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1

Lycopodine from Lycopodium clavatum extract inhibits proliferation of HeLa cells through induction of apoptosis via caspase-3 activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude ethanolic extract of the plant Lycopodium clavatum has long been used in complementary and alternative medicine for treating various liver ailments and Alzheimer's disease. It has also been claimed to have potential anti-cancer properties in vivo in mice chronically fed liver carcinogens, p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter). Incidentally, crude ethanolic extract of Lycopodium clavatum is a mixture of

Sushil Kumar Mandal; Raktim Biswas; Soumya Sundar Bhattacharyya; Saili Paul; Suman Dutta; Surajit Pathak; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

2010-01-01

2

Protective potentials of a plant extract (Lycopodium clavatum) on mice chronically fed hepato-carcinogens.  

PubMed

Chronic feeding of carcinogens p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter) for 90 and 120 days elevated activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of blood glucose and cortisol and decreased the activities of glutathione reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, and blood cholesterol and hemoglobin contents, and levels of serum estradiol and testosterone in mice. Levels of these biomarkers in both liver and spleen tissues were positively altered along with a significant reduction of tumor incidence in liver of carcinogen intoxicated mice treated with spore extract of Lycopodium clavatum. The results validate the use of this plant extract in complementary and alternative medicines against hepato-toxicity. PMID:19761046

Pathak, Surajit; Banerjee, Antara; Paul, Saili; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2009-07-01

3

Lycopodine from Lycopodium clavatum extract inhibits proliferation of HeLa cells through induction of apoptosis via caspase-3 activation.  

PubMed

Crude ethanolic extract of the plant Lycopodium clavatum has long been used in complementary and alternative medicine for treating various liver ailments and Alzheimer's disease. It has also been claimed to have potential anti-cancer properties in vivo in mice chronically fed liver carcinogens, p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter). Incidentally, crude ethanolic extract of Lycopodium clavatum is a mixture of some 201 alkaloids. In order to ascertain if any major fraction can be attributed to have pronounced anti-cancer effect, we examined this major fraction by eluting the crude extract in petroleum ether:ethyl aetate (17:3 vol/vol;) solvent and tried to understand its underlying mechanism. Studies on morphological changes, cell viability and cytotoxicity by microscopy and FACS, Western blot and immunofluorescence of Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3 were conducted. Lycopodine was found to induce chromatin condensation, inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and enhanced cell population in sub-G1 region along with increase in reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 which are the events closely involved in apoptosis. An overall analysis of results showed that Lycopodine considerably inhibited growth of HeLa cells which indicates its potential use in chemotherapy. PMID:19786013

Mandal, Sushil Kumar; Biswas, Raktim; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Paul, Saili; Dutta, Suman; Pathak, Surajit; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2010-01-25

4

Serratene triterpenoids from Lycopodium clavatum L. ( Lycopodiaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three serratene triterpenoids, 3\\\\,21a-dihydroxy-26-nor-8,14-sekogammaser-14(27)-en-n-8-one (1), 3ß,21a-dihydroxy-8,14-sekogammasera-8(26),14(2?)-diene (2), and 3a,21ß,24-trihydroxyserrat-14-ene (3), were isolated from the Siberian chemorace ofLycopodium clavatum L. and identified. Compound1 was isolated fromL. clavatum L. for the first time.

N. N. Trofimova; A. S. Gromova; A. A. Semenov

1996-01-01

5

Alpha-onocerin: an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Lycopodium clavatum.  

PubMed

In order to find new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from natural sources which have therapeutic potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, the chloroform : methanol (1 : 1) extracts of five Lycopodium species ( L. clavatum L., L. selago L., L. annotinum L., L. alpinum L., and L. complanatum ssp. chamaecyparissus A. (Br.) Döll.), growing in Turkey (Lycopodiaceae), were screened in vitro by the Ellman spectrophotometric method at 1 mg/ml concentration. Among these extracts, only the extract of L. clavatum was found to be active (49.85 %). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of L. clavatum led to the isolation of alpha-onocerin (IC 50 = 5.2 microM), a well-known triterpenoid, as the responsible compound for the activity. PMID:12677532

Orhan, Ilkay; Terzioglu, Salih; Sener, Bilge

2003-03-01

6

Antioxidant and antimicrobial actions of the clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of the petroleum\\u000a ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium clavatum L. (LC) from Lycopodiaceae growing in Turkey. Antioxidant activity of the LC extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical-scavenging method at 0.2 mg\\/ml using microplate-reader assay. Antiviral assessment

Ilkay Orhan; Berrin Özçelik; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Taner Karaoglu; Bilge ?ener; Salih Terzioglu; M. Iqbal Choudhary

2007-01-01

7

Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

1993-07-01

8

Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.  

PubMed Central

Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

1993-01-01

9

Immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase on sporopollenin from Lycopodium clavatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporopollenin is a natural polymer obtained from Lycopodium clavatum, which is highly stable with constant chemical structure and has high resistant capacity to chemical attack. In this study, immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) on sporopollenin by adsorption method is reported for the first time. Besides this, the enzyme adsorption capacity, activity and thermal stability of immobilized enzyme have

Havva Tutar; Elif Yilmaz; Erol Pehlivan; Mustafa Yilmaz

2009-01-01

10

Appraisal of anti-inflammatory potential of the clubmoss, Lycopodium clavatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on four extracts prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol as well as the alkaloid fraction from the aerial parts of Lycopodium clavatum L. of Turkish origin using acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability assessment in mice revealed that only the chloroform extract and the alkaloid fraction displayed marked anti-inflammatory effect at a dose of 500mg\\/kg having

Ilkay Orhan; Esra Küpeli; Bilge ?ener; Erdem Yesilada

2007-01-01

11

Polyploid cytotypes and their habitat preferences in Lycopodium clavatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological, cytological and ecological observations were made onLycopodium clavatum. Among 121 individuals from 26 populations studied 31 were of the diploid cytotype with 2n=68, 45 were of the triploid cytotype\\u000a with 2n=102 and 45 were of the tetraploid cytotype with 2n=136. The populations were divided into three types: (1) the sole\\u000a type—characterized by a single cytotype occupying an entire population,

Masayuki Takamiya; Ryuso Tanaka

1982-01-01

12

Recent Progress on Bioactivity Studies on Turkish Lycopodium clavatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current presentation, our latest results performed on Lycopodium clavatum L. the most common species in Turkey, are given in terms of biological activity, which include antibacterial, antifungal,\\u000a antiviral, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of this fern. Antioxidant activity of\\u000a the plant was assessed on the basis of the radical scavenging effect of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)

Ilkay Orhan; Bilge ?ener

13

Appraisal of anti-inflammatory potential of the clubmoss, Lycopodium clavatum L.  

PubMed

Studies on four extracts prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol as well as the alkaloid fraction from the aerial parts of Lycopodium clavatum L. of Turkish origin using acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability assessment in mice revealed that only the chloroform extract and the alkaloid fraction displayed marked anti-inflammatory effect at a dose of 500mg/kg having percentage of inhibition 24.3 and 32.1, respectively, as compared to indomethacin, which exhibited 44.6% of inhibition at 10mg/kg dose. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium clavatum revealed that the alkaloidal-type of compounds might possibly be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract, which supports the folk medicinal utilization of the plant. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrophotometric analysis of the active alkaloid fraction revealed that lycopodine (84.5%) is the major component. PMID:16962272

Orhan, Ilkay; Küpeli, Esra; Sener, Bilge; Yesilada, Erdem

2007-01-01

14

New insights into the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Lycopodium clavatum.  

PubMed

Looking for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibiting compounds within the plant kingdom, we came across the triterpene alpha-onocerin, which has recently been described as the active principle (IC(50) of 5.2 microM) of Lycopodium clavatum L. In order to discover related terpenoid structures with similar AChE inhibitory activity, we investigated the roots of Ononis spinosa L. using Ellman's reagent in a microplate assay. No inhibitory effect could be measured, not even with the isolated alpha-onocerin (1), which is in contrast to previous findings. Bioassay-guided fractionation of L. clavatum resulted in the isolation of lyclavatol (2), showing a weak, but dose-dependent inhibitory effect on AChE. (1)H- and (13)C NMR shift assignments for 1 and 2 are presented and discussed. PMID:16320206

Rollinger, Judith M; Ewelt, Julia; Seger, Christoph; Sturm, Sonja; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Stuppner, Hermann

2005-11-01

15

Vascular architecture in shoots of early divergent vascular plants, Lycopodium clavatum and Lycopodium annotinum.  

PubMed

Lycopodium represents a phylogenetically distinct clade of basal vascular plants with anatomical characters that have no parallel in other lineages. Thus, knowledge of lycopod structure and development may reveal important information about the common ancestors of all vascular plants. Here we report the unique architecture of the conducting system in Lycopodium annotinum and Lycopodium clavatum. Based on multiple series of anatomical sections, we reconstructed spatial relationships between microphylls and the stelar system. Analysis revealed that protoxylem ribs (PXR) were vertical, regardless of type of phyllotaxis, and their numbers were variable. Microphyll traces (MTr) were randomly distributed between ribs, resulting in the absence of defined sympodia and varied lengths of MTr. Dichotomous branching contributed to additional features, for example occurrence of mesarch protoxylem, affecting stele structure and PXR numbers. Our data showed limited interrelationships between lycopod vasculature and microphyll phyllotaxis. This may suggest that both systems developed independently, then evolved together to form the integrated supply system. Thus vasculature in extant lycophytes may be less functionally efficient than in seed plants, where consistent leaf-trace lengths guarantee predictable energy utilization during ontogeny. Differences may result from the phylogenetically different origin of microphylls, and the level of vascular complexity. PMID:17504461

Gola, Edyta M; Jernstedt, Judith A; Zagórska-Marek, Beata

2007-01-01

16

Immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase on sporopollenin from Lycopodium clavatum.  

PubMed

Sporopollenin is a natural polymer obtained from Lycopodium clavatum, which is highly stable with constant chemical structure and has high resistant capacity to chemical attack. In this study, immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) on sporopollenin by adsorption method is reported for the first time. Besides this, the enzyme adsorption capacity, activity and thermal stability of immobilized enzyme have also been investigated. It has been observed that under the optimum conditions (Spo-E((0.3))), the specific activity of the immobilized lipase on the sporopollenin by adsorption was 16.3U/mg protein, which is 0.46 times less than that of the free lipase (35.6U/mg protein). The pH and temperature of immobilized enzyme were optimized, which were 6.0 and 40 degrees C respectively. Kinetic parameters V(max) and K(m) were also determined for the immobilized lipase. It was observed that there is an increase of the K(m) value (7.54mM) and a decrease of the V(max) value (145.0U/mg-protein) comparing with that of the free lipase. PMID:19583977

Tutar, Havva; Yilmaz, Elif; Pehlivan, Erol; Yilmaz, Mustafa

2009-10-01

17

Simulating transfer and persistence of a chemical marker powder for Lycopodium clavatum spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research a chemical marker powder, based on Lycopodium clavatum spores, was studied to determine its transfer and persistence on a T-shirt. Such chemical marker powders are used to provide evidence that a person has handled a covertly marked object, such as a drug package. The powder was found to transfer readily between a marked item and the person

Jennifer Howarth; Sally Coulson; Angus Newton

2009-01-01

18

Development of a Tracer Test in a flooded Uranium Mine using Lycopodium clavatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymetallic Niederschlema\\/Alberoda uranium deposit in the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) has been flooded since 1991. The objectives of the tests were to investigate the quality and rate of flow within a large part of the flooded mine to predict the mass flow of the pollutants. Based on the results of a first tracer test with Lycopodium clavatum in mid

Christian Wolkersdorfer; Nicole Feldtner

19

Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions on New Metal-Ligand Complexes Chemically Derived from Lycopodium clavatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and

Erol Pehlivan; Mustafa Ersoz; Salih Yildiz; Harry J. Duncan

1994-01-01

20

Amino acid sequence study of ferredoxin from a club moss, Lycopodium clavatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ferredoxin was purified as the pure state from a club moss (Lycopodium clavatum L.) and sequenced. The ferredoxin was composed of 99 amino acids and had a molecular mass of 10,728, excluding iron and sulfur\\u000a atoms. The ferredoxin sequence was rather distinct from that fromMarchantia polymorpha, Equisetum andGleichenia japonica. Based on comparison of ferredoxin sequences thus far established, the

Harumi Sakai; Susumu Morigasaki; Kaeko Kamide; Shichijo Sue; Yukika Sanada; Keishiro Wada

1992-01-01

21

Ligand-Exchange Chromatography of Nucleosides, Nucleic Acid Bases and Amines of Copper(II) Glyoximated-Lycopodium Clavatum with Refractive Index Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ligand-exchange separation of nucleosides, nucleic acid bases and amines has been studied by using a new exchanger obtained by functionalyzing Lycopodium Clavatum with glyoxime.This study shows that 1igand-exchange chromatography with glyoximated-lycopodium clavatum can provide new opportunities for the rapid separation of ligands.

M. Ersoz; E. Pehlivan; S. Yildiz

1989-01-01

22

Simulating transfer and persistence of a chemical marker powder for Lycopodium clavatum spores.  

PubMed

In this research a chemical marker powder, based on Lycopodium clavatum spores, was studied to determine its transfer and persistence on a T-shirt. Such chemical marker powders are used to provide evidence that a person has handled a covertly marked object, such as a drug package. The powder was found to transfer readily between a marked item and the person handling it. The powder was found to persist on a T-shirt for up to 13h; however, there was only a very small amount of powder remaining at this time. The rate of loss of the L. clavatum spores was found to follow a decay curve. The largest decrease in spores from the T-shirt was seen in the first 2h after the marked item had been handled. PMID:19729256

Howarth, Jennifer; Coulson, Sally; Newton, Angus

2009-11-20

23

Sorption of heavy metal ions on new metal-ligand complexes chemically derived from Lycopodium clavatum  

SciTech Connect

Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and the possibilities to remove and to recover selectively heavy metal cations using these systems are discussed on the basis of their chemical natures and their complexing properties.

Pehlivan, E.; Ersoz, M.; Yildiz, S. [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkey); Duncan, H.J. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

1994-08-01

24

UV and visible light screening by individual sporopollenin exines derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) and Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the UV–visible light transmission of three types of micrometre-sized sporopollenin exine shells, two derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) spores and one from Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) pollen. We have used spectrophotometer measurements of partial monolayers of exines and microscope absorbance imaging to derive the light transmission properties of individual exines. Measurements have been made for exines

Stephen L. Atkin; Sylvain Barrier; Zhenggang Cui; Paul D. I. Fletcher; Grahame Mackenzie; Vincent Panel; Vincent Sol; Xunli Zhang

2011-01-01

25

UV and visible light screening by individual sporopollenin exines derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) and Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed).  

PubMed

We have investigated the UV-visible light transmission of three types of micrometre-sized sporopollenin exine shells, two derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) spores and one from Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) pollen. We have used spectrophotometer measurements of partial monolayers of exines and microscope absorbance imaging to derive the light transmission properties of individual exines. Measurements have been made for exines in air when light transmission losses are due to a combination of absorption, reflection and scattering processes and for exines dispersed in a liquid for which the refractive index (RI) is approximately equal to the RI of the exine such that reflection and scattering effects are negligible. Overall, it found that the light transmission of a single exine wall is approximately 50%. This value of the transmission is due mainly to light absorption, is similar for the three exines studied here and varies only slightly with light wavelength over the range 200-900 nm. PMID:21232973

Atkin, Stephen L; Barrier, Sylvain; Cui, Zhenggang; Fletcher, Paul D I; Mackenzie, Grahame; Panel, Vincent; Sol, Vincent; Zhang, Xunli

2011-03-01

26

Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2013-10-01

27

The potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium clavatum (5C and 15C) has anti-cancer effect on hela cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Cancer is a disease that needs a multi-faceted approach from different systems of medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether homeopathically-potentized ultra-high dilutions of Lycopodium Clavatum (LC-5C and LC-15C, respectively) have any anti-cancer effects on HeLa cells. Cells were exposed to either LC-5C (diluted below Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-10)) or LC-15C (diluted beyond Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-30)) (drug-treated) or to 30% succussed ethanol ("vehicle" of the drug). The drug-induced modulation in the percent cell viability, the onset of apoptosis, and changes in the expressions of Bax, Bcl2, caspase 3, and Apaf proteins in inter-nucleosomal DNA, in mitochondrial membrane potentials and in the release of cytochrome-c were analyzed by utilizing different experimental protocols. Results revealed that administration of LC-5C and LC-15C had little or no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but caused considerable cell death through apoptosis in cancer (HeLa) cells, which was evident from the induction of DNA fragmentation, the increases in the expressions of protein and mRNA of caspase 3 and Bax, and the decreases in the expressions of Bcl2 and Apaf and in the release of cytochrome-c. Thus, the highly-diluted, dynamized homeopathic remedies LC-5C and LC-15C demonstrated their capabilities to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, signifying their possible use as supportive medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23972240

Samadder, Asmita; Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2013-08-01

28

Lycopodium granuloma.  

PubMed

The spores of Lycopodium (L) clavatum were used as a component of a dusting powder in many hospitals during the 1920's and 1930's. When L spores enter surgical wounds a lesion clinically resembling tuberculosis or neoplasia may develop months or even years later. We recently encountered a case of L granuloma occurring in a patient 50 years after an appendectomy. Three additional cases found in the files of the AFIP are also reported. PMID:3372789

Nadjem, M A; Graham, J H; Johnson, F B

1988-04-01

29

Protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium30, in ameliorating azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, prepared from extract of spores of a plant, Lyocopodium clavatum (Fam: Lycopodiaceae) and used as a remedy for various liver ailments, have been tested in mice chronically fed p-dimethyl amino azo benzene (p-DAB) – an initiator, and phenobarbital (PB) – a promoter of hepatic cancer, by using some cytogenetic endpoints like

Surajit Pathak; Jayanta Kumar Das; Surjyo Jyoti Biswas; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

2006-01-01

30

Protective potentials of a plant extract (Lycopodium clavatum) on mice chronically fed hepato-carcinogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic feeding of carcinogens p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter) for 90 and 120 days elevated activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of blood glucose and cortisol and decreased the activities of glutathione reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, and blood cholesterol and hemoglobin contents, and levels of serum estradiol and testosterone in mice. Levels of these biomarkers in both liver and

Surajit Pathak; Antara Banerjee; Saili Paul; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

2009-01-01

31

Drying dissipative structures of lycopodium spore particles in aqueous dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drying dissipative structures of aqueous dispersions of lycopodium particles (31?m in average diameter) from the spores of Lycopodium clavatum were studied as a function of the particle concentrations in the presence and the absence of sodium chloride. The drying patterns formed on a cover glass, a watch glass and a Petri glass dish were observed macroscopically and microscopically. Lycopodium particles

Tsuneo Okubo; Etsuo Kokufuta; Masaharu Nakamuro; Kohji Yoshinaga; Masashi Mizutani; Akira Tsuchida

2010-01-01

32

Ten new fawcettimine-related alkaloids from three species of Lycopodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten new fawcettimine-related alkaloids, i.e., lycopoclavamines, lycoposquarrosamine-A, and other hydroxylated fawcettimine derivatives, were isolated from three species of Lycopodium (Lycopodium clavatum, Lycopodium serratum, and Lycopodium squarrosum). The structures of the new alkaloids were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical correlation.

Kazuaki Katakawa; Hiroko Mito; Noriyuki Kogure; Mariko Kitajima; Sumphan Wongseripipatana; Munehisa Arisawa; Hiromitsu Takayama

2011-01-01

33

Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test  

E-print Network

May 2009 Keywords: dinoflagellate cyst concentration Lycopodium clavatum tablets spike inter the addition of Lycopodium clavatum marker-grains as a spike to a sample before palynological processing: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test Kenneth Neil Mertens a, , Koen Verhoeven a , Thomas Verleye

Long, Bernard

34

GC\\/MS Examination of Lycopodium Extracts for Alkaloid Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of the Lycopodium species have long been known to elaborate alkaloids. Over one hundred alkaloids have been isolated from these plants, but no efficient method exists to quickly screen plants to determine their alkaloid content. In this research it has been found that gas chromatography mass spectrometry. (GC\\/MS) is a suitable method to achieve this purpose. Seven species of

Robert V. Gerard

1985-01-01

35

Plasma treatment allows water suspending of the natural hydrophobic powder (lycopodium).  

PubMed

Lycopodium particles which are spores of the plant Lycopodium clavatum were exposed to cold oxygen and nitrogen plasma irradiation. Wetting properties of the particles changed dramatically from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Plasma treatment allowed obtaining stable water suspensions of lycopodium. Plasma treatment did not affect the morphology of lycopodium particles. The reported results open the way for surfactants-free manufacturing suspensions of hydrophobic particles. PMID:22609599

Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman

2012-09-01

36

An overlooked boreal clubmoss Lycopodium lagopus (Laest. ex Hartm.) Zinserl. ex Kusen. (Lycopodiaceae) in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycopodium lagopus (Laest. ex Hartm.) Zinserl. ex Kusen. (syn. L. clavatum L. subsp. monostachyon (Grev. & Hooker) Selander), a widespread circum- arctic taxon, is reported from Britain for the first time. First collected in the 19th century, it had been dismissed as L. clavatum and its significance not recognised. The appropriate taxonomic rank for this plant has long proved controversial

F. J. RUMSEY

37

Synthesis of the lycopodium alkaloid (+)-lycoflexine.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of (+)-lycoflexine (1), a constituent of Lycopodium clavatum var. inflexum , has been accomplished in eight steps with 13% overall yield. Our synthesis covers four one-pot reactions, including a tandem Sakurai/aldol sequence, a novel hydroboration/oxidation procedure, a deprotection/transannular Mannich reaction, and as a highlight, a tandem catalysis cascade combining an enynene ring-closing metathesis and a selective hydrogenation. PMID:20866095

Ramharter, Jürgen; Weinstabl, Harald; Mulzer, Johann

2010-10-20

38

Drying dissipative structures of lycopodium spore particles in aqueous dispersion.  

PubMed

Drying dissipative structures of aqueous dispersions of lycopodium particles (31 microm in average diameter) from the spores of Lycopodium clavatum were studied as a function of the particle concentrations in the presence and the absence of sodium chloride. The drying patterns formed on a cover glass, a watch glass and a Petri glass dish were observed macroscopically and microscopically. Lycopodium particles were the combination of hemisphere and tetrahedron in their shape and possessed the weakly acidic groups on their surfaces. The vague broad ring structure was observed even for the very large colloidal particles, and their size on a cover glass decreased as particle concentration decreased. Microscopic drying patterns almost disappeared except the short chain-like patterns. These observations support that the convectional contribution on the dissipative drying pattern formation is still effective in the lycopodium suspensions, though the convectional forces in the suspension are very weak compared with the sedimentation forces. PMID:20598865

Okubo, Tsuneo; Kokufuta, Etsuo; Nakamuro, Masaharu; Yoshinaga, Kohji; Mizutani, Masashi; Tsuchida, Akira

2010-10-15

39

Lycopodium spores used in condom manufacture: Associated health hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recommendation that condoms be used to limit the transmission of AIDS has resulted in their increased utilization. One\\u000a major brand of non-lubricated condoms was demonstrated to be coated withLycopodium clavatum spores, a product of known hazardous nature. Used previously in the manufacture of diverse products including hair powder,\\u000a suppositories, and surgical gloves, these spores have caused allergic reactions ranging

Michael J. Balick; Joseph M. Beitel

1989-01-01

40

Investigation of the component of Lycopodium serratum extract that inhibits proliferation and mediates apoptosis of human HL-60 leukemia cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate a plant commonly used in herbal medicines, Lycopodium serratum, which is believed to have anti-cancer properties. An alcoholic extract of L. serratum (LSE) was investigated for its ability to induce apoptosis in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Treatment of HL-60 cells with various concentrations of LSE (6-100 ?g/mL) resulted in a sequence of events characteristic of apoptosis, including loss of cell viability, morphological changes, and increased sub-G(1) DNA content. Serratenediol (SE), a known biologically active agent, was isolated from MC fraction of LSE and was able to demonstrate significant and dose-dependent growth inhibitory effects on HL-60 cells. Similar to the effects observed with the crude LSE, the SE-related effects included the formation of apoptotic bodies and fragmented DNA, as well as the accumulation of DNA in the sub-G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Analysis of the mechanism of these events indicated that SE treated cells had an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-xL, released the cytochrome c, activated caspase-9, -3, and cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP); these observations are hallmarks of apoptotic events. Thus, the results suggest that SE can induce apoptosis via regulating the ratio of Bax/Bcl-xL in HL-60 cell lines. PMID:22613212

Ham, Young-Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Park, Soo-Yeong; Jung, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Daekyung; Jeon, You-Jin; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Kang, Sung-Myung; Kim, Kil-Nam

2012-08-01

41

Three new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium obscurum.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation on the crude alkaloid portion of Lycopodium obscurum led to isolation of three new fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids, lycobscurines A-C (1-3), together with three known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-MS and NMR techniques. All compounds were tested in an assay for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. PMID:23600717

Pan, Ke; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

2013-01-01

42

Lycopodium spores in transrectal ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate.  

PubMed

Lycopodium clavatum (LC) spores were found in two cases in transrectal ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate. The source turned out to be the coating of the condoms used for protection of the ultrasound probe. To minimize confusion in analyzing the biopsies and to avoid granulomas of the prostate, LC spore-free condoms are available and are recommended for the biopsy procedure. PMID:9606792

Andersen, T C; Jürgensen, G W; Christensen, E

1998-04-01

43

Use of fluorescently labeled Lycopodium spores as a tracer for suspended particles in a lowland river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescently labeled spores of the clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum L. (mean diameter 5 42 mm, r5 1175 kg\\/m3) were used as a tracer to estimate transport distances and vertical deposition velocities of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), dominated by phytoplankton and detritus flocs, in a 6th-order lowland river (River Spree, Germany). Three experiments were conducted at discharge levels of 7.9, 8.8,

SUSANNE C. WANNER; MARTIN PUSCH

2000-01-01

44

Karyomorphology of the genus Lycopodium sensu stricto and relationships among species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karyomorphological comparisons were made of six species of JapaneseLycopodium sensu stricto. There were no marked differences at interphase and prophase among the six species.Lycopodium annotinum had 2n=68 and the formula of its metaphase karyotype was 18m(median centromeric chromosomes)+12sm(submedian)+12st(subterminal)+26t(terminal).Lycopodium casuarinoides had 2n=68=16m+10sm+18st+24t,L. clavatum 2n=68=22m+12sm+18st+16t, andL. obscurum 2n=68=10m+22sm+20st+16t. Each of these species, which belong to different sections, displayed several karyomorphological\\u000a differences. Among

Masayuki Takamiya

1992-01-01

45

Nanoscale Similarities in the Substructure of the Exines of FagusPollen Grains and LycopodiumSpores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exine substructure of an angiosperm,Fagus sylvatica(beech) pollen and a pteridophyte,Lycopodium clavatum(a club moss) spore was investigated by scanning tunnelling microscopy. These pollen and spores, despite their distinct differences in structure and morphology on a micrometre scale, have very similar substructure on a nanometre scale. The substructure appears to consist of a multi-helix, i.e. a helical chain in turn wound

JESPER WITTBORN; K. V RAO; G EL-GHAZALY; J. R ROWLEY

1998-01-01

46

Protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, in ameliorating azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, prepared from extract of spores of a plant, Lyocopodium clavatum (Fam: Lycopodiaceae) and used as a remedy for various liver ailments, have been tested in mice chronically fed p-dimethyl amino azo benzene (p-DAB) - an initiator, and phenobarbital (PB) - a promoter of hepatic cancer, by using some cytogenetic endpoints like chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), mitotic index (MI) and sperm head abnormality (SHA), and toxicity biomarkers like acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AlkP, respectively), alanine and aspartate amino transferases (ALT and AST, respectively) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities. The effects of chronic treatment of the carcinogens were assessed at different intervals of fixation, namely, at day 7, 15, 30, 60, 90 and day 120, and compared with that of mice fed conjointly with the carcinogens and the homeopathic remedy. Both the assay systems indicated considerable protective potentials of the homeopathic remedy against p-DAB induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. PMID:16538399

Pathak, Surajit; Kumar Das, Jayanta; Jyoti Biswas, Surjyo; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2006-04-01

47

Lyconadins C and F, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins C (1) and F (2), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin C (1) is a new C16N2-type Lycopodium alkaloid possessing unique fused-tetracyclic ring system consisting of a cycloheptene ring fused to a decahydroquinoline and pyridone rings. Lyconadin F (2) possesses a primary amide moiety in its molecular, which is the first example of

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Haruaki Ishiyama; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2011-01-01

48

Lannotinidines H-J, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium annotinum.  

PubMed

Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lannotinidines H-J (1-3), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium annotinum. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and the absolute stereochemistry of 2 was assigned by chemical correlation. Lannotinidine H (1) is the first Lycopodium alkaloid possessing a lycopodane skeleton with an additional C(3) unit. PMID:19652418

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Kodama, Shihomi; Kubota, Takaaki; Hayashi, Shigeki; Shibata, Toshiro; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2009-08-01

49

The diversity of endophytic fungi in the above-ground tissue of two Lycopodium species in Poland.  

PubMed

Endophytes are a large and diverse group of fungi that colonize healthy plant tissues without causing any symptoms. The majority of studies have focused on angiosperm and conifer hosts and few have examined the endophytes of lycophytes. In the present study, we characterized culturable endophytic fungi in two closely related Lycopodium species (L. annotinum and L. clavatum) from pine, beech, oak and spruce forests across Poland. More than 400 strains were isolated but only 18 Ascomycete species were identified. Members of the Dothideomycetes dominated the fungal endophyte communities in Lycopodium. The most abundant taxa cultured were Phoma brasiliensis (from L. clavatum) and Paraconiothyrium lycopodinum (from L. annotinum). Five taxa were isolated exclusively from L. annotinum, but only two of them (Paraconiothyrium lycopodinum and Mycosphaerella sp.) were relatively abundant. Two taxa were only found in L. clavatum, namely: Stagonospora pseudovitensis and an unidentified Dothideomycete. The taxon assigned as Ascomycota 2 (SH219457.06FU) was isolated only from strobili of both host species. Direct PCR and cloning from L. annotinum shoots revealed a substantially greater endophyte richness compared with the results from culturing. PMID:25264398

Paw?owska, Julia; Wilk, Mateusz; Sliwi?ska-Wyrzychowska, Anna; M?trak, Monika; Wrzosek, Marta

2014-01-01

50

Biosynthesis of Lycopodium Alkaloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the biosynthesis of lycopodine, the major alkaloid of Lycopodium tristachyum, has revealed that L-lysine, but not D-lysine is incorporated into this alkaloid. D-lysine serves as a precursor to pipecolic acid in this species. Sodium malonate has been demonstrated to be a specific precursor to lycopodine, but attempts to verify the postulated intermediacy of piperidineacetic acid. In the

William D. Marshall

1973-01-01

51

Lycojaponicuminol A-F: cytotoxic serratene triterpenoids from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

Six new serratene triterpenoids (1-6), together with nine known triterpenoid compounds were isolated from the extract of club moss Lycopodium japonicum. The structures of isolated compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. The cytotoxic activities of all compounds were evaluated against three human cancer cell lines in vitro by MTT assay. Compounds 2, 6-8 and 11 exhibited moderate activities against all three cell lines with IC50 values of 2.28-11.81 ?g/mL. PMID:24752141

Zhang, Yu; Yi, Ping; Chen, Yu; Mei, Zhi-nan; Hu, Xin; Yang, Guang-zhong

2014-07-01

52

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at

Ilkay Orhan; Berrin Özçelik; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Taner Karaoglu; Bilge ?ener; Salih Terzioglu; M. Iqbal Choudhary

2009-01-01

53

Lycopodium spore impacts onto surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on oblique impact of Lycopodium spores with dry surfaces in the presence of adhesion were carried out. The experimental results are compared with those of stainless steel microsphere impact onto the same types of substrate surfaces. Three parameters are analyzed, the coefficient of restitution, the impulse ratio and the normalized kinetic energy loss and are used to represent the impact results. The comparisons show that the complex surface profile of a spore has a remarkable effect on impact response. The conjunction of the roughness of both the microparticle and the substrate make the impact mechanics even more complicated.

Li, X.; Dunn, P. F.; Brach, R. M.

54

Lyconadins D and E, and complanadine E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins D (1) and E (2), and complanadine E (3), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin D (1) was the first example of fastigiatine-type alkaloid isolated from Lycopodium complanatum. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Complanadine E (3) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Haruaki Ishiyama; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Koichiro Mori; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2011-01-01

55

Lyconadins D and E, and complanadine E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum.  

PubMed

Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins D (1) and E (2), and complanadine E (3), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin D (1) was the first example of fastigiatine-type alkaloid isolated from Lycopodium complanatum. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Complanadine E (3) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF. PMID:21215644

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Ishiyama, Haruaki; Hayashi, Shigeki; Shibata, Toshiro; Mori, Koichiro; Obara, Yutaro; Nakahata, Norimichi; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2011-01-15

56

Lycospidine A, a new type of Lycopodium alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum.  

PubMed

Lycospidine A (1), the first example of a Lycopodium alkaloid which contains an unprecedented five-membered A ring, was isolated from Lycopodium complanatum. The unique five-membered A ring in 1 indicates that carbons 2-5 in 1 are presumably derived from proline instead of the lysine biosynthetically, which suggests that 1 represent a new class of Lycopodium alkaloid. In addition, the unique structural feature and biosynthetic origin of 1 shed new insight into the structural diversity of Lycopodium alkaloid analogue libraries potentially accessible by engineered biosynthesis. PMID:23647027

Cheng, Jin-Tang; Liu, Fei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Wu, Xing-De; Dong, Liao-Bin; Peng, Li-Yan; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; He, Juan; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2013-05-17

57

New Lycopodium alkaloids from Phlegmariurus squarrosus.  

PubMed

Four new Lycopodium alkaloids (1-4), together with 15 known ones, were isolated from club moss Phlegmariurus squarrosus. Notably, 8?-hydroxylycojapodine A (1) was the first derivative of lycojapodine A (5) which was a novel C16N-type Lycopodium alkaloid with an unprecedented 6/6/6/7 tetracyclic ring system. Their structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:24841175

Liu, Fei; Dong, Liao-Bin; Gao, Xiu; Wu, Xing-De; He, Juan; Peng, Li-Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-01-01

58

Serratezomines D and E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium serratum var. serratum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, serratezomines D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium serratum var. serratum. Serratezomine D (1) is a new lucidine-type alkaloid, while serratezomine E (2) is a new phlegmarane-type alkaloid. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Serratezomine D (1) exhibited an inhibitory

Takaaki Kubota; Hiroko Yahata; Sunao Yamamoto; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2009-01-01

59

Screening of crude drug extracts for prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26) is an enzyme to play a role in metabolism of proline-containing neuropeptides, such as vasopressin, substance P and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which were suggested to be involved with learning and memory processes. Then, specific inhibitor of PEP is expected to have antiamnesic effects, and thus we screened forty-six water- and methanol-extracts from crude drugs selected on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine theory, for Flavobacterium prolyl endopeptidase inhibition. Among them, the water-extracts of Rhodiola sacra (IC50, 0.77 microgram/ml) and the methanol-extracts of Lycopodium clavatum (IC50, 1.3 micrograms/ml), Paeonia lactiflora var. trichocarpa (IC50, 5.7 micrograms/ml), Paeonia veitchii (IC50, 2.4 micrograms/ml) and Rhodiola sacra (IC50, 0.67 microgram/ml) showed strong inhibitory activity. In addition, we also examined the PEP inhibitory activity of eleven compounds from Salvia deserta, and found that in addition to a catechol group alpha-hydroxy-para-quinone group may be related to the PEP inhibition. PMID:10439485

Tezuka, Y; Fan, W; Kasimu, R; Kadota, S

1999-07-01

60

Development of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with simple extraction for simultaneous determination of huperzine A and huperzine B in the species containing lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

A sensitive HPLC method with simple extraction was developed for simultaneous determination of huperzine A (HupA) and huperzine B (HupB) in Huperzia serrata, H. crispata, H. miyoshiana, and Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides. In order to avoid conventional multiple-step and time-consuming sample preparation methods, direct reflux extraction with alkaline chloroform was adopted. The quantitative determination was conducted by reversed-phase HPLC with a photodiode array detector set at 308 nm. Separation was performed on a Luna C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) with methanol-0.2% aqueous acetic acid (18 + 82, v/v) mobile phase. The method was validated for accuracy, reproducibility, precision, and limits of detection and quantification. Quantification of the two active compounds in the samples was performed by this newly developed method, and the content of HupA and HupB varied substantially among four different species. The satisfactory results indicated that the developed method can readily be utilized for quality control of the species of Huperziaceae and Lycopodiaceae containing the two compounds. PMID:19714972

Zhang, Yanqing; Xie, Junbo; Chen, Wen-Qian; Zhou, Tian-Yan; Lu, Wei

2009-01-01

61

Lycophlegmariols A-D: cytotoxic serratene triterpenoids from the club moss Lycopodium phlegmaria L.  

PubMed

Lycopodium serratene triterpenoids, along with an abietane-type diterpene were isolated from the methanol extract of club moss Lycopodium phlegmaria L. The structures of these hitherto unknown lycopodium terpenoids were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Pentacyclic triterpenoids, 21?-hydroxy-serrat-14-en-3?-ol (1) and 21?-hydroxy-serrat-14-en-3?-yl acetate (2) were isolated together with four serratene triterpeneoids established as 21?,29-dihydroxyserrat-14-en-3?-yl dihydrocaffeate (lycophlegmariol A, 5), 21?,24,29-trihydroxyserrat-14-en-3?-yl dihydrocaffeate (lycophlegmariol B, 6), 21?,24-dihydroxyserrat-14-en-3?-yl 4-hydroxycinnamate (lycophlegmariol C, 7), and 14?,21?,29-trihydroxyserratan-3?-yl dihydrocaffeate (lycophlegmariol D, 8) as well as a known lycophlegmarin (9). An abietane-type diterpene, 8,11,13-abietatriene-3?,12-dihydroxy-7-one (margocilin, 10), was isolated for the first time from a Lycopodium plant. Lycophlegmariol B (6), D (8) and compound 1 showed inhibitory effects against MOLT-3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-lymphoblast) with IC(50) of 14.7, 3.0 and 2.9 ?M, respectively. PMID:22281380

Wittayalai, Sawangjitt; Sathalalai, Supaporn; Thorroad, Sakornrat; Worawittayanon, Prateep; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Thasana, Nopporn

2012-04-01

62

Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.  

PubMed

Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics. PMID:21186373

Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

2011-01-01

63

Lycopodine-Type Alkaloids from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

Three new lycopodine-type alkaloids, 4?-hydroxyanhydrolycodoline (1), 4?,6?-dihydroxyanhydrolycodoline (2), and 6-epi-8?-acetoxylycoclavine (3), and an artifact, lycoposerramine G nitrate (4), along with seventeen related known compounds, were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. ex Murray (Lycopodiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods as well as X-ray analysis. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity. PMID:25089239

He, Juan; Wu, Xing-De; Liu, Fei; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Peng, Li-Yan; Zhao, Yu; Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Huai-Rong; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-08-01

64

Complanadines C and D, new dimeric alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new dimeric Lycopodium alkaloids, complanadines C (1) and D (2), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structures and relative stereochemistry of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of the spectral data. Complanadine D (2) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Yuzuru Mikami; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2007-01-01

65

Complanadines C and D, new dimeric alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum.  

PubMed

Two new dimeric Lycopodium alkaloids, complanadines C (1) and D (2), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structures and relative stereochemistry of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of the spectral data. Complanadine D (2) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF. PMID:17046268

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Mikami, Yuzuru; Obara, Yutaro; Nakahata, Norimichi; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2007-01-01

66

Five new fawcettimine-related alkaloids from Lycopodium japonicum Thunb.  

PubMed

Five new trace alkaloids with fawcettimine-related structures (1-5), i.e., 6-hydroxyl-6,7-dehydrolycoflexine (1), 6-hydroxyl-6,7-dehydro-8-deoxy-13-dehydroserratinine (2), together with three known ones (6-8), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, HRESIMS, CD and comparison with known ones. Compounds 1 and 2 are characterized by the enol moiety that is rarely reported in Lycopodium alkaloids, and Compound 5 is the second example of Lycopodium alkaloids with a C-16-C-4 linkage. A plausible biogenetic pathway for the isolates was proposed. PMID:23994627

Wang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Li; Yu, Shi-Shan; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Qu, Jing; Liu, Yun-Bao; Li, Yong; Wang, Yadan; Tang, Weibin

2013-12-01

67

Complanadine A, a new dimeric alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dimeric alkaloid with a lycodine-type skeleton, complanadine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structure including the absolute stereochemistry was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

Jun'ichi Kobayashi; Yusuke Hirasawa; Naotoshi Yoshida; Hiroshi Morita

2000-01-01

68

Lycojaponicumins D and E: two new alkaloids from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

Two new alkaloids, lycojaponicumins D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium japonicum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, calculated ECD, CD experiments and X-ray diffraction analysis. Lycojaponicumin D (1) possesses an unprecedented 5/7/6/6 tetracyclic skeleton formed by an unusual C3-C13 linkage, which is first reported in Lycopodium alkaloids. The plausible biogenetic pathway of 1 is proposed. PMID:23121621

Wang, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Yun-Bao; Li, Li; Yu, Shi-Shan; Lv, Hai-Ning; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Bao, Xiu-Qi; Zhang, Dan; Qu, Jing; Li, Yong

2012-11-16

69

Huperserines A-E, Lycopodium alkaloids from Huperzia serrata.  

PubMed

A phytochemical study on Huperzia serrata led to the isolation of four new 5-deoxyfawcettimine-related Lycopodium alkaloids, huperserines A-D (1-4), and one new lycodine-type alkaloid, huperserine E (5). Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. 5-Carbonyl or 5-hydroxyl group is a typical characteristic of lycopodine- and fawcettimine-type alkaloids. This is the first report of the 5-deoxyfawcettimine type Lycopodium alkaloids. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity assay showed that huperserine E exhibited moderate anti-AChE activity with an IC?? value of 6.71 ?M. PMID:25218968

Jiang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Fei; Gao, Xiu; He, Juan; Cheng, Xiao; Peng, Li-Yan; Wu, Xing-De; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-12-01

70

Biogenetically inspired total syntheses of Lycopodium alkaloids, (+)-flabellidine and (-)-lycodine.  

PubMed

The first asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-flabellidine (2) and the shortest total synthesis of (-)-lycodine (3) were accomplished by a strategy featuring the one-pot construction of a tetracyclic lycodine skeleton from a linear precursor, which was inspired by the biosynthetic consideration of Lycopodium alkaloids. PMID:25103992

Azuma, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Kogure, Noriyuki; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu

2014-08-20

71

Redox divergent synthesis of fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

A new approach for synthesis of fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids is described. A divergent strategy was achieved by applying stereoselective Diels-Alder reaction followed by redox-controlled elaboration. Eventually, (-)-8-deoxyserratinine, (+)-fawcettimine, (-)-lycopoclavamine-A, (-)-serratine, (-)-lycopoclavamine-B and (-)-serratanidine were successfully accessed. PMID:25042023

Zaimoku, Hisaaki; Taniguchi, Tsuyoshi

2014-07-28

72

Isolation of a new lycodine alkaloid from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

A new lycodine alkaloid, N-methylhydroxypropyllycodine (1), was isolated from the club moss Lycopodium japonicum Thunb, together with five known compounds, N-methyllycodine (2), huperzinine (3), ?-obscurine (4), ?-obscurine (5) and des-N-methyl-?-obscurine (6). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR techniques. PMID:25421949

Wu, Jichun; Wang, Huanqin; Ma, Yanfang; Jiang, Jinhe; Zhan, Rui; Chen, Yegao

2014-11-25

73

Lyconesidines A–C, new alkaloids from Lycopodium chinense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new alkaloids, lyconesidines A (1), B (2), and C (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium chinense, and the structures and absolute stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR data, X-ray analysis, and modified Mosher's method.

Yusuke Hirasawa; Hiroshi Morita; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

2002-01-01

74

Some ultrastructural aspects of spermatogenesis in Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Analysis of thin sections shows that the blepharoplast in an early spermatid ofLycopodium consists of two basal bodies and the subtending spline apparatus. The latter has a 4-layered or Vierergruppe organization much like that reported for certain bryophytes and vascular plants. During the course of spermatid maturation the vertically lamellate S2 stratum of the spline apparatus is transformed into

Zane B. Carothers; Robert R. Robbins; David L. Haas

1975-01-01

75

Modular Growth and Function in the Vascular Cryptogam Lycopodium annotinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycopodium annotinum L. is a long-lived plant that consists of a series of annually produced segments, which can be aged; a 20-year life cycle can be synthesized from historical records of the plant's past growth. Detailed analyses of the modular construction of the plant show elements of deterministic and opportunistic growth which provide a framework in which physiological processes can

T. V. Callaghan; A. D. Headley; B. M. Svensson; Li Lixian; J. A. Lee; D. K. Lindley

1986-01-01

76

Author's personal copy Research paper  

E-print Network

July 2012 Keywords: dinoflagellate cyst concentration Lycopodium clavatum tablets spike absolute abundance Lycopodium clavatum tablets are commonly added as a spike to determine dinoflagellate cyst to the method described by Stockmarr (1971). The marker commonly used is Lycopodium clavatum Linnaeus (Stag

Pedersen, Tom

77

Lycopodiaceae from Panama: A new source of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Eleven whole plants from Panama belonging to the Lycopodiaceae family have been screened for their anticholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography method. Of these, only Lycopodium clavatum subsp. clavatum showed strong AChE inhibition. Seven plant extracts showed moderate inhibition, two of them,

Angela I. Calderón; Johayra Simithy-Williams; Rocío Sanchez; Alex Espinosa; Iván Valdespino; Mahabir P. Gupta

2012-01-01

78

Lycopodium similiaplex-induced acute hepatitis: a case report.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our department with symptoms of nausea, anorexia and asthenia. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were increased; all serological tests for viral hepatitis and autoimmune disorders were negative. She had taken Lycopodium similiaplex solution as sedative for the previous 8 weeks, whose two constituents, Lycopodium serratum and Chelidonium majus, are found to be potentially toxic. After discontinuing L. similiaplex use, liver values returned to normal and she was asymptomatic. The diagnosis was definitively confirmed by liver biopsy; on the basis of the histological specimen, a hypersensitivity reaction was hypothesized as a possible pathogenic mechanism. Hepatotoxicity of phytotherapy has already been described, although so far, the true incidence and the pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. It is important to increase awareness of both clinicians and patients about the potential dangers of herbal remedies; surveillance systems and quality control of these products are necessary. PMID:18403950

Conti, Emma; De Checchi, Giovanna; Mencarelli, Roberto; Pinato, Samuela; Rovere, Pierangelo

2008-05-01

79

Carinatines A and B, Lycopodium Alkaloids from Phlegmariurus carinatus.  

PubMed

Carinatine A (1), a C16N2-type Lycopodium alkaloid possessing a 5/6/6/6 ring system formed by a new C-4/C-12 bond, and carinatine B (2), the first derivative of lycojaponicumin C, along 16 known compounds, were isolated from the whole plant of Phlegmariurus carinatus. Their structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic data. The two new isolates were no inhibitory activity for the acetylcholinesterase (AChE). PMID:25089240

Liu, Fei; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Jiang, Wei-Wei; He, Juan; Wu, Xing-De; Peng, Li-Yan; Su, Jia; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-08-01

80

The use of lycopodium spores to calibrate photoelectric counters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calibration of photoelectric counters for the analysis of aerosol particle sizes is discussed. The FES-SM counter was used to measure the scattering intensity of dibutylphthalate droplets for which the R value is known and the scattering intensity of lycopodium spores. An R value of 58 +/- 4 was obtained for the latter. It is concluded that these spores, which are easy to obtain, can be used to verify the calibration of photoelectric counters in field conditions.

Romanov, N. P.; Lamykin, O. V.

81

Senepodine A, a novel C 22N 2 alkaloid from Lycopodium chinense  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of C22N2Lycopodium alkaloid consisting of an octahydroquinoline and a quinolizidine ring, senepodine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium chinense, and the structure including relative stereochemistry was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

Hiroshi Morita; Yusuke Hirasawa; Naotoshi Yoshida; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

2001-01-01

82

Lycochinines A–C, novel C 27N 3 alkaloids from Lycopodium chinense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three novel C27N3-type Lycopodium alkaloids, lycochinines A–C (1–3) consisting of an octahydroquinoline or a decahydroquinoline, a quinolizidine, and a piperidine, were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium chinense. The relative stereochemistry of 1–3 was determined by a combination of NOESY correlations and chemical transformations.

Yusuke Hirasawa; Tomoyuki Tanaka; Koichiro Koyama; Hiroshi Morita

2009-01-01

83

Lycopladine H, a novel alkaloid with fused-tetracyclic skeleton from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Lycopodium alkaloid, lycopladine H (1), with a fused-tetracyclic ring system consisting of an azocane ring connected to a [2,2,2]-bicyclooctane ring and a 3-piperidone ring, was isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2009-01-01

84

Lycoparins A–C, new alkaloids from Lycopodium casuarinoides inhibiting acetylcholinesterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lycoparins A–C (1–3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium casuarinoides. Structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR correlations. Lycoparins C (3) exhibited an inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase, while lycoparins A (1) and B (2) did not show activity.

Yusuke Hirasawa; Eri Kato; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Nobuo Kawahara; Yukihiro Goda; Motoo Shiro; Hiroshi Morita

2008-01-01

85

Carinatumins A–C, new alkaloids from Lycopodium carinatum inhibiting acetylcholinesterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, carinatumins A–C (1–3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium carinatum. Structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR correlations. Carinatumins A (1) and B (2) exhibited a potent inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase.

Chee Yan Choo; Yusuke Hirasawa; Chiaki Karimata; Koichiro Koyama; Mitsuhiro Sekiguchi; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Hiroshi Morita

2007-01-01

86

Lannotinidines A–G, new alkaloids from two species of Lycopodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven new Lycopodium alkaloids, lannotinidines A–G (1–7), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium annotinum and L. annotinum var. acrifolium. Stereochemistry of 1–7 was elucidated by combination of NOESY correlations and chemical transformation. Lannotinidines B–E (2–5) elevated NGF mRNA expression.

Koichiro Koyama; Hiroshi Morita; Yusuke Hirasawa; Miwa Yoshinaga; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

2005-01-01

87

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at concentrations of 0.2 and 1 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay based on Ellman method. Antioxidant activity of the LCC extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method at 0.2 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of LCC exracts using Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney and Vero cell lines. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were screened against the bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis as well as the fungi: Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. Only the petroleum ether extract of LCC possessed remarkable activity against both AChE and BChE at 1 mg mL(-1) (76.5 and 69.6%, respectively), whereas LCC extracts showed low free radical-scavenging activity. All of the extracts were found to be more effective against the ATCC strains than isolated ones, particularly S. aureus, while the extracts had moderate antifungal activity. On the other hand, we found that only the petroleum ether extract was active against HSV. In addition, we also analysed the content of the alkaloid fraction of the plant by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified lycopodine as the major alkaloid (60.8%). PMID:19384728

Orhan, Ilkay; Ozcelik, Berrin; Aslan, Sinem; Kartal, Murat; Karaoglu, Taner; Sener, Bilge; Terzioglu, Salih; Iqbal Choudhary, M

2009-01-01

88

Isopalhinine A, a unique pentacyclic Lycopodium alkaloid from Palhinhaea cernua.  

PubMed

A new pentacyclic (5/6/6/6/7) Lycopodium alkaloid named isopalhinine A (1), which possesses a sterically congested architecture built with a tricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]decane (isotwistane) moiety and a 1-azabicyclo[4.3.1]decane moiety, and palhinines B (2) and C (3) were isolated from Palhinhaea cernua. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were elucidated by a combination of NMR spectra, optical rotation calculation, and X-ray diffraction experiment. A possible biogenetic pathway was also proposed. PMID:23815071

Dong, Liao-Bin; Gao, Xiu; Liu, Fei; He, Juan; Wu, Xing-De; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2013-07-19

89

Radiative Structures of Lycopodium-Air Flames in Low Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initially uniform clouds of fuel particulates in air sustain processes which may lead to particle cloud nonuniformities. In low gravity, flame-induced Kundt's Tube phenomena are observed to form regular patterns of nonuniform particle concentrations. Irregular patterns of particle concentrations also are observed to result from selected nonuniform mixing processes. Low gravity flame propagation for each of these classes of particle cloud flames has been found to depend importantly on the flame-generated infrared radiative fields. The spatial structures of these radiative fields are described. Application is made for the observed clases of lycopodium-air flames.

Berlad, A. L.; Tangirala, V.; Ross, H.; Facca, L.

1989-01-01

90

The occurrence of Podocotyle atomon (Rud., 1802)(Digenea), Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776) (Cestoda), Contracaecum clavatum (Rud., 1809) (Nematoda) and Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega, in Müller, 1776 (Acanthocephala) in the five-bearded rockling, Onos mustelus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the incidence and intensity of infestation of the five-bearded rockling, Onos mustelus (L.) with Podocotyle atomon, Bothriocephalus scorpii, Contracaecum clavatum and Echinorhynchus gadi has been studied for a period of one year, on a shore at Mumbles Head, Swansea.There is a general increase in the incidence and intensity of infestation by P. atomon and C. clavatum with

B. L. James; L. P. Srivastava

1967-01-01

91

Lycopladine A, a new C 16N alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new C16N type alkaloid, lycopladine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Hiroshi Morita; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2006-01-01

92

Miyoshianines A and B, two new lycopodium alkaloids from Huperzia miyoshiana.  

PubMed

Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, miyoshianines A and B, together with five known alkaloids, lycopodine, lycodoline, 12-epilycodoline, clavolonine, and flabelliformine, were isolated from Huperzia miyoshiana (Makino) Ching (Huperziaceae). Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic techniques. PMID:12865986

Tong, Xiao-Tian; Tan, Chang-Heng; Ma, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Bao-De; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Zhu, Da-Yuan

2003-06-01

93

Collective total synthesis of tetracyclic diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-paniculatine, (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone and analogues thereof.  

PubMed

The collective total synthesis of tetracyclic diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids, (+)-paniculatine, (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone, and two analogues (-)-13-epi-paniculatine and (+)-3-hydroxyl-13-dehydro-paniculatine, has been accomplished. By logic-guided addition of a strategically useful hydroxyl group at C-3 of paniculatine, the formidable tetracyclic core was rapidly synthesized utilizing a site-specific and stereoselective aldol cyclization, thus making the ABD ? ABCD tetracyclic approach to diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids attainable for the first time. PMID:25299586

Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Lei, Ting; Wei, Kun; Yang, Yu-Rong

2014-11-01

94

Cryptadines A and B, novel C 27N 3-type pentacyclic alkaloids from Lycopodium cryptomerinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel C27N3-type Lycopodium alkaloids, cryptadines A (1) and B (2) consisting of two octahydroquinoline rings (C11N) and a piperidine ring (C5N), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium cryptomerinum, and their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, chemical transformations, and computational methods. Cryptadines A (1) and B (2) exhibited an inhibitory activity

Koichiro Koyama; Yusuke Hirasawa; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Hiroshi Morita

2007-01-01

95

Concise Total Syntheses of the Lycopodium Alkaloids (±)-Nankakurines A and B via Luciduline  

PubMed Central

Total syntheses of the Lycopodium alkaloids nankakurines A and B have been accomplished in 6 and 7 steps, respectively, via a sequence that passes through a third Lycopodium alkaloid, luciduline, and forgoes the use of protecting groups on nitrogen. Key features include a short preparation of luciduline followed by a concise and stereoselective aminoallylation/ring-closing metathesis protocol to fashion the spiropiperidine ring common to nankakurines A and B. PMID:20014779

Cheng, Xiayun; Waters, Stephen P.

2009-01-01

96

Senepodines B–E, new C 22N 2 alkaloids from Lycopodium chinense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new C22N2Lycopodium alkaloids, senepodines B–E (2–5), consisting of an octahydroquinoline ring and a quinolizidine ring have been isolated together with senepodine A (1) from the club moss Lycopodium chinense. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of 2-5 were determined by combination of NOESY correlations and chemical transformation, while the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by exciton chirality method.

Yusuke Hirasawa; Hiroshi Morita; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

2003-01-01

97

Lycopladines F and G, new C 16N 2-type alkaloids with an additional C 4N unit from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, lycopladines F (1) and G (2), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structures and relative stereochemistries of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Lycopladine F (1) is a rare C16N2-type Lycopodium alkaloid possessing an amino acid residue (C4N).

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2009-01-01

98

Lycopladines B–D and lyconadin B, new alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new alkaloids, lycopladines B–D (1–3) and lyconadin B (4), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and the structures including the stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and modified Mosher’s method. Lyconadin B (4) elevated NGF mRNA expression in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2006-01-01

99

Lycopladines B-D and lyconadin B, new alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum.  

PubMed

Four new alkaloids, lycopladines B-D (1-3) and lyconadin B (4), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and the structures including the stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and modified Mosher's method. Lyconadin B (4) elevated NGF mRNA expression in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. PMID:16750373

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Hoshino, Tomohiro; Obara, Yutaro; Nakahata, Norimichi; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2006-09-01

100

Lycopodatines A-C, C(16)N alkaloids from Lycopodium inundatum.  

PubMed

Three new alkaloids, lycopodatines A (1), B (2), and C (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium inundatum, and the structures and absolute configuration were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR data and chemical transformation. PMID:16378384

Morita, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2005-12-01

101

Heathcock-inspired strategies for the synthesis of fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

The fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids have garnered significant attention from synthetic organic chemists since the isolation of fawcettimine in 1959. Despite being targets of interest for over 50 years, most of the strategies employed in the syntheses of fawcettimine congeners have built upon Inubushi and Heathcock's original work, realized in 1979 and 1986, respectively. This elegant strategy has been explored and expanded upon in the intervening years since the original publications, in what we now call the Heathcock-inspired strategy. While other disconnections have been disclosed, this strategy remains one of the most efficient. In this Concept article, we focus on exploring a number of recent Heathcock-inspired syntheses of fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids. We also briefly discuss alternative, novel disconnections. PMID:24311383

Murphy, Rebecca A; Sarpong, Richmond

2014-01-01

102

Lycopalhine A, a novel sterically congested Lycopodium alkaloid with an unprecedented skeleton from Palhinhaea cernua.  

PubMed

A novel sterically congested Lycopodium alkaloid named lycopalhine A (1) that possesses a fused hexacyclic (5/5/5/6/6/6) ring system comprising a 5,9-diaza-tricyclo[6.2.1.0(4,9)]undecane moiety and a tricyclo[5.2.1.0(4,8)]decane moiety was isolated from Palhinhaea cernua L. The structure and absolute configuration were determined by spectroscopic and computational methods. PMID:22854533

Dong, Liao-Bin; Yang, Jing; He, Juan; Luo, Huai-Rong; Wu, Xing-De; Deng, Xu; Peng, Li-Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2012-09-18

103

The extent of clonality in large stands of Lycopodium annotinum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Rothaargebirge (Northrhine-Westphalia) the interrupted club moss (Lycopodium annotinum L.) often grows in large (maximum size of patches observed: 18,000m2) and dense (club moss cover 60–90%) clusters. By DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) analysis it was shown in three populations comprising a total of 69 samples that the clusters are of great genetical uniformity. Based on data from 47 polymorphic

Rüdiger Wittig; Ruth Jungmann; Hans-Joachim Ballach

2007-01-01

104

Complanadine B, obscurumines A and B, new alkaloids from two species of Lycopodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dimer of C16N2 type alkaloid, complanadine B (1), and two new C16N type alkaloids, obscurumines A (2) and B (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and L. obscurum, respectively. The structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated by combination of 2D NMR spectra and chemical transformation. Complanadine A (4) isolated together with 1 induced

Hiroshi Morita; Kan'ichiro Ishiuchi; Asami Haganuma; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

2005-01-01

105

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M, anhydrolycodoline, gnidioidine, lycofoline, lannotinidine D, and acrifoline, as well as a previously unknown N-oxide of annotine. 1H and 13C NMR data of several of

Elsa Steinunn Halldorsdottir; Jerzy W. Jaroszewski; Elin Soffia Olafsdottir

2010-01-01

106

Lycopodium annotinum and light quality: Growth responses under canopies of two Vaccinium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycopodium annotinum, a clonal pteridophyte, was grown under canopies formed by various combinations of deciduousVaccinium myrtillus and evergreenV. vitis-idaea. The canopies differed in red:far-red ratio, withV. myrtillus giving the lowest ratio. The current year's horizontal segments ofL. annotinum had the same specific weight in all treatments, but the lengths of the segments were significantly increased when grown under\\u000a the canopy

Brita M. Svensson; Britt Floderus; Terry V. Callaghan

1994-01-01

107

Lycopodium cernuum and Funaria hygrometrica as deposition indicators for radionuclides and trace metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Levels of 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs and some trace elements (Cu, Zn and Pb) in two most common mosses (Lycopodium cernuum and Funaria hygrometrica) distributed in the eastern Mediterranean sea region (Syrian coastal mountains series) have been determined. Radiochemical analysis has shown that these plants contain high levels of 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs. The highest concentration of 210Pb, 210Po and 137Cs were

M. S. Al-Masri; S. Mamish; M. A. Al-Haleem; K. Al-Shamali

2005-01-01

108

Use of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Ophiostoma clavatum, the Primary Blue Stain Fungus Associated with Ips acuminatus  

PubMed Central

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative amplification technology which is highly sensitive and less time-consuming than conventional PCR-based methods. Three LAMP assays were developed, two for detection of species of symbiotic blue stain fungi associated with Ips acuminatus, a bark beetle infesting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and an additional assay specific to I. acuminatus itself for use as a control. In common with most bark beetles, I. acuminatus is associated with phytopathogenic blue stain fungi involved in the process of exhausting tree defenses, which is a necessary step for the colonization of the plant by the insect. However, the identity of the main blue stain fungus vectored by I. acuminatus was still uncertain, as well as its frequency of association with I. acuminatus under outbreak and non-outbreak conditions. In this study, we employed LAMP technology to survey six populations of I. acuminatus sampled from the Southern Alps. Ophiostoma clavatum was detected at all sampling sites, while Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum, reported in part of the literature as the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus, was not detected on any of the samples. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that O. clavatum is the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus in the Southern Alps. The method developed in the course of this work provides a molecular tool by which it will be easy to screen populations and derive important data regarding the ecology of the species involved. PMID:23396326

Tomlinson, Jennifer A.; Battisti, Andrea; Boonham, Neil; Capretti, Paolo

2013-01-01

109

Use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Ophiostoma clavatum, the primary blue stain fungus associated with Ips acuminatus.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative amplification technology which is highly sensitive and less time-consuming than conventional PCR-based methods. Three LAMP assays were developed, two for detection of species of symbiotic blue stain fungi associated with Ips acuminatus, a bark beetle infesting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and an additional assay specific to I. acuminatus itself for use as a control. In common with most bark beetles, I. acuminatus is associated with phytopathogenic blue stain fungi involved in the process of exhausting tree defenses, which is a necessary step for the colonization of the plant by the insect. However, the identity of the main blue stain fungus vectored by I. acuminatus was still uncertain, as well as its frequency of association with I. acuminatus under outbreak and non-outbreak conditions. In this study, we employed LAMP technology to survey six populations of I. acuminatus sampled from the Southern Alps. Ophiostoma clavatum was detected at all sampling sites, while Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum, reported in part of the literature as the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus, was not detected on any of the samples. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that O. clavatum is the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus in the Southern Alps. The method developed in the course of this work provides a molecular tool by which it will be easy to screen populations and derive important data regarding the ecology of the species involved. PMID:23396326

Villari, Caterina; Tomlinson, Jennifer A; Battisti, Andrea; Boonham, Neil; Capretti, Paolo; Faccoli, Massimo

2013-04-01

110

Anti-cholinesterase activity of lycopodium alkaloids from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa (Forst.) Trevis.  

PubMed

A series of Lycopodium alkaloids, namely lycosquarosine A (1), acetylaposerratinine (2), huperzine A (3), huperzine B (4), 8?-hydrophlemariurine B (5), and huperzinine (6), has been isolated from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa. Among them, lycosquarosine A (1) is the new metabolite of the natural source. Lycosquarosine A completely inhibited AChE activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 54.3 ?g/mL, while acetylaposerratinine (2) showed stronger inhibitory activity than 1 with an IC50 value of 15.2 µg/mL. This result indicates that these alkaloids may be a potent source of AChE inhibitors. PMID:25415478

Chuong, Nguyen Ngoc; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hung, Tran Manh; Luan, Tran Cong

2014-01-01

111

Lycojaponicumins A-C, three alkaloids with an unprecedented skeleton from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

Lycojaponicumins A-C (1-3), three trace alkaloids isolated from Lycopodium japonicum, represent a unique heterocyclic skeleton formed by the new linkage C4-C9. Notably, lycojaponicumins A and B (1 and 2) are the first examples of natural products possessing a 5/5/5/5/6 pentacyclic ring system with a 1-aza-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane moiety. These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction analysis. A plausible biogenetic pathway was proposed. PMID:22568532

Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Gui-Jie; Zhuang, Peng-Yu; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Shi-Shan; Bao, Xiu-Qi; Zhang, Dan; Yuan, Yu-He; Chen, Nai-Hong; Ma, Shuang-gang; Qu, Jing; Li, Yong

2012-05-18

112

Isolation and complete structural assignment of Lycopodium alkaloid cernupalhine A: theoretical prediction and total synthesis validation.  

PubMed

Cernupalhine A (1) is a trace Lycopodium alkaloid (0.7 mg) possessing a new C17N skeleton with an unusual hydroxydihydrofuranone motif newly isolated from Palhinhaea cernua L. Its complete structural assignment, including absolute stereochemistry, was established through a combination of high-field NMR techniques and computational methods and further unequivocal confirmation by the first asymmetric total synthesis. Following the first total synthesis of lobscurinine (3), 1 was achieved via regio- and stereoselective cyanide ion addition and subsequent acid treatment. PMID:24779557

Dong, Liao-Bin; Wu, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Xing-De; He, Juan; Yang, Yu-Rong; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-05-16

113

Exploratory studies towards a total synthesis of the unusual bridged tetracyclic Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H  

PubMed Central

A strategy for a total synthesis of the structurally novel Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H has been investigated. Key steps that have been tested include: 1.a regioselective Diels-Alder cycloaddition of nitroethylene with an o-quinone ketal to produce the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane moiety of the alkaloid; 2. a stereoselective Henry reaction to generate the requisite functionality and configuration at C-5; 3. a stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation of a trisubstituted alkene to set the C-15 methyl configuration. PMID:22125345

Sacher, Joshua R.; Weinreb, Steven M.

2011-01-01

114

Construction of the azocane (azacyclooctane) moiety of the Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H via an intramolecular hydroaminomethylation strategy.  

PubMed

An efficient synthetic strategy has been developed for annulation of an azocane ring onto a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane scaffold via an intramolecular hydroaminomethylation protocol to generate an advanced intermediate bearing three of the four rings of the structurally unique Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H (1). PMID:22486178

Sacher, Joshua R; Weinreb, Steven M

2012-04-20

115

A unified strategy for the synthesis of 7-membered-ring-containing Lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

A unique subset of the Lycopodium alkaloid natural products share a 7-membered-ring substructure and may potentially arise from a common biosynthetic precursor. To both explore and exploit these structural relationships, we sought to develop a unified biosynthetically inspired strategy to efficiently access these complex polycyclic alkaloids through the use of a cascade sequence. In pursuit of these goals, the first total synthesis of (+)-fastigiatine (2) was accomplished via a series of cascade reactions; we describe herein a full account of our efforts. Insight from these endeavors led to critical modifications of our synthetic strategy, which enabled the first total syntheses of (-)-himeradine A (1), (-)-lycopecurine (3), and (-)-dehydrolycopecurine (4), as well as the syntheses of (+)-lyconadin A (5) and (-)-lyconadin B (6). Our approach features a diastereoselective one-pot sequence for constructing the common 7-membered-ring core system, followed by either a biomimetic transannular Mannich reaction to access himeradine A (1), lycopecurine (3), and dehydrolycopecurine (4) or an imine reduction for lyconadins A (5) and B (6). This strategy may potentially enable access to all 7-membered-ring-containing Lycopodium alkaloids and provides additional insight into their biosynthetic origin. PMID:25152067

Lee, Amy S; Liau, Brian B; Shair, Matthew D

2014-09-24

116

Study of the interaction of Huperzia saururus Lycopodium alkaloids with the acetylcholinesterase enzyme.  

PubMed

In the present study, we describe and compare the binding modes of three Lycopodium alkaloids (sauroine, 6-hydroxylycopodine and sauroxine; isolated from Huperzia saururus) and huperzine A with the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Refinement and rescoring of the docking poses (obtained with different programs) with an all atom force field helped to improve the quality of the protein-ligand complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the complexes and the alkaloid's binding modes. The combination of the latter two methodologies indicated that binding in the active site is favored for the active compounds. On the other hand, similar binding energies in both the active and the peripheral sites were obtained for sauroine, thus explaining its experimentally determined lack of activity. MM-GBSA predicted the order of binding energies in agreement with the experimental IC50 values. PMID:23827878

Puiatti, Marcelo; Borioni, José Luis; Vallejo, Mariana Guadalupe; Cabrera, José Luis; Agnese, Alicia Mariel; Ortega, María Gabriela; Pierini, Adriana Beatríz

2013-07-01

117

Divergent total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloids huperzine A, huperzine B, and huperzine U.  

PubMed

Huperzine A, huperzine B, and huperzine U are congeners isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata (= Lycopodium serratum ) in minuscule amounts. The most efficient total synthesis of huperzine A, the first asymmetric total syntheses of huperzine B, and the first total synthesis of huperzine U have been achieved efficiently in overall yields of 17%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, each spanning 10-13 steps from (R)-pulegone. The featured steps include palladium-catalyzed Buchwald-Hartwig coupling and Heck cyclization reactions and an Ir-catalyzed olefin isomerization reaction. This work has established the absolute configurations of huperzine B and huperzine U and revealed that natural huperzine A, huperzine B, and huperzine U possess the same set of absolute stereochemistries, thus providing support for the potential role of huperzine B and huperzine U in the biosynthesis of huperzine A. PMID:24299147

Ding, Rui; Fu, Jian-Guo; Xu, Guang-Qiang; Sun, Bing-Feng; Lin, Guo-Qiang

2014-01-01

118

Studies toward the synthesis of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids: a Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder approach.  

PubMed

A synthetic route to the isotwistane core of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids is described. A Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) strategy sets the vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers present in this family of natural products. The regioselectivity of the IMDA reaction is dictated by the conditions employed for silyl enol ether formation, with one set of conditions providing the core of cardionine and alternate conditions generating the desired isotwistane core of isopalhinine. PMID:24456289

Sizemore, Nicholas; Rychnovsky, Scott D

2014-02-01

119

Small-scale vegetation pattern related to the growth of Lycopodium annotinum and variations in its micro-environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale variations in topography, soil depth and species occurrence were studied in a sub-arctic\\/sub-alpine brich forest in Swedish Lapland in order to evaluate the effects of various micro-habitats on the growth and distribution of Lycopodium annotinum. Micro-topographical variation in the study plot (280 by 420 cm) reached 100 cm, while soil depth varied from 0 to more than 50 cm

Brita M. Svensson; Terry V. Callaghan

1988-01-01

120

Lycopodiaceae from Panama: a new source of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Eleven whole plants from Panama belonging to the Lycopodiaceae family have been screened for their anticholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography method. Of these, only Lycopodium clavatum subsp. clavatum showed strong AChE inhibition. Seven plant extracts showed moderate inhibition, two of them, Huperzia cf chamaeleon and Huperzia reflexa, also possessed an antioxidant activity. This is the first report of anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities in these two native plants. Additionally, alkaloid extracts of the Lycopodiaceae plants were also analysed by TLC and LC-MS to identify the well-known AchE inhibitor, huperzine A. Two plants, H. cf chamaeleon and H. reflexa var. minor, showed the presence of huperzine. PMID:22746970

Calderón, Angela I; Simithy-Williams, Johayra; Sanchez, Rocío; Espinosa, Alex; Valdespino, Iván; Gupta, Mahabir P

2013-03-01

121

Collective synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids and tautomer locking strategy for the total synthesis of (-)-lycojapodine A.  

PubMed

The collective total synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-fawcettimine (1), (+)-fawcettidine (2), (+)-alopecuridine (4), (-)-lycojapodine A (6), and (-)-8-deoxyserratinine (7) has been accomplished from a common precursor (15) based on a highly concise route inspired by the proposed biosynthesis of the fawcettimine- and serratinine-type alkaloids. An intramolecular C-alkylation enabled efficient installation of the challenging spiro quaternary carbon center and the aza-cyclononane ring. The preparation of the tricyclic skeleton as well as the establishment of the correct relative stereochemistry of the oxa-quaternary center were achieved by hydroxyl-directed SmI(2)-mediated pinacol couplings. An unprecedented tandem transannular N-alkylation and removal of a Boc group was discovered to realize a biosynthesis-inspired process to furnish the desired tetracyclic skeleton. Of particular note is the unique and crucial tautomer locking strategy employed to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-lycojapodine A (6). The central step in this synthesis is the late-stage hypervalent iodine oxidant (IBX or Dess-Martin periodinane)/TFA-mediated tandem process, which constructed the previously unknown carbinolamine lactone motif and enabled a biomimetic transformation to generate (-)-lycojapodine A (6) in a single operation. PMID:22973823

Li, Houhua; Wang, Xiaoming; Hong, Benke; Lei, Xiaoguang

2013-02-01

122

Diversity-oriented synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids inspired by the hidden functional group pairing pattern.  

PubMed

Natural products continue to provide a rich source of inspiration for both chemists and biologists. The efficient synthesis of bioactive natural products or natural product-like molecules has offered tremendous opportunities for complex biological processes exploration and drug discovery. However, because natural products usually contain numerous stereogenic centres and polycyclic ring systems, significant synthetic challenges remain. Here we employ the build/couple/pair strategy that is frequently used in diversity-oriented synthesis to obtain skeletally diverse compounds with complexities comparable to natural products. Inspired by the functional group pairing patterns hidden in Lycopodium alkaloids, we efficiently and in parallel construct four natural products, (+)-Serratezomine A, (-)-Serratinine, (+)-8?-Hydroxyfawcettimine and (-)-Lycoposerramine-U, as well as six different unnatural scaffolds, following the advanced build/couple/pair algorithm. This newly developed strategy is expected to be applied to the efficient synthesis of other complex natural products possessing functional group pairing patterns as well as skeletally diverse natural product-like molecules. PMID:25082077

Zhang, Jing; Wu, Jinbao; Hong, Benke; Ai, Wenying; Wang, Xiaoming; Li, Houhua; Lei, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

123

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M, anhydrolycodoline, gnidioidine, lycofoline, lannotinidine D, and acrifoline, as well as a previously unknown N-oxide of annotine. 1H and 13C NMR data of several of the alkaloids were provided for the first time. Solvent-dependent equilibrium constants between ketone and hemiketal form of acrifoline were determined. Conformation of acrifoline was characterized using NOESY spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The isolated alkaloids were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Ligand docking studies based on mutated 3D structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase provided rationale for low inhibitory activity of the isolated alkaloids as compared to huperzine A or B, which are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors belonging to the lycodine class. Based on the modelling studies the lycopodane-type alkaloids seem to fit well into the active site gorge of the enzyme but the position of their functional groups is not compatible with establishing strong hydrogen bonding interactions with the amino acid residues that line the binding site. The docking studies indicate possibilities of additional functionalization of the lycopodane skeleton to render potentially more active analogues. PMID:19939421

Halldorsdottir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

2010-02-01

124

Column Chromatography and Kinetics of Nucleosides and Nucleic Acid Bases on Immobilized Nickel and Cobalt-CDAE-Sporopollenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporopollenin, a natural polymer, has been modified for application as a ligand-exchange material. The ligand-exchange Chromatography with the functionalized Lycopodium clavatum is a useful method for the rapid separation of nucleosides and nucleic acid bases. The synthesis of tris(carboxymethyl) ethylene diamine Lycopodium clavatum has been described. The resin contained functional diaminoethane and carboxyl groups. Nickel(II) and cobalt(II) metal ions can

Erol Pehlivan; Salih Yildiz

1994-01-01

125

Ligand-Exchange Chromatography of Aromatic Amines on Resin-Bound Cobalt Ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cobalt metal for the selective separation of aromatic amines is completed with a chemically bonded diamine and glyoxime functional groups onto Lycopodium clavatum. Oximes and amines are excellent complexing agents for transition metal ions. Cobalt(II) metal ions can easily be immobilized on bis-diami-noethyl-glyoximated sporopollenin (bDAEG-sporopollenin). The ligand-exchange behavior of modified Lycopodium clavatum with respect to aromatic amines

Erol Pehlivan; Ufuk S. Vural; Ahmet Ayar; Salih Yildiz

1996-01-01

126

Microanatomy of the placenta of Lycopodium obscurum: novel design in an underground embryo  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Long-lived underground populations of mycoheterotrophic gametophytes and attached sporophytes at various developmental stages occur in lycophytes. Young underground sporophytes obtain carbon solely from the gametophyte and establish nutritional independence only after reaching the soil surface, which may take several years. This prolonged period of matrotrophy exceeds that of bryophytes. The foot is massive and provides the lifeline for sporophyte establishment, yet the fine structure of the placental region is unexplored in lycophytes with underground gametophytes. Methods Gametophytes with attached embryos/young sporophytes of Lycopodium obscurum were collected in nature, processed and examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results Three ultrastructurally distinct regions were identified within a single foot of a sporophyte emerging from the soil. Young foot regions actively divide, and have direct contact with and show little differentiation from gametophyte cells. In unlobed foot areas, cells in both generations exhibit polarity in content and indicate unidirectional transport of carbon reserves into the foot toward the developing shoot and root. The foot has inconspicuous wall ingrowths. Highly lobed foot regions contain peripheral transfer cells with prominent wall ingrowths that absorb nutrients from degenerating gametophyte cells. Conclusions Variability within a single placenta is consistent with an invasive and long-lived foot. The late appearance of wall ingrowths in transfer cells reflects this dynamic ever-growing embryo. Placental features in lycophytes are related to the unique reorientation of all embryonic regions during development. Small placentas with wall ingrowths in both generations characterize ephemeral embryos in green gametophytes, while short-lived and repositioning embryos of heterosporous taxa are devoid of transfer cells. Transfer cell evolution across embryophytes is riddled with homoplasy and reflects diverse patterns of embryology. Scrutiny of placental evolution must include consideration of nutritional status and life history strategies of the gametophyte and young sporophyte. PMID:23979904

Renzaglia, Karen S.; Whittier, Dean P.

2013-01-01

127

Synthesis of the Tetracyclic Skeleton of the Lycopodium Alkaloid Lycopladine H via a Pivotal Double Hydroformylation/Intramolecular Reductive Amination Sequence.  

PubMed

A synthesis of the complete tetracyclic framework of the structurally unique Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H has been accomplished using a strategy involving a double alkene hydroformylation/intramolecular reductive amination to form the azocane and spiro-piperidine moieties of the natural product. PMID:25658603

Chauhan, Pradeep S; Sacher, Joshua R; Weinreb, Steven M

2015-02-20

128

Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for standardisation of ingredients of an ayurvedic powdered formulation Shatavaryadi churna.  

PubMed

Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of diagnostic characters of each ingredient of Shatavaryadi churna individually was carried out. Microscopic determination, counting of identifying number, measurement of area, length and breadth of identifying characters were performed using Leica DMLS-2 microscope. The method was validated for intraday precision, linearity, specificity, repeatability, accuracy and system suitability, respectively. The method is simple, precise, sensitive, and accurate, and can be used for routine standardisation of raw materials of herbal drugs. This method gives the ratio of individual ingredients in the powdered drug so that any adulteration of genuine drug with its adulterant can be found out. The method shows very good linearity value between 0.988-0.999 for number of identifying character and area of identifying character. Percentage purity of the sample drug can be determined by using the linear equation of standard genuine drug. PMID:24311861

Kumar, Puspendra; Jha, Shivesh; Naved, Tanveer

2013-01-01

129

Sporopollenin exines: A novel natural taste masking material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporopollenin exines extracted from the spores of the plant Lycopodium clavatum were used to encapsulate water, sunflower oil (0.5g\\/g) and differing amounts of cod liver oil (cod liver oil per gram of sporopollenin exines: 0.5g\\/g, 1.0g\\/g, 2.0g\\/g, 4.0g\\/g). A double-blind taste trial, involving 20 volunteers, was conducted to compare the products. The encapsulated oils were in the form of a

Sylvain Barrier; Alan S. Rigby; Alberto Diego-Taboada; Matthew J. Thomasson; Grahame Mackenzie; Stephen L. Atkin

2010-01-01

130

Production of huperzine A and other Lycopodium alkaloids in Huperzia species grown under controlled conditions and in vitro.  

PubMed

A UPLC-MS method was developed for quantifying huperzine A (HupA), an anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug candidate from the traditional Chinese medicine Qian Ceng Ta (Huperzia serrata), in samples of 11 Huperzia genus plants. The highest content of HupA was found in Huperzia pinifolia. The accumulation of various Lycopodium alkaloids was monitored in these tissues using high resolution Q-IMS-TOFMS analysis. Tissue culture of various Huperzia species has been achieved and production of HupA has been confirmed in the callus of H. pinifolia. Furthermore, it was established that the major alkaloid produced by the naturally grown plant and the callus of H. pinifolia changed dramatically from HupA to nankakurine B. PMID:23306162

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Park, Jeong-Jin; Long, Robert M; Gang, David R

2013-07-01

131

Synthetic Efforts toward the Lycopodium Alkaloids Inspires a Hydrogen Iodide Mediated Method for the Hydroamination and Hydroetherification of Olefins.  

PubMed

Progress toward the total syntheses of a diverse set of fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids via a "Heathcock-type" 6-5-9 tricycle is disclosed. This route features an intermolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition to rapidly furnish the 6-5-fused bicycle and a highly chemoselective directed hydrogenation to build the azonane fragment. While conducting these synthetic studies, trimethylsilyl iodide was found to effect a hydroamination reaction to furnish the tetracyclic core of serratine and related natural products. This observation has been expanded into a general method for the room temperature hydroamination of unactivated olefins with tosylamides utilizing catalytic "anhydrous" HI (generated in situ from trimethylsilyl iodide and water). The presence of the iodide anion is critical to the success of this Brřnsted acid catalyzed protocol, possibly due to its function as a weakly coordinating anion. These conditions also effect the analogous hydroetherification reaction of alcohols with unactivated olefins. PMID:25641382

Leger, Paul R; Murphy, Rebecca A; Pushkarskaya, Eugenia; Sarpong, Richmond

2015-03-01

132

Comparison of 454-ESTs from Huperzia serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus reveals putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis and developmental regulation  

PubMed Central

Background Plants of the Huperziaceae family, which comprise the two genera Huperzia and Phlegmariurus, produce various types of lycopodium alkaloids that are used to treat a number of human ailments, such as contusions, swellings and strains. Huperzine A, which belongs to the lycodine type of lycopodium alkaloids, has been used as an anti-Alzheimer's disease drug candidate. Despite their medical importance, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for the members of this family. We used massive parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-GS FLX Titanium platform to generate a substantial EST dataset for Huperzia serrata (H. serrata) and Phlegmariurus carinatus (P. carinatus) as representative members of the Huperzia and Phlegmariurus genera, respectively. H. serrata and P. carinatus are important plants for research on the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of bioactive compound biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation as well as genetic marker detection in these species. Results For H. serrata, 36,763 unique putative transcripts were generated from 140,930 reads totaling over 57,028,559 base pairs; for P. carinatus, 31,812 unique putative transcripts were generated from 79,920 reads totaling over 30,498,684 base pairs. Using BLASTX searches of public databases, 16,274 (44.3%) unique putative transcripts from H. serrata and 14,070 (44.2%) from P. carinatus were assigned to at least one protein. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology annotations revealed that the functions of the unique putative transcripts from these two species cover a similarly broad set of molecular functions, biological processes and biochemical pathways. In particular, a total of 20 H. serrata candidate cytochrome P450 genes, which are more abundant in leaves than in roots and might be involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis, were found based on the comparison of H. serrata and P. carinatus 454-ESTs and real-time PCR analysis. Four unique putative CYP450 transcripts (Hs01891, Hs04010, Hs13557 and Hs00093) which are the most likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids were selected based on a phylogenetic analysis. Approximately 115 H. serrata and 98 P. carinatus unique putative transcripts associated with the biosynthesis of triterpenoids, alkaloids and flavones/flavonoids were located in the 454-EST datasets. Transcripts related to phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as transcription factors were also obtained. In addition, we discovered 2,729 and 1,573 potential SSR-motif microsatellite loci in the H. serrata and P. carinatus 454-ESTs, respectively. Conclusions The 454-EST resource allowed for the first large-scale acquisition of ESTs from H. serrata and P. carinatus, which are representative members of the Huperziaceae family. We discovered many genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and transcriptional regulation as well as a large number of potential microsatellite markers. These results constitute an essential resource for understanding the molecular basis of developmental regulation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis (especially that of lycopodium alkaloids) in the Huperziaceae, and they provide an overview of the genetic diversity of this family. PMID:20854695

2010-01-01

133

Ligand-exchange chromatography of aromatic amines on resin-bound cobalt ion  

SciTech Connect

The use of cobalt metal for the selective separation of aromatic amines is completed with a chemically bonded diamine and glyoxime functional groups onto Lycopodium clavatum. Oximes and amines are excellent complexing agents for transition metal ions. Cobalt(II) metal ions can easily be immobilized on bis-diaminoethyl-glyoximated sporopollenin (bDAEG-sporopollenin). The ligand-exchange behavior of modified Lycopodium clavatum with respect to aromatic amines was investigated. This will permit the evaluation of bDAEG-sporopollenin ligand exchangers for their utilization as sorbents in the recovery, pollution control, and elimination of amines from wastewater.

Pehlivan, E.; Vural, U.S.; Ayar, A.; Yildiz, S. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey)

1996-06-01

134

Total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloid serratezomine A using free radical-mediated vinyl amination to prepare a ?-stannyl enamine linchpin.  

PubMed

Serratezomine A is a member of the structurally diverse class of compounds known as the Lycopodium alkaloids. The key supporting studies and successful total synthesis of serratezomine A are described in this account. Significant features of the synthesis include the first application of free radical mediated vinyl amination and Hwu's oxidative allylation in a total synthesis and an intramolecular lactonization via a transannular S(N)i reaction. Minimal use of protecting groups and the highly diastereoselective formation of a hindered, quaternary stereocenter using an umpolung allylation are also highlights from a strategy perspective. Observation of quaternary carbon epimerization via a retro-Mannich/Mannich sequence highlights the additional challenge presented by the axial alcohol at C8 in serratezomine A. PMID:23273261

Pigza, Julie A; Han, Jeong-Seok; Chandra, Aroop; Mutnick, Daniel; Pink, Maren; Johnston, Jeffrey N

2013-02-01

135

Total Synthesis of the Lycopodium Alkaloid Serratezomine A Using Free Radical-Mediated Vinyl Amination to Prepare a ?-Stannyl Enamine Linchpin  

PubMed Central

Serratezomine A is a member of the structurally diverse class of compounds known as the Lycopodium alkaloids. The key supporting studies and successful total synthesis of serratezomine A are described in this account. Significant features of the synthesis include the first application of free radical mediated vinyl amination and Hwu’s oxidative allylation in a total synthesis, and an intramolecular lactonization via a transannular SNi reaction. Minimal use of protecting groups and the highly diastereoselective formation of a hindered, quaternary stereocenter using an umpolung allylation are also highlights from a strategy perspective. Observation of quaternary carbon epimerization via a retro-Mannich/Mannich sequence highlights the additional challenge presented by the axial alcohol at C8 in serratezomine A. PMID:23273261

Pigza, Julie A.; Han, Jeong-Seok; Chandra, Aroop; Mutnick, Daniel; Pink, Maren; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

2013-01-01

136

Contaminants in commercial homoeopathic medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 sets of homoeopathic medicines prepared from Lycopodium clavatum (6cH, 12cH and 100cH) and the dynamized water and ethanol mixture used (3cH and 6cH) were analysed using ultraviolet spectroscopy. The spectra for each set of Lycopodium and dynamized solvent were similar and differed from that of the inert solvent. The 2 sets of dynamized medicines nevertheless showed significant differences. These

Carlos Renato Zacharias

1995-01-01

137

Dendritic cells matured in the presence of the lycopodium alkaloid annotine direct T cell responses toward a Th2/Treg phenotype.  

PubMed

Annotine is a lycopodane-type alkaloid isolated from the Icelandic club moss Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Annotine does not inhibit acetylcholinesterase, as some other lycopodium alkaloids do, and other bioactivities have not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of annotine on maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and their ability to activate allogeneic CD4(+) T cells. Human monocyte-derived DCs were matured in the absence or presence of annotine at a concentration of 1, 10 or 100 ?g/ml. The effect of the annotine on maturation of the DCs was determined by measuring concentration of cytokines in culture supernatant by ELISA and expression of surface molecules by flow cytometry. DCs matured in the absence or presence of annotine at 100 µg/ml were also co-cultured with allogeneic CD4(+) T cells and concentration of cytokines in supernatants determined by ELISA and expression of surface molecules by flow cytometry. When cultured alone, DCs matured in the presence of annotine secreted less of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-23 and had a tendency toward less secretion of IL-12p40 than DCs matured in the absence of annotine. However, when DCs were matured in the presence of annotine and then co-cultured with allogeneic CD4(+) T cells they secreted more IL-12p40 and had a tendency toward secreting more IL-6 than DCs matured in the absence of annotine and then co-cultured with T cells. Allogeneic CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with DCs matured in the presence of annotine secreted more IL-13 than T cells co-cultured with DCs matured in the absence of annotine, but stimulating the DCs in the presence of annotine did not affect T cell secretion of IFN-? and IL-17. There was also more IL-10 in co-cultures of T cells and DCs matured in the presence of annotine than in co-cultures of T cells and DCs matured in the absence of annotine. These results show that annotine increases the ability of DCs to direct the differentiation of allogeneic CD4(+) T cells toward a Th2/Treg phenotype, which may be of interest in the development of new treatments for Th1- and/or Th17-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:25765833

Hardardottir, Ingibjorg; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia; Freysdottir, Jona

2015-02-15

138

Aluminum accumulation and its relationship with mineral plant nutrients in 12 pteridophytes from Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the aluminum (Al) concentration in Lycopodium clavatum, Dicranopteris flexuosa, Sticherus nudus, Anemia villosa, Cyathea gibbosa, Pteridium arachnoideum, Pteris vittata, Thelypteris dentata, Blechnum occidentale, Elaphoglossum sporadolepis, Nephrolepis cordifolia and Polypodium pseudoaureum, species from 11 families with different phylogenetic position, found on soils with a high concentration of Al (up to 13gkg?1dry mass (DM)).

Elizabeth Olivares; Eder Peńa; Eunice Marcano; Julián Mostacero; Guillermina Aguiar; Malfy Benítez; Elizabeth Rengifo

2009-01-01

139

The collection and retention of a range of common airborne spore types trapped directly into microtiter wells for enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection and retention of a range of fungal spores for a novel spore trap (Microtiter immunospore trap (MTIST)), designed for use with immunoassays, was investigated in wind tunnel experiments. Concentrations of spores of Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Lycopodium clavatum, Erysiphe cruciferarum and Penicillium roqueforti, were measured using the MTIST and miniature suction traps (same characteristics as a Burkard 7

Alison Wakeham; Roy Kennedy; Alastair McCartney

2004-01-01

140

A homoeopathic drug controls mango fruit rot caused by Pestalotia mangiferae Henn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Effect of 1–200 potencies of ten homoeopathic drugs on the spore germination ofPestalotia mangiferae, the causal organism of banana fruit rot, was studied. On the basis of results of in vivo studies with inhibitory doses of drugs, Lycopodium clavatum potency 190 has been recommended for the control of the disease.

K. K. Khanna; S. Chandra

1978-01-01

141

A seven-day volumetric spore trap for use within buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burkard Volumetric spore trap, designed to operate for seven days continuously in the field, was modified to sample still air within buildings. The efficiency with which spores of Lycopodium clavatum and Agaricus bisporus were trapped at two rates of suction was determined. Spore distribution within traces and deposition on surfaces not beneath the orifice were assessed. In an appendix

O. J. Stedman

1978-01-01

142

Enantioselective hydrolysis of rasemic naproxen methyl ester with sol–gel encapsulated lipase in the presence of sporopollenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporopollenin is a natural polymer obtained from Lycopodium clavatum, which is highly stable with constant chemical structure and has high resistant capacity to chemical attack. In this study, the Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was encapsulated within a chemically inert sol–gel support prepared by polycondensation with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and octyltriethoxysilane (OTES) in the presence and absence of sporopollenin and activated sporopollenin

Elif Yilmaz; Mehmet Sezgin; Mustafa Yilmaz

2010-01-01

143

Sporopollenin. A novel, naturally occurring support for solid phase peptide synthesis.  

PubMed

Sporopollenin from Lycopodium clavatum has been found to be capable of acting as a solid support for peptide synthesis. It is stable to chloromethylation and to the standard deblocking procedures and its constant mesh size, ready commercial availability, and constant molecular structure give it potential important practical advantages over synthetic resins. PMID:7380612

Mackenzie, G; Shaw, G

1980-03-01

144

Ligand-Exchange Chromatography of Some Amino Acids on Co(II)Loaded CMDAE-Sporopollenin Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporopollenin obtained from Lycopodium clavatum has been modified as an ligand-exchange material. In this study, the possibility of using sporopollenin as a ligand exchanger in the chromatographic separation of amino acids is examined. Since sporopollenin has important advantages (it is stable to chemicals and has a constant mesh size), it can be used as a column packing material. By first

A. Ayar; S. Yildiz; E. Pehlivan

1995-01-01

145

Tracer Tests in flooded underground mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer tests are a common means to investigate the hydrogeological conditions in the hydro- sphere. Nevertheless, only few successful tracer tests in flooded underground mines have been described. In two flooded German underground mines tracer tests with club moss spores (Lycopodium clavatum) and mi- crospheres had been conducted by the use of the LydiA technique. Both times, effective velocities between

Ch. Wolkersdorfer

146

The LAMB1 gene from the clubmoss, Lycopodium annotinum, is a divergent MADS-box gene, expressed specifically in sporogenic structures.  

PubMed

Transcription factors encoded by the large MADS-box gene family have important developmental functions in angiosperms, the flowering plants. Mutations in certain MADS-box genes are known to cause homeotic alterations in floral organ identity, and the establishment of floral organ identity is the most well-studied developmental process in which MADS-box genes are known to function. Our interest is in the potential connection between the duplication history of this gene family and the evolutionary origin of the structures that the different MADS-box genes developmentally regulate in plants. Previous studies have demonstrated that the origin of the MADS-box genes that control floral organ identity predate the evolutionary origin of the flower itself, since gymnosperms have genes that are orthologous to angiosperm floral homeotic MADS-box genes, whereas ferns appear to lack such genes. Here we report on the isolation of a MADS-box gene from Lycopodium annotinum, which belongs to the clubmosses, the phylogenetic sister group to other vascular plants. The gene, LAMB1, in the sporophyte is expressed exclusively in the reproductive structure, the strobilus, during sporogenesis. LAMB1 is similar to other plant MADS-box genes in that it contains a MADS-box as well as a second conserved element, a K-box. However, it differs in length and in exon/intron structure in the region between the MADS- and K-box, and also in the length and structure of the C-terminal region. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that LAMB1 is not closely related to other plant-type MADS-box genes, and may represent one of the basal branches in the phylogenetic tree of plant MADS-box genes. PMID:10925200

Svensson, M E; Johannesson, H; Engström, P

2000-07-25

147

Essential and Fixed Oils of Kansas Plants  

E-print Network

. S. B., 1478 79. 1772. Lycopodium clavatum L. Fluckiger obtained 47^ of a bland fixed o i l , bright yellow. Sp. G. .925. Does not congeal even at -15°C. A Barkowski obtained 48.5$ of a neutral non-drying f i x e d o i l very s i m i l a r...© 166 Linum uaitatlasimura — — — - — — 16 850 L o b e l i a i n f l a t a L. 49 17/2 Lycopodic Acid 79 1772 Lycopodium clavatum L. 79 1010 Lycopua vir g i n i c u s L. —54 IV. Mi 1011 Marrubum vulgare L. • 55 694 Mayweed--- 41 694 Mayweed, O i l...

Wellington, Earl J.

1908-01-01

148

A seven-day volumetric spore trap for use within buildings.  

PubMed

The Burkard Volumetric spore trap, designed to operate for seven days continuously in the field, was modified to sample still air within buildings. The efficiency with which spores of Lycopodium clavatum and Agaricus bisporus were trapped at two rates of suction was determined. Spore distribution within traces and deposition on surfaces not beneath the orifice were assessed. In an appendix catches of four spore types by the Hirst and Burkard (field model) spore traps operating over mown grass were compared. PMID:375094

Stedman, O J

1978-12-29

149

Chemical Structure of the Exine of Pollen Walls and a New Function for Carotenoids in Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENT communications1,2 have confirmed and extended the observation of Zetzsche et al.3 that there is a close chemical similarity between the nitrogen-free walls of a wide variety of pollen and spores. In particular the walls of Lycopodium clavatum and Pinus silvestris, which were studied in most detail, were found to consist of (a) an almost pure cellulose intine (10-15 per

J. Brooks; G. Shaw

1968-01-01

150

Anther Carotenoids and the Synthesis of Sporopollenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHAW et al.1-3 are at present carrying out valuable new work on the chemistry of resistant spore wall materials of the general class of sporopollenins following the pioneer studies of Zetzsche's group in the 1930s4. Shaw and Yeadon1,2 have concluded, from observations on the pollen of Pinus sylvestris and Lycopodium clavatum, that sporopollenin contains a lignin-like fraction of 10-25 per

J. Heslop-Harrison

1968-01-01

151

Isotherms and thermodynamics for the sorption of heavy metal ions onto functionalized sporopollenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, sporopollenin of Lycopodium clavatum spores was used for the sorption experiment. Glutaraldehyde (GA) immobilized sporopollenin (Sp), is employed as a sorbent in sorption of selected heavy metal ions. The sorbent prepared by sequential treatment of sporopollenin by silanazing compound and glutaraldehyde is suggested for sorption of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) from aqueous solutions. Experimental conditions for effective

Ilkay Hilal Gubbuk

2011-01-01

152

Ion exchange equilibria of heavy metals in aqueous solution on new chelating resins of sporopollenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been conducted on the sorption of several heavy metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Al(III) from aqueous solutions on the new chelating exchangers of sporopollenin (Lycopodium clavatum) as a function of pH at several temperatures between 20 and 50°C. The novel metal-ligand exchange resins possessing oxime and carboxylic acid side arm functionality were prepared through the reaction

M. Ersoz; E. Pehlivan; H. J. Duncan; S. Yildiz; M. Pehlivan

1995-01-01

153

Contamination of the discharging electrode in an air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of the discharging electrode in a wire-to-plate air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator is studied experimentally. The correlation between the surface condition of the contaminated electrode and corona discharge is investigated. An optical-microscopic observation of the deposited contaminant on the wire electrode is also carried out. The contaminants employed were cigarette smoke particles and spore of Lycopodium clavatum, an example of pollen.

S. Kanazawa; Toshikam Ohkubo; Yukiharu Nomoto; T. Adachi; Jcn-Shih Chang

1993-01-01

154

Micropaleontological observations on a Sphagnum bog in East Carpathian region – testate amoebae (Rhizopoda: Testacea) and their potential use for reconstruction of micro- and macroclimatic changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the possibilities of reconstructing the hydrological history of an East Carpathian Sphagnum bog (Fenyves-teto, near Erzsébetbánya) based on the Testacea fauna and the humification. A Russian-type sampler was used to supply undisturbed cores of 400 cm in depth. The exotic marker method (Lycopodium clavatum as a marker) was used for quantitative estimation of the abundances. Humic acid concentration was

Csaba Schnitchen; E Niký O Magyari; Béla Tóthmérész; István Grigorszky; Mihály Braun

2003-01-01

155

Tooth Extraction  

MedlinePLUS

... the immune system. Wisdom teeth , also called third molars, are often extracted either before or after they ... sinus during removal of an upper back tooth (molar) — A small hole usually will close up by ...

156

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to plant biotechnology, learners extract DNA from fruit to investigate how it looks and feels. The procedure is similar to what scientists have to do before they can use information contained in this DNA. This lesson guide includes procedure and discussion questions to help learners reflect on the process and purpose of DNA extraction. Modifications for younger learners are included in a related PDF (see related resources).

Janice Stephens

2011-01-01

157

Fluid extraction  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

158

Extractant composition  

DOEpatents

An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

159

Contrasting Extraction Types.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

Postal, Paul M.

1994-01-01

160

Extraction of Dicarboxylic Acids by ABC Extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of various dicarboxylic acids (maleic, malic, malonic, succinic, and tartaric) by acid–base couple (ABC) extractants was studied. The main extraction mechanisms were found to be ion?pair and hydrogen?bond formation. The relative contribution of each mechanism and extraction efficiency were found to be controlled by parameters such as acid–base properties and hydrogen?bonding capability of the components of the ABC extractants

N. Syzova; A. M. Eyal; A. Vitner; B. Hazan

2004-01-01

161

Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

2013-03-19

162

Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The chloroform:medianol (1:1) extracts of a number of the plant species belonging to eight families, namely Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida and Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J. H. Rudolph (Papaveraceae), Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum and Rhododendron luteum Sweet. (Ericaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Caeselpiniaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae), Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae), Fumaria vaillantii Lois., Fumaria capreolata L., Fumaria kralikii Jordan, Fumaria asepala Boiss., Fumaria densiflora DC., Fumaria flabellata L., Fumaria petteri Reichb. subsp. thuretii (Boiss.) Pugsley, Fumaria macrocarpa Boiss. ex Hausskn., Fumaria cilicica Hauskkn., Fumaria parviflora Lam. and Fumaria judaica Boiss. (Fumariaceae) were screened for their anticholinesterase activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes by in vitro Ellman method at 10 microg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations. The extracts did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity against both of the enzymes at 10 microg/ml. The extracts of Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Rhododendron luteum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida, Glaucium corniculatum, and Buxus sempervirens showed remarkable inhibitory activity above 50% inhibition rate on AChE at 1 mg/ml. Among them, Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida and Buxus sempervirens were the most active extracts against BChE having 95.46 +/- 1.03%, 93.08 +/- 0.97%, and 93.45 +/- 0.88% inhibition rates, respectively. Among the extracts screened, all of the Fumaria extracts displayed highly potent inhibition against both of the enzymes at 1 mg/ml concentration compared to the standard. PMID:15036468

Orhan, I; Sener, B; Choudhary, M I; Khalid, A

2004-03-01

163

PITFALLS OF SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of researchers are using sequential extraction to determine the speciation of trace elements in sediments. nfortunately, sequential extraction methods have not been successfully validated. he results are simply taken as providing "operational definitions" of ...

164

Grape Seed Extract  

MedlinePLUS

... Extract Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera grapes.jpg © Steven Foster On this page: What ... naturaldatabase.com on June 25, 2009. Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed ...

165

Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®) Patient Version Health Professional Version Last Modified: 02/20/2014 Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®) Overview Questions and Answers About Mistletoe ...

166

Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction.  

PubMed

This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (<50 ?A). Bradykinin acetate, angiotensin II antipeptide, angiotensin II acetate, neurotensin, angiotensin I trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 ?L of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 ?L of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 ?L was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than 50 ?A, and extraction recoveries for the model peptides were in the range of 77-94%, with RSD values less than 10%. PMID:25467476

Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

2015-01-01

167

Endovascular extraction techniques  

PubMed Central

The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696699

Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

2001-01-01

168

Information extraction system  

DOEpatents

An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

2014-05-13

169

Self-assembly of Fmoc-diphenylalanine inside liquid marbles.  

PubMed

Liquid marbles made from Lycopodium clavatum spores are used to encapsulate aqueous solutions of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF). Acidification of the Fmoc-FF solution at the liquid/air interface of the liquid marble triggers the self-assembly of ribbon-like peptide fibrils into an ultrathin peptide membrane (50-500 nm). The membrane incorporates the lycopodium microparticles and as a result stabilizes the liquid marble against collapse, that could otherwise occur through particle disintegration at the floating interphase. Ultrathin nanostructured peptide membrane formation at the liquid/air interface is also observed within artificial microstructured floating objects. Thus, peptide membranes formed were inspected by SEM and TEM. Electron diffraction data reveal information about the molecular organization inside the oligopeptide membranes. PMID:22584262

Braun, Hans-Georg; Cardoso, André Zamith

2012-09-01

170

Exploring DNA Extraction Erica Butts  

E-print Network

· Define DNA extraction · Downstream concerns for DNA extraction · Methods used to evaluate extraction into the extraction process and determine the amount recovered DNA Sources: #12;Applied Genetics Extraction MethodsApplied Genetics Exploring DNA Extraction Efficiency Erica Butts Research Biologist, Applied

Perkins, Richard A.

171

Solvent Extract, Plant Extraction Correspondence to Author:  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. is belongs to the family Fabaceae. It is used as herbal and as vegetable from ancient times. It is abundant in tropical region of Africa and Asia. Preliminary phytochemicals investigations have been carried out on the seed extract using n-Hexane, Ethyl Acetate, Acetone, Ethanol and Methanol solvents. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis reflects the presence of Phenol, Quinone, Steroid, Flavanoids and Terpenoid in the plant extract. TLC profiling of seed extracts give an idea about the presence of various phytochemicals. Different Rf (Retention factor) value of various phytochemicals provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. INTRODUCTION: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. (syn. C. psoraloides) or cluster bean (also called as Guar, Guwar and Guvar bean), is a drought-tolerant summer annual legume and it is cultivated as a feed

Sunil H. Ganatra; Archana M. Ramteke; Shweta P. Durge; S. U. Patil; Dr. S. H. Ganatra

172

Supercritical solvent coal extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

Compton, L. E. (inventor)

1984-01-01

173

Endovascular extraction techniques  

PubMed Central

Introduction We report our experience with lead extraction in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and discuss the indications for extraction in these patients. Patients Eighteen patients with an ICD (mean age 58±12 years) were referred for lead extraction: two patients with infection and 16 with lead dysfunction. Methods Lead extraction was performed with a laser sheath (Excimer) if traction with a locking device was insufficient. New leads were implanted during the same procedure, if applicable. Results Shock leads were successfully extracted in 16 patients and additional pace-sense leads in seven patients. In two patients, the shock conductor was considered unaffected and only a pace-sense lead was exchanged or an additional pace-sense lead inserted. After extraction, new shock leads were implanted in 14 patients. Major complications occurred in one patient: a pericardial tamponade after perforation of the superior caval vein necessitating acute surgery. Conclusion Lead extraction with a laser sheath is effective in ICD patients, but major complications can occur. Our current policy with malfunctioning leads is to extract all leads in which insulation defects cannot be ruled out to avoid interference, but to abandon leads that are without insulation defects and properly insulated. In case of infection, extraction remains the primary treatment of choice. PMID:25696709

Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

2001-01-01

174

Onion DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from onion cells using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

175

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

176

Wheat Germ DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from wheat germ using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

177

Extracting the Max From a DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of all ages get a thrill out of actually seeing clumps or strands of DNA. The Biotechnology/Bioinformatics Discovery! Project, a professional development workshop offered to science teachers, has always included a DNA-extraction activity. Over the course of four years, as the authors conducted these workshops for scores of teachers, they extended and refined the DNA-extraction activity to make it relevant to middle school students. Although the protocol for this exercise is on their project website along with teaching tips, they describe here the use of oral directions to give teachers many opportunities to interact with their students, and to assess how well students can follow directions and stay focused on the task.

Edmund Marek

2009-01-01

178

Antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 cells of a homeopathic remedy and its constituent plant tinctures tested separately or in combination.  

PubMed

Hepeel is a homeopathic remedy commonly used to treat primary and secondary functional disorders of the liver. It consists of highly diluted extracts from the following plants: Chelidonium from Chelidonium majus, L., Carduus marianus from Silybum marianum, L., Veratrum from Veratrum album L., Colocynthis from Citrullus colocynthis L., Lycopodium from Lycopodium clavatum L., Nux moschata from Myristica fragans, Houtt, and China from Cinchona pubescens, Vahl. The antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells of serial dilutions of these plant tinctures were tested, either separately or in various combinations. Upon damage of the cells with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, Carduus marianus, China and Nux moschata, in decreasing order, showed the strongest antioxidative effects. Greater than 95% inhibition of total production of malondialdehyde was reached with these three tinctures at dilutions of D4. The complete combination of the tinctures (COMB) realised in the homeopathic remedy showed an effect corresponding to the combined effects of the individual tinctures. The antiproliferative influence on the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA in normal HepG2 cells was significant (p < 0.01) but relatively weak, and decreased in the order Carduus marianus, Chelidonium, Colocynthis and Veratrum. At a dilution of D4 Colocynthis showed the strongest inhibition (13.5%). The effect of the combination of Colocynthis and Veratrum was markedly higher (22.3%) than that of the individual tinctures, but was not additive. With this combination, cell numbers were reduced. COMB had similar effects on proliferation and cell numbers, with the antiproliferative effect starting at a dilution of 1:40. The conjugation of 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene with glutathione was induced only by Carduus marianus and COMB, while all other tinctures were ineffective. Neither the individual tinctures, nor COMB showed cytotoxic effects in the dilutions tested. These results demonstrate that the complete combination (COMB) realised in the homeopathic remedy and its constituents exert specific antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects on HepG2 cells which all point to a potential hepatoprotective and tumouristatic action. PMID:14732962

Gebhardt, Rolf

2003-01-01

179

Complete Bacterial Proteome Extraction Kit  

E-print Network

....................................................................................7 7. Extraction of proteins from gram-negative bacteria.................................................................8 8. Extraction of proteins from gram-positive bacteria by centrifugation and sample preparation with was performed. 200 µg proteins of the whole cell extract were

Lebendiker, Mario

180

Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

E-print Network

In supercritical fluid extraction, many options are available for achieving and controlling the desired selectivity, which is extremely sensitive to variations in pressure, temperature, and choice of solvent. The ability of supercritical fluids...

Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

1984-01-01

181

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-13

182

DNA Extraction Virtual Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual lab from the Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah provides a simple overview of DNA extraction, including what it's used for, illustrations, and an activity using cheek cells and laboratory equipment to isolate DNA. The lab is followed by a classroom activity that allows students and teachers to Extract DNA from Anything Living, using household items like spinach but not little sister's big toe.

2006-01-01

183

Fruitful DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

Karen Kalamuck

2000-01-01

184

Thymus DNA Extractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can be extracted from a chunk of thymus (sweetbread) or liver. This experiment requires the use of a centrifuge (not included in cost of materials). Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

185

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01

186

Apigenin-induced apoptosis in A375 and A549 cells through selective action and dysfunction of mitochondria.  

PubMed

We isolated apigenin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy flavone) from ethanolic extract of Lycopodium clavatum (LC) used as a homeopathic mother tincture for treatment of various diseases. We assessed the anticancer potentials of the compound using human malignant melanoma cell line A375 and a lung carcinoma cell line A549 and focussed on its putative molecular mechanism of action on apoptosis induction. We examined the cytotoxicity of apigenin in both cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A375 cells were more prone to apigenin-induced apoptosis, as compared with A549 cells after 24 h of treatment, while PBMC showed little or no cytotoxicity to apigenin. We also evaluated the effects of apigenin on interaction with DNA by comparative analysis of circular dichroism spectral data and melting temperature profiles (Tm) of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) treated with or without apigenin. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in mitochondria, super-oxide dismutase and total thiol group (GSH) activities were also analyzed. The apoptotic process involved mitochondrial pathway associated with apigenin-DNA interaction, DNA fragmentation, ROS accumulation, cytochrome c (cyt c) release and mitochondrial transmembrane potential depolarization, Bax, caspase 3, 9, PARP, up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation and down-regulation of cyt c in the mitochondrial fraction. Results of mitochondrial inner membrane swelling measurements, intracellular ADP/ATP ratio and ATPase activity showed that in A549 cells, apigenin did not appear to directly target the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system but rather acted at an upstream step to activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. However, apigenin could directly target and impair mitochondrial function in A375 cells by breaking down their oxidative phosphorylation system. Collectively, these results suggest that apigenin exhibits anticancer potential in A375 and A549 cells that may be mediated through DNA interaction, damage and mitochondrial dysfunction either by direct or indirect action on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. PMID:23354402

Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Samadder, Asmita; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2012-12-01

187

Extraction processes for bioproduct separation  

SciTech Connect

The three-phase extraction process, a modification of reactive extraction, was investigated for its applicability in the separation of organic acids from fermentation broth. It was compared with reactive extraction, liquid membrane permeation, and supercritical fluid extraction. These processes are based on the use of amine extractants, which have to be dissolved in nonpolar solvents, for the extraction of carboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, and aminocarboxylic acids. This paper considers the comparison of the above-mentioned processes. Furthermore, the extractability of acids from synthetic aqueous solutions and fermented broths was compared. Principal consideration was paid to the extraction of lactic acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, and L-leucine.

Hartl, J.; Marr, R. [Technische Universitaet Graz (Austria)

1993-01-01

188

Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. (CSIR, Trivandrum (India))

1993-03-01

189

Supercritical fluid extraction  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

1994-01-01

190

EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY OF EUXENITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of this study demonstrate that multiple-oxide minerals can be ; processed to usable compounds by the techniques described. The chlorination ; procedure offers an efficient method for extracting tantalum, niobium, uranium, ; titanium, thorium, and the rare-earth elements from their ores. Separation of ; the chloride products into four groups is of additional benefit for processing ; materials such

S. L. May; J. L. Tews; A. W. Henderson; W. G. Gruzensky

1959-01-01

191

Extractable work from correlations  

E-print Network

Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyse this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system, and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems which are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

Martí Perarnau-Llobet; Karen V. Hovhannisyan; Marcus Huber; Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Antonio Acín

2014-11-11

192

[Skeleton extractions and applications].  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

Quadros, William Roshan

2010-05-01

193

Ion extraction system optimization  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of a beam from ion sources is dominated by the strong space charge of the beam, due to the initial low speed of the particles. Several mathematical and computational issues are discussed, with reference to a diode design based on thin anode lens effect, yielding a parallel beam at its exit, which is the first block of many high current electrostatic accelerators. Perturbation to uniform current density are analyzed. Effect of a thick anode lens is also treated.

Cavenago, Marco [INFN-LNL, v.le dell'Universita n 2, I-35020, Legnaro (Italy)

2013-07-18

194

Solid phase extraction membrane  

DOEpatents

A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

2002-11-05

195

Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction  

E-print Network

to conventional techniques. The research will also quantify the new technology's energy savings for the extraction of the dried vegetable matter and extracts using the new technology as compared to thermal drying methods

196

Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction

L. L. Martella; J. D. Navratil; W. F. Santiago

1978-01-01

197

Challenges in Managing Information Extraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

Shen, Warren H.

2009-01-01

198

Solvent extraction in nuclear technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of solvent extraction chemistry in the field of nuclear technology are briefly reviewed. Applications of solvent extraction in actinide recovery and purification, radionuclide production, and reactor materials preparation are summarized. The need for new, more selective, solvent extraction reagents is presented via examples of recent work with bifunctional organophosphorus reagents applied to the removal of actinides from acidic

J. D. Navratil

1986-01-01

199

Extracting Tag Hierarchies  

PubMed Central

Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover, recommendation systems could also benefit from a tag hierarchy. PMID:24391901

Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

2013-01-01

200

Coal extraction - environmental prediction  

SciTech Connect

To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

2002-08-01

201

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30...FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared from...

2010-04-01

202

The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils.  

E-print Network

I39-3I3-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. 155 JANUARY, 1913 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY TECHNICAL BULLETIN THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLORO? FORM EXTRACT OF SOILS BY G. S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION... postal card will bring these publications. THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF SOILS. (t. S. FliAPS , Chemist. ?J. B. o Y . C U G O Assistant Chemist. The soil may coDtarn any of the Substances which are found in plants or animals...

Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

1913-01-01

203

Actinide extraction methods  

DOEpatents

Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. (Moore, ID) [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

2010-09-21

204

Underground mineral extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

1980-01-01

205

An Extended Keyword Extraction Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

206

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

M. Minier; G. Goma

1982-01-01

207

Passive vapor extraction feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-06-30

208

Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1997-10-01

209

Terminology Extraction from Log Files  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

210

Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which

Jose A. Garde; Ramón Catalá; Rafael Gavara

1998-01-01

211

Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.  

PubMed

Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency. PMID:10209581

Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

1998-01-01

212

Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

Compton, L. E. (inventor)

1983-01-01

213

Helium, its extraction and purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a general discussion of the extraction of helium from natural gas as practiced in the existing helium plants. Several phases of the helium extraction process, such as the refrigeration systems, and methods of carbon dioxide and water removal, are similar to those in natural gas processing. It is concluded that in cryogenic processes solid desiccants are more suited

R. W. Wilson; H. R. Newson

1967-01-01

214

Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (inventors)

1983-01-01

215

Thromboplastic Activity of Placenta Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the course of an investigation of hormones of human placenta, we came across a substance which showed strong blood-coagulating properties. Freshwater extracts of placenta contain this factor. Their activity diminishes when they are kept at room temperature or in a refrigerator. It is not removed from the extracts by dialysis at 0° C. On filtration through a Seitz filter,

Michael Finkelstein

1945-01-01

216

Successive solvolytic extraction of petrocrops  

SciTech Connect

Petrocrops may provide a renewable source of petroleum in the future. The use of low boiling nonpolar (hexane) and polar (methanol) solvents may afford nonpolar and polar biocrudes respectively by successive extractions. However, further successive extraction of spent residue obtained in anthracene oil, quinoline, or liquid paraffin may afford recovery of biopolymer biocrude. These biocrudes may be hydro treated to yield liquid fuels.

Sharma, D.K.; Pradeep, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, M. [M.D. Univ., Rohtak (India)] [and others

1996-12-31

217

Injection and extraction for cyclotrons  

E-print Network

The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

Kleeven, W

2006-01-01

218

Extraction of Questions Behind Messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.

Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki

219

The occurrence and structure of centrosomes in Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Evidence indicates that centrosomes arisede novo in the spermatid mother cells (SMC). Each of the two centrosomes per SMC is composed of a pair of coaxial centrioles which are apposed at their proximal ends and connected only by the central cartwheel portion. Serial transections show that the triplets of the constituent centrioles imbricate in opposite directions. The centrioles later

Robert R. Robbins; Zane B. Carothers

1975-01-01

220

Comparison of Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction Methods with Manual Extraction  

PubMed Central

Automated nucleic acid extractors can improve workflow and decrease variability in the clinical laboratory. We evaluated Qiagen EZ1 (Valencia, CA) and bioMérieux (Durham, NC) easyMAG extractors compared with Qiagen manual extraction using targets and matrices commonly available in the clinical laboratory. Pooled samples were spiked with various organisms, serially diluted, and extracted in duplicate. The organisms/matrices were Bordetella pertussis/bronchoalveolar lavage, herpes simplex virus II/cerebrospinal fluid, coxsackievirus A9/cerebrospinal fluid, BK virus/plasma, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae/endotracheal tube samples. Extracts were amplified in duplicate using real-time PCR assays, and amplification of the target at a cycle threshold of 35 using the manual method was used for comparison. Amplification efficiency of nucleic acids extracted by automated methods was similar to that by the manual method except for a loss of efficiency for M. pneumoniae in endotracheal tube samples. The EZ1 viral kit 2.0 gave better results for coxsackievirus A9 than the EZ1 viral kit version 1.0. At the lowest limit of detection (past a cycle threshold of 35), the easyMAG was more likely to produce amplifiable nucleic acid than were either the EZ1 or manual extraction. Operational complexity, defined as the number of manipulations required to obtain an extracted sample, was the lowest for the easyMAG. The easyMAG was the most expensive of the methods, followed by the EZ1 kit and manual extraction. PMID:18556770

Dundas, Nicola; Leos, N. Kristine; Mitui, Midori; Revell, Paula; Rogers, Beverly Barton

2008-01-01

221

The Effects of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Traditional Extraction Techniques on Larvae Leptinotarsa decemlineata SAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and thymus (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, hydrodistillation, and Soxhlet extraction with benzene and ethanol. The composition of volatile compounds in the extracts was determined by gas chromatography, and the toxicity and antifeedant effects of the extracts on larvae of Colorado potato beetle were evaluated.Generally it is possible to claim

Roman Pavela; Marie Sajfrtová; Helena Sovová; Jind?ich Karban; Martin Bárnet

2009-01-01

222

Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

1999-01-01

223

Evaluation of DNA and RNA Extraction Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method

C S Edwin Shiaw; M S Shiran; Y K Cheah; G C Tan; A R Sabariah; M Path

2010-01-01

224

Air-assisted solvent extraction: towards a novel extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-assisted solvent extraction (AASX) concept uses a solvent-coated bubble to contact the organic and aqueous phases. Compared to conventional solvent extraction, a high contact area can be created using less solvent and the natural buoyancy provided by the air core promotes phase separation. A method of producing coated bubbles exploiting foaming properties of kerosene-based solvent is introduced. Coating thickness

H. M. Tarkan; J. A. Finch

2005-01-01

225

Endovascular extraction techniques for pacemaker and ICD lead extraction  

PubMed Central

In the last few years, comprehensive endovascular techniques have been developed to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads. It is important that referring physician have knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results of the currently used endovascular extraction techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696690

Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

2001-01-01

226

Entity extraction via ensemble semantics  

E-print Network

Combining information extraction systems yields significantly higher quality resources than each system in isolation. In this paper, we generalize such a mixing of sources and features in a framework called Ensemble Semantics. We show very large gains in entity extraction by combining state-of-the-art distributional and patternbased systems with a large set of features from a webcrawl, query logs, and Wikipedia. Experimental results on a webscale extraction of actors, athletes and musicians show significantly higher mean average precision scores (29 % gain) compared with the current state of the art. 1

Marco Pennacchiotti; Patrick Pantel

2009-01-01

227

21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in...

2010-04-01

228

Comparing extractions of Sivers functions  

E-print Network

A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

M. Anselmino; M. Boglione; J. C. Collins; U. D'Alesio; A. V. Efremov; K. Goeke; A. Kotzinian; S. Menzel; A. Metz; F. Murgia; A. Prokudin; P. Schweitzer; W. Vogelsang; F. Yuan

2005-11-02

229

Extracting Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

1984-01-01

230

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-print Network

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01

231

DNA Extraction & Staging Laboratory (DESL)  

Cancer.gov

As part of the Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR), the DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL) located in Frederick, MD, is responsible for the preparation of samples for investigators at NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

232

Cartographic Feature Extraction George Vosselman  

E-print Network

of the stereo image pair. After this determination the 3D cursor snaps to the local terrain surface. ThusCartographic Feature Extraction George Vosselman Delft University of Technology Faculty of Civil

Vosselman, George

233

Extracting information from informal communication  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the problem of extracting information from informal communication. Textual informal communication, such as e-mail, bulletin boards and blogs, has become a vast information resource. However, such ...

Rennie, Jason D. M. (Jason Daniel Malyutin), 1976-

2007-01-01

234

Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A multimembrane reactor is described. Four layers (gas, cells, nutrient, and solvent) are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethyl alcohol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification removes the toxic effect of TBP on yeast metabolism. (Refs. 29).

Cho, T.; Shuler, M.L.

1986-03-01

235

Hot water bitumen extraction process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of extracting bitumen oils from tar-sands ore. It includes an initial conditioning step comprising crushing tar-sands ore to yield solid particles of a maximum size required by a log washer conditioner in a second conditioning step; a bitumen extraction step; a bitumen separation step; a solvent recovery step; a sand washing and water clarification step; and a sand solvent recovery step.

Rendall, J.S.

1989-10-24

236

Lima Bean Bacteria DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from lima bean bacteria. This experiment requires the use of a centrifuge (not included in cost of materials). Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

237

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOEpatents

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28

238

Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOEpatents

A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2007-11-06

239

Pressurized liquid extraction as a green approach in food and herbal plants extraction: A review.  

PubMed

Pressurized liquid extraction is a "green" technology for the extraction of nutraceuticals from foods and herbal plants. This review discusses the extraction principles and the optimization of the extraction parameters that improves the extraction efficiency. The use of different solvent mixtures and other extraction additives to enhance the efficiency of the extraction are discussed. Dynamic mode of extraction in Pressurized liquid extraction, and the use of combined and hyphenated sample preparation and analytical techniques are presented. This work discusses how different studies used Pressurized liquid extraction to enrich phenolic compounds, lignans, carotenoids, oils and lipids, essential oils and other nutraceuticals from foods and herbal plants. PMID:21843670

Mustafa, Arwa; Turner, Charlotta

2011-10-01

240

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

SciTech Connect

In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that are regulated as food supplements but are intended to treat disease or maintain health. Antioxidants and beneficial lipid products are major examples in this category. The final major category consists of environmental applications, both as an extraction technique for environmental analysis, and as a possible remediation strategy for removing contaminants that would otherwise be too expensive to recover. Most of the work in this area has focused on non-polar compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), where non-polar supercritical (SC) CO2 offers high extraction efficiencies. Co-solvent systems combining CO2 with one or more modifiers extend the utility of SC CO2 to polar and even ionic compounds. Supercritical water can extract polar compounds, and it has the additional advantage of combining extraction and destruction of contaminants via the supercritical water oxidation (SUWOX) process. Supercritical fluids are also useful in various niche applications. Fuel extraction, conversion, and analysis is one such application. Extraction of metals from various matrixes is also an area of continuing interest. The application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to production of nano-structured materials is a new area likely to see rapid growth in the next few years.

Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

2006-06-15

241

AGS slow extracted beam improvement  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

1997-07-01

242

Naturally occurring spore particles at planar fluid interfaces and in emulsions.  

PubMed

We have investigated the potential of utilizing naturally occurring spore particles of Lycopodium clavatum as sole emulsifiers of oil and water mixtures. The preferred emulsions, prepared from either oil-borne or aqueous-borne dispersions of the monodispersed particles of diameter 30 microm, are oil-in-water. The particles act as efficient stabilizers for oils of different polarity. Droplets as large as several millimeters are stable to coalescence indefinitely, despite the low coverage of interfaces by particles observed microscopically. Consistent with the emulsion findings, we discover that particles spontaneously adsorb to bare oil-water interfaces of single drops from oil dispersions, whereas adsorption is less spontaneous and extensive from aqueous dispersions. Monolayers of the spore particles at both air-water and oil-water planar interfaces contain particles in an aggregated state forming clusters and chains. The influence of particle concentration, oil/water ratio, and additives in the aqueous phase is studied. PMID:16114917

Binks, B P; Clint, J H; Mackenzie, G; Simcock, C; Whitby, C P

2005-08-30

243

Extraction of anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia by pressurized hot water: Antioxidant activity of extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of anthraquinones from Morinda citrifolia was evaluated by determining the capability of the extracts to scavenge the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro, as compared with the extracts obtained by other conventional extraction methods such as ethanol extraction in stirred vessel, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that PHWE

Boonchai Pongnaravane; Motonobu Goto; Mitsuru Sasaki; Thitiporn Anekpankul; Prasert Pavasant; Artiwan Shotipruk

2006-01-01

244

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleoresin was extracted from ground black pepper with carbon dioxide at 28 MPa and 24 to 60 °C. The yield and contents of piperine in the extract were determined as a function of extraction time and the solvent amount. The concentration profile of piperine inside the fixed bed of pepper was also measured. The total extract contained piperine and essential

Helena Sovová; Jaromír Jez; Milena Bártlová; Jitka St'astová

1995-01-01

245

MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction  

E-print Network

MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction · DNA was extracted from the ileo-cecal nodes of 475 Holstein cows from two herds using the Qiagen DNA extraction kit (Valencia, CA). 2) Map detection · Map and Jerome, Idaho, respectively. DNA was extracted from ileo-cecal lymph nodes using the Qiagen (Valencia, CA

Collins, Gary S.

246

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

247

Neuroleptanalgesia and extracapsular cataract extraction.  

PubMed Central

Peribulbar and retrobulbar anaesthesia are commonly used techniques in cataract extraction. They offer satisfactory analgesia and akinesia but serious complications although uncommon are consistently reported. Intravenous sedation combined with a facial nerve block offers an alternative method of anaesthesia. This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction using this technique between 1 January 1986 and 1 September 1990. The operating conditions were judged to be very suitable with minimal peroperative complications. The postoperative ocular complication rate was low (minimum follow-up 3 months) and no serious medical complications were noted: 93.8% of patients achieved 6/12 vision or better. This study demonstrates that it is possible to achieve satisfactory ocular analgesia and akinesia during cataract extraction under local anaesthesia without the use of a periocular injection. PMID:1540558

Hodgkins, P R; Teye-Botchway, L; Morrell, A J; Fetherston, T J; Perthen, C; Brown, N E

1992-01-01

248

Accurate extraction of the News  

E-print Network

We propose a new scheme for extracting gravitational radiation from a characteristic numerical simulation of a spacetime. This method is similar in conception to our earlier work but analytical and numerical implementation is different. The scheme is based on direct transformation to the Bondi coordinates and the gravitational waves are extracted by calculating the Bondi news function in Bondi coordinates. The entire calculation is done in a way which will make the implementation easy when we use uniform Bondi angular grid at $\\mathcal I^+$. Using uniform Bondi grid for news calculation has added advantage that we have to solve only ordinary differential equations instead of partial differential equation. For the test problems this new scheme allows us to extract gravitational radiation much more accurately than the previous schemes.

Shrirang S. Deshingkar

2006-09-14

249

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

1989-01-01

250

Extracting Context To Improve Accuracy For HTML Content Extraction  

E-print Network

pages has many applications, including cell phone and PDA browsing, speech rendering for the visually of an article, which distracts a user from actual content. Extraction of "useful and relevant" content from web with guides and menus attempting to improve the user's efficiency, but they often end up distracting from

251

Catastrophic extraction of anomalous events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss extraction of anomalous events based on the theory of catastrophes, a mathematical theory of continuous geometrical manifolds with discrete singularities called catastrophes. Intelligence exploitation systems and technologies include such novel data mining techniques as automatic extraction of discrete anomalous events by software algorithms based on the theory of catastrophes, that can reduce complex problems to a few essential so-called state variables. This paper discusses mostly corank-1 catastrophes with only one state variable, for simplicity. As an example we discuss mostly avionics platforms and catastrophic failures that can be recorded by flight instruments.

Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ro, Sookwang; Kostrzewski, Andrew

2012-06-01

252

The Overview of Entity Relation Extraction Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Information extraction can be defined as the task of extracting information of specified events or facts, and then stored in a database for the users' querying. Only with the correct relationship between the various entities, the database can be correctly store in. Entity relation extraction becomes a key technology of information Extraction system. In this paper, we analyze the status of entity relation extraction method; propose several problems for this field to be solved.

Cheng, Xian-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Jin

253

Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.  

PubMed

A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000?L of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. PMID:21190688

Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Ĺke

2011-02-01

254

Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

255

In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction  

PubMed Central

Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-01-01

256

In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction.  

PubMed

Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-10-15

257

Antioxidative activities of water extract and ethanol extract from field horsetail ( tsukushi) Equisetum arvense L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water extract and ethanol extract from top and body portions of field horsetail (tsukushi) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity was investigated using four different methods. The contents of total phenolic components were richer in the ethanol extract fractions of each portion than in the water extracts. On the other hand, protein contents were much lower in ethanol extract fractions

Takeshi Nagai; Takao Myoda; Toshio Nagashima

2005-01-01

258

Pitch Extraction and Fundamental Frequency  

E-print Network

Report TR-CS 2003-06 November, 2003 c David Gerhard Department of Computer Science University of Regina is to extract the fundamental frequency (f0) from a sound signal, which is usually the lowest frequency of Pitch The musical pitch of an audio signal is a perceptual feature, relevant only in the context

Regina, University of

259

Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.  

PubMed

Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

2014-06-20

260

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dedecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used-a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacial area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35 degrees C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot-in classical processes-completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion. (Refs. 21).

Minier, M.; Goma, G.

1982-07-01

261

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used--a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacia area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35/sup 0/C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot--in classical processes--completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion.

Minier, M.; Goma, G.

1982-07-01

262

Optimal Memory Constrained Isosurface Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient isosurface extraction from large volume data sets requires special algorithms and data struc- tures. Such algorithms typically either use a hier- archical spatial subdivision of the volume or they organize the scalar values attached to the cells of the volume, i.e., intervals, in some suitable data structures. Octrees, kd-trees, and interval trees are commonly applied. However, these data structures

Dietmar Saupe; Jürgen Toelke

2001-01-01

263

EXTRACTABLE FUNCTIONS FICTION OR REALITY?  

E-print Network

(BU) Alon Rosen (IDC) #12;Knowledge is Elusive (assuming P NP) Knowing () isn't like knowing Knowing isn't like knowing | Knowing how to prove isn't like knowing () 2 #12;ZK Proofs of Knowledge Extractable Functions Really Exist? What's Beyond KnowledgeAssumptions? Can We Construct Explicit Extractors

Goldreich, Oded

264

Extracting Messages Masked by Chaos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission: a digital one, where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal.

Gabriel Pérez; Hilda A. Cerdeira

1995-01-01

265

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA\\/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to

Steven R. Onagel; Laurence J. Bement

1989-01-01

266

Integrated Schottky diode parameters extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the integration of a Schottky diode into IC process for logic and analogic applications. The parameters extraction of the integrated Schottky diodes takes into account the layout and process aspects. The developed models allow significant device performances improvement.

Marian Badila; Sorin Georgescu

2002-01-01

267

Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

Malmary, G.; And Others

1984-01-01

268

New methods of pitch extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new methods will be described for the extraction of the fundamental pitch from a speech signal. These are: 1) spectrum flattening followed by a minimum phase correction to synchronize harmonics 2) spectrum flattening followed by auto-correlation, and 3) nonlinear distortion followed by autocorrelation. The last two methods will be shown to be exceptionally rugged, in that they can tolerate

MAX MOHAN SONDHI

1968-01-01

269

Extracting DNA from a Banana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners extract DNA from a banana. The procedure requires only basic lab equipment (i.e. beaker, test tube) and chemicals (i.e. liquid soap, meat tenderizer, ethanol). This activity is most appropriate for learners in grades 5-8. With slight modifications, this activity is appropriate for younger learners as well.

Mark Gallo, Ph.D.

2012-01-01

270

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2010-07-01

271

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2013-07-01

272

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2012-07-01

273

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2014-07-01

274

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2011-07-01

275

Titanium metal: extraction to application  

SciTech Connect

In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2002-09-01

276

Electromembrane extraction: distribution or electrophoresis?  

PubMed

This paper presents for the first time a phenomenological theoretical model for the time dependent distribution of analytes during electromembrane extraction (EME). The model was verified experimentally for a range of model drugs and peptides. Analytes were extracted from an acidified aqueous sample solution, through an organic supported liquid membrane (SLM), and into an acidified aqueous acceptor solution. Mass transfer was governed by an applied electric field across the SLM. A rapid depletion was seen in the sample during extractions, with a steady increase in the amount accumulated in the acceptor solution. This was in good accordance with the theoretical model. A deviation from the modeled behavior was seen for some of the peptides where trapping of analyte in the SLM was high. The results demonstrated for the first time that EME behaved like a distribution system, with voltage dependent distribution coefficients. In addition, electrokinetic migration was observed across the SLM, which added an electrophoretic component to the mass transfer. This improved theoretical understanding will be highly beneficial for future optimization and development of applications using EME. PMID:23255056

Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Sřnsteby, Marit Hovde; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

2013-03-01

277

Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

1989-06-01

278

Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ambrisentan  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Ambrisentan (ABS) is an antihypertensive drug used in the treatment of pulmonary atrial hypertension. The survey of literature for ABS revealed only two spectrophotometric methods for its quantification. The reported methods lack the sensitivity. This study is aimed at developing two sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ABS in bulk and in tablets. Methods: The proposed methods are based on the formation of colored chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of ABS with methylene blue (MB method) and safranine O (SO method) in buffered solution at pH 9.8. The extracted complexes showed maximum absorbance at 525 and 515 nm for methylene blue and safranine O, respectively. Results: In both the methods, the calibration curve was linear from 1–15 µg mL-1 of drug. Apparent molar absorpitivities were 1.7911 x 105, 2.3272 x 105 L mol-1 cm-1; Sandell’s sensitivities were 0.0215, 0.0162 µg cm-2; LOD were 0.182, 0.175 µg mL-1; LOQ were 0.551, 0.531 µg mL-1 for methods MB and SO, respectively. The relative standard deviation and percent recovery ranged from 0.206–1.310% and 99.0–101.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are sensitive, precise, accurate and inexpensive. These methods can easily be used for the assay of ABS in quality control laboratories. PMID:24312841

Kumar, Namasani Santhosh; Rani, Avula Prameela; Visalakshi, Telu; Sekharan, Chandra Bala

2013-01-01

279

Extraction parameters for metabolomics from cultured cells.  

PubMed

The successful extraction of metabolites is a critical step in metabolite profiling. By optimizing metabolite extraction, the range and quantitative capacity of metabolomics studies can be improved. We considered eight separate extraction protocols for the preparation of a metabolite extract from cultured mammalian cells. Parameters considered included temperature, pH, and cell washing before extraction. The effects on metabolite recovery were studied using a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) platform that measures metabolites of diverse chemical classes, including amino acids, lipids, and sugar derivatives. The temperature considered during the extraction or the presence of formic acid, a commonly used additive, was shown to have minimal effects on the measured ion intensities of metabolites. However, washing of samples before metabolite extraction, whether with water or phosphate-buffered saline, exhibited dramatic effects on measured intensities of both intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Together, these findings present a systematic assessment of extraction conditions for metabolite profiling. PMID:25613493

Ser, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojing; Tang, Ngoc Nu; Locasale, Jason W

2015-04-15

280

Extraction of hemicelluloses from fiberized spruce wood.  

PubMed

A novel mechanical pre-treatment method was used to separate the wood chips into fiber bundles in order to extract high molecular weight wood polymers. The mechanical pre-treatment involved chip compression in a conical plug-screw followed by defibration in a fiberizer. The fiberized wood was treated with hot water at various combinations of time and temperature in order to analyze the extraction yield of hemicelluloses at different conditions. Nearly 6 mg/g wood of galactoglucomannan was obtained at 90 °C/120 min which was about three times more than what could be extracted from wood chips. The extracted carbohydrates had molecular weight ranging up to 60 kDa. About 10% of each of the extracted material had a molecular weight above 30 kDa. The extraction liquor could also be reused for consecutive extractions with successive increase in the extraction yield of hemicelluloses. PMID:25498604

Azhar, Shoaib; Henriksson, Gunnar; Theliander, Hans; Lindström, Mikael E

2015-03-01

281

How to Extract DNA From Anything Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics activity, learners discover how to extract DNA from green split peas. This resource guide includes a brief explanation of DNA and provides suggestions for ways to experiment with DNA extraction further.

University of Utah

2008-01-01

282

Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.  

PubMed

In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

2014-04-15

283

Accelerated solvent extraction of petroleum contaminated sediments  

E-print Network

Attempts have been made in recent years to find acceptable alternatives to classical soxhlet extraction of petroleum contaminated sediments. One such method that is very promising is accelerated solvent extraction also referred to as high pressure...

Bauguss, Jeffery Lynn

1997-01-01

284

Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

2015-01-01

285

Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction   

E-print Network

The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents ...

Forgan, Ross Stewart

2008-01-01

286

Extraction of skewed parton distributions from experiment  

E-print Network

In this paper we will discuss algorithms for extracting skewed parton distributions (SPD's) from experiment as well as the relevant process and experimental observable suitable for the extraction procedure.

Andreas Freund

1999-05-04

287

An Automated Algorithm for Extracting Website Skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge amount of information available on the Web has at- tracted many research efiorts into developing wrappers that extract data from webpages. However, as most of the systems for generating wrap- pers focus on extracting data at page-level, data extraction at site-level remains a manual or semi-automatic process. In this paper, we study the problem of extracting website skeleton,

Zehua Liu; Wee-Keong Ng; Ee-peng Lim

2004-01-01

288

Supercritical fluid extraction of dandelion leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amyrin and ?-sitosterol were extracted from dandelion in preparative scale using supercritical carbon dioxide. A 32 full-factorial design was carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure and temperature (over the ranges 150–450 bar and 35–65°C, respectively) on the yields and recoveries of the active components. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared to Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane and

B. Simándi; Sz. T. Kristo; Á. Kéry; L. K. Selmeczi; I. Kmecz; S. Kemény

2002-01-01

289

Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize.  

PubMed

Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng. PMID:18969327

Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A

2004-02-27

290

Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

Compton, L.

1982-01-01

291

MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF LIME PECTIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pectin was extracted from lime flavedo, albedo and pulp by employing microwave assisted extraction (MAE) under pressure. Advantages of MAE over conventional heating methods in the extraction of pectin from citrus residues include 10 fold or better reduction in heating time, better control of extrac...

292

Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

Krasnov, I. V.

1977-01-01

293

COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)  

EPA Science Inventory

Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

294

Extractives of cork ( Quercus suber L.): chemical composition of dichloromethane and supercritical CO 2 extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymeric matrix of the cork is mainly composed of suberin, lignin and polysaccharides and contains also extractives. Typical components of the extracted mixtures are triterpenes belonging to friedelane, lupane and steroid families and long chain alkanes and alkanols. Two extractive methods have been used, the conventional extraction with a solvent (SE) using dichloromethane (DCM) and the innovative method which

Vincent Castola; Bruno Marongiu; Ange Bighelli; Constantino Floris; Joseph Casanova

2005-01-01

295

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic

PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY; AWANG BONO

296

Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections. PMID:20191854

Poiat?, Antonia; Tuchilu?, Cristina; Iv?nescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Laz?r, M I

2009-01-01

297

Automatic extraction of planetary image features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

2013-01-01

298

Parameter extraction and transistor models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using specified mathematical models of the MOSFET device, the optimal values of the model-dependent parameters were extracted from data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Three MOSFET models, all one-dimensional were used. One of the models took into account diffusion (as well as convection) currents. The sensitivity of the models was assessed for variations of the parameters from their optimal values. Lines of future inquiry are suggested on the basis of the behavior of the devices, of the limitations of the proposed models, and of the complexity of the required numerical investigations.

Rykken, Charles; Meiser, Verena; Turner, Greg; Wang, QI

1985-01-01

299

Plant tissue extraction for metabolomics.  

PubMed

Plants are not only important producers of foods and energy storages (e.g., sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) in the form of grains, fruits, and vegetables, they also provide many valuable products to human existence including wood, fibers, oils, resins, pigments, antioxidants, and sources of medicine. Most importantly in light of this book, plants have been a source of therapeutic and health promoting compounds throughout history. This chapter describes several essential considerations for the extraction process when aiming to study plant metabolism or to characterize the chemical composition of plant originated samples using metabolomics technologies. PMID:23963900

Roessner, Ute; Dias, Daniel Anthony

2013-01-01

300

Extracting Information about Jane Austen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

View a variety of web sources to learn more about the author Jane Austen and determine the sources' credibility. Learn how to extract and record information about Austen by using a variety of methods and then convey that information while avoiding plagiarism. GOAL This assignment will help you to gain more information about Jane Austen, whom you have been studying in your AP English class, as well as utilizing and extending your knowledge of the following: 1. Credibility of different sources 2. Note-taking methods 3. Using the MLA guidelines At the end of this assignment you will ...

Mrs. Anderson

2009-11-30

301

Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

Segall, P.

1989-01-01

302

Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

Koumpis, Konstantinos

303

Enhanced extraction of polychlorinated organic compounds from soil samples by fluidized-bed extraction (FBE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The extraction and determination of polychlorinated organic compounds, like hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene\\u000a and polychlorinated biphenyls in soils and solid wastes continues to be a subject for study. In this work Soxhlet extraction\\u000a and a new extraction technique, fluidized-bed extraction, have been compared. The extraction of polychlorinated organic compounds\\u000a by this technique has been optimized using experiemental design procedures. The variation

M. Gfrerer; M. Stadlober; B. M. Gawlik; T. Wenzl; E. Lankmayr

2001-01-01

304

Solvent Extraction and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Pimenta dioica Merrill. Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile compounds from Pimenta dioica Merrill, leaf were extracted by hexane and supercritical CO2. The yield obtained by solvent extraction was 5.67% and 0.80% with supercritical CO2 extraction. Sensory profiles and GC\\/MS analyses of both extracts were compared with those obtained by hydrodistillation. The difference in aroma of the extracts was quite nof iceable and was attributed to qualitative and

Jorge A. Pino; Jorge Garcia; Marco A. Martinez

1997-01-01

305

Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.  

PubMed

The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. ?-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked ?-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with ?-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used. PMID:25155095

Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

2014-09-01

306

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

2008-12-01

307

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

PubMed

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

2011-08-01

308

Selective extraction of Cyclopia for enhanced in vitro phytoestrogenicity and benchmarking against commercial phytoestrogen extracts.  

PubMed

Previous work established the phytoestrogenicity of "unfermented"Cyclopia (honeybush) extracts. The current study investigated the phytoestrogenicity of four Cyclopia harvestings (M6-9) for preparation of extracts with enhanced phytoestrogenicity for benchmarking against commercial preparations. Two extracts, from M6 (C. subternata) and M7 (C. genistoides), were identified as most phytoestrogenic using estrogen receptor binding, an estrogen receptor response element containing promoter reporter assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, and E-screen. M6 and M7 were sequentially and non-sequentially extracted with five solvents of differing polarities. Additionally, two extracts were prepared in the traditional way of preparing a cup of honeybush tea. The resultant 22 extracts were evaluated for estrogenicity. Select extracts were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The sequentially extracted M6 methanol extract (SM6Met) had the highest potency and the sequentially extracted M6 ethyl acetate extract (SM6EAc) had the highest efficacy of all the extracts. The HPLC results suggested enrichment of luteolin in SM6EAc and enrichment of an unidentified polyphenol in SM6Met. Benchmarking against four commercial phytoestrogenic preparations suggest that in terms of the assays used, Cyclopia extracts have comparable potency and efficacy to the commercial extracts and thus have potential as marketable phytoestrogenic nutraceuticals. PMID:18793725

Mfenyana, Ciko; DeBeer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Louw, Ann

2008-11-01

309

Evaluation of extraction method on the chemical composition in Apeiba tibourbou Aubl's extracts  

PubMed Central

Background: The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the potential of Apeiba tibourbou Aubl, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of fatty acid, rosmarinic (Ra) and caffeic (Ca) acid from A. tibourbou. Materials and Methods: Determinations of residual moisture (Rm), proteins (Pt), lipids (Lp), total fiber (Tf), and carbohydrate (Cy) were performed in triplicate samples according assessment of antioxidant capacity. Extraction of fatty acids was carried out by two different methods: (i) By shoxlet and (ii) bligh and dyer. The optimized conditions were determined by surface response methodology (RSM), and the criterion of desirability was the maximum extraction of Ra and Ca. Results: The method of bligh and dyer was able to extraction more total Lp than the shoxlet. However, the extraction of fatty acid was different for the two methods. The optimized conditions to extract RA and Ca was calculated by RSM, 42°C, 30% (alcohol degree) and 24 min, this conditions maximize simultaneously the extraction of Ca (0, 04%) and Ry (1.89), Conclusion: It was observed that the extraction method alters the chemical composition of extract, and it is possible to extract Ca and Ra from A. tibourbou's leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction.

Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceiçăo, Edemilson Cardoso

2015-01-01

310

High recall document content extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

2011-01-01

311

Fast robust automated brain extraction.  

PubMed

An automated method for segmenting magnetic resonance head images into brain and non-brain has been developed. It is very robust and accurate and has been tested on thousands of data sets from a wide variety of scanners and taken with a wide variety of MR sequences. The method, Brain Extraction Tool (BET), uses a deformable model that evolves to fit the brain's surface by the application of a set of locally adaptive model forces. The method is very fast and requires no preregistration or other pre-processing before being applied. We describe the new method and give examples of results and the results of extensive quantitative testing against "gold-standard" hand segmentations, and two other popular automated methods. PMID:12391568

Smith, Stephen M

2002-11-01

312

Clinical utility of curcumin extract.  

PubMed

Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects. PMID:23594449

Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

2013-01-01

313

Advances in information extraction techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sundry recent developments are presented which show some potential for affecting the automatic extraction of information from remotely sensed data. Pattern representations more abstract than Euclidean vector spaces offer some hope of unifying structural and decision theoretical approaches. The estimation of expected classification error rates is becoming more sophisticated and rigorous, but useful finite-sample results for nonparametric distributions appear unobtainable. Focus on computational complexity allows comparison of algorithms, while software engineering techniques reduce the effort necessary to develop and maintain complex image processing systems. Advances in computer systems architecture, commercial database technology, and man-machine communications should be closely monitored by the remote sensing community. A NASA-sponsored recommendation for research directions in mathematical pattern recognition are offered.

Nagy, G.

1982-01-01

314

Practical recommendations for mixing allergy immunotherapy extracts  

PubMed Central

Critical aspects of formulating allergy immunotherapy vaccines include the selection, total number, and proportions of each allergen component in therapeutic mixtures. The immunotherapy prescription, determined by a medical provider, details the dosing and schedule for treatment as well as the specific composition of the treatment vials. Allergen extracts are composed of many components such as proteins, glycoproteins, and proteases. Some components in allergen extracts are cross-reactive, meaning that treatment with an extract from one species may confer partial protection against a triggering allergen from another species. Conversely, some allergen extracts are incompatible with other extracts when combined in a mixture for treatment, resulting in lowered therapeutic potential for the patient. Therefore, knowledge of allergen extract cross-reactivities and incompatibilities guides the preparation of subcutaneous immunotherapy prescriptions. In a clinical setting, an understanding of what can and can not be mixed is one critical element in improving treatment outcomes. PMID:25860164

Daigle, Barbara J.

2015-01-01

315

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOEpatents

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1992-12-08

316

Supercritical fluid extraction of black pepper oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from ground black pepper, using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of process parameters, namely pressure (90,100,150bar) and temperature (40,50°C) of extraction, and solvent flow rate (1.1,2,3kg\\/h), on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments conducted in a bench scale apparatus.

C. Perakis; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

2005-01-01

317

A Study of Terpeneless Lemon Extracts  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection A Study of Terpeneless Lemon Extracts 1912 by C. Clay Spilman This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center... paper for credit as a Senior Thesis, such as is required of all applicants for a degree in the school of Engineering, Very respectfully submitted, 1. TERPENELESS LEMON EXTRACTS• There are two extracts which have the flavor of lemon and which have...

Spilman, C. Clay

1912-01-01

318

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOEpatents

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01

319

Chemical extraction of arsenic from contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A series of batch extraction experiments were conducted using a fortified soil with different extracting solutions such as inorganic acids (hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), perchloric acid (HClO4), or nitric acid (HNO3)), organic acids (acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7)) and alkaline agent (NaOH). Various concentrations were used to investigate the removal efficiency and to optimise the concentration of each extractant. In the present investigation a Kuroboku soil contaminated with arsenite (As(III)) was used as a model soil. Arsenic was extracted most efficiently by 5% H3PO4 with a maximum of more than 99% from the model soil. Sulfuric acid also showed high percentage extraction efficiency. On the other hand, C2H4O2 and oxidizing acids such as HNO3 and HClO4 showed low efficiency of As extraction compared with C6H8O7. Although, NaOH also showed higher extraction efficiencies compared with organic and oxidizing acids but mainly arsenate (As(V)) was found to be the major component. A significant fraction of the As(III) was oxidized to As(V) during mineral acid and alkaline extraction and extraction efficiency also varied with the concentration of the acid and alkali solution. PMID:16779937

Alam, G M; Tokunaga, S

2006-01-01

320

Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

2013-07-01

321

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

322

DNA Extraction and Quantitation for Forensic Analysts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is part of the President's DNA Initiative and is devoted to the methodology for the extraction and quantification of DNA obtained from crime scene evidence. The site is designed as an on-line short course. The site identifies potential obstacles in the collection, extraction, and amplification of DNA. Extraction methods covered are organic, Chelex, and other extraction procedures. The site reviews inhibitors of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process and suggests methods for separating these inhibitors from the sample DNA. The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used methods for DNA are reviewed. The user must register and secure a readily obtainable password prior to entering the site.

323

Fungal metabolite extracts active against phytopathogens.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of some genetically engineered microorganisms in the control of plant disease pathogens is widely acknowledged. These biopesticides, so far, pose less danger to the environment. However, little attention has been paid to the potential benefit of the use of exometabolites of some microorganisms in spite of their known activity and high biodegradability. A total of 1108 fungal metabolite extracts obtained from different strains of micromycetes cultured in two different liquid media (malt extract and yeast saccharose) were tested for antifungal activity. The target organisms were Collectotrichum musae, Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Pyricularia oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Gerlachia oryzae. Percentage mycelial growth inhibition activities varied widely with the different taxonomic groups. Extracts from Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. consistently showed the highest activity. A greater number of micromycetes produced active extracts in a liquid yeast extract saccharose medium than in a liquid malt extract medium. Mycelial growth inhibition diameters were also greater in assays with extracts from the yeast extract saccharose medium. The results generally demonstrated fungal metabolite extracts as potential sources of agricultural chemical input. PMID:7973617

Okeke, B; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Buarque De Gusmăo, N

1994-10-14

324

Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichiacoli.

R. K. Satdive; P. Abhilash; Devanand P. Fulzele

2003-01-01

325

Penetrating keratoplasty combined with extracapsular cataract extraction.  

PubMed

In my previous prospective study of 132 eyes, the incidence of clinically significant cystoid macular edema was 42% in aphakic penetrating keratoplasty, 33% in combined keratoplasty and cataract extraction with vitrectomy, and only 4% in combined keratoplasty and cataract extraction without vitrectomy. In the present study we added 26 aphakic and 11 pseudophakic keratoplasties and 17 procedures combining keratoplasty with extracapsular cataract extraction. Grafts were clear in 94% of patients, and 43% had visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Clinically significant cystoid macular edema occurred in 35% of aphakic and 27% of pseudophakic keratoplasties. Cystoid macular edema did not occur in combined keratoplasty and extracapsular cataract extraction. PMID:3893136

Kramer, S G

1985-07-15

326

Comparisons of soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction for environmental solids: recovery, selectivity and effects on sample matrix.  

PubMed

Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100 degrees C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150 degrees C with pure CO2), and subcritical water (1 h at 250 degrees C, or 30 min at 300 degrees C). Although minor differences in recoveries for some PAHs resulted from the different methods, quantitative agreement between all of the methods was generally good. However, the extract quality differed greatly. The organic solvent extracts (Soxhlet and PLE) were much darker, while the extracts from subcritical water (collected in toluene) were orange, and the extracts from SFE (collected in CH2Cl2) were light yellow. The organic solvent extracts also yielded more artifact peaks in the gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-flame ionization detection chromatograms, especially compared to supercritical CO2. Based on elemental analysis (carbon and nitrogen) of the soil residues after each extraction, subcritical water, PLE, and Soxhlet extraction had poor selectivity for PAHs versus bulk soil organic matter (approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of the bulk soil organic matter was extracted along with the PAHs), while SFE with pure CO2 removed only 8% of the bulk organic matrix. Selectivities for different compound classes also vary with extraction method. Extraction of urban air particulate matter with organic solvents yields very high concentrations of n- and branched alkanes (approximately C18 to C30) from diesel exhaust as well as lower levels of PAHs, and no selectivity between the bulk alkanes and PAHs is obtained during organic solvent extraction. Some moderate selectivity with supercritical CO2 can be achieved by first extracting the bulk alkanes at mild conditions, followed by stronger conditions to extract the remaining PAHs, i.e., the least polar organics are the easiest organics to extract with pure CO2. In direct contrast, subcritical water prefers the more polar analytes, i.e., PAHs were efficiently extracted from urban air particulates at 250 degrees C, with little or no extraction of the alkanes. Finally, recent work has demonstrated that many pollutant molecules become "sequestered" as they age for decades in the environment (i.e., more tightly bound to soil particles and less available to organisms or transport). Therefore, it may be more important for an extraction method to only recover pollutant molecules that are environmentally-relevant, rather than the conventional attempts to extract all pollutant molecules regardless of how tightly bound they are to the soil or sediment matrix. Initial work comparing SFE extraction behavior using mild to strong conditions with bioremediation behavior of PAHs shows great promise to develop extraction methodology to measure environmentally-relevant concentrations of pollutants in addition to their total concentrations. PMID:11045502

Hawthorne, S B; Grabanski, C B; Martin, E; Miller, D J

2000-09-15

327

30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

328

30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

329

30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

330

30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

331

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

332

30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

333

30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

334

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

335

30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

336

30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

337

30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

338

30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

339

30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

340

30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

341

30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

342

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

343

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

344

30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

345

30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

346

30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

347

30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

348

30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

349

30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

350

30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

351

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

352

30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

353

30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

354

30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

355

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

356

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

357

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

358

30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

359

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

360

30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

361

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

362

30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

363

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

364

30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

365

30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

366

30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

367

30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

368

30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2013-07-01

369

30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

370

30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

371

30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

372

30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

373

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

374

30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

375

30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

376

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

377

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

378

30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

379

30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

380

30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

381

30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

382

30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

383

30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2012-07-01

384

30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

385

30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

386

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2014-07-01

387

Extraction of methyl red from industrial wastewater using xylene as an extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study on the liquid–liquid extraction system has been carried out for the removal and recovery of methyl red from aqueous solutions using xylene as an extractant. The concentration of methyl red has been studied in the range of 1.72×10?4 to 1.72×10?3molL?1. The efficiency of dye extraction increased with increasing time of extraction. Distribution ratio is reasonably high (D=49)

G. Muthuraman; Tjoon Tow Teng

2009-01-01

388

Batch Extraction Studies of Cationic and Anionic Heavy Metallic Species by a Mixed Solvent Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewaters and their recovery is a challenging problem. Simultaneous and synergistic batch extraction from water of copper present as a cation (Cu) and Cr present as an anion (HCr2O) into a mixed solvent extraction system have been studied. The mixed solvent extraction system consists of the diluent kerosene, the cation exchanger LIX 84, and

R. Chilukuri; Zhi-Fa Yang; K. K. Sirkar

1998-01-01

389

Effect of different extraction protocols on anticancer and antioxidant activities of Berberis koreana bark extracts.  

PubMed

High-pressure extraction and ultrasonification extraction techniques were employed to extract bioactive compounds from Berberis koreana. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonification in a high pressure process on the extraction yield, and the anticancer and antioxidant activities of the B. koreana bark extract. The effect of high-pressure extraction time when carried out for 5 and 15 min (HP5 and HP15) was also investigated. The best extraction yield with maximum percentage of phenolic compounds was obtained using high pressure with sonification (HPWS) extraction method. Experimental results indicated that HPWS altered the antioxidant activities, including the scavenging capacity of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase. HP5 and HP15 with conventional extraction have almost similar bioactivity, but showed lower antioxidant and anticancer activities compared to HPWS. The results showed that the application of ultrasonification improved the extraction efficiency for bioactive compounds and, as deduced from chromatographic profiles, it may have allowed the release of new compounds. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed evidence of rupturing of the tissue surface treated with HPWS, in contrast to conventional extraction, HP5, and HP15. The HPWS extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active compounds of hard plant tissues. PMID:19269602

Qadir, Syed Abdul; Kwon, Min Chul; Han, Jae Gun; Ha, Ji He; Chung, Hyang Suk; Ahn, Juhee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2009-03-01

390

Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

1969-01-01

391

REALTIME MINUTIAE EXTRACTION IN FINGERPRINT IMAGES  

E-print Network

REAL­TIME MINUTIAE EXTRACTION IN FINGERPRINT IMAGES J C Amengual, A Juan, J C P'erez, F Prat, S S of the most important tasks in an Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), Mehtre and Chatterjee (3). The characteris­ tics to be extracted in a given fingerprint image can be divided into two main categories: global

Juan, Alfons

392

Testbed for information extraction from deep web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search results generated by searchable databases are served dynamically and far larger than the static documents on the Web. These results pages have been referred to as the Deep Web. We need to extract the target data in results pages to integrate them on different searchable databases. We propose a test bed for information extraction from search results. We chose

Yasuhiro Yamada; Nick Craswell; Tetsuya Nakatoh; Sachio Hirokawa

2004-01-01

393

Data Extraction from Deep Web Pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel model to extract data from Deep Web pages. The model has four layers, among which the access schedule, extraction layer and data cleaner are based on the rules of structure, logic and application. In the experiment section, we apply the new model to three intelligent system, scientific paper retrieval, electronic ticket ordering and

Jufeng Yang; Guangshun Shi; Yan Zheng; Qingren Wang

2007-01-01

394

Subprime Refinancing: Equity Extraction and Mortgage Termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the choice of borrowers to extract wealth from housing in the high-cost (subprime) segment of the mortgage market and assesses the prepayment and default performance of these cash-out refinance loans relative to the rate of refinance loans. Consistent with survey evidence, the propensity to extract equity is sensitive to the relative interest rates of other forms of

Anthony Pennington-Cross; Souphala Chomsisengphet

2007-01-01

395

Genotoxicity of Organic Extracts from Atmospheric Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to evaluate the genotoxic potentialities of urban air particles sampled in Paris (France) after organic solvent extraction have been carried out using four in vitro genotoxicity tests. The two bacterial tests (the Ames test and the SOS Chromotest) demonstrate the genotoxicity of the organic extracts of atmospheric particles; two additional tests (induction of 6-thioguanine mutants and sister chromatid exchanges),

Y. A. Courtois; S. Min; C. Lachenal; J. M. Jacquot-Deschamps; F. Callais; B. Festy

1988-01-01

396

Soil moisture by extraction and gas chromatography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine moisture content of soils rapidly and conveniently extract moisture with methanol and determine water content of methanol extract by gas chromatography. Moisture content of sample is calculated from weight of water and methanol in aliquot and weight of methanol added to sample.

Merek, E. L.; Carle, G. C.

1973-01-01

397

Extracting Semistructured Information from the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a configurable tool for extracting semistructured data from a set of HTML pages and for converting the extracted information into database objects. The input to the extractor is a declarative specification that states where the data of interest is located on the HTML pages, and how the data should be \\

J. Hammer; H. Garcia-Molina; J. Cho; R. Aranha; Arturo Crespo

1997-01-01

398

Alignment-HMM-based Extraction of Abbreviations  

E-print Network

definitions anti-sperm antibodies were studied by indirect mixed anti-globulin reaction test (MAR) 1 MAR of multiple abbreviations · "anti-sperm (ASA), anti-phospholipid (APA), and antizonal (AZA) antibodies" #12;Extraction Method · Parse text and extract candidate definitions anti-sperm antibodies were studied

Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

399

Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans  

SciTech Connect

Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

1990-10-01

400

A Survey of Web Information Extraction Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet presents a huge amount of useful information which is usually formatted for its users, which makes it difficult to extract relevant data from various sources. Therefore, the availability of robust, flexible Information Extraction (IE) systems that transform the Web pages into program-friendly structures such as a relational database will become a great necessity. Although many approaches for data

Chia-hui Chang; Mohammed Kayed; Moheb Ramzy Girgis; Khaled F. Shaalan

2006-01-01

401

Rapid and reliable protein extraction from yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods currently used for protein extraction from yeast are either laborious or insufficiently reliable. Here I report a method for protein extraction for electrophoretic analysis that is both easy and reliable. In this method, yeast cells are subjected to mild alkali treatment and then boiled in a standard electrophoresis loading buffer. The method was tested for different strains of

Vitaly V. Kushnirov

2000-01-01

402

Comparison of the chemical composition of extracts from Scutellaria lateriflora using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction versus standard hot water or 70% ethanol extraction.  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L. (S. lateriflora), Lamiaceae) has been traditionally used by North American Indians as a nerve tonic and for its sedative and diuretic properties. Recent reports stated that flavonoids and possibly amino acids are responsible for the anxiolytic activity. As a part of our search for environmentally friendly solvents to extract the active components from medicinal plants, we used S. lateriflora in a comparison of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using water, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 and 10% EtOH as modifier, at different temperatures. Flavonoids and amino acids were quantified by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS, respectively. The flavonoid content was compared with conventional extraction methods (hot water extraction and 70% ethanol). The use of ASE at 85 degrees C with water as solvent gave the best results for flavonoid glycosides and amino acids, whereas SFE gave higher yields of flavonoid aglycones. However, the results obtained for total flavonoids were not significatively superior to hot water extraction or 70% aqueous EtOH extract. PMID:15826062

Bergeron, Chantal; Gafner, Stefan; Clausen, Edgar; Carrier, Danielle J

2005-04-20

403

Supercritical fluid extraction. Principles and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors cover virtually every facet of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology: the history of SCF extraction, its underlying thermodynamic principles, process principles, industrial applications, and analysis of SCF research and development efforts. A review of 75 major SCF extraction patents provides an important source of technical and business information. Computer programs that can be used to calculate critical mixture and

M. A. McHugh; V. J. Krukonis

1986-01-01

404

Web Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence  

E-print Network

Web Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory Online market intelligence (OMI), and especially competitive intelligence for product pricing, is a very extraction and processing of massive amounts of data in a short period of time. Online market intelligence

Oxford, University of

405

EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

406

Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

1999-01-01

407

Adaptive traffic road sign panels text extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an approach to the detection and extraction of text in road sign panels. Text strings, indicators and signs extraction is efficiently performed so OCR algorithms can recognize different characters that may be present on the traffic plane. In a first step, basic color segmentation and shape classification is done for the purpose of detecting possible

A. VÁZQUEZ REINA; R. J. LÓPEZ SASTRE; S. LAFUENTE ARROYO; P. GIL JIMÉNEZ

2006-01-01

408

Automatic Extraction of Knowledge from Web Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of digital information available is written as text documents in the form of web pages, reports, papers, emails, etc. Extracting the knowledge of interest from such documents from multiple sources in a timely fashion is therefore crucial. This paper provides an update on the Artequakt system which uses natural language tools to automatically extract knowledge about artists

Harith Alani; Sanghee Kim; David E. Millard; Mark J. Weal; Paul H. Lewis; Nigel Shadbolt

2003-01-01

409

SURVEY OF WATER EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS IN MANURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-extractable phosphorus (P) in manure is strongly related to dissolved P in runoff from soils receiving recent additions of manure. A survey of water-extractable P concentrations in manures submitted to Penn State University's Agricultural Analytical Services Laboratory was conducted. Results r...

410

DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

2010-01-01

411

Product Feature Extraction with a Combined Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product review mining is the process of extracting opinions of customers in reviews which are expressed by natural language. As the first phrase of product review mining, product feature extraction decides the quality of subsequent phrases. In this paper, we build a combined approach based on bootstrapping and ID3, ID3 is used as a feature selection algorithm in the iteration

Zhixing Li

2010-01-01

412

Apparatus for California Waste Extraction Test  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus has been designed that is suitable for performing the extraction test mandated by the state of California for the characterization of solid and semisolid hazardous waste. The apparatus enables mixing of the waste with the extraction fluid in the absence of air, and all parts contacting the waste mixture are either fluoropolymer or glass.

Harrar, J.E.

1991-06-10

413

Information Extraction Using Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis shows how to design and tune a hidden Markov model to extract factual information from a corpus of machine-readable English prose. In particular, the thesis presents a HMM that classifies and parses natural language assertions about genes being located at particular positions on chromosomes. The facts extracted by this HMM can be inserted into biological databases. The HMM

Timothy Robert Leek

1997-01-01

414

IN SITU SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is designed to physically remove volatile compounds, generally from the vadose or unsaturated zone. t is an in situ process employing vapor extraction wells alone or in combination with air injection wells. acuum blowers supply the motive force, induci...

415

TEXT EXTRACTION FROM STREET LEVEL IMAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We offer in this article, a method for text extraction in images issued from city scenes. This method is used in the French iTowns project (iTowns ANR project, 2008) to automatically enhance cartographic database by extracting text from geolocalized pictures of town streets. This task is difficult as 1. text in this environment varies in shape, size, color, orientation... 2.

J. Fabrizio; M. Cord; B. Marcotegui

2009-01-01

416

Extraction of phenolic compounds from soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the composition and amount of phenolic inputs from plants is important for studies of soil organic matter formation and nutrient cycling. However, some phenolic compounds, including tannins, can sorb or complex with the soil making them difficult to extract. We extracted soils with a...

417

Comparison of endmember extraction techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image pixels represent either distinct materials (end members) that are present in the image, or mistures of two or more of these pure materials. Estimates of pure end member spectra are needed for spectral libraries and for input into pixel unmixing codes. We investigate three algorithms for estimating end member spectra: (1) the convex hull method in which an n-dimensional surface is shrink- wrapped around the data cloud; (2) a pixel-by-pixel search method in which pixels that have sufficiently different spectral angles are declared end members; (3) a pixel-by- pixel search method using Euclidean distance as a measure, followed by clustering to improve the estimate of the spectra. The convex hull technique should provide an estimate of pure end member spectra while the pixel-by-pixel search methods should find both distinct end members and distinct mixtures. Each method requires user-set thresholds to find distinct spectra, which can be expressed in spectral angle degrees or image-dependent units for Euclidean distance. Estimates for the lower threshold (below which two spectra are considered to be the same material) and the upper threshold (above which two spectra are definitely different materials) are derived empirically. Low-altitude AVIRIS data will be used to demonstrate the utility of these end member extraction methods. We will illusxtrate how well each technique compare to the other, and compare how well individual algorithms work across adjacent scenes.

Cipar, John J.; Meidunas, Eduardo C.; Bassett, Edward M., III

2002-08-01

418

Extracting entanglement from identical particles  

E-print Network

Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

N. Killoran; M. Cramer; M. B. Plenio

2014-04-22

419

Upper incisors' positions after extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

2014-01-01

420

Solvent extraction kinetics of rare earth elements.  

PubMed

The kinetics of solid-liquid extraction of rare earth elements (RE) (La, Ce, Sm, Dy and Yb) were studied with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) at 60 degrees C using paraffin wax as a diluent. The rate of extraction is first order with respect to metal ion and hydrogen ion in the aqueous phase and second order with respect to the extractant in the organic phase. The rate-determining step is the formation of an [RE(PAN)(2)](+) complex between RE(3+) and PAN in the aqueous phase. The rate constant for the extraction was found to be about 10(11) 1 mol(-1) s(-1). The temperature dependence of extraction rate was determined and the activation parameters were calculated. PMID:18966658

Gao, J; Peng, B; Fan, H; Kang, J

1996-10-01

421

Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines  

SciTech Connect

The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

2008-06-01

422

Supercritical fluid extraction in natural products analyses.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluids (SCFs) are increasingly replacing the organic solvents, e.g., n-hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, or methanol, that are conventionally used in industrial extraction, purification, and recrystallization operations because of regulatory and environmental pressures on hydrocarbon and ozone-depleting emissions. In natural products extraction and isolation, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), especially employing supercritical CO(2), has become a popular choice. Sophisticated modern technologies allow precise regulation of changes in temperature and pressure, and thus manipulation of solvating property of the SCF, which helps the extraction of natural products of a wide range of polarities. This chapter deals mainly with the application of the SFE technology in the natural products extraction and isolation, and outlines various methodologies with specific examples. PMID:22367893

Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

2012-01-01

423

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

1986-02-01

424

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

1986-02-01

425

Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

2012-05-01

426

Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract  

PubMed Central

An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from chicory extract administered orally at 70, 350, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Since there were no observed adverse effects of chicory extract in these studies, the NOAEL for the extract is 1000 mg/kg/g administered orally for 28 days. PMID:17306431

Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

2013-01-01

427

Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.  

PubMed

The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed. PMID:25421494

Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

2015-02-01

428

Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines  

SciTech Connect

The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

2011-10-17

429

Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.  

PubMed

The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium. PMID:16924586

Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

2006-10-01

430

Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.  

PubMed

Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. PMID:25442573

Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

2015-04-01

431

Extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by mechanical shaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shaking extraction method for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was developed and compared to Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet extraction is an EPA-approved method for volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants from solid materials, but it has many disadvantages including long extraction periods and potential loss of volatile compounds. When field-moist soils are used, variability in subsamples is higher, and the extraction of

A. P. Schwab; J. Su; S. Wetzel; S. Pekarek; M. K. Banks

1999-01-01

432

Supercritical fluid extraction of wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work was to optimize the extraction of wormwood oil by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of growth-controlled plant material. Different extraction conditions, two growth techniques and various crops were tested and the evolution of the extracted oil composition was screened chromatographically. A comparison with conventional techniques such as hydrodistillation (HD) or organic solvent extraction (OSE) was also

L. Martín; A. M. Mainar; A. González-Coloma; J. Burillo; J. S. Urieta

2011-01-01

433

Evaluating the efficiency of DNA extraction methods from different substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of extracting DNA directly from substrates varies according to a range of factors including the type of substrate and the extraction technique. Two routinely used DNA extraction methodologies (automated DNA IQ and manual Chelex) were texts on their efficiency to extract DNA from a range of blood volumes (0.1–30?L) on plastic and cotton. The efficiency of extracting DNA

Timothy J. Verdon; R. John Mitchell; Roland A. H. van Oorschot

434

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2012-01-01

435

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2010-01-01

436

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2011-01-01

437

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2013-01-01

438

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2014-01-01

439

Solvent extraction and quantification of capsaicinoids from Capsicum chinense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsaicinoid extraction from peppers is typically performed using organic solvents, however, the extraction efficiencies can vary with peppers, their parts and pre-extraction processing. In the absence of in depth information on capsaicinoid extraction from habańero peppers, this work was undertaken to examine the processing parameters for solvent extraction of capsaicinoids from whole habańero peppers (Capsicum chinense) and their various parts.

Mari S. Chinn; Ratna R. Sharma-Shivappa; Jacqueline L. Cotter

2011-01-01

440

Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T. [LPGP, University Paris-Sud 11, bat 210, 15 rue G. Clemenceau-Orsay, F91405 (France)

2012-06-01

441

Alkaline extraction of wastewater activated sludge biosolids.  

PubMed

Activated sludge produced by wastewater treatment facilities are a sub-utilized by-product whose handling and disposal represent significant costs to these facilities. In this work, we introduced a simple and effective alkaline extraction technique that extracts up to 75% of the sludge's organic matter into a liquor containing potentially useful organic material (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.). The results suggest that at pH 11 and above, cell lysis occurs, liberating substantial quantities of organic material into the alkaline solution. When compared to a cation exchange resin (CER) extraction developed for analytical purposes, the alkaline extraction recovered 3x more organic material. The alkaline extract was highly surface active, despite containing a relatively small fraction of lipids. At pH 12 and above the lipid fraction was enriched with C15-C16 fatty acid residues, likely associated with cell membrane phospholipids as suggested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P NMR). Size exclusion chromatography studies show that the extract is enriched with biopolymers or assemblies of molecular weights in the order of tens of thousands of Daltons. Potential uses for the extract are discussed. PMID:20435473

García Becerra, Flor Y; Acosta, Edgar J; Allen, D Grant

2010-09-01

442

Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code—ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)]—is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T.

2012-06-01

443

[A novel spectrum feature extraction method].  

PubMed

The present focuses on the celestial spectra feature extraction problem, which is a key procedure in automatic spectra classification. By extracting features, the authors can reduce redundancy, alleviate noise influence, and improve accuracy and efficiency in spectra classification. The authors introduced a novel feature analysis framework STP (space transformation and partition), which focuses on four essential components in feature extraction: decompose and reorganize spectrum components, reorganize, alleviate noise influence and eliminate redundancy. Based on STP, we can analyze most of the available feature extraction methods, for example, the unsupervised methods principal component analysis (PCA), wavelet transform, the supervised methods support vector machine (SVM), relevance vector machine (RVM), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), etc. We introduced a novel feature analysis framework and proposed a novel feature extraction method. The outstanding characteristics of the proposed method are its simplicity and efficiency. Researches show that it is sufficient to extract features by the proposed method in some cases, and it is not necessary to use the sophisticated methods, which is usually more complex in computation. The proposed method is evaluated in classifying Galaxy and QSO spectra, which is disturbed by red shift and is representative in automatic spectra classification research. The results are practical and helpful to gain novel insight into the traditional feature extraction methods and design more efficient spectrum classification method. PMID:22250571

Li, Xiang-Ru; Feng, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yong-Jun; Lu, Yu

2011-10-01

444

Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ?-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

445

Extraction of Tissue Antigens for Functional Assays  

PubMed Central

Many of the antigen targets of adaptive immune response, recognized by B and T cells, have not been defined 1. This is particularly true in autoimmune diseases and cancer2. Our aim is to investigate the antigens recognized by human T cells in the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes 1,3,4,5. To analyze human T-cell responses against tissue where the antigens recognized by T cells are not identified we developed a method to extract protein antigens from human tissue in a format that is compatible with functional assays 6. Previously, T-cell responses to unpurified tissue extracts could not be measured because the extraction methods yield a lysate that contained detergents that were toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Here we describe a protocol for extracting proteins from human tissues in a format that is not toxic to human T cells. The tissue is homogenized in a mixture of butan-1-ol, acetonitrile and water (BAW). The protein concentration in the tissue extract is measured and a known mass of protein is aliquoted into tubes. After extraction, the organic solvents are removed by lyophilization. Lyophilized tissue extracts can be stored until required. For use in assays of immune function, a suspension of immune cells, in appropriate culture media, can be added directly to the lyophilized extract. Cytokine production and proliferation by PBMC, in response to extracts prepared using this method, were readily measured. Hence, our method allows the rapid preparation of human tissue lysates that can be used as a source of antigens in the analysis of T-cell responses. We suggest that this method will facilitate the analysis of adaptive immune responses to tissues in transplantation, cancer and autoimmunity. PMID:22986305

Necula, Andra; Chand, Rochna; Albatat, Batool; Mannering, Stuart I.

2012-01-01

446

Extraction of tissue antigens for functional assays.  

PubMed

Many of the antigen targets of adaptive immune response, recognized by B and T cells, have not been defined (1). This is particularly true in autoimmune diseases and cancer(2). Our aim is to investigate the antigens recognized by human T cells in the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes (1,3,4,5). To analyze human T-cell responses against tissue where the antigens recognized by T cells are not identified we developed a method to extract protein antigens from human tissue in a format that is compatible with functional assays (6). Previously, T-cell responses to unpurified tissue extracts could not be measured because the extraction methods yield a lysate that contained detergents that were toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Here we describe a protocol for extracting proteins from human tissues in a format that is not toxic to human T cells. The tissue is homogenized in a mixture of butan-1-ol, acetonitrile and water (BAW). The protein concentration in the tissue extract is measured and a known mass of protein is aliquoted into tubes. After extraction, the organic solvents are removed by lyophilization. Lyophilized tissue extracts can be stored until required. For use in assays of immune function, a suspension of immune cells, in appropriate culture media, can be added directly to the lyophilized extract. Cytokine production and proliferation by PBMC, in response to extracts prepared using this method, were readily measured. Hence, our method allows the rapid preparation of human tissue lysates that can be used as a source of antigens in the analysis of T-cell responses. We suggest that this method will facilitate the analysis of adaptive immune responses to tissues in transplantation, cancer and autoimmunity. PMID:22986305

Necula, Andra; Chand, Rochna; Albatat, Batool; Mannering, Stuart I

2012-01-01

447

Continuous extraction of organic materials from water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

1971-01-01

448

Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid  

SciTech Connect

A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1991-12-31

449

Modulation of cytokine expression by hypericum extract.  

PubMed

The effect of hypericum extract LI 160 on the stimulated cytokine expression was investigated in vitro in a whole blood culture system. Blood samples were taken from five healthy volunteers and four depressive patients. The release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was measured quantitatively after an incubation time of 24 hours on microtiter plates. A massive suppression of the interleukin-6 release was found for PHA-stimulated hypericum extract. Possible relations to the antidepressive effects of hypericum extract are discussed. PMID:7857513

Thiele, B; Brink, I; Ploch, M

1994-10-01

450

3D Feature Extraction for Unstructured Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visualization techniques provide tools that help scientists identify observed phenomena in scientific simulation. To be useful, these tools must allow the user to extract regions, classify and visualize them, abstract them for simplified representations, and track their evolution. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This article explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and those from Finite Element Analysis.

Silver, Deborah

1996-01-01

451

Features of power extraction in EOIL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-frequency two-level (SFTL) generation model was applied to predict the power extraction efficiency in electrically driven oxygen-iodine laser (EOIL). The analysis of the calculated and published experimental data showed that power extraction from the cw EOIL is limited by the rate of energy transfer from singlet oxygen molecules O2(1?) to iodine atoms I(2P3/2) and about half of the produced singlet oxygen molecules were carried out from the resonator. To increase power extraction efficiency it will be necessary to substantially extend concentrations of singlet oxygen molecules and iodine atoms in the active medium of EOIL.

Mezhenin, Andrey V.; Azyazov, Valeriy N.

2015-02-01

452

Copper leaching, solvent extraction, and electrowinning technology  

SciTech Connect

This volume recognizes the growing role of solvent extraction and electrowinning technology in the global copper business. This process is an efficient and cost effective way to extract copper. This proceedings documents the present status of the SX-EW business. It represents a substantial body of historical, scientific, engineering, and commercial information regarding the growth and application of the technology. Sections include: the business and technology of SX-EW, theory and practice of copper leaching, theory and practice of tankhouse operations, and theory and practice of solvent extraction.

Jergensen, G.V. II [ed.

1999-07-01

453

Optimization of extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves using response surface methodology (RSM). A user-defined design was applied to determine the effects of extraction time (min), extraction temperature ((o)C) and ethanol concentration (%), on total phenolic content (TPC) from Moringa oleifera leaves dried by three methods (oven, sunlight and ambient air). The RSM was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of TPC of Moringa oleifera leaves. The optimum conditions that maximize the extraction of TPC were extraction time, 60 min; extraction temperature, 90(o)C and % of methanol, 50 % (v/v). TPC extracted under these conditions were 12.28, 12.65 and 13.14 mg GAE/g DW for samples dried by different methods. Significant difference between drying methods was found (p<0.001). Pair wise significant difference was found only between oven and ambient air drying methods (p<0.001). PMID:22713938

Naeem, Sumaira; Ali, Muhammad; Mahmood, Asif

2012-07-01

454

21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

2012-04-01

455

21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

2010-04-01

456

21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

2014-04-01

457

21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

2013-04-01

458

21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

2011-04-01

459

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

460

ForPeerReview Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview Only Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated Quadriceps Muscle Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated Quadriceps Muscle Abstract OBJECTIVE: To measure the energy that can be extracted from the electrically stimulated quadriceps muscle during leg lifts

Durfee, William K.

461

Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

2011-01-01

462

21 CFR 73.1100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.1100 Section...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity...specifications. (1) The color additives cochineal extract and carmine shall conform...

2010-04-01

463

21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.100 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive cochineal extract is the concentrated...

2010-04-01

464

Automatically generating extraction patterns from untagged text  

SciTech Connect

Many corpus-based natural language processing systems rely on text corpora that have been manually annotated with syntactic or semantic tags. In particular, all previous dictionary construction systems for information extraction have used an annotated training corpus or some form of annotated input. We have developed a system called AutoSlog-TS that creates dictionaries of extraction patterns using only untagged text. AutoSlog-TS is based on the AutoSlog system, which generated extraction patterns using annotated text and a set of heuristic rules. By adapting AutoSlog and combining it with statistical techniques, we eliminated its dependency on tagged text. In experiments with the MUC-4 terrorism domain, AutoSlog-TS created a dictionary of extraction patterns that performed comparably to a dictionary created by AutoSlog, using only preclassified texts as input.

Riloff, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-12-31

465

Extracting Information from the Electrical Activity of  

E-print Network

Institute Presentation Overview · Brief background: ­ Muscle electrical activity (EMG) · Engineering models, methods for extracting "EMG amplitude" · Applications of EMGamp: ­ Prosthesis control, gait biofeedback, EMG- torque, EMG-impedance · Surface EMG arrays ( newest stuff !!) Introduction EAC06­056 #12

Clancy, Ted

466

Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

2001-01-01

467

21 CFR 73.530 - Spirulina extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...restrictions. Spirulina extract may be safely used for coloring confections (including candy and chewing gum), frostings, ice cream and frozen desserts, dessert coatings and toppings, beverage mixes and powders, yogurts, custards, puddings,...

2014-04-01

468

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01

469

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

1984-07-06

470

21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

2012-04-01

471

21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

2010-04-01

472

21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

2013-04-01

473

21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

2011-04-01

474

21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

2014-04-01

475

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

476

Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W  

E-print Network

ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

Brinker, J. L.

2004-01-01

477

Extraction Route Trials on Sensitive Sites  

E-print Network

the Solway coast, covers an area of 350 ha and prior to afforestation was an upland raised bog with deep peat that assessed extraction route formations on deep peat sites. Information is provided on the evaluation of route

478

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

479

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...solutions thereof, edible vegetable oils or fats, mono- and diglycerides...glycerolysis of edible vegetable oils or fats. The alkaline alcohol...acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from... Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom,...

2011-04-01

480

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...solutions thereof, edible vegetable oils or fats, mono- and diglycerides...glycerolysis of edible vegetable oils or fats. The alkaline alcohol...acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from... Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom,...

2012-04-01

481

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...solutions thereof, edible vegetable oils or fats, mono- and diglycerides...glycerolysis of edible vegetable oils or fats. The alkaline alcohol...acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from... Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom,...

2013-04-01

482

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...solutions thereof, edible vegetable oils or fats, mono- and diglycerides...glycerolysis of edible vegetable oils or fats. The alkaline alcohol...acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from... Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom,...

2014-04-01

483

Lead extractions: indications, procedural aspects, and outcomes.  

PubMed

As a result of more cardiac implantable electronic devices being placed, a trend toward increasing device infections, and concerns regarding lead malfunction, there is an increased need for lead extraction skills and comprehensive lead management programs. This review discusses the current indications for lead extractions as well as the training requirements and tools and technology needed to create the foundation for a successful lead management program. PMID:24793797

Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika M; Pretorius, Victor G

2014-05-01

484

Extraction of antioxidant compounds from energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy crops offer enormous opportunities for increasing the sustain ability of agriculture and energy production in the United\\u000a States. Nevertheless, opportunities for sustaining biomass energy production may well hinge on producing energy and extracting\\u000a high-value products from the same crop. Seven potential energy crops (mimosa, sericea, kudzu, arunzo, switchgrass, velvetbean,\\u000a and castor) were extracted and assayed for the presence of

Ching S. Lau; Danielle Julie Carrier; Luke R. Howard; Jackson O. Lay; Jean A. Archambault; Edgar C. Clausen

2004-01-01

485

Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

1980-01-01

486

Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.  

PubMed

Uncaria tomentosa ("Uńa de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines. PMID:16569487

De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

2006-08-11

487

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

488

Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution  

DOEpatents

An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2003-01-01

489

DNA profiling by different extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of different validated methods for DNA extraction using commercial kits. DNA extraction was performed on fresh liquid blood, old bloodstains, cigarettes butts, semen stains and hairs. Samples were quantified by the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System. Amplification was carried out by GeneAmp 2400 and 9700 Thermal Cyclers using the AmpFlSTR

A. Barbaro; N. Staiti; P. Cormaci; L. Saravo

2004-01-01

490

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is an interesting process to obtain high valuable compounds and could contribute to\\u000a the increase in the value of some food by-products when used as sources of natural compounds. The main benefits will be a\\u000a more effective extraction, thus saving energy, and also the use of moderate temperatures, which is beneficial for heat-sensitive\\u000a compounds. For a successful

M. D. Esclapez; J. V. García-Pérez; A. Mulet; J. A. Cárcel

2011-01-01

491

Key frames extraction in athletic video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an effective framework for features extraction from an athletic sport sequence. We analyze both forward and backward motion vectors from MPEG 2 video sequences for camera movements detection. Features like the beginning and the end of the race and the type of competition are strictly connected to the camera motion. Our algorithm is able to extract the frame number of the investigated feature with very high accuracy.

Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa; Russo, Stefano

2003-06-01

492

Multilingual collocation extraction with a syntactic parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An impressive amount of work was devoted over the past few decades to collocation extraction. The state of the art shows that\\u000a there is a sustained interest in the morphosyntactic preprocessing of texts in order to better identify candidate expressions;\\u000a however, the treatment performed is, in most cases, limited (lemmatization, POS-tagging, or shallow parsing). This article\\u000a presents a collocation extraction

Violeta Seretan; Eric Wehrli

2009-01-01

493

Microwave-assisted extraction of felodipine tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was developed to determine felodipine and its degradation product H152\\/37 in tablets. These substances were present at different concentration levels, differing with a factor of ca 600. The choice of extraction solvent was found to be of great importance. The optimized solvent consisted of 5% methanol in acetonitrile. Methanol was capable of dissolving the outer

Cecilia Sparr Eskilsson; Erland Björklund; Lennart Mathiasson; Lars Karlsson; Arne Torstensson

1999-01-01

494

Extracting differential pair distribution functions using MIXSCAT  

SciTech Connect

Differently weighted experimental scattering data have been used to extract partial or differential structure factors or pair distribution functions in studying many materials. However, this is not done routinely partly because of the lack of user-friendly software. This paper presents MIXSCAT, a new member of the DISCUS program package. MIXSCAT allows one to combine neutron and X-ray pair distribution functions and extract their respective differential functions.

Wurden, Caroline; Page, Katharine; Llobet, Anna; White, Claire E.; Proffen, Thomas (LANL)

2010-08-27

495

Antimicrobial activity of millingtonia hortensis leaf extract.  

PubMed

Polar extracts of the leaves of Millingtonia hortensis showed good antimicrobial activity. Twenty different bacterial strains and two yeast cultures were used. The aqueous alcohol extract showed good activity against all microbes tested, particularly Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium , both Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values of 6.25 µg/ml. The activity is compared with known antibiotics such as gentamycin and nystatin. PMID:21214454

Jetty, A; Iyengar, D S

2000-01-01

496

Antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonically assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction using 95% ethanol were performed to obtain ultrasonically assisted\\u000a extract of Agrimonia pilosa (UEA) and Soxhlet extract of Agrimonia pilosa (SEA). The effects of the different extracting methods on the total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) content of the\\u000a extracts from Agrimonia pilosa were investigated. The findings showed that UEA contained higher TP

Chunhuan He; Xiaowen Ji; Yingming Pan; Hengshan Wang; Kai Wang; Min Liang; Lizhu Yang

2010-01-01

497

Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

2013-11-01

498

Oil extraction from algae: A comparative approach.  

PubMed

In this article, various methods including soxhlet, Bligh & Dyer (B&D), and ultrasonic-assisted B&D were investigated for the extraction of lipid from algal species Chlorella vulgaris. Relative polarity/water content and impolar per polar ratios of solvents were considered to optimize the relative proportions of each triplicate agent by applying the response surface method (RSM). It was found that for soxhlet, hexane-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with total lipid extraction of 14.65% and chloroform-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with the extraction of 19.87% lipid were the best set of triplicate where further addition of acetone to the first group and ethanol to the second group did not contributed to further extraction. In B&D, however, chloroform-methanol-water (50%-35%-15%, respectively) reached the all-time maximum of 24%. Osmotic shock as well as ultrasonication contributed to 3.52% of further extraction, which is considered to promote the total yield up to almost 15%. From the growth data and fatty acid analysis, the applied method was assessed to be appropriate for biodiesel production with regard to selectivity and extraction yield. PMID:25040906

Valizadeh Derakhshan, Mehrab; Nasernejad, Bahram; Abbaspour-Aghdam, Farzin; Hamidi, Mohammad

2014-07-16

499

Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.  

PubMed

Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals. PMID:19050923

Derda, Monika; Hada?, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

2009-02-01

500

General well function for soil vapor extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a well function applicable to extraction of groundwater or soil vapor from a well under the most common field test conditions. The general well function (Perina and Lee, 2006) [12] is adapted to soil vapor extraction and constant head boundary at the top. For groundwater flow, the general well function now applies to an extraction well of finite diameter with uniform drawdown along the screen, finite-thickness skin, and partially penetrating an unconfined, confined, and leaky aquifer, or an aquifer underneath a reservoir. With a change of arguments, the model applies to soil vapor extraction from a vadose zone with no cover or with leaky cover at the ground surface. The extraction well can operate in specified drawdown (pressure for soil vapor) or specified flowrate mode. Frictional well loss is computed as flow-only dependent component of the drawdown inside the extraction well. In general case, the calculated flow distribution is not proportional to screen length for a multiscreen well.

Perina, Tomas

2014-04-01