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Sample records for lycopodium clavatum extract

  1. Simulating transfer and persistence of a chemical marker powder for Lycopodium clavatum spores.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Jennifer; Coulson, Sally; Newton, Angus

    2009-11-20

    In this research a chemical marker powder, based on Lycopodium clavatum spores, was studied to determine its transfer and persistence on a T-shirt. Such chemical marker powders are used to provide evidence that a person has handled a covertly marked object, such as a drug package. The powder was found to transfer readily between a marked item and the person handling it. The powder was found to persist on a T-shirt for up to 13h; however, there was only a very small amount of powder remaining at this time. The rate of loss of the L. clavatum spores was found to follow a decay curve. The largest decrease in spores from the T-shirt was seen in the first 2h after the marked item had been handled. PMID:19729256

  2. Onocerin Biosynthesis Requires Two Highly Dedicated Triterpene Cyclases in a Fern Lycopodium clavatum.

    PubMed

    Araki, Takeshi; Saga, Yusuke; Marugami, Momo; Otaka, Junnosuke; Araya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kushiro, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    Onocerin is known for its unusual structure among triterpenoids, with a symmetrical structure that is formed by cyclizations at the both termini of dioxidosqualene. The nature of the enzyme catalyzing these unusual cyclizations has remained elusive for decades. Here, we report the cloning of genes responsible for these reactions; they exhibited unprecedented substrate specificities among oxidosqualene cyclase family members. Two genes, LCC and LCD, were identified from the fern Lycopodium clavatum. Expression in yeast revealed that both were required to produce α-onocerin. LCC, the first dioxidosqualene cyclase, catalyzed the production of a novel intermediate pre-α-onocerin from only dioxidosqualene as a substrate; LCD catalyzed the second half of the cyclization, exclusively from pre-α-onocerin. These results demonstrated that these two most unusual oxidosqualene cyclases were involved in onocerin biosynthesis. PMID:26663356

  3. The diversity of endophytic fungi in the above-ground tissue of two Lycopodium species in Poland.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska, Julia; Wilk, Mateusz; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, Anna; Mętrak, Monika; Wrzosek, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Endophytes are a large and diverse group of fungi that colonize healthy plant tissues without causing any symptoms. The majority of studies have focused on angiosperm and conifer hosts and few have examined the endophytes of lycophytes. In the present study, we characterized culturable endophytic fungi in two closely related Lycopodium species (L. annotinum and L. clavatum) from pine, beech, oak and spruce forests across Poland. More than 400 strains were isolated but only 18 Ascomycete species were identified. Members of the Dothideomycetes dominated the fungal endophyte communities in Lycopodium. The most abundant taxa cultured were Phoma brasiliensis (from L. clavatum) and Paraconiothyrium lycopodinum (from L. annotinum). Five taxa were isolated exclusively from L. annotinum, but only two of them (Paraconiothyrium lycopodinum and Mycosphaerella sp.) were relatively abundant. Two taxa were only found in L. clavatum, namely: Stagonospora pseudovitensis and an unidentified Dothideomycete. The taxon assigned as Ascomycota 2 (SH219457.06FU) was isolated only from strobili of both host species. Direct PCR and cloning from L. annotinum shoots revealed a substantially greater endophyte richness compared with the results from culturing. PMID:25264398

  4. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods.

  5. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction

    PubMed Central

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods. PMID:26818918

  6. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction.

    PubMed

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Potroz, Michael G; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods. PMID:26818918

  7. Lycopodium clavatum exine microcapsules enable safe oral delivery of 3,4-diaminopyridine for treatment of botulinum neurotoxin A intoxication.

    PubMed

    Harris, T L; Wenthur, C J; Diego-Taboada, A; Mackenzie, G; Corbitt, T S; Janda, K D

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Diaminopyridine has shown promise in reversing botulinum intoxication, but poor pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window limit its clinical utility. Thus, we developed a pH-dependent oral delivery platform using club moss spore exines. These exine microcapsules slowed 3,4-diaminopyridine absorption, limited its seizure activity, and enabled delivery of doses which prolonged mouse survival after botulism neurotoxin A intoxication. PMID:26906286

  8. Obscurumines H-P, new Lycopodium alkaloids from the club moss Lycopodium obscurum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; He, Juan; Su, Jia; Cheng, Xiao; Peng, Li-Yan; Shao, Li-Dong; Wu, Xing-De; Yang, Jia-Hui; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2016-03-01

    Seven new fawcettimine-type (1-7) and two new lycopodine-type (8 and 9) Lycopodium alkaloids, as well as 10 known compounds, were isolated from the club moss, Lycopodium obscurum L. The structures of obscurumines H-P (1-9) were determined based on high-resolution MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1 and 2 include a new skeleton that is formed via the linkage of C-9-N-2', which is rarely present in Lycopodium alkaloids. The in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity assay showed that 5 exhibited weak anti-AChE activity with an IC50 value of 81.0μM. Compound 8 exhibited inhibition of the secretion of IL-2 in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated Jurkat cells, and the IC50 value was 17.2μM. PMID:26739385

  9. Serralongamines B-D, three new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium serratum var. longipetiolatum, and their inhibitory effects on foam cell formation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Jiang, Wen-Ping; Fujiwara, Yukio; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, serralongamines B-D (1-3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium serratum var. longipetiolatum, and the structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical transformation. 1 and 3 significantly exhibited the inhibitory activity against foam cell formation in human macrophages, one of characteristic features of early atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27086123

  10. Development and characterization of the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor cellular membrane affinity chromatography column and its application for on line screening of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, L; Okine, M; Rosenberg, A; Dossou, K S S; Toll, L; Wainer, I W; Moaddel, R

    2016-01-29

    The α3β4α5 nAChR has been recently shown to be a useful target for smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Herein, we report on the development and characterization of the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor column by frontal displacement chromatography. The binding affinity of the nicotine and minor alkaloids found in tobacco smoke condensates were determined for both the α3β4 and α3β4α5 nicotinic receptors. It was demonstrated that while no subtype selectivity was observed for nicotine and nornicotine, anabasine was selective for the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor. The non-competitive inhibitor binding site was also studied and it was demonstrated while mecamylamine was not selective between subtypes, buproprion showed subtype selectivity for the α3β4 nicotinic receptor. The application of this methodology to complex mixtures was then carried out by screening aqueous-alcoholic solutions of targeted plant extracts, including Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae) and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Fabaceae) against both the α3β4 and α3β4α5 nAChRs. PMID:26774122

  11. Influence of the morphology of lycopodium dust on its minimum ignition energy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.O.; Oakley, G.; Brenton, J. )

    1991-06-01

    Lycopodium, which exhibits a particularly uniform particle size, has been relatively widely used as a reference when studying dust cloud ignition. Lycopodium was used to determine the influence of discharge circuit parameters on minimum ignition energy. It is therefore a natural choice as a calibration dust when developing a new facility for the determination of ignition energies. During the initial evaluation period in this latter study significant differences were observed in the minimum energies of different samples of lycopodium. These differences have now been traced to differing morphologies between the samples.

  12. Concise Total Syntheses of the Lycopodium Alkaloids (±)-Nankakurines A and B via Luciduline

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiayun; Waters, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Total syntheses of the Lycopodium alkaloids nankakurines A and B have been accomplished in 6 and 7 steps, respectively, via a sequence that passes through a third Lycopodium alkaloid, luciduline, and forgoes the use of protecting groups on nitrogen. Key features include a short preparation of luciduline followed by a concise and stereoselective aminoallylation/ring-closing metathesis protocol to fashion the spiropiperidine ring common to nankakurines A and B. PMID:20014779

  13. Use of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Ophiostoma clavatum, the Primary Blue Stain Fungus Associated with Ips acuminatus

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Jennifer A.; Battisti, Andrea; Boonham, Neil; Capretti, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative amplification technology which is highly sensitive and less time-consuming than conventional PCR-based methods. Three LAMP assays were developed, two for detection of species of symbiotic blue stain fungi associated with Ips acuminatus, a bark beetle infesting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and an additional assay specific to I. acuminatus itself for use as a control. In common with most bark beetles, I. acuminatus is associated with phytopathogenic blue stain fungi involved in the process of exhausting tree defenses, which is a necessary step for the colonization of the plant by the insect. However, the identity of the main blue stain fungus vectored by I. acuminatus was still uncertain, as well as its frequency of association with I. acuminatus under outbreak and non-outbreak conditions. In this study, we employed LAMP technology to survey six populations of I. acuminatus sampled from the Southern Alps. Ophiostoma clavatum was detected at all sampling sites, while Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum, reported in part of the literature as the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus, was not detected on any of the samples. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that O. clavatum is the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus in the Southern Alps. The method developed in the course of this work provides a molecular tool by which it will be easy to screen populations and derive important data regarding the ecology of the species involved. PMID:23396326

  14. Components and Anti-HepG2 Activity Comparison of Lycopodium Alkaloids from Four Geographic Origins

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong-Qiang; Hu, Guang-Wan; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. has attracted great interests due to its rich alkaloids with significant anticancer activity. However, significant chemical differences often exist in a plant species from different geographic origins and affect its quality and bioactivities. Thus, it is urgent to reveal their chemical and biological distinctions at the molecular level. In this context, a comparative chemical analysis of LAs using HPLC-UV-ESI-MS/MS was firstly conducted and resulted in the detection of 46 LAs, 28 of which were identified, and a series of unique LAs markers, such as peaks 2, 9, 10, and 11, were further found to be characteristic LAs and selected as markers from four different origins for their quality control. In parallel, the comparative bioactivity assay revealed that the total LAs from Hubei province exhibited much higher inhibitory rate at 65.95% against HepG2 cells than those at 26.72%, 20.26%, and 33.62% for Kenya, Guangxi province, and Zhejiang province in China, respectively. To this end, significant chemical fingerprinting differences and discrepancies in bioactivity of LAs were explored firstly, which could provide valuable information for quality control and further activity studies on LAs from different sources and promote their better pharmaceutical applications in the future as well. PMID:27022402

  15. Microanatomy of the placenta of Lycopodium obscurum: novel design in an underground embryo

    PubMed Central

    Renzaglia, Karen S.; Whittier, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Long-lived underground populations of mycoheterotrophic gametophytes and attached sporophytes at various developmental stages occur in lycophytes. Young underground sporophytes obtain carbon solely from the gametophyte and establish nutritional independence only after reaching the soil surface, which may take several years. This prolonged period of matrotrophy exceeds that of bryophytes. The foot is massive and provides the lifeline for sporophyte establishment, yet the fine structure of the placental region is unexplored in lycophytes with underground gametophytes. Methods Gametophytes with attached embryos/young sporophytes of Lycopodium obscurum were collected in nature, processed and examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results Three ultrastructurally distinct regions were identified within a single foot of a sporophyte emerging from the soil. Young foot regions actively divide, and have direct contact with and show little differentiation from gametophyte cells. In unlobed foot areas, cells in both generations exhibit polarity in content and indicate unidirectional transport of carbon reserves into the foot toward the developing shoot and root. The foot has inconspicuous wall ingrowths. Highly lobed foot regions contain peripheral transfer cells with prominent wall ingrowths that absorb nutrients from degenerating gametophyte cells. Conclusions Variability within a single placenta is consistent with an invasive and long-lived foot. The late appearance of wall ingrowths in transfer cells reflects this dynamic ever-growing embryo. Placental features in lycophytes are related to the unique reorientation of all embryonic regions during development. Small placentas with wall ingrowths in both generations characterize ephemeral embryos in green gametophytes, while short-lived and repositioning embryos of heterosporous taxa are devoid of transfer cells. Transfer cell evolution across embryophytes is riddled with homoplasy and reflects diverse patterns of embryology. Scrutiny of placental evolution must include consideration of nutritional status and life history strategies of the gametophyte and young sporophyte. PMID:23979904

  16. Total Synthesis of the Lycopodium Alkaloid Serratezomine A Using Free Radical-Mediated Vinyl Amination to Prepare a β-Stannyl Enamine Linchpin

    PubMed Central

    Pigza, Julie A.; Han, Jeong-Seok; Chandra, Aroop; Mutnick, Daniel; Pink, Maren; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Serratezomine A is a member of the structurally diverse class of compounds known as the Lycopodium alkaloids. The key supporting studies and successful total synthesis of serratezomine A are described in this account. Significant features of the synthesis include the first application of free radical mediated vinyl amination and Hwu’s oxidative allylation in a total synthesis, and an intramolecular lactonization via a transannular SNi reaction. Minimal use of protecting groups and the highly diastereoselective formation of a hindered, quaternary stereocenter using an umpolung allylation are also highlights from a strategy perspective. Observation of quaternary carbon epimerization via a retro-Mannich/Mannich sequence highlights the additional challenge presented by the axial alcohol at C8 in serratezomine A. PMID:23273261

  17. Dna synthesis in the urinary-tract epithelium of the rat induced by laparotomy and by intraperitoneal injection of distilled water, physiological saline and lycopodium spores.

    PubMed Central

    Herbertson, B. M.; King, A. J.; Allen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The tritiated thymidine labelling index (LI) of the epithelium of the ureters and urinary bladder of young male Wistar rats is substantially increased 18 h after a simple laparotomy incision. A similar highly significant increase (P less than 0.001) has been observed after a single i.p. injection of various materials, including (a) distilled water, (b) 0.5% glycogen in physiological saline, and (c) 1% suspension of lycopodium spores in physiological saline. In each instance an aseptic inflammatory response develops in the peritoneal cavity. Reasons are given supporting the concept that a mitogen is produced from a constituent of the inflammatory exudate in the peritoneal cavity and that the factor reaches the affected epithelium by direct diffusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7150509

  18. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. PMID:26805621

  19. Sporopollenin. A novel, naturally occurring support for solid phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, G; Shaw, G

    1980-03-01

    Sporopollenin from Lycopodium clavatum has been found to be capable of acting as a solid support for peptide synthesis. It is stable to chloromethylation and to the standard deblocking procedures and its constant mesh size, ready commercial availability, and constant molecular structure give it potential important practical advantages over synthetic resins. PMID:7380612

  20. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  1. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  2. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  3. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.

  4. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  5. Ecophysiology of four co-occurring lycophyte species: an investigation of functional convergence.

    PubMed

    Zier, Jacqlynn; Belanger, Bryce; Trahan, Genevieve; Watkins, James E

    2015-01-01

    Lycophytes are the most early divergent extant lineage of vascular land plants. The group has a broad global distribution ranging from tundra to tropical forests and can make up an important component of temperate northeast US forests. We know very little about the in situ ecophysiology of this group and apparently no study has evaluated if lycophytes conform to functional patterns expected by the leaf economics spectrum hypothesis. To determine factors influencing photosynthetic capacity (Amax), we analysed several physiological traits related to photosynthesis to include stomatal, nutrient, vascular traits, and patterns of biomass distribution in four coexisting temperate lycophyte species: Lycopodium clavatum, Spinulum annotinum, Diphasiastrum digitatum and Dendrolycopodium dendroideum. We found no difference in maximum photosynthetic rates across species, yet wide variation in other traits. We also found that Amax was not related to leaf nitrogen concentration and is more tied to stomatal conductance, suggestive of a fundamentally different sets of constraints on photosynthesis in these lycophyte taxa compared with ferns and seed plants. These findings complement the hydropassive model of stomatal control in lycophytes and may reflect canalization of function in this group. Our data also demonstrate functional ecological similarities: De. dendroideum and D. digitatum are species that have substantial belowground biomass investment and are consistently more similar to each other across multiple traits than either is to the more surficial S. annotinum and L. clavatum. Such differences may partition environments in ways that allow for the close coexistence of these species. PMID:26602987

  6. Ecophysiology of four co-occurring lycophyte species: an investigation of functional convergence

    PubMed Central

    Zier, Jacqlynn; Belanger, Bryce; Trahan, Genevieve; Watkins, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Lycophytes are the most early divergent extant lineage of vascular land plants. The group has a broad global distribution ranging from tundra to tropical forests and can make up an important component of temperate northeast US forests. We know very little about the in situ ecophysiology of this group and apparently no study has evaluated if lycophytes conform to functional patterns expected by the leaf economics spectrum hypothesis. To determine factors influencing photosynthetic capacity (Amax), we analysed several physiological traits related to photosynthesis to include stomatal, nutrient, vascular traits, and patterns of biomass distribution in four coexisting temperate lycophyte species: Lycopodium clavatum, Spinulum annotinum, Diphasiastrum digitatum and Dendrolycopodium dendroideum. We found no difference in maximum photosynthetic rates across species, yet wide variation in other traits. We also found that Amax was not related to leaf nitrogen concentration and is more tied to stomatal conductance, suggestive of a fundamentally different sets of constraints on photosynthesis in these lycophyte taxa compared with ferns and seed plants. These findings complement the hydropassive model of stomatal control in lycophytes and may reflect canalization of function in this group. Our data also demonstrate functional ecological similarities: De. dendroideum and D. digitatum are species that have substantial belowground biomass investment and are consistently more similar to each other across multiple traits than either is to the more surficial S. annotinum and L. clavatum. Such differences may partition environments in ways that allow for the close coexistence of these species. PMID:26602987

  7. Extraction of Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A bioactive compound influences the health of living organisms and it has extranutritional constituents that typically occur in low quantities in foods, which helps to enhance or boost the immune system. Plants and their products possess bioactive compounds, i.e., secondary metabolites. Here, extraction is an important process to isolate the bioactive compounds. Biological activities of the extract show a significant variation depending on the extraction methods and this also opens a gateway for selecting suitable extraction methods. Hence, different extraction methods have been discussed in this section, which influences the extraction of phytochemicals. PMID:26939260

  8. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  9. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696699

  10. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  11. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  12. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  13. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  14. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  15. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  18. Oilseed extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D. A.

    1985-05-07

    A process is provided for the recovery of a separate lecithin/phosphatide-rich product during the extraction of soybeans with an isopropanol-based solvent. The invention comprises steps for contacting soybeans with solvent to obtain an extracted seed meal and a solvent extract of seedoils and lecithin and related phosphatides, cooling miscella to a temperature in the range from about 30/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ F., phase separating the cooled miscella, recovering from the phase separation an upper solvent-rich phase, an intermediate lecithin/phosphatide-rich phase and a lower crude oil phase, and directly recycling the solvent-rich phase to the extractor.

  19. Pitfalls of sequential extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Nirel, P.M.V.; Morel, F.M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Sequential extraction procedures consist of subjecting a given sediment sample to a series of increasingly strong reagents under specified conditions. The most carefully designed and most often followed method is that of Tessier et al. (1979). These procedures, which were conceived as an attempt to determine the particulate speciation of trade elements and radionuclides, have serious limitations. Despite several studies demonstrating the instability of published methods for sequential extraction to determine chemical entities definable by more than the analytical method itself. The purpose of the comment is to discourage the expanding uncritical use of sequential extractions for measuring the particulate speciation of trade elements. (Copyright (c) 1990 Pergamon Press plc.)

  20. Radlac II extraction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Leifeste, G.T.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Miller, R.B.; Freeman, J.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.; Armistead, D.J.; Bolton, D.L.; Coffman, T.

    1985-01-01

    We have extracted the intense magnetized annular electron beams from the vacuum and the solenoidal magnetic field of the RADLAC II accelerator into a magnetic field-free, air-filled region. It was established experimentally that under proper matching condtitions the extracted beam propagates into and through the magnetic field region with no severe perturbation of its equilibrium. The accelerators used for these experiments were IBEX and RADLAC II. The observed beam parameters before and after extraction are in agreement with the theory and numerical calculations.

  1. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foster Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about ... naturaldatabase.com on June 25, 2009. Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed ...

  2. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  3. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  5. Gallium extraction by microemulsions.

    PubMed

    de Castro Dantas, T N; de Lucena Neto, M H; Dantas Neto, A A

    2002-04-01

    In this work, the use of microemulsion in the extraction of gallium, with Bayer process, has been studied. The studied microemulsion systems were: systems I and II, with saponified coconut oil (SCO) and 4-ethyl,1-methyl,7-octyl,8-hydroxyquinoleine (Kelex-100) as extractants. The extraction essays by microemulsion were carried out by applying an experimental planning method whose microemulsion points were prepared within an experimental domain favorable to the extraction. Gallium and aluminum extraction percentages, in each point, were evaluated via a statistical treatment of the data, with the use of variance analysis and mathematical models. In system I (SCO), percentages of extraction of 85.5% for gallium and 35.4% for aluminum were achieved; in system II (Kelex-100), the yields were 100% for gallium and 99.9% for aluminum. The reextraction study with sulfuric acid presented the same behavior for both systems, with efficiency depending upon the concentration of the acid, and allowing for a selective reextraction of gallium and aluminum. PMID:18968589

  6. Cyclobutane Synthesis and Fragmentation. A Cascade Route to the Lycopodium Alkaloid (-)-Huperzine A.

    PubMed

    White, James D; Li, Yang; Kim, Jungchul; Terinek, Miroslav

    2015-12-01

    An asymmetric total synthesis of the nootropic alkaloid (-)-huperzine A was completed using a cascade sequence initiated by an intramolecular aza-Prins reaction and terminated by a stereoelectronically guided fragmentation of a cyclobutylcarbinyl cation as the key step in assembling the bicyclo[3.3.1]nonene core of the natural product. Intramolecular [2 + 2]-photocycloaddition of the crotyl ether of (S)-4-hydroxycyclohex-2-enone afforded a bicyclo[4.2.0]octanone containing an embedded tetrahydrofuran in which the cyclohexanone moiety was converted to a triisopropylsilyl enol ether and functionalized as an allylic azide. The derived primary amine was acylated with α-phenylselenylacrylic acid, and the resulting amide was reacted with trimethylaluminum to give a [2 + 2]-cycloadduct, which underwent retroaldol fission to produce a fused α-phenylselenyl δ-lactam. Periodate oxidation of this lactam led directly to an α-pyridone, which was converted to a fused 2-methoxypyridine. Reductive cleavage of the activated "pyridylic" C-O bond in this tetracycle and elaboration of the resultant hydroxy ketone to a diketone was followed by chemoselective conversion of the methyl ketone in this structure to an endo isopropenyl group. Condensation of the remaining ketone with methyl carbamate in the presence of acid initiated the programmed cascade sequence and furnished a known synthetic precursor to huperzine A. Subsequent demethylation of the carbamate and the methoxypyridine, accompanied by in situ decarboxylation of the intermediate carbamic acid, gave (-)-huperzine A. PMID:26355759

  7. Development of an Enantioselective Route towards the Lycopodium Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of Lycopodine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Carter, Rich G.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of a C15-desmethyl tricycle core of lycopodine has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthetic sequence include organocatalytic, intramolecular Michael addition of a keto sulfone and a tandem 1,3-sulfonyl shift / Mannich cyclization to construct the tricyclic core ring system. Synthetic work towards this natural product family led to the development of N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide – an organocatalyst which facilitiates enantioselective, intramolecular Michael additions. A detailed mechanistic discussion is provided for both the intramolecular Michael addition and the sulfone rearrangement. Finally, the application of these discoveries to the enantioselective total synthesis of alkaloid lycopodine is described. PMID:20586477

  8. Extraction processes for bioproduct separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartl, J.; Marr, R.

    1993-01-01

    The three-phase extraction process, a modification of reactive extraction, was investigated for its applicability in the separation of organic acids from fermentation broth. It was compared with reactive extraction, liquid membrane permeation, and supercritical fluid extraction. These processes are based on the use of amine extractants, which have to be dissolved in nonpolar solvents, for the extraction of carboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, and aminocarboxylic acids. This paper considers the comparison of the above-mentioned processes. Furthermore, the extractability of acids from synthetic aqueous solutions and fermented broths was compared. Principal consideration was paid to the extraction of lactic acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, and L-leucine.

  9. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

    1985-06-01

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

  10. Magma Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-20

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

  11. Phytoplasma plasmid DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mark T; Liefting, Lia W

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma plasmids have generally been detected from DNA extracted from plants and insects using methods designed for the purification of total phytoplasma DNA. Methods include extraction from tissues that are high in phytoplasma titre, such as the phloem of plants, with the use of CsCl-bisbenzimide gradients that exploit the low G+C content of phytoplasma DNA. Many of the methods employed for phytoplasma purification have been described elsewhere in this book. Here we describe in detail two methods that are specifically aimed at isolating plasmid DNA. PMID:22987431

  12. Advanced PDV velocity extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Daniel; Ao, Tommy; Furnish, Michael

    2015-06-01

    While PDV has become a standard diagnostic, reliable velocity extraction remains challenging. Measurements with multiple real/apparent velocities are intrinsically difficult to analyze, and overlapping frequency components invalidate standard extraction methods. This presentation describes an advanced analysis technique where overlapping frequency components are resolved in the complex Fourier spectrum. Practical matters--multiple region of interest selection, component intersection, and shock transitions--will also be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85.

  13. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  15. Atraumatic extractions: a biomechanical rationale.

    PubMed

    Misch, Carl E; Perez, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Biomechanical aspects of force have been applied to tooth extraction for centuries. However, the mechanical advantages available to extract the teeth were primarily applied to hold the crown of the tooth, rather than help extract it. An extraction device (Physics Forceps) has been developed to apply a biomechanical rationale to the extraction process of a tooth using a class 1 lever, creep, and shear components of force. PMID:18717405

  16. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  17. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552

  18. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

  20. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  1. Lunar hydrogen extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snaufer, M. J.; Alred, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the power and mass requirements of a lunar hydrogen extraction plant producing five metric tons of hydrogen per year. These power and mass requirements are based upon experimental work that determined gaseous hydrogen release rates from lunar samples at various heating rates and temperatures. An optimum heating temperature and rate can be selected to minimize the processing plant's power and mass requirements. The impact of thermal recovery on the power and mass requirements is studied, as is the use of nuclear waste heat for processing the regolith. In addition, the potential of using the extracted hydrogen in the form of methane as a propellant for a Lunar Excursion Vehicle is examined.

  2. Cataract extraction with erisophake.

    PubMed

    ALEXANDER, H B

    1951-01-01

    Today the erisophake offers the most successful means for the intracapsular extraction of cataracts. The advantages of this method are that no counterpressure is required so that the incidence of vitreous loss is reduced; the vacuum cup provides a firmer grasp of the lens with less danger of rupture of the lens capsule; and the vacuum cup can be used for the delivery of practically all types of cataract in the adult, including intumescent and Morgagnian cataracts as well as lenses with exfoliating and friable capsules. While the forceps method of intracapsular extraction is generally successful in not more than 70 to 75 per cent of cases, the erisophake may offer success in 90 per cent of cases. PMID:14792378

  3. Extracting concentrated guided light.

    PubMed

    Ries, H; Segal, A; Karni, J

    1997-05-01

    The maximum concentration of radiation is proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium in which it propagates. A medium with a high refractive index can also serve as a lightguide for concentrated radiation. However, if concentrated radiation is extracted from one medium, with a high refractive index, to another, whose index is lower (e.g., from fused silica into air), part of the radiation may be lost because of the total internal reflection at the interface. We present polygonal shapes suitable for efficient extraction of the concentrated radiation in a controllable way, without increasing the cross-section area (or diameter) of the lightguide. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the use of a secondary concentrator, followed by such a light extractor, both having a high refractive index, can provide considerably more power to a solar receiver with a specific aperture. PMID:18253285

  4. Follicular unit extraction.

    PubMed

    Harris, James A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to the topic of follicular unit extraction (FUE) and to present an overview of the value of FUE to patients and physicians. In addition to this, the various methods and instrumentation for performing this method of graft harvest are discussed as well as some of the technique's inherent advantages and disadvantages. Topics unique to FUE, including body hair grafting, plug/minigrafts repair, and donor area management are addressed as well. PMID:24017979

  5. Ion extraction system optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, Marco

    2013-07-18

    The extraction of a beam from ion sources is dominated by the strong space charge of the beam, due to the initial low speed of the particles. Several mathematical and computational issues are discussed, with reference to a diode design based on thin anode lens effect, yielding a parallel beam at its exit, which is the first block of many high current electrostatic accelerators. Perturbation to uniform current density are analyzed. Effect of a thick anode lens is also treated.

  6. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  7. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  8. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  9. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  10. LIPID EXTRACTION FROM WHEAT FLOUR USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns, the disposal cost of hazardous waste, and the time required for extraction encouraged us to look for a method to extract lipids from wheat flour that would be faster, less costly, and more environmentally acceptable. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (...

  11. Slow extraction at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Resonant slow extraction at the SSC will permit fixed-target operation. Stochastic extraction appears to be a promising technique for achieving spill times of the order of 1000 s. However, systematic sextupole error fields in the SSC dipoles must be reduced a factor of twenty from the design values; otherwise the extraction process will be perturbed or suppressed. In addition, good regulation of the SSC power supplies is essential for smooth extraction over the spill period. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  14. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover, recommendation systems could also benefit from a tag hierarchy. PMID:24391901

  15. AE: ACIS Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broos, Patrick; Townsley, Leisa; Getman, Konstantin; Bauer, Franz

    2012-03-01

    ACIS Extract (AE), written in the IDL language, provides innovative and automated solutions to the varied challenges found in the analysis of X-ray data taken by the ACIS instrument on NASA's Chandra observatory. AE addresses complications found in many Chandra projects: large numbers of point sources (hundreds to several thousand), faint point sources, misaligned multiple observations of an astronomical field, point source crowding, and scientifically relevant diffuse emission. AE can perform virtually all the data processing and analysis tasks that lie between Level 2 ACIS data and publishable LaTeX tables of point-like and diffuse source properties and spectral models.

  16. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  17. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Henna Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubiay, Kathem K.; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K.

    2008-01-01

    Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000. Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050). When comparing the extracts’ MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050. PMID:22334837

  18. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  19. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  20. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  1. Liquefaction for cataract extraction

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  2. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  3. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  4. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  5. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  6. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  7. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  8. Nonlocal intracranial cavity extraction.

    PubMed

    Manjón, José V; Eskildsen, Simon F; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E; Collins, D Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  9. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  10. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  11. Successive solvolytic extraction of petrocrops

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, D.K.; Pradeep, A.K.; Tiwari, M.

    1996-12-31

    Petrocrops may provide a renewable source of petroleum in the future. The use of low boiling nonpolar (hexane) and polar (methanol) solvents may afford nonpolar and polar biocrudes respectively by successive extractions. However, further successive extraction of spent residue obtained in anthracene oil, quinoline, or liquid paraffin may afford recovery of biopolymer biocrude. These biocrudes may be hydro treated to yield liquid fuels.

  12. Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

  13. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  14. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  15. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated. PMID:10321141

  16. Endovascular extraction techniques for pacemaker and ICD lead extraction

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years, comprehensive endovascular techniques have been developed to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads. It is important that referring physician have knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results of the currently used endovascular extraction techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696690

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  18. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  19. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  20. Extraction of nutraceuticals from milk thistle: I. Hot water extraction.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Jose F; Wallace, Sunny N; Carrier, Danielle Julie; Clausen, Edgar C

    2003-01-01

    Milk thistle contains compounds that display hepatoxic protection properties. We examined the batch extraction of silymarin compounds from milk thistle seed meal in 50, 70, 85, and 100 degrees C water as a function of time. After 210 min of extraction at 100 degrees C, the yield of taxifolin was 1.2 mg/g of seed, a 6.2-fold increase over the results obtained in a Soxhlet extraction with ethanol on pretreated (defatted) seeds. Similarly, the yield of silychristin was 5.0 mg/g of seed, a 3.8-fold increase. The yields of silybinin A and silybinin B were 1.8 and 3.3 mg/g of seed, respectively, or roughly 30% of the Soxhlet yield. The ratios of the extracted compounds, and particularly the ratios at long extraction times, showed that the more polar compounds (taxifolin and silychristin) were preferentially extracted at 85 degrees C, while the less polar silybinin was favored at 100 degrees C. PMID:12721425

  1. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    PubMed Central

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V.; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements. PMID:26130934

  2. Pollen grains for oral vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Atwe, Shashwati U.; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to seven months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate in to mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  3. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  4. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'. PMID:24380143

  5. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  6. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  7. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  8. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  9. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  10. Pulsed electromembrane extraction: a new concept of electrically enhanced extraction.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Esrafili, Ali

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, pulsed electromembrane extraction (PEME) is introduced for the first time as an efficient and inexpensive method for the extraction of ionizable compounds from different matrices. The setup proposed for electromembrane extraction (EME) provides a very stable system and satisfactory repeatability (RSDs<4.4) in comparison with existing methods. In this paper, PEME is conducted for the extraction of model analytes from biological fluids. The effective parameters such as extraction time, applied voltage and the duration of pulse and outage period are optimized using the experimental design. Preconcentration factors in the range of 100-140 and recoveries in the range of 95-108 were obtained in different biological matrices. The linear dynamic ranges of 5-200 ng mL(-1) (with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9955) and limits of detection of 1.0 ng mL(-1) were obtained for both of the drugs. The figures of merit of PEME were compared with the results from conventional EME, which proves the advantages of the proposed technique. PMID:22999198

  11. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  12. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that are regulated as food supplements but are intended to treat disease or maintain health. Antioxidants and beneficial lipid products are major examples in this category. The final major category consists of environmental applications, both as an extraction technique for environmental analysis, and as a possible remediation strategy for removing contaminants that would otherwise be too expensive to recover. Most of the work in this area has focused on non-polar compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), where non-polar supercritical (SC) CO2 offers high extraction efficiencies. Co-solvent systems combining CO2 with one or more modifiers extend the utility of SC CO2 to polar and even ionic compounds. Supercritical water can extract polar compounds, and it has the additional advantage of combining extraction and destruction of contaminants via the supercritical water oxidation (SUWOX) process. Supercritical fluids are also useful in various niche applications. Fuel extraction, conversion, and analysis is one such application. Extraction of metals from various matrixes is also an area of continuing interest. The application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to production of nano-structured materials is a new area likely to see rapid growth in the next few years.

  13. NEFI: Network Extraction From Images

    PubMed Central

    Dirnberger, M.; Kehl, T.; Neumann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Networks are amongst the central building blocks of many systems. Given a graph of a network, methods from graph theory enable a precise investigation of its properties. Software for the analysis of graphs is widely available and has been applied to study various types of networks. In some applications, graph acquisition is relatively simple. However, for many networks data collection relies on images where graph extraction requires domain-specific solutions. Here we introduce NEFI, a tool that extracts graphs from images of networks originating in various domains. Regarding previous work on graph extraction, theoretical results are fully accessible only to an expert audience and ready-to-use implementations for non-experts are rarely available or insufficiently documented. NEFI provides a novel platform allowing practitioners to easily extract graphs from images by combining basic tools from image processing, computer vision and graph theory. Thus, NEFI constitutes an alternative to tedious manual graph extraction and special purpose tools. We anticipate NEFI to enable time-efficient collection of large datasets. The analysis of these novel datasets may open up the possibility to gain new insights into the structure and function of various networks. NEFI is open source and available at http://nefi.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:26521675

  14. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  15. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  16. NEFI: Network Extraction From Images.

    PubMed

    Dirnberger, M; Kehl, T; Neumann, A

    2015-01-01

    Networks are amongst the central building blocks of many systems. Given a graph of a network, methods from graph theory enable a precise investigation of its properties. Software for the analysis of graphs is widely available and has been applied to study various types of networks. In some applications, graph acquisition is relatively simple. However, for many networks data collection relies on images where graph extraction requires domain-specific solutions. Here we introduce NEFI, a tool that extracts graphs from images of networks originating in various domains. Regarding previous work on graph extraction, theoretical results are fully accessible only to an expert audience and ready-to-use implementations for non-experts are rarely available or insufficiently documented. NEFI provides a novel platform allowing practitioners to easily extract graphs from images by combining basic tools from image processing, computer vision and graph theory. Thus, NEFI constitutes an alternative to tedious manual graph extraction and special purpose tools. We anticipate NEFI to enable time-efficient collection of large datasets. The analysis of these novel datasets may open up the possibility to gain new insights into the structure and function of various networks. NEFI is open source and available at http://nefi.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:26521675

  17. Symmetry constraint for foreground extraction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Cao, Xiaochun; Tu, Zhuowen; Lin, Dongdai

    2014-05-01

    Symmetry as an intrinsic shape property is often observed in natural objects. In this paper, we discuss how explicitly taking into account the symmetry constraint can enhance the quality of foreground object extraction. In our method, a symmetry foreground map is used to represent the symmetry structure of the image, which includes the symmetry matching magnitude and the foreground location prior. Then, the symmetry constraint model is built by introducing this symmetry structure into the graph-based segmentation function. Finally, the segmentation result is obtained via graph cuts. Our method encourages objects with symmetric parts to be consistently extracted. Moreover, our symmetry constraint model is applicable to weak symmetric objects under the part-based framework. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of our approach in extracting the foreground. Our method also shows improved results in segmenting objects with weak, complex symmetry properties. PMID:23797312

  18. Extraction of silicones from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, R.G. . Health and Environmental Sciences)

    1993-10-01

    Silicone polymer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), was extracted from soil incubated at 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1] for 0,1,3,7,14, and 28 d with mean recovery of 95.4% ([sigma] = 2.1%). From four agricultural soils incubated for one week at 1, 10, and 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1], mean extraction recovery was 95.6% ([sigma] = 3.2%). The method is now being used in [sup 14]C studies on the fate of silicones in the soil environment and will later be used for extraction of silicones from field samples. Silicone polymers have a variety of uses, including lubricants, electrical insulators, and texturizers in personal care products. They can enter the environment through wastewater treatment systems in which they adsorb to the solids, and are then applied to the soil during disposal of the sludge.

  19. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  20. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  1. Phoenix I energy extraction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J. M.; Patterson, E. L.; Tisone, G. C.; Moreno, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF/sub 6/-HI or SF/sub 6/-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H/sub 2/ and F/sub 2/ mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF/sub 6/-HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H/sub 2/-F/sub 2/ fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H/sub 2/ and F/sub 2/ mixtures. For an input intensity of 10/sup 7/ W/cm/sup 2/, 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF/sub 6/-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature.

  2. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents. PMID:24088789

  3. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  4. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  5. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  6. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  7. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  8. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  9. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  10. Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

  11. Ant Ecdysteroid Extraction and Radioimmunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroids are a group of steroid compounds present in many plant and invertebrate species. In arthropods, they function primarily as hormones involved in the regulation of molting. This protocol describes how to extract ecdysteroid hormones from ant specimens and subsequently quantify circulating...

  12. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, M.; Goma, G.

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used--a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacia area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35/sup 0/C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot--in classical processes--completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion.

  13. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  15. IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

  16. Magnetic solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šafaříková, Mirka; Šafařík, Ivo

    1999-04-01

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction is a new procedure for the preconcentration of target analytes from large volumes based on the use of magnetic or magnetizable adsorbents. In the experiments reactive copper phthalocyanine dye attached to silanized magnetite, and magnetic charcoal were used as adsorbents and selected organic dyes were used as analytes. Up to 460-fold enrichment of analytes was observed.

  17. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  18. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  19. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  20. FeatureExtractextraction of sequence annotation made easy

    PubMed Central

    Wernersson, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    Work on a large number of biological problems benefits tremendously from having an easy way to access the annotation of DNA sequence features, such as intron/exon structure, the contents of promoter regions and the location of other genes in upsteam and downstream regions. For example, taking the placement of introns within a gene into account can help in a phylogenetic analysis of homologous genes. Designing experiments for investigating UTR regions using PCR or DNA microarrays require knowledge of known elements in UTR regions and the positions and strandness of other genes nearby on the chromosome. A wealth of such information is already known and documented in databases such as GenBank and the NCBI Human Genome builds. However, it usually requires significant bioinformatics skills and intimate knowledge of the data format to access this information. Presented here is a highly flexible and easy-to-use tool for extracting feature annotation from GenBank entries. The tool is also useful for extracting datasets corresponding to a particular feature (e.g. promoters). Most importantly, the output data format is highly consistent, easy to handle for the user and easy to parse computationally. The FeatureExtract web server is freely available for both academic and commercial use at . PMID:15980537

  1. Materials for geopressure energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The status of efforts in methane and energy extraction from the geopressured aquifer sources of the North Gulf of Mexico region is outlined. Three different schemes for energy extraction are considered, and the anticipated materials and corrosion problems are defined. Suitable materials are suggested for use in the production well and surface equipment. J-55 steel can be used for production well casing. Monel clad carbon steel or high chromium ferritic stainless steels, such as E-Brite or AL 29-4 can be used in the cyclone gas separator. Polymer-concrete coated steel pipings are suitable for brine piping. The hydraulic turbine as well as the power turbine in the thermal energy converter can be made of a titanium alloy such as Ticode-12. Monel or Hastelloy-C276 clad steel is recommended for steam processing areas and monel piping is recommended for the heat exchangers. 20 references.

  2. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  3. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Metallurgists and solution geochemists are joining forces to develop processes for extraction of metals from low-grade ores. The processes, which come under the name hydrometallurgy, include several new applications of solvent extraction techniques. Aqueous solutions are employed, leaching metals from ores, mine waste dumps, and even from deposits still in the ground. It was notable, for example, that Chemical and Engineering News (Feb. 8, 1982) recently featured the subject of hydrometallurgy in a special report. They noted that ‘recovering metals by use of aqueous solutions at relatively low temperatures increasingly is competing with dry, high-temperature pyrometallurgical methods.’ The relatively new techniques have caused a revolution, of sorts, in engineering programs of university metallurgy departments. The challenge of developing selective metal dissolution processes is drawing upon the best national talent in the fields of solution geochemistry and metallurgy.

  4. Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Internation Flavors and Fragrances Inc. proprietary research technology, Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) utilizes a special fiber needle placed directly next to the bloom of the living flower to collect the fragrance molecules. SPME was used in the Space Flower experiment aboard STS-95 space shuttle mission, after which Dr. Braja Mookherjee (left) and Subha Patel of IFF will analyze the effects of gravity on the Overnight Scentsation rose plant.

  5. Information based universal feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Brause, Rüdiger

    2015-02-01

    In many real world image based pattern recognition tasks, the extraction and usage of task-relevant features are the most crucial part of the diagnosis. In the standard approach, they mostly remain task-specific, although humans who perform such a task always use the same image features, trained in early childhood. It seems that universal feature sets exist, but they are not yet systematically found. In our contribution, we tried to find those universal image feature sets that are valuable for most image related tasks. In our approach, we trained a neural network by natural and non-natural images of objects and background, using a Shannon information-based algorithm and learning constraints. The goal was to extract those features that give the most valuable information for classification of visual objects hand-written digits. This will give a good start and performance increase for all other image learning tasks, implementing a transfer learning approach. As result, in our case we found that we could indeed extract features which are valid in all three kinds of tasks.

  6. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  7. Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.

    1992-12-31

    At some landfills, hazardous wastes were placed into disposal pits with other waste oils. Volatile organic wastes, such as cleaning solvents, when combined with oil are much more difficult to remove from the soils because the oil makes the volatile organic chemical evaporate much slower. The typical vacuum extraction remediation method could become a lengthy campaign. Since all chemicals evaporate faster when they are heated, if the contaminated soil could be heated, the chemicals would be easier to remove from the soil. By using heating techniques developed by the Oil and Gas Industry to enhance the removal of oil and gas resources from the soil, the problem of removing contamination from the soils could be solved. The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration will combine vacuum vapor extraction technology with powerline frequency soil heating and radiofrequency soil heating to accelerate the soil decontamination process. The premise that soil heating technology can actually reduce the costs of soil decontamination is complicated by the high capital costs of the soil heating equipment and the cost of electrode installation. By performing this field demonstration, Sandia will be able to collect the information needed to see if this new technology will improve the decontamination of soils.

  8. Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    At some landfills, hazardous wastes were placed into disposal pits with other waste oils. Volatile organic wastes, such as cleaning solvents, when combined with oil are much more difficult to remove from the soils because the oil makes the volatile organic chemical evaporate much slower. The typical vacuum extraction remediation method could become a lengthy campaign. Since all chemicals evaporate faster when they are heated, if the contaminated soil could be heated, the chemicals would be easier to remove from the soil. By using heating techniques developed by the Oil and Gas Industry to enhance the removal of oil and gas resources from the soil, the problem of removing contamination from the soils could be solved. The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration will combine vacuum vapor extraction technology with powerline frequency soil heating and radiofrequency soil heating to accelerate the soil decontamination process. The premise that soil heating technology can actually reduce the costs of soil decontamination is complicated by the high capital costs of the soil heating equipment and the cost of electrode installation. By performing this field demonstration, Sandia will be able to collect the information needed to see if this new technology will improve the decontamination of soils.

  9. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect

    Gambogi, Joseph; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  10. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

  11. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  12. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  13. Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.

    PubMed

    Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

  14. Extraction of silicotungstic acid from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulimov, A. V.; Danov, S. M.; Balashov, A. L.; Ovcharova, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Patterns in obtaining silicotungstic acid from aqueous solutions via extraction are studied. It is shown that processing a 30 wt % aqueous solution of silicotungstic acid with a mixed organic extractant (butanol-1 with benzene additive) allows the extraction of up to 55 wt % of silicotungstic acid from the aqueous phase. It is established that adding hydrochloric acid in amounts of 1.5-2.0% raises the degree of extraction to 98-99 wt % of the silicotungstic acid.

  15. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  16. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150...

  17. Gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handmer, Casey J.; Szilgyi, Bla; Winicour, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster spectral Einstein code (SpEC).

  18. Chassis unit insert tightening-extract device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haerther, L. W.; Zimmerman, P. A. (Inventor)

    1964-01-01

    The invention relates to the insertion and extraction of rack mounted electronic units and in particular to a screw thread insert tightening and extract device, for chassis units having a collar which may be rotatably positioned manually for the insert tightening or extraction of various associated chassis units, as desired.

  19. PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1958-11-11

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

  20. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  1. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  2. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  3. Improved extraction technique for biological fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction technique speeds up separation of biological fluids into number of compounds. This eliminates agitation, emulsion formation, centrifugation, mechanical separation of phases, filtration, and other steps that have been used previously. Extraction efficiencies are equal or better than current manual liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

  4. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted. PMID:26675848

  5. DNA extraction from fossil eggshell.

    PubMed

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Avian eggshell fragments recovered from both paleontological and archaeological deposits contain a cache of well-preserved ancient DNA. Here, we describe an extraction protocol that has been optimized to maximize the recovery of ancient DNA from fossil eggshell and minimize the co-purification of PCR inhibitors. In this method, fossil eggshell fragments are powdered, then digested and heated to release DNA from the calcite matrix. The digest then undergoes a concentration step before purification and washing using silica columns. The method has been used to recover aDNA from the eggshell of many avian species including moa, elephant birds, and emu, up to 19,000 years old. PMID:22237523

  6. Parameter extraction and transistor models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rykken, Charles; Meiser, Verena; Turner, Greg; Wang, QI

    1985-01-01

    Using specified mathematical models of the MOSFET device, the optimal values of the model-dependent parameters were extracted from data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Three MOSFET models, all one-dimensional were used. One of the models took into account diffusion (as well as convection) currents. The sensitivity of the models was assessed for variations of the parameters from their optimal values. Lines of future inquiry are suggested on the basis of the behavior of the devices, of the limitations of the proposed models, and of the complexity of the required numerical investigations.

  7. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  8. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  9. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straightmore » pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.« less

  10. Supercritical extraction of phenolic wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Krukonis, V.

    1986-04-28

    Synthetic phenol solutions were used to model a phenol-containing wastewater. A matrix of conditions of carbon dioxide pressure and temperature and phenol-water concentration was investigated. The testing program consisted of four parts, viz., (1) determination of distribution coefficients of phenol in a static system; (2) determination of selectivity (and verification of distribution coefficients) in a flow system; (3) determination of mass transfer effects; and (4) measurement of neat phenol solubility and separation of phenol at intermediate pressure. A description of the tests and the procedures for obtaining the data that can be used to assess the potential of extracting phenol-containing wastewater using supercritical carbon dioxide is presented.

  11. Guidance in feature extraction to resolve uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalerchuk, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Michael; Streltsov, Simon; Best, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Automated Feature Extraction (AFE) plays a critical role in image understanding. Often the imagery analysts extract features better than AFE algorithms do, because analysts use additional information. The extraction and processing of this information can be more complex than the original AFE task, and that leads to the "complexity trap". This can happen when the shadow from the buildings guides the extraction of buildings and roads. This work proposes an AFE algorithm to extract roads and trails by using the GMTI/GPS tracking information and older inaccurate maps of roads and trails as AFE guides.

  12. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  13. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  14. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  15. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  16. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  17. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  18. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  19. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  20. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  1. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  2. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  3. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  4. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  5. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  6. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  8. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  9. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  10. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  13. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  15. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  16. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  18. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  19. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  20. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  1. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  2. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  4. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  5. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  6. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  8. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  9. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  12. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  13. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  14. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  15. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  17. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  18. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  19. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  20. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  1. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  2. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  4. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  5. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  6. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  8. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  9. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  12. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  13. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  15. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  16. Extraction and bioactivity of polygonatum polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qunguang; Lv, Yunxia; Dai, Weidong; Miao, Xiongying; Zhong, Dewu

    2013-03-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters and liver protective effect of the polygonatum polysaccharides in vivo. The order of factor effects on polysaccharides production was found to be extraction time (min, A)>ratio of solvent to solid (C)>extraction temperature (C, B)>extraction number (D). The results show that the effects of extraction time (min, A) and ratio of solvent to solid (C) were more significant than those of the other factors. Optimal extraction parameters were as followings: extraction time 120 min, extraction temperature 100 C, ratio of solvent to solid 5, and extraction number 4. Polygonatum polysaccharides was administered orally at doses of 150, 300 and 450 mg/(kg day) to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated rats. Results showed that administration of polygonatum polysaccharides could increase rats' final body weight, liver antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR)), decrease serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The liver sections obtained from animals supplemented with polygonatum polysaccharides extract demonstrated reduced pathological damages, supporting that polygonatum polysaccharides extract could effectively decrease the toxicity of CCl(4). It can be concluded that polygonatum polysaccharides treatment may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative injury in experimental rats. PMID:23246900

  17. Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens.

    PubMed

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    2000-06-01

    An updated review on the biological activity of Tridax procumbens is presented. A detailed biological screening comprised of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi using crude extracts of this plant was undertaken. The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. The same extract of the whole aerial parts was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. The ethyl-acetate extract of the flowers was active against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella sp. The aerial parts extract also showed activity only against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus, while the aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Trichophyton rubrum. PMID:11185735

  18. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  19. Community extraction for social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunpeng; Levina, Elizaveta; Zhu, Ji

    2011-05-01

    Analysis of networks and in particular discovering communities within networks has been a focus of recent work in several fields and has diverse applications. Most community detection methods focus on partitioning the entire network into communities, with the expectation of many ties within communities and few ties between. However, many networks contain nodes that do not fit in with any of the communities, and forcing every node into a community can distort results. Here we propose a new framework that extracts one community at a time, allowing for arbitrary structure in the remainder of the network, which can include weakly connected nodes. The main idea is that the strength of a community should depend on ties between its members and ties to the outside world, but not on ties between nonmembers. The proposed extraction criterion has a natural probabilistic interpretation in a wide class of models and performs well on simulated and real networks. For the case of the block model, we establish asymptotic consistency of estimated node labels and propose a hypothesis test for determining the number of communities. PMID:21502538

  20. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-10-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    PubMed Central

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26503332

  2. Valuable compounds in macroalgae extracts.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Paula B; Barbosa, Mariana; Matos, Rui Pedro; Lopes, Graciliana; Vinholes, Juliana; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

    2013-06-01

    Bioactive compounds present in ethanolic extracts from 18 macroalgae of the Portuguese coast were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the characterization of 14 compounds: proline, phloroglucinol, mannitol, 8 fatty acids and 3 sterols. A dose-dependent response against enzymes with biological significance (α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) and free radicals (DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl) was found, Phaeophyta being the most promising group. A PCA analysis was performed and allowed the establishment of a correlation between the algae chemical composition and the biological activity. Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus are among the most active species, which is in accordance with their higher contents in phloroglucinol, mannitol, oleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, and fucosterol. The results point to the potential interest of the use of Phaeophyta species as food additives, due to their potent antiradical activities, and especially highlights the importance of F. spiralis in the food chain of Mediterranean countries. Moreover, the incorporation of the extracts of these species in food products, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations for human health should also be instigated, since they can suppress hyperglycemia and inhibit cholinesterases. PMID:23411314

  3. Versatile document image content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Moll, Michael A.; Nonnemaker, Jean; Casey, Matthew R.; Delorenzo, Don L.

    2006-01-01

    We offer a preliminary report on a research program to investigate versatile algorithms for document image content extraction, that is locating regions containing handwriting, machine-print text, graphics, line-art, logos, photographs, noise, etc. To solve this problem in its full generality requires coping with a vast diversity of document and image types. Automatically trainable methods are highly desirable, as well as extremely high speed in order to process large collections. Significant obstacles include the expense of preparing correctly labeled ("ground-truthed") samples, unresolved methodological questions in specifying the domain (e.g. what is a representative collection of document images?), and a lack of consensus among researchers on how to evaluate content-extraction performance. Our research strategy emphasizes versatility first: that is, we concentrate at the outset on designing methods that promise to work across the broadest possible range of cases. This strategy has several important implications: the classifiers must be trainable in reasonable time on vast data sets; and expensive ground-truthed data sets must be complemented by amplification using generative models. These and other design and architectural issues are discussed. We propose a trainable classification methodology that marries k-d trees and hash-driven table lookup and describe preliminary experiments.

  4. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used. PMID:25155095

  5. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are important as they indicate the changing perceptions of local residents in relation to both their local geology and human exploitation of geological resources. The implications of this research for developing strategies of engagement with local communities will be discussed.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabn Garcs Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  7. Pressurized liquid extraction of flavonoids from spinach.

    PubMed

    Howard, L; Pandjaitan, N

    2008-04-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using water and a 70:30 mixture of ethanol and water over the temperature range of 50 to 190 degrees C was used to extract flavonoids from dried spinach. The total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, color, and browning indices of the extracts were also evaluated. PLE using a 70:30 mixture of ethanol and water was more effective than water in extracting flavonoids from spinach. Flavonoids were effectively extracted over the temperature band of 50 to 130 degrees C with water and 50 to 150 degrees C with ethanolic solvent. Levels of total phenolics and ORAC values increased with increasing extraction temperature, indicating that flavonoids were minor contributors to antioxidant capacity at elevated extraction temperatures. Browning of ethanolic extracts correlated highly with ORAC values over the temperature range of 50 to 190 degrees C, and the ORAC values of the large molecular weight fraction (> 1000 Da) increased linearly over the temperature range, indicating that Maillard polymers were the major contributors to antioxidant capacity. The results illustrate that PLE temperatures of < 130 degrees C for water or < 150 degrees C for ethanolic solvent may be used to extract flavonoids, followed by a high temperature (> 170 degrees C) extraction to generate antioxidant-rich moieties. PMID:18387092

  8. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects. PMID:23594449

  9. High recall document content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

  10. Extracting inorganics from scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, R.; Wertz, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Scrap tires contain several inorganic moieties in abundances >0.5% which are impregnated into their carbonaceous matrix. These inorganic species are known to produce acid rain, toxic aerosols, and boiler scale and could produce unwanted catalytic effects as well. It is our position that the potential of recycling scrap tires would be considerably enhanced if the inorganics in question - S, Ca, and Zn - were removed prior to attempts to upgrade the carbonaceous matrix. Using non-mechanical methods, we are attempting to cleave the adherence between the co-polymer matrix and to extract the inorganics. The efficiency of our methods is being measured by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometry and by other methods.

  11. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, re-circulation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; isc-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  12. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, recirculation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; iso-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for (co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  13. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  14. Effect of various phenomena in the organic phase on metal extraction with chelating reagents in countercurrent and crosscurrent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacki, M.B.

    1999-04-01

    The effect of the association phenomena (extractant association, modifier association, and extractant-modifier co-association) on the recovery of metal species in extraction-stripping multistage countercurrent and cross current processes is discussed. The association phenomena change the optimum strength of extractant extraction ability needed to obtain the maximal metal transfer. The extraction-stripping isotherms depend mainly on the extraction constant, the extractant association constant, the ratio of extractant to modifier, and the acidity of the aqueous phase. The effect of modifier extractant co-association on extraction-stripping isotherms is observed for modifier/extractant mole ratios above 1.5. The countercurrent extraction-stripping process depends mainly on the extraction constant and the extractant association constant. Extractant association decreases the extraction ability and facilitates the stripping. Co-association of extractant with a modifier may play the same role as the extractant association. As a result, a maximum transfer of metal from the feed to the loaded electrolyte is observed for appropriate combinations of the equilibrium constants of extraction, association, and co-association. Extraction association and co-association have a negative effect for weak extractants and a positive one for strong extractants. Similar effects are observed for crosscurrent reagent flows. The association of a modifier and especially its co-association with extractant change the optimum strength of extractant (extraction equilibrium constant) for both the multistage countercurrent and crosscurrent processes.

  15. Evaluation of extraction method on the chemical composition in Apeiba tibourbou Aubl's extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the potential of Apeiba tibourbou Aubl, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of fatty acid, rosmarinic (Ra) and caffeic (Ca) acid from A. tibourbou. Materials and Methods: Determinations of residual moisture (Rm), proteins (Pt), lipids (Lp), total fiber (Tf), and carbohydrate (Cy) were performed in triplicate samples according assessment of antioxidant capacity. Extraction of fatty acids was carried out by two different methods: (i) By shoxlet and (ii) bligh and dyer. The optimized conditions were determined by surface response methodology (RSM), and the criterion of desirability was the maximum extraction of Ra and Ca. Results: The method of bligh and dyer was able to extraction more total Lp than the shoxlet. However, the extraction of fatty acid was different for the two methods. The optimized conditions to extract RA and Ca was calculated by RSM, 42°C, 30% (alcohol degree) and 24 min, this conditions maximize simultaneously the extraction of Ca (0, 04%) and Ry (1.89), Conclusion: It was observed that the extraction method alters the chemical composition of extract, and it is possible to extract Ca and Ra from A. tibourbou's leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction. PMID:25829777

  16. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  17. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  18. Antioxidant properties of palm fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Balasundram, Nagendran; Ai, Tan Yew; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Sundram, Kalyana; Samman, Samir

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have been shown to exhibit bioactive properties, and in particular antioxidant effects. A phenolic-rich fraction has been isolated from the aqueous by-product obtained during the milling of oil palm fruits. The objectives of the study were to determine the phenolic content of the crude and ethanolic extracts of oil palm fruits and to evaluate the antioxidant properties of these extracts. The total phenolics content of the crude and ethanol extracts as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were found to be 40.3 +/- 0.5 and 49.6 +/- 0.6 mg GAE/g extract (dry basis), respectively. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts determined using 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH.) indicated that both crude and ethanol extracts exhibit hydrogen-donating capacity, and have antiradical power (ARP) comparable to ascorbic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extracts were less than that of gallic acid, but the time-course variations of the scavenging curves suggest that the extracts acted by a mechanism similar to that of gallic acid. The electron-donating potentials of the extracts were inferred from the hydrogen peroxide scavenging and reducing power assays. The reducing power of crude and ethanol extracts at 1 mM GAE were found to be comparable to that of 0.3 mM gallic acid. The extracts indicated complete scavenging of hydrogen peroxide at concentrations above 0.4 mM GAE. These findings suggest that the crude and ethanol extracts are able to scavenge free radicals, by either hydrogen or electron donating mechanisms, and can therefore act as primary antioxidants. PMID:16326638

  19. Oil extracts of herbal drugs--optimisation of the extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Heldmaier, M; Beyer-Koschitzke, J; Stahl-Biskup, E

    2009-06-01

    The plant constituents of fourty two olive oil extracts from chamomile flowers [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert] were analysed by means of GC, VIS-spectrometry, and HPLC in order to assess the effectiveness of the traditional extraction methods of the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HAB 2008). The influence of the extraction temperature and the extraction period as well as the influence of stirring during the extraction period and of a pre-treatment of the herbal drug with ethanol 94% on the extraction efficiency was also studied. The results are presented in the form of transfer ratios with regard to the essential oil, the carotenoids, coumarins, flavonoids and the phenolcarboxylic acids. PMID:19618679

  20. Dense gases for extraction and refining

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, E.; Quirin, K.W.; Gerard, D.

    1987-01-01

    Procedures for extracting or refining sensitive substances using dense gases have been developed for numerous purposes. Applications have been tested on the laboratory or pilot plant scales and shown to be mostly economical. Uses as varied as the non-aggressive extraction of spice, extraction of polymers, refining of spent oil, pyrolysis/extraction of wood and liquefaction of coal show the extremely wide range of application. The book reviews the present state of development and features examples of application of this new technique.

  1. [Decision to extract for periodontal reasons].

    PubMed

    Bercy, P; Blase, D

    1995-01-01

    The decisions to extract that are discussed here mainly relate to severe periodontal bone losses and plain interradicular attacks. Extractions for periodontal reasons appear at several treatment stages: immediate extraction in terminal stages, e.g. for teeth without any strategic importance, or deferred extraction if one chooses to wait for treatment response. The elements of the decision are various: function and strategic importance of the tooth, extension of the lesion, level of the interradicular attack, any endoperiodontal lesions, fractures and luxations, radicular proximity, implication of wisdom teeth, evolution after treatment. All these factors are discussed. PMID:7480928

  2. Optimization of Protein Extraction for Lichen Thalli

    PubMed Central

    Kondratiuk, Anna S.; Savchuk, Oleksiy M.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen-forming fungal proteins have been seldom searched due to many difficulties in their extraction. Phenols, quinones, proteases, and other components released during cell disruption have been known to be the greatest challenges related to protein extraction from lichens. To overcome these problems and maintain good electrophoretic resolution and high protein concentration, an extraction buffer containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, ascorbic acid, Triton X-100, polyethylene glycol, proteinase, and oxidase inhibitors in sodium phosphate buffer was developed. This extraction buffer showed high efficiency for all lichen species tested in the study. PMID:26190923

  3. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  4. Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

  5. Extraction of antimony with tertiary amines.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W

    1967-06-01

    The extractability of antimony(III) and (V) with tridodecylamine from various aqueous solutions is reported. Extraction from nitric and hydrofluoric acid solutions is low, but extraction from sulphuric, hydrochloric and hydrobromic solutions is high. Antimony-(III) can be separated from antimony(V) in 7M nitric acid or 0.64M hydrobromic acid. The extraction of antimony from hydrochloric acid solutions in methanol, ethanol, and acetone-water mixtures is greater than from pure aqueous solutions of the same acidity. The elements from which antimony can be separated with tertiary amines are given. PMID:18960147

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Talla, E; Djamen, D; Djould, D; Tatsadjeu, L; Tantoh, D; Mbafor, J T; Fomum, Z T

    2002-07-01

    Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves exhibited significant activity against Pseudomonas frutescens, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:12234581

  7. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  8. Characteristic Extraction of Speech Signal Using Wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriai, Shogo; Hanazaki, Izumi

    In the analysis-synthesis coding of speech signals, realization of the high quality in the low bit rate coding depends on the extraction of its characteristic parameters in the pre-processing. The precise extraction of the fundamental frequency, one of the parameters of the source information, guarantees the quality in the speech synthesis. But its extraction is diffcult because of the influence of the consonant, non-periodicity of vocal cords vibration, wide range of the fundamental frequency, etc.. In this paper, we will propose a new fundamental frequency extraction of the speech signals using the Wavelet transform with the criterion based on its harmonics structure.

  9. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  10. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

  11. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels. PMID:26685670

  12. Image segmentation by background extraction refinements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

    1990-01-01

    An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

  13. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid. PMID:18962288

  14. Comparisons of soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction for environmental solids: recovery, selectivity and effects on sample matrix.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, S B; Grabanski, C B; Martin, E; Miller, D J

    2000-09-15

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100 degrees C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150 degrees C with pure CO2), and subcritical water (1 h at 250 degrees C, or 30 min at 300 degrees C). Although minor differences in recoveries for some PAHs resulted from the different methods, quantitative agreement between all of the methods was generally good. However, the extract quality differed greatly. The organic solvent extracts (Soxhlet and PLE) were much darker, while the extracts from subcritical water (collected in toluene) were orange, and the extracts from SFE (collected in CH2Cl2) were light yellow. The organic solvent extracts also yielded more artifact peaks in the gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-flame ionization detection chromatograms, especially compared to supercritical CO2. Based on elemental analysis (carbon and nitrogen) of the soil residues after each extraction, subcritical water, PLE, and Soxhlet extraction had poor selectivity for PAHs versus bulk soil organic matter (approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of the bulk soil organic matter was extracted along with the PAHs), while SFE with pure CO2 removed only 8% of the bulk organic matrix. Selectivities for different compound classes also vary with extraction method. Extraction of urban air particulate matter with organic solvents yields very high concentrations of n- and branched alkanes (approximately C18 to C30) from diesel exhaust as well as lower levels of PAHs, and no selectivity between the bulk alkanes and PAHs is obtained during organic solvent extraction. Some moderate selectivity with supercritical CO2 can be achieved by first extracting the bulk alkanes at mild conditions, followed by stronger conditions to extract the remaining PAHs, i.e., the least polar organics are the easiest organics to extract with pure CO2. In direct contrast, subcritical water prefers the more polar analytes, i.e., PAHs were efficiently extracted from urban air particulates at 250 degrees C, with little or no extraction of the alkanes. Finally, recent work has demonstrated that many pollutant molecules become "sequestered" as they age for decades in the environment (i.e., more tightly bound to soil particles and less available to organisms or transport). Therefore, it may be more important for an extraction method to only recover pollutant molecules that are environmentally-relevant, rather than the conventional attempts to extract all pollutant molecules regardless of how tightly bound they are to the soil or sediment matrix. Initial work comparing SFE extraction behavior using mild to strong conditions with bioremediation behavior of PAHs shows great promise to develop extraction methodology to measure environmentally-relevant concentrations of pollutants in addition to their total concentrations. PMID:11045502

  15. Parameter extraction with neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzanti, Luca; Khan, Mumit; Cerrina, Franco

    1998-06-01

    In semiconductor processing, the modeling of the process is becoming more and more important. While the ultimate goal is that of developing a set of tools for designing a complete process (Technology CAD), it is also necessary to have modules to simulate the various technologies and, in particular, to optimize specific steps. This need is particularly acute in lithography, where the continuous decrease in CD forces the technologies to operate near their limits. In the development of a 'model' for a physical process, we face several levels of challenges. First, it is necessary to develop a 'physical model,' i.e. a rational description of the process itself on the basis of know physical laws. Second, we need an 'algorithmic model' to represent in a virtual environment the behavior of the 'physical model.' After a 'complete' model has been developed and verified, it becomes possible to do performance analysis. In many cases the input parameters are poorly known or not accessible directly to experiment. It would be extremely useful to obtain the values of these 'hidden' parameters from experimental results by comparing model to data. This is particularly severe, because the complexity and costs associated with semiconductor processing make a simple 'trial-and-error' approach infeasible and cost- inefficient. Even when computer models of the process already exists, obtaining data through simulations may be time consuming. Neural networks (NN) are powerful computational tools to predict the behavior of a system from an existing data set. They are able to adaptively 'learn' input/output mappings and to act as universal function approximators. In this paper we use artificial neural networks to build a mapping from the input parameters of the process to output parameters which are indicative of the performance of the process. Once the NN has been 'trained,' it is also possible to observe the process 'in reverse,' and to extract the values of the inputs which yield outputs with desired characteristics. Using this method, we can extract optimum values for the parameters and determine the process latitude very quickly.

  16. University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: the pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

    2014-12-01

    We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)--a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030

  17. Language extraction from zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varn, Dowman Parks

    2001-09-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

  18. Improvements in aircraft extraction programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.; Maine, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Flight data from an F-8 Corsair and a Cessna 172 was analyzed to demonstrate specific improvements in the LRC parameter extraction computer program. The Cramer-Rao bounds were shown to provide a satisfactory relative measure of goodness of parameter estimates. It was not used as an absolute measure due to an inherent uncertainty within a multiplicative factor, traced in turn to the uncertainty in the noise bandwidth in the statistical theory of parameter estimation. The measure was also derived on an entirely nonstatistical basis, yielding thereby also an interpretation of the significance of off-diagonal terms in the dispersion matrix. The distinction between coefficients as linear and non-linear was shown to be important in its implication to a recommended order of parameter iteration. Techniques of improving convergence generally, were developed, and tested out on flight data. In particular, an easily implemented modification incorporating a gradient search was shown to improve initial estimates and thus remove a common cause for lack of convergence.

  19. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  20. Impact of parameter extraction methodology on variances of extracted parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanović, Vladimir; van der Toorn, Ramses

    2010-06-01

    Two general classes of strategies for extraction of compact model electrical and temperature scaling parameters are identified and compared in the present paper. Applying these to extract parameters of the p-n junction depletion capacitance, we show that the reproducibility of estimated parameter values can strongly depend on the extraction strategy applied in the nonlinear regression procedure. We present an approach to assess statistical properties of parameter extraction strategies and demonstrate the merits of such assessments.

  1. Electronic Nose Feature Extraction Methods: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jia; Guo, Xiuzhen; Duan, Shukai; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Lidan; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Many research groups in academia and industry are focusing on the performance improvement of electronic nose (E-nose) systems mainly involving three optimizations, which are sensitive material selection and sensor array optimization, enhanced feature extraction methods and pattern recognition method selection. For a specific application, the feature extraction method is a basic part of these three optimizations and a key point in E-nose system performance improvement. The aim of a feature extraction method is to extract robust information from the sensor response with less redundancy to ensure the effectiveness of the subsequent pattern recognition algorithm. Many kinds of feature extraction methods have been used in E-nose applications, such as extraction from the original response curves, curve fitting parameters, transform domains, phase space (PS) and dynamic moments (DM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), energy vector (EV), power density spectrum (PSD), window time slicing (WTS) and moving window time slicing (MWTS), moving window function capture (MWFC), etc. The object of this review is to provide a summary of the various feature extraction methods used in E-noses in recent years, as well as to give some suggestions and new inspiration to propose more effective feature extraction methods for the development of E-nose technology. PMID:26540056

  2. Soil moisture by extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merek, E. L.; Carle, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    To determine moisture content of soils rapidly and conveniently extract moisture with methanol and determine water content of methanol extract by gas chromatography. Moisture content of sample is calculated from weight of water and methanol in aliquot and weight of methanol added to sample.

  3. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  4. IN SITU SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is designed to physically remove volatile compounds, generally from the vadose or unsaturated zone. t is an in situ process employing vapor extraction wells alone or in combination with air injection wells. acuum blowers supply the motive force, induci...

  5. Antiulcerogenic activity of Zizyphus lotus (L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Wahida, Borgi; Abderrahman, Bouraoui; Nabil, Chouchane

    2007-06-13

    Oral administration of aqueous extracts of Zizyphus lotus root barks (50-200 mg/kg) leaves (50-200 mg/kg) and fruits (200-400 mg/kg) produced a significant (p<0.01) and dose dependent inhibition to the acute ulcer induced by HCl/ethanol solution. The methanolic (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and chloroformic (CHCl(3)) leaves extracts when administered orally at the dose of 200 mg/kg, exhibited a significant (p<0.01) inhibition of gastric lesions by 45%, 76% and 33%, respectively. Indeed, methanolic and ethyl acetate root barks extracts significantly reduced the gastric lesions by 47% and 41%, respectively. While the chloroformic root barks extract had no significant activity (19%). The effect of all extracts was compared with cimetidine (100 mg/kg, 62%) and omeprazole (30 mg/kg, 93%). Volume, pH and acidity of gastric juice were studied in pylorus-ligated rats. Root barks (200 mg/kg, p<0.01), leaves (200 mg/kg, p<0.01) and fruits (400 mg/kg, p<0.05) aqueous extracts showed significant reduction of gastric juice secretion in pylorus ligated rats, whereas the other extracts did not show any significance. Thus, Zizyphus lotus extracts act essentially as cytoprotective agents, which support the antiulcer effect of this plant in the traditional medicine. PMID:17408894

  6. Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, J.S. )

    1990-10-01

    Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

  7. Extraction and characterization of corn germ proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was conducted to develop methods to extract corn germ protein economically and characterize and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Protein was extracted from both wet germ and finished (dried) germ using 0.1M NaCl as solvent. The method involved homogenization, sti...

  8. Extraction of phenolic compounds from soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the composition and amount of phenolic inputs from plants is important for studies of soil organic matter formation and nutrient cycling. However, some phenolic compounds, including tannins, can sorb or complex with the soil making them difficult to extract. We extracted soils with a...

  9. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  10. Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

    1969-01-01

    Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

  11. Benchmark data for sulcal pits extraction algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Auzias, G.; Brun, L.; Deruelle, C.; Coulon, O.

    2015-01-01

    This article contains data related to the research article Auzias et al. (2015) [1]. This data can be used as a benchmark for quantitative evaluation of sulcal pits extraction algorithm. In particular, it allows a quantitative comparison with our method, and the assessment of the consistency of the sulcal pits extraction across two well-matched populations. PMID:26958615

  12. Antityrosinase activity of Euphorbia characias extracts.

    PubMed

    Pintus, Francesca; Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a well-known key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and its inhibitors have become increasingly important because of their potential use as hypopigmenting agents. In the present study, the anti-melanogenic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Euphorbia characias leaves, stems, and flowers in cell-free and cellular systems was examined. All the extracts showed inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase with leaf extracts exhibiting the lowest IC50 values of 24 and 97 µg/mL for aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that leaf aqueous extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor, while ethanolic extract shows a competitive inhibition effect on mushroom tyrosinase using L-DOPA as substrate. In addition, the inhibitory effect of leaf extracts on tyrosinase activity and melanin production was examined in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Cellular tyrosinase activity as well as levels of melanin synthesis are reduced in a dose-dependent manner by extracts in cells treated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The effects are comparable, and sometimes even better, than that of kojic acid, a well known tyrosinase inhibitor used for reference. All these results suggest that E. characias could be a great source of the natural inhibitors from tyrosinase and has the potential to be used as a whitening agent in therapeutic fields. PMID:26500815

  13. SURVEY OF WATER EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS IN MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-extractable phosphorus (P) in manure is strongly related to dissolved P in runoff from soils receiving recent additions of manure. A survey of water-extractable P concentrations in manures submitted to Penn State University's Agricultural Analytical Services Laboratory was conducted. Results r...

  14. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  15. Antiproton Extraction in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Mike; O'Day, Stephan

    1993-01-01

    The RF and other manipulations required to extract antiprotons from the Accumulator core for Collider operation are described. ESME simulations of the motion in longitudinal phase space are shown. Measurements of the emittances of the extracted antiprotons are presented. The effect of the unstacking process on the core longitudinal and transverse emittances is examined and recent performance is also presented.

  16. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  17. Antityrosinase activity of Euphorbia characias extracts

    PubMed Central

    Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a well-known key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and its inhibitors have become increasingly important because of their potential use as hypopigmenting agents. In the present study, the anti-melanogenic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Euphorbia characias leaves, stems, and flowers in cell-free and cellular systems was examined. All the extracts showed inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase with leaf extracts exhibiting the lowest IC50 values of 24 and 97 µg/mL for aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that leaf aqueous extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor, while ethanolic extract shows a competitive inhibition effect on mushroom tyrosinase using L-DOPA as substrate. In addition, the inhibitory effect of leaf extracts on tyrosinase activity and melanin production was examined in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Cellular tyrosinase activity as well as levels of melanin synthesis are reduced in a dose-dependent manner by extracts in cells treated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The effects are comparable, and sometimes even better, than that of kojic acid, a well known tyrosinase inhibitor used for reference. All these results suggest that E. characias could be a great source of the natural inhibitors from tyrosinase and has the potential to be used as a whitening agent in therapeutic fields. PMID:26500815

  18. Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-28

      Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction This routine demonstrates ... stored in a CALIPSO Lidar Level 2 Vertical Feature Mask feature classification flag value. It is written in Interactive Data ... Products Catalog . Download  Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction routine  (5 KB) Interactive ...

  19. 21 CFR 73.530 - Spirulina extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spirulina extract. 73.530 Section 73.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for food use made with spirulina extract may contain only those diluents that are suitable and...

  20. Biomedical Relation Extraction: From Binary to Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical relation extraction aims to uncover high-quality relations from life science literature with high accuracy and efficiency. Early biomedical relation extraction tasks focused on capturing binary relations, such as protein-protein interactions, which are crucial for virtually every process in a living cell. Information about these interactions provides the foundations for new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, more interests have been shifted to the extraction of complex relations such as biomolecular events. While complex relations go beyond binary relations and involve more than two arguments, they might also take another relation as an argument. In the paper, we conduct a thorough survey on the research in biomedical relation extraction. We first present a general framework for biomedical relation extraction and then discuss the approaches proposed for binary and complex relation extraction with focus on the latter since it is a much more difficult task compared to binary relation extraction. Finally, we discuss challenges that we are facing with complex relation extraction and outline possible solutions and future directions. PMID:25214883

  1. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of

  2. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a

  3. Electronic Nose Feature Extraction Methods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jia; Guo, Xiuzhen; Duan, Shukai; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Lidan; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Many research groups in academia and industry are focusing on the performance improvement of electronic nose (E-nose) systems mainly involving three optimizations, which are sensitive material selection and sensor array optimization, enhanced feature extraction methods and pattern recognition method selection. For a specific application, the feature extraction method is a basic part of these three optimizations and a key point in E-nose system performance improvement. The aim of a feature extraction method is to extract robust information from the sensor response with less redundancy to ensure the effectiveness of the subsequent pattern recognition algorithm. Many kinds of feature extraction methods have been used in E-nose applications, such as extraction from the original response curves, curve fitting parameters, transform domains, phase space (PS) and dynamic moments (DM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), energy vector (EV), power density spectrum (PSD), window time slicing (WTS) and moving window time slicing (MWTS), moving window function capture (MWFC), etc. The object of this review is to provide a summary of the various feature extraction methods used in E-noses in recent years, as well as to give some suggestions and new inspiration to propose more effective feature extraction methods for the development of E-nose technology. PMID:26540056

  4. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

  5. Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N.

    1996-12-01

    A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

  6. Biomedical relation extraction: from binary to complex.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Deyu; Zhong, Dayou; He, Yulan

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical relation extraction aims to uncover high-quality relations from life science literature with high accuracy and efficiency. Early biomedical relation extraction tasks focused on capturing binary relations, such as protein-protein interactions, which are crucial for virtually every process in a living cell. Information about these interactions provides the foundations for new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, more interests have been shifted to the extraction of complex relations such as biomolecular events. While complex relations go beyond binary relations and involve more than two arguments, they might also take another relation as an argument. In the paper, we conduct a thorough survey on the research in biomedical relation extraction. We first present a general framework for biomedical relation extraction and then discuss the approaches proposed for binary and complex relation extraction with focus on the latter since it is a much more difficult task compared to binary relation extraction. Finally, we discuss challenges that we are facing with complex relation extraction and outline possible solutions and future directions. PMID:25214883

  7. Modifications to the new soil extractant H3A-1: A multinutrient extractant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new soil extractant (H3A-1) with the ability to extract NH4-N, NO3-N, and P from soil was originally developed and tested against 32 soils, which varied greatly in clay content, organic C, and soil pH (Haney et al. 2006). The use of H3A eliminates the need for multiple soil extractants when analyz...

  8. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P < 0.05. Compared to the group of ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Based on these analyses, it can be concluded that persimmon leaf extract is better than ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief. PMID:25864752

  9. Assessment of conventional and novel extraction techniques on extraction efficiency of five anthraquinones from Rheum emodi.

    PubMed

    Arvindekar, Aditya U; Pereira, Galvina R; Laddha, Kirti S

    2015-10-01

    Rheum emodi is principally known to consist 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinones (DHAQs) that find immense use in the chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic industries and in herbal medication and food sector. The aim of this study was to compare non-conventional and classical methods for extraction of anthraquinones from R. emodi. Optimisation of the extraction parameters for various methods was done and their extraction efficiency was evaluated. In preliminary screening experiments, choice of solvent and solid : solvent ratio was optimised. Comparison of extraction efficiency for classical methods like maceration, heat-reflux, soxhletion and non-conventional methods like ultra-sonication and sublimation was done for five DHAQs - aloe emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion using HPLC-UV and fluorescence detection in native and acid hydrolysed samples. It was observed that ethanol was the best solvent for extraction of anthraquinones with a solid : solvent ratio of 1:20. A prior acid hydrolysis led to significant increase in anthraquinone extraction. Among the extraction methods heat reflux for 45 min was the most prominent extraction method with highest recovery of the DHAQs. In ultrasonic assisted extraction, an increase in the anthraquinone extraction was seen till 45 min after which the concentration declined. A novel, solvent-free, green and selective method of extraction by sublimation was found to be effective for extraction of anthraquinones. PMID:26396403

  10. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  11. Antimicrobial effect of extracts of cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu-Hui; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Wang, Jih-Terng; Lee, Wei-Lun; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2004-12-01

    The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm) or citric acid solution (1%) containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm) for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05). PMID:15696789

  12. A generalized extraction system for VLSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukes, Michael A.; Markham, Frank; Degroat, Joanne E.

    1990-10-01

    A Generalized Extraction System for VLSI (GES, pronounced guess) is described. GES, which is written in Prolog, performs logic extraction from transistor netlists, identification of logic errors within and between components, and generation of VHDL. The input to GES consists of a transistor netlist using format from extract in magic. Logic extraction has been performed, on transistor netlists extracted from design layouts in magic, up to the level of 32-bit adders and 32-bit registers. GES reports typical errors in the construction and interconnection of components. An error-report identifies the component and specifies its location within the magic layout, making it easy to locate the offending circuitry. GES also provides a hierarchical VHDL description of the layout-design that is verified to be free of a large class of design errors.

  13. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  14. Biomechanical considerations in mandibular incisor extraction cases.

    PubMed

    Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Dasari, Arun Kumar; Sinojiya, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction can be regarded as a valuable treatment option in certain malocclusions to obtain excellence in orthodontic results in terms of function, aesthetics and stability. This treatment alternative is indicated in clinical situations like mild to moderate class III malocclusion, mild anterior mandibular tooth size excess, periodontally compromised teeth, ectopic eruption of mandibular incisor and minimal openbite tendencies. Unlike in premolar extraction cases, space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases is unique in which the extraction space will be in the middle of the arch. The end result of space closure in these cases should be well aligned, upright, anterior teeth with parallel roots and the goal can be achieved with the bodily tooth movement through proper application of biomechanics. The purpose of this article is to explain the biomechanics of space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases. PMID:25881386

  15. Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

  16. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  17. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from chicory extract administered orally at 70, 350, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Since there were no observed adverse effects of chicory extract in these studies, the NOAEL for the extract is 1000 mg/kg/g administered orally for 28 days. PMID:17306431

  18. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    PubMed

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods. PMID:22237527

  19. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  20. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. PMID:26593602

  1. Extraction Methods in Soil Phosphorus Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinne, Helena

    2010-05-01

    Extraction methods are widely used to assess the bioavailability of P and to characterise soil P reserves. Even though new and more sophisticated methods to characterise soil P are constantly developed the use of extraction methods is not likely to be replaced because of the relatively simple analytical equipment needed for the analysis. However, the large variety of extractants, pre-treatments and sample preparation procedures complicate the comparison of published results. In order to improve our understanding of the behaviour and cycling of P in soil, it is important to know the role of extracted P in the soil P cycle. The knowledge of the factors affecting the analytical outcome is a prerequisite for justified interpretation of the results. In this study, the effect of sample pre-treatment and properties of the used extractant on extractable molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) and molybdate-unreactive phosphorus (MUP) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of sample preparation procedures prior the analysis on measured MRP and MUP was studied. Two widely used sequential extraction procedures were compared on their ability to show management induced differences on soil P. These results revealed that pre-treatments changed soil properties and air-drying was found to affect soil P, particularly extractable MUP, thought to represent organic P, by disrupting organic matter. This was evidenced by an increase in the water-extractable small-sized (<0.2 µm) P that, at least partly, took place at the expense of the large-sized (>0.2 µm) P. In addition to the effects of sample pre-treatment, the results showed that extractable organic P was sensitive to the chemical nature of the used extractant and to the sample preparation procedures employed prior to P analysis, including centrifugation and filtering of soil suspensions. Filtering may remove a major proportion of extractable MUP; therefore filtering cannot be recommended in the characterisation of solubilised MUP. However, extractants having high ionic strength may cause the organic molecules to collapse during centrifugation and thus affect the recovered concentration of MUP. These findings highlight the importance of characterising the nature of the MUP extracted with different extractants and acknowledging the sensitivity of MUP to analytical procedures when comparing published results. Widely used sequential fractionation procedures proved to be able to detect land-use -derived differences in the distribution of P among fractions of different solubilities. The results of this study demonstrate that, although the extraction methods do not reveal the biogeochemical function of a given P pool in soil, the extraction methods can be used to detect changes in soil P pools with different solubilities. To obtain the most benefit from extraction methods, we need a better understanding of the biological availability of P and the role of extracted P fraction in the P cycle in soils from different environments (climatic and weather) and land-uses.

  2. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  3. [Extraction characteristics of sequential accelerated solvent extraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental mediums].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-xuan; Ran, Yong

    2009-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two soils, two sediments and an shale from the Pearl River Delta were extracted by sequential accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. PAHs in the first extract accounts for more than half of their total contents, and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four employed solvents. For a given sample the source diagnostic ratios of PAHs in sequential ASE with each solvent are very similar, suggesting the validity of those ratios in source judgement by different extraction methods. PMID:20187409

  4. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  5. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. PMID:25442573

  6. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  7. Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkaya, M.

    2012-07-01

    Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

  8. Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T.

    2012-06-01

    The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  9. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Antiestrogenic activities of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts.

    PubMed

    Zierau, Oliver; Bodinet, Claudia; Kolba, Susanne; Wulf, Marina; Vollmer, Günter

    2002-01-01

    Despite the wide use of extracts from the rhizome of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for the treatment of menopausal complaints, surprisingly little is known on their potential estrogenic properties, e.g. on estrogen dependent gene transcription. In addition, available informations on the effects on cell proliferation are contradictory. We therefore, tested for estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts on proliferation of MCF-7 cells and on gene expression using ethanolic and iso-propanolic extracts of this medical plant. Estrogenic properties of plant extracts could neither be detected in proliferation assays, nor on gene expression using an estradiol-inducible yeast assay or the estrogen-inducible MVLN cells. In contrast, in all three experimental systems Cimicifuga racemosa antagonized estradiol induced activities. Estradiol induced stimulation of proliferation was inhibited by a dosage >1 microg/ml of extract concentration, gene expression was suppressed by doses of 100-1000 microg/ml of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts. From these results we conclude, that extracts from the rhizome of Cimicifuga racemosa contain compounds with antiestrogenic properties. PMID:11867271

  11. Additional considerations on electrolysis in electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Šlampová, Andrea; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2016-01-15

    Optimized acceptor solutions, which eliminate electrolytically induced variations in their pH values, have been shown to improve electromembrane extraction (EME) performance. Acceptor solutions containing 500mM formic acid (pH 1.97) ensured stable EME process for three basic drugs extracted at 50V across 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene and constant extraction recoveries (66-89%) were achieved for 40-80min EMEs. Back-extraction of analytes into donor solutions has been eliminated by application of optimized acceptor solutions, moreover, saturation of acceptor solutions with analytes had no additional effect on their back-extraction; the presence of up to 300-fold excess of analytes in optimized acceptor solutions led to slightly reduced but stable enrichment of analytes over the entire extraction time. Stable EME performance has been also achieved for extractions into 100mM HCl, note however, that seriously compromised performance of subsequent capillary electrophoretic analyses has been observed due to high conductivities of resulting acceptor solutions. Electrolytically produced H(+) and OH(-) ions have mostly remained in corresponding operating solutions, have determined their final pH values and have not been subjects of EME transfers across selective phase interfaces as was experimentally verified by pH measurements of anolytes and catholytes at various EME times. PMID:26709026

  12. Hippocratic screening of ethanolic extracts from two Tabernaemontana species.

    PubMed

    Taesotikul, T; Panthong, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Verpoorte, R; Scheffer, J J

    1989-11-01

    Ethanolic extracts of roots, stems, leaves and flowers of Tabernaemontana divaricata and T. pandacaqui were studied by an observational (hippocratic) screening method in rats. Extracts of all plant parts caused sedation, decreased respiration and decreased skeletal muscle tone. Except for the leaf extract of T. pandacaqui, the extracts caused vasodilatation of ear vasculature. Analgesic activity was found for all extracts of both Tabernaemontana species, except for the flower extract of T. divaricata. Lethal doses of the extracts caused the animals to die from respiratory paralysis. Intensity of pharmacological activities was greater with the root and stem extracts. The extracts of T. pandacaqui were more potent than those of T. divaricata. PMID:2615432

  13. Extraction of edge feature in cardiovascular image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianrong; Chen, Dongqing; Yu, Daoyin; Liu, Xiaojun

    2001-09-01

    Extraction of edge feature and accurate measurement of vascular diameter in cardiovascular image are the bases for labeling the coronary hierarchy, 3D refined reconstruction of the coronary arterial tree and accurate fusion between the calculated 3D vascular trees and other views. In order to extract vessels from the image, the grayscale minimization of the circle template and differential edge detection are put forward. Edge pixels of the coronary artery are set according to maximization of the differential value. The edge lines are determined after the edge pixels are smoothed by B-Spline function. The assessment of feature extraction is demonstrated by the excellent performance in computer simulation and actual application.

  14. Extraction of latent images from printed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, Vladislav; Fedoseev, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an automatic technology for extraction of latent images from printed media such as documents, banknotes, financial securities, etc. This technology includes image processing by adaptively constructed Gabor filter bank for obtaining feature images, as well as subsequent stages of feature selection, grouping and multicomponent segmentation. The main advantage of the proposed technique is versatility: it allows to extract latent images made by different texture variations. Experimental results showing performance of the method over another known system for latent image extraction are given.

  15. Solvent extraction of scandium from Wolframite residue

    SciTech Connect

    Gongyi, G.; Yuli, C.; Yu, L.

    1988-07-01

    The particular properties of scandium make it an attractive candidate for recovery by solvent extraction - one of the most important processes in hydrometallurgy for the separation, purification and concentration of metal ions. Toward this end, an acid leaching and solvent extraction system has been developed and optimized to extract scandium from wolframite residue. With the technique, the scandium oxide content in the resultant scandium hydroxide can reach 70 - 78 percent. Further, the concentration coefficient and total recovery of scandium oxide from the residue to the product has amounted to (1.9 - 3.9) x 10/sup 3/ and 76 -89 percent, respectively.

  16. SEPARATION OF THORIUM FROM URANIUM BY EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Bohlmann, E.G.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for the recovery and separation of uranium and thorium values contained in an aqueous nitric acid solution which is more than 3 M in nitric acid. The uranium and thorium containing solution preferable about 7 M in nitric acid is contacted with tributyl phosphatekerosene mixture. Both U and Th are extracted by the immiscible organic. After phase separation the Th is selectively back extracted by contacting with an aqueous nitric acid solution preferably between 0.1 to 1.5 M in nitric acid. The uranium which is still in the organic extractant phase may be recovered by contacting with water.

  17. Copper leaching, solvent extraction, and electrowinning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jergensen, G.V. II

    1999-07-01

    This volume recognizes the growing role of solvent extraction and electrowinning technology in the global copper business. This process is an efficient and cost effective way to extract copper. This proceedings documents the present status of the SX-EW business. It represents a substantial body of historical, scientific, engineering, and commercial information regarding the growth and application of the technology. Sections include: the business and technology of SX-EW, theory and practice of copper leaching, theory and practice of tankhouse operations, and theory and practice of solvent extraction.

  18. Atraumatic extraction, implant placement and immediate provisionalization.

    PubMed

    Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus; Calixto, Amanda Martins; Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo; Gomes, Mario Gilson Nina; Malheiros, Adriana Santos

    2014-01-01

    Front tooth extraction typically results in significant loss of hard and soft tissue volume, both in the vestibular-lingual and mesiodistal directions. As these changes can compromise the esthetic results of prosthetic rehabilitation, extraction techniques that cause minimal trauma to the remnant tissues are applied in combination with immediate implant placement to minimize such alterations. The case reported in the present article illustrates a therapeutic plan consisting of atraumatic extraction followed by immediate implant placement and provisionalization. When carefully indicated and planned, our results indicate that this technique may provide promising immediate results relative to the maintenance and stability of the peri-implanted tissues. PMID:25576122

  19. 3D Feature Extraction for Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Visualization techniques provide tools that help scientists identify observed phenomena in scientific simulation. To be useful, these tools must allow the user to extract regions, classify and visualize them, abstract them for simplified representations, and track their evolution. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This article explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and those from Finite Element Analysis.

  20. Unsupervised information extraction from italian clinical records.

    PubMed

    Alicante, Anita; Corazza, Anna; Isgrò, Francesco; Silvestri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of an unsupervised text mining technique for the extraction of information from clinical records in Italian. The approach includes two steps. First of all, a metathesaurus is exploited together with natural language processing tools to extract the domain entities. Then, clustering is applied to explore relations between entity pairs. The results of a preliminary experiment, performed on the text extracted from 57 medical records containing more than 20,000 potential relations, show how the clustering should be based on the cosine similarity distance rather than the City Block or Hamming ones. PMID:25488240

  1. Continuous extraction of organic materials from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

    1971-01-01

    A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

  2. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity. PMID:25778665

  3. Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L.

    1991-12-31

    A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

  4. PRESSURIZED FLUIDS FOR EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extraction of cedarwood oil (CWO) using liquid carbon dioxide (LC-CO2) was investigated, including the effects of extraction pressure and length of extraction. The chemical composition of the extracts were monitored over the course of the extraction as well. When 80 liters of carbon dioxide we...

  5. [Multi-objective optimization of extraction process for red ginseng based upon extraction efficiency and cost control].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

    2014-07-01

    It is the objective of this study to optimize the extraction process of red ginseng to minimize the unit cost of extracting effective ingredients. The relation between the target variables of total quantity of ginsenosides and first extraction time, first extraction solution amount, second extraction time, second extract solution amount were studied with Box-Behnken experimental design method. At the same we also considered the cost of extraction solution and energy usage. The objective function was set as unit cost of target (total quantity of ginsenosides or its purity) for the multi-objective optimization of extraction process. As a result, the optimal process parameters were found as first extraction time (108.7 min), first extraction solution amount folds (12), second extraction time (30 min), second extraction solution amount folds (8) to minimize the unit cost. It indicated that this approach could potentially be used to optimize industrial extraction process for manufacturing Chinese medicine. PMID:25276970

  6. Development of a new extractant and a new extraction process for minor actinide separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yasuji; Sasaki, Yuji; Asakura, Toshihide; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Sugo, Yumi; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-03-01

    Many kinds of new extractants have been studied for the separation of minor actinides, Am and Cm in particular, from high-level liquid waste (HLLW) which is generated from spent fuel reprocessing for the recovery of U and Pu. The authors have developed a new type of extractant for the extraction of Am and Cm, N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) which is one of the diamides and shows the tridentate feature. To apply such a new extractant to the separation process for Am and Cm from HLLW, many criteria should be investigated and satisfied; e.g., high separation factor between An(III) and fission products, chemical and radiolytic stability, high extraction capacity, fast kinetics, compatibility with hydrocarbon diluents, controllability for the behaviour of U, Pu and Np which exist as residue of the former step, and so on. TODGA is fully soluble in n-dodecane, but has a relatively low extraction capacity. Therefore, TODGA was modified and a new DGA extractant, N,N,N',N'-tetradodecyldiglycolamide, was developed, which can extract Ln with one-third of the extractant concentration. Since both TODGA and TDdDGA extract Zr and Pd, effective masking agents for them were examined and selected. To extract Np quantitatively, the method to reduce Np(V) to Np(IV) was studied. With those achievements, a counter-current extraction test with 0.1M TDdDGA in n-dodecane and simulated solution of HLLW was carried out using a small-scale mixer-settler. As results of the counter-current extraction test, very clear phase separation was observed without any crud formation during the operation and quantitative recovery of Nd which is a substitute for Am was obtained.

  7. Compositional variance in extracted particulate matter using different filter extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bein, K. J.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Collection and subsequent extraction of particulate matter (PM) from filter substrates is a common requirement for in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies, as well as chemical analyses such as ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Several filter extraction protocols exist and different laboratories employ different methods, potentially biasing inter-study comparisons. Previous studies have shown significant differences in extraction efficiency between techniques and identified the relevant extraction artifacts. However, a comprehensive inter-comparison of different methods based on the chemical composition of the extracted PM has never been conducted. In the current study, an exhaustive suite of chemical analyses is performed on PM extracted from glass micro-fiber filters using techniques commonly employed in different laboratories: Multi-solvent extraction (MSE) and spin-down extraction (SDE). PM samples were collected simultaneously during field studies conducted in an urban and rural setting using a high-volume PM2.5 sampler. Results show remarkable compositional variance between the PM extracts for all chemical components analyzed, including metals, water soluble ions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, non-aromatic organics, elemental carbon and organic carbon. Mass closure was greater than 90% for MSE but deviated substantially for SDE. Detailed retrospective gravimetric analysis of archived SDE samples revealed that a process-based loss of PM mass is the root cause of the differences. These losses are shown to be compositionally biased, both externally between different PM mixtures and internally within a given PM mixture. In combination, the results of this study are the first to demonstrate (i) an exhaustive chemical characterization of a single PM extract, (ii) the significance of directly characterizing the extracted PM used in toxicological studies, (iii) the existence of substantial compositional biases between different filter extraction techniques and (iv) the importance of standardizing filter extraction objectives and procedures to avoid introducing study bias into toxicological studies.

  8. Improved nematode extraction from carrot disk culture.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Davis, E L

    1990-07-01

    Radopholus spp. were reared in carrot tissue culture via established procedures, with slight modification. Several plant tissue maceration enzymes and flotation media (salts and sucrose) were evaluated with regard to nematode toxicity and extraction efficiency. Best extraction of viable nematodes and eggs was attained when carrot tissue infested with Radopholus citrophilus or R. similis was macerated with a mixture of 0.50% driselase and 0.50% cellulysin, w/v each, with 2.5 ml of enzyme solution based for each gram of carrot tissue. Maceration slurries containing carrot tissue and nematodes were maintained in open flasks on a rotary shaker (175 rpm) at 26 C for 24 hours. Nematodes and eggs were extracted from resultant culture slurries by flotation with MgSO-7H0 (sp gr 1.1). A protocol is presented to extract large quantities of viable burrowing nematodes and their eggs from carrot disk cultures. PMID:19287736

  9. Improved Nematode Extraction from Carrot Disk Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, David T.; Davis, Eric L.

    1990-01-01

    Radopholus spp. were reared in carrot tissue culture via established procedures, with slight modification. Several plant tissue maceration enzymes and flotation media (salts and sucrose) were evaluated with regard to nematode toxicity and extraction efficiency. Best extraction of viable nematodes and eggs was attained when carrot tissue infested with Radopholus citrophilus or R. similis was macerated with a mixture of 0.50% driselase and 0.50% cellulysin, w/v each, with 2.5 ml of enzyme solution based for each gram of carrot tissue. Maceration slurries containing carrot tissue and nematodes were maintained in open flasks on a rotary shaker (175 rpm) at 26 C for 24 hours. Nematodes and eggs were extracted from resultant culture slurries by flotation with MgSO₄-7H₂0 (sp gr 1.1). A protocol is presented to extract large quantities of viable burrowing nematodes and their eggs from carrot disk cultures. PMID:19287736

  10. Effect of Ultrasound in Soybean Protein Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukase, Hirokazu; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    Application of ultrasound for accelerating the extraction of nutriments in food processing has been attempted. However, conditions of exposure to ultrasound were not clear in previous studies. This paper reports on the relationship between the ultrasonic pressure and the amount of extracted protein from soybeans. Experiments were conducted using a beaker, in which the ultrasonic fields were precisely measured. Soybean flakes suspended in water were put in the beaker and placed in a water tank. The amount of extracted protein in water upon ultrasonic exposure was calculated by the Kjeldahl method. It was found that the amount of extracted protein increased in proportion to ultrasonic pressure up to the total amount of soybean protein soluble in water. Furthermore, this paper describes the denaturation of the protein produced by the ultrasonic cavitation.

  11. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75-1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC(50) from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  12. Don`t overlook extractive distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.M.; Gentry, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    One of the most useful ways to separate chemicals having close relative volatilities is to employ selective solvents. These solvents take advantage of the nonideality of a mixture of components having different chemical structures. Extractive distillation uses a third component to effect the chemical separation. Here, though, the extractive agent simply creates or enhances the volatility difference between components, rather than forming an azeotrope of differing volatility. The extractive agent and less volatile component flow to the bottoms of the distillation column, where the extracted component is recovered by a second subsequent distillation. The paper discusses this technology, mass transfer consideration, solvent selectivity, mixed solvent technology, testing and scale-up, and the use of this technology to remove aromatics from natural gas.

  13. Automatically generating extraction patterns from untagged text

    SciTech Connect

    Riloff, E.

    1996-12-31

    Many corpus-based natural language processing systems rely on text corpora that have been manually annotated with syntactic or semantic tags. In particular, all previous dictionary construction systems for information extraction have used an annotated training corpus or some form of annotated input. We have developed a system called AutoSlog-TS that creates dictionaries of extraction patterns using only untagged text. AutoSlog-TS is based on the AutoSlog system, which generated extraction patterns using annotated text and a set of heuristic rules. By adapting AutoSlog and combining it with statistical techniques, we eliminated its dependency on tagged text. In experiments with the MUC-4 terrorism domain, AutoSlog-TS created a dictionary of extraction patterns that performed comparably to a dictionary created by AutoSlog, using only preclassified texts as input.

  14. Local feature point extraction for quantum images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Xu, Kai; Gao, Yinghui; Wilson, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Quantum image processing has been a hot issue in the last decade. However, the lack of the quantum feature extraction method leads to the limitation of quantum image understanding. In this paper, a quantum feature extraction framework is proposed based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. Based on the design of quantum image addition and subtraction operations and some quantum image transformations, the feature points could be extracted by comparing and thresholding the gradients of the pixels. Different methods of computing the pixel gradient and different thresholds can be realized under this quantum framework. The feature points extracted from quantum image can be used to construct quantum graph. Our work bridges the gap between quantum image processing and graph analysis based on quantum mechanics.

  15. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Tumas, William; Powell, Kimberly R.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Romack, Timothy J.; McClain, James B.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  16. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  17. Recent Developments in Australian Gold Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Rodney B.

    1995-01-01

    Describes new technologies that have greatly improved the extraction efficiency of gold ore, including: altering plant layout to promote efficiency, engaging Filiblast forced oxidation and bioxidation systems, and updating the electrowinning procedure at the gold recovery stage. (JRH)

  18. Considerations for cardiac device lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Wazni, Oussama; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of cardiovascular implantable electronic device leads is the removal of a lead that has been implanted for >1 year or that requires more than a standard stylet. The number of these procedures has greatly increased over the past few decades owing to the growing demand for primary and secondary implantations in ageing populations, and an accompanying rise in revisions for complications, infections, and lead advisory safety alerts. In this Review, we present the most common indications and techniques used for extraction. Particular consideration is given to the extraction of leads with large vegetations, recalled leads, stented leads, and those placed in the coronary sinus. We also summarize the most relevant and contemporary data on safety, efficacy, and outcomes of lead extraction. PMID:26822723

  19. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  1. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  3. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  4. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  5. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  6. Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

    1980-01-01

    Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

  7. Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2006-08-11

    Uncaria tomentosa ("Uña de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines. PMID:16569487

  8. Device for Extracting Flavors and Fragrances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, F. R.

    1986-01-01

    Machine for making coffee and tea in weightless environment may prove even more valuable on Earth as general extraction apparatus. Zero-gravity beverage maker uses piston instead of gravity to move hot water and beverage from one chamber to other and dispense beverage. Machine functions like conventional coffeemaker during part of operating cycle and includes additional features that enable operation not only in zero gravity but also extraction under pressure in presence or absence of gravity.

  9. Pharmacological characterisation of extracts of coffee dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Duncan, P G; Douglas, J S

    1983-01-01

    The contractile or relaxant activities or both of aqueous extracts of green and roasted coffees were assayed on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals. Contractile and relaxant activities were compared with histamine and theophylline, respectively. Green coffee extracts induced concentration dependent contraction, but the maximal tension never exceeded 76.3% +/- 5.2 of a maximal histamine contraction (0.69 +/- 0.07 g/mm2 v 0.52 +/- 0.05 g/mm2; p (0.01). One gram of green coffee dust had a biological activity equivalent to 1.23 +/- 0.1 mg of histamine. The pD2 value of histamine was -5.17 +/- 0.05. The potency of green coffee was unaffected by mepyramine maleate (1 micrograms/ml, final bath concentration) while that of histamine was reduced 500 fold. Tissues contracted with histamine were not significantly relaxed by green coffee extracts. By contrast, roasted coffee extracts induced concentration dependent relaxation of uncontracted and histamine contracted tissues. Tissues contracted with green coffee extracts were also completely relaxed by roasted coffee extracts. The pD2 value of theophylline was -4.10 +/- 0.03. The relaxant activity of 1 g of roasted coffee was equivalent to 1.95 +/- 0.16 mg of theophylline. The potency of these extracts was significantly reduced after propranolol (1 micrograms/ml; dose ratio 1.56). Our results show that coffee dust extracts have considerable biological activity which changes from a contractile to a relaxant action as a consequence of processing. The greater incidence of adverse reactions to green coffee dust(s) in coffee workers may be related to the contractile activity present in green coffee dust. PMID:6830717

  10. Road network extraction by local context interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskone, Renaud; Airault, Sylvain; Jamet, Olivier

    1995-11-01

    In this paper, we describe an interpretation tool likely to identify the arcs of a network generated by an automatic road network extraction system. This system is based on the variable use of various extraction methods: intensive for low-level processes, restricted for higher-level processes. A very special attention is drawn to the efficiency evaluation of this high-level module and to the modelization of the different objects of a scene.

  11. A Traffic Motion Object Extraction Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaofei

    2015-12-01

    A motion object extraction algorithm based on the active contour model is proposed. Firstly, moving areas involving shadows are segmented with the classical background difference algorithm. Secondly, performing shadow detection and coarse removal, then a grid method is used to extract initial contours. Finally, the active contour model approach is adopted to compute the contour of the real object by iteratively tuning the parameter of the model. Experiments show the algorithm can remove the shadow and keep the integrity of a moving object.

  12. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  13. [Rarely occurring complications in vacuum extraction].

    PubMed

    Tarina, F; Lipenský, S; Viciánová, L; Hubinská, M

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on two seldom observed complications of vacuum extraction, infraction or fracture of the parietal bone of newborn. They healed up without sequels in the further psychomotoric development. The authors consider vacuum extraction as a contribution to obstetric operation practise. They recommend smaller cups with a maximum diameter of 40 mm and a suction vacuum only to 0,6 kp/cm2 (0,06 M Pa) to be used. PMID:3993263

  14. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  15. COMPARISON OF SELECTED WELD DEFECT EXTRACTION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, R.; Baniukiewicz, P.; Chady, T.; Rucinski, W.; Swiadek, K.; Caryk, M.; Lopato, P.

    2008-02-28

    This paper presents three different methods of welding defects detection from radiographs. First two methods are dedicated for extraction of flaws directly from radiograms. Fuzzy logic system considers whether the pixel belongs to crack (or background) using defects probability maps together with simple fuzzy rules. Neural network method uses knowledge gathered from radiographs with known defects. Indirect method extracts defects by subtracting background from the radiograph and next using various local thresholding methods.

  16. Microbiological counts during beet sugar extraction.

    PubMed

    Robles-Gancedo, S; López-Díaz, T M; Otero, A

    2009-06-01

    In order to discover the main microbial populations present throughout the process of beet sugar extraction and to identify the steps where possible control measures could be implemented, four Spanish beet sugar extraction factories were investigated. Eighteen stages were sampled at each factory and analyzed for several microbial groups and physicochemical parameters. Beets, cossettes, and diffusion juices were the most contaminated samples during beet sugar extraction, and mesophiles, thermophiles, and yeasts were the most numerous microbiota. Differences in contamination among factories and among stages of the sugar extraction process were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Beets and cossettes showed high numbers of mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria, with gum-forming bacteria and yeasts being at levels of >6 log CFU/g. Diffusion juices were highly contaminated with aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and thermophiles. Beet-washing water, equipment, and air were also important sources of contamination; in contrast, diffusion water showed moderate levels of microorganisms due to the acid treatment performed. Gum-forming bacteria, which are present at high levels from the first step of the extraction, survive the diffusion process and remain in the diffusion juice, where they may produce "gums" responsible for obstruction of filters. Thermophiles were present, although at levels lower than expected in most samples. Other microbial groups, particularly yeasts, may also contribute to the destruction of sugar. No biocides were used during the beet sugar extraction in the factories investigated. PMID:19610351

  17. Solvent induced track sensitization. Extraction of oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, P.; Angert, N.; Brüchle, W.; Hermann, H.; Kampschulte, U.; Klein, P.; Kravets, L. I.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Remmert, G.; Spohr, R.; Steckenreiter, T.; Trautmann, C.; Vetter, J.

    1994-04-01

    Oligomer extraction from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) irradiated by xenon ions of 11.4 MeV/u is investigated using UV spectrophotometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The cyclic trimer is identified as the predominant diffusing species removed during extraction by dimethyl formamide (DMF). Extraction dynamics is modeled by a rapid (time constant ≈ 2 min) and a slow (time constant ≈ 100 min) diffusion process attributed to the latent ion tracks and to the virgin material, respectively. Thereby latent tracks act simultaneously as irrigation and drainage pipes for the transfer of the solvent into and the extraction of oligomers from the polymer matrix. Thus tracks help to release osmotic pressure differences and to avoid blistering of the unirradiated polymer during solvent exchange. The total extracted mass per track shows a characteristic decrease with increasing ion fluence interpreted as oxygen effect, due to the decreasing supply of oxygen in the sample during irradiation. The extractable mass corresponds to an equivalent track diameter of initially around 10 nm contracting with increasing ion fluence to an asymptotic value around 3 nm.

  18. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    PubMed

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p < 0.05) in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds. PMID:24647154

  19. Error margin analysis for feature gene extraction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Feature gene extraction is a fundamental issue in microarray-based biomarker discovery. It is normally treated as an optimization problem of finding the best predictive feature genes that can effectively and stably discriminate distinct types of disease conditions, e.g. tumors and normals. Since gene microarray data normally involves thousands of genes at, tens or hundreds of samples, the gene extraction process may fall into local optimums if the gene set is optimized according to the maximization of classification accuracy of the classifier built from it. Results In this paper, we propose a novel gene extraction method of error margin analysis to optimize the feature genes. The proposed algorithm has been tested upon one synthetic dataset and two real microarray datasets. Meanwhile, it has been compared with five existing gene extraction algorithms on each dataset. On the synthetic dataset, the results show that the feature set extracted by our algorithm is the closest to the actual gene set. For the two real datasets, our algorithm is superior in terms of balancing the size and the validation accuracy of the resultant gene set when comparing to other algorithms. Conclusion Because of its distinct features, error margin analysis method can stably extract the relevant feature genes from microarray data for high-performance classification. PMID:20459827

  20. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  1. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  2. Oil extraction from algae: A comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh Derakhshan, Mehrab; Nasernejad, Bahram; Abbaspour-Aghdam, Farzin; Hamidi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this article, various methods including soxhlet, Bligh & Dyer (B&D), and ultrasonic-assisted B&D were investigated for the extraction of lipid from algal species Chlorella vulgaris. Relative polarity/water content and impolar per polar ratios of solvents were considered to optimize the relative proportions of each triplicate agent by applying the response surface method (RSM). It was found that for soxhlet, hexane-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with total lipid extraction of 14.65% and chloroform-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with the extraction of 19.87% lipid were the best set of triplicate where further addition of acetone to the first group and ethanol to the second group did not contributed to further extraction. In B&D, however, chloroform-methanol-water (50%-35%-15%, respectively) reached the all-time maximum of 24%. Osmotic shock as well as ultrasonication contributed to 3.52% of further extraction, which is considered to promote the total yield up to almost 15%. From the growth data and fatty acid analysis, the applied method was assessed to be appropriate for biodiesel production with regard to selectivity and extraction yield. PMID:25040906

  3. Facial Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Viet

    Facial feature extraction is one of the most important processes in face recognition, expression recognition and face detection. The aims of facial feature extraction are eye location, shape of eyes, eye brow, mouth, head boundary, face boundary, chin and so on. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic facial feature extraction system, which is able to identify the eye location, the detailed shape of eyes and mouth, chin and inner boundary from facial images. This system not only extracts the location information of the eyes, but also estimates four important points in each eye, which helps us to rebuild the eye shape. To model mouth shape, mouth extraction gives us both mouth location and two corners of mouth, top and bottom lips. From inner boundary we obtain and chin, we have face boundary. Based on wavelet features, we can reduce the noise from the input image and detect edge information. In order to extract eyes, mouth, inner boundary, we combine wavelet features and facial character to design these algorithms for finding midpoint, eye's coordinates, four important eye's points, mouth's coordinates, four important mouth's points, chin coordinate and then inner boundary. The developed system is tested on Yale Faces and Pedagogy student's faces.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

  5. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

  6. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

  7. Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua

    2005-04-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p‧-DDT, p, p‧-DDT and p, p‧-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  8. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; Sánchez, Adolfo; van Beek, Teris A.; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and harvesting time have been used for comparison purposes. Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extraction or by successive liquid-liquid partitioning procedures, the main components being the secoiridoids oleuropein and ligustroside. An acid hydrolysis pretreatment of olive wood samples before extractions did not improve the results. In the course of this study, two compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of olive wood collected during the olives' harvesting season and identified as (7′′R)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (1) and (7′′S)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (2). PMID:26904608

  9. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract...

  10. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract...

  11. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  12. Effects of different extraction methods and conditions on the phenolic composition of mate tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Grujic, Nevena; Lepojevic, Zika; Srdjenovic, Branislava; Vladic, Jelena; Sudji, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v) and liquid CO₂ extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar) and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C). Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO₂ with aqueous ethanol (40%) as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar. PMID:22388965

  13. BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE SNS RING AND DESIGN OF EXTRACTION KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS, N.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; LEE, Y.Y.; MI, J.L.; SOUKAS, A.; WANG, J.G.; WEI, J.; ZHANG, S.Y.

    2000-06-30

    The accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [1] will accumulate a proton beam, injected from a LINAC, into a single bunch containing {approximately} 2.1 x 10{sup 14} protons at a maximum energy of 1.3 GeV. The single bunch with length {approximately}650 nsec and a gap of {approximately}290 nsec will circulate into the accumulator ring for {approximately}1.0 msec before it is extracted into the RTBT transfer line. The accumulation, extraction frequency is set at 60 Hz. This paper discusses the extraction process and the requirements of the fast beam extraction system.

  14. Review of third phase formation in extraction of actinides by neutral organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.R.V.; Kolarik, Z.

    1996-11-01

    Data are reviewed on the information of third phase in the extraction of actinide(IV,VI) nitrates by neutral organophosphorus extractants, mainly tributyl phosphate. The data are critically evaluated and the effect of variables on the third phase formation is discussed. The variables are the concentrations of nitric acid and the extractant, temperature, the nature of diluent, addition of modifiers and the ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Also discussed are systems involving two extracted actinide ions. 42 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction for the enrichment of edible oils with phenols from olive leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Japón-Luján, R; Luque de Castro, M D

    2008-04-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method to enrich edible oils--olive, sunflower, and soy oils--with phenols from olive leaf extracts is proposed. After microwave assistance to remove the phenols from three varieties of olive leaves, concentrations in the extracts between 12921 and 5173 mg/L of oleuropein, between 488 and 192 mg/L of apigenin-7-glucoside, between 444 and 219 mg/L of luteolin-7-glucoside, and between 501 and 213 mg/L of verbascoside were obtained, which clearly depended on the target variety. After optimization of the liquid-liquid extraction step, the concentrations in oils were 442, 162, and 164 mg/L of oleuropein, respectively, which were also enriched in apigenin-7-glucoside (between 8 and 15 mg/L, depending of the oil), lutelin-7-glucoside (between 11 and 12 mg/L), and verbascoside (between 11 and 13 mg/L). The oil-extract distribution factor of these compounds was also calculated for all olive leaf varieties and edible oils using different extracts concentrations and also different oil-extract volume ratios. Thus, a door is open to enrichment of any oil with olive phenols at preset concentrations using extracts preconcentrated as required and taking into account the distribution factor of the target compounds between the oil and the extracts. PMID:18324773

  16. Extraction with long-chain amines-II Extraction and colorimetric determination of chromate.

    PubMed

    Adam, J; Pribil, R

    1971-01-01

    Highly selective extraction of chromate from slightly acidic solutions (0.1-0.2M sulphuric acid) with a chloroform solution of trioctylamine (Alamine 336-S) or trioctylmethylammonium chloride Aliquat 336-S) is described. Many metals such as iron, nickel, cobalt, copper, alluminium, zinc, are not extracted, even if present in large concentrations. Coextraction of vanadium(V) and uranium(VI) is prevented by addition of sodium chloride. Traces of extracted molybdenum are scrubbed with ammonium oxalate. Final determination of chromium is based on measurement of the absorbance of the extract at 445-450 nm. PMID:18960862

  17. Uranium extraction by complexation with siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamonde Castro, Cristina

    One of the major concerns of energy production is the environmental impact associated with the extraction of natural resources. Nuclear energy fuel is obtained from uranium, an abundant and naturally occurring element in the environment, but the currently used techniques for uranium extraction leave either a significant fingerprint (open pit mines) or a chemical residue that alters the pH of the environment (acid or alkali leaching). It is therefore clear that a new and greener approach to uranium extraction is needed. Bioleaching is one potential alternative. In bioleaching, complexants naturally produced from fungi or bacteria may be used to extract the uranium. In the following research, the siderophore enterobactin, which is naturally produced by bacteria to extract and solubilize iron from the environment, is evaluated to determine its potential for complexing with uranium. To determine whether enterobactin could be used for uranium extraction, its acid dissociation and its binding strength with the metal of interest must be determined. Due to the complexity of working with radioactive materials, lanthanides were used as analogs for uranium. In addition, polyprotic acids were used as structural and chemical analogs for the siderophore during method development. To evaluate the acid dissociation of enterobactin and the subsequent binding constants with lanthanides, three different analytical techniques were studied including: potentiometric titration, UltraViolet Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). After evaluation of three techniques, a combination of ITC and potentiometric titrations was deemed to be the most viable way for studying the siderophore of interest. The results obtained from these studies corroborate the ideal pH range for enterobactin complexation to the lanthanide of interest and pave the way for determining the strength of complexation relative to other naturally occurring metals. Ultimately, this fundamental research enhances our current understanding of heavy metal complexation to naturally occurring complexants, which may enhance the metals mobility in the environment or potentially be used as a greener alternative in uranium extraction or remediation.

  18. Extraction and determination of glucosinolates from soil.

    PubMed

    Gimsing, Anne Louise; Kirkegaard, John A; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2005-12-14

    The use of glucosinolate-containing plants as soil-incorporated biofumigants for pest and disease control has raised questions regarding the fate of glucosinolates in soil; however, no method for routine analysis of glucosinolates in soil has been reported. A simple method to extract glucosinolates from soil with quantification as desulfoglucosinolates by HPLC is presented. The method involves two extractions with 70% methanol at room temperature, centrifugation, and filtration prior to the desulfation step. The desulfoglucosinolates are then quantified by HPLC using established protocols for plant tissue analysis. There were no significant interfering peaks from the soil extracts, and the method provided high extraction efficiencies (around 100%) for both aromatic (benzyl) and aliphatic (2-propenyl) glucosinolates when amended at a wide range of realistic field soil concentrations (1.6-120 nmol/g of soil). The method was equally effective in three diverse Australian soils that varied in organic matter, clay content, and pH. The method was effective in air-dried or field-moist soil, although evidence for rapid glucosinolate degradation in field-moist soil indicates that extraction of moist soils should be performed as soon as possible after sampling. The method is compatible with field soil sampling at remote sites and utilizes the same equipment and protocols already established for plant tissue analysis. Extraction of glucosinolates in the field following incorporation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and rape (Brassica napus) green manure crops was also tested. Eight different glucosinolates contained in the plant tissues were identified and quantified in soil extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 21.7 nmol/g of soil. PMID:16332113

  19. Process for extracting hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon bearing ores

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.; Eakin, B.E.

    1986-02-18

    This patent describes a process for recovering hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore consisting of: reducing the size of the ore to less than about 5 mesh to form a reduced ore; combining the reduced ore with liquid to form ore pellets; treating the ore pellets to form extractable ore pellets; contacting a bed of the extractable pellets with extracting solvent in an extraction zone such that the relative velocity of the solvent to the extractable pellets is at least about one-half gallon per square foot per minute or more to thereby extract hydrocarbons from the extractable pellets and form spent pellets and a hydrocarbon rich solvent stream comprising extracting solvent and extracted hydrocarbons. The extracted hydrocarbons have an ash content of about less than 3 weight percent; and recovering extracting solvent from the spent pellets while retaining the spent pellets in pellet form without release of a significant amount of fines.

  20. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  1. Extraction optimization of carbohydrate compound from Huangqi using orthogonal design.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shen-kang; Bi, Tie-Nan; Xu, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Rui-Li; Yang, Mei-Juan

    2013-07-01

    The effect of extraction time, extraction temperature and time on the yield of Huangqi carbohydrate compound (HQCC) was investigated using single factor and orthogonal experiment design. The influence by the parameters on the extraction yields of carbohydrate compound decreased in the order of: C (extraction number)>A (extraction time)>B (extraction temperature) according to the R values. Based on this analysis, and considering the carbohydrate compound extraction efficiency, the cost of energy and the feasibility of experiment, the optimum conditions of extraction were therefore determined as follows: extraction time 120min, extraction temperature 80°C, and extraction number 4. Oral administration of HQCC reduced lipid peroxidation level and enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities in gastric mucosa. In addition, HQCC reduced the serum IL-8 and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, these data reveal that HQCC promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antioxidative mechanism. PMID:23541555

  2. [Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin. PMID:20518317

  3. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  4. Maximizing net extraction using an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunhui; Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T; Robinson, Neville I; Luo, Jian

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we examine the maximum net extraction rate from the novel arrangement of an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer, where fresh groundwater is reinjected through the injection well located between the interface toe and extraction well. Complex potential theory is employed to derive a new analytical solution for the maximum net extraction rate and corresponding stagnation-point locations and recirculation ratio, assuming steady-state, sharp-interface conditions. The injection-extraction well-pair system outperforms a traditional single extraction well in terms of net extraction rate for a broad range of well placement and pumping rates, which is up to 50% higher for an aquifer with a thickness of 20 m, hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, and fresh water influx of 0.24 m(2) /d. Sensitivity analyses show that for a given fresh water discharge from an inland aquifer, a larger maximum net extraction is expected in cases with a smaller hydraulic conductivity or a smaller aquifer thickness, notwithstanding physical limits to drawdown at the pumping well that are not considered here. For an extraction well with a fixed location, the optimal net extraction rate linearly increases with the distance between the injection well and the sea, and the corresponding injection rate and recirculation ratio also increase. The analytical analysis in this study provides initial guidance for the design of well-pair systems in coastal aquifers, and is therefore an extension beyond previous applications of analytical solutions of coastal pumping that apply only to extraction or injection wells. PMID:22880816

  5. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. PMID:25929197

  6. High Duty Factor, Monochromatic Extraction from Eros.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallin, Leslie Ormond

    1990-01-01

    The pulse stretcher ring, EROS*, is designed to convert the pulsed electron beam from the linear accelerator of the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory to a continuous beam, increasing the duty factor from 0.036% to near 100%. A beam pulse is injected into the pulse stretcher and then uniformly extracted during the time between linac pulses. The extraction process proceeds by means of the 1/3 integer resonance condition. As particles circulating in the ring lose energy, they approach the resonance and are extracted. Tracking simulations have been used to optimize the extracted energy spread, emittances and duty factor. Good duty factors are achieved over a range of operating energies by using the ring RF cavity to control the rate of electron energy loss. The pulse stretcher ring has operated over a range of energies from 118 MeV to 293 MeV. Measurements of the ring parameters, including the tunes, chromaticities and betatron functions indicate the machine is operating close to the theoretical design values. The initial commissioning of the ring was quite time consuming but the present operation is now fairly routine. Duty factors over 50% can be achieved at all energies, using the ring RF if necessary. Emittances less than 1.0 (pi) mm-mrad in both transverse planes have been measured and the extracted energy spread has been observed to be +/- 0.02%. The extracted beam characteristics will be improved with the implementation of multitum injection and the development of better beam diagnostics. Monochromatic extraction has proved eminently successful and versatile. We gained a good understanding of the process by doing detailed particle tracking simulations. Intimacy with the ring design and theory and a wide range of measurements helped bring a somewhat difficult commissioning process to fruition. The RF phase shifting technique we devised to control the rate of extraction plays a very important role in producing high duty factors at high energies while preserving the good quality of the extracted beam. ftn*Electron Ring of Saskatchewan.

  7. Grid data extraction algorithm for ship routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuankui; Zhang, Yingjun; Yue, Xingwang; Gao, Zongjiang

    2015-05-01

    With the aim of extracting environmental data around routes, as the basis of ship routing optimization and other related studies, this paper, taking wind grid data as an example, proposes an algorithm that can effectively extract the grid data around rhumb lines. According to different ship courses, the algorithm calculates the wind grid index values in eight different situations, and a common computational formula is summarised. The wind grids around a ship route can be classified into `best-fitting' grids and `additional' grids, which are stored in such a way that, for example, when the data has a high-spacing resolution, only the `best-fitting' grids around ship routes are extracted. Finally, the algorithm was implemented and simulated with MATLAB programming. As the simulation results indicate, the algorithm designed in this paper achieved wind grid data extraction in different situations and further resolved the extraction problem of meteorological and hydrogeological field grids around ship routes efficiently. Thus, it can provide a great support for optimal ship routing related to meteorological factors.

  8. Reexamination of pure qubit work extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, Max F.; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2014-11-01

    Many work extraction or information erasure processes in the literature involve the raising and lowering of energy levels via external fields. But even if the actual system is treated quantum mechanically, the field is assumed to be classical and of infinite strength, hence not developing any correlations with the system or experiencing back-actions. We extend these considerations to a fully quantum mechanical treatment by studying a spin-1/2 particle coupled to a finite-sized directional quantum reference frame, a spin-l system, which models an external field. With this concrete model together with a bosonic thermal bath, we analyze the back-action a finite-size field suffers during a quantum-mechanical work extraction process and the effect this has on the extractable work and highlight a range of assumptions commonly made when considering such processes. The well-known semiclassical treatment of work extraction from a pure qubit predicts a maximum extractable work W =k T log2 for a quasistatic process, which holds as a strict upper bound in the fully quantum mechanical case and is attained only in the classical limit. We also address the problem of emergent local time dependence in a joint system with a globally fixed Hamiltonian.

  9. Feature Extraction Based on Decision Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. We note that feature extraction is equivalent to retaining informative features or eliminating redundant features; thus, the terms 'discriminantly information feature' and 'discriminantly redundant feature' are first defined relative to feature extraction for classification. Next, it is shown how discriminantly redundant features and discriminantly informative features are related to decision boundaries. A novel characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that usually only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is therefore introduced. Next, a procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary is proposed. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: (1) It predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and (2) it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal class means or equal class covariances as some previous algorithms do. Experiments show that the performance of the proposed algorithm compares favorably with those of previous algorithms.

  10. Antimicrobial effects of Quercus ilex L. extract.

    PubMed

    Güllüce, M; Adigüzel, A; Oğütçü, H; Sengül, M; Karaman, I; Sahin, F

    2004-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract of Quercus ilex L. (Pirnal oak) leaves were tested in vitro against a wide range of human and plant-associated microorganisms. A total of 132 microbial organisms belonging to 55 bacteria and five fungi and yeast species were studied using a disc-diffusion method and microdilution assays. The results were evaluated as inhibition zones around the disc impregnated with Q. ilex extract at a concentration of 300 micro L/mL. The results showed that Q. ilex did not have any antifungal activities against Alterneria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillum spp., whereas there were inhibition effects on the growth of all Candida albicans isolates. In total 97 bacterial strains (74%) were found to be resistant to Q. ilex extract. The remaining 35 (27%) strains of seven different bacteria genera including Brucella, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were susceptible to the extract tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract ranged from 125 to 500 micro L/mL. These results suggest that Q. ilex possesses compounds with antibacterial and anticandidal properties. PMID:15103667

  11. Theoretical models for supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Han; Jiang, Wei-Juan

    2012-08-10

    For the proper design of supercritical fluid extraction processes, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the mass transfer mechanism of the extraction process and the appropriate mathematical representation. In this paper, the advances and applications of kinetic models for describing supercritical fluid extraction from various solid matrices have been presented. The theoretical models overviewed here include the hot ball diffusion, broken and intact cell, shrinking core and some relatively simple models. Mathematical representations of these models have been in detail interpreted as well as their assumptions, parameter identifications and application examples. Extraction process of the analyte solute from the solid matrix by means of supercritical fluid includes the dissolution of the analyte from the solid, the analyte diffusion in the matrix and its transport to the bulk supercritical fluid. Mechanisms involved in a mass transfer model are discussed in terms of external mass transfer resistance, internal mass transfer resistance, solute-solid interactions and axial dispersion. The correlations of the external mass transfer coefficient and axial dispersion coefficient with certain dimensionless numbers are also discussed. Among these models, the broken and intact cell model seems to be the most relevant mathematical model as it is able to provide realistic description of the plant material structure for better understanding the mass-transfer kinetics and thus it has been widely employed for modeling supercritical fluid extraction of natural matters. PMID:22560346

  12. Black extraction method using gamut boundary descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-Ki; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Choh, Heui-Keun

    2006-01-01

    Color data conversion between CMYK and CIEL*a*b* color space is not directly corresponded, that is many CMYK combinations could reproduce the same CIEL*a*b* value. When building a LUT converting from CIEL*a*b* to CMYK for a CMYK color printer, one to one correspondence between CMYK and CIEL*a*b* must be aimed. The proposed method in this paper follows steps: (1) print and measure CIEL*a*b* values of CMYK reference chart, (2) set-up parameters to assign the amount of black extraction, (3) generate gamut boundary descriptors for gamut mapping and for black extraction using CMYK-CIEL*a*b* data under predetermined black extraction parameters, (4) perform gamut mapping for given CIEL*a*b* using the gamut boundary descriptor for gamut mapping, (5) determine K value of the gamut-mapped CIEL*a*b* using the gamut boundary descriptors for black extraction. The suggested method determines K value for given CIEL*a*b* using gamut boundary descriptors in CIEL*a*b color space. As a result, a color printer using this method can make out accurate black amount and reproduces more consistent CMYK images under different black extraction options.

  13. Influence of extraction parameters on the phytochemical characteristics of extracts from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) herb.

    PubMed

    Hinneburg, Iris; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2005-01-12

    In recent years, the interest in herbal medicinal products, especially in the field of dermatology and cosmetics, has risen enormously. Many plant-derived substances show photoprotective properties in terms of absorption of UV radiation and preventing photodamage to molecular structures of human skin. Modern phytopharmaceutics as well as phytocosmetics require standardized, defined extracts from the herbal matrix. Buckwheat herb is rich in flavonoids, which have been identified as potent antioxidants. Up to now, there have been no systematic investigations available concerning the extraction conditions for phenolic substances from buckwheat herb. In this paper, we report the influence of three extraction parameters, ethanol concentration, temperature, and extraction time, on the response variables extractable matter, antioxidant activity, and content of fagopyrin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid. Our results suggest that an extract with good antioxidant activity, a high content of phenolics, and a low content of the phototoxic fagopyrin can be yielded by agitated maceration with 30% ethanol at 60 degrees C for 2 h. Furthermore, there is good correlation between the antioxidant activity and the rutin content, whereas the extractable matter is not an appropriate parameter for extract quality. Huge differences in the content of rutin and chlorogenic acid when using herbal drugs from different suppliers confirm the demand of standardized procedures for the production of herbal drugs. PMID:15631500

  14. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dejoye, Cline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 2028 Mpa and temperature interval of 4070 C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

  15. Selective extraction of metal ions with polymeric extractants by ion exchange/redox

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.

    1987-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for the extraction of metal ions having a reduction potential of above about +0.3 from an aqueous solution. The method includes contacting the aqueous solution with a polymeric extractant having primary phosphinic acid groups, secondary phosphine oxide groups, or both phosphinic acid and phosphine oxide groups.

  16. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

  17. Improved solid phase extraction of ferulate phytosterol esters from corn distiller's dried grain extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently reported on the retention of valuable phytochemicals such as ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols (T), and tocotrienols (T3) in solvent and CO2 extracts of distillers dried grains (DDG). However, the extraction and purification of these phytochemicals, especially FPE, from the...

  18. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING...

  19. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING...

  20. Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  1. Extraction of mRNA from soil.

    PubMed

    Mettel, Carsten; Kim, Yongkyu; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Liesack, Werner

    2010-09-01

    Here, we report an efficient method for extracting high-quality mRNA from soil. Key steps in the isolation of total RNA were low-pH extraction (pH 5.0) and Q-Sepharose chromatography. The removal efficiency of humic acids was 94 to 98% for all soils tested. To enrich mRNA, subtractive hybridization of rRNA was most efficient. Subtractive hybridization may be followed by exonuclease treatment if the focus is on the analysis of unprocessed mRNA. The total extraction method can be completed within 8 h, resulting in enriched mRNA ranging from 200 bp to 4 kb in size. PMID:20622132

  2. Cytokinins Extracted from Pinto Bean Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Krasnuk, Michael; Witham, Francis H.; Tegley, John R.

    1971-01-01

    Extracts from various parts of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto plants were found to exhibit cytokinin activity with the highest levels present in extracts of the fruit tissue. To separate the cytokinins present in the fruit, extracts were chromatographed in several solvent systems. Bioassays of chromatograms indicated the presence of active factors in those regions of migration associated with several known N-6-substituted aminopurines. Ultraviolet and mass spectral studies confirm the presence of a mixture of N-6-substituted aminopurines in the active material isolated by cation exchange resin chromatography. The evidence strongly supports the conclusions that dihydrozeatin is naturally occurring as the free base and possibly as a ribonucleoside. Further, zeatin appears to occur mainly as a glycosidic compound which is altered by KMnO4 treatment and is hydrolyzed under acid conditions. PMID:16657790

  3. Gel permeation chromatography of coal extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Nosyrev, I.E.; Kuzaev, A.I.; Kochkanyan, R.O.; Baranov, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    In the reported experiments, investigations have been made of the molecular-weight distribution of coal extracts by gel permeation chromatography on a Waters instrument fitted with Styragel columns using tetrahydrofuran as eluent. The molecular-weight composition of organic extracts obtained by the treatment of coals with various solvents has been analyzed and it has been concluded that associates are present in the coal. The parameters of the molecular-weight distribution have been calculated using various calibrations. The possibility has been shown of the preparative separation of coal extracts on the gel Sephadex LH-20. The hypothesis has been put forward that coal consists of an oligomeric polyassociate with an intermolecular interaction of the donor-acceptor type. 9 refs.

  4. Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Filippi, Anthony M; Archibald, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Introduced in this paper is the utilization of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to automatically perform endmember extraction from hyperspectral data. The strengths of SVM are exploited to provide a fast and accurate calculated representation of high-dimensional data sets that may consist of multiple distributions. Once this representation is computed, the number of distributions can be determined without prior knowledge. For each distribution, an optimal transform can be determined that preserves informational content while reducing the data dimensionality, and hence, the computational cost. Finally, endmember extraction for the whole data set is accomplished. Results indicate that this Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction (SVM-BEE) algorithm has the capability of autonomously determining endmembers from multiple clusters with computational speed and accuracy, while maintaining a robust tolerance to noise.

  5. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  6. The extraction of work from quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Lostaglio, Matteo; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Jennings, David

    2016-02-01

    The interplay between quantum-mechanical properties, such as coherence, and classical notions, such as energy, is a subtle topic at the forefront of quantum thermodynamics. The traditional Carnot argument limits the conversion of heat to work; here we critically assess the problem of converting coherence to work. Through a careful account of all resources involved in the thermodynamic transformations within a fully quantum-mechanical treatment, we show that there exist thermal machines extracting work from coherence arbitrarily well. Such machines only need to act on individual copies of a state and can be reused. On the other hand, we show that for any thermal machine with finite resources not all the coherence of a state can be extracted as work. However, even bounded thermal machines can be reused infinitely many times in the process of work extraction from coherence.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Younes, Riad Naim

    2006-12-01

    Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:17420913

  8. Automatic Extraction of Planetary Image Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troglio, G.; LeMoigne, J.; Moser, G.; Serpico, S. B.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    With the launch of several Lunar missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Chandrayaan-1, a large amount of Lunar images will be acquired and will need to be analyzed. Although many automatic feature extraction methods have been proposed and utilized for Earth remote sensing images, these methods are not always applicable to Lunar data that often present low contrast and uneven illumination characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new method for the extraction of Lunar features (that can be generalized to other planetary images), based on the combination of several image processing techniques, a watershed segmentation and the generalized Hough Transform. This feature extraction has many applications, among which image registration.

  9. Method for contour extraction for object representation

    DOEpatents

    Skourikhine, Alexei N.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2005-08-30

    Contours are extracted for representing a pixelated object in a background pixel field. An object pixel is located that is the start of a new contour for the object and identifying that pixel as the first pixel of the new contour. A first contour point is then located on the mid-point of a transition edge of the first pixel. A tracing direction from the first contour point is determined for tracing the new contour. Contour points on mid-points of pixel transition edges are sequentially located along the tracing direction until the first contour point is again encountered to complete tracing the new contour. The new contour is then added to a list of extracted contours that represent the object. The contour extraction process associates regions and contours by labeling all the contours belonging to the same object with the same label.

  10. H{sup -} ion beam extraction from a transformer coupled plasma source with triode extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, H.S.; Kim, Y.J.; Hong, I.S.; Park, D.H.; Hwang, Y.S.

    2006-03-15

    A continuous-mode H{sup -} ion source has been developed in SNU by using rf transformer coupled plasma source for long lifetime. Recently, its plasma confinement has been improved by modifying the main cusp magnet system that covers rf antenna and plasma electrode regions. The extraction system has also been upgraded to triode extraction system, where permanent magnets in dipole configuration are embedded in extraction electrode to provide additional magnetic field for filtering out fast electrons. Electrode shape, extraction hole size, and gap distance are optimized for high beam currents with low emittance by using PBGUNS code. With new configuration, H{sup -} beam currents of up to 1.67 mA with 1.7 kW, 13.56 MHz rf power are extracted in a continuous mode. Low e/H{sup -} ratios down to 8 are achieved by increasing total filtering field strength up to 190 G.

  11. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    PubMed

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid. PMID:19382334

  12. Extraction and identification of flavonoids from parsley extracts by HPLC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.

    2012-02-01

    Flavonoids are phenolic compounds isolated from a wide variety of plants, and are valuable for their multiple properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In the present work, parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) extracts were obtained by three different extraction techniques: maceration, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted solvent extractions. The extractions were performed with ethanol-water mixtures in various ratios. From these extracts, flavonoids like the flavones apigenin and luteolin, and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol were identified using an HPLC Shimadzu apparatus equipped with PDA and MS detectors. The separation method involved a gradient step. The mobile phase consisted of two solvents: acetonitrile and distilled water with 0.1% formic acid. The separation was performed on a RP-C18 column.

  13. Extracting laboratory test information from biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yanna Shen; Kayaalp, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: No previous study reported the efficacy of current natural language processing (NLP) methods for extracting laboratory test information from narrative documents. This study investigates the pathology informatics question of how accurately such information can be extracted from text with the current tools and techniques, especially machine learning and symbolic NLP methods. The study data came from a text corpus maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, containing a rich set of information on laboratory tests and test devices. Methods: The authors developed a symbolic information extraction (SIE) system to extract device and test specific information about four types of laboratory test entities: Specimens, analytes, units of measures and detection limits. They compared the performance of SIE and three prominent machine learning based NLP systems, LingPipe, GATE and BANNER, each implementing a distinct supervised machine learning method, hidden Markov models, support vector machines and conditional random fields, respectively. Results: Machine learning systems recognized laboratory test entities with moderately high recall, but low precision rates. Their recall rates were relatively higher when the number of distinct entity values (e.g., the spectrum of specimens) was very limited or when lexical morphology of the entity was distinctive (as in units of measures), yet SIE outperformed them with statistically significant margins on extracting specimen, analyte and detection limit information in both precision and F-measure. Its high recall performance was statistically significant on analyte information extraction. Conclusions: Despite its shortcomings against machine learning methods, a well-tailored symbolic system may better discern relevancy among a pile of information of the same type and may outperform a machine learning system by tapping into lexically non-local contextual information such as the document structure. PMID:24083058

  14. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  15. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies. PMID:26471269

  16. Extracting Electric Polarizabilities from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Will Detmold, William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-05-01

    Charged and neutral, pion and kaon electric polarizabilities are extracted from lattice QCD using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions. We utilize classical background fields to access the polarizabilities from two-point correlation functions. Uniform background fields are achieved by quantizing the electric field strength with the proper treatment of boundary flux. These external fields, however, are implemented only in the valence quark sector. A novel method to extract charge particle polarizabilities is successfully demonstrated for the first time.

  17. Large datasets: Segmentation, feature extraction, and compression

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

    1996-07-01

    Large data sets with more than several mission multivariate observations (tens of megabytes or gigabytes of stored information) are difficult or impossible to analyze with traditional software. The amount of output which must be scanned quickly dilutes the ability of the investigator to confidently identify all the meaningful patterns and trends which may be present. The purpose of this project is to develop both a theoretical foundation and a collection of tools for automated feature extraction that can be easily customized to specific applications. Cluster analysis techniques are applied as a final step in the feature extraction process, which helps make data surveying simple and effective.

  18. Solvent extraction of scandium(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Langade, A.D.; Shinde, V.M.

    1980-11-01

    Separation of scandium(III) from iron(III), molybdenum(VI), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), titanium(IV), bismuth(III), zirconium(IV), lanthanum(III), and thorium(IV) is achieved by solvent extraction with mesityl oxide from sodium sallcylate solution (0.1 M) adjusted to pH 4. Scandium from the organic phase is stripped with water and determined photometrically as its arsenazo complex at 570 nm. The extracted species is trisolvated, i.e., Sc(HOC/sub 6/H/sub 4/COO)/sub 3/3Me0. 1 figure, 1 table.

  19. Extraction and separation of bismuth(III).

    PubMed

    Langade, A D; Shinde, V M

    1981-10-01

    Separation of bismuth from beryllium, lead, iron(III), indium, scandium, lanthanum, antimony(III), zirconium, titanium, thorium, vanadium(V), molybdenum(VI), uranium (VI) and chromium(VI) is achieved by selective extraction of bismuth from 0.1M sodium salicylate solution (adjusted to pH 7) into mesityl oxide (MeO). The extracted species is Bi (HOC(6)H(4)COO)(3).3MeO. The results are accurate within +/- 0.5%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. The separation and determination of bismuth takes only 15 min. PMID:18963000

  20. Fractured Geothermal Growth Induced by Heat Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, J.W.; Murphy, H.D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Potter, R.M.; Robinson, B.A.

    1989-02-01

    Field testing of a hydraulically stimulated, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal system at the Fenton Hill site in northern New Mexico indicated that significant reservoir growth occurred as energy was extracted. Tracer, microseismic, and geochemical measurements provided the primary quantitative evidence for the increases in accessible reservoir volume and fractured rock surface area that were observed during energy extraction operations that caused substantial thermal drawdown in portions of the reservoir. These temporal increases suggest that augmentation of reservoir hear-production capacity in an HDR system may be possible. [DJE 2005

  1. Stabilized Hollow Ions Extracted in Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Azuma, T.; Komaki, K.; Koike, F.; Masuda, H.; Kuroki, K.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1997-06-01

    K x rays emitted from 2.1 keV/uN{sup 6+} ions passed through a thin Ni microcapillary foil were measured in coincidence with the exit charge states. Ions with a K hole but with several electrons in outershells, i.e., hollow ions formed above a surface (in the first generation), were successfully extracted in vacuum. It was found that a considerable fraction of extracted hollow ions had extremely long lifetimes of the order of ns. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-01-01

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  3. Dictionary-based methods for information extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, A.; Caglioti, E.; Loreto, V.; Pizzi, E.

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we present a general method for information extraction that exploits the features of data compression techniques. We first define and focus our attention on the so-called dictionary of a sequence. Dictionaries are intrinsically interesting and a study of their features can be of great usefulness to investigate the properties of the sequences they have been extracted from e.g. DNA strings. We then describe a procedure of string comparison between dictionary-created sequences (or artificial texts) that gives very good results in several contexts. We finally present some results on self-consistent classification problems.

  4. Hypoglycemic activity of several seaweed extracts.

    PubMed

    Lamela, M; Anca, J; Villar, R; Otero, J; Calleja, J M

    1989-11-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of several seaweed extracts on rabbits was studied. Ethanol extracts of Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccorhiza polyschides and Fucus vesiculosus were administered orally to normal animals and their effects on glycemia and triglyceridemia evaluated. Crude polysaccharides and protein solutions from Himanthalia elongata and Codium tomentosum were also assayed. Polysaccharides and proteins from H. elongata caused a significant reduction in blood glucose 8 h after intravenous administration. A case of 5 mg/kg of crude polysaccharide lowered glycemia about 18% in normal rabbits and by about 50% in alloxan-diabetic animals, while the protein solution lowered glycemia in diabetic rabbits by about 30%. PMID:2615424

  5. Acceleration of Automated HI Source Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badenhorst, S. J.; Blyth, S.; Kuttel, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    We aim to enable fast automated extraction of neutral hydrogen (HI) sources from large survey data sets. This requires both handling the large files (>5 TB) to be produced by next-generation interferometers and acceleration of the source extraction algorithm. We develop an efficient multithreaded implementation of the A'Trous wavelet reconstruction algorithm, which we evaluate against the serial implementation in the DUCHAMP package. We also evaluate three memory management libraries (Mmap, Boost and Stxxl) that enable processing of data files too large to fit into main memory, to establish which provides the best performance.

  6. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds. PMID:18390447

  7. Extraction of phenolic compounds from a Spodosol profile: an evaluation of three extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, G.F.; Boyd, S.A.; Mokma, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The authors extracted phenolic compounds from each horizon of a Spodosol profile using three extractants: 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate at pH 7.0 and 10.2, and 0.5 N sodium hydroxide at pH 13.4. Of 28 standard compounds evaluated seven phenolic compounds were identified: three carboxylic acids - protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and vanillic acids; two aldehydes - vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; and two cinnamic acids - trans p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The three most abundant compounds evaluated were protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid. The amounts of each phenolic compound extracted increased with increasing pH of the extractant except for protocatechuic acid. Protocatechuic acid was extracted in the highest amounts by sodium pyrophosphate pH 10. The pyrophosphate (pH .10) extracts revealed that protocatechuic acid tended to accumulate in the B horizons, suggesting that it may play a role in the translocation of metal ions during podzolization. The two cinnamic acids, trans p-coumaric and ferulic, were extracted primarily by NaOH. The identification of these cinnamic derivatives in an NaOH extraction of roots separated from the B horizon suggested that their presence may be due to degradation of plant residues by NaOH. Pyrophosphate (pH 7) extracted only small amounts of phenolic compounds. The specificity of pyrophosphate (pH 10) in removing organic complexes of a possible pedogenic nature suggest that it was the better extractant. Sodium pyrophosphate (pH 10) is recommended for use in future pedological studies of phenolic substances.

  8. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae,...

  9. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  10. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base...

  11. Extraction of oil from wheat germ by supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Piras, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Dessì, Maria A; Marongiu, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the supercritical fluid extraction of wheat germ oil. The effects of pressure (200-300 bar at 40 degrees C) and extraction time on the oil quality/quantity were studied. A comparison was also made between the relative qualities of material obtained by SFE and by organic solvent extraction. The extracts were analyzed for alpha-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The maximum wheat germ oil yield at about 9% was obtained with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction at 300 bar, while fatty acid and alpha-tocopherol composition of the extracts was not remarkable affected by either pressure or the extraction method. PMID:19633624

  12. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extracts of seed, hexane extracts of pulp, and hexane extracts of seed. The antioxidant potential of Cassia fistula extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.02) with the phenolic content of the methanolic extracts. Ascorbic acid taken as control showed highest antioxidant power in the present study. PMID:25374682

  14. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  15. Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. PMID:24996300

  16. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yupo J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  17. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and...

  18. Extracting Periodic Signals From Irregularly Sampled Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.

    1995-01-01

    Successive approximations formed in Fourier space. Algorithm extracts periodic signals from sparse, irregularly sampled sets of measurement data. Pertains to data processed via fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). Data represents signal components with initially unknown frequencies spanning large spectral range and includes frequencies not integer multiples of minimum FFT frequency.

  19. Extracting hydrocarbons from water using a centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, A. Yu.; Ilyina, A. A.; Chuikin, A. V.; Velikov, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    An original method for the solid-phase microextraction of hydrocarbons from water using a centrifuge is proposed. Comparative results from the chromatographic elution of substances after liquid-phase and solid-phase microextraction are presented. The percentage of the extraction of substances from aqueous solutions and the minimum detection limit for aromatic and aliphatic compounds are calculated.

  20. Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...

  1. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Mohammad Reza; Firouzjah, Ahmad; Rahnama, Reyhaneh

    2013-11-15

    In this research, a novel extraction technique termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (SADSPE) was developed for the first time. The new method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample to maximize the contact surface. In this method, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by injecting a solution of the sorbent into the aqueous sample. Thereby, a cloudy solution formed. The cloudy state resulted from the dispersion of the fine particles of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifugation and the enriched analyte in the sedimented phase could be determined by instrumental methods. The performance of SADSPE was illustrated with the determination of the trace amounts of cobalt(II) as a test analyte in food and environmental water samples by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry detection. Some key parameters for SADSPE, such as sorbent selection and amount, type and volume of dispersive solvent, pH, chelating agent concentration, and salt concentration, were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, good limit of detection (as low as 0.2 µg L(-1)) and repeatability of extraction (RSD below 2.2%, n=10) was obtained. The accuracy of the method was tested with standard reference material (SRM-1643e and SRM-1640a) and spiked addition. The advantages of SADSPE method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, high recovery, and enrichment factor. PMID:24148429

  2. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... the sutures are used for the purposes specified in their labeling, there is no migration of the...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... the sutures are used for the purposes specified in their labeling, there is no migration of the...

  4. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... the sutures are used for the purposes specified in their labeling, there is no migration of the...

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction and processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers are aware of the processing techniques used to manufacture food and health supplements and are concerned about the impact of those processes on their health and the environment. Processes that use supercritical fluids as an alternative to solvents that are used to extract nutrients and bio...

  6. Improving LED extraction efficiency through surface patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, M. D. B.; Lee, T.; Zoorob, M. E.; Shields, P. A.; Wang, W. N.

    2007-09-01

    We investigate improvement in performance attainable by etching Photonic Crystals and Photonic Quasicrystals (PQC) into the top emitting surface of LEDs (PQC-LEDs). We describe the physical mechanisms of extraction enhancement through ordered surface patterning and investigate benefits in terms of total extraction enhancement, beam directionality, and far field beam quality. We show that a great variety of far field beam profiles tailored for specific applications such as projection TV light engines and direct flat panel display illumination can be obtained simply by adjusting geometric design parameters. Our results show that PQC-LEDs can provide around 50% improvement in extraction enhancement and coupling efficiency for applications requiring non Lambertian beam shapes when etched into standard epitaxy wafers in comparison to "state of the art" surface roughened GaN LED devices. We also show that by tailoring the epi-structure to complement the properties of the PQC, extraction as well as directional light coupling enhancements can be improved by a factor of 9 amounting to a total coupling enhancement of around 78%.

  7. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  8. Extraction of SUSY Parameters from Collider Data

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwas, Dirk

    2008-11-23

    The extraction of the parameters of the supersymmetric Lagrangian is discussed. Particular emphasis is put on the rigorous treatment of experimental and theoretical errors. While the LHC can provide a valuable first estimate of the parameters, the combination of LHC and ILC will be necessary to determine with high precision the parameters of the MSSM.

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION: SAFETY, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fats, which are solid at ambient temperature, and liquid oils are recovered from diverse biological sources by mechanical separation, solvent extraction, or a combination of the two methods. There are many physical and chemical differences between these diverse biological materials. However, the s...

  10. Gallium complexes and solvent extraction of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Graham, C.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes a process for recovering gallium from aqueous solutions containing gallium which comprises contacting such a solution with an organic solvent containing at least 2% by weight of a water-insoluble N-organo hydroxamic acid having at least about 8 carbon atoms to extract gallium, and separating the gallium loaded organic solvent phase from the aqueous phase.

  11. Using Wavelet Extraction for Haptic Texture Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi, Waskito; Sulaiman, Suziah

    While visual texture classification is a widely-research topic in image analysis, little is known on its counterpart i.e. the haptic (touch) texture. This paper examines the visual texture classification in order to investigate how well it could be used for haptic texture search engine. In classifying the visual textures, feature extraction for a given image involving wavelet decomposition is used to obtain the transformation coefficients. Feature vectors are formed using energy signature from each wavelet sub-band coefficient. We conducted an experiment to investigate the extent in which wavelet decomposition could be used in haptic texture search engine. The experimental result, based on different testing data, shows that feature extraction using wavelet decomposition achieve accuracy rate more than 96%. This demonstrates that wavelet decomposition and energy signature is effective in extracting information from a visual texture. Based on this finding, we discuss on the suitability of wavelet decomposition for haptic texture searching, in terms of extracting information from image and haptic information.

  12. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. Waste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. The use of steam enhances the stripping of...

  13. Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimes, Robert; Lovely, David

    1999-01-01

    In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required to understand the underlying physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of much interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snap-shot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense. The following is a list of the important physical phenomena found in transient (and steady-state) fluid flow: (1) Shocks, (2) Vortex cores, (3) Regions of recirculation, (4) Boundary layers, (5) Wakes. Three papers and an initial specification for the (The Fluid eXtraction tool kit) FX Programmer's guide were included. The papers, submitted to the AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, are entitled : (1) Using Residence Time for the Extraction of Recirculation Regions, (2) Shock Detection from Computational Fluid Dynamics results and (3) On the Velocity Gradient Tensor and Fluid Feature Extraction.

  14. Industrial extraction and utilization of zein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through improved isolation techniques and new chemical modifications of zein, a potentially major co-product bio-ethanol industry, the economics of wet and dry-mill ethanol plants will be improved. While traditionally ethanol has been used to extract zein from corn gluten meal, it has been found th...

  15. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  16. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  17. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  18. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  19. Sophia: A Expedient UMLS Concept Extraction Annotator

    PubMed Central

    Divita, Guy; Zeng, Qing T; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Duvall, Scott; Nebeker, Jonathan; Samore, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    An opportunity exists for meaningful concept extraction and indexing from large corpora of clinical notes in the Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic medical record. Currently available tools such as MetaMap, cTAKES and HITex do not scale up to address this big data need. Sophia, a rapid UMLS concept extraction annotator was developed to fulfill a mandate and address extraction where high throughput is needed while preserving performance. We report on the development, testing and benchmarking of Sophia against MetaMap and cTAKEs. Sophia demonstrated improved performance on recall as compared to cTAKES and MetaMap (0.71 vs 0.66 and 0.38). The overall f-score was similar to cTAKES and an improvement over MetaMap (0.53 vs 0.57 and 0.43). With regard to speed of processing records, we noted Sophia to be several fold faster than cTAKES and the scaled-out MetaMap service. Sophia offers a viable alternative for high-throughput information extraction tasks. PMID:25954351

  20. Cell Cycle Synchronization in Xenopus Egg Extracts.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Peter J; Neusiedler, Julia; Creavin, Kevin; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J Julian

    2016-01-01

    Many important discoveries in cell cycle research have been made using cell-free extracts prepared from the eggs of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. These extracts efficiently support the key nuclear functions of the eukaryotic cell cycle in vitro under apparently the same controls that exist in vivo. The Xenopus cell-free system is therefore uniquely suited to the study of the mechanisms, dynamics and integration of cell cycle regulated processes at a biochemical level. Here, we describe methods currently in use in our laboratory for the preparation of Xenopus egg extracts and demembranated sperm nuclei. We detail how these extracts can be used to study the key transitions of the eukaryotic cell cycle and describe conditions under which these transitions can be manipulated by addition of drugs that either retard or advance passage. In addition, we describe in detail essential techniques that provide a practical starting point for investigating the function of proteins involved in the operation of the eukaryotic cell cycle. PMID:26254920

  1. Extraction of nerve agent VX from soils.

    PubMed

    Montauban, Cécile; Bégos, Arlette; Bellier, Bruno

    2004-05-15

    The development and optimization of a method allowing the extraction of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX) from several types of soils are presented here. This involved the selection of an appropriate buffer to bring the sample to a pH close to the pK(a) of VX but sufficiently low to avoid its basic hydrolysis. Buffering with Tris (pH 9) and subsequent extraction of the aqueous layer by a 85:15 (v/v) hexane/dichloromethane mixture allows rapid and sensitive flame photometric detection of VX at spiking levels lower than 10 microg x g(-1), even after 3 months of aging. Extraction yields were close to 60% in complex matrixes. This method also allows recovery and identification of a characteristic degradation product of VX, bis(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) disulfide, which appears to be formed during the aging process. The performance of this method is far better than that of OPCW reference operating procedure, which does not allow extraction of detectable amounts of VX (spiked at 10 microg x g(-1)) in one of the soils used for this study. PMID:15144189

  2. Extraction of linear features on SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyi; Li, Deren; Mei, Xin

    2006-10-01

    Linear features are usually extracted from SAR imagery by a few edge detectors derived from the contrast ratio edge detector with a constant probability of false alarm. On the other hand, the Hough Transform is an elegant way of extracting global features like curve segments from binary edge images. Randomized Hough Transform can reduce the computation time and memory usage of the HT drastically. While Randomized Hough Transform will bring about a great deal of cells invalid during the randomized sample. In this paper, we propose a new approach to extract linear features on SAR imagery, which is an almost automatic algorithm based on edge detection and Randomized Hough Transform. The presented improved method makes full use of the directional information of each edge candidate points so as to solve invalid cumulate problems. Applied result is in good agreement with the theoretical study, and the main linear features on SAR imagery have been extracted automatically. The method saves storage space and computational time, which shows its effectiveness and applicability.

  3. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  4. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  5. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in increasing numbers due to many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. VE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport are quite c...

  6. Recent developments in stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    As a crucial step in qualitative and quantitative analysis, sample pretreatment is commonly used to isolate the target analytes, concentrate them, or convert them into the forms tailored to the instrumental analysis. In recent years, there has been a trend for sample pretreatment techniques to become more miniaturized and more environmentally friendly. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), which was developed in 1999, is such an environmentally friendly microextraction technique. Compared with other microextraction techniques, including solid phase microextraction and liquid phase microextraction, SBSE provides a higher extraction efficiency and better reproducibility owing to the much greater amount of the extraction phase, and no special skills are required. However, there are some problems associated with SBSE, such as the limited applicable coatings, coating abrasion of the laboratory-made stir bar, and the difficulty in automation, which restrict the further improvement and application of SBSE. This review focuses on the development of SBSE in the past decade, in terms of coating preparation, automated systems, novel extraction modes, its use with various instruments, and applications in food, environmental, and biological samples. PMID:24136250

  7. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  8. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Avgerinos, George C.

    1983-01-01

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15.degree. and about 70.degree. C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

  9. Free radical scavenging properties of wheat extracts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liangli; Haley, Scott; Perret, Jonathan; Harris, Mary; Wilson, John; Qian, Ming

    2002-03-13

    Three hard winter wheat varieties (Akron, Trego, and Platte) were examined and compared for their free radical scavenging properties and total phenolic contents (TPC). Free radical scavenging properties of wheat grain extracts were evaluated by spectrophotometric and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry methods against stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) and radical cation ABTS*+ (2,2'-azino-di[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate]). The results showed that the three wheat extracts differed in their capacities to quench or inhibit DPPH* and ABTS*+. Akron showed the greatest activity to quench DPPH radicals, while Platte had the highest capacity against ABTS*+. The ED50 values of wheat extracts against DPPH radicals were 0.60 mg/mL for Akron, 7.1 mg/mL for Trego, and 0.95 mg/mL for Platte under the experimental conditions. The trolox equivalents against ABTS*+ were 1.31 +/- 0.44, 1.08 +/- 0.05, and 1.91 +/- 0.06 micromol/g of grain for Akron, Trego, and Platte wheat, respectively. ESR results confirmed that wheat extracts directly reacted with and quenched free radicals. The TPC were 487.9 +/- 927.8 microg gallic acid equivalents/g of grain. No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH* and ABTS*+ (p = 0.15 and p > 0.5, respectively). PMID:11879046

  10. Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2013-10-15

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = −100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and −100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

  11. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemicellulose extract. 573.520 Section 573.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  12. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemicellulose extract. 573.520 Section 573.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1... annatto seed. The requirements of § 70.25(a) of this chapter that all ingredients shall be listed by name...) of this chapter. (d) Exemption from certification. Certification of this color additive is...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1... annatto seed. The requirements of § 70.25(a) of this chapter that all ingredients shall be listed by name...) of this chapter. (d) Exemption from certification. Certification of this color additive is...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1... annatto seed. The requirements of § 70.25(a) of this chapter that all ingredients shall be listed by name...) of this chapter. (d) Exemption from certification. Certification of this color additive is...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1... annatto seed. The requirements of § 70.25(a) of this chapter that all ingredients shall be listed by name...) of this chapter. (d) Exemption from certification. Certification of this color additive is...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1... annatto seed. The requirements of § 70.25(a) of this chapter that all ingredients shall be listed by name...) of this chapter. (d) Exemption from certification. Certification of this color additive is...

  18. Keyword Extraction from Arabic Legal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammal, Mahmoud; Bahsoun, Zeinab; Al Achkar Jabbour, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply local grammar (LG) to develop an indexing system which automatically extracts keywords from titles of Lebanese official journals. Design/methodology/approach: To build LG for our system, the first word that plays the determinant role in understanding the meaning of a title is analyzed and grouped as…

  19. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemicellulose extract. 573.520 Section 573.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  20. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemicellulose extract. 573.520 Section 573.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...