences in residual efficacy of four materials that are nearing registration for use on tomato—cyazypyr, flupyradifurone, pyrafluquinazon, and sulfoxaflor—and to compare them with two established insecticides, pymetrozine and a zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin combination. Differences in efficacy were expected because these six materials represent five distinct modes of action and both contact and systemic materials. Percentage of tomato seedlings expressing virus symptoms tended to be lowest in seedlings treated with flupyradifurone. The zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin insecticide demonstrated comparable efficacy to flupyradifurone in some trials at 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations, but not the 14 d after treatment inoculation. Pyrafluquinazon was not statistically different from cyazypyr or sulfoxaflor in percentage of plants with virus symptoms in any trial. Percentage virus in the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments was not statistically different in the 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations. Among seedlings treated with insecticide, percentage with virus symptoms tended to be highest in the seedlings treated with pymetrozine. PMID:25368089

  19. Realization of the Atkinson-Miller cycle in spark-ignition engine by means of the fully variable inlet valve control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żmudka, Zbigniew; Postrzednik, Stefan; Przybyła, Grzegorz

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical analysis of the charge exchange process in a spark ignition engine has been presented. This process has significant impact on the effectiveness of engine operation because it is related to the necessity of overcoming the flow resistance, followed by the necessity of doing a work, so-called the charge exchange work. The flow resistance caused by the throttling valve is especially high during the part load operation. The open Atkinson-Miller cycle has been assumed as a model of processes taking place in the engine. Using fully variable inlet valve timing the A-M cycle can be realized according to two systems: system with late inlet valve closing and system with early inlet valve closing. The systems have been analysed individually and comparatively with the open Seiliger-Sabathe cycle which is a theoretical cycle for the classical throttle governing of the engine load. Benefits resulting from application of the systems with independent inlet valve control have been assessed on the basis of the selected parameters: fuel dose, cycle work, charge exchange work and a cycle efficiency. The use of the analysed systems to governing of the SI engine load will enable to eliminate a throttling valve from the system inlet and reduce the charge exchange work, especially within the range of part load operation.

  20. Yale University's Institute of Human Relations and the Spanish Civil War: Dollard and Miller's study of fear and courage under battle conditions.

    PubMed

    Gondra, José María; Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    In the late 1930s, the Institute of Human Relations of Yale University developed a research program on conflict and anxiety as an outcome of Clark Hull's informal seminar on the integration of Freud's and Pavlov's theories. The program was launched at the 1937 Annual Meeting of the APA in a session chaired by Clark L. Hull, and the experiments continued through 1941, when the United States entered the Second World War. In an effort to apply the findings from animal experiments to the war situation, John Dollard and Neal E. Miller decided to study soldiers' fear reactions in combat. As a first step, they arranged interviews with a few veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Taking these interviews as a point of departure, Dollard devised a questionnaire to which 300 former Lincoln brigaders responded. The present paper analyzes the main outcomes of the questionnaire, together with the war experiences reported in the interview transcripts. Our purpose was to evaluate a project which was initially investigated by the FBI because of the communists among the Lincoln ranks, but eventually supported by the American Army, and which exerted great influence on the military psychology of the time. PMID:19899642

  1. A Fully Integrated SiGe Optical Receiver Using Differential Active Miller Capacitor for 4.25 Gbit/s Fiber Channel Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ji-Chen; Lai, Kuang-Sheng; Hsu, Klaus Y.-J.

    2008-04-01

    This paper provides a SiGe optical receiver using new high performance differential active Miller capacitor (DAMC) circuits to replace off-chip capacitors. The fully integrated design can avoid off-chip noise interference. The 4.25 Gbit/s optical receiver was realized in a commercial 0.35 µm SiGe BiCMOS process. The measured results of the receiver demonstrate a differential output swing of 530 mV with 50 Ω output loads, a crossing percentage of 51.6%, a peak-to-peak jitter (jitterp-p) of 23.9 ps, and an input sensitivity of -13.8 dBm, respectively, at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-12 with a 231-1 pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) test pattern. The total circuit dissipates 105.6 mW under a 3.3 V supply, and the chip size is 945 ×980 µm2.

  2. First molecular identification of Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) from an intermediate host Radix labiata (Rossmaessler) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E

    2016-01-01

    The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae). PMID:27395696

  3. Prebiotic Synthesis of Methionine and Other Sulfur-Containing Organic Compounds on the Primitive Earth: A Contemporary Reassessment Based on an Unpublished 1958 Stanley Miller Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Original extracts from an unpublished 1958 experiment conducted by the late Stanley L. Miller were recently found and analyzed using modern state-of-the-art analytical methods. The extracts were produced by the action of an electric discharge on a mixture of methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Racemic methionine was farmed in significant yields, together with other sulfur-bearing organic compounds. The formation of methionine and other compounds from a model prebiotic atmosphere that contained H2S suggests that this type of synthesis is robust under reducing conditions, which may have existed either in the global primitive atmosphere or in localized volcanic environments on the early Earth. The presence of a wide array of sulfur-containing organic compounds produced by the decomposition of methionine and cysteine indicates that in addition to abiotic synthetic processes, degradation of organic compounds on the primordial Earth could have been important in diversifying the inventory of molecules of biochemical significance not readily formed from other abiotic reactions, or derived from extraterrestrial delivery.

  4. Paleogeographic significance of Clavohamulus hintzei Miller (Conodonta) and other Ibexian conodonts in an early Paleozoic carbonate platform facies of the Argentine Precordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehnert, O.; Miller, J.F.; Repetski, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pre-Tremadocian conodonts and trilobites and Tremadocian conodonts are reported from the Cambrian and Ordovician La Silla Formation in the Cerro La Silla section in east-southeast Ja??chal, San Juan Province, Argentina. A shallow marine conodont fauna contains elements of Clavohamulus hintzei Miller, a common species in North America, but reported for the first time from the early Paleozoic platform carbonates of the western Argentine Precordillera. The presence of this species suggests a correlation with the Clavohamulus hintzei conodont subbiozone of the Cordylodus intermedius conodont biozone in North America, considered Early Ordovician (Skullrockian Stage, Ibexian Series) in North America, but by South American and European standards, this biozone would be of latest Cambrian age. C. hintzei and associated conodonts of the La Silla Formation are typical of the tropical faunas of the North American Midcontinent Faunal Province; Late Cambrian trilobites from lower in the formation also are typical North American taxa. The presence of these faunas in the platform carbonates is consistent with plate reconstructions suggesting that the Precordillera was in a tropical or subtropical position close to Laurentia during the late Precambrian and early Paleozoic. These new paleontological data provide one more argument for recent models of the Precordillera as a displaced terrane derived from the Ouachita Embayment at the southern margin of Laurentia.

  5. Phenolic compositions and antioxidant attributes of leaves and stems from three inbred varieties of Lycium chinense Miller harvested at various times.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Jau-Tien; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shen, Bo-Yan; Chen, Ting-Yo; Chang, Ya-Ling; Shih, Chia-Huing; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2017-01-15

    Antioxidant components and properties (assayed by scavenging DPPH radicals, TEAC, reducing power, and inhibiting Cu(2+)-induced human LDL oxidation) of leaves and stems from three inbred varieties of Lycium chinense Miller, namely ML01, ML02 and ML02-TY, harvested from January to April were studied. Their flavonoid and phenolic acid compositions were also analyzed by HPLC. For each variety, the leaves and stems collected in higher temperature month had higher contents of total phenol, total flavonoid and condensed tannin. Contents of these components in the samples collected in different months were in the order: April (22.3°C)>March (18.0°C)>January (15.6°C)>February (15.4°C). Antioxidant activities of the leaves and stems for all assays also showed similar trends. The samples from different varieties collected in the same month also possessed different phenolic compositions and contents and antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with flavonoid and phenolic contents. PMID:27542477

  6. Bioassay-guided chemical study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Senna villosa (Miller) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae) in TPA-induced ear edema.

    PubMed

    Susunaga-Notario, Ana del Carmen; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Almanza-Pérez, Julio Cesar; Gutiérrez-Carrillo, Atilano; Arrieta-Báez, Daniel; López-López, Ana Laura; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Flores-Sáenz, José Luis Eduardo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Senna villosa (Miller) is a plant that grows in México. In traditional Mexican medicine, it is used topically to treat skin infections, pustules and eruptions and to heal wounds by scar formation. However, studies of its potential anti-inflammatory effects have not been performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts from the leaves of Senna villosa and to perform a bioassay-guided chemical study of the extract with major activity in a model of ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The results reveal that the chloroform extract from Senna villosa leaves has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Nine fractions were obtained from the bioassay-guided chemical study, including a white precipitate from fractions 2 and 3. Although none of the nine fractions presented anti-inflammatory activity, the white precipitate exhibited pharmacological activity. It was chemically characterized using mass spectrometry and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, resulting in a mixture of three aliphatic esters, which were identified as the principal constituents: hexyl tetradecanoate (C20H40O2), heptyl tetradecanoate (C21H42O2) and octyl tetradecanoate (C22H44O2). This research provides, for the first time, evidence of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of compounds isolated from Senna villosa. PMID:25029073

  7. Observation and interpretation of Δ17O variations in terrestrial rocks - Response to the comment by Miller et al. on the paper by Pack & Herwartz (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Andreas; Herwartz, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There are four aspects of our paper that are criticized by Miller et al. (comment) that we attempt to clarify in this reply. Our first point is that δ17O of different materials (water, rocks, tropospheric and stratospheric O2, CO2 gas, meteorites, animal body water, biogenic carbonate, bioapatite, etc.) should be reported on the same scale. This requires that each laboratory calibrate its reference O2 (currently O2 is the gas of choice for high precision Δ17O studies) relative to O2 extracted from VSMOW water. The choice of water as standard has historical reasons and is somewhat arbitrary. Any other reference material could be chosen (e.g., San Carlos olivine, NBS-19 calcite, NBS-28 quartz, or tropospheric O2) as a scale for δ17O. VSMOW, however, is the accepted scale for δ18O and we suggest it should also be used as primary standard and a scale for δ17O, too.

  8. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) peel polyphenols modulate LPS-induced inflammation in human THP-1-derived macrophages through NF-κB, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition.

    PubMed

    Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Refai, Amira; Riahi, Ichrak; Fattouch, Sami; Karoui, Habib; Essafi, Makram

    2012-02-01

    Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of several pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and cancer. A wide range of anti-inflammatory chemicals have been used to treat such diseases while presenting high toxicity and numerous side effects. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-toxic, cost-effective natural agent, polyphenolic extract from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human THP-1-derived macrophages induced the secretion of high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the chemokine IL-8, which was inhibited by quince peel polyphenolic extract in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, quince polyphenols enhanced the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 secreted by LPS-treated macrophages. We further demonstrated that the unexpected increase in IL-6 secretion that occurred when quince polyphenols were associated with LPS treatment was partially responsible for the polyphenols-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion. Biochemical analysis showed that quince polyphenols extract inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of three major cellular pro-inflammatory effectors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), p38MAPK and Akt. Overall, our data indicate that quince peel polyphenolic extract induces a potent anti-inflammatory effect that may prove useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and that a quince-rich regimen may help to prevent and improve the treatment of such diseases. PMID:22252293

  9. Clinical evaluation and comparison of the efficacy of coronally advanced flap alone and in combination with platelet rich fibrin membrane in the treatment of Miller Class I and II gingival recessions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Santosh; Banthia, Ruchi; Singh, Pallavi; Banthia, Priyank; Raje, Sapna; Aggarwal, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of coronally advanced flap (CAF) alone and in combination with autologous platelet rich fibrin membrane (PRF) in Miller's class I and II gingival recessions. Materials and Method: Thirty isolated Miller class I or II sites in 26 subjects were randomly divided into test (15 sites- CAF+PRF) and control (15 sites- CAF alone). Parameters probing pocket depth (PPD), Recession depth (RD), Clinical attachment loss (CAL), Keratinised tissue width (KTW) and Gingival tissue thickness (GTH) were evaluated at baseline, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. Data was subjected to statistical analysis. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean percentage root coverage was 91.00±19.98% and 86.60±23.83% for test and control group respectively. Difference between the groups in all parameters at baseline, 3 months and 6 months was non significant. Complete root coverage was obtained in 12 (80%) and 11 (73.3%) subjects in test and control group respectively. The difference was found to be non-significant. Both groups showed significant differences in all parameters at 3 and 6 months respectively except difference in gingival tissue thickness which was non-significant in control group at 3 months. Conclusion: Combination of PRF to CAF procedure did not provide any added advantage in term of recession coverage in Miller class I and II recessions. Long term trials with more sample size are needed to validate these findings. PMID:26097347

  10. Burst of ethylene upon horizontal placement of tomato seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M.; Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers emit a pulse of ethylene during the first 2 to 4 minutes following horizontal placement. Because this burst appears too rapid and brief to be mediated by increase in net activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, it might result form accelerated transformation of vacuolar 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to ethylene.

  11. Resurgance of soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber after application of methyl bromide chemical alternatives and solarization in tomato.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted during four consectutive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations to examine the long-term residual effects of tomato methyl bromide alternatives on soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber. Four treatments were established in tomato field...

  12. Evaluation of ethylene as a mediator of gravitropism by tomato hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. A.; Pickard, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    Assessments of the participation of ethylene in gravitropism by hypocotyls of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) indicate that gravitropism can occur without substantial change in ethylene production. Moreover, lowering or evaluating ethylene over a considerable range, as well as inhibiting ethylene action, fails to influence gravitropic bending. This vitiates the possibility that ethylene is a mediator of the primary, negative gravitropic response of tomato shoots.

  13. OZONE-INDUCED ETHYLENE RELEASE FROM LEAF SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone-induced stress ethylene emissions from the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of four plant species (Glycine max (L) Merr. cv. Dare, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma VF, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Hedera helix L.) were studied to determine if the stress ethylene di...

  14. Pathogencity and reproductive potential of Meloidogyne mayaguensis and M. floridensis compared with three common Meloidogyne spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity and reproductive potential of Meloidogyne mayaguensis and M. floridensis, two new species reported in Florida agriculture, were compared to those of M. arenaria race 1, M. incognita race 4, and M. javanica race 1 on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in field microplots. Two tr...

  15. SILENCING POLYGALACTURONASE EXPRESSION INHIBITS TOMATO PETIOLE ABSCISSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) as a tool for functional analysis of cell-wall associated genes that have been suggested to be involved in leaf abscission. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) is an effective vector for VIGS in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Silencing was more efficient when ...

  16. Tomatine-Containing Green Tomato Extracts Inhibit Growth of Human Breast, Colon, Liver, and Stomach Cancer Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) synthesize the glycoalkaloids dehydrotomatine and a–tomatine, possibly as a defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. We investigated six green and three red tomato extracts for their ability to induce cell death in human cancer and normal cells ...

  17. INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ON OZONE-INDUCED 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID AND ETHYLENE PRODUCTION FROM INTACT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of light on ozone-induced ethylene production from intact soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Dare) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Roma) plants was investigated. Ozone-induced stress ethylene production was 2.6-fold greater from dark-than light-incubate...

  18. Net returns and risk for cover crop use in Alabama tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) producers are faced with uncertain yields and prices, and utilizing a production system that will reduce risk while maintaining yield may keep tomato producers economically sustainable into the future. A conservation tillage production system with high biomass ...

  19. METABOLIC BASIS FOR INJURY TO PLANTS FROM COMBINATIONS OF O3 AND SO2. STUDIES WITH MODIFIERS OF POLLUTANT TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet (garden pea) and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant tomato) were chosen to evaluate the metabolic basis for plant injury from combinations of O3 + SO2. The plants were exposed under conditions reported to specifically alter O3 or SO2 toxicity...

  20. PHYTOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS. EVIDENCE FOR THE PHOTODETOXIFICATION OF SO2 BUT NOT O3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet (garden pea) and Lycopersicon esculentum flacca Mill. (tomato) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of SO2 and O3 in the light and dark. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers and exposed to SO2 or O3 in the light or dark at the same e...

  1. THE DUAL EFFECTS OF METHYL SALICYLATE ON RIPENING AND EXPRESSION OF ETHYLENE BIOSYNTHESIS GENES IN TOMATO FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Sun Bright) at three ripening stages (mature green, breaker and turning) were treated with three different concentrations of methyl salicylate (MeSA) vapor to investigate the impact on ripening and ethylene production. The tomato ripening process, incl...

  2. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grafting began in the 1920s to control soil-borne disease. It is now a common practice in Asia, parts of Europe, and the Middle East. In Japan and Korea most of the cucurbits and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown are grafted. This practice is rare in the U.S. and there have...

  3. EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON GROWTH YIELD AND PESTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to measure the yield response of Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to an organic fertilizer derived from hydrolyzed feather, meat, bone, and blood meal, sulfate of potash and langeinite (Nature Safe 10-2-8). Th...

  4. Lycopene content among organically produced tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to determine how much lycopene was produced in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown organically, and if tomatoes picked at the breaker stage could obtain full lycopene content. 'Classica,' a Roma type of tomato, was highest in lycopene (106 mg/kg) and the other ...

  5. Evaluation of tempera paints to reduce occurrence of tomato spotted wilt virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips occur in lower numbers on certain colors of flowers and with the use of certain reflective mulches. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the potential of foliar application of selected colors of tempera paints on tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L. (syn.: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill...

  6. First Report of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum in Tomato Plants in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants exhibiting symptoms that resemble those of permanent yellowing disease (locally known as “permanente del tomate”) that is associated with phytoplasmas and/or ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection were observed in the state of Sinaloa, México i...

  7. FUSICOCCIN AND AIR POLLUTANT INJURY TO PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Garden peas (Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet) and a tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var flacca) were sprayed with fusicoccin, a fungal toxin affecting membrane transport properties, before exposure to SO2 or O3. Tomatoes treated with 10 micromolar fusicoccin and exposed ...

  8. Polymorphism among EST-based markers in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) has a narrow genetic base. This is in part due to population genetic processes such as founder events, genetic bottlenecks, and natural and artificial selection during domestication. We characterize the nucleotide polymorphism in 26 EST-based markers...

  9. PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDENTS IN YONKERS, NEW YORK: EFFECTS ON YIELD OF BEAN AND TOMATO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field plots of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Tendergreen) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Fireball 861 VR) were enclosed in chambers and exposed for 43 or 99 days, respectively, to ambient air or to air from which 60 to 70% of the ambient photochemical oxidants were exclud...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST-TUBE STRESS-ETHYLENE BIOASSAY FOR DETECTING PHYTOTOXIC GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid, quantitative bioassay for detecting phytotoxic air pollutants has been developed. The technique uses wheat Triticum aestivum L. or tomato Lycopersicon esculentum L., seedlings growing on an agar medium in test-tubes. The seedlings are exposed to a pollutant in the test-t...

  11. Using acid-washed waste tire rubber in soilless media for tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Cerasiforne’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown in soilless potting media contained different substrate formulas including 25:25:50 volume ratio of acid-washed (AWR) or non-washed shredded rubber (NAWR): vermiculite or zeolite: perlite. Additionally, plants were grown in a peat: perli...

  12. Hydrology of the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek, Carbon County, Utah, before, during, and after underground coal mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slaughter, C.B.; Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    From 1988-92 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, studied the effects of underground coal mining and the resulting subsidence on the hydrologic system near the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek, Carbon County, Utah. The subsidence caused open fractures at land surface, debris slides, and rockfalls in the canyon above the mined area. Land surface subsided and moved several feet horizontally. The perennial stream and a tributary upstream from the mined area were diverted below the ground by surface fractures where the overburden thickness above the Wattis coal seam is 300 to 500 feet. The reach downstream was dry but flow resumed where the channel traversed the Star Point Sandstone, which forms the aquifer below the coal seams where ground-water discharge provides new base flow. Concentrations of dissolved constituents in the stream water sampled just downstream from the mined area increased from about 300 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to more than 1,500 mg/L, and the water changed from primarily a magnesium calcium bicarbonate to primarily a magnesium sulfate type. Monitored water levels in two wells completed in the perched aquifer(s) above the mine indicate that fractures from subsidence- related deformation drained the perched aquifer in the Blackhawk Formation. The deformation also could have contributed to the decrease in discharge of three springs above the mined area, but discharge from other springs in the area did not change ubstantially; thus, the relation between subsidence and spring discharge, if any, is not clear. No significant changes in the chemical character of water discharging from springs were detected, but the dissolved-solids concentration in water collected from a perched sandstone aquifer overlying the mined coal seams increased during mining activity.

  13. Clear evidence of carcinogenic activity by a whole-leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) in F344/N rats.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Felton, Robert P; Thorn, Brett T; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats. PMID:22968693

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Miller syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... and/or a split in the upper lip ( cleft lip ). These abnormalities frequently cause feeding problems in infants ... named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (6 links) Encyclopedia: Cleft Lip and Palate Encyclopedia: Ectropion Encyclopedia: Hearing Loss - Infants ...

  15. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) peel polyphenols modulate LPS-induced inflammation in human THP-1-derived macrophages through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Refai, Amira; Riahi, Ichrak; Fattouch, Sami; Karoui, Habib; Essafi, Makram

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols inhibit LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-8. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols augment LPS-induced secretion of IL-10 and IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} is partially mediated by IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anti-inflammatory effects of quince polyphenols pass through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition. -- Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of several pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and cancer. A wide range of anti-inflammatory chemicals have been used to treat such diseases while presenting high toxicity and numerous side effects. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-toxic, cost-effective natural agent, polyphenolic extract from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human THP-1-derived macrophages induced the secretion of high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-{alpha} and the chemokine IL-8, which was inhibited by quince peel polyphenolic extract in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, quince polyphenols enhanced the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 secreted by LPS-treated macrophages. We further demonstrated that the unexpected increase in IL-6 secretion that occurred when quince polyphenols were associated with LPS treatment was partially responsible for the polyphenols-mediated inhibition of TNF-{alpha} secretion. Biochemical analysis showed that quince polyphenols extract inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of three major cellular pro-inflammatory effectors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), p38MAPK and Akt. Overall, our data indicate that quince peel polyphenolic extract induces a potent anti-inflammatory effect that may prove useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and that a quince

  16. Hydrologic Conditions and Water-Quality Conditions Following Underground Coal Mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek Drainage Basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed. During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus-Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001. Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999-2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by land

  17. Coarse Clasts Imply Substantial Mid-Late Miocene Slip and Complex Kinematics on Miller Creek and Related Faults, East San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buising, A. V.; Walker, J. P.; Allen, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Coarse-clast study is providing new insight into Neogene slip on poorly understood but potentially important structures between the Hayward and Calaveras faults. The Miller Creek fault (MCF) is a comparatively little studied NW-striking feature exposed in the East Bay Hills east of EBMUD’s Upper San Leandro Reservoir (USLR). Stratigraphic separation on the MCF is locally substantial, with Cretaceous Great Valley Group strata to the west juxtaposed against Neogene units to the east. Outcrop relationships generally indicate a steep westward dip and reverse separation on the MCF, although poorly exposed outcrops suggest near-vertical and eastward dips and/or normal separation on some of the fault's multiple strands. Previous workers have suggested that the MCF continues north as the Moraga fault through the Berkeley Hills and the Moraga and/or Pinole fault east of Point Pinole. The Pinole fault may be an eastern trace of the Moraga system or a separate structure; map geometries suggest steeper dips on it than on the Moraga fault proper. East of the MCF, clast assemblages in the Contra Costa Group (CCG) at USLR are dominated by Coast Range-derived clasts including red, brown, black, and green chert; greywacke; sandstone; vein quartz; Tertiary mafic volcanics; metasediments; blueschist; and metavolcanics. Monterey Group porcellanite is locally present in small quantities. The basal CCG at USLR interfingers with the underlying San Pablo Group (SPG). Age constraints on the CCG at USLR are given by an ~6.2-Ma tuff in the mid- to upper CCG in adjacent Cull Canyon. At Happy Valley, ~15 km NNW of USLR, clast assemblages containing greywacke, blueschist, vein quartz, and metavolcanics suggest that a conglomerate of poorly constrained age (7-9 Ma?) enclosed in typical upper SPG strata and identified as upper SPG by previous workers may actually be a lense of CCG; we tentatively interpret this as a northward continuation of the interfingering CCG-SPG relationship at USLR. West

  18. Structural analysis of xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of plants in the subclass Asteridae.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Matt; Jia, Zhonghua; Peña, Maria J; Cash, Michael; Harper, April; Blackburn, Alan R; Darvill, Alan; York, William S

    2005-08-15

    The structures of xyloglucans from several plants in the subclass Asteridae were examined to determine how their structures vary in different taxonomic orders. Xyloglucans, solubilized from plant cell walls by a sequential (enzymatic and chemical) extraction procedure, were isolated, and their structures were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All campanulids examined, including Lactuca sativa (lettuce, order Asterales), Tenacetum ptarmiciflorum (dusty miller, order Asterales), and Daucus carota (carrot, order Apiales), produce typical xyloglucans that have an XXXG-type branching pattern and contain alpha-d-Xylp-, beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp-, and alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp- side chains. However, the lamiids produce atypical xyloglucans. For example, previous analyses showed that Capsicum annum (pepper) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), two species in the order Solanales, and Olea europaea (olive, order Lamiales) produce xyloglucans that contain arabinosyl and galactosyl residues, but lack fucosyl residues. The XXGG-type xyloglucans produced by Solanaceous species are less branched than the XXXG-type xyloglucan produced by Olea europaea. This study shows that Ipomoea pupurea (morning glory, order Solanales), Ocimum basilicum (basil, order Lamiales), and Plantago major (plantain, order Lamiales) all produce xyloglucans that lack fucosyl residues and have an unusual XXGGG-type branching pattern in which the basic repeating core contains five glucose subunits in the backbone. Furthermore, Neruim oleander (order Gentianales) produces an XXXG-type xyloglucan that contains arabinosyl, galactosyl, and fucosyl residues. The appearance of this intermediate xyloglucan structure in oleander has implications regarding the evolutionary development of xyloglucan structure and its role in primary plant cell walls. PMID:15975566

  19. Multi-responses extraction optimization combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and chemometrics techniques for the fingerprint analysis of Aloe barbadensis Miller.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia-Sheng; Wan, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Wen-Jing; Wu, Xiao-Fang; Xie, Zhi-Yong

    2015-03-25

    A quality control strategy using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) coupled with chemometrics analysis was proposed for Aloe barbadensis Miller. Firstly, the extraction conditions including methanol concentration, extraction time and solvent-to-material ratio were optimized by multi-responses optimization based on response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were achieved by Derringer's desirability function and experimental validation implied that the established model exhibited favorable prediction ability. Then, HPLC fingerprint consisting of 27 common peaks was developed among 15 batches of A. barbadensis samples. 25 common peaks were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method by their spectral characteristics or comparison with the authentic standards. Chemometrics techniques including similarity analysis (SA), principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were implemented to classify A. barbadensis samples. The results demonstrated that all A. barbadensis samples shared similar chromatographic patterns as well as differences. These achievements provided an effective, reliable and comprehensive quality control method for A. barbadensis. PMID:25590942

  20. Supplement to the paper "Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926)" (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    The paper "Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 - 1926)" (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)]) is amended and supplemented with information concerning earlier work on the influence of rotation on Michelson - Morley's nonzero results.

  1. Use of hematological parameters to assess the efficiency of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf extract in alleviation of the effect of ultraviolet--A radiation on African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Osman, Alaa G M; Koutb, Mostafa; Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the negative impacts of UVA on some biochemical and hematological variables of the economically important African catfish, Clarias gariepinus and investigates the putative role of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf extract in protection and/or alleviation of such negative impacts. Changes in the hematological and blood biochemical values often reflect alteration of physiological state. Blood parameters can be useful for the measurement of physiological disturbances in stressed fish and thus provide information about the level of damage in the fish. We found a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the groups exposed to UVA compared to the control groups. Exposure to UVA induced marked red cell shrinkage (increased mean cell hemoglobin concentration) and showed an elevation in mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin in the blood of the exposed fish compared to the control. A significant (P<0.05) reduction in the total white blood cells was recorded in the exposed fish compared to the control. The biochemical parameters (blood glucose, total plasma protein, blood cholesterol, plasma creatinine, aspartic amino transferase and alanine amino transferase) exhibited a significant increase in the blood of fish exposed to UVA. Methanolic extract of quince leaf before ripening of the fruits was analyzed by GC/MS. To investigate the biological impact of this extract and its biologically active components, this extract was tested for its putative role in alleviation of UVA effect on catfish. Quince leaf extract had the ability to prevent hematotoxic stress induced by UVA and resulted in enhancement of the immune system of catfish represented by significant (P<0.05) increase in the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes of the catfish. Quince extract also protected the red blood cells from UVA damage. To our knowledge this is the first report of the effect of quince leaf extract on

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Miller-Dieker syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  3. Planned Parenthood, Sioux Falls Clinic v. Miller.

    PubMed

    1994-08-22

    The U.S. District Court for the District of South Dakota ruled constitutionally valid those parts of a South Dakota statute requiring that a minor give one parent 48 hours notice prior to having an abortion and specifying information to be disclosed to a woman seeking an abortion. The court found that information required for informed consent to an abortion amounted to reasonable disclosure. Other state abortion requirements, however, were found to be invalid. These included a provision permitting bypass of parental notification, because the provision applied to only abused or neglected minors and in effect made any pregnant teenager who wished to bypass parental notification an abused or neglected minor. Provisions in the law for financial penalties for persons performing or attempting to perform an abortion without following state law were determined to be an impermissible obstacle to the right to an abortion, particularly in this case where only one physician in the state and within a 235-mile radius performs abortions. PMID:11648420

  4. 40Ar-39Ar age determinations of lunar basalt meteorites Asuka 881757, Yamato 793169, Miller Range 05035, La Paz Icefield 02205, Northwest Africa 479, and basaltic breccia Elephant Moraine 96008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera A.; Burgess, Ray; Morris, Adam

    2009-06-01

    40Ar-39Ar data are presented for the unbrecciated lunar basaltic meteorites Asuka (A-) 881757, Yamato (Y-) 793169, Miller Range (MIL) 05035, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02205, Northwest Africa (NWA) 479 (paired with NWA 032), and basaltic fragmental breccia Elephant Moraine (EET) 96008. Stepped heating 40Ar-39Ar analyses of several bulk fragments of related meteorites A-881757, Y-793169 and MIL 05035 give crystallization ages of 3.763 ± 0.046 Ga, 3.811 ± 0.098 Ga and 3.845 ± 0.014 Ga, which are comparable with previous age determinations by Sm-Nd, U-Pb Th-Pb, Pb-Pb, and Rb-Sr methods. These three meteorites differ in the degree of secondary 40Ar loss with Y-793169 showing relatively high Ar loss probably during an impact event ˜200 Ma ago, lower Ar loss in MIL 05035 and no loss in A-881757. Bulk and impact melt glass-bearing samples of LAP 02205 gave similar ages (2.985 ± 0.016 Ga and 2.874 ± 0.056 Ga) and are consistent with ages previously determined using other isotope pairs. The basaltic portion of EET 96008 gives an age of 2.650 ± 0.086 Ga which is considered to be the crystallization age of the basalt in this meteorite. The Ar release for fragmental basaltic breccia EET 96008 shows evidence of an impact event at 631 ± 20 Ma. The crystallization age of 2.721 ± 0.040 Ga determined for NWA 479 is indistinguishable from the weighted mean age obtained from three samples of NWA 032 supporting the proposal that these meteorites are paired. The similarity of 40Ar-39Ar ages with ages determined by other isotopic systems for multiple meteorites suggests that the K-Ar isotopic system is robust for meteorites that have experienced a significant shock event and not a prolonged heating regime.

  5. Temperature-Induced Leakage from Chilling-Sensitive and Chilling-Resistant Plants 12

    PubMed Central

    Paull, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    Leakage rates were determined from leaf cells loaded with rubidium and [3H]leucine. There was a differential response between leucine and rubidium leakage depending upon the species used. The rate of leucine leakage shows a small decline below 5 C for two altitudinal variants of Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl., whereas Lycopersicon esculentum L. showed a marked increase below 5 C. Rubidium showed a marked increase in leakage rate below 10 C with the altitudinal variants, with only a slight increase for the L. esculentum species. A rough relationship existed between rubidium leakage rate at 1 C and the altitude of origin of the L. hirsutum race, the low altitudinal forms having higher leakage rates than the higher altitudinal variants. The L. esculentum lines show a rubidium leakage response similar to that of the high altitude L. hirsutum variants. Higher leakage rates were obtained if the calcium concentration in the medium was less than 1 millimolar and upon addition of metabolic poisons and detergents. The results are consistent with the view that chilling injury causes changes in the membrane and that cell leakage is an early symptom of this change in some species. Some chilling-sensitive species have increased leakage within 1 hour of exposure to chilling temperature. PMID:16661859

  6. High-resolution mapping and genetic characterization of the Lazy-2 gravitropic mutant of tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, F. J.; Lomax, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Mutation of the Lazy-2 (Lz-2) gene in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) produces a phytochrome-dependent reversal of shoot gravitropism, providing a unique genetic resource for investigating how signals from light modulate gravitropism. We mapped the Lz-2 gene using RFLPs and a PCR-based technique to assess the feasibility of positional cloning. Analysis of a 1338 plant backcross population between L. esculentum and L. pennellii placed Lz-2 within a 1.2 cM interval on chromosome 5, 0.4 cM from TG504-CT201A interval. The inabililty to resolve these markers indicates that Lz-2 resides in a centromeric region in which recombination is highly suppressed. Lazy-2 is tightly linked to but does not encode the gene for ACC4, an enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis. We also observed that Lz-2 is partially dominant under certain conditions and stages of development.

  7. Polynucleotide phosphorylase from plant cells.

    PubMed

    Schumacher-Wittkopf, E; Richter, G; Schulze, S

    1984-06-01

    The isolation of polynucleotide phosphorylase (EC 2. 7. 7. 8) from suspension cultured plant cells of parsley (Petroselinum sativum) and from tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum) is described. The procedure includes an ultracentrifugation step, a glycerol density gradient centrifugation and preparative gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions. Isoelectric focusing gives rise to a major component (pI ≈ 7.5) and to a minor one (pI ≈ 5). The enzyme contains five subunits with apparent Mr values of 160 000, 140 000, 70 000, 34 000 and 12 000, the 70 000-dalton one being a glycoprotein. PMID:24253429

  8. Ozone-induced ethylene release from leaf surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rodecap, K.D.; Tingey, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Ozone-induced stress-ethylene emissions from the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of four plant species (Glycine max (L) Merr. cv. Dare, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma VF, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Hedera helix L.) were studied to determine if the stress ethylene diffused through the stomata or cuticle. In plants not exposed to ozone, basal ethylene was detected above both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of all the plant species examined, indicating that some ethylene can diffuse across the leaf cuticle. Oxone-induced stress ethylene production in all species examined. These data indicate that ozone-induced stress ethylene primarily diffuses from the leaf via the stomata.

  9. Growth of Plants in Solution Culture Containing Low Levels of Chromium 1

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, E. W. D.; Allaway, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Chromium was not required for normal growth of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. subsp. longifolia), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), or bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in solution culture containing 3.8 × 10−4 μM Cr. Plants grown on this purified nutrient solution contained an average of 22 ng Cr/g dry weight. Duckweed (Lemna sp.) grew and reproduced normally on a dilute nutrient solution containing 3.8 × 10−5 μM Cr. PMID:16658503

  10. Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mancinelli, A. L.; Yang, Chia-Ping Huang; Lindquist, P.; Anderson, O. R.; Rabino, I.

    1975-01-01

    Streptomycin enhances the synthesis of anthocyanins and inhibits the synthesis of chlorophylls and the development of chloroplasts in dark-grown seedlings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), mustard (Sinapis alba), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and turnip (Brassica rapa) exposed to prolonged periods of irradiation in various spectral regions. These results suggest that the contribution of photosynthesis to light-dependent high irradiance reaction anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip is minimal, if any at all. So far, phytochrome is the only photoreceptor whose action in the control of light-dependent anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip has been satisfactorily demonstrated. Images PMID:16659061

  11. Rheological Properties of Enzymatically Isolated Tomato Fruit Cuticle.

    PubMed Central

    Petracek, P. D.; Bukovac, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Rheological properties were determined for cuticular membranes (CMs) enzymatically isolated from mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Pik Red) fruit. The cuticle responded as a viscoelastic polymer in stress-strain studies. Both CM and dewaxed CM expanded and became more elastic and susceptible to fracture when hydrated, suggesting that water plasticized the cuticle. Dewaxing of the CM caused similar changes in elasticity and fracturing, indicating that wax may serve as a supporting filler in the cutin matrix. Exposure of the cuticle to the surfactant Triton X-100 did not significantly affect its rheological properties. PMID:12228622

  12. 3D-reconstruction of blood vessels by ultramicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jährling, Nina; Becker, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    As recently shown, ultramicroscopy (UM) allows 3D-visualization of even large microscopic structures with µm resolution. Thus, it can be applied to anatomical studies of numerous biological and medical specimens. We reconstructed the three-dimensional architecture of tomato-lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum) stained vascular networks by UM in whole mouse organs. The topology of filigree branches of the microvasculature was visualized. Since tumors require an extensive growth of blood vessels to survive, this novel approach may open up new vistas in neurobiology and histology, particularly in cancer research. PMID:20539742

  13. Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

    2012-01-01

    The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase. PMID:23275691

  14. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. I - A role for ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1981-01-01

    Two inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, Co(2+) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and two inhibitors of ethylene action, Ag(+) and CO2, are shown to delay the gravitropic response of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) stems. Gentle shaking on a mechanical shaker does not inhibit the gravitropic response, but vigorous hand shaking for 120 seconds delays the response somewhat. AVG and Ag(+) further delay the response of mechanically stimulated plants. AVG retards the storage of bending energy but not of stimulus. In gravitropism, graviperception may first stimulate ethylene evolution, which may then influence bending directly, or responses involving ethylene could be more indirect.

  15. Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis: III. The Action of Streptomycin on the Synthesis of Chlorophyll and Anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, A L; Yang, C P; Lindquist, P; Anderson, O R; Rabino, I

    1975-02-01

    Streptomycin enhances the synthesis of anthocyanins and inhibits the synthesis of chlorophylls and the development of chloroplasts in dark-grown seedlings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), mustard (Sinapis alba), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and turnip (Brassica rapa) exposed to prolonged periods of irradiation in various spectral regions. These results suggest that the contribution of photosynthesis to light-dependent high irradiance reaction anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip is minimal, if any at all. So far, phytochrome is the only photoreceptor whose action in the control of light-dependent anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip has been satisfactorily demonstrated. PMID:16659061

  16. Effect of triacontanol on plant cell cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hangarter, R; Ries, S K

    1978-05-01

    Triacontanol [CH(3)(CH(2))(28)CH(2)OH] increased growth in vitro of cell cultures of haploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The fresh weight of cell cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and barley (Hordeum vulgare x H. jubatum) was also increased. The increase in growth of tobacco callus seems to have been due to an increase in cell number. Another long chain alcohol, octocosanol [CH(3)(CH(2))(26)CH(2)OH], did not increase the growth of tobacco cell cultures. PMID:16660401

  17. Effect of Triacontanol on Plant Cell Cultures in Vitro 1

    PubMed Central

    Hangarter, Roger; Ries, Stanley K.; Carlson, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Triacontanol [CH3(CH2)28CH2OH] increased growth in vitro of cell cultures of haploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The fresh weight of cell cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and barley (Hordeum vulgare x H. jubatum) was also increased. The increase in growth of tobacco callus seems to have been due to an increase in cell number. Another long chain alcohol, octocosanol [CH3(CH2)26CH2OH], did not increase the growth of tobacco cell cultures. PMID:16660401

  18. Effect of endogenously synthesized and exogenously applied ethanol on tomato fruit ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.O.; Saltveit, M.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var Castlemart) fruit ripening was inhibited by tissue concentrations of ethanol that were produced by either exposure to exogenous ethanol vapors or synthesis under anaerobic atmospheres. Ethanol was not detected in aerobically ripened tomato fruit. Ripening was not inhibited by exposure to methanol at an equivalent molar concentration to inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, while ripening was slightly more inhibited by n-propanol than by equivalent molar concentrations of ethanol. The mottled appearance of a few ripened ethanol-treated fruit was not observed in n-propanol-treated fruit.

  19. What Killed Leah Miller: Abuse or Natural Causes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    An Amish infant suddenly dies, and autopsy findings lead law enforcement agencies to suspect the parents of child abuse. Experts who advocate for the parents argue that a lack of vitamin K combined with a genetic liver disorder common in the Amish population may have resulted in the baby's death. Students assume the role of a police detective and…

  20. Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa, Inc. v. Miller.

    PubMed

    1999-09-24

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit found an Iowa statute banning partial-birth abortions to be unconstitutional. Nonprofit corporations that operate abortion clinics, physicians who perform abortions, and medical professors who taught abortion methods, had challenged the constitutionality of Iowa's statute in a lower court. The lower court had held that Iowa's statute was unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and the U.S. Court of Appeals agreed. Although the Iowa statute was intended to ban the dilation and extraction procedure, it implicitly banned commonly used abortion procedures in the second trimester, such as suction-curettage and dilation and evacuation. The Court of Appeals ruled that the Iowa statute created an undue burden for women seeking pre-viability abortions. PMID:11648440

  1. Foster-Miller's development of dry coal feed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Dry coal feeder systems developed for pressurized conversion processes were carried through a laboratory scale development program. These concepts include: (1) a centrifugal solids feeder; (2) a fluidized piston feeder; (3) a linear pocket feeder; and (4) a compacted coal plug feeder. Results of laboratory model testing of all concepts are reviewed.

  2. Nasal mites (Gamasida: Rhinonyssidae) of Paroaria coronata (Miller) (Passeriformes: Emberezidae).

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, C S; Coimbra, M A A; Müller, G; Brum, J G W

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the species of nasal mites of Paroaria coronata (red-crested cardinal), the nasal cavity of 40 birds were examined. The nasal mites were identified as Ptilonyssus sairae de Castro and Sternostoma pirangae Pence, with 50% and 7.5% of prevalence, respectively. This is the first record of these mite species parasitizing P. coronata. This report also amplifies the area of occurrence of S. pirangae for Brazil and that of P. sairae for Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:21952970

  3. Miller Lite Report on Women in Sports. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New World Decisions, Ltd., Iselin, NJ.

    This document is a copy of the survey questionnaire responded to by 1,682 members of the Women's Sport Foundation. The questions focused on the following areas: (1) personal sports interests; (2) personal background; (3) sports participation; (4) interest in and attitude toward spectator sports; and (5) general opinion on women in sports. A brief…

  4. Antioxidant Effect of Lippia alba (Miller) N. E. Brown

    PubMed Central

    Chies, Claire E.; Branco, Cátia S.; Scola, Gustavo; Agostini, Fabiana; Gower, Adriana E.; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-01-01

    Lippia alba is a shrub found in all regions of Brazil and other countries in South and Central America. L. alba exhibits variability among its different accessions, showing differences in morphology and in the composition of its essential oil. This study evaluated the phenolic profiles and the antioxidant activities of seven different accessions of L. alba. The seven accessions of L. alba studied exhibited an important phenolic content, and all accessions demonstrated antioxidant activity with different efficacies. The main flavonoids in all accessions were apigenin, luteolin, naringin and rutin. The Santa Vitória do Palmar accession exhibited higher naringin and total phenolic content. This extract was able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in tissue homogenates of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and liver of Wistar rats. PMID:26784458

  5. Teaching Selected Poems from Jim Wayne Miller's "The Brier Poems."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tammy

    All lessons in this unit of study are designed to introduce some of the basic elements of poetry (simile, metaphor, alliteration, sensory language, etc.) while exposing students to a realistic slice of Appalachian life. Appropriate grade levels and a time frame are suggested, and relevant Virginia Standards of Learning are outlined in the unit.…

  6. Mark Miller, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. A study of dermatitis in trona miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Moshell, A.; Greaves, W.; Bang, K.M.; Holthouser, M.; Campbell, D.; Bernstein, R.

    1983-04-01

    Trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) is mined from an underground deposit in Wyoming and processed for use in the manufacture of glass, paper, and detergents, and in chemical applications. Trona dust is alkaline (pH 10.5) and may have an irritant effect on the respiratory airways, mucous membranes, and the skin. One hundred forty-two underground miners and 88 surface workers from one trona facility participated voluntarily in an epidemiologic and clinical study. Their mean age was 37.6 and their mean working period, 10.0 years. One half of the study participants complained of skin symptoms; dermatologic symptoms increased from twofold to fifteenfold after the subjects began trona mining. Trona dermatitis consists of pruritic, erythematous, raised, dry, and fissured lesions commonly affecting the hands, arms, and legs. A dose-response relationship was observed among underground workers. Patch testing with 10% aqueous trona and sodium carbonate was negative, suggesting that the dermatitis was primarily irritant in nature.

  8. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Confusions and Controversies about Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Uta

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hans Asperger drew attention to individuals who show the core symptoms of autism in the presence of high verbal intelligence. Methods: A review of the literature explores current issues concerning the diagnosis and nature of Asperger syndrome. Results: The behavioural and neurophysiological evidence to date suggests that Asperger…

  9. Quince (Cydonia oblonga miller) fruit characterization using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Martins, Rui C; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2005-01-12

    This paper presents a large amount of data on the composition of quince fruit with regard to phenolic compounds, organic acids, and free amino acids. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried out to characterize this fruit. The main purposes of this study were (i) the clarification of the interactions among three factors-quince fruit part, geographical origin of the fruits, and harvesting year-and the phenolic, organic acid, and free amino acid profiles; (ii) the classification of the possible differences; and (iii) the possible correlation among the contents of phenolics, organic acids, and free amino acids in quince fruit. With these aims, quince pulp and peel from nine geographical origins of Portugal, harvested in three consecutive years, for a total of 48 samples, were studied. PCA was performed to assess the relationship among the different components of quince fruit phenolics, organic acids, and free amino acids. Phenolics determination was the most interesting. The difference between pulp and peel phenolic profiles was more apparent during PCA. Two PCs accounted for 81.29% of the total variability, PC1 (74.14%) and PC2 (7.15%). PC1 described the difference between the contents of caffeoylquinic acids (3-O-, 4-O-, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin 3-galactoside, rutin, kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, quercetin glycosides acylated with p-coumaric acid, and kaempferol glycosides acylated with p-coumaric acid). PC2 related the content of 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid with the contents of 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids. PCA of phenolic compounds enables a clear distinction between the two parts of the fruit. The data presented herein may serve as a database for the detection of adulteration in quince derivatives. PMID:15631517

  10. 75 FR 19956 - Miller and Miller, Waterpower LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Worthville Dam Project No. 3156, located on the Deep River in Randolph County, North Carolina. Applicants... filed electronically via the Internet. See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii)(2008) and the instructions on...

  11. 75 FR 8330 - Miller and Miller; Notice of Termination of License by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Worthville Dam Project is located on the Deep River in Randolph County, North Carolina. f. Filed Pursuant to... Commission's Web site under the ``e-Filing'' link. The Commission strongly encourages electronic filings... Public Reference Room or may be viewed on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov using the...

  12. Constraint around Quarter-Power Allometric Scaling in Wild Tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Muir, Christopher D; Thomas-Huebner, Meret

    2015-09-01

    The West-Brown-Enquist (WBE) metabolic scaling theory posits that many organismal features scale predictably with body size because of selection to minimize transport costs in resource distribution networks. Many scaling exponents are quarter-powers, as predicted by WBE, but there are also biologically significant deviations that could reflect adaptation to different environments. A central but untested prediction of the WBE model is that wide deviation from optimal scaling is penalized, leading to a pattern of constraint on scaling exponents. Here, we demonstrate, using phylogenetic comparative methods, that variation in allometric scaling between mass and leaf area across 17 wild tomato taxa is constrained around a value indistinguishable from that predicted by WBE but significantly greater than 2/3 (geometric-similarity model). The allometric-scaling exponent was highly correlated with fecundity, water use, and drought response, suggesting that it is functionally significant and therefore could be under selective constraints. However, scaling was not strictly log-log linear but rather declined during ontogeny in all species, as has been observed in many plant species. We caution that although our results supported one prediction of the WBE model, it did not strongly test the model in other important respects. Nevertheless, phylogenetic comparative methods such as those used here are powerful but underutilized tools for metabolic ecology that complement existing methods to adjudicate between models. PMID:26655358

  13. Sources of Resistance to Pepino Mosaic Virus in Solanum habrochaites (Lycopersicon hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging disease on greenhouse tomato. A major tomato germplasm core collection was evaluated for its resistance against PepMV. These accessions included 23 Solanum lycopersicum L., 8 S. pimpinellifolium L., 33 S. peruvianum L., 18 S. chilense (Dunal) Reiche, and ...

  14. Uptake of iodine-131 in tropical crops. [Ipomoea batatas; Ipomoea reptans; Lycopersicon

    SciTech Connect

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vegetable crops which include sweet potato tops (Ipomoea batatas), kangkong (Ipomoea repitans) and tomato plants were grown in dark-painted jars containing Hoagland-Arnon modified nutrient solution, utilizing the technique of hydroponics. The experiments for sweet potato tops and kangkong plants were duplicated for replicate studies and steady-state conditions were simulated throughout. Tomato plants were grown in the same manner but growth was observed to be hampered when starting from mature plants. Radioiodine was added to the nutrient medium containing 0.5% non-radioactive NaI solution. The solution in the jar was adjusted daily so as to maintain a constant concentration which would simulate routine releases that are essentially continuous. After incorporating the radioiodine to the solution, 10 ml aliquot was taken and counted for radioactivity by means of a 5'' x 5'' NaI(T1) detector connected to the multichannel gamma analyzer. Both plants and solution were counted for radioactivity at different time intervals using the same geometry. Results indicate that the activity in the plants were relatively higher than that of the solution. The activity tends to level off or decrease after a few days. The concentration factor which is the ratio of the activity in the plant (uCi/gm) over the activity in the medium (uCi/ml) varied for each time interval. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Persistence and effect of processing on chlorpyriphos residues in tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Rani, Mamta; Saini, Sunayana; Kumari, Beena

    2013-09-01

    Persistence of chlorpyriphos in tomato was studied following applications of Action 505EC at 800 and 1600 g ha(-1) with active application of chlorpyriphos as 400 and 800 g a.i. ha(-1). The average initial deposits of chlorpyriphos were 0.155 and 0.372 mg kg(-1) on tomato fruits on application of ready-mix formulation, Action 505EC at single and double dose, respectively. The residues dissipated with half- life period of 4.43 days at single dose and 4.38 days at double dose following pseudo first order kinetics.Residues of chlorpyriphos in both the doses on 0 day were below maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 mg kg(-1). Processing was found very effective in reducing the residues of chlorpyriphos in tomato fruits. By washing, reduction of chlorpyriphos was in the range of 41-44 per cent. Washing followed by boiling reduced the residues from 89 to 91% whereas peeling removed residues from 62 to 64%. In soil samples, residues of chlorpyriphos reached below detectable level of 0.010 mg kg(-1) after 5 and 10 days after spray at single and double dose, respectively. PMID:23764237

  16. Taxonomy of Wild Tomatoes and their Relatives(Solanum sect. Lycopersicoides, sect. Juglandifolia, sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild tomatoes are tremendous sources of useful traits in tomato breeding, to improve disease resistances, environmental tolerances, and improved agronomic traits such as increased soluble solids. This chapter includes historical and updated information on the phylogenetic relationships of wild tomat...

  17. Evaluation of toxicity of trichloroethylene for plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, S.B.; Davis, L.C.; Dana, J.; Selk, K.; Erickson, L.E.

    1996-12-31

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure of several species of plants was studied. Although earlier studies indicated that the root systems of plants could tolerate an aqueous phase concentration of 1 mM for a day, toxicity to whole plants was observed at somewhat lower levels in the gas phase in this study. The tested species included pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), sweet potato (Dioscoria batata), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Damage was observable as wilting or failure of the gravitropic response of shoots at levels above about 0.2 mM in the gas phase, which corresponds to 0.5 mM in the aqueous phase. Plants were usually killed quickly at gas phase concentrations above 0.4 mM.

  18. Photoregulation of Anthocyanin Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Mancinelli, Alberto L.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of the spectral sensitivity of anthocyanin production in dark-grown and light-pretreated systems was carried out in Brassica oleracea L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Secale cereale L. and Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Light pretreatments bring about an enhancement of the inductive, red-far red reversible response in all systems, a decrease of the continuous irradiation response in cabbage, rye, and tomato seedlings, and an enhancement of the continuous irradiation response in cabbage leaf disks. Light pretreatments also bring about a marked change in the spectral sensitivity of the continuous irradiation response. The different effect of light pretreatments on the photosensitivity of the response to short and long wavelength irradiations suggests that two photoreceptors, phytochrome and cryptochrome, may be involved in the photoregulation of anthocyanin production. PMID:16663641

  19. Degradation of isolated tomato cell walls by purified polygalacturonase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Themmen, A P; Tucker, G A; Grierson, D

    1982-01-01

    Cell wall preparations from green pericarp of normal and mutant Neverripe (Nr) and ripening inhibitor (rin) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit were all equally degraded in vitro by a cell wall-bound protein extract from ripe normal tomatoes.Similar cell wall-bound protein extracts from ripe Nr fruit were not as effective and those from ripe rin fruit gave no cell wall degradation at all in vitro. This was correlated with the absence of polygalacturonase in rin and low activity of Nr extracts.Purified polygalacturonase was capable of in vitro cell wall degradation and it seems that this enzyme can account for the cell wall degradation observed with the total cell wall-bound protein extracts from ripe fruit. PMID:16662142

  20. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses. PMID:26070163

  1. Bio-fabrication of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of red tomato and its use as a colorimetric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Gadadhar; Maiti, Swarnali; Laha, Jayasree Konar

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we report a green method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNP) using the aqueous extract of red tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum). We believe that citric acid and ascorbic acid present in tomato juice are responsible for the reduction of gold ions. This biosynthesized GNP in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate has been used as a colorimetric sensor to detect and estimate the pesticide, methyl parathion. The GNP in the presence of methyl parathion shows a new peak at 400 nm due to the formation of 4-nitrophenolate ion by catalytic hydrolysis of methyl parathion in alkaline medium. A calibration curve between the absorption coefficients of the 400-nm peak versus the concentration of the pesticide allows the quantitative estimation of the 4-nitrophenolate ion, thereby enabling indirect estimation of methyl parathion present in the system.

  2. Structures and functions of oligosaccharins. Progress report, June 15, 1993--March 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Albersheim, P.

    1995-03-01

    This research focuses on the following: Purification, characterization, and cell wall localization of an {alpha}-fucosidase that inactivates a xyloglucan oligosaccharin; Oligogalacturonides inhibit the formation of roots on tobacco explants; Activation of a tobacco glycine-rich protein gene by a fungal glucan preparation; Fusarium moniliforme secretes four endopolygalacturonases derived from a single gene product; Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulates in Phaseolus vulgaris L. in response to wounding, elicitors and fungal infection; Generation of {beta}-glucan elicitors by plant enzymes and inhibition of the enzymes by a fungal protein; Polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), pear (Pyrus communis L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum): Immunological relatedness and specificity of polygalacturonase inhibition; Fungi protect themselves against plant pathogenesis-related glycanases; Purification, cloning, and characterization of two xylanases from Magnaporthe grisea, the rice blast fungus; and Molecular cloning and expression pattern of an {alpha}-fucosidase gene from pea seedlings.

  3. A Novel Small Heat Shock Protein Gene, vis1, Contributes to Pectin Depolymerization and Juice Viscosity in Tomato Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Deng, Zhiping; Ding, Chang-Kui; Handa, Avtar K.; Ozminkowski, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    We have characterized a novel small heat shock protein gene, viscosity 1 (vis1) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and provide evidence that it plays a role in pectin depolymerization and juice viscosity in ripening fruits. Expression of vis1 is negatively associated with juice viscosity in diverse tomato genotypes. vis1 exhibits DNA polymorphism among tomato genotypes, and the alleles vis1-hta (high-transcript accumulator; accession no. AY128101) and vis1-lta (low transcript accumulator; accession no. AY128102) are associated with thinner and thicker juice, respectively. Segregation of tomato lines heterogeneous for vis1 alleles indicates that vis1 influences pectin depolymerization and juice viscosity in ripening fruits. vis1 is regulated by fruit ripening and high temperature and exhibits a typical heat shock protein chaperone function when expressed in bacterial cells. We propose that VIS1 contributes to physiochemical properties of juice, including pectin depolymerization, by reducing thermal denaturation of depolymerizing enzymes during daytime elevated temperatures. PMID:12586896

  4. [Construction of Bacillus thuringiensis labeled recombinant strain and horizontal transfer of its cry1Ac10 gene].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Sun, Ming; Li, Lin; Yang, Zaiqing; Yu, Ziniu

    2005-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid pBMBZGC10 was obtained by the ligation of gfp-cry1Ac10 fusion gene and vector plasmid pAD4412, which was then introduced by gene pulser into acrystalliferous strain CryB, and a recombinant strain CryB(pBMBZGC10) was obtained. Different fermentative solutions of recombinant strain were used for multi-spraying on Brassica pekinesis, Ipomoea aquatica and Lycopersicon esculentum leaves. The results of fluorescent detection and PCR amplification revealed that cry1Ac10 gene did not transfer into indigenous bacteria, actinomyces and fungi in test soil, and could not be detected in roots, stems and leaves of test plants. PMID:15852975

  5. Plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides produced from tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshisada; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Tsubura, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Kusakabe, Isao; Yamada, Kosumi; Miki, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Koji

    2002-01-01

    Tomato juice waste was hydrolyzed with acid. Tomato juice waste (500 g; wet weight) was heated with 0.5 N HCl (2.5 l) at 70 degrees C for 4 h. After neutralization, the growth-promoting extracts (300 g; dry weight) in the plants were produced from the tomato waste. The acid extract significantly promoted the growth of cockscomb (Celosia argentea L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings. We have recognized potent plant growth-promoting substances in the acid extract from tomato waste. The most effective components in the active fraction were almost all oligogalacturonic acids (DP 6-12). This paper is the first report that plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides can be directly produced from tomato juice waste. It is possible that the substances from the tomato waste can become useful plant growth regulators in the agriculture field in the future. PMID:11762911

  6. Tomato responses to ammonium and nitrate nutrition under controlled root-zone pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peet, M. M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Tolley, L. C.; Robarge, W. P.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. 'Vendor') plants were grown for 21 days in flowing solution culture with N supplied as either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+. Acidity in the solutions was automatically maintained at pH 6.0. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter and total N and net photosynthetic rate were not affected by source of N. Thus, when rhizosphere acidity was controlled at pH 6.0 during uptake, either NO3- or NH4+ can be used efficiently by tomato. Uptake of K+ and Ca2+ were not altered by N source, but uptake of Mg2+ was reduced in NH4(+)-fed plants. This indicates that uptake of Mg2+ was regulated at least partially by ionic balance within the plant.

  7. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste. PMID:24111697

  8. Flower development in normal tomato and a gibberellin-deficient (ga-2) mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Vester, J.E.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Flower buds of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) gibberellin-deficient mutant (ga-2/ga-2) were initiated, but did not develop to maturity and eventually aborted. If GA{sub 1} was applied to a developing inflorescence or stem tip, completion of flower bud development and fruit set occurred. In development of the ga-2 flowers, the corolla and stamens did not elongate and the style was misshapen or extended past the tip of the anthers. Light microscope observation indicated that meiosis of both microsporocytes and megasporocytes did not occur. Cells of the sporogenous layer were initiated, but growth was arrested and they eventually degenerated. The ovary was normal in appearance. However, the megasporocytes degenerated, giving rise to a cavity in the ovule. Thus, although GA is not required for flower initiation in tomato, it is essential for meiosis of the microsporocytes and megasporocytes and elongation of the corolla and stamens.

  9. Tomato responses to ammonium and nitrate nutrition under controlled root-zone pH.

    PubMed

    Peet, M M; Raper, C D; Tolley, L C; Robarge, W P

    1985-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. 'Vendor') plants were grown for 21 days in flowing solution culture with N supplied as either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+. Acidity in the solutions was automatically maintained at pH 6.0. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter and total N and net photosynthetic rate were not affected by source of N. Thus, when rhizosphere acidity was controlled at pH 6.0 during uptake, either NO3- or NH4+ can be used efficiently by tomato. Uptake of K+ and Ca2+ were not altered by N source, but uptake of Mg2+ was reduced in NH4(+)-fed plants. This indicates that uptake of Mg2+ was regulated at least partially by ionic balance within the plant. PMID:11539725

  10. Stimulating Effects of Seed Treatment by Magnetized Plasma on Tomato Growth and Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Meiqiang; Huang, Mingjing; Ma, Buzhou; Ma, Tengcai

    2005-12-01

    Tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. cv. zhongshu No. 6) were treated by magnetized plasma before being sown to investigate its effect on the growth and yield of tomatoes. Biochemical analysis showed that dehydrogenase activity increased with the increase of the current but decreased when the current was higher than 1.5 A. The activities of peroxidase (POD) isoenzyme changed in the same pattern. There was no difference in germination percentage between treatments and control, which were carried out in laboratory conditions. However, significant (α = 0.01) difference was observed in germination percentage in the pot experiment. In the pot experiment, the sprouting rate for the treatment with a 1.5 A current was 32.75%, whereas the untreated was only 4.75% on the eleventh day. Germination time is more than one day earlier than the control. The 1.5 A treatment increased the tomato yield by 20.7%.

  11. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-09-29

    The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) and toward extracted tomato-plant volatiles presented in the absence of other cues. Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) and wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) also elicit directed growth. Moreover, seedlings can distinguish tomato and wheat volatiles and preferentially grow toward the former. Several individual compounds from tomato and wheat elicit directed growth by C. pentagona, whereas one compound from wheat is repellent. These findings provide compelling evidence that volatiles mediate important ecological interactions among plant species. PMID:17008532

  12. Increased ability of transgenic plants expressing the bacterial enzyme ACC deaminase to accumulate Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Grichko, V P; Filby, B; Glick, B R

    2000-07-28

    Transgenic tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae) cv. Heinz 902 expressing the bacterial gene 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, under the transcriptional control of either two tandem 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoters (constitutive expression), the rolD promoter from Agrobacterium rhizogenes (root specific expression) or the pathogenesis related PRB-1b promoter from tobacco, were compared to non-transgenic tomato plants in their ability to grow in the presence of Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Ni, Pb, or Zn and to accumulate these metals. Parameters that were examined include metal concentration and ACC deaminase activity in both plant shoots and roots; root and shoot development; and leaf chlorophyll content. In general, transgenic tomato plants expressing ACC deaminase, especially those controlled by the PRB-1b promoter, acquired a greater amount of metal within the plant tissues, and were less subject to the deleterious effects of the metals on plant growth than were non-transgenic plants. PMID:10936659

  13. Involvement of Plant Growth Substances in the Alteration of Leaf Gas Exchange of Flooded Tomato Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Kent J.

    1983-01-01

    Ethylene, abscisic acid, and cytokinins were tested for their ability to either induce or prevent the changes which occur in gas exchange characteristics of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) leaves during short-term soil flooding. Ethylene, which increases in the shoots of flooded plants, had no effect on stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity of drained plants. Abscisic acid, which also accumulates in the shoots of flooded plants, could reproduce the stomatal behavior of flooded plants when sprayed on the leaves of drained plants. However, photosynthetic capacity of drained plants was unaffected by abscisic acid sprays. Cytokinin export from the roots to the shoots declines in flooded plants. Spray applications of benzyladenine increased stomatal conductance in both flooded and drained plants. In addition, the decline in photosynthetic capacity during flooding was largely prevented by supplementary cytokinin applications. The possible involvement of these growth substances in modifying leaf gas exchange during flooding is discussed. PMID:16663243

  14. Effect of Soils from Six Management Systems on Root-knot Nematodes and Plant Growth in Greenhouse Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Chellemi, D. O.; Périès, X.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of soil management systems on root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) eggs and gall incidence on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) following tomato were evaluated. Soil was collected from a replicated field experiment in which six management systems were being assessed for vegetable production. Soil management systems were conventional production, organic production, bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture, bahiagrass: Stylosanthes (Stylosanthes guianensis) pasture, bare ground fallow, and weed fallow. Soil was collected from field plots and used in greenhouse experiments. Identification of egg-parasitic fungi and the incidence of root-knot nematode galling were assessed both on tomato and cucumber planted in the same pots following the removal of tomato plants. Organic, bare ground fallow and conventional production treatments reduced galling both on tomato and on cucumber following tomato. Although no treatment consistently enhanced egg-parasitic fungi, management system did affect egg viability and the types of fungi isolated from parasitized eggs. PMID:19262892

  15. Slow-growth phenotype of transgenic tomato expressing apoplastic invertase

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, C.D.; Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1991-02-01

    The growth of transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants that express in their apoplast yeast invertase under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter is severely inhibited. The higher the level of invertase, the greater the inhibition of growth. A second phenotypic characteristic of these transgenic plants is the development of yellow and necrotic spots on the leaves, and leaf curling. Again the severity of the symptoms is correlated with the level of invertase. These symptoms do not develop in shaded leaves indicating the need for photosynthesis. Keeping the plants in the dark for a prolonged period (24 hours) results in the disappearance of leaf starch from the control plants, but not from the plants with apoplastic invertase. These results are consistent with the interpretation that apoplastic invertase prevents photosynthate export from source leaves and that phloem loading includes an apoplastic step.

  16. Evidence for surfactant solubilization of plant epicuticular wax.

    PubMed

    Tamura, H; Knoche, M; Bukovac, M J

    2001-04-01

    The solubilization of isolated, reconstituted tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit and broccoli (Brassica oleracaea var. botrytis L.) leaf epicuticular waxes (ECW) by nonionic octylphenoxypolyethoxy ethanol surfactant (Triton X-100) was demonstrated in a model system by TLC and fluorescence analysis using pyrene as a fluorescent probe. ECW was solubilized at or above the surfactant critical micelle concentration; solubilization increased with an increase in micelle concentration. As shown by the fluorescence quenching of pyrene, surfactant solubilization of the ECW increased rapidly for the first 12 h, then approached a plateau, increased linearly with an increase in temperature (22--32 degrees C), and decreased linearly with the log of the polyoxyethylene chain length (range 5--40 oxyethylenes). These data are discussed in relation to surfactant effects on phytotoxicity and performance of foliar spray application of agrochemicals. PMID:11308330

  17. Enhanced Levels of the Aroma and Flavor Compound S-Linalool by Metabolic Engineering of the Terpenoid Pathway in Tomato Fruits1

    PubMed Central

    Lewinsohn, Efraim; Schalechet, Fernond; Wilkinson, Jack; Matsui, Kenji; Tadmor, Yaakov; Nam, Kyoung-Hee; Amar, Orit; Lastochkin, Elena; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Hiatt, William; Gepstein, Shimon; Pichersky, Eran

    2001-01-01

    The aromas of fruits, vegetables, and flowers are mixtures of volatile metabolites, often present in parts per billion levels or less. We show here that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants transgenic for a heterologous Clarkia breweri S-linalool synthase (LIS) gene, under the control of the tomato late-ripening-specific E8 promoter, synthesize and accumulate S-linalool and 8-hydroxylinalool in ripening fruits. Apart from the difference in volatiles, no other phenotypic alterations were noted, including the levels of other terpenoids such as γ- and α-tocopherols, lycopene, β-carotene, and lutein. Our studies indicate that it is possible to enhance the levels of monoterpenes in ripening fruits by metabolic engineering. PMID:11706204

  18. Allergenic Potential of Tomatoes Cultivated in Organic and Conventional Systems.

    PubMed

    Słowianek, Marta; Skorupa, Marta; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Leszczyńska, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are a widely consumed vegetables and contain many health beneficial micronutrients. Unfortunately, they may also cause adverse allergic reactions in sensitized people. Many studies, conducted in recent years, indicate that organically produced vegetables have higher nutritional value, improved sensory quality and contain more health-enhancing bioactive compounds than vegetables grown under the conventional system. However, the relation between organic methods of cultivation and allergenic potential of tomatoes has received little scientific attention. This study analyzed samples of five tomato cultivars taken from organic and conventional systems over three consecutive years. The content of profilin, Bet v 1 and lipid transfer protein (LTP) analogues in tomato samples was determined using an indirect ELISA assay. Substantial quantities of these proteins were found in certain cultivars across all three years of cultivation. On the basis of these findings, organically grown tomatoes appear to offer little advantage over conventionally cultivated plants in terms of reduced allergenic potential. PMID:26590604

  19. Tomato response to starter fertilizer, polyethylene mulch, and level of soil phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Grubinger, V.P.; Minotti, P.L.; Wien, H.C.; Turner, A.D. . Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-03-01

    Unmulched and polyethylene-mulched tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown with and without starter fertilizer (SF) in four field experiments. The field varied as to residual P level and the amount of P incorporated before planting. No benefits from SF were obtained on a soil with high residual P that was moderately fertilized with P before transplanting or on a soil with low residual P that was heavily fertilized with P. A positive effect from SF was observed only when residual P was low and no P was broadcast, and this was true in mulched and unmulched plots. No significant SF by mulch interaction was obtained in these experiments even though mulching consistently increased shoot P concentrations and fruit yield. The mulch was beneficial even under conditions where unmulched tomato leaves contained 0.4% P 3 weeks after transplanting, indicating that factors in addition to improved P nutrition are also involved in the mulch effect.

  20. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is localized to both the cytoplasm and plastids in developing pericarp of tomato fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Wang, Y.; Janes, H. W.

    1998-01-01

    The intracellular location of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) in developing pericarp of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) has been investigated by immunolocalization. With the use of a highly specific anti-tomato fruit AGP antibody, the enzyme was localized in cytoplasm as well as plastids at both the light and electron microscope levels. The immunogold particles in plastids were localized in the stroma and at the surface of the starch granule, whereas those in the cytoplasm occurred in cluster-like patterns. Contrary to the fruit, the labeling in tomato leaf cells occurred exclusively in the chloroplasts. These data demonstrate that AGP is localized to both the cytoplasm and plastids in developing pericarp cells of tomato.

  1. Effect of Glutathione on Phytochelatin Synthesis in Tomato Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Mendum, Mary Lou; Gupta, Subhash C.; Goldsbrough, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    Growth of cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFNT-Cherry, in the presence of cadmium is inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Cell growth and phytochelatin synthesis are restored to cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine by the addition of glutathione to the medium. Glutathione stimulates the accumulation of phytochelatins in cadmium treated cells, indicating that availability of glutathione can limit synthesis of these peptides. Exogenous glutathione causes a disproportionate increase in the level of smaller phytochelatins, notably [γ-Glu-Cys]2-Gly. In the presence of buthionine sulfoximine and glutathione, phytochelatins that are produced upon exposure to cadmium incorporate little [35S]cysteine, indicating that these peptides are probably not synthesized by sequential addition of cysteine and glutamate to glutathione. PMID:16667492

  2. Natural and synthetic podolactones with potential use as natural herbicide models.

    PubMed

    Macías, F A; Simonet, A M; Pacheco, P C; Barrero, A F; Cabrera, E; Jiménez-González, D

    2000-07-01

    A collection of 11 natural and synthetic podolactones have been tested as allelochemicals in a range between 10(-4) and 10(-9) M, and their potential use as natural herbicide models is discussed. Their effects on the germination and growth of the dicots Lactuca sativa (cv. Nigra and cv. Roman), Lepidium sativum, and Lycopersicon esculentum and the monocots Allium cepa, Hordeum vulgare, and Triticum aestivum as standard target species have been studied. An important inhibitory effect on the germination and growth of all tested species (average = 90%) was produced by compounds 9-11 at 10(-4) M. The specific structural requirements related to their activities are studied. On the basis of these results, their use as potential natural herbicide models is proposed. PMID:10898656

  3. Effects of Fumigant Nematicides on Yield and Quality of Paste Tomatoes Grown in Southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, L. B.; Olthof, Th. H. A.; Potter, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Field trials were conducted at the Delhi Research Station, Ontario, Canada, on a Fox loamy sand soil during 1987 and 1988 to evaluate the effects of row application of the fumigants Telone II, Telone C-17, Vorlex Plus, and Vorlex Plus CP on the yield and quality of paste tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ferry Morse 6203). The four fumigants were equally effective in controlling the natural field populations of root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb). A significant reduction in marketable red fruit yield due to different nematode densities at time of transplanting was observed in 1988. Fumigation did not significantly affect the yield of nonmarketable fruit, the relative maturation rate, or the processing quality in either year. PMID:19283042

  4. Correlation of lycopene measured by HPLC with the L, a, b color readings of a hydroponic tomato and the relationship of maturity with color and lycopene content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Logendra, L.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Laura) were separated, according to the ripening stage, by a sensory panel into seven groups, and color was measured on the tomato surface with a Minolta Chroma meter. The L, a, b, hue, chroma, and lycopene content were plotted against the maturity stages of the tomatoes, and several good correlations were found. The a/b ratio and the lycopene content were the parameters that allowed six of seven maturity groups in the tomato to be statistically distinguished. The lycopene content, measured by HPLC, was also correlated with the color measurements, and the a, a/b, and (a/b)(2) color factors produced the best regressions. An estimation of the lycopene content in tomatoes can be achieved by using a portable chroma meter, with a possible field usage application. Equations to calculate the lycopene content of tomatoes based on the color readings are reported.

  5. Functional analysis of chloroplast early light inducible proteins (ELIPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Carolyn M

    2005-02-22

    The objectives of this project were to characterize gene expression patterns of early light inducible protein (ELIP) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Lycopersicon esculentum, to identify knock mutants of the 2 ELIP genes in Arabidopsis, and to characterize the effects of the knockouts. Expression in Arabidopsis was studied in response to thylakoid electron transport chain (PETC) capacity, where it was found that there is a signal for expression associated with reduction of the PETC. Expression in response to salt was also studied, with different responses of the two gene copies. Knockout lines for ELIP1 and ELIP2 have been identified and are being characterized. In tomato, it was found that the single-copy ELIP gene is highly expressed in ripening fruit during the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition. Studies of expression in tomato ripening mutants are ongoing.

  6. Exogenous Supply of Pantoyl Lactone to Excised Leaves Increases their Pantothenate Levels

    PubMed Central

    RATHINASABAPATHI, BALA; RAMAN, SURESH BABU

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims All plants synthesize pantothenate but its synthesis and regulation are not well understood. The aim of this work is to study the effect of exogenous supply of precursor compounds on pantothenate levels in leaves. • Methods Precursor compounds were supplied in solution to excised leaves and the pantothenate content was measured using a microbial method. • Key Results Pantothenate levels in excised leaves of Limonium latifolium, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) were examined following an exogenous supply of the precursor compounds pantoyl lactone or β-alanine. Significantly higher levels of extractable pantothenate were found when pantoyl lactone was supplied, but not when β-alanine was supplied despite a measurable uptake of β-alanine into the leaf. • Conclusions The results suggested that the pantoate supply may be rate-limiting or regulating pantothenate synthesis in leaves. PMID:15767268

  7. Metal-accelerated oxidation in plant cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M. )

    1993-05-01

    Cadmium and mercury toxicity is further enhanced by external oxidizing conditions O[sub 3] or inherent plant processes. Lepidium sativum L, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or Phaseolus vulgaris L, were grown inpeat-lite to maturity under continuous cadmium exposure followed by one oxidant (O[sub 3]-6 hr. 30 pphm) exposure, with or without foliar calcium pretreatments. In comparison, Daucus carota, L and other species grown in a 71-V suspension, with or without 2,4-D were exposed continuously to low levels of methylmercury during exponential growth and analyzed in aggregates of distinct populations. Proteins were extracted and analyzed. Mechanisms of toxicity and eventual cell death are Ca-mediated and involve chloroplast, stomatal-water relations and changes in oxidant-anti-oxidant components in cells. Whether the metal-accelerated oxidative damage proceeds to cell death, depends on the species and its differential biotransformation system and cell association component.

  8. Partial Characterization of Cx Cellulase and Cellobiase from Ripening Tomato Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Pharr, D. M.; Dickinson, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulolytic enzymes were studied in extracts from the locular contents of ripening fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum var. KC-146. When acting on carboxymethyl cellulose, the enzyme preparations were capable of decreasing the viscosity of the reaction mixture and generating reducing groups, oligosaccharides, and glucose. Cellobiose cellotriose, cellotetrose, and cellopentose also served as substrates for glucose production. These properties were due to the presence in the extracts of two cellulolytic enzymes—Cx cellulase (E.C. 3.2.1.4) and cellobiase— (E.C. 3.2.1.21). No evidence was found for the presence of exocellulase or C1, an enzyme which initiates enzymatic attack on insoluble cellulose. Cellobiose was found to be weakly inhibitory to Cx cellulase. d-Glucono-1,5-lactone competitively inhibited cellobiase. The Km for cellobiose was 0.34 mm, and the Ki for gluconolactone was 23 μM. PMID:16658371

  9. Qtl Analysis of Transgressive Segregation in an Interspecific Tomato Cross

    PubMed Central

    deVicente, M. C.; Tanksley, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Two accessions, representing the species Lycopersicon esculentum (cultivated tomato) and Lycopersicon pennellii (a wild relative), were evaluated for 11 quantitative traits and found to be significantly different for 10 of the traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for eight of the traits in a large interspecific F(2) population. When restriction fragment length polymorphism markers were used as probes for the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the traits, 74 significant QTL (LOD > 2) were detected. Thirty-six percent of those QTL had alleles with effects opposite to those predicted by the parental phenotypes. These QTL were directly related to the appearance of transgressive individuals in the F(2) for those traits which showed transgressive segregration. However, the same types of QTL (with allelic effects opposite to those predicted by the parents) were also observed for traits that did not display transgressive segregation in the F(2). One such trait was dry weight accumulation. When two overdominant QTL (detected in the F(2)) for this trait were backcrossed into the L. esculentum genetic background, transgressive individuals were recovered and their occurrence was associated with the two QTL demonstrating the potential for transgressive segregation for all characters and implicating overdominance as a second cause of transgressive segregation. Epistasis was not implicated in transgressive segregation in either the F(2) or backcross generations. Results from this research not only reveal the basis of wide-cross transgressive segregation, but demonstrate that molecular markers can be used to identify QTL (from wild species) responsible for transgressive phenotypes and to selectively transfer them into crop species. This strategy might be used to improve many traits of economic importance including those for which wild species appear phenotypically inferior to their cultivated counterparts. PMID:8100788

  10. Localization in the Tomato Genome of DNA Restriction Fragments Containing Sequences Homologous to the rRNA (45s), the Major Chlorophyll a/b Binding Polypeptide and the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, C. E.; Tanksley, S. D.; Bernatzky, R.

    1986-01-01

    DNA restriction fragments containing sequences homologous to the ribosomal RNA (45s), the major chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptide (CAB) and the small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RBCS) genes have been localized and mapped in the tomato nuclear genome by linkage analysis. Ribosomal RNA genes map to a single locus, R45s, which resides in a terminal position on the short arm of chromosome 2 and corresponds to the Nucleolar Organizer Region. The size of the 45s repeating unit is estimated to be approximately 9 kb in Lycopersicon esculentum and 11 kb in Lycopersicon pennellii. Five loci were found to contain CAB sequences. Two of the loci, Cab-1 (chromosome 2) and Cab-3 (chromosome 8), together accounted for more than 80% of the hybridization signal. These loci contain more than one CAB structural gene. The other three loci, Cab-2 (chromosome 8), Cab-4 (chromosome 7) and Cab-5 (chromosome 12), each account for <10% of the total signal and may contain only a single copy of the CAB structural sequence. Three loci were found to contain RBCS sequences. Rbcs-2 (chromosome 3) and Rbcs-3 (chromosome 2) were responsible for >80% of the signal, with the remainder being associated with Rbcs-1 (chromosome 2). Rbcs-2 and Rbcs-3 may contain more than one copy of the gene. PMID:17246311

  11. Phytomodulatory potential of lycopene from Lycopersicum esculentum against doxorubicin induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashwani; Shubrant; Gupta, Prachi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated level of serum urea and creatinine was observed in doxorubicin (DOX) treated animals indicating DOX-induced nephrotoxicity. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the renal tissue was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities. Administration of lycopene (LycT) extracted from tomato to DOX treated mice showed a significant reduction in serum creatinine and urea levels which were associated with significantly low levels of LPO and significantly enhanced level of GSH and related antioxidant enzymes activity (GPx, GR and CAT) when compared to DOX group. Histopathological analysis revealed severe damage in the renal tissue of DOX treated animals. However, animals pretreated with LycT were observed to have reduced damage. Thus, from present results it may be inferred that lycopene may be beneficial in mitigating DOX induced nephrotoxicity in mice. PMID:24228387

  12. The morama bean (Tylosema esculentum): a potential crop for southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jose C; Duodu, Kwaku G; Holse, Mette; Lima de Faria, Margarida D; Jordaan, Danie; Chingwaru, Walter; Hansen, Aase; Cencic, Avrelija; Kandawa-Schultz, Martha; Mpotokwane, Selalelo M; Chimwamurombe, Percy; de Kock, Henrietta L; Minnaar, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The morama bean is an underutilized leguminous oilseed native to the Kalahari Desert and neighboring sandy regions of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa (Limpopo, North-West, Gauteng, and Northern Cape provinces), and forms part of the diet of the indigenous population in these countries. It is also known as gemsbok bean, moramaboontjie, elandboontjie, braaiboonjie, marama, marumana, tsi, tsin, gami, and ombanui. It is reported as an excellent source of good quality protein (29-39%); its oil (24-48%) is rich in mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids and contains no cholesterol. Morama is a good source of micronutrients such as calcium, iron, zinc, phosphate, magnesium, and B vitamins including folate. It is also reported to be a potential source of phytonutrients including phenolic compounds (e.g., tannins), trypsin inhibitors, phytates, and oligosaccharides, components which have been shown in other foods to contribute to health in particular, prevention of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and some cancers. From a nutritional and health perspective, the morama bean has potential commercial value as a cash crop and value-added products, particularly in the communities where it is found. PMID:21092905

  13. Spatial characteristics of aluminum uptake and translocation in roots of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Klug, Benjamin; Horst, Walter J

    2010-06-01

    The detoxification of aluminum (Al) in root tips of the Al accumulator buckwheat by exudation of oxalate leading to reduced Al uptake (Al resistance) is difficult to reconcile with the Al accumulation (Al tolerance). The objective of this study was to analyze resistance and tolerance mechanisms at the same time evaluating particularly possible stratification of Al uptake, Al transport and oxalate exudation along the root apex. The use of a minirhizotron made it possible to differentiate between spatial responses to Al along the root apex with regard to Al uptake and organic acid anion exudation, but also to measure at the same time Al and organic acid transport in the xylem. Al accumulates particularly in the 3-mm root apex. The study showed that Al taken up by the 10-mm root apex is rapidly transferred to the xylem which differentiates in the 10 to 15-mm root zone as revealed by a microscopic study. Al induces the release of oxalate from the root apex but particularly from the subapical 6-20 mm root zone even when Al was applied only to the 5-mm root apex suggesting a basipetal signal transduction. Citrate proved to be the most likely ligand for Al in the xylem because Al and citrate transport rates were positively correlated. In conclusion, the data presented show that the Al-induced release of oxalate, and Al uptake as well as Al accumulation are spatially not separated in the root apex. PMID:20088907

  14. Aluminium localization in root tips of the aluminium-accumulating plant species buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Klug, Benjamin; Specht, André; Horst, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) uptake and transport in the root tip of buckwheat is not yet completely understood. For localization of Al in root tips, fluorescent dyes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were compared. The staining of Al with morin is an appropriate means to study qualitatively the radial distribution along the root tip axis of Al which is complexed by oxalate and citrate in buckwheat roots. The results compare well with the distribution of total Al determined by LA-ICP-MS which could be reliably calibrated to compare with Al contents by conventional total Al determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Al localization in root cross-sections along the root tip showed that in buckwheat Al is highly mobile in the radial direction. The root apex predominantly accumulated Al in the cortex. The subapical root section showed a homogenous Al distribution across the whole section. In the following root section Al was located particularly in the pericycle and the xylem parenchyma cells. With further increasing distance from the root apex Al could be detected only in individual xylem vessels. The results support the view that the 10 mm apical root tip is the main site of Al uptake into the symplast of the cortex, while the subapical 10-20 mm zone is the main site of xylem loading through the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells. Progress in the better molecular understanding of Al transport in buckwheat will depend on the consideration of the tissue specificity of Al transport and complexation. PMID:21831842

  15. Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysates of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen*

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yong-liang; Zhao, Xue; Li, Ba-fang

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the hydrolysis conditions to prepare hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen with the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, collagen extracted from jellyfish umbrella was hydrolyzed with trypsin, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. The optimum conditions obtained from experiments were pH 7.75, temperature (T) 48.77 °C, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio ([E]/[S]) 3.50%. The analysis of variance in RSM showed that pH and [E]/[S] were important factors that significantly affected the process (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three fractions (HF-1>3000 Da, 1000 Da

  16. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process. PMID:24682661

  17. Hypolipidemic activity of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kayashita, Jun; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-08-15

    Buckwheat grain has well-balanced nutritional value, whereas its digestibility is relatively low. This review summarizes recent advances in studies on the hypolipidemic activity of buckwheat. The most remarkable function is a powerful hypocholesterolemic activity of buckwheat protein in rats, which is far stronger than that of soy protein. The cholesterol-lowering effect is mediated by mechanisms involving higher excretion of fecal sterols and lower digestibility of buckwheat protein. The insoluble fraction of buckwheat protein associates with cholesterol and reduces micelle cholesterol uptake in caco-2 cells. Furthermore, consumption of buckwheat protein suppresses cholesterol-induced gallstones and body fat in rodents. Buckwheat sprouts also have hypolipidemic activity in rats or type 2 diabetic mice. Tartary buckwheat bran extract reduced the serum level of total cholesterol and triglyceride in hyperlipidemic rats. The consumption of buckwheat seed reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the pastureland Mongolian population. Taken together, buckwheat may be beneficial for prevention of hyperlipidemia. PMID:25363871

  18. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  19. Characterization of LeMir, a root-knot nematode-induced gene in tomato with an encoded product secreted from the root.

    PubMed

    Brenner, E D; Lambert, K N; Kaloshian, I; Williamson, V M

    1998-09-01

    A tomato gene that is induced early after infection of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica) encodes a protein with 54% amino acid identity to miraculin, a flavorless protein that causes sour substances to be perceived as sweet. This gene was therefore named LeMir (L. esculentum miraculin). Sequence similarity places the encoded protein in the soybean trypsin-inhibitor family (Kunitz). LeMir mRNA is found in root, hypocotyl, and flower tissues, with the highest expression in the root. Rapid induction of expression upon nematode infection is localized to root tips. In situ hybridization shows that LeMir is expressed constitutively in the root-cap and root-tip epidermis. The LeMir protein product (LeMir) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris for generation of antibodies. Western-blot analysis showed that LeMir expression is up-regulated by nematode infection and by wounding. LeMir is also expressed in tomato callus tissue. Immunoprint analysis revealed that LeMir is expressed throughout the seedling root, but that levels are highest at the root/shoot junction. Analysis of seedling root exudates revealed that LeMir is secreted from the root into the surrounding environment, suggesting that it may interact with soil-borne microorganisms. PMID:9733543

  20. The activation process of Arabidopsis thaliana A1 gene encoding the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha is conserved among angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Curie, C; Liboz, T; Montané, M H; Rouan, D; Axelos, M; Lescure, B

    1992-04-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the activation process of the A1 EF-1 alpha gene depends on several elements. Using the GUS reporter gene, transient expression experiments have shown that mutations of upstream cis-acting elements of the A1 promoter, or the deletion of an intron located within the 5' non-coding region, similarly affect expression in dicot or monocot protoplasts. The results reported here strongly suggest that this 5' intron is properly spliced in Zea mays. We show that two trans-acting factors, specifically interacting with an upstream activating sequence (the TEF 1 box), are present in nuclear extracts prepared from A. thaliana, Brassica rapa, Nicotiana tabacum and Z. mays. In addition, a DNA sequence homologous to the TEF 1 box, found at approximately the same location within a Lycopersicon esculentum EF-1 alpha promoter, interacts with the same trans-acting factors. Homologies found between the A. thaliana and L. esculentum TEF 1 box sequences have allowed us to define mutations of this upstream element which affect the interaction with the corresponding trans-acting factors. These results support the notion that the activation processes of A. thaliana EF-1 alpha genes have been conserved among angiosperms and provide interesting data on the functional structure of the TEF 1 box. PMID:1600144

  1. Potato virus X TGBp1 induces plasmodesmata gating and moves between cells in several host species whereas CP moves only in N. benthamiana leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Amanda R.; Heppler, Marty L.; Ju, Ho-Jong; Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Payton, Mark E.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie . E-mail: verchot@okstate.edu

    2004-10-25

    Experiments were conducted to compare the plasmodesmal transport activities of Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp1 and coat protein (CP) in several plant species. Microinjection experiments indicated that TGBp1 gates plasmodesmata in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. These results support previous microinjection studies indicating that TGBp1 gates plasmodesmata in Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana clevelandii leaves. To study protein movement, plasmids expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to the PVX TGBp1 or CP genes were biolistically bombarded to leaves taken from four different PVX host species. GFP/TGBp1 moved between adjacent cells in N. tabacum, N. clevelandii, N. benthamiana, and Lycopersicon esculentum, whereas GFP/CP moved only in N. benthamiana leaves. Mutations m12 and m13 were introduced into the TGBp1 gene and both mutations eliminated TGBp1 ATPase active site motifs, inhibited PVX movement, reduced GFP/TGBp1 cell-to-cell movement in N. benthamiana leaves, and eliminated GFP/TGBp1 movement in N. tabacum, N. clevelandii, and L. esculentum leaves. GFP/TGBp1m13 formed aggregates in tobacco cells. The ability of GFP/CP and mutant GFP/TGBp1 fusion proteins to move in N. benthamiana and not in the other PVX host species suggests that N. benthamiana plants have a unique ability to promote protein intercellular movement.

  2. Evaluation of the Allelopathic Potential of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart.

    PubMed

    Candido, Lafayette P; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

    2016-08-01

    Despite the increase in recent decades in herbicide research on the potential of native plants, current knowledge is considered to be low. Very few studies have been carried out on the chemical profile or the biological activity of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) species. In the study reported here, the allelopathic activity of AcOEt and MeOH extracts of leaves, stems, and roots from Ocotea pulchella Nees was evaluated. The extracts were assayed on etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The AcOEt leaf extract was the most active and this was tested on standard target species (STS). Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa were the most sensitive species in this test. A total of eleven compounds have been isolated and characterized. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6 have not been identified previously from O. pulchella and ocoteol (9) is reported for the first time in the literature. Eight compounds were tested on wheat coleoptile growth, and spathulenol, benzyl salicylate, and benzyl benzoate showed the highest activities. These compounds showed inhibitory activity on L. esculentum. The values obtained correspond to the activity exhibited by the extract and these compounds may therefore be responsible for the allelopathic activity shown by O. pulchella. PMID:27482860

  3. Four Peroxidase Loci in Red-Fruited Tomato Species: Genetics and Geographic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rick, Charles M.; Zobel, Richard W.; Fobes, Jon F.

    1974-01-01

    The banding patterns of certain anodal peroxidase variants of red-fruited tomato species are governed by alleles at four loci—two alleles per locus. Alleles at three loci code for modified enzyme migration patterns and are codominant in heterozygotes; those at the fourth locus code for presence or absence of a band. No evidence of linkage was detected in preliminary tests between four of the six possible combinations of loci. All variant alleles—i.e., those not represented in the standard genotype of Lycopersicon esculentum—exist in the wild L. pimpinellifolium from coastal Peru; all but Prx-3n are also known in L. esculentum from the sympatric region but are rare or absent elsewhere. Between the distributions of alleles of Prx-1 and those of Ge, the gamete-eliminator locus, a significant association exists, which probably does not owe to genetic linkage. The tendency of alleles of Prx loci, as well as those of cm, Ge, h, and Od, to be shared between wild and cultivated taxa in the sympatric region but seldom elsewhere, in addition to published correlated evidence, suggests that the wild alleles tend to substitute in cultivated forms as a result of introgression. In respect to the number of common alleles, cultivated tomatoes more closely resemble the wild L. esculentum var. cerasiforme than L. pimpinellifolium. Images PMID:16592148

  4. Inositol and Sugars in Adaptation of Tomato to Salt 1

    PubMed Central

    Sacher, Robert F.; Staples, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv New Yorker) plants subjected to 100 millimolar NaCl plus Hoagland nutrients exhibited a pattern of wilting, recovery of turgor, and finally recovery of growth at a reduced level, which required 3 days. During the nongrowing, adaptation phase there were immediate increases in free hexoses and sucrose which declined to near control levels as growth resumed. There was a steady increase in myo-inositol content which reached its maximal level at the time of growth resumption. The myo-inositol level then remained elevated for the remainder of the experiment. Myo-inositol constituted two-thirds of the soluble carbohydrate in leaves and three-fourths of the soluble carbohydrate in roots of salt-adapted plants. Plants which were alternated daily between salt and control solutions accumulated less myo-inositol and exhibited less growth than the continuously salt-treated plants. In L. pennellii and in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive breeding lines selected from L. esculentum × L. pennellii BC(1) and F(8), myo-inositol content was highest in the most tolerant genotypes, intermediate in the normal cultivar, and lowest in the sensitive genotype after treatment with salt. PMID:16664009

  5. 33 CFR 110.79b - Millers Bay, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... at latitude 44°01′47″ N., longitude 88°31′05″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′46″ N., longitude 88°31′00″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′34″ N., longitude 88°31′04″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′36″ N., longitude 88°31′08″ W.; thence to point of beginning....

  6. 33 CFR 110.79b - Millers Bay, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... at latitude 44°01′47″ N., longitude 88°31′05″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′46″ N., longitude 88°31′00″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′34″ N., longitude 88°31′04″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′36″ N., longitude 88°31′08″ W.; thence to point of beginning....

  7. 33 CFR 110.79b - Millers Bay, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... at latitude 44°01′47″ N., longitude 88°31′05″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′46″ N., longitude 88°31′00″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′34″ N., longitude 88°31′04″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′36″ N., longitude 88°31′08″ W.; thence to point of beginning....

  8. 33 CFR 110.79b - Millers Bay, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at latitude 44°01′47″ N., longitude 88°31′05″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′46″ N., longitude 88°31′00″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′34″ N., longitude 88°31′04″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′36″ N., longitude 88°31′08″ W.; thence to point of beginning....

  9. 33 CFR 110.79b - Millers Bay, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... at latitude 44°01′47″ N., longitude 88°31′05″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′46″ N., longitude 88°31′00″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′34″ N., longitude 88°31′04″ W.; thence to latitude 44°01′36″ N., longitude 88°31′08″ W.; thence to point of beginning....

  10. Preliminary characterization of a Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Miller) for South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jujube, Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) is a multipurpose tropical fruit tree grown primarily for its fruits, which are eaten fresh or processed, used as a seasoning or spice, or processed for non-food uses. The naturally drooping tree is a distinguished ornamental and often thorny with branches ...

  11. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  12. Aloe barbadensis Miller mediated green synthesis of mono-disperse copper oxide nanoparticles: Optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunalan, Sangeetha; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured copper oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. A facile and efficient synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles was carried out with controlled surface properties via green chemistry approach. The CuO nanoparticles synthesized are monodisperse and versatile and were characterized with the help of UV-Vis, PL, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The particles are crystalline in nature and average sizes were between 15 and 30 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the amount of Aloe vera extract. This new eco-friendly approach of synthesis is a novel, cheap, and convenient technique suitable for large scale commercial production and health related applications of CuO nanoparticles.

  13. [New data on pumice's structure and biological effects among miners and millers].

    PubMed

    Spatari, G; Barbaro, M; Pira, E; Rossi, F; Massiccio, M; Romano, C

    2011-01-01

    Pleural plaques among pumice workers on Lipari Island have been described and the Authors have suggested the hypothesis that such biological effect could be related to the particles' morphology characterized by the presence of elements similar to fibers. Analysis on compact bulk materials and on dust samples from different sites of the Island have been performed to obtain information on the chemical composition of such materials. The Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses confirm the presence of fibrous particles with a chemical structure similar to the Refractory Ceramic Fibers (RCF) composition. These results could explain the presence of plural plaques among the workers and new clinical and epidemiological evaluations of the potential effects associated to this exposure are needed. PMID:23393860

  14. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: John Wesley Miller, Tucson, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder worked with the National Association of Home Builders Research Center to build two net-zero energy homes with foam-sheathed masonry walls, low-E windows 2.9 ACH50 air sealing, transfer grilles, ducts in insulated attic, PV, and solar water heating.

  15. Synthesis of zinc ultrafine powders via the Guen-Miller flow-levitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigatch, A. N.; Leipunskii, I. O.; Kuskov, M. L.; Afanasenkova, E. S.; Berezkina, N. G.; Gorbatov, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Zinc ultrafine powders (UFPs) with the average particle size of 0.175 to 1.24 μm are synthesized via the flow-levitation method. The peculiarities of the formation of zinc UFPs are considered with respect to the carrier gas properties (heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient), as well as the gas flow parameters (pressure and flow rate). The obtained zinc particles are studied via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The factors determining the crystal structure of zinc particles and their size distribution are discussed as well. The data on oxidation of zinc stored in unsealed containers under normal conditions are also presented.

  16. Paenibacillus castaneae sp. nov., isolated from the phyllosphere of Castanea sativa Miller.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Angel; Peix, Alvaro; Rivas, Raúl; Velázquez, Encarna; Salazar, Sergio; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Barrueco, Claudino; Igual, José M

    2008-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated Ch-32(T), was isolated from the phyllosphere of Castanea sativa in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus within the same subgroup as Paenibacillus xinjiangensis and Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, with similarities of 96.3 and 96.8 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization values for strain Ch-32(T) with these two species were lower than 20 %. The novel isolate was a Gram-variable, motile, sporulating rod. It produced catalase and oxidase and hydrolysed cellulose, gelatin and aesculin. Acetoin and urease production, nitrate reduction and starch hydrolysis were negative. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 0) were the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 46 mol%. Phylogenetic, DNA relatedness and phenotypic analyses showed that strain Ch-32(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus castaneae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Ch-32(T) (=CECT 7279(T)=DSM 19417(T)). PMID:18984693

  17. Chrysotile asbestos and health in Zimbabwe: II. Health status survey of active miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Lopez-Carrillo, L.; Alli, B.; Pace, P.E.; Shalat, S.L.; Baloyi, R.S. )

    1991-02-01

    As part of the effort to establish industrial practice and public policy regarding asbestos in Zimbabwe, we have conducted a cross-sectional study of the chrysotile mines and mills. A stratified random sample of workers with greater than 10 years of exposure has been evaluated by spirometry, chest radiographs, and employment history. The latter was converted to quantitative estimates of exposure dose, using a matrix based on measured and reconstructed fiber levels for each job and facility during the years of work. Based on these data, a clear dose-response between asbestos exposure and functional loss has been demonstrated, with mean losses from predicted of about 400-600 cc in vital capacity in the 10% of the population with heaviest exposures. Low-grade parenchymal radiographic abnormalities (ILO grade greater than or equal to 1/0) were evident in 8.7% of the total study group and were almost 10 times more common in those with more than 100 fibers/cc.years cumulative exposure than in those with 16 fibers/cc.years or less. Pleural disease was relatively rare, occurring in just under 10% of the study group, and was unrelated to exposure dose. Overall, these findings are compatible with results of similar studies in Quebec and Swaziland and suggest that similar control strategies are probably indicated.

  18. Synthesis of zinc ultrafine powders via the Guen–Miller flow-levitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Jigatch, A. N. Leipunskii, I. O.; Kuskov, M. L.; Afanasenkova, E. S.; Berezkina, N. G.; Gorbatov, S. A.

    2015-12-15

    Zinc ultrafine powders (UFPs) with the average particle size of 0.175 to 1.24 μm are synthesized via the flow-levitation method. The peculiarities of the formation of zinc UFPs are considered with respect to the carrier gas properties (heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient), as well as the gas flow parameters (pressure and flow rate). The obtained zinc particles are studied via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The factors determining the crystal structure of zinc particles and their size distribution are discussed as well. The data on oxidation of zinc stored in unsealed containers under normal conditions are also presented.

  19. The Open Stage, Based on the Designs of James Hull Miller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hub Electric Co., Inc., Chicago, IL.

    A complete statement on "the open stage" which will prove of value to architects, consulting engineers and school administrators in the construction of college, community and school auditorium theaters. Directors and teachers of drama should find this booklet a practical source of advanced technical knowledge in their field. The introduction deals…

  20. 28 CFR 79.52 - Criteria for eligibility for claims by uranium millers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 1942, and ending on December 31, 1971; and (c) The claimant contracted primary lung cancer, a nonmalignant respiratory disease, primary renal cancer, or chronic renal disease (including nephritis...