These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

UV and visible light screening by individual sporopollenin exines derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) and Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the UV–visible light transmission of three types of micrometre-sized sporopollenin exine shells, two derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) spores and one from Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) pollen. We have used spectrophotometer measurements of partial monolayers of exines and microscope absorbance imaging to derive the light transmission properties of individual exines. Measurements have been made for exines

Stephen L. Atkin; Sylvain Barrier; Zhenggang Cui; Paul D. I. Fletcher; Grahame Mackenzie; Vincent Panel; Vincent Sol; Xunli Zhang

2011-01-01

2

UV and visible light screening by individual sporopollenin exines derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) and Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed).  

PubMed

We have investigated the UV-visible light transmission of three types of micrometre-sized sporopollenin exine shells, two derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) spores and one from Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) pollen. We have used spectrophotometer measurements of partial monolayers of exines and microscope absorbance imaging to derive the light transmission properties of individual exines. Measurements have been made for exines in air when light transmission losses are due to a combination of absorption, reflection and scattering processes and for exines dispersed in a liquid for which the refractive index (RI) is approximately equal to the RI of the exine such that reflection and scattering effects are negligible. Overall, it found that the light transmission of a single exine wall is approximately 50%. This value of the transmission is due mainly to light absorption, is similar for the three exines studied here and varies only slightly with light wavelength over the range 200-900 nm. PMID:21232973

Atkin, Stephen L; Barrier, Sylvain; Cui, Zhenggang; Fletcher, Paul D I; Mackenzie, Grahame; Panel, Vincent; Sol, Vincent; Zhang, Xunli

2011-03-01

3

Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2013-10-01

4

The potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium clavatum (5C and 15C) has anti-cancer effect on hela cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Cancer is a disease that needs a multi-faceted approach from different systems of medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether homeopathically-potentized ultra-high dilutions of Lycopodium Clavatum (LC-5C and LC-15C, respectively) have any anti-cancer effects on HeLa cells. Cells were exposed to either LC-5C (diluted below Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-10)) or LC-15C (diluted beyond Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-30)) (drug-treated) or to 30% succussed ethanol ("vehicle" of the drug). The drug-induced modulation in the percent cell viability, the onset of apoptosis, and changes in the expressions of Bax, Bcl2, caspase 3, and Apaf proteins in inter-nucleosomal DNA, in mitochondrial membrane potentials and in the release of cytochrome-c were analyzed by utilizing different experimental protocols. Results revealed that administration of LC-5C and LC-15C had little or no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but caused considerable cell death through apoptosis in cancer (HeLa) cells, which was evident from the induction of DNA fragmentation, the increases in the expressions of protein and mRNA of caspase 3 and Bax, and the decreases in the expressions of Bcl2 and Apaf and in the release of cytochrome-c. Thus, the highly-diluted, dynamized homeopathic remedies LC-5C and LC-15C demonstrated their capabilities to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, signifying their possible use as supportive medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23972240

Samadder, Asmita; Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2013-08-01

5

Plasma treatment allows water suspending of the natural hydrophobic powder (lycopodium).  

PubMed

Lycopodium particles which are spores of the plant Lycopodium clavatum were exposed to cold oxygen and nitrogen plasma irradiation. Wetting properties of the particles changed dramatically from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Plasma treatment allowed obtaining stable water suspensions of lycopodium. Plasma treatment did not affect the morphology of lycopodium particles. The reported results open the way for surfactants-free manufacturing suspensions of hydrophobic particles. PMID:22609599

Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman

2012-09-01

6

Investigation of the component of Lycopodium serratum extract that inhibits proliferation and mediates apoptosis of human HL-60 leukemia cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate a plant commonly used in herbal medicines, Lycopodium serratum, which is believed to have anti-cancer properties. An alcoholic extract of L. serratum (LSE) was investigated for its ability to induce apoptosis in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Treatment of HL-60 cells with various concentrations of LSE (6-100 ?g/mL) resulted in a sequence of events characteristic of apoptosis, including loss of cell viability, morphological changes, and increased sub-G(1) DNA content. Serratenediol (SE), a known biologically active agent, was isolated from MC fraction of LSE and was able to demonstrate significant and dose-dependent growth inhibitory effects on HL-60 cells. Similar to the effects observed with the crude LSE, the SE-related effects included the formation of apoptotic bodies and fragmented DNA, as well as the accumulation of DNA in the sub-G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Analysis of the mechanism of these events indicated that SE treated cells had an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-xL, released the cytochrome c, activated caspase-9, -3, and cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP); these observations are hallmarks of apoptotic events. Thus, the results suggest that SE can induce apoptosis via regulating the ratio of Bax/Bcl-xL in HL-60 cell lines. PMID:22613212

Ham, Young-Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Park, Soo-Yeong; Jung, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Daekyung; Jeon, You-Jin; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Kang, Sung-Myung; Kim, Kil-Nam

2012-08-01

7

Three new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium obscurum.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation on the crude alkaloid portion of Lycopodium obscurum led to isolation of three new fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids, lycobscurines A-C (1-3), together with three known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-MS and NMR techniques. All compounds were tested in an assay for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. PMID:23600717

Pan, Ke; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

2013-01-01

8

Karyomorphology of the genus Lycopodium sensu stricto and relationships among species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karyomorphological comparisons were made of six species of JapaneseLycopodium sensu stricto. There were no marked differences at interphase and prophase among the six species.Lycopodium annotinum had 2n=68 and the formula of its metaphase karyotype was 18m(median centromeric chromosomes)+12sm(submedian)+12st(subterminal)+26t(terminal).Lycopodium casuarinoides had 2n=68=16m+10sm+18st+24t,L. clavatum 2n=68=22m+12sm+18st+16t, andL. obscurum 2n=68=10m+22sm+20st+16t. Each of these species, which belong to different sections, displayed several karyomorphological\\u000a differences. Among

Masayuki Takamiya

1992-01-01

9

The diversity of endophytic fungi in the above-ground tissue of two Lycopodium species in Poland.  

PubMed

Endophytes are a large and diverse group of fungi that colonize healthy plant tissues without causing any symptoms. The majority of studies have focused on angiosperm and conifer hosts and few have examined the endophytes of lycophytes. In the present study, we characterized culturable endophytic fungi in two closely related Lycopodium species (L. annotinum and L. clavatum) from pine, beech, oak and spruce forests across Poland. More than 400 strains were isolated but only 18 Ascomycete species were identified. Members of the Dothideomycetes dominated the fungal endophyte communities in Lycopodium. The most abundant taxa cultured were Phoma brasiliensis (from L. clavatum) and Paraconiothyrium lycopodinum (from L. annotinum). Five taxa were isolated exclusively from L. annotinum, but only two of them (Paraconiothyrium lycopodinum and Mycosphaerella sp.) were relatively abundant. Two taxa were only found in L. clavatum, namely: Stagonospora pseudovitensis and an unidentified Dothideomycete. The taxon assigned as Ascomycota 2 (SH219457.06FU) was isolated only from strobili of both host species. Direct PCR and cloning from L. annotinum shoots revealed a substantially greater endophyte richness compared with the results from culturing. PMID:25264398

Paw?owska, Julia; Wilk, Mateusz; Sliwi?ska-Wyrzychowska, Anna; M?trak, Monika; Wrzosek, Marta

2014-01-01

10

Lyconadins C and F, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins C (1) and F (2), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin C (1) is a new C16N2-type Lycopodium alkaloid possessing unique fused-tetracyclic ring system consisting of a cycloheptene ring fused to a decahydroquinoline and pyridone rings. Lyconadin F (2) possesses a primary amide moiety in its molecular, which is the first example of

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Haruaki Ishiyama; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2011-01-01

11

Lycojaponicuminol A-F: cytotoxic serratene triterpenoids from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

Six new serratene triterpenoids (1-6), together with nine known triterpenoid compounds were isolated from the extract of club moss Lycopodium japonicum. The structures of isolated compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. The cytotoxic activities of all compounds were evaluated against three human cancer cell lines in vitro by MTT assay. Compounds 2, 6-8 and 11 exhibited moderate activities against all three cell lines with IC50 values of 2.28-11.81 ?g/mL. PMID:24752141

Zhang, Yu; Yi, Ping; Chen, Yu; Mei, Zhi-nan; Hu, Xin; Yang, Guang-zhong

2014-07-01

12

Lycopodium spore impacts onto surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on oblique impact of Lycopodium spores with dry surfaces in the presence of adhesion were carried out. The experimental results are compared with those of stainless steel microsphere impact onto the same types of substrate surfaces. Three parameters are analyzed, the coefficient of restitution, the impulse ratio and the normalized kinetic energy loss and are used to represent the impact results. The comparisons show that the complex surface profile of a spore has a remarkable effect on impact response. The conjunction of the roughness of both the microparticle and the substrate make the impact mechanics even more complicated.

Li, X.; Dunn, P. F.; Brach, R. M.

13

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Döll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at

Ilkay Orhan; Berrin Özçelik; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Taner Karaoglu; Bilge ?ener; Salih Terzioglu; M. Iqbal Choudhary

2009-01-01

14

Lyconadins D and E, and complanadine E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins D (1) and E (2), and complanadine E (3), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin D (1) was the first example of fastigiatine-type alkaloid isolated from Lycopodium complanatum. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Complanadine E (3) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Haruaki Ishiyama; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Koichiro Mori; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2011-01-01

15

Lyconadins D and E, and complanadine E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum.  

PubMed

Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins D (1) and E (2), and complanadine E (3), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin D (1) was the first example of fastigiatine-type alkaloid isolated from Lycopodium complanatum. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Complanadine E (3) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF. PMID:21215644

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Ishiyama, Haruaki; Hayashi, Shigeki; Shibata, Toshiro; Mori, Koichiro; Obara, Yutaro; Nakahata, Norimichi; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2011-01-15

16

Lycospidine A, a new type of Lycopodium alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum.  

PubMed

Lycospidine A (1), the first example of a Lycopodium alkaloid which contains an unprecedented five-membered A ring, was isolated from Lycopodium complanatum. The unique five-membered A ring in 1 indicates that carbons 2-5 in 1 are presumably derived from proline instead of the lysine biosynthetically, which suggests that 1 represent a new class of Lycopodium alkaloid. In addition, the unique structural feature and biosynthetic origin of 1 shed new insight into the structural diversity of Lycopodium alkaloid analogue libraries potentially accessible by engineered biosynthesis. PMID:23647027

Cheng, Jin-Tang; Liu, Fei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Wu, Xing-De; Dong, Liao-Bin; Peng, Li-Yan; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; He, Juan; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2013-05-17

17

New Lycopodium alkaloids from Phlegmariurus squarrosus.  

PubMed

Four new Lycopodium alkaloids (1-4), together with 15 known ones, were isolated from club moss Phlegmariurus squarrosus. Notably, 8?-hydroxylycojapodine A (1) was the first derivative of lycojapodine A (5) which was a novel C16N-type Lycopodium alkaloid with an unprecedented 6/6/6/7 tetracyclic ring system. Their structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:24841175

Liu, Fei; Dong, Liao-Bin; Gao, Xiu; Wu, Xing-De; He, Juan; Peng, Li-Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-01-01

18

Development of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with simple extraction for simultaneous determination of huperzine A and huperzine B in the species containing lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

A sensitive HPLC method with simple extraction was developed for simultaneous determination of huperzine A (HupA) and huperzine B (HupB) in Huperzia serrata, H. crispata, H. miyoshiana, and Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides. In order to avoid conventional multiple-step and time-consuming sample preparation methods, direct reflux extraction with alkaline chloroform was adopted. The quantitative determination was conducted by reversed-phase HPLC with a photodiode array detector set at 308 nm. Separation was performed on a Luna C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) with methanol-0.2% aqueous acetic acid (18 + 82, v/v) mobile phase. The method was validated for accuracy, reproducibility, precision, and limits of detection and quantification. Quantification of the two active compounds in the samples was performed by this newly developed method, and the content of HupA and HupB varied substantially among four different species. The satisfactory results indicated that the developed method can readily be utilized for quality control of the species of Huperziaceae and Lycopodiaceae containing the two compounds. PMID:19714972

Zhang, Yanqing; Xie, Junbo; Chen, Wen-Qian; Zhou, Tian-Yan; Lu, Wei

2009-01-01

19

Lycophlegmariols A-D: cytotoxic serratene triterpenoids from the club moss Lycopodium phlegmaria L.  

PubMed

Lycopodium serratene triterpenoids, along with an abietane-type diterpene were isolated from the methanol extract of club moss Lycopodium phlegmaria L. The structures of these hitherto unknown lycopodium terpenoids were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Pentacyclic triterpenoids, 21?-hydroxy-serrat-14-en-3?-ol (1) and 21?-hydroxy-serrat-14-en-3?-yl acetate (2) were isolated together with four serratene triterpeneoids established as 21?,29-dihydroxyserrat-14-en-3?-yl dihydrocaffeate (lycophlegmariol A, 5), 21?,24,29-trihydroxyserrat-14-en-3?-yl dihydrocaffeate (lycophlegmariol B, 6), 21?,24-dihydroxyserrat-14-en-3?-yl 4-hydroxycinnamate (lycophlegmariol C, 7), and 14?,21?,29-trihydroxyserratan-3?-yl dihydrocaffeate (lycophlegmariol D, 8) as well as a known lycophlegmarin (9). An abietane-type diterpene, 8,11,13-abietatriene-3?,12-dihydroxy-7-one (margocilin, 10), was isolated for the first time from a Lycopodium plant. Lycophlegmariol B (6), D (8) and compound 1 showed inhibitory effects against MOLT-3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-lymphoblast) with IC(50) of 14.7, 3.0 and 2.9 ?M, respectively. PMID:22281380

Wittayalai, Sawangjitt; Sathalalai, Supaporn; Thorroad, Sakornrat; Worawittayanon, Prateep; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Thasana, Nopporn

2012-04-01

20

Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.  

PubMed

Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics. PMID:21186373

Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

2011-01-01

21

Lycopodine-Type Alkaloids from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

Three new lycopodine-type alkaloids, 4?-hydroxyanhydrolycodoline (1), 4?,6?-dihydroxyanhydrolycodoline (2), and 6-epi-8?-acetoxylycoclavine (3), and an artifact, lycoposerramine G nitrate (4), along with seventeen related known compounds, were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. ex Murray (Lycopodiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods as well as X-ray analysis. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity. PMID:25089239

He, Juan; Wu, Xing-De; Liu, Fei; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Peng, Li-Yan; Zhao, Yu; Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Huai-Rong; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-08-01

22

Complanadines C and D, new dimeric alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum.  

PubMed

Two new dimeric Lycopodium alkaloids, complanadines C (1) and D (2), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structures and relative stereochemistry of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of the spectral data. Complanadine D (2) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF. PMID:17046268

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Mikami, Yuzuru; Obara, Yutaro; Nakahata, Norimichi; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2007-01-01

23

Complanadines C and D, new dimeric alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new dimeric Lycopodium alkaloids, complanadines C (1) and D (2), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structures and relative stereochemistry of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of the spectral data. Complanadine D (2) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Yuzuru Mikami; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2007-01-01

24

Five new fawcettimine-related alkaloids from Lycopodium japonicum Thunb.  

PubMed

Five new trace alkaloids with fawcettimine-related structures (1-5), i.e., 6-hydroxyl-6,7-dehydrolycoflexine (1), 6-hydroxyl-6,7-dehydro-8-deoxy-13-dehydroserratinine (2), together with three known ones (6-8), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, HRESIMS, CD and comparison with known ones. Compounds 1 and 2 are characterized by the enol moiety that is rarely reported in Lycopodium alkaloids, and Compound 5 is the second example of Lycopodium alkaloids with a C-16-C-4 linkage. A plausible biogenetic pathway for the isolates was proposed. PMID:23994627

Wang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Li; Yu, Shi-Shan; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Qu, Jing; Liu, Yun-Bao; Li, Yong; Wang, Yadan; Tang, Weibin

2013-12-01

25

Complanadine A, a new dimeric alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dimeric alkaloid with a lycodine-type skeleton, complanadine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structure including the absolute stereochemistry was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

Jun'ichi Kobayashi; Yusuke Hirasawa; Naotoshi Yoshida; Hiroshi Morita

2000-01-01

26

Lycojaponicumins D and E: two new alkaloids from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

Two new alkaloids, lycojaponicumins D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium japonicum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, calculated ECD, CD experiments and X-ray diffraction analysis. Lycojaponicumin D (1) possesses an unprecedented 5/7/6/6 tetracyclic skeleton formed by an unusual C3-C13 linkage, which is first reported in Lycopodium alkaloids. The plausible biogenetic pathway of 1 is proposed. PMID:23121621

Wang, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Yun-Bao; Li, Li; Yu, Shi-Shan; Lv, Hai-Ning; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Bao, Xiu-Qi; Zhang, Dan; Qu, Jing; Li, Yong

2012-11-16

27

Huperserines A-E, Lycopodium alkaloids from Huperzia serrata.  

PubMed

A phytochemical study on Huperzia serrata led to the isolation of four new 5-deoxyfawcettimine-related Lycopodium alkaloids, huperserines A-D (1-4), and one new lycodine-type alkaloid, huperserine E (5). Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. 5-Carbonyl or 5-hydroxyl group is a typical characteristic of lycopodine- and fawcettimine-type alkaloids. This is the first report of the 5-deoxyfawcettimine type Lycopodium alkaloids. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity assay showed that huperserine E exhibited moderate anti-AChE activity with an IC50 value of 6.71?M. PMID:25218968

Jiang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Fei; Gao, Xiu; He, Juan; Cheng, Xiao; Peng, Li-Yan; Wu, Xing-De; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-12-01

28

Some ultrastructural aspects of spermatogenesis in Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Analysis of thin sections shows that the blepharoplast in an early spermatid ofLycopodium consists of two basal bodies and the subtending spline apparatus. The latter has a 4-layered or Vierergruppe organization much like that reported for certain bryophytes and vascular plants. During the course of spermatid maturation the vertically lamellate S2 stratum of the spline apparatus is transformed into

Zane B. Carothers; Robert R. Robbins; David L. Haas

1975-01-01

29

Redox divergent synthesis of fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

A new approach for synthesis of fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids is described. A divergent strategy was achieved by applying stereoselective Diels-Alder reaction followed by redox-controlled elaboration. Eventually, (-)-8-deoxyserratinine, (+)-fawcettimine, (-)-lycopoclavamine-A, (-)-serratine, (-)-lycopoclavamine-B and (-)-serratanidine were successfully accessed. PMID:25042023

Zaimoku, Hisaaki; Taniguchi, Tsuyoshi

2014-07-28

30

Isolation of a new lycodine alkaloid from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

A new lycodine alkaloid, N-methylhydroxypropyllycodine (1), was isolated from the club moss Lycopodium japonicum Thunb, together with five known compounds, N-methyllycodine (2), huperzinine (3), ?-obscurine (4), ?-obscurine (5) and des-N-methyl-?-obscurine (6). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR techniques. PMID:25421949

Wu, Jichun; Wang, Huanqin; Ma, Yanfang; Jiang, Jinhe; Zhan, Rui; Chen, Yegao

2014-11-25

31

Total syntheses of Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-fawcettimine, (+)-fawcettidine, and (-)-8-deoxyserratinine.  

PubMed

A shared story: Three fawcettimine- and serratinine-type Lycopodium alkaloids are prepared from a common tetracyclic spirodiketone intermediate in concise total syntheses. The intermediate was constructed by a remarkable biosynthesis-inspired transannular N-C bond formation to the spiro-configured carbon center and a hydroxy-directed pinacol coupling promoted by SmI(2). PMID:22109940

Li, Houhua; Wang, Xiaoming; Lei, Xiaoguang

2012-01-01

32

Biogenetically inspired total syntheses of Lycopodium alkaloids, (+)-flabellidine and (-)-lycodine.  

PubMed

The first asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-flabellidine (2) and the shortest total synthesis of (-)-lycodine (3) were accomplished by a strategy featuring the one-pot construction of a tetracyclic lycodine skeleton from a linear precursor, which was inspired by the biosynthetic consideration of Lycopodium alkaloids. PMID:25103992

Azuma, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Kogure, Noriyuki; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu

2014-08-20

33

The occurrence of Podocotyle atomon (Rud., 1802)(Digenea), Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776) (Cestoda), Contracaecum clavatum (Rud., 1809) (Nematoda) and Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega, in Müller, 1776 (Acanthocephala) in the five-bearded rockling, Onos mustelus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the incidence and intensity of infestation of the five-bearded rockling, Onos mustelus (L.) with Podocotyle atomon, Bothriocephalus scorpii, Contracaecum clavatum and Echinorhynchus gadi has been studied for a period of one year, on a shore at Mumbles Head, Swansea.There is a general increase in the incidence and intensity of infestation by P. atomon and C. clavatum with

B. L. James; L. P. Srivastava

1967-01-01

34

Direct methoxypyridine functionalization approach to magellanine-type Lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

A concise enantioselective approach to the tetracyclic core of the magellanine-type Lycopodium alkaloids is reported. Key to this approach is the use of the Hajos-Parrish reaction to set a challenging quaternary stereocenter, thereby guiding the stereoselectivity for the remainder of the synthesis, as well as the use of a palladium-mediated direct pyridine functionalization reaction to forge the tetracyclic core. PMID:22201223

Murphy, Rebecca A; Sarpong, Richmond

2012-01-20

35

The use of lycopodium spores to calibrate photoelectric counters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calibration of photoelectric counters for the analysis of aerosol particle sizes is discussed. The FES-SM counter was used to measure the scattering intensity of dibutylphthalate droplets for which the R value is known and the scattering intensity of lycopodium spores. An R value of 58 +/- 4 was obtained for the latter. It is concluded that these spores, which are easy to obtain, can be used to verify the calibration of photoelectric counters in field conditions.

Romanov, N. P.; Lamykin, O. V.

36

Carinatines A and B, Lycopodium Alkaloids from Phlegmariurus carinatus.  

PubMed

Carinatine A (1), a C16N2-type Lycopodium alkaloid possessing a 5/6/6/6 ring system formed by a new C-4/C-12 bond, and carinatine B (2), the first derivative of lycojaponicumin C, along 16 known compounds, were isolated from the whole plant of Phlegmariurus carinatus. Their structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic data. The two new isolates were no inhibitory activity for the acetylcholinesterase (AChE). PMID:25089240

Liu, Fei; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Jiang, Wei-Wei; He, Juan; Wu, Xing-De; Peng, Li-Yan; Su, Jia; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-08-01

37

Lycopladine H, a novel alkaloid with fused-tetracyclic skeleton from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Lycopodium alkaloid, lycopladine H (1), with a fused-tetracyclic ring system consisting of an azocane ring connected to a [2,2,2]-bicyclooctane ring and a 3-piperidone ring, was isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2009-01-01

38

Radiative Structures of Lycopodium-Air Flames in Low Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initially uniform clouds of fuel particulates in air sustain processes which may lead to particle cloud nonuniformities. In low gravity, flame-induced Kundt's Tube phenomena are observed to form regular patterns of nonuniform particle concentrations. Irregular patterns of particle concentrations also are observed to result from selected nonuniform mixing processes. Low gravity flame propagation for each of these classes of particle cloud flames has been found to depend importantly on the flame-generated infrared radiative fields. The spatial structures of these radiative fields are described. Application is made for the observed clases of lycopodium-air flames.

Berlad, A. L.; Tangirala, V.; Ross, H.; Facca, L.

1989-01-01

39

Isopalhinine A, a unique pentacyclic Lycopodium alkaloid from Palhinhaea cernua.  

PubMed

A new pentacyclic (5/6/6/6/7) Lycopodium alkaloid named isopalhinine A (1), which possesses a sterically congested architecture built with a tricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]decane (isotwistane) moiety and a 1-azabicyclo[4.3.1]decane moiety, and palhinines B (2) and C (3) were isolated from Palhinhaea cernua. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were elucidated by a combination of NMR spectra, optical rotation calculation, and X-ray diffraction experiment. A possible biogenetic pathway was also proposed. PMID:23815071

Dong, Liao-Bin; Gao, Xiu; Liu, Fei; He, Juan; Wu, Xing-De; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2013-07-19

40

In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at concentrations of 0.2 and 1 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay based on Ellman method. Antioxidant activity of the LCC extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method at 0.2 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of LCC exracts using Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney and Vero cell lines. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were screened against the bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis as well as the fungi: Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. Only the petroleum ether extract of LCC possessed remarkable activity against both AChE and BChE at 1 mg mL(-1) (76.5 and 69.6%, respectively), whereas LCC extracts showed low free radical-scavenging activity. All of the extracts were found to be more effective against the ATCC strains than isolated ones, particularly S. aureus, while the extracts had moderate antifungal activity. On the other hand, we found that only the petroleum ether extract was active against HSV. In addition, we also analysed the content of the alkaloid fraction of the plant by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified lycopodine as the major alkaloid (60.8%). PMID:19384728

Orhan, Ilkay; Ozcelik, Berrin; Aslan, Sinem; Kartal, Murat; Karaoglu, Taner; Sener, Bilge; Terzioglu, Salih; Iqbal Choudhary, M

2009-01-01

41

Influence of the morphology of lycopodium dust on its minimum ignition energy  

SciTech Connect

Lycopodium, which exhibits a particularly uniform particle size, has been relatively widely used as a reference when studying dust cloud ignition. Lycopodium was used to determine the influence of discharge circuit parameters on minimum ignition energy. It is therefore a natural choice as a calibration dust when developing a new facility for the determination of ignition energies. During the initial evaluation period in this latter study significant differences were observed in the minimum energies of different samples of lycopodium. These differences have now been traced to differing morphologies between the samples.

Thomas, G.O.; Oakley, G.; Brenton, J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of College of Wales, Aberystwyth, Dyfed SY23 3BZ (GB))

1991-06-01

42

Miyoshianines A and B, two new lycopodium alkaloids from Huperzia miyoshiana.  

PubMed

Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, miyoshianines A and B, together with five known alkaloids, lycopodine, lycodoline, 12-epilycodoline, clavolonine, and flabelliformine, were isolated from Huperzia miyoshiana (Makino) Ching (Huperziaceae). Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic techniques. PMID:12865986

Tong, Xiao-Tian; Tan, Chang-Heng; Ma, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Bao-De; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Zhu, Da-Yuan

2003-06-01

43

Lycopladine A, a new C 16N alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new C16N type alkaloid, lycopladine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Hiroshi Morita; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2006-01-01

44

Collective total synthesis of tetracyclic diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-paniculatine, (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone and analogues thereof.  

PubMed

The collective total synthesis of tetracyclic diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids, (+)-paniculatine, (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone, and two analogues (-)-13-epi-paniculatine and (+)-3-hydroxyl-13-dehydro-paniculatine, has been accomplished. By logic-guided addition of a strategically useful hydroxyl group at C-3 of paniculatine, the formidable tetracyclic core was rapidly synthesized utilizing a site-specific and stereoselective aldol cyclization, thus making the ABD ? ABCD tetracyclic approach to diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids attainable for the first time. PMID:25299586

Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Lei, Ting; Wei, Kun; Yang, Yu-Rong

2014-11-01

45

Lycopladines F and G, new C 16N 2-type alkaloids with an additional C 4N unit from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, lycopladines F (1) and G (2), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structures and relative stereochemistries of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Lycopladine F (1) is a rare C16N2-type Lycopodium alkaloid possessing an amino acid residue (C4N).

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2009-01-01

46

Lycopladines B–D and lyconadin B, new alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new alkaloids, lycopladines B–D (1–3) and lyconadin B (4), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and the structures including the stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and modified Mosher’s method. Lyconadin B (4) elevated NGF mRNA expression in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.

Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

2006-01-01

47

Lycopladines B-D and lyconadin B, new alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum.  

PubMed

Four new alkaloids, lycopladines B-D (1-3) and lyconadin B (4), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and the structures including the stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and modified Mosher's method. Lyconadin B (4) elevated NGF mRNA expression in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. PMID:16750373

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Hoshino, Tomohiro; Obara, Yutaro; Nakahata, Norimichi; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2006-09-01

48

Lycopodatines A-C, C(16)N alkaloids from Lycopodium inundatum.  

PubMed

Three new alkaloids, lycopodatines A (1), B (2), and C (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium inundatum, and the structures and absolute configuration were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR data and chemical transformation. PMID:16378384

Morita, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

2005-12-01

49

Use of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Ophiostoma clavatum, the Primary Blue Stain Fungus Associated with Ips acuminatus  

PubMed Central

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative amplification technology which is highly sensitive and less time-consuming than conventional PCR-based methods. Three LAMP assays were developed, two for detection of species of symbiotic blue stain fungi associated with Ips acuminatus, a bark beetle infesting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and an additional assay specific to I. acuminatus itself for use as a control. In common with most bark beetles, I. acuminatus is associated with phytopathogenic blue stain fungi involved in the process of exhausting tree defenses, which is a necessary step for the colonization of the plant by the insect. However, the identity of the main blue stain fungus vectored by I. acuminatus was still uncertain, as well as its frequency of association with I. acuminatus under outbreak and non-outbreak conditions. In this study, we employed LAMP technology to survey six populations of I. acuminatus sampled from the Southern Alps. Ophiostoma clavatum was detected at all sampling sites, while Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum, reported in part of the literature as the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus, was not detected on any of the samples. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that O. clavatum is the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus in the Southern Alps. The method developed in the course of this work provides a molecular tool by which it will be easy to screen populations and derive important data regarding the ecology of the species involved. PMID:23396326

Tomlinson, Jennifer A.; Battisti, Andrea; Boonham, Neil; Capretti, Paolo

2013-01-01

50

Heathcock-inspired strategies for the synthesis of fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

The fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids have garnered significant attention from synthetic organic chemists since the isolation of fawcettimine in 1959. Despite being targets of interest for over 50 years, most of the strategies employed in the syntheses of fawcettimine congeners have built upon Inubushi and Heathcock's original work, realized in 1979 and 1986, respectively. This elegant strategy has been explored and expanded upon in the intervening years since the original publications, in what we now call the Heathcock-inspired strategy. While other disconnections have been disclosed, this strategy remains one of the most efficient. In this Concept article, we focus on exploring a number of recent Heathcock-inspired syntheses of fawcettimine-type Lycopodium alkaloids. We also briefly discuss alternative, novel disconnections. PMID:24311383

Murphy, Rebecca A; Sarpong, Richmond

2014-01-01

51

Complanadine B, obscurumines A and B, new alkaloids from two species of Lycopodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dimer of C16N2 type alkaloid, complanadine B (1), and two new C16N type alkaloids, obscurumines A (2) and B (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and L. obscurum, respectively. The structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated by combination of 2D NMR spectra and chemical transformation. Complanadine A (4) isolated together with 1 induced

Hiroshi Morita; Kan'ichiro Ishiuchi; Asami Haganuma; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

2005-01-01

52

Lycopalhine A, a novel sterically congested Lycopodium alkaloid with an unprecedented skeleton from Palhinhaea cernua.  

PubMed

A novel sterically congested Lycopodium alkaloid named lycopalhine A (1) that possesses a fused hexacyclic (5/5/5/6/6/6) ring system comprising a 5,9-diaza-tricyclo[6.2.1.0(4,9)]undecane moiety and a tricyclo[5.2.1.0(4,8)]decane moiety was isolated from Palhinhaea cernua L. The structure and absolute configuration were determined by spectroscopic and computational methods. PMID:22854533

Dong, Liao-Bin; Yang, Jing; He, Juan; Luo, Huai-Rong; Wu, Xing-De; Deng, Xu; Peng, Li-Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2012-09-18

53

Comparison of 454-ESTs from Huperzia serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus reveals putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis and developmental regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plants of the Huperziaceae family, which comprise the two genera Huperzia and Phlegmariurus, produce various types of lycopodium alkaloids that are used to treat a number of human ailments, such as contusions, swellings and strains. Huperzine A, which belongs to the lycodine type of lycopodium alkaloids, has been used as an anti-Alzheimer's disease drug candidate. Despite their medical importance,

Hongmei Luo; Ying Li; Chao Sun; Qiong Wu; Jingyuan Song; Yongzhen Sun; André Steinmetz; Shilin Chen

2010-01-01

54

Exploratory studies towards a total synthesis of the unusual bridged tetracyclic Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H  

PubMed Central

A strategy for a total synthesis of the structurally novel Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H has been investigated. Key steps that have been tested include: 1.a regioselective Diels-Alder cycloaddition of nitroethylene with an o-quinone ketal to produce the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane moiety of the alkaloid; 2. a stereoselective Henry reaction to generate the requisite functionality and configuration at C-5; 3. a stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation of a trisubstituted alkene to set the C-15 methyl configuration. PMID:22125345

Sacher, Joshua R.; Weinreb, Steven M.

2011-01-01

55

Anti-cholinesterase activity of lycopodium alkaloids from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa (Forst.) Trevis.  

PubMed

A series of Lycopodium alkaloids, namely lycosquarosine A (1), acetylaposerratinine (2), huperzine A (3), huperzine B (4), 8?-hydrophlemariurine B (5), and huperzinine (6), has been isolated from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa. Among them, lycosquarosine A (1) is the new metabolite of the natural source. Lycosquarosine A completely inhibited AChE activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 54.3 ?g/mL, while acetylaposerratinine (2) showed stronger inhibitory activity than 1 with an IC50 value of 15.2 µg/mL. This result indicates that these alkaloids may be a potent source of AChE inhibitors. PMID:25415478

Chuong, Nguyen Ngoc; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hung, Tran Manh; Luan, Tran Cong

2014-01-01

56

Lycojaponicumins A-C, three alkaloids with an unprecedented skeleton from Lycopodium japonicum.  

PubMed

Lycojaponicumins A-C (1-3), three trace alkaloids isolated from Lycopodium japonicum, represent a unique heterocyclic skeleton formed by the new linkage C4-C9. Notably, lycojaponicumins A and B (1 and 2) are the first examples of natural products possessing a 5/5/5/5/6 pentacyclic ring system with a 1-aza-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane moiety. These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction analysis. A plausible biogenetic pathway was proposed. PMID:22568532

Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Gui-Jie; Zhuang, Peng-Yu; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Shi-Shan; Bao, Xiu-Qi; Zhang, Dan; Yuan, Yu-He; Chen, Nai-Hong; Ma, Shuang-gang; Qu, Jing; Li, Yong

2012-05-18

57

Isolation and complete structural assignment of Lycopodium alkaloid cernupalhine A: theoretical prediction and total synthesis validation.  

PubMed

Cernupalhine A (1) is a trace Lycopodium alkaloid (0.7 mg) possessing a new C17N skeleton with an unusual hydroxydihydrofuranone motif newly isolated from Palhinhaea cernua L. Its complete structural assignment, including absolute stereochemistry, was established through a combination of high-field NMR techniques and computational methods and further unequivocal confirmation by the first asymmetric total synthesis. Following the first total synthesis of lobscurinine (3), 1 was achieved via regio- and stereoselective cyanide ion addition and subsequent acid treatment. PMID:24779557

Dong, Liao-Bin; Wu, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Xing-De; He, Juan; Yang, Yu-Rong; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2014-05-16

58

A unified strategy for the synthesis of 7-membered-ring-containing Lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

A unique subset of the Lycopodium alkaloid natural products share a 7-membered-ring substructure and may potentially arise from a common biosynthetic precursor. To both explore and exploit these structural relationships, we sought to develop a unified biosynthetically inspired strategy to efficiently access these complex polycyclic alkaloids through the use of a cascade sequence. In pursuit of these goals, the first total synthesis of (+)-fastigiatine (2) was accomplished via a series of cascade reactions; we describe herein a full account of our efforts. Insight from these endeavors led to critical modifications of our synthetic strategy, which enabled the first total syntheses of (-)-himeradine A (1), (-)-lycopecurine (3), and (-)-dehydrolycopecurine (4), as well as the syntheses of (+)-lyconadin A (5) and (-)-lyconadin B (6). Our approach features a diastereoselective one-pot sequence for constructing the common 7-membered-ring core system, followed by either a biomimetic transannular Mannich reaction to access himeradine A (1), lycopecurine (3), and dehydrolycopecurine (4) or an imine reduction for lyconadins A (5) and B (6). This strategy may potentially enable access to all 7-membered-ring-containing Lycopodium alkaloids and provides additional insight into their biosynthetic origin. PMID:25152067

Lee, Amy S; Liau, Brian B; Shair, Matthew D

2014-09-24

59

Construction of the azocane (azacyclooctane) moiety of the Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H via an intramolecular hydroaminomethylation strategy.  

PubMed

An efficient synthetic strategy has been developed for annulation of an azocane ring onto a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane scaffold via an intramolecular hydroaminomethylation protocol to generate an advanced intermediate bearing three of the four rings of the structurally unique Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H (1). PMID:22486178

Sacher, Joshua R; Weinreb, Steven M

2012-04-20

60

Divergent total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloids huperzine A, huperzine B, and huperzine U.  

PubMed

Huperzine A, huperzine B, and huperzine U are congeners isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata (= Lycopodium serratum ) in minuscule amounts. The most efficient total synthesis of huperzine A, the first asymmetric total syntheses of huperzine B, and the first total synthesis of huperzine U have been achieved efficiently in overall yields of 17%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, each spanning 10-13 steps from (R)-pulegone. The featured steps include palladium-catalyzed Buchwald-Hartwig coupling and Heck cyclization reactions and an Ir-catalyzed olefin isomerization reaction. This work has established the absolute configurations of huperzine B and huperzine U and revealed that natural huperzine A, huperzine B, and huperzine U possess the same set of absolute stereochemistries, thus providing support for the potential role of huperzine B and huperzine U in the biosynthesis of huperzine A. PMID:24299147

Ding, Rui; Fu, Jian-Guo; Xu, Guang-Qiang; Sun, Bing-Feng; Lin, Guo-Qiang

2014-01-01

61

Study of the interaction of Huperzia saururus Lycopodium alkaloids with the acetylcholinesterase enzyme.  

PubMed

In the present study, we describe and compare the binding modes of three Lycopodium alkaloids (sauroine, 6-hydroxylycopodine and sauroxine; isolated from Huperzia saururus) and huperzine A with the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Refinement and rescoring of the docking poses (obtained with different programs) with an all atom force field helped to improve the quality of the protein-ligand complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the complexes and the alkaloid's binding modes. The combination of the latter two methodologies indicated that binding in the active site is favored for the active compounds. On the other hand, similar binding energies in both the active and the peripheral sites were obtained for sauroine, thus explaining its experimentally determined lack of activity. MM-GBSA predicted the order of binding energies in agreement with the experimental IC50 values. PMID:23827878

Puiatti, Marcelo; Borioni, José Luis; Vallejo, Mariana Guadalupe; Cabrera, José Luis; Agnese, Alicia Mariel; Ortega, María Gabriela; Pierini, Adriana Beatríz

2013-07-01

62

Studies toward the synthesis of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids: a Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder approach.  

PubMed

A synthetic route to the isotwistane core of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids is described. A Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) strategy sets the vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers present in this family of natural products. The regioselectivity of the IMDA reaction is dictated by the conditions employed for silyl enol ether formation, with one set of conditions providing the core of cardionine and alternate conditions generating the desired isotwistane core of isopalhinine. PMID:24456289

Sizemore, Nicholas; Rychnovsky, Scott D

2014-02-01

63

Lycopodiaceae from Panama: a new source of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Eleven whole plants from Panama belonging to the Lycopodiaceae family have been screened for their anticholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography method. Of these, only Lycopodium clavatum subsp. clavatum showed strong AChE inhibition. Seven plant extracts showed moderate inhibition, two of them, Huperzia cf chamaeleon and Huperzia reflexa, also possessed an antioxidant activity. This is the first report of anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities in these two native plants. Additionally, alkaloid extracts of the Lycopodiaceae plants were also analysed by TLC and LC-MS to identify the well-known AchE inhibitor, huperzine A. Two plants, H. cf chamaeleon and H. reflexa var. minor, showed the presence of huperzine. PMID:22746970

Calderón, Angela I; Simithy-Williams, Johayra; Sanchez, Rocío; Espinosa, Alex; Valdespino, Iván; Gupta, Mahabir P

2013-03-01

64

Diversity-oriented synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids inspired by the hidden functional group pairing pattern.  

PubMed

Natural products continue to provide a rich source of inspiration for both chemists and biologists. The efficient synthesis of bioactive natural products or natural product-like molecules has offered tremendous opportunities for complex biological processes exploration and drug discovery. However, because natural products usually contain numerous stereogenic centres and polycyclic ring systems, significant synthetic challenges remain. Here we employ the build/couple/pair strategy that is frequently used in diversity-oriented synthesis to obtain skeletally diverse compounds with complexities comparable to natural products. Inspired by the functional group pairing patterns hidden in Lycopodium alkaloids, we efficiently and in parallel construct four natural products, (+)-Serratezomine A, (-)-Serratinine, (+)-8?-Hydroxyfawcettimine and (-)-Lycoposerramine-U, as well as six different unnatural scaffolds, following the advanced build/couple/pair algorithm. This newly developed strategy is expected to be applied to the efficient synthesis of other complex natural products possessing functional group pairing patterns as well as skeletally diverse natural product-like molecules. PMID:25082077

Zhang, Jing; Wu, Jinbao; Hong, Benke; Ai, Wenying; Wang, Xiaoming; Li, Houhua; Lei, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

65

Collective synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids and tautomer locking strategy for the total synthesis of (-)-lycojapodine A.  

PubMed

The collective total synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-fawcettimine (1), (+)-fawcettidine (2), (+)-alopecuridine (4), (-)-lycojapodine A (6), and (-)-8-deoxyserratinine (7) has been accomplished from a common precursor (15) based on a highly concise route inspired by the proposed biosynthesis of the fawcettimine- and serratinine-type alkaloids. An intramolecular C-alkylation enabled efficient installation of the challenging spiro quaternary carbon center and the aza-cyclononane ring. The preparation of the tricyclic skeleton as well as the establishment of the correct relative stereochemistry of the oxa-quaternary center were achieved by hydroxyl-directed SmI(2)-mediated pinacol couplings. An unprecedented tandem transannular N-alkylation and removal of a Boc group was discovered to realize a biosynthesis-inspired process to furnish the desired tetracyclic skeleton. Of particular note is the unique and crucial tautomer locking strategy employed to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-lycojapodine A (6). The central step in this synthesis is the late-stage hypervalent iodine oxidant (IBX or Dess-Martin periodinane)/TFA-mediated tandem process, which constructed the previously unknown carbinolamine lactone motif and enabled a biomimetic transformation to generate (-)-lycojapodine A (6) in a single operation. PMID:22973823

Li, Houhua; Wang, Xiaoming; Hong, Benke; Lei, Xiaoguang

2013-02-01

66

Microanatomy of the placenta of Lycopodium obscurum: novel design in an underground embryo  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Long-lived underground populations of mycoheterotrophic gametophytes and attached sporophytes at various developmental stages occur in lycophytes. Young underground sporophytes obtain carbon solely from the gametophyte and establish nutritional independence only after reaching the soil surface, which may take several years. This prolonged period of matrotrophy exceeds that of bryophytes. The foot is massive and provides the lifeline for sporophyte establishment, yet the fine structure of the placental region is unexplored in lycophytes with underground gametophytes. Methods Gametophytes with attached embryos/young sporophytes of Lycopodium obscurum were collected in nature, processed and examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results Three ultrastructurally distinct regions were identified within a single foot of a sporophyte emerging from the soil. Young foot regions actively divide, and have direct contact with and show little differentiation from gametophyte cells. In unlobed foot areas, cells in both generations exhibit polarity in content and indicate unidirectional transport of carbon reserves into the foot toward the developing shoot and root. The foot has inconspicuous wall ingrowths. Highly lobed foot regions contain peripheral transfer cells with prominent wall ingrowths that absorb nutrients from degenerating gametophyte cells. Conclusions Variability within a single placenta is consistent with an invasive and long-lived foot. The late appearance of wall ingrowths in transfer cells reflects this dynamic ever-growing embryo. Placental features in lycophytes are related to the unique reorientation of all embryonic regions during development. Small placentas with wall ingrowths in both generations characterize ephemeral embryos in green gametophytes, while short-lived and repositioning embryos of heterosporous taxa are devoid of transfer cells. Transfer cell evolution across embryophytes is riddled with homoplasy and reflects diverse patterns of embryology. Scrutiny of placental evolution must include consideration of nutritional status and life history strategies of the gametophyte and young sporophyte. PMID:23979904

Renzaglia, Karen S.; Whittier, Dean P.

2013-01-01

67

Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for standardisation of ingredients of an ayurvedic powdered formulation Shatavaryadi churna.  

PubMed

Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of diagnostic characters of each ingredient of Shatavaryadi churna individually was carried out. Microscopic determination, counting of identifying number, measurement of area, length and breadth of identifying characters were performed using Leica DMLS-2 microscope. The method was validated for intraday precision, linearity, specificity, repeatability, accuracy and system suitability, respectively. The method is simple, precise, sensitive, and accurate, and can be used for routine standardisation of raw materials of herbal drugs. This method gives the ratio of individual ingredients in the powdered drug so that any adulteration of genuine drug with its adulterant can be found out. The method shows very good linearity value between 0.988-0.999 for number of identifying character and area of identifying character. Percentage purity of the sample drug can be determined by using the linear equation of standard genuine drug. PMID:24311861

Kumar, Puspendra; Jha, Shivesh; Naved, Tanveer

2013-01-01

68

Production of huperzine A and other Lycopodium alkaloids in Huperzia species grown under controlled conditions and in vitro.  

PubMed

A UPLC-MS method was developed for quantifying huperzine A (HupA), an anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug candidate from the traditional Chinese medicine Qian Ceng Ta (Huperzia serrata), in samples of 11 Huperzia genus plants. The highest content of HupA was found in Huperzia pinifolia. The accumulation of various Lycopodium alkaloids was monitored in these tissues using high resolution Q-IMS-TOFMS analysis. Tissue culture of various Huperzia species has been achieved and production of HupA has been confirmed in the callus of H. pinifolia. Furthermore, it was established that the major alkaloid produced by the naturally grown plant and the callus of H. pinifolia changed dramatically from HupA to nankakurine B. PMID:23306162

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Park, Jeong-Jin; Long, Robert M; Gang, David R

2013-07-01

69

Comparison of 454-ESTs from Huperzia serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus reveals putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis and developmental regulation  

PubMed Central

Background Plants of the Huperziaceae family, which comprise the two genera Huperzia and Phlegmariurus, produce various types of lycopodium alkaloids that are used to treat a number of human ailments, such as contusions, swellings and strains. Huperzine A, which belongs to the lycodine type of lycopodium alkaloids, has been used as an anti-Alzheimer's disease drug candidate. Despite their medical importance, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for the members of this family. We used massive parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-GS FLX Titanium platform to generate a substantial EST dataset for Huperzia serrata (H. serrata) and Phlegmariurus carinatus (P. carinatus) as representative members of the Huperzia and Phlegmariurus genera, respectively. H. serrata and P. carinatus are important plants for research on the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of bioactive compound biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation as well as genetic marker detection in these species. Results For H. serrata, 36,763 unique putative transcripts were generated from 140,930 reads totaling over 57,028,559 base pairs; for P. carinatus, 31,812 unique putative transcripts were generated from 79,920 reads totaling over 30,498,684 base pairs. Using BLASTX searches of public databases, 16,274 (44.3%) unique putative transcripts from H. serrata and 14,070 (44.2%) from P. carinatus were assigned to at least one protein. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology annotations revealed that the functions of the unique putative transcripts from these two species cover a similarly broad set of molecular functions, biological processes and biochemical pathways. In particular, a total of 20 H. serrata candidate cytochrome P450 genes, which are more abundant in leaves than in roots and might be involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis, were found based on the comparison of H. serrata and P. carinatus 454-ESTs and real-time PCR analysis. Four unique putative CYP450 transcripts (Hs01891, Hs04010, Hs13557 and Hs00093) which are the most likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids were selected based on a phylogenetic analysis. Approximately 115 H. serrata and 98 P. carinatus unique putative transcripts associated with the biosynthesis of triterpenoids, alkaloids and flavones/flavonoids were located in the 454-EST datasets. Transcripts related to phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as transcription factors were also obtained. In addition, we discovered 2,729 and 1,573 potential SSR-motif microsatellite loci in the H. serrata and P. carinatus 454-ESTs, respectively. Conclusions The 454-EST resource allowed for the first large-scale acquisition of ESTs from H. serrata and P. carinatus, which are representative members of the Huperziaceae family. We discovered many genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and transcriptional regulation as well as a large number of potential microsatellite markers. These results constitute an essential resource for understanding the molecular basis of developmental regulation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis (especially that of lycopodium alkaloids) in the Huperziaceae, and they provide an overview of the genetic diversity of this family. PMID:20854695

2010-01-01

70

Total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloid serratezomine A using free radical-mediated vinyl amination to prepare a ?-stannyl enamine linchpin.  

PubMed

Serratezomine A is a member of the structurally diverse class of compounds known as the Lycopodium alkaloids. The key supporting studies and successful total synthesis of serratezomine A are described in this account. Significant features of the synthesis include the first application of free radical mediated vinyl amination and Hwu's oxidative allylation in a total synthesis and an intramolecular lactonization via a transannular S(N)i reaction. Minimal use of protecting groups and the highly diastereoselective formation of a hindered, quaternary stereocenter using an umpolung allylation are also highlights from a strategy perspective. Observation of quaternary carbon epimerization via a retro-Mannich/Mannich sequence highlights the additional challenge presented by the axial alcohol at C8 in serratezomine A. PMID:23273261

Pigza, Julie A; Han, Jeong-Seok; Chandra, Aroop; Mutnick, Daniel; Pink, Maren; Johnston, Jeffrey N

2013-02-01

71

Total Synthesis of the Lycopodium Alkaloid Serratezomine A Using Free Radical-Mediated Vinyl Amination to Prepare a ?-Stannyl Enamine Linchpin  

PubMed Central

Serratezomine A is a member of the structurally diverse class of compounds known as the Lycopodium alkaloids. The key supporting studies and successful total synthesis of serratezomine A are described in this account. Significant features of the synthesis include the first application of free radical mediated vinyl amination and Hwu’s oxidative allylation in a total synthesis, and an intramolecular lactonization via a transannular SNi reaction. Minimal use of protecting groups and the highly diastereoselective formation of a hindered, quaternary stereocenter using an umpolung allylation are also highlights from a strategy perspective. Observation of quaternary carbon epimerization via a retro-Mannich/Mannich sequence highlights the additional challenge presented by the axial alcohol at C8 in serratezomine A. PMID:23273261

Pigza, Julie A.; Han, Jeong-Seok; Chandra, Aroop; Mutnick, Daniel; Pink, Maren; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

2013-01-01

72

Tooth Extraction  

MedlinePLUS

... loosens the tooth with an instrument called an elevator. Then the dentist uses an instrument called a ... difficult extractions. Smokers and women who take birth control pills are more likely to have a dry ...

73

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to plant biotechnology, learners extract DNA from fruit to investigate how it looks and feels. The procedure is similar to what scientists have to do before they can use information contained in this DNA. This lesson guide includes procedure and discussion questions to help learners reflect on the process and purpose of DNA extraction. Modifications for younger learners are included in a related PDF (see related resources).

2012-06-26

74

Bevalac extraction  

SciTech Connect

This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

1992-02-01

75

Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The chloroform:medianol (1:1) extracts of a number of the plant species belonging to eight families, namely Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida and Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J. H. Rudolph (Papaveraceae), Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum and Rhododendron luteum Sweet. (Ericaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Caeselpiniaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae), Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae), Fumaria vaillantii Lois., Fumaria capreolata L., Fumaria kralikii Jordan, Fumaria asepala Boiss., Fumaria densiflora DC., Fumaria flabellata L., Fumaria petteri Reichb. subsp. thuretii (Boiss.) Pugsley, Fumaria macrocarpa Boiss. ex Hausskn., Fumaria cilicica Hauskkn., Fumaria parviflora Lam. and Fumaria judaica Boiss. (Fumariaceae) were screened for their anticholinesterase activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes by in vitro Ellman method at 10 microg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations. The extracts did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity against both of the enzymes at 10 microg/ml. The extracts of Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Rhododendron luteum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida, Glaucium corniculatum, and Buxus sempervirens showed remarkable inhibitory activity above 50% inhibition rate on AChE at 1 mg/ml. Among them, Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida and Buxus sempervirens were the most active extracts against BChE having 95.46 +/- 1.03%, 93.08 +/- 0.97%, and 93.45 +/- 0.88% inhibition rates, respectively. Among the extracts screened, all of the Fumaria extracts displayed highly potent inhibition against both of the enzymes at 1 mg/ml concentration compared to the standard. PMID:15036468

Orhan, I; Sener, B; Choudhary, M I; Khalid, A

2004-03-01

76

Extractant composition  

DOEpatents

An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

77

Relation Extraction from Wikipedia Text Relation Extraction  

E-print Network

Relation Extraction from Wikipedia Text Relation Extraction from Wikipedia Text Wikipedia Mining Seminar Universität des Saarlandes Miriam Käshammer January 18, 2010 #12;Relation Extraction from Wikipedia Text Introduction Outline Introduction PORE: Positive-Only Relation Extraction from Wikipedia Text

Neumann, Günter

78

Self-assembly of Fmoc-diphenylalanine inside liquid marbles.  

PubMed

Liquid marbles made from Lycopodium clavatum spores are used to encapsulate aqueous solutions of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF). Acidification of the Fmoc-FF solution at the liquid/air interface of the liquid marble triggers the self-assembly of ribbon-like peptide fibrils into an ultrathin peptide membrane (50-500 nm). The membrane incorporates the lycopodium microparticles and as a result stabilizes the liquid marble against collapse, that could otherwise occur through particle disintegration at the floating interphase. Ultrathin nanostructured peptide membrane formation at the liquid/air interface is also observed within artificial microstructured floating objects. Thus, peptide membranes formed were inspected by SEM and TEM. Electron diffraction data reveal information about the molecular organization inside the oligopeptide membranes. PMID:22584262

Braun, Hans-Georg; Cardoso, André Zamith

2012-09-01

79

Antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 cells of a homeopathic remedy and its constituent plant tinctures tested separately or in combination.  

PubMed

Hepeel is a homeopathic remedy commonly used to treat primary and secondary functional disorders of the liver. It consists of highly diluted extracts from the following plants: Chelidonium from Chelidonium majus, L., Carduus marianus from Silybum marianum, L., Veratrum from Veratrum album L., Colocynthis from Citrullus colocynthis L., Lycopodium from Lycopodium clavatum L., Nux moschata from Myristica fragans, Houtt, and China from Cinchona pubescens, Vahl. The antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells of serial dilutions of these plant tinctures were tested, either separately or in various combinations. Upon damage of the cells with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, Carduus marianus, China and Nux moschata, in decreasing order, showed the strongest antioxidative effects. Greater than 95% inhibition of total production of malondialdehyde was reached with these three tinctures at dilutions of D4. The complete combination of the tinctures (COMB) realised in the homeopathic remedy showed an effect corresponding to the combined effects of the individual tinctures. The antiproliferative influence on the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA in normal HepG2 cells was significant (p < 0.01) but relatively weak, and decreased in the order Carduus marianus, Chelidonium, Colocynthis and Veratrum. At a dilution of D4 Colocynthis showed the strongest inhibition (13.5%). The effect of the combination of Colocynthis and Veratrum was markedly higher (22.3%) than that of the individual tinctures, but was not additive. With this combination, cell numbers were reduced. COMB had similar effects on proliferation and cell numbers, with the antiproliferative effect starting at a dilution of 1:40. The conjugation of 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene with glutathione was induced only by Carduus marianus and COMB, while all other tinctures were ineffective. Neither the individual tinctures, nor COMB showed cytotoxic effects in the dilutions tested. These results demonstrate that the complete combination (COMB) realised in the homeopathic remedy and its constituents exert specific antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects on HepG2 cells which all point to a potential hepatoprotective and tumouristatic action. PMID:14732962

Gebhardt, Rolf

2003-01-01

80

Apigenin-induced apoptosis in A375 and A549 cells through selective action and dysfunction of mitochondria.  

PubMed

We isolated apigenin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy flavone) from ethanolic extract of Lycopodium clavatum (LC) used as a homeopathic mother tincture for treatment of various diseases. We assessed the anticancer potentials of the compound using human malignant melanoma cell line A375 and a lung carcinoma cell line A549 and focussed on its putative molecular mechanism of action on apoptosis induction. We examined the cytotoxicity of apigenin in both cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A375 cells were more prone to apigenin-induced apoptosis, as compared with A549 cells after 24 h of treatment, while PBMC showed little or no cytotoxicity to apigenin. We also evaluated the effects of apigenin on interaction with DNA by comparative analysis of circular dichroism spectral data and melting temperature profiles (Tm) of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) treated with or without apigenin. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in mitochondria, super-oxide dismutase and total thiol group (GSH) activities were also analyzed. The apoptotic process involved mitochondrial pathway associated with apigenin-DNA interaction, DNA fragmentation, ROS accumulation, cytochrome c (cyt c) release and mitochondrial transmembrane potential depolarization, Bax, caspase 3, 9, PARP, up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation and down-regulation of cyt c in the mitochondrial fraction. Results of mitochondrial inner membrane swelling measurements, intracellular ADP/ATP ratio and ATPase activity showed that in A549 cells, apigenin did not appear to directly target the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system but rather acted at an upstream step to activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. However, apigenin could directly target and impair mitochondrial function in A375 cells by breaking down their oxidative phosphorylation system. Collectively, these results suggest that apigenin exhibits anticancer potential in A375 and A549 cells that may be mediated through DNA interaction, damage and mitochondrial dysfunction either by direct or indirect action on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. PMID:23354402

Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Samadder, Asmita; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2012-12-01

81

Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®) Patient Version Health Professional Version Last Modified: 02/20/2014 Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®) Overview Questions and Answers About Mistletoe ...

82

PITFALLS OF SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of researchers are using sequential extraction to determine the speciation of trace elements in sediments. nfortunately, sequential extraction methods have not been successfully validated. he results are simply taken as providing "operational definitions" of ...

83

Endovascular extraction techniques  

PubMed Central

The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

2001-01-01

84

Threshold voltage extraction circuit  

E-print Network

Vosz. . 22 23 A detailed schematic of the improved NMOS Vr extraction circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Fig. 15. Improved PMOS Vz extraction circuit. . 24 Fig. 16. Graph of i//n and r)(z/fn)/r)(Vos) versus Vos of a NMOS transistor... of DUT. . . . . . , . . . , 118 LIST OF TABLES Page Table I A comparison of Vr extraction techniques . Table 2 Component dimensions for improved NMOS Vr extraction circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3 Component dimensions for improved PMOS Vr...

Hoon, Siew Kuok

2012-06-07

85

Method of infusion extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

86

Information extraction system  

DOEpatents

An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

2014-05-13

87

Onion DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from onion cells using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

88

Wheat Germ DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from wheat germ using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

89

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

90

Mandibular incisor extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranio-mandibular dysfunction therapy of a moderate Angle Class III malocclusion with retroclined incisors with anterior crossbite and pronounced crowding was based not on extraction of the first premolars but on protrusion of the incisors and the extraction of one lower incisor.

Hans-Jürgen Pauls

1999-01-01

91

Distribution behavior of astatine: Solvent extraction and back extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution behavior of astatine was studied at tracer concentrations and over a wide range of carrier iodide concentration in both solvent extraction and back extraction processes. Astatine compounds were extracted instantly into the organic solvent, CS2 from the carrier free and carrier iodide containing solutions. Back extraction of astatine with various NaOH solutions followed by solvent extraction caused the

M. S. Sultana; A. Toyoshima; N. Takahashi; H. Baba

2001-01-01

92

Medicinal yeast extracts.  

PubMed

Alcoholic extracts of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been used for over 60 years in over-the-counter medications for the treatment of hemorrhoids, burns, and wounds. Although previous studies suggested that small peptides were responsible for the medical observations, the peptides were never resolved into separate fractions and identified. In the present report, a protein fraction was prepared by RPC18 chromatography of the extract which enhances wound closure in both diabetic and non-diabetic littermates. The peptides are active in nanomolar amounts and are 600 times more active than the initial extract. SDS-PAGE and N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified 4 polypeptides in the extract. Three of the proteins were small molecular weight stress-associated proteins: copper, zinc superoxide-dismutase, ubiquitin, and glucose lipid regulated protein (HSP 12). The fourth protein, acyl-CoA binding protein II, has not been previously associated with stress proteins. PMID:10547066

Schlemm, D J; Crowe, M J; McNeill, R B; Stanley, A E; Keller, S J

1999-09-01

93

Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.  

PubMed

To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of the same cyanobacterial species, as showing by the varying effectiveness of the solvent systems investigated. Therefore, a sole method cannot be regarded as universal and superior for the extraction of endotoxins from cyanobacteria. Nevertheless, the ability of the novel HBW and HDW methods to utilize easily handled organic solvents that are less hazardous than phenol render them attractive alternatives to the standard HPW method. PMID:14758595

Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

2004-02-01

94

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01

95

Thymus DNA Extractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can be extracted from a chunk of thymus (sweetbread) or liver. This experiment requires the use of a centrifuge (not included in cost of materials). Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

96

DNA Extraction Virtual Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual lab from the Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah provides a simple overview of DNA extraction, including what it's used for, illustrations, and an activity using cheek cells and laboratory equipment to isolate DNA. The lab is followed by a classroom activity that allows students and teachers to Extract DNA from Anything Living, using household items like spinach but not little sister's big toe.

2007-02-02

97

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-13

98

The occurrence and structure of centrosomes in Lycopodium complanatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Evidence indicates that centrosomes arisede novo in the spermatid mother cells (SMC). Each of the two centrosomes per SMC is composed of a pair of coaxial centrioles which are apposed at their proximal ends and connected only by the central cartwheel portion. Serial transections show that the triplets of the constituent centrioles imbricate in opposite directions. The centrioles later

Robert R. Robbins; Zane B. Carothers

1975-01-01

99

Genotoxicity of plant extracts.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia) were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome). Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B. anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990) the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest. PMID:1842016

Vargas, V M; Guidobono, R R; Henriques, J A

1991-01-01

100

Supercritical fluid extraction  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

1994-01-01

101

Extracting Hydrogen Electricity from  

E-print Network

Extracting Hydrogen Electricity from B R U C E E . L O G A N T H E P E N N S Y L V A N I in vehicles. Hydrogen is considered a mobile source of energy, but it must have renewable starting materials Association, a nonprofit organization, 9.2 billion cubic meters (m3) of hydrogen, with an estimated value

102

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

103

Underground mineral extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for extracting an underground mineral such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface

R. A. Frosch; C. G. Miller; J. B. Stephens

1980-01-01

104

Underground mineral extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the

C. G. Miller; J. B. Stephens

1980-01-01

105

SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

106

Comparison of the outcomes of the lower incisor extraction, premolar extraction and non-extraction treatments.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of lower incisor extraction and to compare it with premolar extraction and non-extraction treatment. The sample consisted of 60 subjects with Class I malocclusion and moderate crowding. The sample was separated into three groups: extraction of a lower incisor group, extraction of a four first premolar group and a non-extraction group. All groups involved 13 girls and 7 boys with a total of 20 patients. The Peer assessment rating (PAR) index was applied to a patient's pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) dental casts. T1 dental casts were also used for determining Bolton discrepancy. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. For the mean percentage PAR score reduction for each group, there was one significant difference seen between the lower incisor extraction group and the non-extraction group (P = 0.047). For the mean anterior ratios, there were significant differences among premolar extraction group versus non-extraction group (P = 0.042) and non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.000). For the mean overall ratios, there were significant differences among the premolar extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.048) and the non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.001). Orthodontic treatment without extraction has a better treatment outcome than the four-first premolar extraction and single lower incisor extraction protocols in Class I cases with moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:21745824

Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan; Malkoc, Siddik; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

2012-12-01

107

LIPID EXTRACTION FROM WHEAT FLOUR USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental concerns, the disposal cost of hazardous waste, and the time required for extraction encouraged us to look for a method to extract lipids from wheat flour that would be faster, less costly, and more environmentally acceptable. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (...

108

Extractable work from correlations  

E-print Network

Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyse this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system, and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems which are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

Martí Perarnau-Llobet; Karen V. Hovhannisyan; Marcus Huber; Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Antonio Acín

2014-07-29

109

Extracting Decision Correlation Rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, two concepts are introduced: decision correlation rules and contingency vectors. The first concept results from a cross fertilization between correlation and decision rules. It enables relevant links to be highlighted between sets of patterns of a binary relation and the values of target items belonging to the same relation on the twofold basis of the Chi-Squared measure and of the support of the extracted patterns. Due to the very nature of the problem, levelwise algorithms only allow extraction of results with long execution times and huge memory occupation. To offset these two problems, we propose an algorithm based both on the lectic order and contingency vectors, an alternate representation of contingency tables.

Casali, Alain; Ernst, Christian

110

[Skeleton extractions and applications].  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

Quadros, William Roshan

2010-05-01

111

Solvent extraction of molybdenum  

SciTech Connect

The equilibrium and the kinetics of the reaction of Mo(VI) with 8-hydroxyquinoline; 8-hydroxyquinaldine; KELEX 100; LIX63; and LIX65N were studied by solvent extraction. From the equilibrium studies it was concluded that in weakly acidic solution (pH 5 to 6) the complexation reaction requires four protons to convert molybdate into molybdenyl. The extractions constants for LIX63 and 8-hydroxyquinaldine, corrected for the side reaction of the ligand and metal, are 10/sup 16.43/ and 10/sup 14.40/, respectively. In the case of LIX65N, the plot of log(D) vs pH has a maximum at pH 1.0, which was explained qualitatively in terms of protonation of the ligand and molybdic acid at low pH. The extraction constant for the reaction of molybdic acid and the neutral ligand was estimated to be 100,000. The kinetics of extraction Mo (VI) with LIX63, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 8-hydroxyquinaldine, and Kelex 100 were studied in this work. In all cases, except 8-hydroxyquinoline, the rate-determining step of the reaction involves the formation of a 1:1 complex between the neutral ligand and several Mo(VI) species differing in the degree of protonation. The rate-determining step for the reaction of Mo(VI) with 8-hydroxyquinoline involves the formation of a 1:2 complex. The rate constant for the reaction of HMoO/sub 4/ with 8-hydroxyquinaldine is four orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding value reported in the literature for 8-hydroxyquinoline. The slower reaction with 8-hydroxyquinaldine was attributed to the presence of the methyl group next to the nitrogen atom of the ligand which hinders its binding with molybdenum in the rate determining step of the reaction.

Trujillo, R.A.

1987-01-01

112

Ion extraction system optimization  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of a beam from ion sources is dominated by the strong space charge of the beam, due to the initial low speed of the particles. Several mathematical and computational issues are discussed, with reference to a diode design based on thin anode lens effect, yielding a parallel beam at its exit, which is the first block of many high current electrostatic accelerators. Perturbation to uniform current density are analyzed. Effect of a thick anode lens is also treated.

Cavenago, Marco [INFN-LNL, v.le dell'Universita n 2, I-35020, Legnaro (Italy)

2013-07-18

113

Prospex: Protocol Specification Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocol reverse engineering is the process of extracting application-level specifications for network protocols. Such specifications are very useful in a number of security-related contexts, for example, to perform deep packet inspection and black-box fuzzing, or to quickly understand custom botnet command and control (C&C) channels. Since manual re- verse engineering is a time-consuming and tedious process, a number of systems

Paolo Milani Comparetti; Gilbert Wondracek; Christopher Kruegel; Engin Kirda

2009-01-01

114

Feature extraction of multispectral data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for feature extraction of multispectral scanner data. Non-training data is used to demonstrate the reduction in processing time that can be obtained by using feature extraction rather than feature selection.

Crane, R. B.; Crimmins, T.; Reyer, J. F.

1973-01-01

115

GAMMA DENSITY CONTROLS EXTRACTION COLUMN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma absorption density gauging can monitor both the organic extract ; and the aqueous raffinate and can control column feed rates to maintain normal ; steadystate operation in a liquid-liquid uranium extraction process. (auth);

Ryle

1957-01-01

116

Polarographic determination of extraction constants.  

PubMed

The extraction constant of three organic compounds containing nitrogen as a picrate ion pair in a water-chloroform system were determined by following polarographically the picrate concentration in the aqueous phase as a function of the added amount of reagent. The extraction constants were also determined spectrophotometrically (via batch extraction). The obtained results are in good agreement. The proposed method is applicable for extraction constants with values between 10(3) and 10(9). PMID:3658646

Dingjan, H A; Van Bennekom, W P; Bult, A

1987-08-21

117

Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction

L. L. Martella; J. D. Navratil; W. F. Santiago

1978-01-01

118

Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction  

E-print Network

to the extraction process. This method evaporates the water from the products but also drives off up to 70 percent methods. Project Description This project will evaluate whether the new drying and nutrients extraction process. . Prototype innovative drying and nutrients extraction system Photo credit: Grimmway Enterprises

119

Exploring DNA Extraction Erica Butts  

E-print Network

(By adding a protease) DNA Binding (DNA Binds to magnetic or silica beads and is washed) Precipitation;Applied Genetics Definition of Relative Extraction Efficiency · Recovery compared to another method to precipitate DNA · Rehydrated with 100 µL TE #12;Applied Genetics Blood Extracted DNA Cells Extraction

Perkins, Richard A.

120

Challenges in Managing Information Extraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

Shen, Warren H.

2009-01-01

121

Fission product solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

1998-02-01

122

Extracting tag hierarchies.  

PubMed

Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover, recommendation systems could also benefit from a tag hierarchy. PMID:24391901

Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

2013-01-01

123

Coal extraction - environmental prediction  

SciTech Connect

To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

2002-08-01

124

Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.  

PubMed

In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities. PMID:12696930

Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

2003-04-23

125

The Ex Project: Web Information Extraction Using Extraction Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction ontologies represent a novel paradigm in web information extraction (as one of ‘deductive’ species of web mining)\\u000a allowing to swiftly proceed from initial domain modelling to running a functional prototype, without the necessity of collecting\\u000a and labelling large amounts of training examples. Bottlenecks in this approach are however the tedium of developing an extraction\\u000a ontology adequately covering the semantic

Martin Labský; Vojt?ch Svátek; Marek Nekvasil; Dušan Rak

126

Garlic extract for HIV?  

PubMed

Garlic has been used for hundreds of years to treat fungal, parasitic, and viral infections, and has anti-inflammatory properties that show promise for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Researchers are focusing on an extract of garlic called ajoene which also appears to protect CD+ cells from attack by HIV early in the viral life cycle. At low concentrations, the drug appears to have little toxicity, and its anti-HIV activity is 45 times more powerful than the drug dextran sulfate. Ajoene is found only in fresh garlic and is not readily available. One researcher found that garlic impairs the activity of the liver enzymes that process protease inhibitors and raises the protease inhibitor levels. PMID:11365438

1998-05-01

127

Underground mineral extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

1980-01-01

128

Aqueous acetone extraction of cottonseed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of cottonseed flakes with acetone containing 25-30% water removes essentially all of the gossypol, most of the\\u000a free fatty acids, about half the raffinose, and negligible quanti-ties of neutral oil and protein. After drying and re-flaking\\u000a of the aqueous acetone extracted marc, the oil may be removed either by hexane extrac-tion or pressing to produce light-colored\\u000a meals exceptionally low

Walter A. Pons; Paul H. Eaves

1967-01-01

129

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

M. Minier; G. Goma

1982-01-01

130

Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1997-10-01

131

Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

Compton, L. E. (inventor)

1983-01-01

132

Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

1990-01-01

133

TRACE EXTRACTION FROM OBLIQUE IONOGRAMS  

E-print Network

TRACE EXTRACTION FROM OBLIQUE IONOGRAMS M. Roughan 1 and D.J. Percival 2 1 Cooperative Research an oblique ionogram and select the F2­layer o­mode trace for input to an inversion algorithm. MOTIVATION To automate ionogram trace extraction, as part of a real­time propagation advice algorithm for HF radar

Roughan, Matthew

134

Extraction of neptunium by trilaurylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trilaurylamine (TLA) is considered as useful solvent for the final purification of plutonium and neptunium. As TLA is considered as an alternate possible extractant for the final purification of plutonium and neptunium at Tarapur Reprocessing Plant under construction, it was considered necessary to study the optimum conditions for the extraction of neptunium using TLA.

S. K. Patil; R. Swarup; M. V. Ramaniah; N. Srinivasan

1972-01-01

135

Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (inventors)

1983-01-01

136

Swelling of coal extracts  

SciTech Connect

There has been a rapid growth in research that deals with the solvent swelling of coal. Much of this effort has been directed toward the application of modern polymer and network theories to coal, with the purpose of better understanding their network structures. One of the most fundamental parameters of a network structure is the average molecular weight between crosslinks. Several research groups have attempted to estimate this for coal from solvent swelling data and the Flory-Rehner equation. The equation incorporates both the Flory-Huggins theory of polymer solutions and the Gaussian elastic network theory. An important parameter embodied in the Flory-Huggins theory is the interaction parameter, /chi/. /chi/ is a thermodynamic parameter describing the energetics of the polymer-solvent interaction. Very few reliable methods have been developed to evaluate /chi/ for coal-solvent systems. It is the purpose of this research to develop a reliable method for its evaluation. The solvent swelling of coal extracts; utilizing benzene as the solvent, is discussed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Green, T.K.; Chamberlin, J.M.; Lopez-Froedge, L.; Ball, J.E.

1989-01-01

137

Extraction of Questions Behind Messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.

Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki

138

Silhouette Extraction Silhouettes in Hough Space  

E-print Network

Silhouette Extraction Silhouettes in Hough Space Results Conclusions Silhouette Extraction in Hough Olson and Hao Zhang Silhouette Extraction in Hough Space #12;Silhouette Extraction Silhouettes in Hough Space Results Conclusions Outline 2 1 Silhouette Extraction Defining the Problem Previous Work 2

Zhang, Richard "Hao"

139

Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants  

DOEpatents

A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Rome, IT)

1988-01-01

140

Endovascular extraction techniques for pacemaker and ICD lead extraction  

PubMed Central

In the last few years, comprehensive endovascular techniques have been developed to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads. It is important that referring physician have knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results of the currently used endovascular extraction techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

2001-01-01

141

A Simply Fruity DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners extract DNA from a strawberry and discover that DNA is in the food they eat. Learners use simple materials to break open the cells of a strawberry and see DNA with their very own eyes.

Mission Science Workshop

2012-01-01

142

DNA Extraction & Staging Laboratory (DESL)  

Cancer.gov

As part of the Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR), the DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL) located in Frederick, MD, is responsible for the preparation of samples for investigators at NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

143

Heavy metals extraction by microemulsions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is the heavy metal extraction by microemulsion, using regional vegetable oils as surfactants. Firstly, the main parameters, which have influence in the microemulsion region, such as: nature of cosurfactant, influence of cosurfactant (C)/surfactant (S) ratio and salinity were studied, with the objective of choosing the best extraction system. The extraction/reextraction process by microemulsion consists of two stages. In the first one, the heavy metal ion present in the aqueous phase is extracted by the microemulsion. In a second step, the reextraction process occurs: the microemulsion phase, rich in metal, is acidified and the metal is recovered in a new aqueous phase, with higher concentration. The used system had the following parameters: surfactant-saponified coconut oil; cosurfactant-n-butanol; oil phase-kerosene; C/S ratio=4; salinity-2% (NaCl); temperature of 27+/-1 degrees C; water phase-aqueous solution that varied according to the heavy metal in study (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb). A methodology of experimental planning was used (Scheffé Net) to study the behavior of the extraction in a chosen domain. The extraction was accomplished in one step and yielded extraction percentage higher than 98% for all metals. In the reextraction HCl-8M was used as reextraction agent and the influence of the pH and time were verified. This work showed the great efficiency of the microemulsion, indicating that it is possible to extract selectively the heavy metals from the aqueous phase. PMID:12753848

Dantas, T N Castro; Dantas Neto, A A; Moura, M C P A; Barros Neto, E L; Forte, K R; Leite, R H L

2003-06-01

144

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-print Network

tries; a modern example of such use is the removal of caffeine from coffee beans by the use of super critical carbon dioxide solvent. There are many more examples of extraction applications that could be mentioned, but the above should provide some.... Insolubility of solvent. If the solvent is too soluble in the raffinate, signifi cant solvent losses can occur. 5. Recoverability. It is desirable to make a clean separation of extractant and solvent in the stripper, without excessive energy requirements...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01

145

Lima Bean Bacteria DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from lima bean bacteria. This experiment requires the use of a centrifuge (not included in cost of materials). Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Lana Hays

2009-01-01

146

1. EXTRACTING FROM NOISY DATA  

E-print Network

Knowledge extraction (KE) efforts have often used corpora of heavily edited writing and sources written to provide the desired knowledge (e.g., newspapers or textbooks). However, the proliferation of diverse, up-to-date, unedited writing on the Web, especially in weblogs, offers new challenges for KE tools. We describe our efforts to extract general knowledge implicit in this noisy data and examine whether such sources can be an adequate substitute for resources like Wikipedia.

Jonathan Gordon; Benjamin Van Durme; Lenhart Schubert

147

Work extraction from tripartite entanglement  

E-print Network

The work extractable from correlated bipartite quantum systems can be used to distinguish entanglement from classical correlation. A natural question is now whether it can be generalised to multipartite systems. In this paper, we devise a protocol to distinguish the GHZ, the W, and separable states in terms of the thermodynamically extractable work under local operations and classical communication, and compare the results with those obtained from Mermin's inequalities.

Vincent Viguie; Koji Maruyama; Vlatko Vedral

2005-04-20

148

Chemical extraction of mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

IT Corporation was contracted to conduct treatability studies on low level radioactive and mixed waste. A remedial investigation was initiated to develop remedial actions to control the impacts on human health and the environment. Several alternative technologies were investigated for the remediation of waste stored on site. The treatment technologies investigated by IT consisted of chemical extraction, cement based stabilization, vitrification, and soil washing. This paper focuses on the chemical extraction study. The major constituents of concern were radium, lead, and uranium. A tiered experimental approach was used that emulates the EPA`s remedy screening and remedy selection phases. Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid, EDTA, and KCl solutions were used to extract the radioactive components. EDTA was the most effective reagent to decrease the total activity of the waste. Acetic acid was about 80 percent as effective as hydrochloric and nitric acids. The largest radioactivity decrease was realized from sequential extractions using combination of acids with EDTA or KCl with EDTA. The TCLP of the chemically extracted material met the TC regulatory requirements. The radium concentration in the extracted material was decreased by greater than 95 percent.

Stine, E.F. Jr.; Morren, C.E.

1994-12-31

149

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOEpatents

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28

150

Extraction of anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia by pressurized hot water: Antioxidant activity of extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of anthraquinones from Morinda citrifolia was evaluated by determining the capability of the extracts to scavenge the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro, as compared with the extracts obtained by other conventional extraction methods such as ethanol extraction in stirred vessel, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that PHWE

Boonchai Pongnaravane; Motonobu Goto; Mitsuru Sasaki; Thitiporn Anekpankul; Prasert Pavasant; Artiwan Shotipruk

2006-01-01

151

Extracting Facts with Columbus from C++ Code  

E-print Network

Extracting Facts with Columbus from C++ Code Rudolf Ferenc, Árpád Beszédes and Tibor Gyimóthy Department Fact Extraction with Columbus C++ source code analysis Extracted facts conform to well defined Engineering Department Columbus Framework Fact Extraction Process Project handling Compiler wrapping IDE

Ferenc, Rudolf

152

Forest-Based Translation Rule Extraction  

E-print Network

Forest-Based Translation Rule Extraction EMNLP 2008 talk, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 2008 Haitao Mi #12;Forest-based Translation Rule Extraction Translation Rule Extraction · rule extraction ("syntax") from either or both sides · more informed translation thanks to syn. categories

Plotkin, Joshua B.

153

Accurate extraction of the News  

E-print Network

We propose a new scheme for extracting gravitational radiation from a characteristic numerical simulation of a spacetime. This method is similar in conception to our earlier work but analytical and numerical implementation is different. The scheme is based on direct transformation to the Bondi coordinates and the gravitational waves are extracted by calculating the Bondi news function in Bondi coordinates. The entire calculation is done in a way which will make the implementation easy when we use uniform Bondi angular grid at $\\mathcal I^+$. Using uniform Bondi grid for news calculation has added advantage that we have to solve only ordinary differential equations instead of partial differential equation. For the test problems this new scheme allows us to extract gravitational radiation much more accurately than the previous schemes.

Shrirang S. Deshingkar

2006-09-14

154

Extraction of silicones from soil  

SciTech Connect

Silicone polymer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), was extracted from soil incubated at 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1] for 0,1,3,7,14, and 28 d with mean recovery of 95.4% ([sigma] = 2.1%). From four agricultural soils incubated for one week at 1, 10, and 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1], mean extraction recovery was 95.6% ([sigma] = 3.2%). The method is now being used in [sup 14]C studies on the fate of silicones in the soil environment and will later be used for extraction of silicones from field samples. Silicone polymers have a variety of uses, including lubricants, electrical insulators, and texturizers in personal care products. They can enter the environment through wastewater treatment systems in which they adsorb to the solids, and are then applied to the soil during disposal of the sludge.

Lehmann, R.G. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States). Health and Environmental Sciences)

1993-10-01

155

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

156

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

1989-01-01

157

Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.  

PubMed

The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents. PMID:24088789

Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

2014-01-01

158

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

1998-01-01

159

Catastrophic extraction of anomalous events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss extraction of anomalous events based on the theory of catastrophes, a mathematical theory of continuous geometrical manifolds with discrete singularities called catastrophes. Intelligence exploitation systems and technologies include such novel data mining techniques as automatic extraction of discrete anomalous events by software algorithms based on the theory of catastrophes, that can reduce complex problems to a few essential so-called state variables. This paper discusses mostly corank-1 catastrophes with only one state variable, for simplicity. As an example we discuss mostly avionics platforms and catastrophic failures that can be recorded by flight instruments.

Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ro, Sookwang; Kostrzewski, Andrew

2012-06-01

160

Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

161

Comparison of extracts prepared from plant by-products using different solvents and extraction time  

Microsoft Academic Search

By-products obtained after red fruit processing still contain large amounts of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins which act as antioxidants. The effect of solvent and extraction time on the yield of extracted antioxidants from grape, black and red currant by-products (marc) was investigated. Ethanol and methanol extracts of red and black currant contain twice more anthocyanins and polyphenols than water extracts, extracts

Brigita Lapornik; Mirko Prošek; Alenka Golc Wondra

2005-01-01

162

DILUENT EFFECTS IN SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical diluent parameters DP, introduced by Shmidt et al. several years ago, describe the extraction of mineral acids or metal complexes by the expression log Kex = log Kex ° + const. DP. They have now been related to independently obtainable properties of the diluents. The best correlation is with Dimroth and Reichardt's polarity index ET, with Hildebrand's solubility

Yitzhak Marcus

1989-01-01

163

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA\\/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to

Steven R. Onagel; Laurence J. Bement

1989-01-01

164

LIP PARAMETER EXTRACTION FOR SPEECHREADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an automatic speech recognition system based on lip-reading significantly depends on the features extracte d from the lip image. In this paper the parabola and the area model as examples for model based approaches and the snake and DCT method as non-model based approaches are presented and compared to each other. Despite the fact that the DCT

Kristian Kroschel; Martin Heckmann

165

Solar cell coverslide extraction apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for extracting a coverslide from a solar cell in a solar cell module. The coverslide is adhered to the solar cell by a dissolvable layer of adhesive along a predetermined plane of attachment. The apparatus comprises: (a) a receptacle having a cavity defined therein; (b) a rack disposed in the cavity of the receptacle; (c)

1987-01-01

166

Extracting DNA from a Banana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners extract DNA from a banana. The procedure requires only basic lab equipment (i.e. beaker, test tube) and chemicals (i.e. liquid soap, meat tenderizer, ethanol). This activity is most appropriate for learners in grades 5-8. With slight modifications, this activity is appropriate for younger learners as well.

Gallo, Mark; Ventresca, Shannon; Cordts, Marcia

2012-01-01

167

IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

168

Parameter extraction from spaceborne MOSFETs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An addressable matrix of 32 CMOS transistors was designed into a test chip to be flown on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). In this paper the matrix is described along with a SPICE-like parameter extraction procedure called JMOSFIT, and Cobalt 60 radiation test results are presented that illustrate the shift in the 21-MOSFET parameters derived from JMOSFIT.

Buehler, M. G.; Moore, B. T.; Nixon, R. H.

1985-01-01

169

Ant Ecdysteroid Extraction and Radioimmunoassay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecdysteroids are a group of steroid compounds present in many plant and invertebrate species. In arthropods, they function primarily as hormones involved in the regulation of molting. This protocol describes how to extract ecdysteroid hormones from ant specimens and subsequently quantify circulating...

170

Lesson 10: Extraction of Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces quadratic equations and graphs. Equations of the form ax^2 + c = 0 are solved via extraction of roots. Later application problems involving volume and surface area and compound interest (problems of the form a(x - p)^2 = q ) are presented.

2011-01-01

171

Content Extraction Signatures Ron Steinfeld  

E-print Network

Content Extraction Signatures Ron Steinfeld Department of Computing, Macquarie University, North. Software and Info. Systems, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA yzheng of an earlier paper presented at ICISC 2001, Dec. 6-7 2001, Seoul, South Korea. This work was done while

Zheng, Yuliang

172

Software Process Extraction and Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial software is planned, managed, and created us- ing a variety of approaches: sometimes a formal Software Development Life-cycle (SDLC) model is used, sometimes an approach that is less formal but has clearly identifiable stages is employed, and sometimes little if any discernible process is followed. In this paper, we extract and correlate the software development process with behaviour and

Abram Hindle; Michael W. Godfrey; Richard C. Holt

173

Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted  

E-print Network

Milling of Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted from ore with strong acids or bases. The uranium is concentrated in a solid substance called"yellowcake." Chemical Conversion Plants convert the uranium in yellowcake to uranium hexafluoride (UF6 ), a compound that can be made into nuclear fuel. Enrichment

174

Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

Malmary, G.; And Others

1984-01-01

175

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2013-07-01

176

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2014-07-01

177

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2012-07-01

178

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2011-07-01

179

Recent trends in extractive metallurgy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallurgists and solution geochemists are joining forces to develop processes for extraction of metals from low-grade ores. The processes, which come under the name hydrometallurgy, include several new applications of solvent extraction techniques. Aqueous solutions are employed, leaching metals from ores, mine waste dumps, and even from deposits still in the ground. It was notable, for example, that Chemical and Engineering News (Feb. 8, 1982) recently featured the subject of hydrometallurgy in a special report. They noted that ‘recovering metals by use of aqueous solutions at relatively low temperatures increasingly is competing with dry, high-temperature pyrometallurgical methods.’ The relatively new techniques have caused a revolution, of sorts, in engineering programs of university metallurgy departments. The challenge of developing selective metal dissolution processes is drawing upon the best national talent in the fields of solution geochemistry and metallurgy.

Bell, Peter M.

180

Optimal Extraction of Echelle Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of the echelle spectra registered with a CCD detector represents a big challenge because of three reasons: (1) the pixel sampling is often close or worse then optimal, (2) spectral orders are curved and tilted with respect to the CCD rows (or columns) and (3) every pixel contains additional noise coming from various sources as illustrated in Figure 1. The main goal of an optimal extraction is to recover as much of the science signal while minimizing the contribution of the noise. Here we present the Slit Function Decomposition algorithm which replaces the summation in a sliding window with a reconstruction of the slit illumination profile. The reconstruction is formulated as an inverse problem solved by iterations and it is robust against most of the systematic problems including cosmic rays and cosmetic defects.

Piskunov, Nikolai

181

Extracting concealed information from groups.  

PubMed

Lie detection procedures are typically aimed at determining guilt or innocence of a single suspect. Serious security threats, however, often involve groups, such as terrorist networks or criminal organizations. In this report, we describe a variant of the skin conductance-based Concealed Information Test (CIT) that allows for the extraction of critical information from such groups. Twelve participants were given information about an upcoming (mock) terrorist attack, with specific instructions not to reveal this information to anyone. Next, each subject was subjected to a CIT, with questions pertaining to the details of the attack. Results showed that for every question, the average skin conductance response to the correct answer option differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those to all other options. These results show that the information about the upcoming attack could be extracted from the group of terror suspects as a whole. PMID:20533975

Meijer, Ewout H; Smulders, Fren T Y; Merckelbach, Harald L G J

2010-11-01

182

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.

2002-11-01

183

Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Internation Flavors and Fragrances Inc. proprietary research technology, Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) utilizes a special fiber needle placed directly next to the bloom of the living flower to collect the fragrance molecules. SPME was used in the Space Flower experiment aboard STS-95 space shuttle mission, after which Dr. Braja Mookherjee (left) and Subha Patel of IFF will analyze the effects of gravity on the Overnight Scentsation rose plant.

1998-01-01

184

Titanium metal: extraction to application  

SciTech Connect

In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2002-09-01

185

DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.  

PubMed

With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP). PMID:24415470

Drábková, Lenka Záveská

2014-01-01

186

Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.  

PubMed

In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

2014-04-15

187

How to Extract DNA From Anything Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics activity, learners discover how to extract DNA from green split peas. This resource guide includes a brief explanation of DNA and provides suggestions for ways to experiment with DNA extraction further.

University of Utah

2008-01-01

188

Extraction of hemicelluloses from fiberized spruce wood.  

PubMed

A novel mechanical pre-treatment method was used to separate the wood chips into fiber bundles in order to extract high molecular weight wood polymers. The mechanical pre-treatment involved chip compression in a conical plug-screw followed by defibration in a fiberizer. The fiberized wood was treated with hot water at various combinations of time and temperature in order to analyze the extraction yield of hemicelluloses at different conditions. Nearly 6mg/g wood of galactoglucomannan was obtained at 90°C/120min which was about three times more than what could be extracted from wood chips. The extracted carbohydrates had molecular weight ranging up to 60kDa. About 10% of each of the extracted material had a molecular weight above 30kDa. The extraction liquor could also be reused for consecutive extractions with successive increase in the extraction yield of hemicelluloses. PMID:25498604

Azhar, Shoaib; Henriksson, Gunnar; Theliander, Hans; Lindström, Mikael E

2015-03-01

189

Antibacterial activity on Citrullus colocynthis Leaf extract.  

PubMed

Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of inhibition measuring 14.0mm. The chloroform leaf extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the chloroform extract was 4.0mm for Escherichia coli. PMID:22557336

Gowri, S Shyamala; Priyavardhini, S; Vasantha, K; Umadevi, M

2009-07-01

190

Advances in Aqueous Extraction Processing of Soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extraction processing technologies, having advanced in recent years, may be a viable alternative to hexane extraction\\u000a to separate oil and protein from soybeans. Different extraction strategies incorporating various modes of comminution, extraction\\u000a buffers, and enzymes allow production of a range of oil and protein products, but also create different processing challenges.\\u000a Processes capable of achieving high free oil yields

K. A. CampbellC; C. E. Glatz; L. A. Johnson; S. Jung; J. M. N. de Moura; V. Kapchie; P. Murphy

2011-01-01

191

Supercritical fluid extraction of dandelion leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amyrin and ?-sitosterol were extracted from dandelion in preparative scale using supercritical carbon dioxide. A 32 full-factorial design was carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure and temperature (over the ranges 150–450 bar and 35–65°C, respectively) on the yields and recoveries of the active components. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared to Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane and

B. Simándi; Sz. T. Kristo; Á. Kéry; L. K. Selmeczi; I. Kmecz; S. Kemény

2002-01-01

192

Study on Ultrasonic Extraction of Gastrodin from Gastrodia elata Bl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrodin, a pharmacologically active constituent, was ultrasonically extracted from gastrodia elata Bl. in the aqueous solution. The effects of six parameters including ethanol–water compositions, extraction time, extraction temperature, particle size, solvent volume, and ultrasonic power on the extraction yield of gastrodin were investigated. According to the orthogonal design, the optimal extraction conditions was explored as extraction temperature 60°C, extraction time

Long Yue; Feng Zhang; Zhixiang Wang

2010-01-01

193

SchoolFEFLOW Exercise Heat extraction  

E-print Network

projection #12;Summer SchoolHeat extraction from sloped aquifer 5 Flow Problem - Material parameters · Global the flux: q = 0.15 m/d Pumping (heat extraction) from aquifer and re-injection (of cooled waterSummer SchoolFEFLOW® Exercise Heat extraction from a sloped sandstone aquifer Vertical cross

Kornhuber, Ralf

194

Process for extracting materials from biological material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is directed to a process for extracting materials from biological material, which process is characterized in that the naturally occurring biological material is treated with an extractant consisting of a deep eutectic solvent of natural origin or a an ionic liquid of natural origin to produce a biological extract of natural origin dissolved in the said solvent or

J. Van Spronsen; G. J. Witkamp; F. Hollman; Y. H. Choi; R. Verpoorte

2011-01-01

195

Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic contents of five citrus peels (Yen Ben lemon, Meyer lemon, grapefruit, mandarin and orange) extracted by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction were evaluated using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The main parameters that affected the yield of phenolics include the condition of the peels, temperature of the extraction, types of enzymes, enzyme concentration and species of citrus. Generally, grapefruit peel had

B. B. Li; B. Smith

2006-01-01

196

Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic contents of five citrus peels (Yen Ben lemon, Meyer lemon, grapefruit, mandarin and orange) extracted either by ethanol or by simple aqueous extraction were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and compared. The main parameters that affected the yield of phenolics included the condition of the peels, temperature of the extraction, solvent concentration and species of citrus. Generally,

B. B. Li; B. Smith

2006-01-01

197

COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)  

EPA Science Inventory

Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

198

SNS Extraction Kicker System Impedance Estimate  

E-print Network

SNS Extraction Kicker System Impedance Estimate BNL/SNS Technical Note No. 140 H. Hahn November 10 Extraction Kicker System Impedance Estimate H. Hahn Introduction The recent availability of production SNS extraction kickers, three large-aperture magnets and one small- aperture magnet suggests to review and update

199

Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

Krasnov, I. V.

1977-01-01

200

Term extraction: A Review Draft Version 091221  

E-print Network

Term extraction: A Review Draft Version 091221 Lars Ahrenberg Linköping University Department state-of-the-art in term extraction. We consider both mono-lingual and multi-lingual term extraction, and single-word as well as multi-word terms. The review is restricted to methods, however, and so does

Ahrenberg, Lars

201

MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction  

E-print Network

MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction · DNA was extracted from the ileo-cecal nodes of 475 Holstein cows from two herds using the Qiagen DNA extraction kit (Valencia, CA). 2) Map detection · Map is estimated to be present in 67% of US dairy herds and results in significant economic loss. A 70kb region

Collins, Gary S.

202

Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

Compton, L.

1982-01-01

203

Comparison of two methods of extracting carbohydrates from microalgae.  

E-print Network

??The Chlorella provides possible source of high levels of carbohydrates. Two methods (conventional solvent extraction and macroporous resin based extraction) of extracting carbohydrates from Chlorella… (more)

Zhou, Shixiao.

2012-01-01

204

Liquid--liquid extraction apparatus. [for extracting mercaptans from hydrocarbon over wide range of flow rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

High efficiency in extraction operations, such as extracting mercaptans from hydrocarbons with caustic, is obtained over a wide range of flow rates through a single extraction column by the provision of an intermediate product drawoff means located between a downstream section of extraction trays having greatest efficiency at low throughputs and an upstream section of trays having peak efficiency at

Christman

1977-01-01

205

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic

PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY; AWANG BONO

206

Effect of serial extraction alone on crowding: Spontaneous changes in dentition after serial extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined changes in dentition after serial extraction in subjects who wore no appliances to determine the relationships between changes in dentition and improvement in dental crowding. Mandibular dental casts and lateral cephalograms from 31 subjects who had undergone serial extraction without orthodontic treatment were analyzed at 3 stages: before extraction of the deciduous canines (T1), after extraction of first

Toshihiro Yoshihara; Yuko Matsumoto; Junichi Suzuki; Naoshi Sato; Haruhisa Oguchi

2000-01-01

207

Decision boundary feature extraction for neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a new feature extraction method for neural networks. The method is based on the recently published decision boundary feature extraction algorithm. It has been shown that all the necessary features for classification can be extracted from the decision boundary. To apply the decision boundary feature extraction method, we first define the decision boundary in neural networks. Next, we propose a procedure for extracting all the necessary features for classification from the decision boundary. The proposed algorithm preserves the characteristics of neural networks, which can define arbitrary decision boundary. Experiments show promising results.

Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

1992-01-01

208

Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 microgml of dry extract. E. angustifolium and E. rosmarinifolium had the most broad spectrum of action inhibiting bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The extracts were devoid of toxicity on Artemia salina within the range of antimicrobial concentrations, suggesting that the action is selective on microorganisms. PMID:11482755

Battinelli, L; Tita, B; Evandri, M G; Mazzanti, G

2001-01-01

209

Automatic extraction of planetary image features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

2013-01-01

210

Homeopathic preparations to control the rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.).  

PubMed

A laboratory model system with the rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.) on apple seedlings was developed to study the effects of homeopathic preparations on this apple pest. The assessment included the substance Lycopodium clavatum and a nosode of the rosy apple aphid. Each preparation was applied on the substrate surface as aqueous solution of granules (6c, 15c, or 30c). Controls were aqueous solutions of placebo granules or pure water. In eight independent, randomized, and blinded experiments under standardized conditions in growth chambers, the development of aphids on treated and untreated apple seedlings was observed over 17 days, each. Six experiments were determined to assess the effects of a strict therapeutic treatment; two experiments were designed to determine the effects of a combined preventative and therapeutic treatment. After application of the preparations, the number of juvenile offspring and the damage on apple seedlings were assessed after 7 and 17 days, respectively. In addition, after 17 days, the seedling weight was measured. In the final evaluation of the six strictly therapeutic trials after 17 days, the number of juvenile offspring was reduced after application of L. clavatum 15c (-17%, p = 0.002) and nosode 6c (-14%, p = 0.02) compared to the pure water control. No significant effects were observed for leaf damage or fresh weight for any application. In the two experiments with combined preventative and therapeutic treatment, no significant effects were observed in any measured parameter. Homeopathic remedies may be effective in plant-pest systems. The magnitude of observed effects seems to be larger than in models with healthy plants, which renders plant-pest systems promising candidates for homeopathic basic research. For successful application in agriculture, however, the effect is not yet sufficient. This calls for further optimization concerning homeopathic remedy selection, potency level, dosage, and application routes. PMID:20062949

Wyss, Eric; Tamm, Lucius; Siebenwirth, Joachim; Baumgartner, Stephan

2010-01-01

211

Guava leaf extract and topical haemostasis.  

PubMed

The effects of guava leaf extract on the bleeding time and the three main mechanisms of haemostasis: vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and blood coagulation, were investigated. The water extract of guava leaves did not shorten bleeding times in rats. Guava leaf extract potentiated the vascular muscle contraction induced in rabbits by phenylephrine, and when given alone it stimulated human platelet aggregation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, it significantly prolonged blood coagulation; activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test (p < 0.05). The higher the concentration of the extract, the longer APTT was observed. Thus, a water extract of guava leaves showed ambiguous effects on the haemostatic system. Guava leaf extract did not affect bleeding times, it stimulated vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation but it inhibited blood coagulation. Therefore, guava leaf extract is not recommended as a haemostatic agent. PMID:10925412

Jaiarj, P; Wongkrajang, Y; Thongpraditchote, S; Peungvicha, P; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Opartkiattikul, N

2000-08-01

212

Parameter extraction and transistor models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using specified mathematical models of the MOSFET device, the optimal values of the model-dependent parameters were extracted from data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Three MOSFET models, all one-dimensional were used. One of the models took into account diffusion (as well as convection) currents. The sensitivity of the models was assessed for variations of the parameters from their optimal values. Lines of future inquiry are suggested on the basis of the behavior of the devices, of the limitations of the proposed models, and of the complexity of the required numerical investigations.

Rykken, Charles; Meiser, Verena; Turner, Greg; Wang, QI

1985-01-01

213

Extracting Information about Jane Austen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

View a variety of web sources to learn more about the author Jane Austen and determine the sources' credibility. Learn how to extract and record information about Austen by using a variety of methods and then convey that information while avoiding plagiarism. GOAL This assignment will help you to gain more information about Jane Austen, whom you have been studying in your AP English class, as well as utilizing and extending your knowledge of the following: 1. Credibility of different sources 2. Note-taking methods 3. Using the MLA guidelines At the end of this assignment you will ...

Anderson, Mrs.

2009-11-30

214

Burried broken extraction instrument fragment  

PubMed Central

Despite adequate effort to perform tooth removal carefully, some accidents may happen when defective instruments are unknowingly used. This article reports of a non-symptomatic case of a retained fractured dental elevator tip during an uneventful extraction a decade earlier. Patient was not aware till routine radiographic examination revealed its presence. Use of three dimensional imaging techniques in this case is highlighted. Rarely, instruments breakage may occur during surgical procedures. It is duty of the dentists to check the surgical instrument for signs of breakage and be prepared to solve a possible emergency. Retained fragments should be carefully studied prior to attempt of removal. PMID:23662269

Balaji, S. M.

2013-01-01

215

Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

Koumpis, Konstantinos

216

Extracting Protein Interactions from Text with the Unified AkaneRE Event Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, relation extraction (RE) and event extraction (EE) are the two main streams of biological information extraction. In 2009, the majority of these RE and EE research efforts were centered around the BioCreative II.5 Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) challenge and the “BioNLP event extraction shared task.” Although these challenges took somewhat different approaches, they share the same ultimate goal of extracting

Rune Sætre; Kazuhiro Yoshida; Makoto Miwa; Takuya Matsuzaki; Yoshinobu Kano; Jun'ichi Tsujii

2010-01-01

217

Valuable compounds in macroalgae extracts.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds present in ethanolic extracts from 18 macroalgae of the Portuguese coast were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the characterization of 14 compounds: proline, phloroglucinol, mannitol, 8 fatty acids and 3 sterols. A dose-dependent response against enzymes with biological significance (?-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) and free radicals (DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl) was found, Phaeophyta being the most promising group. A PCA analysis was performed and allowed the establishment of a correlation between the algae chemical composition and the biological activity. Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus are among the most active species, which is in accordance with their higher contents in phloroglucinol, mannitol, oleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, and fucosterol. The results point to the potential interest of the use of Phaeophyta species as food additives, due to their potent antiradical activities, and especially highlights the importance of F. spiralis in the food chain of Mediterranean countries. Moreover, the incorporation of the extracts of these species in food products, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations for human health should also be instigated, since they can suppress hyperglycemia and inhibit cholinesterases. PMID:23411314

Andrade, Paula B; Barbosa, Mariana; Matos, Rui Pedro; Lopes, Graciliana; Vinholes, Juliana; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

2013-06-01

218

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

2008-12-01

219

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

PubMed

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

2011-08-01

220

Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.  

PubMed

A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. PMID:23578626

Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

2013-09-01

221

Selective extraction of Cyclopia for enhanced in vitro phytoestrogenicity and benchmarking against commercial phytoestrogen extracts.  

PubMed

Previous work established the phytoestrogenicity of "unfermented"Cyclopia (honeybush) extracts. The current study investigated the phytoestrogenicity of four Cyclopia harvestings (M6-9) for preparation of extracts with enhanced phytoestrogenicity for benchmarking against commercial preparations. Two extracts, from M6 (C. subternata) and M7 (C. genistoides), were identified as most phytoestrogenic using estrogen receptor binding, an estrogen receptor response element containing promoter reporter assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, and E-screen. M6 and M7 were sequentially and non-sequentially extracted with five solvents of differing polarities. Additionally, two extracts were prepared in the traditional way of preparing a cup of honeybush tea. The resultant 22 extracts were evaluated for estrogenicity. Select extracts were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The sequentially extracted M6 methanol extract (SM6Met) had the highest potency and the sequentially extracted M6 ethyl acetate extract (SM6EAc) had the highest efficacy of all the extracts. The HPLC results suggested enrichment of luteolin in SM6EAc and enrichment of an unidentified polyphenol in SM6Met. Benchmarking against four commercial phytoestrogenic preparations suggest that in terms of the assays used, Cyclopia extracts have comparable potency and efficacy to the commercial extracts and thus have potential as marketable phytoestrogenic nutraceuticals. PMID:18793725

Mfenyana, Ciko; DeBeer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Louw, Ann

2008-11-01

222

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22?h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by

Vassiliki G. Kontogianni; Ioannis P. Gerothanassis

2011-01-01

223

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22?h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by

Vassiliki G. Kontogianni; Ioannis P. Gerothanassis

2012-01-01

224

Ultrasonic extraction and separation of anthraquinones from Rheum palmatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrasonic nebulization extraction (UNE) was developed and applied to extract anthraquinones (emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein) from Rheum palmatum L. Several parameters of UNE, including type of extraction solvent, concentration of extraction solvent, volume of extraction solvent, extraction time and ultrasonic power, were studied and the optimized parameters were selected. The operation conditions of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) were

Lu Wang; Dan Li; Changli Bao; Jingyan You; Ziming Wang; Yuhua Shi; Hanqi Zhang

2008-01-01

225

Decision Boundary Feature Extraction for Nonparametric Classification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feature extraction has long been an important topic in pattern recognition. Although many authors have studied feature extraction for parametric classifiers, relatively few feature extraction algorithms are available for nonparametric classifiers. A new feature extraction algorithm based on decision boundaries for nonparametric classifiers is proposed. It is noted that feature extraction for pattern recognition is equivalent to retaining 'discriminantly informative features' and a discriminantly informative feature is related to the decision boundary. Since nonparametric classifiers do not define decision boundaries in analytic form, the decision boundary and normal vectors must be estimated numerically. A procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary for non-parametric classification is proposed. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm finds effective features for the nonparametric classifier with Parzen density estimation.

Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

1993-01-01

226

Degradation of organothiophosphorous extractant Cyanex 301.  

PubMed

The resistance of extractants to light is important during industrial extraction processes. A photodegradation of the organothiophosphorous extractant Cyanex 301 in toluene and hexane as organic diluent and the identification of possible degradation products using FT-IR and GC-MS techniques were performed. The influence of copper(II) and cobalt(II) ions on the stability of the extractant under UV-vis light exposure was also studied. The changes in the percentage composition of individual components of the extractant depended on the types of organic diluents and copper or cobalt ions. During this process, copper complex irradiation precipitation of black powder and photooxidation of toluene were observed. Based on these results we proposed a hypothetical mechanism of photodegradation of extractant Cyanex 301. PMID:21664046

Wieszczycka, Karolina; Tomczyk, Wiktoria

2011-08-30

227

Attribute Extraction from Conjectural Queries  

E-print Network

Conjectural search queries (is python case sensitive, is millennium stadium heated) embody attempts by Web users to verify whether a particular property (soluble in water?, case sensitive?, heated?) does or does not apply to a particular instance (iodine, python, millennium stadium). This paper considers such queries to be a data source of attributes of open-domain classes. Conjectural attributes complement attributes encoded in human-compiled knowledge resources or automatically acquired from text by previous methods. They correspond to properties of interest to Web users, which are not necessarily stated in nominal form. Relevant properties of Chemical elements, Programming languages and Stadiums include whether they are soluble in water, flammable or ductile; case sensitive, platform independent, or interpreted; or air conditioned, roof retractable or heated, respectively. Experimental results show that relevant, conjectural attributes can be extracted from inherently-noisy queries, for a variety of open-domain classes of interest.

Marius Pasca

2012-01-01

228

Extractive fermentation of acetic acid  

SciTech Connect

In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1991-12-31

229

Antidiabetic effects of extracts from Psidium guajava  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a screening of medicinal plants for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B), an extract from Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) leaves exhibited significant inhibitory effect on PTP1B. Thus, its antidiabetic effect on Leprdb\\/Leprdb mice was evaluated. Significant blood glucose lowering effects of the extract were observed after intraperitoneal injection of the extract at a dose of 10mg\\/kg in both 1- and

Won Keun Oh; Chul Ho Lee; Myung Sun Lee; Eun Young Bae; Cheon Bae Sohn; Hyuncheol Oh; Bo Yeon Kim; Jong Seog Ahn

2005-01-01

230

Detecting Corn Syrup in Barley Malt Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 78(3):349-353 Methods for detecting corn syrup in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malt extract were evaluated. Twelve samples representative of commercially available 2-rowed and 6-rowed malting barleys were malted. Extracts prepared from the finely ground malts were analyzed for 13 C\\/ 12 C ratios, Malt extract is produced from malted barley and used in the formulation of foodstuffs, where

David M. Peterson; Allen D. Budde; Cynthia A. Henson; Berne L. Jones

2001-01-01

231

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-print Network

, .. ~ REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN,EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION A. C. Saxena V. A. Bhandari Polysar Limited Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Abstract Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C. hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower... not affect tower stability and the operators h~,e adapted well to the new control strategy. INTRODUCTION For its rubber manufacturing operations at Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, Polysar Limited extracts butadiene 1:3 from a mixed C. hydrocarbon feed...

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

232

Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems  

SciTech Connect

Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

Neuman, R.D.

1993-01-01

233

Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 ?g\\/ml of

Lucia Battinelli; Beatrice Tita; Maria Grazia Evandri; Gabriela Mazzanti

2001-01-01

234

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

SciTech Connect

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1991-12-31

235

Comparisons of Soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction for environmental solids: recovery, selectivity and effects on sample matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°C with pure CO2), and subcritical water (1 h at 250°C, or 30 min at 300°C). Although minor differences in recoveries

Steven B Hawthorne; Carol B Grabanski; Esther Martin; David J Miller

2000-01-01

236

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOEpatents

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01

237

Comparison of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of the Artemisia sp. Recovered by Different Extraction Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts obtained by classical, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extractions from dry aerial parts of two Artemisia species (Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia campestris) were compared. Ultrasound positively affected the yield of extractive substance and the kinetics of extraction, but the extract obtained by the classical extraction showed the highest antioxidant activities and contained

Ivana Karabegovi?; Milena Nikolova; Dragan Veli?kovi?; Saša Stoji?evi?; Vlada Veljkovi?; Miodrag Lazi?

2011-01-01

238

Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

Skarnemark, G.

239

Accurate contour extraction from mask SEM image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contour extraction of complicated optical proximity correction (OPC) patterns for advanced photomasks is increasingly needed in addition to the conventional mask CD measurement. The lithography simulation based on contour extraction from the SEM images on photomasks is one of the efficient methods to assure adequacy of OPC patterns. In this paper, the function of the above-mentioned contour extraction, and the performance requirements for the CD-SEM for this function using Mask CD-SEM 'Z7', the latest product of HOLON, and the scheme to correct the distortion are explained. Furthermore, the perspectives of the application of our contour extraction method are outlined.

Santo, Izumi; Higuchi, Akira; Anazawa, Mirai; Bandoh, Hideaki

2014-04-01

240

A Study of Terpeneless Lemon Extracts  

E-print Network

approximately the same citral content. They are Lemon Extract and Terpeneless Lemon Extract. These extracts are both standardized by the government* Lemon extract, so labeled, which is placed on the market must, in order to comply with the Kansas Pure Pood... with dilute alcohol,U.S.P., or by dissolving terpeneless oil of lemon in dilute alcohol,U.S.P., and contains not less than two-tenths (0.2) per cent, by weight of citral derived from oil of lemon." By U.S.P. 2 is meant 5oX alcohol. The terpenes can...

Spilman, C. Clay

1912-01-01

241

Ionic liquid extraction systems utilizing ion recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic liquids have attracted much attention as the third liquid because they possess different properties from those of water and organic solvents. Their unique properties have encouraged us to develop liquid-liquid extraction systems using ionic liquids as extracting media. In this review, we describe metal ion and protein extractions in ionic liquid-water biphasic systems using the size recognition ability of macrocyclic compounds. Furthermore, we report the potential utility of ionic liquids as novel reaction media for biological catalysis with proteins extracted.

Shimojo, Kojiro; Goto, Masahiro

242

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

243

Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

2013-07-01

244

Antimutagenicity of extracts of Hericium erinaceus.  

PubMed

Hericium erinaceus is valuable in the diet and in medical treatment. It contains water-soluble polysaccharides that have been found to enhance immunity and which show anti-artificial pulmonary metastatic tumor effects. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of the mycelium and fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus were examined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 to screen for antimutagenic effects against 5 mutagens: AFB1, B[a]P, Glu-P-1, NQNO, and Trp-P-1. We found that both extracts have the strongest antimutagenic activity against Trp-P-1, followed by Glu-P-1, B[a]P-1, AFB1, and finally NQNO. In addition, the antimutagenicity of the extracts was produced in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 200 ppm, both extracts showed the highest inhibitory action. However, the linear correlation indicated that concentration-activity relationship was not significant (p > 0.05). In addition, extracts showed less antimutagenicity after heat treatment (p < 0.05). This suggests that the antimutagenicity of the extracts is heat-labile. The ethanol extract from mycelium or fruiting body had better antimutagenic effects than did the water extract (p < 0.05). Also, the extract from the fruiting body had better antimutagenic effects than did that from the mycelium. PMID:11517861

Wang, J C; Hu, S H; Lee, W L; Tsai, L Y

2001-05-01

245

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

246

Dense gases for extraction and refining  

SciTech Connect

Procedures for extracting or refining sensitive substances using dense gases have been developed for numerous purposes. Applications have been tested on the laboratory or pilot plant scales and shown to be mostly economical. Uses as varied as the non-aggressive extraction of spice, extraction of polymers, refining of spent oil, pyrolysis/extraction of wood and liquefaction of coal show the extremely wide range of application. The book reviews the present state of development and features examples of application of this new technique.

Stahl, E.; Quirin, K.W.; Gerard, D.

1987-01-01

247

Image segmentation by background extraction refinements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

1990-01-01

248

DNA Extraction and Quantitation for Forensic Analysts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is part of the President's DNA Initiative and is devoted to the methodology for the extraction and quantification of DNA obtained from crime scene evidence. The site is designed as an on-line short course. The site identifies potential obstacles in the collection, extraction, and amplification of DNA. Extraction methods covered are organic, Chelex, and other extraction procedures. The site reviews inhibitors of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process and suggests methods for separating these inhibitors from the sample DNA. The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used methods for DNA are reviewed. The user must register and secure a readily obtainable password prior to entering the site.

249

Extraction Of Emissivities From Thermal Infrared Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents evaluation of two techniques for processing multispectral data. One technique for extraction of emissivity data called "model emittance calculation." Other technique called "thermal log residuals."

Hook, Simon J.; Kahle, Anne B.

1994-01-01

250

Extraction of PCBs and water from river sediment using liquefied dimethyl ether as an extractant.  

PubMed

We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and water could be simultaneously removed from river sediment by solvent extraction using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant. DME exists in a gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and can dissolve organic substances and some amount of water; therefore, liquefied DME under moderate pressure (0.6-0.8 MPa) at room temperature can be effectively used to extract PCBs and water from contaminated sediment, and it can be recovered from the extract and reused easily. First, we evaluated the PCB and water extraction characteristics of DME from contaminated sediment. We found that 99% of PCBs and 97% of water were simultaneously extracted from the sediment using liquefied DME at an extraction time of 4320 s and a liquefied DME/sediment ratio of 60 mL g(-1). The extraction rate of PCBs and water was expressed in terms of a pseudo-first-order reaction rate. Second, we estimated the amount of DME that was recovered after extraction. We found that 91-92% of DME could be recovered. In other words, approximately 5-10% of DME was lost during extraction and recovery. It is necessary to optimize this process in order to recover DME efficiently. The extraction efficiency of the recovered DME is similar to that of the pure DME. From the results, we conclude that solvent extraction using liquefied DME is suitable for extracting PCBs and water from contaminated sediment. PMID:20044120

Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takaoka, Masaki; Kitade, Sin-ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Kanda, Hideki; Makino, Hisao; Matsumoto, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

2010-02-01

251

University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.  

PubMed

We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030

Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

2014-12-01

252

Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

2010-01-01

253

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

...RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this...

2014-07-01

254

30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

255

30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

256

30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

257

30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

258

30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

259

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

260

30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

261

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

262

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

263

30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

264

30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

265

30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

266

Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to modify the Mehlich 2 (M2) extractant to include Cu among the extractable nutrients, retain or enhance the wide range of soils for which it is suitable and minimize it's corrosive properties. The substitution of nitrate for chloride anions and the addition of EDTA accomplished those objectives. The new extracting solution, already designated Mehlich

A. Mehlich

1984-01-01

267

Modifications to the new soil extractant H3A-1: A multinutrient extractant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new soil extractant (H3A-1) with the ability to extract NH4-N, NO3-N, and P from soil was originally developed and tested against 32 soils, which varied greatly in clay content, organic C, and soil pH (Haney et al. 2006). The use of H3A eliminates the need for multiple soil extractants when analyz...

268

A REVIEW OF THIRD PHASE FORMATION IN EXTRACTION OF ACTINIDES BY NEUTRAL ORGANOPHOSPHORUS EXTRACTANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are reviewed on the formation of third phase in the extraction of acti-nide(IV.VI) nitrates by neutral organophosphorus extractants, mainly tributyl phosphate. The data are critically evaluated and the effect of variables on the third phase formation is discussed. The variables are the concentrations of nitric acid and the extractant, temperature, the nature of diluent, addition of modifiers and the

P. R. Vasudeva Rao; Zdenek Kolarik

1996-01-01

269

Investigation of Oleuropein Content in Olive Leaf Extract Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Soxhlet Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation processes of the phenolic compounds from solid plant matrixes are of great importance. In the scope of developing more efficient methods to separate olive leaf extract, dried and ground olive tree leaves from Aegean region of Turkey were extracted by means of soxhlet and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) methods. In the soxhlet method, different types of solvents (hexane,

Selin ?ahin; Mehmet Bilgin; Mehmet Umur Dramur

2011-01-01

270

Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Infusions of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries, but to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken so far to determine the possible mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic properties of the fruit. The present study was designed to investigate whether these fruits possess insulinotropic effects. For this purpose, different extracts of Citrullus colocynthis seed components were obtained: RN II (crude extract), RN VI (hydro-alcoholic extract), RN X (purified extract) and RN XVII (beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine), the major free amino acid present in the seeds. The insulin secretory effects of these different extracts were evaluated in vitro in the isolated rat pancreas and isolated rat islets in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. All tested extracts, when perfused for 20 min at 0.1 mg/ml, immediately and significantly stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was transient. In addition, the purified extract (RN X) provoked a clear dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated islets. Moreover, a significant and persistant increase in pancreatic flow rate appeared during RN VI, RN X and RN XVII perfusions. In conclusion, our results show that different Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts have an insulinotropic effect which could at least partially account for the antidiabetic activities of these fruits. PMID:10909260

Nmila, R; Gross, R; Rchid, H; Roye, M; Manteghetti, M; Petit, P; Tijane, M; Ribes, G; Sauvaire, Y

2000-06-01

271

Biomedical Relation Extraction: From Binary to Complex  

PubMed Central

Biomedical relation extraction aims to uncover high-quality relations from life science literature with high accuracy and efficiency. Early biomedical relation extraction tasks focused on capturing binary relations, such as protein-protein interactions, which are crucial for virtually every process in a living cell. Information about these interactions provides the foundations for new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, more interests have been shifted to the extraction of complex relations such as biomolecular events. While complex relations go beyond binary relations and involve more than two arguments, they might also take another relation as an argument. In the paper, we conduct a thorough survey on the research in biomedical relation extraction. We first present a general framework for biomedical relation extraction and then discuss the approaches proposed for binary and complex relation extraction with focus on the latter since it is a much more difficult task compared to binary relation extraction. Finally, we discuss challenges that we are facing with complex relation extraction and outline possible solutions and future directions. PMID:25214883

Zhong, Dayou

2014-01-01

272

Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

1969-01-01

273

Extracting Coactivated Features from Multiple Data Sets  

E-print Network

Extracting Coactivated Features from Multiple Data Sets Michael U. Gutmann and Aapo Hyv¨arinen Dept generalization of Canonical Corre- lation Analysis (CCA) to find related structure in multiple data sets. The new method allows to analyze an arbitrary number of data sets, and the extracted features capture higher

Gutmann, Michael

274

Extracting Coactivated Features from Multiple Data Sets  

E-print Network

Extracting Coactivated Features from Multiple Data Sets Michael U. Gutmann and Aapo Hyv¨arinen Dept of Canonical Corre- lation Analysis (CCA) to find related structure in multiple data sets. The new method allows to analyze an arbitrary number of data sets, and the extracted features capture higher

Hyvärinen, Aapo

275

SURVEY OF WATER EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS IN MANURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-extractable phosphorus (P) in manure is strongly related to dissolved P in runoff from soils receiving recent additions of manure. A survey of water-extractable P concentrations in manures submitted to Penn State University's Agricultural Analytical Services Laboratory was conducted. Results r...

276

Direct supercritical fluid extraction from water  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of apparatus suitable for direct supercritical fluid extraction of organics from water. Results are presented for the extraction of pentachlorophenol present in water at concentrations of the order of 0.1 ppm. The effect of changes in apparatus design and supercritical fluid flow rate on recovery are discussed.

Brewer, S.E.; Kruus, P. [Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Chemistry Dept.

1993-12-01

277

Testbed for information extraction from deep web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search results generated by searchable databases are served dynamically and far larger than the static documents on the Web. These results pages have been referred to as the Deep Web. We need to extract the target data in results pages to integrate them on different searchable databases. We propose a test bed for information extraction from search results. We chose

Yasuhiro Yamada; Nick Craswell; Tetsuya Nakatoh; Sachio Hirokawa

2004-01-01

278

Data Extraction from Deep Web Pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel model to extract data from Deep Web pages. The model has four layers, among which the access schedule, extraction layer and data cleaner are based on the rules of structure, logic and application. In the experiment section, we apply the new model to three intelligent system, scientific paper retrieval, electronic ticket ordering and

Jufeng Yang; Guangshun Shi; Yan Zheng; Qingren Wang

2007-01-01

279

Theobromine and Caffeine Recovery with Solvent Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chloroform extraction process was developed for recovery of theobromine and caffeine from the effluent of a theobromine synthesis plant. The product distributions in the extraction process were studied experimentally. In a chloroform–water system, the caffeine distribution ratio was about 15 and was not affected by pH in the 2 to 12 range, while the distribution ratio of theobromine was

Xien Hu; Xuejun Wan; Rongsheng Bal; Huiwen Yang

2003-01-01

280

Soil moisture by extraction and gas chromatography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine moisture content of soils rapidly and conveniently extract moisture with methanol and determine water content of methanol extract by gas chromatography. Moisture content of sample is calculated from weight of water and methanol in aliquot and weight of methanol added to sample.

Merek, E. L.; Carle, G. C.

1973-01-01

281

SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY MANUFACTURE STATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are fourteen PFN power supplies, which will be installed in the SNS Extraction Kicker System. The Pulse Forming Network (PFN) power supplies for the SNS Extraction kicker were designed by Brookhaven. The basic configuration of the PFN is a lumped element Blumlein pulse forming network (BPFN). The PFN and power supply are fabricated by Applied Power Systems. The first-article

Jian-Lin Mi; H. Hahn; R. Lambiase; Y. Y. Lee; C. Pai; J. Sandberg; Y. Tan; N. Tsoupas; D. Warburton; R. Zapasek; W. Zhang

2004-01-01

282

SNS EXTRACTION FAST KICKER PULSED POWER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a next generation high intensity beam facility. The extraction kicker system is a high peak power, high average power, high precision pulse-waveform, low beam impedance, and high repetition rate pulsed power system. It has been successfully design and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system consists of fourteen extraction magnet sections inside the ring

W. Zhang; J. Sandberg; H. Hahn; C. Pai; Y. Tan; N. Tsoupas; J. Tuozzolo; D. Warburton; J. Wei; K. Rust; R. Cutler

2004-01-01

283

DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

2010-01-01

284

Extracting Semistructured Information from the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a configurable tool for extracting semistructured data from a set of HTML pages and for converting the extracted information into database objects. The input to the extractor is a declarative specification that states where the data of interest is located on the HTML pages, and how the data should be \\

J. Hammer; H. Garcia-Molina; J. Cho; R. Aranha; Arturo Crespo

1997-01-01

285

Feature Extraction for DNA Microarray Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we perform wavelet analysis on high dimensional microarray data. We perform two methods of feature extraction on microarray data, using approximation coefficients and detail coefficients. A set of orthogonal wavelet approximation coefficients based on wavelet decomposition are extracted to compress the gene profiles and reduce the dimensionality of microarray data. A set of orthogonal wavelet detail coefficients

Yihui Liu

2007-01-01

286

Recent patents on the extraction of carotenoids.  

PubMed

This article reviews the patents that have been presented during the last decade related to the extraction of carotenoids from various forms of organic matter (fruit, vegetables, animals), with an emphasis on the methods and mechanisms exploited by these technologies, and on technical solutions for the practical problems related to these technologies. I present and classify 29 methods related to the extraction processes (physical, mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic). The large number of processes for extraction by means of supercritical fluids and the growing number of large-scale industrial plants suggest a positive trend towards using this technique that is currently slowed by its cost. This trend should be reinforced by growing restrictions imposed on the use of most organic solvents for extraction of food products and by increasingly strict waste management regulations that are indirectly promoting the use of extraction processes that leave the residual (post-extraction) matrix substantially free from solvents and compounds that must subsequently be removed or treated. None of the reviewed approaches is the best answer for every extractable compound and source, so each should be considered as one of several alternatives, including the use of a combination of extraction approaches. PMID:20653552

Riggi, Ezio

2010-01-01

287

REALTIME MINUTIAE EXTRACTION IN FINGERPRINT IMAGES  

E-print Network

REAL­TIME MINUTIAE EXTRACTION IN FINGERPRINT IMAGES J C Amengual, A Juan, J C P'erez, F Prat, S S of the most important tasks in an Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), Mehtre and Chatterjee (3). The characteris­ tics to be extracted in a given fingerprint image can be divided into two main categories: global

Juan, Alfons

288

Extracting windows registry information from physical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Windows registry from physical memory contains lots of important information that are of potential evidential value in forensic analysis. In this paper, a method of extracting windows registry information from physical memory has been proposed. The algorithm for extracting the hive files from memory is presented and mainly composed of the following steps: judging the version of operating system, acquiring

Shuhui Zhang; Lianhai Wang; Lei Zhang

2011-01-01

289

Extraction of phenolic compounds from soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the composition and amount of phenolic inputs from plants is important for studies of soil organic matter formation and nutrient cycling. However, some phenolic compounds, including tannins, can sorb or complex with the soil making them difficult to extract. We extracted soils with a...

290

Anomalous solvent extraction behavior of astatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the solvent extraction behavior of astatine and found the anomalous behavior of this element similar to radioiodine. Astatine was extracted into CS2 from acidic solution over a wide range of carrier iodine concentration. The distribution ratios of astatine were determined by measuring the -ray from 210 At with a Nal(TI) detector. A drastic change was observed around at

N. Takahashi; H. Baba

1997-01-01

291

A Language Model Approach to Keyphrase Extraction  

E-print Network

We present a new approach to extracting keyphrases based on statistical language models. Our approach is to use pointwise KL-divergence between multiple language models for scoring both phraseness and informativeness, which can be unified into a single score to rank extracted phrases.

Takashi Tomokiyo; Matthew Hurst

2003-01-01

292

REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

293

Language extraction from zinc sulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

Varn, Dowman Parks

2001-09-01

294

Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

2012-05-01

295

Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract  

PubMed Central

An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from chicory extract administered orally at 70, 350, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Since there were no observed adverse effects of chicory extract in these studies, the NOAEL for the extract is 1000 mg/kg/g administered orally for 28 days. PMID:17306431

Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

2013-01-01

296

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

1986-02-01

297

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

1986-02-01

298

Comparison of conventional extraction under reflux conditions and microwave-assisted extraction of oil from popcorn.  

PubMed

Popcorn offers an environmentally friendly alternative to the commercial synthetic loose-fill packing materials. Popcorn could be used for cushioning purposes if the oil is extracted after the popping process. Conventional and microwave-assisted extraction methods were used for oil extraction from whole and ground, popped and unpopped kernels. The conventional extraction method achieved 68.5% oil recovery from whole popped kernels. However, whole unpopped kernels were not efficiently de-oiled with either of the methods. Extraction of oil from popped kernels is recommended; corn varieties with higher starch content and lower oil content should be used. PMID:18161415

Cheng, Hoi Po; Dai, Jianming; Nemes, Simona; Raghavan, G S Vijaya

2007-01-01

299

Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines  

SciTech Connect

The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

2011-10-17

300

Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.  

PubMed

Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150°C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100°C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150°C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. PMID:25442573

Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

2015-04-01

301

Enzyme-assisted hexane extraction of soya bean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzymatic treatment with carbohydrases was performed either simultaneously with or prior to the hexane extraction of oil from soya grits. The enzymatic treatment increased the oil extractability by 5% of the extractable oil when it was carried out simultaneously with the oil extraction and 8–10% if the treatment was carried out prior to the solvent extraction. For this latter

H. Domínguez; M. J. Núñez; J. M. Lema

1995-01-01

302

Implementing web data extraction and making Mashup with Xtractorz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementing web data extraction means we can directly extract data from various web pages, where they mostly formed in an unstructured HTML format, into a new structured format such as XML or XHTML. In this paper we review the implementation of web data extraction and stages in making a Mashup. We implement web data extraction by visually extract targeted data

Rudy A. G. Gultom; Riri Fitri Sari; Bagio Budiardjo

2010-01-01

303

Microwave-assisted solvent extraction of environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, microwave-assisted extraction has attracted growing interest as it allows rapid extractions of solutes from solid matrices, with extraction efficiency comparable to that of the classical techniques. In particular, numerous applications of this recent technique deal with the extraction of pollutants from environmental samples. This review gives a brief presentation of the theory of microwave and extraction systems,

Valérie Camel

2000-01-01

304

Extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by mechanical shaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shaking extraction method for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was developed and compared to Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet extraction is an EPA-approved method for volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants from solid materials, but it has many disadvantages including long extraction periods and potential loss of volatile compounds. When field-moist soils are used, variability in subsamples is higher, and the extraction of

A. P. Schwab; J. Su; S. Wetzel; S. Pekarek; M. K. Banks

1999-01-01

305

Confidence Estimation Methods for Partially Supervised Relation Extraction  

E-print Network

Confidence Estimation Methods for Partially Supervised Relation Extraction Eugene Agichtein is a family of partially-supervised re- lation extraction systems that require little manual training. However problem in information extraction is how to train an extraction system for an extraction task of inter

Agichtein, Eugene

306

Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ? -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

307

Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.  

PubMed

Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins. PMID:21049524

Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

2010-11-01

308

Extraction of Tissue Antigens for Functional Assays  

PubMed Central

Many of the antigen targets of adaptive immune response, recognized by B and T cells, have not been defined 1. This is particularly true in autoimmune diseases and cancer2. Our aim is to investigate the antigens recognized by human T cells in the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes 1,3,4,5. To analyze human T-cell responses against tissue where the antigens recognized by T cells are not identified we developed a method to extract protein antigens from human tissue in a format that is compatible with functional assays 6. Previously, T-cell responses to unpurified tissue extracts could not be measured because the extraction methods yield a lysate that contained detergents that were toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Here we describe a protocol for extracting proteins from human tissues in a format that is not toxic to human T cells. The tissue is homogenized in a mixture of butan-1-ol, acetonitrile and water (BAW). The protein concentration in the tissue extract is measured and a known mass of protein is aliquoted into tubes. After extraction, the organic solvents are removed by lyophilization. Lyophilized tissue extracts can be stored until required. For use in assays of immune function, a suspension of immune cells, in appropriate culture media, can be added directly to the lyophilized extract. Cytokine production and proliferation by PBMC, in response to extracts prepared using this method, were readily measured. Hence, our method allows the rapid preparation of human tissue lysates that can be used as a source of antigens in the analysis of T-cell responses. We suggest that this method will facilitate the analysis of adaptive immune responses to tissues in transplantation, cancer and autoimmunity. PMID:22986305

Necula, Andra; Chand, Rochna; Albatat, Batool; Mannering, Stuart I.

2012-01-01

309

[Multi-objective optimization of extraction process for red ginseng based upon extraction efficiency and cost control].  

PubMed

It is the objective of this study to optimize the extraction process of red ginseng to minimize the unit cost of extracting effective ingredients. The relation between the target variables of total quantity of ginsenosides and first extraction time, first extraction solution amount, second extraction time, second extract solution amount were studied with Box-Behnken experimental design method. At the same we also considered the cost of extraction solution and energy usage. The objective function was set as unit cost of target (total quantity of ginsenosides or its purity) for the multi-objective optimization of extraction process. As a result, the optimal process parameters were found as first extraction time (108.7 min), first extraction solution amount folds (12), second extraction time (30 min), second extraction solution amount folds (8) to minimize the unit cost. It indicated that this approach could potentially be used to optimize industrial extraction process for manufacturing Chinese medicine. PMID:25276970

Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

2014-07-01

310

3D Feature Extraction for Unstructured Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visualization techniques provide tools that help scientists identify observed phenomena in scientific simulation. To be useful, these tools must allow the user to extract regions, classify and visualize them, abstract them for simplified representations, and track their evolution. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This article explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and those from Finite Element Analysis.

Silver, Deborah

1996-01-01

311

Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid  

SciTech Connect

A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1991-12-31

312

Continuous extraction of organic materials from water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

1971-01-01

313

Development of multi-stage countercurrent extraction technology for the extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice ( Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-stage countercurrent extraction (MCE) technique has been developed for the extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, a particular plant species of licorice. The effects of extraction stage numbers, temperature, extraction time and solvent to licorice ratio on the extraction yield of GA were investigated in detail. The process conditions of MCE were optimized using orthogonal array experimental

Qiao-e Wang; Shaomei Ma; Boqiang Fu; Frank S. C. Lee; Xiaoru Wang

2004-01-01

314

Development of a new extractant and a new extraction process for minor actinide separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many kinds of new extractants have been studied for the separation of minor actinides, Am and Cm in particular, from high-level liquid waste (HLLW) which is generated from spent fuel reprocessing for the recovery of U and Pu. The authors have developed a new type of extractant for the extraction of Am and Cm, N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) which is one of the diamides and shows the tridentate feature. To apply such a new extractant to the separation process for Am and Cm from HLLW, many criteria should be investigated and satisfied; e.g., high separation factor between An(III) and fission products, chemical and radiolytic stability, high extraction capacity, fast kinetics, compatibility with hydrocarbon diluents, controllability for the behaviour of U, Pu and Np which exist as residue of the former step, and so on. TODGA is fully soluble in n-dodecane, but has a relatively low extraction capacity. Therefore, TODGA was modified and a new DGA extractant, N,N,N',N'-tetradodecyldiglycolamide, was developed, which can extract Ln with one-third of the extractant concentration. Since both TODGA and TDdDGA extract Zr and Pd, effective masking agents for them were examined and selected. To extract Np quantitatively, the method to reduce Np(V) to Np(IV) was studied. With those achievements, a counter-current extraction test with 0.1M TDdDGA in n-dodecane and simulated solution of HLLW was carried out using a small-scale mixer-settler. As results of the counter-current extraction test, very clear phase separation was observed without any crud formation during the operation and quantitative recovery of Nd which is a substitute for Am was obtained.

Morita, Yasuji; Sasaki, Yuji; Asakura, Toshihide; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Sugo, Yumi; Kimura, Takaumi

2010-03-01

315

Divergent and efficient syntheses of the Lycopodium alkaloids (-)-lycojaponicumin?C, (-)-8-deoxyserratinine, (+)-fawcettimine, and (+)-fawcettidine.  

PubMed

Four from one: The four title alkaloids (structures shown in blue box) have been synthesized by using a common versatile intermediate with a 6/5/5 tricyclic skeleton. This tricyclic intermediate could be easily assembled by using an intramolecular carbene addition/cyclization and a Dieckmann condensation/Tsuji-Trost allylation as key steps. PMID:24000162

Hou, Si-Hua; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Fu-Min; Wang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

2013-10-18

316

Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

2011-01-01

317

ROSE Process Offers Energy Savings for Solvent Extraction  

E-print Network

Kerr-McGee has developed and commercialized an energy-efficient solvent extraction process known as ROSE (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) in which the extraction solvent is recovered as a supercritical fluid. The energy requirement...

Gearheart, J. A.; Nelson, S. R.

1983-01-01

318

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

319

Page 1 of 1 BIOL 325 Plants Systematics  

E-print Network

. Equisetaceae 1.Equisetum B. Lycopodiaceae 2.Diphasiastrum 3.Huperzia 4.Lycopodium C. Ginkgoaceae 5. Ginkgo Notes Ginkgo is an important ornamental tree, particularly in urban areas where it can tolerate the harsh conditions of compacted soil and sidewalk planting. Ginkgo leaf extract

Hardy, Christopher R.

320

Antidiarrheal activity of Capparis zeylanica leaf extracts  

PubMed Central

The antidiarrheal activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Capparis zeylanica (Capparidaceae) was investigated by castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestine transit method on mice. Like loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight), C. zeylanica methanolic extract (100,150,200 mg/kg body weight) produced a significant decrease in the severity of diarrhea. The percentage protection in extract-treated animals showing diarrhea was compared with castor oil-treated and loperamide-treated animals. The activity was found to be dose-dependant. Its effect when evaluated on intestinal transit produced a decrease in intestinal transit (75.97%).The results revealed that the methanolic extract significantly reduced diarrhea in mice with reduction in weight of stools. PMID:22171290

Sini, Karanayil R.; Sinha, Barij N.; Rajasekaran, Aiyolu

2011-01-01

321

Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W  

E-print Network

ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

Brinker, J. L.

2004-01-01

322

Molecular Mechanism of Cyclodextrin Mediated Cholesterol Extraction  

PubMed Central

The depletion of cholesterol from membranes, mediated by ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is well known and documented, but the molecular details of this process are largely unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have been able to study the CD mediated extraction of cholesterol from model membranes, in particular from a pure cholesterol monolayer, at atomic resolution. Our results show that efficient cholesterol extraction depends on the structural distribution of the CDs on the surface of the monolayer. With a suitably oriented dimer, cholesterol is extracted spontaneously on a nanosecond time scale. Additional free energy calculations reveal that the CDs have a strong affinity to bind to the membrane surface, and, by doing so, destabilize the local packing of cholesterol molecules making their extraction favorable. Our results have implications for the interpretation of experimental measurements, and may help in the rational design of efficient CD based nano-carriers. PMID:21455285

López, Cesar A.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.

2011-01-01

323

Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

2001-01-01

324

Supporting Framework Use via Automatically Extracted  

E-print Network

, and a technique named FUDA (Framework API Understanding through Dynamic Analysis) which automatically extracts in one or more sample applications. The experimental evaluation of FUDA with twelve re- alistic concepts

Czarnecki, Krzysztof

325

SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY PROTOTYPE TEST  

SciTech Connect

The SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) accumulator ring Extraction System consists of a Fast kicker and a Lambertson Septum magnet. The proposed design will use 14 kicker magnets powered by an Extraction Kicker Power Supply System. They will eject the high power beam from the SNS accumulator ring into RTBT (Ring to Target Beam Tunnel) through a Lambertson Septum magnet. This paper describes some test results of the SNS Extraction Kicker power supply prototype. The high repetition rate of 60 pulse per second operation is the challenging part of the design. In the prototype testing, a 3 kA damp current of 700ns pulse-width, 200 nS rise time and 60 Hz repetition rate at 32 kV PFN operation voltage has been demonstrated. An Extraction kicker power supply system design diagram is depicted.

MI,J.L.; SANDBERG,J.; SANDERS,R.; SOUKAS,A.; ZHANG,W.

2000-06-27

326

Volume Haptic Rendering with Dynamically Extracted Isosurface  

E-print Network

Volume Haptic Rendering with Dynamically Extracted Isosurface Loic Corenthy Universidad Politecnica of points with similar data e-mail: loic.corenthy@upm.es e-mail: jose.sanmartin@urjc.es e-mail: miguel

Otaduy, Miguel A.

327

Antidiabetic effects of extracts from Psidium guajava.  

PubMed

During a screening of medicinal plants for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B), an extract from Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) leaves exhibited significant inhibitory effect on PTP1B. Thus, its antidiabetic effect on Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) mice was evaluated. Significant blood glucose lowering effects of the extract were observed after intraperitoneal injection of the extract at a dose of 10mg/kg in both 1- and 3-month-old Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) mice. In addition, histological analysis of the liver from the butanol-soluble fraction treated Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) mice revealed a significant decrease in the number of lipid droplets compared to the control mice. Taken together, it was suggested that the extract from Psidium guajava leaves possesses antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic mice model and these effect is, at least in part, mediated via the inhibition of PTP1B. PMID:15619559

Oh, Won Keun; Lee, Chul Ho; Lee, Myung Sun; Bae, Eun Young; Sohn, Cheon Bae; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Bo Yeon; Ahn, Jong Seog

2005-01-15

328

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

1984-07-06

329

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...semisolid form called vanilla oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin. (2) Propylene glycol. (3) Sugar (including invert sugar). (4) Dextrose. (5) Corn sirup (including...

2010-04-01

330

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

331

Visual acuity outcomes following cataract extraction.  

E-print Network

??Purpose: To determine prevalence, primary causes, and risk indicators of visual impairment (VI) in cataract-operated eyes.  – Methods: Participants with cataract extraction underwent an in-home… (more)

Mazhar, Kashif

2007-01-01

332

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

...this section are used, annatto extract shall contain no more solvent residue than is permitted of the corresponding solvents in spice oleoresins under applicable food additive regulations in parts 170 through 189 of this chapter. (c) Uses and...

2014-04-01

333

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...this section are used, annatto extract shall contain no more solvent residue than is permitted of the corresponding solvents in spice oleoresins under applicable food additive regulations in parts 170 through 189 of this chapter. (c) Uses and...

2012-04-01

334

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...this section are used, annatto extract shall contain no more solvent residue than is permitted of the corresponding solvents in spice oleoresins under applicable food additive regulations in parts 170 through 189 of this chapter. (c) Uses and...

2013-04-01

335

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...this section are used, annatto extract shall contain no more solvent residue than is permitted of the corresponding solvents in spice oleoresins under applicable food additive regulations in parts 170 through 189 of this chapter. (c) Uses and...

2011-04-01

336

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01

337

ANALYSIS OF ALKYL PHOSPHATES BY EXTRACTIVE ALKYLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of suitable methods for analysis of the alkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in urine has been a rather difficult and persistent problem. Currently available methodology suffers from several shortcomings. The extraction of the compounds from ...

338

HPLC analysis of Artemisia dracunculus extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids in extracts ofArtemisia dracunculus L. are studied. The principal component is identified as pinocembrine. Pinocembrine is analyzed quantitatively using an internal standard. The uncertainties in the chromatographic measurements are estimated.

L. A. Onuchak; V. A. Kurkin; R. A. Minakhmetov; A. V. Kurkina

2000-01-01

339

Alignment-HMM-based Extraction of Abbreviations  

E-print Network

Alignment-HMM-based Extraction of Abbreviations from Biomedical Text Dana Movshovitz · Definitions change with context ­APC matches over 100 unique abbreviations in MEDLINE #12;Two Main Uses of Abbreviations · Common acid > ­ Often

Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

340

On-Demand Information Extraction Satoshi Sekine  

E-print Network

demand' in response to a user's query. On-demand Information Extraction (ODIE) aims to completely to a breakthrough for the application of the technology. We propose `On-demand information extrac- tion (ODIE

341

21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing ...extract obtained by the treatment of wood with water at elevated temperatures (325 degrees-535...and contains primarily pentose and hexose sugars. (b) The additive may be used...

2013-04-01

342

21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.  

...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing ...extract obtained by the treatment of wood with water at elevated temperatures (325 degrees-535...and contains primarily pentose and hexose sugars. (b) The additive may be used...

2014-04-01

343

21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing ...extract obtained by the treatment of wood with water at elevated temperatures (325 degrees-535...and contains primarily pentose and hexose sugars. (b) The additive may be used...

2011-04-01

344

21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing ...extract obtained by the treatment of wood with water at elevated temperatures (325 degrees-535...and contains primarily pentose and hexose sugars. (b) The additive may be used...

2012-04-01

345

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

346

Antioxidant properties of Lunularia cruciata (Bryophyta) extract.  

PubMed

The effects of Lunularia cruciata (L.) Dum (Bryophyta) acetonic extract was studied in vitro by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) emission from human peripheral whole blood phagocytes and isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). L. cruciata adult thalli underwent extraction with acetone. CL emission was evaluated in an automated luminometer, measuring the oxygen free-radical production by phagocytes incubated with opsonized zymosan (OZ) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), in absence or in presence of various concentrations of L. cruciata extract. The CL results indicated that L. cruciata induced significant changes in light emission from whole blood phagocytes, as well as isolated PMNs. Its inhibitory activity was more evident when resting isolated PMNs were studied. When the cells were activated, the greatest inhibitory effect was observed with PMA. The L. cruciata activity could be caused by several compounds, such as flavonoids and/or sesquiterpenes, present in the acetonic extract. PMID:9805234

Ielpo, M T; De Sole, P; Basile, A; Moscatiello, V; Laghi, E; Castaldo Cobianchi, R; Vuotto, M L

1998-11-01

347

Near-critical extraction of sage, celery, and coriander seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-critical extraction of coriander seed, Dalmatian sage, and celery was performed on a pilot-scale extraction apparatus. Sage and celery were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide to obtain oleoresins. Coriander seed was extracted at 250 bar and 40°C. Coriander extract was fractionated into triglycerides and essential oils by using two separation stages at different pressures. Extractions were carried out using a

Bruce M. Smallfield; J GREY

1996-01-01

348

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is an interesting process to obtain high valuable compounds and could contribute to\\u000a the increase in the value of some food by-products when used as sources of natural compounds. The main benefits will be a\\u000a more effective extraction, thus saving energy, and also the use of moderate temperatures, which is beneficial for heat-sensitive\\u000a compounds. For a successful

M. D. Esclapez; J. V. García-Pérez; A. Mulet; J. A. Cárcel

2011-01-01

349

Extractable Antigen Shared by Peptostreptococcus anaerobius Strains  

PubMed Central

Extracts from several species of gram-positive cocci were prepared by a modification of the Rantz-Randall autoclave method and tested for reactions with rabbit anti-Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (ATCC 27337 and VPI 5737) sera in a capillary precipitin test. Antigen preparations from two reference strains of P. anaerobius (ATCC 27337 and VPI 5737) and six clinical isolates of P. anaerobius reacted with the P. anaerobius antisera. These extracts formed a line of identity by immunodiffusion and displayed at least one precipitin line by immunoelectrophoresis. Absorption of the antisera with either the autoclaved extract or a 10% whole-cell suspension from each of the eight P. anaerobius strains removed the precipitin line(s) observed during immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. Extracts prepared to other species of Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Streptococcus did not react with the P. anaerobius antisera in a capillary precipitin test. In addition antisera to Lancefield groups A to G did not react with the extracts from the eight P. anaerobius strains. Preliminary chemical analysis of the extracts from the eight strains showed that they contained approximately 0.2 mg of carbohydrate per ml and 3.6 mg of protein per ml. The rabbit anti-P. anaerobius sera used in this study detected a common antigen(s) shared by strains of P. anaerobius, but did not react with autoclave extracts prepared from other species of gram-positive cocci. This extractable antigen could be used in a capillary precipitin test to rapidly identify P. anaerobius strains isolated in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Images PMID:88461

Graham, Mitchell B.; Falkler, William A.

1979-01-01

350

Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.  

PubMed

Uncaria tomentosa ("Uña de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines. PMID:16569487

De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

2006-08-11

351

Device for Extracting Flavors and Fragrances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machine for making coffee and tea in weightless environment may prove even more valuable on Earth as general extraction apparatus. Zero-gravity beverage maker uses piston instead of gravity to move hot water and beverage from one chamber to other and dispense beverage. Machine functions like conventional coffeemaker during part of operating cycle and includes additional features that enable operation not only in zero gravity but also extraction under pressure in presence or absence of gravity.

Chang, F. R.

1986-01-01

352

Leveraging Massive User Contributions for Knowledge Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The collective intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, competition, and co-ordination among individuals in social\\u000a networks has opened up new opportunities for knowledge extraction. Valuable knowledge is stored and often “hidden” in massive\\u000a user contributions, challenging researchers to find methods for leveraging these contributions and unfold this knowledge.\\u000a In this chapter we investigate the problem of knowledge extraction from social

Spiros Nikolopoulos; Elisavet Chatzilari; Eirini Giannakidou; Symeon Papadopoulos; Ioannis Kompatsiaris; Athena Vakali

353

Complement activating agents in allergenic extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Extracts of environmental allergens, moulds and plant pollens are known to consume haemolytic complement (huC) in human serum in vitro through the antibody-independent engagement of the first component C1 of the classical pathway. The present work was undertaken to establish the nature and characteristics of the complement activating agents in allergenic extracts and to probe their relationship with the

L. Berrens; B. de la Cuadra López

1997-01-01

354

Extracting Multi-Records from Web Pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracting multi-records from web pages is useful, it allows us to integrate information from multiple sources to provide value-added services. Existing techniques still have some limitations because of their several restrictions and accuracy. This paper proposes a new method to perform multi-records extraction task automatically. Firstly, the HTML tag tree is build based on an embedded browser interface to solve

Tian Xia

2008-01-01

355

Negative ion extraction by particle model.  

PubMed

More self-consistent injection boundary conditions from the source region have been used in the extraction region model to examine the negative ion formation and transport. Bulk kinetic, plasma-surface, and gas-surface processes have been all included. This work represents a first example of coupling between different models, and it shows the important role of positive ion conversion on plasma grid for the extracted negative ion current. PMID:24593546

Taccogna, F; Minelli, P

2014-02-01

356

Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

1980-01-01

357

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

358

Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution  

DOEpatents

An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2003-01-01

359

ECG Feature Extraction using Time Frequency Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed algorithm is a novel method for the feature extraction of ECG beats based on Wavelet Transforms. A combination of two well-accepted methods, Pan Tompkins algorithm and Wavelet decomposition, this system is implemented with the help of MATLAB. The focus of this work is to implement the algorithm, which can extract the features of ECG beats with high accuracy. The performance of this system is evaluated in a pilot study using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.

Nair, Mahesh A.

360

Antiradical activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae) extracts.  

PubMed

Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decorative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence of phenolic substances. We identified and quantified acteoside (1) and isoacteoside (2) in the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts; mimulone (3) and diplacone (4) in the MeOH extract. To determine the antiradical activity of extracts we used the anti DPPH and peroxynitrite assays. The activity was expressed as Trolox C equivalents, IC50 for DPPH scavenging and a time dependency course was established. The polyphenols content was determined; results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Using these methods we found the fractions of the n-BuOH, EtOAc and MeOH extracts that display antiradical activity, which could be exploited as potential pharmaceuticals. PMID:17876290

Smejkal, Karel; Holubova, Pavla; Zima, Ales; Muselik, Jan; Dvorska, Margita

2007-01-01

361

Error margin analysis for feature gene extraction  

PubMed Central

Background Feature gene extraction is a fundamental issue in microarray-based biomarker discovery. It is normally treated as an optimization problem of finding the best predictive feature genes that can effectively and stably discriminate distinct types of disease conditions, e.g. tumors and normals. Since gene microarray data normally involves thousands of genes at, tens or hundreds of samples, the gene extraction process may fall into local optimums if the gene set is optimized according to the maximization of classification accuracy of the classifier built from it. Results In this paper, we propose a novel gene extraction method of error margin analysis to optimize the feature genes. The proposed algorithm has been tested upon one synthetic dataset and two real microarray datasets. Meanwhile, it has been compared with five existing gene extraction algorithms on each dataset. On the synthetic dataset, the results show that the feature set extracted by our algorithm is the closest to the actual gene set. For the two real datasets, our algorithm is superior in terms of balancing the size and the validation accuracy of the resultant gene set when comparing to other algorithms. Conclusion Because of its distinct features, error margin analysis method can stably extract the relevant feature genes from microarray data for high-performance classification. PMID:20459827

2010-01-01

362

Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

2009-01-01

363

Molecular Models of Leaf Extracts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our Featured Molecules this month come from the paper by Pelter et. al. on the analysis of leaf extracts by thin-layer chromatography (1). As the authors discuss, their experiment may be used in courses at various levels of the curriculum. The molecules discussed in the paper are also of wide interest both for their structural properties and their wide-ranging appearance in both natural and synthetic substances. Included in the molecule collection are all of the isomers for the molecules pictured in the text with the exception of menthyl acetate, for which only one structure is given (see below). All of these molecules have been optimized at the HF/631-G(d) level. The menthol family enantiomeric pairs of menthol, isomenthol, neomenthol and neoisomenthol provide a rich yet coherent group of molecules on which to base discussion of chirality, enantiomers and diastereomers. Treadwell and Black have described some of the differences in physical properties of four members of this family, and several other experiments using one or more menthols have been published in this Journal (2, 3). I have created a Web page in which the eight molecules are embedded in no particular order, and with no rational file names. This is being used in at least one of our organic sections to give students experience at identifying enantiomers, and diastereomers, and in applying R/S notation (4). As access to computational software becomes more common, and as efforts are being made to incorporate more relevant modeling experiments into all levels of the curriculum, the menthols again present some interesting possibilities. While students at the organic level know about enantiomers differing in their optical rotation, and about chiral molecules interacting with chiral and achiral environments, it is instructive for them to think of other ways in which enantiomers and diastereomers are the same or different. Three useful ways of checking to see whether two structures are truly enantiomers is to compute their total energies, vibrational spectra, and dipole moments. These calculations are available in most common computational packages. Figure 1 shows the results of energy calculations on optimized structures of the eight isomers. The enantiomeric pairs have, as expected, exactly the same total energy, while the various diastereomers differ in energy. The computation of the vibrational spectra is a very sensitive probe to determine whether two structures are optimized and enantiomeric or not. Structures that are almost enantiomeric, but not quite optimized, may exhibit similar energies, but the low frequency vibrations will be sensitive to any deviation from optimization. If two supposedly enantiomeric structures do not have the same computed vibrations, or if either shows a negative frequency, the structures need to be optimized more carefully. As with the vibrational frequencies, enantiomers should show identical dipole moments. Only one structure of the eight isomers in the menthyl acetate family is included in the collection, giving students the chance to build the other seven and verify their computed properties. Because of the central role that chirality plays in chemistry, and particularly in biochemistry, it seems appropriate to introduce some of these visualization and modeling exercises early in the curriculum, and in courses designed for students majoring in other areas. Students in various courses could pursue other aspects of these same molecules including odor and cooling properties, and green chemistry approaches to synthesizing menthols.

364

Application of microwave-assisted extraction to the fast extraction of plant phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of phenolic compounds in plants attracts considerable attention. Conventional (reflux) extraction as well as microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic substances from aromatic plants using different solvents has been studied. RP-HPLC with UV detection was employed for the analysis of phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The amount of extractable phenolic substances for this method

Charalampos Proestos; Michael Komaitis

2008-01-01

365

Selective extraction of Cyclopia for enhanced in vitro phytoestrogenicity and benchmarking against commercial phytoestrogen extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work established the phytoestrogenicity of “unfermented”Cyclopia (honeybush) extracts. The current study investigated the phytoestrogenicity of four Cyclopia harvestings (M6–9) for preparation of extracts with enhanced phytoestrogenicity for benchmarking against commercial preparations. Two extracts, from M6 (C. subternata) and M7 (C. genistoides), were identified as most phytoestrogenic using estrogen receptor binding, an estrogen receptor response element containing promoter reporter assay,

Ciko Mfenyana; Dalene DeBeer; Elizabeth Joubert; Ann Louw

2008-01-01

366

Blue-shifted fluorescence spectrum in silica xerogels with incorporation of extract’s leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral characteristics of different kind of leaves extracts fluorescence embedded in silica xerogel matrix under structural\\u000a evolution promoted by heat treatment was studied. We obtain a higher PSII thermostability for extract of leaves, rich in chlorophyll\\u000a such as spinach, made in darker condition than extract of leaves made in lighter (non-dark) conditions, both embedded in xerogel\\u000a matrix, which remain

E. Espericueta; J. R. Martínez; G. Ortega-Zarzosa; J. González-Hernández

2010-01-01

367

Review of third phase formation in extraction of actinides by neutral organophosphorus extractants  

SciTech Connect

Data are reviewed on the information of third phase in the extraction of actinide(IV,VI) nitrates by neutral organophosphorus extractants, mainly tributyl phosphate. The data are critically evaluated and the effect of variables on the third phase formation is discussed. The variables are the concentrations of nitric acid and the extractant, temperature, the nature of diluent, addition of modifiers and the ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Also discussed are systems involving two extracted actinide ions. 42 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Rao, P.R.V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Kolarik, Z. [Inst. of Nuclear Waste Management, Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-11-01

368

Extracting fumonisins from maize: efficiency of different extraction solvents in multi-mycotoxin analytics.  

PubMed

The complete extraction of analytes is of utmost importance when analyzing matrix samples for mycotoxins. Mycotoxins consist of substances with widely different physicochemical properties; therefore, the loss of toxins that occurs in multi-mycotoxin methods due to compromises in the extraction solvent is currently a topic under discussion. With regard to fumonisins, several extractants from recently published multi-mycotoxin methods were investigated when analyzing unprocessed and processed maize matrices. All extractants were tested in a validated on-site method and the extraction yields were compared to those of an HPLC-FLD reference method (EN 14352). Most of the compared multi-mycotoxin methods that have been published were only for analyzing fumonisins in maize or maize-meal; we have applied the extractants of these methods to processed, complex maize matrices for the first time. Our results show that, for extractions with aqueous acetonitrile mixtures with the addition of acid, e.g. MeCN/H2O/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v), higher extraction yields are obtained than with MeCN/H2O (80/20, v/v), in both spiked and naturally contaminated maize matrices. But compared to the results of the reference method EN 14352, the two extractants did not show a similar extraction efficiency. Overall, the extractant MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v) turned out to be the most appropriate extractant applied in all experiments, obtaining the best and most comparable extraction yields and recoveries. Furthermore, our investigations showed that, with some of the tested extraction solvents, e.g. MeCN/H2O (75/25) containing 50 mmol/l formic acid, stark differences occur when analyzing spiked and naturally contaminated matrices. With spiked matrices, recoveries of approximately 80-110% were obtained, but with naturally contaminated matrices no results comparable to the EN method have been achieved. In contrast, a double extraction with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (80/19,9/0,1, v/v/v), followed by a second polar extraction step with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (20/79,9/0,1, v/v/v), led, for most naturally contaminated samples, to comparable results with the EN method. However, for spiked samples, the same extractant led to raised recoveries of between 120 and 140 %. For some processed matrices, like taco-chips, all tested extractants showed a poor extraction efficiency for fumonisins. By extending the extraction time from 1 to 15 min, a result comparable to that of the reference method could also be obtained for the extractant using MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v). As this extractant has been used in our recently published method (Trebstein et al. Mycotoxin Res 25:201, 2009), this work also presents an update on this method with respect to the extended extraction time. PMID:23436221

Marschik, Stefanie; Hepperle, Julia; Lauber, Uwe; Schnaufer, Renate; Maier, Susanne; Kühn, Caren; Schwab-Bohnert, Gabriele

2013-05-01

369

Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

2011-02-01

370

Empirical Evaluation of Bone Extraction Protocols  

PubMed Central

The application of high-resolution analytical techniques to characterize ancient bone proteins requires clean, efficient extraction to obtain high quality data. Here, we evaluated many different protocols from the literature on ostrich cortical bone and moa cortical bone to evaluate their yield and relative purity using the identification of antibody-antigen complexes on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis. Moa bone provided an ancient comparison for the effectiveness of bone extraction protocols tested on ostrich bone. For the immunological part of this study, we focused on collagen I, osteocalcin, and hemoglobin because collagen and osteocalcin are the most abundant proteins in the mineralized extracellular matrix and hemoglobin is common in the vasculature. Most of these procedures demineralize the bone first, and then the remaining organics are chemically extracted. We found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed. In contrast, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in smearing upon electrophoretic separation, possibly indicating these samples were not as pure. The denaturing agents sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and guanidine HCl have been used extensively for the solubilization of proteins in non-biomineralized tissue, but only the latter has been used on bone. We show that all three denaturing agents are effective for extracting bone proteins. One additional method tested uses ammonium bicarbonate as a solubilizing buffer that is more appropriate for post-extraction analyses (e.g., proteomics) by removing the need for desalting. We found that both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. With the increasing use of proteomics, a new generation of scientists are now interested in the study of proteins from not only extant bone but also from ancient bone. PMID:22348088

Cleland, Timothy P.; Voegele, Kristyn; Schweitzer, Mary H.

2012-01-01

371

Maximizing net extraction using an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer.  

PubMed

In this study, we examine the maximum net extraction rate from the novel arrangement of an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer, where fresh groundwater is reinjected through the injection well located between the interface toe and extraction well. Complex potential theory is employed to derive a new analytical solution for the maximum net extraction rate and corresponding stagnation-point locations and recirculation ratio, assuming steady-state, sharp-interface conditions. The injection-extraction well-pair system outperforms a traditional single extraction well in terms of net extraction rate for a broad range of well placement and pumping rates, which is up to 50% higher for an aquifer with a thickness of 20 m, hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, and fresh water influx of 0.24 m(2) /d. Sensitivity analyses show that for a given fresh water discharge from an inland aquifer, a larger maximum net extraction is expected in cases with a smaller hydraulic conductivity or a smaller aquifer thickness, notwithstanding physical limits to drawdown at the pumping well that are not considered here. For an extraction well with a fixed location, the optimal net extraction rate linearly increases with the distance between the injection well and the sea, and the corresponding injection rate and recirculation ratio also increase. The analytical analysis in this study provides initial guidance for the design of well-pair systems in coastal aquifers, and is therefore an extension beyond previous applications of analytical solutions of coastal pumping that apply only to extraction or injection wells. PMID:22880816

Lu, Chunhui; Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T; Robinson, Neville I; Luo, Jian

2013-03-01

372

Evaluation of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and histochemical tests for aluminium detection in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, Southeast Brazil.  

PubMed

The soils developed under High Altitude Rocky Complexes in Brazil are generally of very low chemical fertility, with low base saturation and high exchangeable aluminium concentration. This stressful condition imposes evolutionary pressures that lead to ecological success of plant species that are able to tolerate or accumulate high amounts of aluminium. Several analytical methods are currently available for elemental mapping of biological structures, such as micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-EDX) and histochemical tests. The aim of this study was to combine ?-EDX analysis and histochemical tests to quantify aluminium in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, identifying the main sites for Al-accumulation. Among the studied species, five showed total Al concentration higher than 1000 mg kg-1. The main Al-hyperaccumulator plants, Lavoisiera pectinata, Lycopodium clavatum and Trembleya parviflora presented positive reactions in the histochemical tests using Chrome Azurol and Aluminon. Strong positive correlations were observed between the total Al concentrations and data obtained by ?-EDX analysis. The ?-EDX analysis is a potential tool to map and quantify Al in hyperaccumulator species, and a valuable technique due to its non-destructive capacity. Histochemical tests can be helpful to indicate the accumulation pattern of samples before they are submitted for further ?-EDX scrutiny. PMID:24676168

Campos, Naiara V; Pereira, Tiago A R; Machado, Mariana F; Guerra, Marcelo B B; Tolentino, Gláucia S; Araújo, Josiane S; Rezende, Maíra Q; Silva, Maria Carolina N A da; Schaefer, Carlos E G R

2014-03-01

373

Lycopodine triggers apoptosis by modulating 5-lipoxygenase, and depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential in androgen sensitive and refractory prostate cancer cells without modulating p53 activity: signaling cascade and drug-DNA interaction.  

PubMed

When the prostate cancer cells become unresponsive to androgen therapy, resistance to chemotherapy becomes imminent, resulting in high mortality. To combat this situation, lycopodine, a pharmacologically important bioactive component derived from Lycopodium clavatum spores, was tested against hormone sensitive (LnCaP) and refractory (PC3) prostate cancer cells in vitro. This study aims to check if lycopodine has demonstrable anti-cancer effects and if it has, to find out the possible mechanism of its action. The MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect. Depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle, EGF receptor activity and apoptosis were recorded by FACS; profiles of different anti- and pro-apoptotic genes and their products were studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, indirect-ELISA, western blotting. Drug-DNA interaction was determined by CD spectroscopy. Administration of lycopodine down-regulated the expression of 5-lipoxygenase and the 5-oxo-ETE receptor (OXE receptor1) and EGF receptor, and caused up-regulation of cytochrome c with depolarization of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, without palpable change in p53 activity, resulting in apoptosis, cell arrest at G0/G1 stage and ultimately reduced proliferation of cancer cells; concomitantly, there was externalization of phosphotidyl serine residues. CD spectroscopic analysis revealed intercalating property of lycopodine with DNA molecule, implicating its ability to block cellular DNA synthesis. The overall results suggest that lycopodine is a promising candidate suitable for therapeutic use as an anti-cancer drug. PMID:23142370

Bishayee, Kausik; Chakraborty, Debrup; Ghosh, Samrat; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

2013-01-01

374

Pollen grains for oral vaccination.  

PubMed

Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

2014-11-28

375

Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract. PMID:22707827

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2011-01-01

376

Feature Extraction Based on Decision Boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a novel approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. We note that feature extraction is equivalent to retaining informative features or eliminating redundant features; thus, the terms 'discriminantly information feature' and 'discriminantly redundant feature' are first defined relative to feature extraction for classification. Next, it is shown how discriminantly redundant features and discriminantly informative features are related to decision boundaries. A novel characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that usually only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is therefore introduced. Next, a procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary is proposed. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: (1) It predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and (2) it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal class means or equal class covariances as some previous algorithms do. Experiments show that the performance of the proposed algorithm compares favorably with those of previous algorithms.

Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

1993-01-01

377

Reexamination of pure qubit work extraction.  

PubMed

Many work extraction or information erasure processes in the literature involve the raising and lowering of energy levels via external fields. But even if the actual system is treated quantum mechanically, the field is assumed to be classical and of infinite strength, hence not developing any correlations with the system or experiencing back-actions. We extend these considerations to a fully quantum mechanical treatment by studying a spin-1/2 particle coupled to a finite-sized directional quantum reference frame, a spin-l system, which models an external field. With this concrete model together with a bosonic thermal bath, we analyze the back-action a finite-size field suffers during a quantum-mechanical work extraction process and the effect this has on the extractable work and highlight a range of assumptions commonly made when considering such processes. The well-known semiclassical treatment of work extraction from a pure qubit predicts a maximum extractable work W=kTlog2 for a quasistatic process, which holds as a strict upper bound in the fully quantum mechanical case and is attained only in the classical limit. We also address the problem of emergent local time dependence in a joint system with a globally fixed Hamiltonian. PMID:25493768

Frenzel, Max F; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

2014-11-01

378

Shallow medication extraction from hospital patient records.  

PubMed

This paper presents methods for shallow Information Extraction (IE) from the free text zones of hospital Patient Records (PRs) in Bulgarian language in the Patient Safety through Intelligent Procedures in medication (PSIP) project. We extract automatically information about drug names, dosage, modes and frequency and assign the corresponding ATC code to each medication event. Using various modules for rule-based text analysis, our IE components in PSIP perform a significant amount of symbolic computations. We try to address negative statements, elliptical constructions, typical conjunctive phrases, and simple inferences concerning temporal constraints and finally aim at the assignment of the drug ACT code to the extracted medication events, which additionally complicates the extraction algorithm. The prototype of the system was used for experiments with a training corpus containing 1,300 PRs and the evaluation results are obtained using a test corpus containing 6,200 PRs. The extraction accuracy (f-score) for drug names is 98.42% and for dose 93.85%. PMID:21685617

Boytcheva, Svetla

2011-01-01

379

Reexamination of Pure Qubit Work Extraction  

E-print Network

Many work extraction or information erasure processes in the literature involve the raising and lowering of energy levels via external fields. But even if the actual system is treated quantum mechanically, the field is assumed to be classical and of infinite strength, hence not developing any correlations with the system or experiencing back-actions. We extend these considerations to a fully quantum mechanical treatment, by studying a spin-1/2 particle coupled to a finite-sized directional quantum reference frame, a spin-l system, which models an external field. With this concrete model together with a bosonic thermal bath, we analyse the back-action a finite-size field suffers during a quantum-mechanical work extraction process, the effect this has on the extractable work, and highlight a range of assumptions commonly made when considering such processes. The well-known semi-classical treatment of work extraction from a pure qubit predicts a maximum extractable work W = kT log 2 for a quasi-static process, which holds as a strict upper bound in the fully quantum mechanical case, and is only attained in the classical limit. We also address the problem of emergent local time-dependence in a joint system with globally fixed Hamiltonian.

Max F. Frenzel; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph

2014-06-16

380

Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic comparisons of multi-ingredients after oral administration of radix salviae miltiorrhizae extract, hawthorn extract, and a combination of both extracts to rats.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma. This method validated was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the main active ingredients after oral administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract (SME), hawthorn extract (HTE), and a combination of both extracts (2.5?:?1) to rats. The results indicated that there have been great differences in pharmacokinetics between a single extract and a combination of both extracts. A combination of both extracts can enhance their bioavailabilities and delay the elimination of SAB and DSS in rats. PMID:24660090

Liu, Yu-Qiang; Cai, Qian; Liu, Chang; Bao, Feng-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Qiu

2014-01-01

381

Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Comparisons of Multi-Ingredients after Oral Administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Extract, Hawthorn Extract, and a Combination of Both Extracts to Rats  

PubMed Central

A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma. This method validated was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the main active ingredients after oral administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract (SME), hawthorn extract (HTE), and a combination of both extracts (2.5?:?1) to rats. The results indicated that there have been great differences in pharmacokinetics between a single extract and a combination of both extracts. A combination of both extracts can enhance their bioavailabilities and delay the elimination of SAB and DSS in rats. PMID:24660090

Liu, Yu-Qiang; Cai, Qian; Liu, Chang; Bao, Feng-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Qiu

2014-01-01

382

Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.  

PubMed

The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

2011-05-01

383

Selective extraction of metal ions with polymeric extractants by ion exchange/redox  

DOEpatents

The specification discloses a method for the extraction of metal ions having a reduction potential of above about +0.3 from an aqueous solution. The method includes contacting the aqueous solution with a polymeric extractant having primary phosphinic acid groups, secondary phosphine oxide groups, or both phosphinic acid and phosphine oxide groups.

Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN)

1987-01-01

384

Extraction of hydrocarbons from seaweed samples using sonication and microwave-assisted extraction: a comparative study.  

PubMed

A sonication method is compared with a microwave-assisted extraction method for recovering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons from seaweed and acid humic samples. Different extracting solvents and adsorbents for the purification step are tested. For the sonication extraction, 10 g of the sample are extracted in an ultrasonic bath (60 degrees C for 15 min with 20 mL of hexane). For the microwave-assisted extraction two steps are carried out, each step at 90 degrees C under pressure in closed vessels with 20 mL of hexane for 10 min at 950 W. A clean-up step is performed for both extraction techniques. The results indicate that the recovery of hydrocarbons is dependent on both the extraction technique and the type of matrix. The most suitable technique appears to be sonication employing hexane as the extraction solvent. The recoveries obtained for aliphatic hydrocarbons are higher than those achieved for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with values ranging within 81-109% and 40-76%, respectively. PMID:17254371

Punín Crespo, M O; Cam, D; Gagni, S; Lombardi, N; Lage Yusty, M A

2006-01-01

385

Science du sol Les rsidus non extractibles de produits  

E-print Network

-extractable pesticide residues in soils. The non-extractable pesticide residues escape detection by the conventional. Non-extractable residues have been detected for all classes of pesticides investigated with different-extractable pesticide residues seem to be susceptible to microbial attack and their bioavailability to plants and soil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Studies on aphicidal efficiency of different stinging nettle extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undiluted cold water extract of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) with an extraction time of 24 h, a fermenting extract of the same plant with an extraction time of 6 days were tested against the aphids of plum (Prunus domestica), red currant (Ribes rubrum) and spiraea (Spiraea vanhuottei) in the field. The efficiency of the preparations was calculated according to the

A. Bozsik

1996-01-01

387

Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical solid–liquid extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were

Smain Chemat; Hamid Aït-Amar; Ahcène Lagha; D. C. Esveld

2005-01-01

388

Prospects for conserving biodiversity in Amazonian extractive reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction is a popular alternative to timber extraction that figures prominently in efforts to utilize tropical forests sustainably. But the ability to conserve biodiversity through NTFP management, particularly in extractive reserves in Amazonia, has remained untested. We found that intensive management of Euterpe oleracea (Palmae) fruit, one of the most important extractive products in the Amazon,

Susan M. Moegenburg; Douglas J. Levey

2002-01-01

389

BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE MURA 50 Mev FFAG ACCELERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The components, operation, and performance of the beam extraction system ; are described, and the selection and proporties of particle orbits in the ; extraction channel are discussed. Single accelerated beam pulses were observed ; to last 37 nsec, and 40 mamp per pulse currents were measured in the extracted ; beam. The 45-Mev stacked beam was also extracted in

F. E. Mills; G. M. Lee; H. K. Meier; J. E. OMeara; C. H. Pruett; E. M. Rowe; C. A. Radmer; M. F. Shea; D. A. Swenson; D. E. Young

1963-01-01

390

Machine Learning of Extraction Patterns from Unannotated Corpora: Position Statement  

E-print Network

Machine Learning of Extraction Patterns from Unannotated Corpora: Position Statement Roman of information extraction is the efficient customization of a system to a new extraction task. In many cases, extraction is performed by matching the input text against a set of patterns, so the core problem is one

391

Moving-objects extraction in diving video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a semiautomatic algorithm for the accurate extraction of an athlete from color diving sequences. Change detection techniques and edge detection techniques are combined to extract the moving object. Color information and interactive information are used to get rough region of the athlete interested. A robust edge map is derived from the difference between successive frames, then further refining of rough athlete region is applied by the information of the robust edge. The proposed method is useful in applications with a relatively still background, Experimental results show that the method provides accurate extraction with pixel-wise precision, thus providing a reliable input to further analysis or applications such as MPEG-4.

Li, Yong; Liao, Qingmin

2003-05-01

392

Statistical mechanical treatment of reactive solvent extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical mechanical lattice model of a reactive solvent extraction process involving two phase liquid-liquid ion exchange is presented. It is applied to literature data on the extraction of alipathic carboxylic acids by quaternary ammonium salts. The Helmholtz free energy of the system is constructed and minimised subject to the constraints of mass balance and electroneutrality. The equations defining the equilibrium conditions have been solved numerically for a range of interaction parameters and hence the equilibrium concentrations of the various partitioned species are obtained. These interaction parameters are compared with experiment. The intuitive notion that the extent of partition is dominated by electrostatic solute-extractant interactions is shown to neglect various other interactions that may, in some systems, be important.

Lukhezo, M.; Dunne, L. J.; Reuben, B. G.; Verrall, M. S.

1997-07-01

393

Soil vapor extraction enhanced by oscillatory flow  

SciTech Connect

The rate of contaminant removal by soil vapor extraction becomes low when diffusion limits the transfer of vapor from the soil to the channels in the soil where air preferentially flows. This paper suggests that adding an oscillatory component to the pressure and velocity of the subsurface air may increase the transport to the channels of flow, and thereby increase the rate of extraction, when the diffusion limit occurs. Three physical mechanisms by which oscillatory flow may increase the transport are described. Algebraic expressions and numerical estimates are given for the penetration of oscillatory pressure into various soils. Exploratory experiments with a laboratory soil column indicate enhanced extraction when an oscillatory component is superimposed upon nonequilibrium steady flow. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Neeper, D.A.

1991-01-01

394

Feature extraction through discrete wavelet transform coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrete wavelet transform has become a widely used feature extraction tool in pattern recognition and pattern classification applications. However, using all wavelet coefficients as features is not desirable in most applications -- the enormity of data and irrelevant wavelet coefficients may adversely affect the performance. Therefore, this paper presents a novel feature extraction method based on discrete wavelet transform. In this method, Shannon's entropy measure is used for identifying competent wavelet coefficients. The features are formed by calculating the energy of coefficients clustered around the competent clusters. The method is applied to the lung sound classification problem. The experimental results show that the new method performs better than a well-known feature extraction method that is known to give the best results for lung sound classification problem.

Icke, Guzide; Kamarthi, Sagar V.

2005-11-01

395

Extracting temporal information from electronic patient records.  

PubMed

A method for automatic extraction of clinical temporal information would be of significant practical importance for deep medical language understanding, and a key to creating many successful applications, such as medical decision making, medical question and answering, etc. This paper proposes a rich statistical model for extracting temporal information from an extremely noisy clinical corpus. Besides the common linguistic, contextual and semantic features, the highly restricted training sample expansion and the structure distance between the temporal expression & related event expressions are also integrated into a supervised machine-learning approach. The learning method produces almost 80% F- score in the extraction of five temporal classes, and nearly 75% F-score in identifying temporally related events. This process has been integrated into the document-processing component of an implemented clinical question answering system that focuses on answering patient-specific questions (See demonstration at http://hitrl.cs.usyd.edu.au/ICNS/). PMID:23304326

Li, Min; Patrick, Jon

2012-01-01

396

Polypyrrole hollow fiber for solid phase extraction.  

PubMed

We have developed a solid-phase extraction method based on conductive polypyrrole (PPy) hollow fibers which were fabricated by electrospinning and in situ polymerization. The electrospun poly (e-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers were employed as templates for the in situ surface polymerization of PPy under mechanical stirring or ultrasonication to obtain burr-shaped or smooth fiber shells, respectively. Hollow PPy fibers, achieved by removing the PCL templates, were the ideal sorbents for solid phase extraction of polar compounds due to their inherent multi-functionalities. By using the hollow PPy fibers, two important neuroendocrine markers of behavioural disorders, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and homovanillic acid, were successfully extracted. Under the optimized conditions, the absolute recoveries of the above two neuroendocrine markers were 90.7% and 92.4%, respectively, in human plasma. Due to its simplicity, selectivity and sensitivity, the method may be applied to quantitatively analyse the concentrations of polar species in complex matrix samples. PMID:22398754

Tian, Tian; Deng, Jianjun; Xie, Zhuoying; Zhao, Yuanjin; Feng, Zhangqi; Kang, Xuejun; Gu, Zhongze

2012-04-21

397

Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts.  

PubMed

Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:17420913

Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Younes, Riad Naim

2006-12-01

398

Irradiation of lithium aluminate and tritium extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-irradiation tritium extraction from ?-LiAlO 2, samples irradiated to 2 × 10 17 n/cm 2 in quartz ampoules produced mostly tritiated water. During in-pile experiments the sample container material influences the ratio of tritium gas to tritiated water. Stainless steel capsules yield more T 2 gas than quartz capsules probably because of a reduction process. Difficulties in interpretation arise from adsorption of tritiated water on the measuring lines. Both experiments showed that much faster extraction rates are obtained from small grain size than large grain size samples at the same open porosity. If diffusion in the grains controls the extraction rates, apparent D values vary from 10 16 to 1.5 × 10 -15 cm 2/s in the temperature range explored. Around 500°C small grain samples reached an equilibrium tritium concentration of a few mCi in 4 h. Such values are suitable for a blanket concept.

Roth, E.; Abassin, J. J.; Botter, F.; Briec, M.; Chenebault, P.; Masson, M.; Rasneur, B.; Roux, N.

1985-08-01

399

Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

2006-06-07

400

Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

2010-11-16

401

Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Introduced in this paper is the utilization of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to automatically perform endmember extraction from hyperspectral data. The strengths of SVM are exploited to provide a fast and accurate calculated representation of high-dimensional data sets that may consist of multiple distributions. Once this representation is computed, the number of distributions can be determined without prior knowledge. For each distribution, an optimal transform can be determined that preserves informational content while reducing the data dimensionality, and hence, the computational cost. Finally, endmember extraction for the whole data set is accomplished. Results indicate that this Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction (SVM-BEE) algorithm has the capability of autonomously determining endmembers from multiple clusters with computational speed and accuracy, while maintaining a robust tolerance to noise.

Filippi, Anthony M [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL

2009-01-01

402

Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts.  

PubMed

Because of the widespread use of metallic nanoparticles in biology, pharmaceuticals, and medicine, biosynthesis methods are being considered to prepare these nanoparticles. Among biosynthesis methods mentioned in the literature, the use of plant extracts has gained great importance due to the fact that most of the plants are generally inexpensive, available, and nontoxic. Moreover, plant extracts are rich in different types of reducing and capping agents. Therefore, these methods have a high potential for scale-up and can produce nanoparticles in different morphologies. In this paper, different green methods used to prepare metallic nanoparticles and the types of characterization methods for their identification have been comprehensively explained. Since gold nanoparticles are considered more biocompatible than other metallic nanoparticles, research studies performed on green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts and different applications of these nanoparticles have been reviewed and discussed. PMID:25090979

Noruzi, Masumeh

2015-01-01

403

Automatic Extraction of Planetary Image Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the launch of several Lunar missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Chandrayaan-1, a large amount of Lunar images will be acquired and will need to be analyzed. Although many automatic feature extraction methods have been proposed and utilized for Earth remote sensing images, these methods are not always applicable to Lunar data that often present low contrast and uneven illumination characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new method for the extraction of Lunar features (that can be generalized to other planetary images), based on the combination of several image processing techniques, a watershed segmentation and the generalized Hough Transform. This feature extraction has many applications, among which image registration.

Troglio, G.; LeMoigne, J.; Moser, G.; Serpico, S. B.; Benediktsson, J. A.

2009-01-01

404

Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extracts of seed, hexane extracts of pulp, and hexane extracts of seed. The antioxidant potential of Cassia fistula extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.02) with the phenolic content of the methanolic extracts. Ascorbic acid taken as control showed highest antioxidant power in the present study. PMID:25374682

Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

2012-01-01

405

Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. PMID:24996300

Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

2014-12-01

406

Application of novel extraction technologies for bioactives from marine algae.  

PubMed

Marine algae are a rich source of bioactive compounds. This paper outlines the main bioactive compounds in marine algae and recent advances in novel technologies for extracting them. Novel extraction technologies reviewed include enzyme-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction. These technologies are reviewed with respect to principles, benefits, and potential applications for marine algal bioactives. Advantages of novel technologies include higher yield, reduced treatment time, and lower cost compared to traditional solvent extraction techniques. Moreover, different combinations of novel techniques used for extraction and technologies suitable for thermolabile compounds are identified. The limitations of and challenges to employing these novel extraction technologies in industry are also highlighted. PMID:23634989

Kadam, Shekhar U; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

2013-05-22

407

Extracting laboratory test information from biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background: No previous study reported the efficacy of current natural language processing (NLP) methods for extracting laboratory test information from narrative documents. This study investigates the pathology informatics question of how accurately such information can be extracted from text with the current tools and techniques, especially machine learning and symbolic NLP methods. The study data came from a text corpus maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, containing a rich set of information on laboratory tests and test devices. Methods: The authors developed a symbolic information extraction (SIE) system to extract device and test specific information about four types of laboratory test entities: Specimens, analytes, units of measures and detection limits. They compared the performance of SIE and three prominent machine learning based NLP systems, LingPipe, GATE and BANNER, each implementing a distinct supervised machine learning method, hidden Markov models, support vector machines and conditional random fields, respectively. Results: Machine learning systems recognized laboratory test entities with moderately high recall, but low precision rates. Their recall rates were relatively higher when the number of distinct entity values (e.g., the spectrum of specimens) was very limited or when lexical morphology of the entity was distinctive (as in units of measures), yet SIE outperformed them with statistically significant margins on extracting specimen, analyte and detection limit information in both precision and F-measure. Its high recall performance was statistically significant on analyte information extraction. Conclusions: Despite its shortcomings against machine learning methods, a well-tailored symbolic system may better discern relevancy among a pile of information of the same type and may outperform a machine learning system by tapping into lexically non-local contextual information such as the document structure. PMID:24083058

Kang, Yanna Shen; Kayaalp, Mehmet

2013-01-01

408

Extracting knowledge from the World Wide Web  

PubMed Central

The World Wide Web provides a unprecedented opportunity to automatically analyze a large sample of interests and activity in the world. We discuss methods for extracting knowledge from the web by randomly sampling and analyzing hosts and pages, and by analyzing the link structure of the web and how links accumulate over time. A variety of interesting and valuable information can be extracted, such as the distribution of web pages over domains, the distribution of interest in different areas, communities related to different topics, the nature of competition in different categories of sites, and the degree of communication between different communities or countries. PMID:14745041

Henzinger, Monika; Lawrence, Steve

2004-01-01

409

Large datasets: Segmentation, feature extraction, and compression  

SciTech Connect

Large data sets with more than several mission multivariate observations (tens of megabytes or gigabytes of stored information) are difficult or impossible to analyze with traditional software. The amount of output which must be scanned quickly dilutes the ability of the investigator to confidently identify all the meaningful patterns and trends which may be present. The purpose of this project is to develop both a theoretical foundation and a collection of tools for automated feature extraction that can be easily customized to specific applications. Cluster analysis techniques are applied as a final step in the feature extraction process, which helps make data surveying simple and effective.

Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

1996-07-01

410

On statistical methods of structure function extraction  

E-print Network

Several methods of statistical analysis are proposed and analyzed in application for a specific task -- extraction of the structure functions from the cross sections of deep inelastic interactions of any type. We formulate the method based on the orthogonal weight functions and on an optimization procedure of errors minimization as well as methods underlying common $\\chi^2$ minimization. Effectiveness of these methods usage is analyzed by comparison of the statistical parameters such as bias, extraction variance etc., for sample deep inelastic scattering data set.

S. N. Sevbitov; T. V. Shishkina; I. L. Solovtsov

2007-11-29

411

RNA extraction from cereal vegetative tissue.  

PubMed

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction is the necessary first step in many protocols, primarily to investigate genes and gene expression. RNA comes in a variety of forms: total RNA, ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA (mRNA), and small interfering RNA (siRNA) to name a few. In some instances, total RNA is all that is required; however most applications will require the enrichment for some particular form of RNA. In plants, including cereals, total RNA is a mixture of many types of RNA and enrichment is generally required. In this protocol, the TRIzol(®) method of RNA extraction from cereal leaf material is described, as it is a relatively simple technique. PMID:24243192

Pattemore, Julie A

2014-01-01

412

Direct feature extraction from compressed images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the issue of direct extraction of low level features from compressed images. Specifically, we consider the detection of areas of interest and edges in images compressed using the discrete cosine transform (DCT). For interest areas, we show how a measure based on certain DCT coefficients of a block can provide an indication of underlying activity. For edges, we show using an ideal edge model how the relative values of different DCT coefficients of a block can be used to estimate the strength and orientation of an edge. Our experimental results indicate that coarse edge information from compressed images can be extracted up to 20 times faster than conventional edge detectors.

Shen, Bo; Sethi, Ishwar K.

1996-03-01

413

Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions  

DOEpatents

A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

414

Supercritical Fluid Extraction- Process Simulation and Design  

E-print Network

of the simulation program, but is a reflection on our lack of good thennodynamic data to predict multicomponent flashes from high pressure to lower pressure for carbon dioxide/IPNwater systems. Further, the flash temperature is below the freezing point for water... of the column and is flashed to atmospheric pressure. The extract (solvent rich) stream, which now contains most of the IPA and some water, exits the top of the extractor. The extract is dropped in pressure (to 665 psia) and enters a decanter where any...

Martin, C. L.; Seibert, A. F.

415

Isolation and purification of glycyrrhizic acid with solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from liquorice leaching solution was studied with tributyl phosphate, trialkylphosphine oxide, n-hexanol and 2-ethyl-hexanol as extractants. The results showed that GA was easily extracted into the organic phase in molecular state by the formation of hydrogen bond. pH was the key factor influencing the selectivity during extraction and stripping. The extraction mechanism was studied

Guo-guang Niu; Yu-chun Xie; Jian-feng Lou; Hui-zhou Liu

2005-01-01

416

Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glabridin from Licorice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction and separation conditions of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from licorice were investigated. By changing the different extraction solvents, procedures, times and temperature, the optimum extraction condition was established: the used of ethanol\\/water (30:70, v\\/v) as an extraction solvent, and 60 min dipping time under 50°C. The extracts of licorice were separated and determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid

Minglei Tian; Hongyuan Yan; Kyung Ho Row

2008-01-01

417

Extraction of Fucoidan from Rhizoid of Undaria pinnatifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature ,pH ,extract time ,water\\/ algae ratio ,and addition of pectase and cellulase on the amount of fucoidan extracted from rhizoid of Undaria pinnatifida by ethanol was studied. The results of single factor and orthogonal experi2 ments indicated that the optimal procedure to extract fucoidan was to extract 5 h at 80 ?under pH 6. The extraction

ZONG Hu; LIU Chang; HAN Lei

418

Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

Lin, Yupo J. (Naperville, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2012-02-07

419

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Studies of Trivalent Yttrium from Phosphoric Acid Solutions Using TOPS 99 as an Extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid-liquid extraction studies of trivalent yttrium (Y) from phosphoric acid solutions have been carried out with commercial organophosphoric acid based extractant TOPS 99 (Talcher Organo phosphorus solvent, an equivalent of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid). The parameters studied include equilibration time, acid concentration, extractant concentration, diluent, metal concentration, temperature, stripping, and regeneration of the extractant. Increase of phosphoric acid concentration in the

B. Ramachandra Reddy; S. Radhika; B. Nagaphani Kumar

2010-01-01

420

Factors affecting high-pressure solvent extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) of additives from polymers.  

PubMed

Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)] propionate) is successfully extracted from polypropylene using solvents at high temperatures and pressures in a homemade accelerated solvent extraction system. For example, using freeze-ground polymer, 90% extraction is possible within 5 min with 2-propanol at 150 °C. Extraction curves for 2-propanol and acetone fit well to the "hot ball" model, previously developed for supercritical fluid extraction. Diffusion coefficients are determined for extractions with 2-propanol, acetone, and cyclohexane over a range of temperatures, and the activation energies for the diffusion are 134, 107, and 61 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively. The lower figure for acetone and cyclohexane indicates that these solvents swell the polymer more than does 2-propanol. The polymer dissolves in the solvent at too high a temperature, which causes blockage of the transfer lines. For maximum extraction rates, the highest temperature for each solvent that avoids dissolution of the polymer should be used. The use of mixed solvents is investigated and shows advantages in some cases, with the aim of producing a solvent that will swell the polymer but not dissolve it. PMID:21651286

Vandenburg, H J; Clifford, A A; Bartle, K D; Zhu, S A; Carroll, J; Newton, I D; Garden, L M

1998-05-01

421

Optimization of olive leaf extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction with response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polyphenols from agricultural and industrial waste of olive oil and table oil productions, olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as solvent concentration (0-100% ethanol (EtOH), v/v), the ratio of solid to solvent (25-50mg/mL) and extraction time (20-60 min), and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). The extract yield was stated as mg extract per g of dried leaf (DL). Total phenolic content was expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried leaf. Free radical scavenging activity for the antioxidant capacity was tested by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The second order polynomial model gave a satisfactory description of the experimental data. 201.2158 mg extract/g DL, 25.0626 mg GAE/g DL, and 95.5610% in respect to inhibition of DPPH radical were predicted at the optimum operating conditions (500 mg solid to 10 mL solvent ratio, 60 min of extraction time and 50% EtOH composition), respectively. PMID:22964032

?ahin, Selin; Saml?, Rüya

2013-01-01

422

Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Transitioning to Passive Extraction at the Former DUS-II Site  

SciTech Connect

This investigation evaluated mass extraction rate from individual wells associated with the Western Sector Treatment System (formerly known as the DUS-II project). This was critical since each individual well can have a radius of influence in excess of 100-ft when operating using an active extraction system. Future soil vapor extraction should use the existing active extraction system, supplemented with deployment of passive extraction where appropriate.

Jackson, Dennis G.; Noonkester, Jay V.; Looney, Brian B.

2013-04-03

423

Free radical-scavenging activity of Aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) extracts by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical-scavenging activities of extracts of Aloe vera of leaf skin by supercritical CO2 extraction and solvent extraction were determined. An orthogonal array design matrix of L9 (34) was considered to optimize supercritical carbon dioxide extraction processing at a CO2 flow rate of 12–36 lh?1, 35–45 MPa and 32–50 °C. The optimum extracted yield of 1.47% was provided at

Qiuhui Hu; Yun Hu; Juan Xu

2005-01-01

424

Evaluation of the extraction efficiency of thermally labile bioactive compounds in Gastrodia elata Blume by pressurized hot water extraction and microwave-assisted extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our earlier work showed that the stability of the bioactive compounds gastrodin (GA) and vanillyl alcohol (VA) in Gastrodia elata Blume behaved differently with varying compositions of water–ethanol using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at room temperature. To have a better understanding of the extraction process of these thermally labile compounds under elevated temperature conditions, pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) and

Chin Chye Teo; Swee Ngin Tan; Jean Wan Hong Yong; Choy Sin Hew; Eng Shi Ong

2008-01-01

425

Metabolite extraction from adherently growing mammalian cells for metabolomics studies: optimization of harvesting and extraction protocols.  

PubMed

Trypsin/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment and cell scraping in a buffer solution were compared for harvesting adherently growing mammalian SW480 cells for metabolomics studies. In addition, direct scraping with a solvent was tested. Trypsinated and scraped cell pellets were extracted using seven different extraction protocols including pure methanol, methanol/water, pure acetone, acetone/water, methanol/chloroform/water, methanol/isopropanol/water, and acid-base methanol. The extracts were analyzed by GC-MS after methoximation/silylation and derivatization with propyl chloroformate, respectively. The metabolic fingerprints were compared and 25 selected metabolites including amino acids and intermediates of energy metabolism were quantitatively determined. Moreover, the influence of freeze/thaw cycles, ultrasonication and homogenization using ceramic beads on extraction yield was tested. Pure acetone yielded the lowest extraction efficiency while methanol, methanol/water, methanol/isopropanol/water, and acid-base methanol recovered similar metabolite amounts with good reproducibility. Based on overall performance, methanol/water was chosen as a suitable extraction solvent. Repeated freeze/thaw cycles, ultrasonication and homogenization did not improve overall metabolite yield of the methanol/water extraction. Trypsin/EDTA treatment caused substantial metabolite leakage proving it inadequate for metabolomics studies. Gentle scraping of the cells in a buffer solution and subsequent extraction with methanol/water resulted on average in a sevenfold lower recovery of quantified metabolites compared with direct scraping using methanol/water, making the latter one the method of choice to harvest and extract metabolites from adherently growing mammalian SW480 cells. PMID:21125262

Dettmer, Katja; Nürnberger, Nadine; Kaspar, Hannelore; Gruber, Michael A; Almstetter, Martin F; Oefner, Peter J

2011-01-01

426

Intensified extraction of ionized natural products by ion pair centrifugal partition extraction.  

PubMed

The potential of centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) combined with the ion-pair (IP) extraction mode to simultaneously extract and purify natural ionized saponins from licorice is presented in this work. The design of the instrument, a new laboratory-scale Fast Centrifugal Partition Extractor (FCPE300(®)), has evolved from centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) columns, but with less cells of larger volume. Some hydrodynamic characteristics of the FCPE300(®) were highlighted by investigating the retention of the stationary phase under different flow rate conditions and for different biphasic solvent systems. A method based on the ion-pair extraction mode was developed to extract glycyrrhizin (GL), a biologically active ionic saponin naturally present in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Fabaceae) roots. The extraction of GL was performed at a flow rate of 20 mL/min in the descending mode by using the biphasic solvent system ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water in the proportions 3/2/5 (v/v/v). Trioctylmethylammonium with chloride as a counter-ion (Al336(®)) was used as the anion extractant in the organic stationary phase and iodide, with potassium as counter-ion, was used as the displacer in the aqueous mobile phase. From 20 g of a crude extract of licorice roots, 2.2g of GL were recovered after 70 min, for a total process duration of 90 min. The combination of the centrifugal partition extractor with the ion-pair extraction mode (IP-CPE) offers promising perspectives for industrial applications in the field of natural product isolation or for the fractionation of natural complex mixtures. PMID:21724190

Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Hubert, Jane; Hadj-Salem, Jamila; Richard, Bernard; Harakat, Dominique; Marchal, Luc; Foucault, Alain; Lavaud, Catherine; Renault, Jean-Hugues

2011-08-01

427

Extraction of Organic Molecules from Terrestrial Material: Quantitative Yields from Heat and Water Extractions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the robotic search for life on Mars, different proposed missions will analyze the chemical and biological signatures of life using different platforms. The analysis of samples via analytical instrumentation on the surface of Mars has thus far only been attempted by the two Viking missions. Robotic arms scooped relogith material into a pyrolysis oven attached to a GC/MS. No trace of organic material was found on any of the two different samples at either of the two different landing sites. This null result puts an upper limit on the amount of organics that might be present in Martian soil/rocks, although the level of detection for each individual molecular species is still debated. Determining the absolute limit of detection for each analytical instrument is essential so that null results can be understood. This includes investigating the trade off of using pyrolysis versus liquid solvent extraction to release organic materials (in terms of extraction efficiencies and the complexity of the sample extraction process.) Extraction of organics from field samples can be accomplished by a variety of methods such utilizing various solvents including HCl, pure water, supercritical fluid and Soxhelt extraction. Utilizing 6N HCl is one of the most commonly used method and frequently utilized for extraction of organics from meteorites but it is probably infeasible for robotic exploration due to difficulty of storage and transport. Extraction utilizing H2O is promising, but it could be less efficient than 6N HCl. Both supercritical fluid and Soxhelt extraction methods require bulky hardware and require complex steps, inappropriate for inclusion on rover spacecraft. This investigation reports the efficiencies of pyrolysis and solvent extraction methods for amino acids for different terrestrial samples. The samples studied here, initially created in aqueous environments, are sedimentary in nature. These particular samples were chosen because they possibly represent one of the best terrestrial analogs of Mars and they represent one of the absolute best case scenarios for finding organic molecules on the Martian surface.

Beegle, L. W.; Abbey, W. A.; Tsapin, A. T.; Dragoi, D.; Kanik, I.

2004-01-01

428

Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material  

DOEpatents

Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

1983-07-26

429

In-situ lunar oxygen extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is presented of a facility for extracting oxygen from lunar regolith for use in a manned space station. Available technologies for lunar oxygen (LUNOX) extraction are reviewed. The most promising involves the hydrogen reduction of ilmenite to iron, titanium oxide, and water followed by the electrolysis of the water to hydrogen and oxygen. It is concluded the best ore extraction and processing approach would involve the following: (1) a simple ballasted scoop regolith excavation; (2) batch ore preparation and benefication to extract the ilmenite ore; (3) ore hydrogenation; and (4) water electrolysis process. An economic analysis of the profitability of the venture indicates that production of oxygen for use in liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fuelled spacecraft would be profitable. A parametric analysis of the robustness of the economic analysis was performed in which development costs, launch costs, power requirements, the power to weight ratio of the power supply, and processing facility mass were varied. This analysis indicated that it was highly likely that manufacturing oxygen on the moon would be less costly than importing it from earth. Finally, a strategic analysis performed on the LUNOX facility indicated that Canada has the expertise and experience to undertake the development of such a facility. It is recommended that the project be investigated further.

Lozowski, Mark

430

Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

431

Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

2008-10-10

432

"!#"$%&(' )10323$ Linker-Based Program Extraction and  

E-print Network

Evolution Jingwei Wu 4 and Richard C. Holt 5 School of Computer Science University of Waterloo Waterloo, Canada Abstract One of the problems of empirical studies of software evolution is the lack of an effec- tive technique for extracting facts about very large software systems (millions of lines of code) over

Holt, Richard C.

433

Using Wavelet Extraction for Haptic Texture Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While visual texture classification is a widely-research topic in image analysis, little is known on its counterpart i.e. the haptic (touch) texture. This paper examines the visual texture classification in order to investigate how well it could be used for haptic texture search engine. In classifying the visual textures, feature extraction for a given image involving wavelet decomposition is used to obtain the transformation coefficients. Feature vectors are formed using energy signature from each wavelet sub-band coefficient. We conducted an experiment to investigate the extent in which wavelet decomposition could be used in haptic texture search engine. The experimental result, based on different testing data, shows that feature extraction using wavelet decomposition achieve accuracy rate more than 96%. This demonstrates that wavelet decomposition and energy signature is effective in extracting information from a visual texture. Based on this finding, we discuss on the suitability of wavelet decomposition for haptic texture searching, in terms of extracting information from image and haptic information.

Adi, Waskito; Sulaiman, Suziah

434

Exploiting Triangulated Surface Extraction Using Tetrahedral Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with digitized volumetric data, we wish to rapidly and efficiently extract and represent surfaces defined as isosurfaces in the interpolated data. The Marching Cubes algorithm is a standard approach to this problem. We instead perform a decomposition of each 8-cell associated with a voxel into five tetrahedra. We guarantee the resulting surface representation to be closed and oriented, defined

André Guéziec; Robert A. Hummel

1995-01-01

435

Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required to understand the underlying physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of much interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snap-shot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense. The following is a list of the important physical phenomena found in transient (and steady-state) fluid flow: (1) Shocks, (2) Vortex cores, (3) Regions of recirculation, (4) Boundary layers, (5) Wakes. Three papers and an initial specification for the (The Fluid eXtraction tool kit) FX Programmer's guide were included. The papers, submitted to the AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, are entitled : (1) Using Residence Time for the Extraction of Recirculation Regions, (2) Shock Detection from Computational Fluid Dynamics results and (3) On the Velocity Gradient Tensor and Fluid Feature Extraction.

Haimes, Robert; Lovely, David

1999-01-01

436

Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

437

SOLVENT EXTRACTION: SAFETY, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fats, which are solid at ambient temperature, and liquid oils are recovered from diverse biological sources by mechanical separation, solvent extraction, or a combination of the two methods. There are many physical and chemical differences between these diverse biological materials. However, the s...

438

The commodities price extracting for shop online  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the shop online and its usage develop very fast, the content, structure, and usage data, and the Web mining get more and more useful in everywhere such as e-supermarkets and e-commerce. Many theories and algorithms are reported for Web mining. This paper shows a novel idea for the commodities price extracting of shop online. The MVC design model and

Quanyin Zhu; Yunyang Yan; Jin Ding; Yu Zhang

2010-01-01

439

Antioxidant activity in extracts from coriander  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of different polarity from leaves and seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and coriander oil were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Three different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and inhibition of Fe2+ induced porcine brain phospholipid peroxidation. Total phenolic content was quantified as well. Positive correlations were found between total

Helle Wangensteen; Anne Berit Samuelsen; Karl Egil Malterud

2004-01-01

440

A PDMS interstitial fluid transdermal extraction tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a microfluidic based interstitial fluid (ISF) transdermal extraction tool fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), designed towards the application of continuous glucose monitoring. This device consists of a Venturi Tube for vacuum generation, chambers for the introduction of ISF and normal saline solution, pneumatic valves for fluid control, and interconnected microchannels. Vacuum pressure is used for fluid manipulation and a

Haixia Yu; Robert C. Roberts; Dachao Li; Kexin Xu; Norman C. Tien

2010-01-01

441

Titanium Extraction by Molten Oxide Electrolysis  

E-print Network

Titanium Extraction by Molten Oxide Electrolysis Naomi A. Fried and Donald R. Sadoway Department, NC March 15, 2004 a technological response? extreme form of molten salt electrolysis molten oxide electrolysis: where pure oxygen gas is by-product most metals are found in nature as oxides "like dissolves

Sadoway, Donald Robert

442

Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils  

E-print Network

The Texas Agricultural Extension Service (TAEX) Soil Testing Laboratory currently utilizes a single phosphorus (P) extractant consisting of 1.43 M NH4OAc, 1. 0 M HCl, and 0.025 M EDTA-PH 4.2 to estimate plant available P for all soils in Texas...

Byrd, Robert Claude

1995-01-01

443

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. Waste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. The use of steam enhances the stripping of...

444

Temporal feature extraction in photorefractive resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic optical system listens to an incoming signal and extracts the most common repetitive temporal features of that signal. An example might be to extract the features of Morse code, which consists of two tone lengths and two pause lengths. This optical system is self-organizing, in that very little a priori information is imbeded in the system to indicate what form the temporal signals take. The primary constraints imposed on the signal is: (1) finite bandwidth; (2) limited feature duration; and (3) rates of reoccurrence. The optical apparatus uses a photorefractively pumped multimode optical oscillator having a delay line in the feedback loop. The delay line serves to translate the temporal dimension into a spatial one, and it also builds into the system a notion of the direction of time. Temporal feature extraction takes place as a competitive interaction among sets of modes, which are termed chronomodes. Experiments illustrate the principles of such a system by extracting the two most probable temporal features from a signal imposed on a laser beam.

Anderson, Dana Z.; Zhou, Gan; Montemezzani, Germano

1994-12-01

445

Rule extraction from linear support vector machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an algorithm for converting linear support vector machines and any other arbitrary hyperplane-based linear classifiers into a set of non-overlapping rules that, unlike the original classifier, can be easily interpreted by humans. Each iteration of the rule extraction algorithm is formulated as a constrained optimization problem that is computationally inexpensive to solve. We discuss various properties of the

Glenn Fung; Sathyakama Sandilya; R. Bharat Rao

2005-01-01

446

Technology Treaties and Fossil-Fuels Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider some unintended effects of a technology treaty to increase the (stochastic) possibility of developing an energy alternative to fossil fuels which, when available, makes fossil fuels redundant. One implication of such a treaty is to increase the incentives for fossil-fuels producers to extract fossil fuels existing in given quantity more rapidly, under competition when the equilibrium price path

Jon Strand

2007-01-01

447

Information Extraction from Symbolically Compressed Document Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of information from symbolically compressed document images is an increasingly important problem as the related standard (JBIG2) and commercial products become available. Symbolic compression techniques work by clustering individual connected connected components (blobs) in a document image and storing the sequence of occurrence of blobs and representative blob templates, hence the name symbolic compression. These techniques are specifically

Dar-Shyang Lee; Jonathan J. Hull

1999-01-01

448

Extracting geothermal energy can be hard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initially high expectations of the mid-1970's for the rapid development of geothermal energy have been lowered. One reason is continuing uncertainty about the extraction of geothermal energy. Drillers can have a good idea of which areas have concentrations of geothermal energy beneath the surface and still have trouble bringing up enough energy to make a power plant worthwhile. The

R. A. KERR

1982-01-01

449

Web Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence  

E-print Network

as new products appear on the market. · An online travel agency offering a best price guarantee needsWeb Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory Online market intelligence (OMI), and especially competitive intelligence for product pricing, is a very

Oxford, University of

450

Ginkgo biloba extract: Mechanisms and clinical indications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:, Ginkgo biloba may have a role in treating impairments in memory, cognitive speed, activities of daily living (ADL), edema, inflammation, and free-radical toxicity associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, vasoocclusive disorders, and aging. The purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the mechanisms of action, clinical indications, and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract.Data

Bruce J. Diamond; Samuel C. Shiflett; Nancy Feiwel; Robert J. Matheis; Olga Noskin; Jennifer A. Richards; Nancy E. Schoenberger

2000-01-01

451

SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in increasing numbers due to many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. VE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport are quite c...

452

SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

453

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2012-01-01

454

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2013-01-01

455

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2010-01-01

456

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2011-01-01

457

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2014-01-01

458

Extracting Temporal Information from Text Andrea Setzer  

E-print Network

scheme, a theory of how temporal information is conveyed and heuristics to extract temporal information information is available nowadays, from a large number of sources, many of them electronic. One way of dealing scheme for temporal information, a theory of how temporal information is conveyed and heuristics

Maynard, Diana

459

Extracting Randomness Using Few Independent Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we give the rst deterministic extractors from a constant number of weak sources whose entropy rate is less than 1\\/2. Specically , for every > 0 we give an explicit construction for extracting randomness from a constant (depending polynomially on 1= ) number of distri- butions over f0; 1gn, each having min-entropy n. These extractors output n

Boaz Barak; Russell Impagliazzo; Avi Wigderson

460

Extracting Randomness Using Few Independent Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we give the first deterministic extractors from a constant number of weak sources whose entropy rate is less than 1\\/2. Specifically, for every > 0 we give an explicit construction for extracting randomness from a constant (depending polynomially on 1\\/ ) number of distri- butions over {0,1}n, each having min-entropy n . These extractors output n bits,

Boaz Barak; Russell Impagliazzo; Avi Wigderson

2004-01-01

461

Extracting work from absence of correlations  

E-print Network

As Landauer's Principle and Szilard's engine illustrate, the reduction of a system's entropy costs work, while its increase can be used to extract work from a heat bath. One consequence in standard thermodynamics is that correlations have work value: the total entropy of two correlated systems is less than the sum of their local entropies, and thus work can be extracted if this correlation is consumed. In this paper, we show that the situation is surprisingly different for microscopic and quantum systems far from the thermodynamic limit: quite the contrary, absence of correlations can be used to extract work. Recently, it has been shown that the possible state transitions in the microscopic regime are severely limited by an infinite family of "second laws". We show that stochastic independence, if consumed as a resource, allows to overcome these limitations, to extract additional work reliably, and to achieve all state transitions that are otherwise only possible in the thermodynamic limit. Our result also yields an operational non-asymptotic characterization of von Neumann (neg-)entropy in terms of a majorization relation which generalizes the trumping relation from entanglement theory.

Markus P. Mueller; Michele Pastena

2014-09-10

462

University of Waterloo Modelling and Extracting the  

E-print Network

. Godfrey Software Architecture Group (SWAG) migod@uwaterloo.ca Michael W. Godfrey Uni-Koblenz Feb 2003 W. Godfrey Uni-Koblenz Feb 2003 Modelling and Extracting the Build-Time Architectural View 3 ­ Representing build-time views in UML · Demo of the BTV toolkit Michael W. Godfrey Uni-Koblenz Feb 2003

Godfrey, Michael W.

463

Lineal Feature Extraction by Parallel Stick Growing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding lineal features in an image is an important step in many object recognition and scene analysis procedures. Previous featu re extraction algorithms exhibit poor parallel performance because features often e xtend across large areas of the data set. This paper describes a parallel method for ex tracting lineal features based on an earlier sequential algorithm, stick growing. Th e

Galen C. Hunt; Randal C. Nelson

1996-01-01

464

Extraction of linear features on SAR imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear features are usually extracted from SAR imagery by a few edge detectors derived from the contrast ratio edge detector with a constant probability of false alarm. On the other hand, the Hough Transform is an elegant way of extracting global features like curve segments from binary edge images. Randomized Hough Transform can reduce the computation time and memory usage of the HT drastically. While Randomized Hough Transform will bring about a great deal of cells invalid during the randomized sample. In this paper, we propose a new approach to extract linear features on SAR imagery, which is an almost automatic algorithm based on edge detection and Randomized Hough Transform. The presented improved method makes full use of the directional information of each edge candidate points so as to solve invalid cumulate problems. Applied result is in good agreement with the theoretical study, and the main linear features on SAR imagery have been extracted automatically. The method saves storage space and computational time, which shows its effectiveness and applicability.

Liu, Junyi; Li, Deren; Mei, Xin

2006-10-01

465

Solvent extraction of phenols from water  

SciTech Connect

Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) have been evaluated as solvents for extraction of phenols, at high dilution, from water. Equilibrium distribution coefficients (K/sub D/) have been measured for phenol, dihydroxybenzenes and trihydroxybenzenes in both solvents as a function of pH. Particularly for the multihydric phenols, MIBK gives substantially higher values of K/sub D/ than does DIPE. The effect of pH can be described quantitatively through a simple ionization model, using published values of dissociation constants for the various phenols. Some method for removal of residual dissolved solvent must ordinarily be included in any extraction process for phenols. Possibilities include atmospheric-steam or inert-gas stripping, vacuum-steam stripping, and extraction with a second solvent. Vacuum-steam stripping is a particularly attractive choice for removal of MIBK; this reinforces the utility of MIBK as a solvent. The optimal temperature for vacuum stripping is generally the temperature of the extraction operation, which in turn is related to the effect of temperature on K/sub D/. Values of K/sub D/ for phenol-water-MIBK were determined at 30, 50, and 75/sup 0/C, and were found to decrease with increasing temperature at all concentrations.

Greminger, D.C.; Burns, G.P.; Lynn, S.; Hanson, D.H.; King, C.J.

1980-02-01

466

Extracting hydrocarbons from water using a centrifuge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original method for the solid-phase microextraction of hydrocarbons from water using a centrifuge is proposed. Comparative results from the chromatographic elution of substances after liquid-phase and solid-phase microextraction are presented. The percentage of the extraction of substances from aqueous solutions and the minimum detection limit for aromatic and aliphatic compounds are calculated.

Ryabov, A. Yu.; Ilyina, A. A.; Chuikin, A. V.; Velikov, A. A.

2014-09-01

467

Extraction of Field-Coherent Passages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a technique for dividing text into field-coherent passages based upon extracting field-associated words or phrases from the text by determining how topics grow, shrink and shift from sentence to sentence. Proposes measures of topic continuity and transition and suggests how those may be used to find the passage boundaries. (Author/LRW)

Lee, Samuel Sangkon; Shishibori, Masami; Sumitomo, Toru; Aoe, Jun-ichi

2002-01-01

468

Phytoestrogenic potential of Cyclopia extracts and polyphenols.  

PubMed

Cyclopia Vent. species, commonly known as honeybush, are endemic to Southern Africa. The plant is traditionally used as an herbal tea but several health benefits have recently been recorded. This minireview presents an overview of polyphenols found in Cyclopia and focuses on the phytoestrogenic potential of selected polyphenols and of extracts prepared from the plant. PMID:23609108

Louw, Ann; Joubert, Elizabeth; Visser, Koch

2013-05-01

469

An optimal extraction algorithm for imaging photometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is primarily an investigation of whether the `optimal extraction' techniques used in CCD spectroscopy can be applied to imaging photometry. It is found that using such techniques provides a gain of around 10 per cent in signal-to-noise ratio over normal aperture photometry. Formally, it is shown to be equivalent to profile fitting, but offers advantages of robust error

Tim Naylor

1998-01-01

470

Extracting secret keys from integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern cryptographic protocols are based on the premise that only authorized participants can obtain secret keys and access to information systems. However, sophisticated tampering methods have been devised to extract secret keys stored in digital integrated circuits (ICs) from conditional access systems such as smartcards and ATMs. Arbiter-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) is proposed to exploit the statistical delay variation

Daihyun Lim; Jae W. Lee; Blaise Gassend; G. Edward Suh; Marten Van Dijk; Srinivas Devadas

2005-01-01

471

Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...

472

Gallium complexes and solvent extraction of gallium  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for recovering gallium from aqueous solutions containing gallium which comprises contacting such a solution with an organic solvent containing at least 2% by weight of a water-insoluble N-organo hydroxamic acid having at least about 8 carbon atoms to extract gallium, and separating the gallium loaded organic solvent phase from the aqueous phase.

Coleman, J.P.; Graham, C.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

1988-05-03

473

Silhouette extraction using color and depth information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently applications involving capture of scenes with object of interest among surroundings gained high popularity. Such applications include video surveillance, human motion capture, human-computer interaction, etc. For proper analysis of the object of interest a necessary step is to separate the object of interest from surroundings, i. e. perform background subtraction (or silhouette extraction). This is a challenging task because of several problems, which are slight changes in background; shadows caused by the object of interest; and similarly colored objects. In this work we propose a new method for extracting the silhouette of an object of interest, based upon the joint use of both depth (range) and color data. Depth-based data is independent of color image data, and hence not affected by the limitations associated with color-based segmentation, such as shadows and similarly colored objects. At the initial moment an image of the background (not containing the object of interest) is present, and it is updated in every frame taking into account extracted silhouette and using "running average". Silhouette extraction method is based on k-means clustering of depth data and color difference data, and per-pixel silhouette mask computation, using clusters' centroids. The proposed solution is very fast and allows real-time processing of video. Developed algorithm has been successfully applied in human recognition application and provided good results for modeling human figure.

Tolstaya, Ekaterina; Bucha, Victor

2012-03-01

474

Extracting Regular Behaviors from Social Media Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media network analysis has become very popular in recent years. How do real networks evolve over time? What are the normal evolving behaviors in a social media network? In order to extract behaviors occurring regularly to reveal the microscopic evolving properties in social networks, the evolving process of networks is modeled as stochastic states transition, and the evolving behaviors

Leiming Yan; Jinwei Wang

2011-01-01

475

Concept vector extraction from Wikipedia category network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of machine readable taxonomy has been demonstrated by various applications such as document classification and information retrieval. One of the main topics of automated taxonomy extraction research is Web mining based statistical NLP and a significant number of researches have been conducted. However, existing works on automatic dictionary building have accuracy problems due to the technical limitation of

Masumi Shirakawa; Kotaro Nakayama; Takahiro Hara; Shojiro Nishio

2009-01-01

476

Adaptive Key Frame Extraction using Unsupervised Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key frame extraction has been recognized as one ofthe important research issues in video information retrieval.Although progress has been made in key frameextraction, the existing approaches are either computationallyexpensive or ineffective in capturing salientvisual content. In this paper, we first discuss the importanceof key frame selection; and then briefly reviewand evaluate the existing approaches. To overcome theshortcomings of the existing

Yueting Zhuangt; Yong Rui; Thomas S. Huang; Sharad Mehrotra

1998-01-01

477

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception,

A. S. Kertes; C. J. King

1986-01-01

478

Sequential feature extraction for waveform recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many practical waveform recognition problems involve a sequential structure in time. One obvious example is speech. The information in speech can be assumed to be transmitted sequentially through a phonetic structure. Other examples are seismograms, radar signals, or television signals. We will take advantage of this sequential structure to develop a means of feature extraction and recognition for waveforms. The

W. J. Steingrandt; S. S. Yau

1970-01-01

479

Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics  

PubMed Central

Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type “clinical trials” to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first experimented with different sliding window models and found the model with parameters that led to best performance in a preliminary sequence labeling task. The evaluation of this approach, performed against the i2b2/VA concept extraction corpus, showed that incorporating features based on the distribution of words across a large unannotated corpus significantly aids concept extraction. Compared to a supervised-only approach as a baseline, the micro-averaged f-measure for exact match increased from 80.3% to 82.3% and the micro-averaged f-measure based on inexact match increased from 89.7% to 91.3%. These improvements are highly significant according to the bootstrap resampling method and also considering the performance of other systems. Thus, distributional semantic features significantly improve the performance of concept extraction from clinical narratives by taking advantage of word distribution information obtained from unannotated data. PMID:22085698

Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

2011-01-01

480

Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics.  

PubMed

Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement of concept extraction methods. However, as the annotation process is labor-intensive, training data are necessarily limited in the concepts and concept patterns covered, which impacts the performance of supervised machine learning applications trained with these data. This paper proposes an approach to minimize this limitation by combining supervised machine learning with empirical learning of semantic relatedness from the distribution of the relevant words in additional unannotated text. The approach uses a sequential discriminative classifier (Conditional Random Fields) to extract the mentions of medical problems, treatments and tests from clinical narratives. It takes advantage of all Medline abstracts indexed as being of the publication type "clinical trials" to estimate the relatedness between words in the i2b2/VA training and testing corpora. In addition to the traditional features such as dictionary matching, pattern matching and part-of-speech tags, we also used as a feature words that appear in similar contexts to the word in question (that is, words that have a similar vector representation measured with the commonly used cosine metric, where vector representations are derived using methods of distributional semantics). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort exploring the use of distributional semantics, the semantics derived empirically from unannotated text often using vector space models, for a sequence classification task such as concept extraction. Therefore, we first experimented with different sliding window models and found the model with parameters that led to best performance in a preliminary sequence labeling task. The evaluation of this approach, performed against the i2b2/VA concept extraction corpus, showed that incorporating features based on the distribution of words across a large unannotated corpus significantly aids concept extraction. Compared to a supervised-only approach as a baseline, the micro-averaged F-score for exact match increased from 80.3% to 82.3% and the micro-averaged F-score based on inexact match increased from 89.7% to 91.3%. These improvements are highly significant according to the bootstrap resampling method and also considering the performance of other systems. Thus, distributional semantic features significantly improve the performance of concept extraction from clinical narratives by taking advantage of word distribution information obtained from unannotated data. PMID:22085698

Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Cohen, Trevor; Wu, Stephen; Gonzalez, Graciela

2012-02-01

481

Extraction systems for the study of dubnium  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry of transactinide elements (Z {ge} 104) is a topic of great interest in current nuclear chemistry research. The chemical systems that can be used in these studies are limited by the short half-lives of the isotopes and the small production rates of atoms per minute or even atoms per week. In the initial investigations, the chemistry used had to be very selective to the periodic group of interest to separate the transactinide atom from all the other unwanted nuclear reaction products, e.g., transfer products. By using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) as a physical pre-separator, we are able concentrate on systems that are selective between the members of the group of interest, because all other interfering products and the beam are being suppressed by the BGS [1]. We are developing suitable extraction systems for the study of element 105, dubnium. For this purpose we have studied the extraction of niobium and tantalum, the lighter homologs of dubnium, from mineral acids with different organophosphorus compounds. All studies were performed online, using short-lived niobium and tantalum produced in the {sup 124}Sn({sup 51}V,5n){sup 170}Ta and {sup 74}Se({sup 18}O,p3n){sup 88}Nb reactions. This allowed for the study of the lighter homologues at metal concentrations of 10{sup -16} M. At these low metal concentrations, the formation of polymeric species is largely prohibited. As seen in Fig. 1, by varying the extractant and the hydrochloric acid concentration from 1 to 11 M, we are able to see a difference in extraction behavior between niobium and tantalum. While the system is suitable for determining chemical differences between the lighter homologues, the extraction of tantalum from hydrochloric acid shows slow kinetics. Figure 2 shows that after 90 seconds of mixing, the system is not in equilibrium. However, experiments indicate that equilibrium is reached faster at higher acid concentrations. We have studied the influence of hydrogen ion concentration on the extraction kinetics. By varying the chloride concentration while holding the hydrogen ion concentration at a low, fixed value, equilibrium can be reached in less than 10 s. Results for different extractants and various aqueous phase compositions will be presented and discussed.

Gates, J.M.; Sudowe, R.; Ali, M.N.; Calvert, M.G.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P.A.; Garcia, M.A.; Gharibyan, N.; Gregorich, K.E.; Nelson, S.L.; Neumann, S.H.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Stavsetra, L.; Nitsche, H.

2007-09-01

482

Real-time structured light depth extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gathering depth data using structured light has been a procedure for many different environments and uses. Many of these system are utilized instead of laser line scanning because of their quickness. However, to utilize depth extraction for some applications, in our case laparoscopic surgery, the depth extraction must be in real time. We have developed an apparatus that speeds up the raw image display and grabbing in structured light depth extraction from 30 frames per second to 60 and 180 frames per second. This results in an updated depth and texture map of about 15 times per second versus about 3. This increased update rate allows for real time depth extraction for use in augmented medical/surgical applications. Our miniature, fist-sized projector utilizes an internal ferro-reflective LCD display that is illuminated with cold light from a flex light pipe. The miniature projector, attachable to a laparoscope, displays inverted pairs of structured light into the body where these images are then viewed by a high-speed camera set slightly off axis from the projector that grabs images synchronously. The images from the camera are ported to a graphics-processing card where six frames are worked on simultaneously to extract depth and create mapped textures from these images. This information is then sent to the host computer with 3D coordinate information of the projector/camera and the associated textures. The surgeon is then able to view body images in real time from different locations without physically moving the laparoscope imager/projector, thereby, reducing the trauma of moving laparoscopes in the patient.

Keller, Kurtis; Ackerman, Jeremy D.

2000-03-01

483

A Cell Extraction Method for Oily Sediments  

PubMed Central

Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are also an important economical resource and through natural seepage or accidental release they can be major pollutants. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence, thereby hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008) separates the cells from the sediment matrix. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it was not originally optimized for this application. Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification, and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from oily samples treated according to our new protocol are significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008). We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and – in samples containing more mature oils – methanol, delivered the best results. However, as solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which hydrocarbon extraction is maximized and cell lysis minimized. A volumetric ratio of 1:2–1:5 between a formalin-fixed sediment slurry and solvent delivered highest cell counts. Extraction efficiency was around 30–50% and was checked on both oily samples spiked with known amounts of E. coli cells and oil-free samples amended with fresh and biodegraded oil. The method provided reproducible results on samples containing very different kinds of oils with regard to their degree of biodegradation. For strongly biodegraded oil MeOH turned out to be the most appropriate solvent, whereas for less biodegraded samples n-hexane delivered best results. PMID:22125553

Lappé, Michael; Kallmeyer, Jens

2011-01-01

484

Point Cloud, Data Classification and Extraction  

E-print Network

Three Dimensional City Model (3DCM) research becomes a hot area in GIS field in recent years. The 3DCM research also has great significance in traffic, land, mine, surveying and mapping, and other fields, especially in urban plan. The difficulty of acquiring 3D data is the key hamper for the development of 3DCM. Airborne LIDAR, which integrates GPS, INS and scanning laser rangefinder, can rapidly acquire the 3D position of ground using airplane. It is very economical, efficient and convenient to acquire 3D data. Traditional three-dimensional data acquisition method can’t satisfied with the more and more fast development need of the city.airborne LIDAR technology is regarded as a convenience, swift, high-efficient three-dimensional data acquisition method, widely admitted progressively. LIDAR technology already has a history of more than ten years, major problem of hardware technology and system integration has already solved, had already developed successfully many business soft systems. But postprocessing technology of LIDAR data still lag behind after practice, among them, the key problem is the data classification and extraction. A lot of commercial companies and some large institute are devoted to the research of this respect in the world, many kinds of filtration algorithm and extraction method have been introduced.in the future, more effective and more perfect algorithm will been used. Because of the complexity of the topography and surface feature of the objective world, at present, the research on data classification and extraction lay particular emphasis on different applications. As regards modeling of three-dimensional city, study mainly concentrate on the topography extraction and the building extraction etc. This paper has introduce post-processing procedure of airborne LIDAR data systematically, has realized the fast reconstruction of three-dimension urban model based on LIDAR data, enable this technology to serve the information construction of the city better. 1.

unknown authors

485

Countercurrent supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of alcoholic beverages.  

PubMed

A procedure for the recovery of aromatic extracts from distilled alcoholic beverages by means of a countercurrent supercritical fluid extraction (CC-SFE) on a pilot plant scale is studied. The beverage is directly in contact with the carbon dioxide current in a packed column, and the extracts are recovered in two different fractionation cells, where the depressurization occurs. The proposed method allows the selective extraction of aromatic components of the brandy flavor, rendering a high-value concentrated extract and a colored residue without brandy aroma. The content in ethanol of the aromatic extract can be modified by tuning the extraction/fractionation conditions, rendering from 15 to 95% recovery. The effect of the main variables, including extraction pressure and quality of extracting CO(2), has been tested. PMID:11308342

Señoráns, F J; Ruiz-Rodríguez, A; Ibañez, E; Tabera, J; Reglero, G

2001-04-01

486

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectin from sisal waste.  

PubMed

In this study, an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of pectin from sisal waste was investigated and optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three-level four-factor Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize the extraction conditions (ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio). Analysis of variance showed that the contribution of a quadratic model was significant for the pectin extraction yield. The experimental yield (29.32%) was obtained under the optimal condition (ultrasonic power of 61 W, temperature of 50°C, time of 26 min and SL ratio of 1:28 g/ml) was well agreement with predicted values. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted extraction could be used as an alternative method to extract pectin from sisal waste with the advantages of lower extraction temperatures, shorter extraction time and reduced energy consumption. PMID:25439955

Maran, J Prakash; Priya, B

2015-01-22

487

CLEANUP OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLE EXTRACTS USING FLORISIL SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION CARTRIDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Disposable cartridges containing 1 g of Florisil are investigated for cleanup of extracts obtained from various environmental natrices. lution patterns and recoveries are determined for 22 chlorinated hydrocarbons and 16 phthalate esters in the presence of interferents such as co...

488

Repeat silica extraction: a simple technique for the removal of PCR inhibitors from DNA extracts  

E-print Network

reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2006.02.015 Journal of Archaeological Science 33 (2006) 1680e1689 http to polymerase [11]. Inhibitors are also routinely en- countered in forensic investigations of DNA extracted from

Kemp, Brian M.

489

Synergistic and salting out effects in extraction of phenols  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of phenols from dilute aqueous solutions was studied; the extracting agents were n-butyl acetate, C/sub 5/-C/sub 10/ alcohols, nitrobenzene, and tributyl phosphate. Isotherms of extraction of phenol by isomolar mixtures of n-butyl acetate and nitrobenzene, n-hexyl alcohol and tributyl phosphate are shown. The synergistic and salting out effects in extraction of phenol with mixtures of solvents are represented based on n-butyl acetate. The effect of dialkyl phthalates on extraction of pyrocatechol with C/sub 5/-C/sub 10/ alcohols was studied; in extraction of pyrocatechol with solutions of dialkyl phthalates in alcohols, synergism was observed.

Korenman, Ya.I.; Minasyants, V.A.; Ermolaeva, T.N.; Sel'manshchuk, N.N.; Aleksyuk, M.P.

1988-01-10

490

Extraction of Mentha spicata L. Volatile Compounds: Evaluation of Process Parameters and Extract Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mint (Mentha spicata L.) is a European aromatic plant, with its essential oil used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Supercritical\\u000a fluid extraction (SFE) is important for natural products, because it is residue free and preserves thermolabile compounds\\u000a and product characteristics. The aim of this work was to obtain mint essential oil by sub-\\/supercritical extraction, with\\u000a and without modifier and

Priscilla P. Almeida; Natália Mezzomo; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

491

Extraction of local anaesthetics from human blood by direct immersion-solid phase micro extraction (SPME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local anaesthetics have been shown to be extractable from human whole blood samples by direct immersion (DI)-solid phase micro extraction (SPME). After deproteinization with perchloric acid, the pH of the clear supernatants of human whole blood samples containing the drugs were adjusted to about 7 with 10 M NaOH in the presence of NaCl; a polydimethylsiloxanecoated SPME fiber was then

T. Kumazawa; K. Sato; H. Seno; A. Ishii; O. Suzuki

1996-01-01

492

Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine\\u000a pesticides (?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, o, p?-DDT, p, p?-DDT and p, p?-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found\\u000a that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 gg?1 to 0.004 gg?1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques

Yinhai Lang; Zhengmei Cao; Xinhua Nie

2005-01-01

493

Extraction of berberine from rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch using supercritical fluid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid was used to extract berberine from rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch. The recovery of berberine was compared with various modifiers, i.e. methanol and 95% ethanol with and without surfactant Tween 80, and 1,2-propanediol. The results show that the yield obtained after 3h extraction with 1,2-propanediol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide was the highest (from 6.91%, w\\/w at 200bar to 7.53%,

Ben Liu; Wenjing Li; Yiling Chang; Wenhong Dong; Li Ni

2006-01-01

494

Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations.

Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J. (INEEL); Holmes, R.G.G. (British Nuclear Fuels, Inc.)

1999-08-01

495

Supercritical gas extraction of wood with methanol  

SciTech Connect

A semicontinuous spinning basket type of reactor was designed and built for the supercritical-gas extraction of wood in a flowing solvent. Experiments were carried out to study the extraction of Populus tremuloides in methanol at temperature up to 350 degrees C and pressures up to 17.01 MPa. Oil yields and wood conversion rates were measured as functions of solvent flow rate, rate of agititation, nature of the reactor lining, wood particle size, and rate of temperature increase. The most important factors were shown to be temperature, pressure, and solvent flow rate: the size of the wood particles was significant at low pressures. The results are discussed in the light of current knowledge on pyrolysis.

Labrecque, R.; Kallaguine, S.; Grandmalson, J.L.

1983-01-01

496

Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine  

SciTech Connect

A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

Maxwell, S.L. III

2000-06-09

497

AN INJECTION/EXTRACTION SCENARIO FOR EMMA  

SciTech Connect

EMMA is an experiment to study beam dynamics in a linear non-scaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG). It accelerates an electron beam from 10 to 20 MeV kinetic energy. To optimally perform these studies, one must be able to inject the beam at any energy within the machine's energy range. Furthermore, because we wish to study the behavior of large-emittance beams in such a machine, the injection systems must be able to inject the beam anywhere within a transverse phase space ellipse with a normalized acceptance of 3 mm, and the extraction systems must be able to extract from that same ellipse. I describe a computation of kicker and septum fields to achieve all of these requirements, and discuss how this interacts with the hardware constraints.

Berg, J.S.

2009-05-04

498

Feature point extraction in compressed domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document presents several approaches to extract interest points within compressed images (based on DCT compression methods). The goal is to minimize the stages and/or the calculation costs for image sequence indexing tasks or database retrieval from a significant MPEG file repository. Initially, only the fixed images (I-Frames) are take under consideration, motion will be integrated in further research. The traditional invariant feature points (Harris corner points, points with remarquable principal curvatures) are extracted from images using a gradient estimate (first order derivative) or the Laplacian (second-order derivative) of an image. So the first part of this paper handles in detail the derivation of the signal from DCT blocks. The trials to implement feature points detection as close as possible to the DCT coefficient are explained. Results provided by our last DCT-blockwise curvature estimatiorare also shown.

Coudray, Renan; Besserer, Bernard; Courtellemont, Pierre

2003-01-01

499

Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Dental Extraction  

PubMed Central

Aim. To describe a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following dental extraction and to point out the ophthalmic complications of dental procedures to ophthalmologists and dentists. Case. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with painless sudden visual loss in her left eye after tooth extraction two days ago. In her left eye the best corrected visual acuity was 6/30 and fundus examination revealed peripapillary flame-shaped hemorrhages and pale retina in the upper temporal arcuate. The right eye examination was unremarkable. Conclusion. Dental procedures can lead to miscellaneous ophthalmic complications possibly due to the close proximity of the anatomic structures. Retinal arterial occlusion is a rare but serious cause of permanent visual loss among these dental procedures where the exact pathologic mechanism is still obscure. PMID:25580327

O?urel, Tevfik; Onaran, Zafer; O?urel, Reyhan; Örnek, Nurgül; Büyüktortop Gökç?nar, Nesrin; Örnek, Kemal

2014-01-01

500

Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network than gibbsite under field conditions. This may be due to the availability of carbonate that exists in the Hanford sediments as calcite. A significant source of carbonate was not available in the PCTs and this may account for why this phase did not appear in the PCTs. Sepiolite was consistently highly undersaturated, suggesting that another phase controls the solubility of magnesium. For samples that were most impacted by the effects of glass corrosion, magnesite appears to control glass corrosion. For samples that show less impacts from glass corrosion, clinochlore-7A or saponite-Mg appears to control the magnesium concentrations. For zinc, it appears that zincite is a better candidate than Zn(OH)2-? for controlling zinc concentrations in the extracts; however, in some samples all zinc phases considered were highly oversaturated. As a result the phase that controls zinc concentrations in the lysimeter extracts remains uncertain.

Cantrell, Kirk J.

2014-12-22