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1

Development of a Tracer Test in a flooded Uranium Mine using Lycopodium clavatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymetallic Niederschlema\\/Alberoda uranium deposit in the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) has been flooded since 1991. The objectives of the tests were to investigate the quality and rate of flow within a large part of the flooded mine to predict the mass flow of the pollutants. Based on the results of a first tracer test with Lycopodium clavatum in mid

Christian Wolkersdorfer; Nicole Feldtner

2

Protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium30, in ameliorating azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, prepared from extract of spores of a plant, Lyocopodium clavatum (Fam: Lycopodiaceae) and used as a remedy for various liver ailments, have been tested in mice chronically fed p-dimethyl amino azo benzene (p-DAB) – an initiator, and phenobarbital (PB) – a promoter of hepatic cancer, by using some cytogenetic endpoints like

Surajit Pathak; Jayanta Kumar Das; Surjyo Jyoti Biswas; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

2006-01-01

3

Lycopodium alkaloids from Huperzia serrata.  

PubMed

A new lycopodane-type Lycopodium alkaloid, 6?-hydroxy-5,15-oxide-lycopodane (1), and seven known alkaloids were isolated from the whole plants of Huperzia serrata. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods. 12-Deoxyhuperzine O (2) was reported as a naturally occurring alkaloid for the first time, and showed an antagonist effect on the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor with an IC(50) value of 0.92 ?M. PMID:21061224

Yang, Yan-Fang; Qu, Shi-Jin; Xiao, Kai; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Tan, Jun-Jie; Tan, Chang-Heng; Zhu, Da-Yuan

2010-11-01

4

Development of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with simple extraction for simultaneous determination of huperzine A and huperzine B in the species containing lycopodium alkaloids.  

PubMed

A sensitive HPLC method with simple extraction was developed for simultaneous determination of huperzine A (HupA) and huperzine B (HupB) in Huperzia serrata, H. crispata, H. miyoshiana, and Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides. In order to avoid conventional multiple-step and time-consuming sample preparation methods, direct reflux extraction with alkaline chloroform was adopted. The quantitative determination was conducted by reversed-phase HPLC with a photodiode array detector set at 308 nm. Separation was performed on a Luna C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) with methanol-0.2% aqueous acetic acid (18 + 82, v/v) mobile phase. The method was validated for accuracy, reproducibility, precision, and limits of detection and quantification. Quantification of the two active compounds in the samples was performed by this newly developed method, and the content of HupA and HupB varied substantially among four different species. The satisfactory results indicated that the developed method can readily be utilized for quality control of the species of Huperziaceae and Lycopodiaceae containing the two compounds. PMID:19714972

Zhang, Yanqing; Xie, Junbo; Chen, Wen-Qian; Zhou, Tian-Yan; Lu, Wei

5

New lycopodium alkaloids from Huperzia serrata.  

PubMed

Three new lycopodium alkaloids, 11alpha-hydroxyphlegmariurine B (2), 7alpha-hydroxyphlegmariurine B (3) and 7alpha,11alpha-dihydroxyphlegmariurine B (4) along with a known compound, phlegmariurine B (1), were isolated from the herb Huperzia serrata. The structures of the above compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic studies. PMID:11859480

Tan, Chang-Heng; Wang, Bao-De; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Zhu, Da-Yuan

2002-02-01

6

Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.  

PubMed

Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics. PMID:21186373

Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

2011-01-01

7

Five new fawcettimine-related alkaloids from Lycopodium japonicum Thunb.  

PubMed

Five new trace alkaloids with fawcettimine-related structures (1-5), i.e., 6-hydroxyl-6,7-dehydrolycoflexine (1), 6-hydroxyl-6,7-dehydro-8-deoxy-13-dehydroserratinine (2), together with three known ones (6-8), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, HRESIMS, CD and comparison with known ones. Compounds 1 and 2 are characterized by the enol moiety that is rarely reported in Lycopodium alkaloids, and Compound 5 is the second example of Lycopodium alkaloids with a C-16-C-4 linkage. A plausible biogenetic pathway for the isolates was proposed. PMID:23994627

Wang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Li; Yu, Shi-Shan; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Qu, Jing; Liu, Yun-Bao; Li, Yong; Wang, Yadan; Tang, Weibin

2013-08-27

8

Three lycopodium alkaloid N-oxides from Huperzia serrata.  

PubMed

Three lycopodium alkaloid N-oxides, huperzine J (1), huperzine K (2) and huperzine L (3) were obtained from Huperzia serrata (Thunb.) Trev. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and the relative configurations of 1 and 3 were established via NOESY NMR observations; optical rotation values and CD data are presented. PMID:11105578

Gao, W; Li, Y; Jiang, S; Zhu, D

2000-10-01

9

Two new N-oxide Lycopodium alkaloids from Huperzia serrata.  

PubMed

Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, N-oxidehuperzine E (1) and N-oxidehuperzine F (2), along with two known alkaloids, huperzines E (3) and F (4), were isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb.) Trev. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical transformations. PMID:19809906

Wang, Heng-Bin; Tan, Chang-Heng; Tan, Jun-Jie; Qu, Shi-Jin; Chen, Yi-Lei; Li, Yi-Ming; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Zhu, Da-Yuan

2009-01-01

10

Huperzine R, a novel 15-carbon Lycopodium alkaloid from Huperzia serrata.  

PubMed

Huperzine R (2), a novel 15-carbon Lycopodium alkaloid, was isolated from the whole plant of Huperzia serrata, and the relative configuration was established using spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. PMID:12141864

Tan, Chang-Heng; Chen, Guo-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Qiang; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Zhu, Da-Yuan

2002-07-01

11

Use of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Ophiostoma clavatum, the Primary Blue Stain Fungus Associated with Ips acuminatus  

PubMed Central

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative amplification technology which is highly sensitive and less time-consuming than conventional PCR-based methods. Three LAMP assays were developed, two for detection of species of symbiotic blue stain fungi associated with Ips acuminatus, a bark beetle infesting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and an additional assay specific to I. acuminatus itself for use as a control. In common with most bark beetles, I. acuminatus is associated with phytopathogenic blue stain fungi involved in the process of exhausting tree defenses, which is a necessary step for the colonization of the plant by the insect. However, the identity of the main blue stain fungus vectored by I. acuminatus was still uncertain, as well as its frequency of association with I. acuminatus under outbreak and non-outbreak conditions. In this study, we employed LAMP technology to survey six populations of I. acuminatus sampled from the Southern Alps. Ophiostoma clavatum was detected at all sampling sites, while Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum, reported in part of the literature as the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus, was not detected on any of the samples. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that O. clavatum is the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus in the Southern Alps. The method developed in the course of this work provides a molecular tool by which it will be easy to screen populations and derive important data regarding the ecology of the species involved.

Tomlinson, Jennifer A.; Battisti, Andrea; Boonham, Neil; Capretti, Paolo

2013-01-01

12

Lycopalhine A, a novel sterically congested Lycopodium alkaloid with an unprecedented skeleton from Palhinhaea cernua.  

PubMed

A novel sterically congested Lycopodium alkaloid named lycopalhine A (1) that possesses a fused hexacyclic (5/5/5/6/6/6) ring system comprising a 5,9-diaza-tricyclo[6.2.1.0(4,9)]undecane moiety and a tricyclo[5.2.1.0(4,8)]decane moiety was isolated from Palhinhaea cernua L. The structure and absolute configuration were determined by spectroscopic and computational methods. PMID:22854533

Dong, Liao-Bin; Yang, Jing; He, Juan; Luo, Huai-Rong; Wu, Xing-De; Deng, Xu; Peng, Li-Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

2012-08-02

13

Exploratory studies towards a total synthesis of the unusual bridged tetracyclic Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H  

PubMed Central

A strategy for a total synthesis of the structurally novel Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H has been investigated. Key steps that have been tested include: 1.a regioselective Diels-Alder cycloaddition of nitroethylene with an o-quinone ketal to produce the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane moiety of the alkaloid; 2. a stereoselective Henry reaction to generate the requisite functionality and configuration at C-5; 3. a stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation of a trisubstituted alkene to set the C-15 methyl configuration.

Sacher, Joshua R.; Weinreb, Steven M.

2011-01-01

14

Comparison of 454-ESTs from Huperzia serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus reveals putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis and developmental regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plants of the Huperziaceae family, which comprise the two genera Huperzia and Phlegmariurus, produce various types of lycopodium alkaloids that are used to treat a number of human ailments, such as contusions, swellings and strains. Huperzine A, which belongs to the lycodine type of lycopodium alkaloids, has been used as an anti-Alzheimer's disease drug candidate. Despite their medical importance,

Hongmei Luo; Ying Li; Chao Sun; Qiong Wu; Jingyuan Song; Yongzhen Sun; André Steinmetz; Shilin Chen

2010-01-01

15

Exploratory studies towards a total synthesis of the unusual bridged tetracyclic Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H.  

PubMed

A strategy for a total synthesis of the structurally novel Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H has been investigated. Key steps that have been tested include: 1.a regioselective Diels-Alder cycloaddition of nitroethylene with an o-quinone ketal to produce the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane moiety of the alkaloid; 2. a stereoselective Henry reaction to generate the requisite functionality and configuration at C-5; 3. a stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation of a trisubstituted alkene to set the C-15 methyl configuration. PMID:22125345

Sacher, Joshua R; Weinreb, Steven M

2011-12-30

16

Study of the interaction of Huperzia saururus Lycopodium alkaloids with the acetylcholinesterase enzyme.  

PubMed

In the present study, we describe and compare the binding modes of three Lycopodium alkaloids (sauroine, 6-hydroxylycopodine and sauroxine; isolated from Huperzia saururus) and huperzine A with the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Refinement and rescoring of the docking poses (obtained with different programs) with an all atom force field helped to improve the quality of the protein-ligand complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the complexes and the alkaloid's binding modes. The combination of the latter two methodologies indicated that binding in the active site is favored for the active compounds. On the other hand, similar binding energies in both the active and the peripheral sites were obtained for sauroine, thus explaining its experimentally determined lack of activity. MM-GBSA predicted the order of binding energies in agreement with the experimental IC50 values. PMID:23827878

Puiatti, Marcelo; Borioni, José Luis; Vallejo, Mariana Guadalupe; Cabrera, José Luis; Agnese, Alicia Mariel; Ortega, María Gabriela; Pierini, Adriana Beatríz

2013-06-11

17

Lycopodiaceae from Panama: a new source of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Eleven whole plants from Panama belonging to the Lycopodiaceae family have been screened for their anticholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography method. Of these, only Lycopodium clavatum subsp. clavatum showed strong AChE inhibition. Seven plant extracts showed moderate inhibition, two of them, Huperzia cf chamaeleon and Huperzia reflexa, also possessed an antioxidant activity. This is the first report of anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities in these two native plants. Additionally, alkaloid extracts of the Lycopodiaceae plants were also analysed by TLC and LC-MS to identify the well-known AchE inhibitor, huperzine A. Two plants, H. cf chamaeleon and H. reflexa var. minor, showed the presence of huperzine. PMID:22746970

Calderón, Angela I; Simithy-Williams, Johayra; Sanchez, Rocío; Espinosa, Alex; Valdespino, Iván; Gupta, Mahabir P

2012-07-02

18

Collective synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids and tautomer locking strategy for the total synthesis of (-)-lycojapodine A.  

PubMed

The collective total synthesis of Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-fawcettimine (1), (+)-fawcettidine (2), (+)-alopecuridine (4), (-)-lycojapodine A (6), and (-)-8-deoxyserratinine (7) has been accomplished from a common precursor (15) based on a highly concise route inspired by the proposed biosynthesis of the fawcettimine- and serratinine-type alkaloids. An intramolecular C-alkylation enabled efficient installation of the challenging spiro quaternary carbon center and the aza-cyclononane ring. The preparation of the tricyclic skeleton as well as the establishment of the correct relative stereochemistry of the oxa-quaternary center were achieved by hydroxyl-directed SmI(2)-mediated pinacol couplings. An unprecedented tandem transannular N-alkylation and removal of a Boc group was discovered to realize a biosynthesis-inspired process to furnish the desired tetracyclic skeleton. Of particular note is the unique and crucial tautomer locking strategy employed to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-lycojapodine A (6). The central step in this synthesis is the late-stage hypervalent iodine oxidant (IBX or Dess-Martin periodinane)/TFA-mediated tandem process, which constructed the previously unknown carbinolamine lactone motif and enabled a biomimetic transformation to generate (-)-lycojapodine A (6) in a single operation. PMID:22973823

Li, Houhua; Wang, Xiaoming; Hong, Benke; Lei, Xiaoguang

2012-09-20

19

Microanatomy of the placenta of Lycopodium obscurum: novel design in an underground embryo.  

PubMed

Background and Aims Long-lived underground populations of mycoheterotrophic gametophytes and attached sporophytes at various developmental stages occur in lycophytes. Young underground sporophytes obtain carbon solely from the gametophyte and establish nutritional independence only after reaching the soil surface, which may take several years. This prolonged period of matrotrophy exceeds that of bryophytes. The foot is massive and provides the lifeline for sporophyte establishment, yet the fine structure of the placental region is unexplored in lycophytes with underground gametophytes. Methods Gametophytes with attached embryos/young sporophytes of Lycopodium obscurum were collected in nature, processed and examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results Three ultrastructurally distinct regions were identified within a single foot of a sporophyte emerging from the soil. Young foot regions actively divide, and have direct contact with and show little differentiation from gametophyte cells. In unlobed foot areas, cells in both generations exhibit polarity in content and indicate unidirectional transport of carbon reserves into the foot toward the developing shoot and root. The foot has inconspicuous wall ingrowths. Highly lobed foot regions contain peripheral transfer cells with prominent wall ingrowths that absorb nutrients from degenerating gametophyte cells. Conclusions Variability within a single placenta is consistent with an invasive and long-lived foot. The late appearance of wall ingrowths in transfer cells reflects this dynamic ever-growing embryo. Placental features in lycophytes are related to the unique reorientation of all embryonic regions during development. Small placentas with wall ingrowths in both generations characterize ephemeral embryos in green gametophytes, while short-lived and repositioning embryos of heterosporous taxa are devoid of transfer cells. Transfer cell evolution across embryophytes is riddled with homoplasy and reflects diverse patterns of embryology. Scrutiny of placental evolution must include consideration of nutritional status and life history strategies of the gametophyte and young sporophyte. PMID:23979904

Renzaglia, Karen S; Whittier, Dean P

2013-08-26

20

Production of huperzine A and other Lycopodium alkaloids in Huperzia species grown under controlled conditions and in vitro.  

PubMed

A UPLC-MS method was developed for quantifying huperzine A (HupA), an anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug candidate from the traditional Chinese medicine Qian Ceng Ta (Huperzia serrata), in samples of 11 Huperzia genus plants. The highest content of HupA was found in Huperzia pinifolia. The accumulation of various Lycopodium alkaloids was monitored in these tissues using high resolution Q-IMS-TOFMS analysis. Tissue culture of various Huperzia species has been achieved and production of HupA has been confirmed in the callus of H. pinifolia. Furthermore, it was established that the major alkaloid produced by the naturally grown plant and the callus of H. pinifolia changed dramatically from HupA to nankakurine B. PMID:23306162

Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Park, Jeong-Jin; Long, Robert M; Gang, David R

2013-01-07

21

Comparison of 454-ESTs from Huperzia serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus reveals putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis and developmental regulation  

PubMed Central

Background Plants of the Huperziaceae family, which comprise the two genera Huperzia and Phlegmariurus, produce various types of lycopodium alkaloids that are used to treat a number of human ailments, such as contusions, swellings and strains. Huperzine A, which belongs to the lycodine type of lycopodium alkaloids, has been used as an anti-Alzheimer's disease drug candidate. Despite their medical importance, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for the members of this family. We used massive parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-GS FLX Titanium platform to generate a substantial EST dataset for Huperzia serrata (H. serrata) and Phlegmariurus carinatus (P. carinatus) as representative members of the Huperzia and Phlegmariurus genera, respectively. H. serrata and P. carinatus are important plants for research on the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of bioactive compound biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation as well as genetic marker detection in these species. Results For H. serrata, 36,763 unique putative transcripts were generated from 140,930 reads totaling over 57,028,559 base pairs; for P. carinatus, 31,812 unique putative transcripts were generated from 79,920 reads totaling over 30,498,684 base pairs. Using BLASTX searches of public databases, 16,274 (44.3%) unique putative transcripts from H. serrata and 14,070 (44.2%) from P. carinatus were assigned to at least one protein. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology annotations revealed that the functions of the unique putative transcripts from these two species cover a similarly broad set of molecular functions, biological processes and biochemical pathways. In particular, a total of 20 H. serrata candidate cytochrome P450 genes, which are more abundant in leaves than in roots and might be involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis, were found based on the comparison of H. serrata and P. carinatus 454-ESTs and real-time PCR analysis. Four unique putative CYP450 transcripts (Hs01891, Hs04010, Hs13557 and Hs00093) which are the most likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids were selected based on a phylogenetic analysis. Approximately 115 H. serrata and 98 P. carinatus unique putative transcripts associated with the biosynthesis of triterpenoids, alkaloids and flavones/flavonoids were located in the 454-EST datasets. Transcripts related to phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as transcription factors were also obtained. In addition, we discovered 2,729 and 1,573 potential SSR-motif microsatellite loci in the H. serrata and P. carinatus 454-ESTs, respectively. Conclusions The 454-EST resource allowed for the first large-scale acquisition of ESTs from H. serrata and P. carinatus, which are representative members of the Huperziaceae family. We discovered many genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and transcriptional regulation as well as a large number of potential microsatellite markers. These results constitute an essential resource for understanding the molecular basis of developmental regulation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis (especially that of lycopodium alkaloids) in the Huperziaceae, and they provide an overview of the genetic diversity of this family.

2010-01-01

22

A homoeopathic drug controls mango fruit rot caused by Pestalotia mangiferae Henn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Effect of 1–200 potencies of ten homoeopathic drugs on the spore germination ofPestalotia mangiferae, the causal organism of banana fruit rot, was studied. On the basis of results of in vivo studies with inhibitory doses of drugs, Lycopodium clavatum potency 190 has been recommended for the control of the disease.

K. K. Khanna; S. Chandra

1978-01-01

23

Anticholinesterase activity in an alkaloid extract of Huperzia saururus.  

PubMed

Huperzia saururus (Lam.) Trevis. (Lycopodiaceae) is used widely in Argentinian traditional medicine as an aphrodisiac and for memory improvement. An aqueous extract from the aerial parts was obtained by decoction, revealing the presence of alkaloids, among other constituents. By partition with organic solvent in alkaline media, alkaloids were extracted and then purified by gel permeation. We studied the anticholinesterase activity in vitro of the alkaloid extract using erythrocyte membranes and human serum as sources of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase, respectively. The results show a marked inhibition of true acetylcholinesterase with an IC50 value of 0.58 microg/ml. Low inhibition of pseudocholinesterase was observed (IC50 value = 191 microg/ml). This shows a selectivity of the extract for the true acetylcholinesterase. Furthermore, chemical study of the bioactive extract was performed by GC-MS, revealing the presence of seven Lycopodium alkaloids, including some not identified previously: sauroxine, 6-hydroxylycopodine, N-acetyllycodine, lycopodine, lycodine, N-methyllycodine, and clavolonine. Further investigations will be undertaken in order to discover which compound/s are responsible for the aqueous extract's acetylcholinesterase activity. PMID:15500266

Ortega, M G; Agnese, A M; Cabrera, J L

2004-09-01

24

Extraction faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the term “extraction fault” for a planar structure that forms at the trailing edge of a discrete block when it is forced or extracted out of the surrounding material. This process results in the merging of two block-bounding faults with opposite senses of displacement. An extraction fault differs fundamentally from other faults in that its two sides have approached each other substantially in the direction perpendicular to the fault. The fault-parallel displacement may be either zero (pure extraction faults) or not (mixed extraction faults). Pure small-scale extraction faults can result from boudinage. A large-scale example may be the S-reflector of the Galicia passive continental margin which is related to rifting and continental breakup. When the strong portion of the lithosphere, i.e. the upper mantle and the lower crust, underwent necking, thermally weak mantle from below and upper crust from above collapsed into the opening gap in the rift centre and an extraction fault formed at the trailing edge of the strong lithosphere. Extraction faults are also potentially important in the exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens. We propose that the Combin fault on top of the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas ophiolites in the Penninic Alps, earlier interpreted either as a normal fault or as a thrust, is in fact an extraction fault.

Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Pleuger, Jan; Nagel, Thorsten J.

2006-08-01

25

Bevalac extraction  

SciTech Connect

This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

1992-02-01

26

Extractant composition  

DOEpatents

An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

27

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive, adapted from the University of Nebraska's Plant and Soil Science eLibrary, with reading material and animations to help students learn the basics of DNA extraction. The lesson is divided into and introduction and the four processes involved: cell lysis, dismantling the cell membrane, removing unwanted cell parts, and precipitating the DNA. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-07

28

URANIUM EXTRACTION  

DOEpatents

The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

1958-07-01

29

PITFALLS OF SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of researchers are using sequential extraction to determine the speciation of trace elements in sediments. nfortunately, sequential extraction methods have not been successfully validated. he results are simply taken as providing "operational definitions" of ...

30

Tevatron Extraction Microcomputer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' m...

L. Chapman D. A. Finley M. Harrison W. Merz

1985-01-01

31

Endovascular extraction techniques  

PubMed Central

The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

2001-01-01

32

Processed anthocyanin pigment extracts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The stability of anthocyanin pigment extracts and food products containing anthocyanin extracts is enhanced by removal from the anthocyanin pigment extracts of nutrients which support yeast growth, constituents which react to produce off-flavor, and constituents which catalyze oxidation. These undesirable materials contained in anthocyanin extracts are removed by subjecting the extracts to ultrafiltration or dialysis to remove low molecular weight components from the extracts. The extracts are also subjected to ion exchange to remove additional of these undesirable constituents. Sufficient of these undesirable constituents can be removed from anthocyanin extracts so that, e.g., carbonated beverages containing the extracts may not support sufficient growth of yeasts to cause the beverages to become hazy and/or have an off-flavor, and so that when the extracts are used to prepare dry beverage powder mixtures after prolonged shelf storage, the mixtures may not obtain an off-flavor. Moreover, the oxidative stability and photostability of the anthocyanin pigment extracts may be enhanced by the process of this invention. Such processed anthocyanin extracts may have higher tinctoral powers, e.g., more brilliant red colors, and are less hygroscopic, and thus they may be suitable for coloring various solid food products including liquid and powder concentrates.

Hilton; Barney W. (Dallas, TX); Lin; Robert I. (Irving, TX); Topor; Michael G. (Farmer's Branch, TX)

1982-03-16

33

Content Extraction Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by emerging needs in online interactions, we dene a new type of digital signature called a 'Content Extraction Signature' (CES). A CES allows the owner, Bob, of a document signed by Alice, to produce an 'extracted signature' on selected extracted portions of the original document, which can be veried to originate from Alice by any third party Cathy, while

Ron Steinfeld; Laurence Bull; Yuliang Zheng

2001-01-01

34

Extractive Distillation: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractive distillation is more and more commonly applied in industry, and becomes an important separation method in chemical engineering. This paper provides an in?depth review for extractive distillation. Separation sequence of the columns, combination with other separation processes, tray configuration and operation policy are included in process of extractive distillation. Since the solvent plays an important role in the design

Zhigang Lei; Chengyue Li; Biaohua Chen

2003-01-01

35

METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

1957-11-01

36

Supercritical extraction of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical extraction of Wyodak coal was studied by passing various solvents upwards through a 15 gram sample of 12-20 mesh coal. For the high temperature experiments, the coal was heated to 375°C and 425°C in a hot fluidized sand bath. The main solvent used was toluene, while extractions with n-pentane, xylene, methanol, and water were also done. The extract was

Sunol

1982-01-01

37

Glomalin extraction and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated extraction from soil of glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and we examined its measurement. The most commonly used protocols for extracting glomalin require autoclaving of soil in citrate solution, followed by centrifugation to separate the supernatant, and then measurement by either Bradford protein assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that lengthening the time

David P. Janos; Sara Garamszegi; Bray Beltran

2008-01-01

38

Feature Extraction Assessment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the feature extraction assessment study (FEAS) is to assess the degree to which the DMA feature extraction process can be automated by 1985. The major conclusion of the study is that given the state-of-the-art in image understanding and pat...

M. J. Carlotto V. T. Tom G. K. Wallace

1984-01-01

39

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

40

Extractive Metallurgy of Beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the extractive metallurgy of beryllium is presented. Due to the strategic importance and element of secrecy surrounding the metal, any open literature on beryllium is rather limited. However, this review has been made to cover all important aspects of beryllium extraction technology namely, resources of the metal; processing of ores; reduction of fluoride and oxide to

C. K. GUPTA; S. SAHA

2002-01-01

41

Extractive Metallurgy of Beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the extractive metallurgy of beryllium is presented. Due to the strategic importance and element of secrecy surrounding the metal, any open literature on beryllium is rather limited. However, this review has been made to cover all important aspects of beryllium extraction technology namely, resources of the metal; processing of ores; reduction of fluoride and oxide to

C. K. GUPTA; S. SAHA

2001-01-01

42

Weed extraction system, method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method for providing weed extraction so Industrial, Commercial and Home users (ICAHUs) can assure that unwanted weeds can be easily and effectively extracted. The system and method allows ICAHUs to work safely and efficiently and to extract weeds by using a hand-held device that can easily penetrate the ground around weeds, secure the unwanted weed, and aid the user in extracting the weed from the ground. ICAHUs can easily operate the levers of the device which operate jaws to secure to weeds. Specialized debris passages in the jaws of the device allow for debris to be passed through the jaws of the device which allow to for continued use and a greatly reduced need to clean the device during use. The method comprises a system in which unwanted weeds may be easily secured and extracted by the user without an increased risk of accidents or without unnecessary steps or procedures for cleaning.

Carter; Larry (Makawao, HI)

2013-06-25

43

Distribution behavior of astatine: Solvent extraction and back extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution behavior of astatine was studied at tracer concentrations and over a wide range of carrier iodide concentration in both solvent extraction and back extraction processes. Astatine compounds were extracted instantly into the organic solvent, CS2 from the carrier free and carrier iodide containing solutions. Back extraction of astatine with various NaOH solutions followed by solvent extraction caused the

M. S. Sultana; A. Toyoshima; N. Takahashi; H. Baba

2001-01-01

44

Three new phlegmariurine B type lycopodium alkaloids from Huperzia serrata.  

PubMed

Phlegmariurine B (1), a known alkaloid, along with three new analogous compounds, 2alpha-hydroxyphlegmariurine B (2), 2-oxoyphlegmariurine B (3) and 11-oxophlegmariurine B (4), were isolated from the CHCl3 fraction of total alkaloids of whole plant of the Chinese medicinal herb Huperzia serrata. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. PMID:12118514

Tan, Chang-Heng; Chen, Guo-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Qiang; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Zhu, Da-Yuan

2002-09-01

45

Total Synthesis of the Lycopodium Alkaloid (+)-Serratezomine A  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis of (+)-serratezomine A is described. Key aspects of the synthesis include a) the first deployment of free radical-mediated vinyl amination – an intramolecular alkyne aminostannation – in a complex target synthesis, b) the use of a ?-stannyl enamine as the lynchpin for convergent assembly of the natural product backbone, c) the use of an oxidative allylation promoted by cerium(IV) (CAN) to establish the all carbon quaternary chiral center with the proper configuration, and d) an intramolecular substitution reaction to form the sensitive bridging lactone. Overall, 15 steps (longest linear sequence) are required to prepare the natural product from a commercially available aldehyde, and assembly of the contiguous array of six stereocenters is accomplished with high stereocontrol.

Chandra, Aroop; Pigza, Julie A.; Han, Jeong-Seok; Mutnick, Daniel; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

2009-01-01

46

Extracting the Max From a DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of all ages get a thrill out of actually seeing clumps or strands of DNA. The Biotechnology/Bioinformatics Discovery! Project, a professional development workshop offered to science teachers, has always included a DNA-extraction activity. Over the course of four years, as the authors conducted these workshops for scores of teachers, they extended and refined the DNA-extraction activity to make it relevant to middle school students. Although the protocol for this exercise is on their project website along with teaching tips, they describe here the use of oral directions to give teachers many opportunities to interact with their students, and to assess how well students can follow directions and stay focused on the task.

Mulvihill, Charlotte; Bell, Don; Marek, Edmund

2009-01-01

47

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

Jonke, A.A.

1957-10-01

48

Oscillatory extraction of uranium  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of U and Ce extraction by tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and the redox potential behavior in the aqueous phase have been investigated in an oscillatory extraction system. The extraction has been followed continuously by UV-visible spectroscopy, potentiometry, and radioactive counting methods. Data collected showed the changes of Ce{sup 4+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} concentrations in organic and aqueous phases with time. Uranium actively responded to the redox potential fluctuations. The uranium distribution coefficient changed repeatedly and was out-of-phase with Ce(IV) fluctuations.

Afonin, M.A.; Romanovski, V.V. [Saint Petersburg Inst. of Tech. (Russian Federation); Scherbakov, V.A. [Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1998-08-01

49

Extraction of Seismic Waveforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers the effects on detectability and measurability resulting from attempts to extract seismic waveforms by application of cascaded processors and polarization filters. Previous work has shown that bandpass or Wiener filters (when cascade...

A. C. Strauss

1978-01-01

50

Automatic Feature Extraction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AFES (Automatic Feature Extraction System) is designed to be a testbed for evaluation of semi-automatic and computer-assisted techniques for automated production flow processes. Its intended input sources included National Sensors and LANDSAT imagery,...

J. L. Cambier

1982-01-01

51

Automated Metadata Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metadata is data that describes data. There are many computer forensic uses of metadata and being able to extract metadata automatically provides positive forensic implications. This thesis presents a new technique for batch processing disk images and aut...

J. Migletz

2008-01-01

52

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01

53

Fruitful DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

Kalamuck, Karen; Exploratorium

2000-01-01

54

Tevatron extraction microcomputer  

SciTech Connect

Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

1985-06-01

55

Tevatron extraction microcomputer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction in the fErmilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad extraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the bucker and pulse magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the QXR magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

Chapman, L.; Finley, D. A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

1985-06-01

56

EXTRACTION OF URANIUM  

DOEpatents

A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

1961-04-11

57

Phytoplasma plasmid DNA extraction.  

PubMed

Phytoplasma plasmids have generally been detected from DNA extracted from plants and insects using methods designed for the purification of total phytoplasma DNA. Methods include extraction from tissues that are high in phytoplasma titre, such as the phloem of plants, with the use of CsCl-bisbenzimide gradients that exploit the low G+C content of phytoplasma DNA. Many of the methods employed for phytoplasma purification have been described elsewhere in this book. Here we describe in detail two methods that are specifically aimed at isolating plasmid DNA. PMID:22987431

Andersen, Mark T; Liefting, Lia W

2013-01-01

58

URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

Harrington, C.D.

1959-09-01

59

Automatic Event Type Extraction in Chinese Event Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event Extraction is a new research point in the area of Information Extraction. In this paper, we carried out a series of experiments on event detection and classification based on the standard and training corpus of ACE05 (Automatic Content Extraction 2005), which is a research task organized by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). In the experiment, a table

Yanyan Zhao; Xiaoyin Wang; Bing Qin; Wanxiang Che; Ting Liu

60

LIPID EXTRACTION FROM WHEAT FLOUR USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental concerns, the disposal cost of hazardous waste, and the time required for extraction encouraged us to look for a method to extract lipids from wheat flour that would be faster, less costly, and more environmentally acceptable. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (...

61

after Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six monoterpenes (?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, phellandrene, camphene, and limonene) were determined in the needles of Picea abies, P. omorica ,a ndP. pungens spruces by gas chromatogra- phy after supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide at the pressure 20 MPa and at the temperature 80 ?C. Significant differences among the monoterpene content of individual spruce cultivars were found. Limonene (34.3

J. SEDLÁKOVÁ; L. LOJKOVÁ; V. KUBÁ?

62

Semantics Extraction from Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An overview of the state-of-the-art on semantics extraction from images is presented. In this survey, we present the relevant\\u000a approaches in terms of content representation as well as in terms of knowledge representation. Knowledge can be represented\\u000a in either implicit or explicit fashion while the image is represented in different levels, namely, low-level, intermediate\\u000a and semantic level. For each combination

Ioannis Pratikakis; Anastasia Bolovinou; Bassilios Gatos; Stavros J. Perantonis

2011-01-01

63

Solid phase extraction membrane  

DOEpatents

A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

2002-11-05

64

URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

1958-12-16

65

Neural Network Knowledge Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of ANNs in "safety-critical" domains, which include theeconomic and financial applications, is hindered by their "black box"- type approach,which makes it difficult to verify and debug software that includes ANNcomponents. Significant advantages can be gained by combining the symbolic knowledgeof a domain theory (DT), with the empirical sub-symbolic knowledge stored in an ANNtrained on examples. Rule extraction adds

Alexandra I. Cristea; Paul D. Cristea; Toshio Okamoto

1997-01-01

66

Extraction of Iron with Methylethylketone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extraction of iron (III) with methylethylketone as solvent from hydrochloric acid solution is described, and the maximum range of acid concentration for quantitative extraction was determined. Most of the elements of the third analytical group were in...

E. Gagliardi H. P. Woess

1974-01-01

67

Learning for Collective Information Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Information Extraction (IE) system analyses a set of documents with the aim of identifying certain types of entities and relations between them. Most IE systems treat separate potential extractions as independent. However, in many cases, considering influence s between different candidate extractions could improve overall accuracy. For example, phrase repetitions inside a document are usually associated with the same

Razvan C. Bunescu

2004-01-01

68

Automatic thesaurus extraction for Icelandic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thesauri are becoming a common resource used in various Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval related tasks. Methods for automatic extraction of thesauri have just recently begun performing well enough for practical use. A method to automatically extract a thesaurus for Icelandic from a tagged and parsed corpus was implemented and evaluated. The method is based on extracting relational trigrams

Frank Arthur; Blöndahl Cassata

69

Challenges in Managing Information Extraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

Shen, Warren H.

2009-01-01

70

Application of ultrasound in extractive metallurgy: Sonochemical extraction of nickel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of ultrasound in solvent extraction was examined by studying solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70 extractants. The studied parameters were ultrasonic energy and frequency, pH, temperature, and organic and aqueous solution composition. The stability of extractants under the influence of ultrasound was also examined. It was found that ultrasound had a significant importance, because it increased the extraction rates four- to sevenfold. The effect of ultrasound was physical, i.e., to increase the surface area. Ultrasonic energy consumption was also evaluated. The consumption was high, but it can be significantly reduced by the appropriate method of application. A novel solvent extraction method, extraction-in-pipe, was also proposed.

Pesic, Batric; Zhou, Taili

1992-01-01

71

Coal extraction - environmental prediction  

SciTech Connect

To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

2002-08-01

72

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Henna Extracts  

PubMed Central

Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000. Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050). When comparing the extracts’ MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050.

Al-Rubiay, Kathem K.; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K.

2008-01-01

73

Antimicrobial efficacy of henna extracts.  

PubMed

Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000.Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050).When comparing the extracts' MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050. PMID:22334837

Al-Rubiay, Kathem K; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K

2008-10-01

74

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30...FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared from...

2009-04-01

75

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30...FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared from...

2010-04-01

76

Microaesthetics of The Smile: Extraction vs. Non-extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare microaesthetics in pre- and post-orthodontic cases, treated with non-extraction and extraction treatment and assessed whether the achieved microaesthetic parameters are comparable to the proposed norms.STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study.PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Orthodontic Clinic, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2009.METHODOLOGY: Orthodontic records of 31 cases treated with non-extraction therapy and 26

Sanam Tauheed; Attiya Shaikh; Mubassar Fida

2012-01-01

77

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction... OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the...

2013-07-01

78

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cottonseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide is a popular technique for oil extraction due to its high extraction efficiency, short extracting time, lower refining requirement and absence of chemical residues or contamination in the extracted oils. In this work, an attempt has been made to extract oil from a local variety of cottonseed using this technique. The effects of

Paramita Bhattacharjee; Rekha S. Singhal; Sudha R. Tiwari

2007-01-01

79

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

M. Minier; G. Goma

1982-01-01

80

Aqueous acetone extraction of cottonseed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of cottonseed flakes with acetone containing 25-30% water removes essentially all of the gossypol, most of the\\u000a free fatty acids, about half the raffinose, and negligible quanti-ties of neutral oil and protein. After drying and re-flaking\\u000a of the aqueous acetone extracted marc, the oil may be removed either by hexane extrac-tion or pressing to produce light-colored\\u000a meals exceptionally low

Walter A. Pons; Paul H. Eaves

1967-01-01

81

Rapid extraction of canola oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous size reduction and solvent extraction of canola seeds were studied using a laboratory blender and a small,\\u000a pilot-scale Szego mill. The laboratory tests established that over 95% of the oil may be removed from the seed in a single\\u000a contact stage. The effects of contact time and solvent-to-seed ratio were investigated. The extraction equilibrium favored\\u000a the extraction of

L. L. Diosady; L. J. Rubin; N. Ting; O. Trass

1983-01-01

82

Crystal extraction at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

2005-06-01

83

Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1997-10-01

84

Value off vapor extraction  

SciTech Connect

The remediation of a major gasoline spill affecting groundwater in a sole source aquifer required the use of various interrelated technologies. Estimate of the spill were as much as 4,000 m[sup 3] (1 mil gal) of gasoline from a single leaking pipe. Traditional and innovative technologies were investigated, piloted, designed, constructed, and operated for control and recovery of both pure and dissolved product, and contaminant vapors. Pure product recovery initially required an extensive static recovery system of pneumatic ejector pumps, supplemented with water table depression and product removal at one well. Dissolved product recovery and treatment also has been achieved by pumping this well to a temporary treatment facility prior to recharge to groundwater. Recovery and destruction of vapors emanating from the pure product into the vadose zone (the area above the permanent groundwater level) and the acceleration of product volatilization has been accomplished through the use of a vapor extraction and treatment facility using two bottom-burning flare units. Groundwater modeling results have been used to identify the scope of remedial efforts and to develop remedial alternatives. Implementation of the site remedial activities and operation of constructed facilities continues. 4 figs.

Gerbasi, P.J. (Roux Associates, Islandia, NY (United States)); Memoli, M.A. (Camp Dresser McKee, Woodbury, NY (United States))

1994-03-01

85

Information Extraction: Beyond Document Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information extraction (IE) is the extraction and recording of information about a prespecified set of entities, relations, or events from natural language texts in structured representations called templates. This article provides an overview of IE from the 1960s to the present, discusses techniques, describes applications, and highlights future…

Gaizauskas, Robert; Wilks, Yorick

1998-01-01

86

Information extraction: beyond document retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a pre-specified set of entities, relations or events from natural language texts and to record this information in structured representations called templates. Here we describe the nature of the IE task, review the

Robert Gaizauskas; Yorick Wilks

1998-01-01

87

Extracting Synonyms from Dictionary Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the problem of extracting synonyms from dictionary definitions. Our premise for using def- inition texts in dictionaries is that, in contrast to free- texts, their composition usually exhibits more regular- ities in terms of syntax and style and thus, will pro- vide a better controlled environment for synonym ex- traction. We propose three extraction methods: two rule-based ones

Tong Wang; Graeme Hirst

2009-01-01

88

Improvements in Automatic Thesaurus Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of semantic resources is com- mon in modern NLP systems, but methods to extract lexical semantics have only re- cently begun to perform well enough for practical use. We evaluate existing and new similarity metrics for thesaurus ex- traction, and experiment with the trade- off between extraction performance and efcienc y. We propose an approximation algorithm, based on

James R. Curran; Marc Moens

2002-01-01

89

Protein extraction for 2DE.  

PubMed

Our protein extraction protocol for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was updated to meet current needs in the field of proteomics. This protocol summarizes our experience using this method since its introduction over 30 years ago. We provide a total as well as fractionated extraction protocol. The former is easy and fast to use, suitable for most standard 2DE applications, whereas the latter is used for special applications such as the extraction of membrane or nuclear proteins.Both extraction protocols stress the need that protease inhibitors are added early to still deep frozen tissue to preclude an activation of proteases which destroy proteins and make them inaccessible to analysis. We also emphasize that, to remain soluble, proteins need to stay in an environment resembling a living cell as closely as possible. Sample dilution is therefore kept to a minimum and the pH of the extract is close to in vivo conditions at pH 7.1. In addition there are no precipitation/resolubilization steps which could irreversibly remove proteins from the extract. Furthermore, the total extraction does not even require centrifugation. Our extraction protocol is compatible with recent advances in 2DE-staining techniques such as differential in gel electrophoresis and fluorescence staining as well as mass spectrometry. PMID:19381583

Zabel, Claus; Klose, Joachim

2009-01-01

90

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

1960-02-01

91

Information Extraction: Techniques and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paperwe shall use a narrower definition: the identification of instances of a particularclass of events or relationships in a natural language text, and the extraction ofthe relevant arguments of the event or relationship. Information extraction thereforeinvolves the creation of a structured representation (such as a data base) ofselected information drawn from the text.The idea of reducing the information in

Ralph Grishman

1997-01-01

92

Passive vapor extraction feasibility study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diamete...

V. J. Rohay

1994-01-01

93

Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)|

Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

1990-01-01

94

Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

1990-01-01

95

Materials for geopressure energy extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of efforts in methane and energy extraction from the geopressured aquifer sources of the North Gulf of Mexico region is outlined. Three different schemes for energy extraction are considered, and the anticipated materials and corrosion problems are defined. Suitable materials are suggested for use in the production well and surface equipment. J-55 steel can be used for production

1982-01-01

96

Bactericidal activity of herbal extracts.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of total herbal extracts has been investigated. The MIC of extracts of Evodia rutaecarpa and grape kernel ranged between 0.25 and 1 mg/ml against gram-positive cocci and P. aeruginosa. Cocci were killed after 30-90 min of incubation in grape kernel extract (0.5-1.5 mg/ml), and after 8 h in evodia extract (0.5-1 mg/ml), respectively. C. albicans was only susceptible to evodia (MIC 0.5 mg/ml). The organic solvents of the preparations contributed to the antibacterial effect of herbal extracts with MICs of ethanol between 4 and 10 vol% and those of methanol between 6 and 10 vol%. Taking this into consideration, mastic and thyme extracts exerted hardly any microbicidal activity, while grape kernel extract and evodia were still effective at 2- to 6-fold dilutions below the MIC of the solvent. Because of the weak antimicrobial activity of total herbal extracts we recommend to give preference to preparations of single or more purified compounds. PMID:12872531

Thuille, Nikolaus; Fille, Manfred; Nagl, Markus

2003-06-01

97

Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.  

PubMed

Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases. PMID:24005950

Lawson, Robert B

2013-09-01

98

Extraction of DNA from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increased interest in the extraction of nucleic acids from various environmental samples, since molecular techniques allow less biased access to a greater portion of uncultivable microorganisms. Two strategies have been developed to improve DNA recovery in terms of yield, purity and unbiased representation of the microbial diversity. The first approach consists of the direct extraction of nucleic

Patrick Robe; Renaud Nalin; Carmela Capellano; Timothy M. Vogel; Pascal Simonet

2003-01-01

99

Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, 26.2%) were removed by optimized snare techniques using the femoral vein approach. Median extraction time was 20 min (range 2–68 min) per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). Median follow-up was 14.5 months (range 1–58 months), no infection, or procedure-related death occurred in our series. Conclusions Our optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

Chu, Xian-Ming; Li, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Ping; An, Yi; Duan, Jiang-Bo; Wang, Long; Li, Ding; Li, Bing; Guo, Ji-Hong

2013-01-01

100

Event extraction for DNA methylation  

PubMed Central

Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts including a representative sample of all PubMed citations relevant to DNA methylation, and introduce manual annotation for this corpus marking nearly 3000 gene/protein mentions and 1500 DNA methylation and demethylation events. We retrain a state-of-the-art event extraction system on the corpus and find that automatic extraction of DNA methylation events, the methylated genes, and their methylation sites can be performed at 78% precision and 76% recall. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that reliable extraction methods for DNA methylation events can be created through corpus annotation and straightforward retraining of a general event extraction system. The introduced resources are freely available for use in research from the GENIA project homepage http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GENIA.

2011-01-01

101

Nonvolatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea  

SciTech Connect

In pulping it is important to know how lipophilic extractives will behave and so avoid pitch problems. Experiments on Gmelina wood delivered from Brazil in 1978 are described, using dichloromethane extractives to give sufficient information about the lipophilic extractives. The behavior of Gmelina extracts in kraft pulping was compared to that of birch extracts and was found to be similar. (Refs. 10).

Ukkonen, K.

1982-02-01

102

Extractive condensation: A new separation process  

SciTech Connect

A new highly selective vapor-phase extraction process is described. Hydrogen bonding between a scavenging extractant and the substance to be extracted results in a high-boiling complex forming fog droplets readily separable from the remaining vapor. The process is exemplified by the extraction of acetic acid from the predominantly aqueous vapor stream of furfural reactors. Triethylamine is used as the extractant.

Zeitsch, K.J.

1999-10-01

103

Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

1999-01-01

104

Air-assisted solvent extraction: towards a novel extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-assisted solvent extraction (AASX) concept uses a solvent-coated bubble to contact the organic and aqueous phases. Compared to conventional solvent extraction, a high contact area can be created using less solvent and the natural buoyancy provided by the air core promotes phase separation. A method of producing coated bubbles exploiting foaming properties of kerosene-based solvent is introduced. Coating thickness

H. M. Tarkan; J. A. Finch

2005-01-01

105

Solid Phase Extraction of Solanesol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the concentration and clean-up of tobacco extract samples during solanesol\\u000a analysis was proposed in this work. A column (200 mm  4 mm i.d.) packed with 0.10 g silica gel (with particle size of 70 ?m,\\u000a porosity of 0.5 and surface area of 400 m2 g?1) was used as SPE cartridge. Several extraction parameters, such as sample loading flow (0.3–7 mL min?1), sample

De-Song Tang; Hui-Ling Liang; Lin Zhang; Huan-Lin Chen

2007-01-01

106

COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.  

SciTech Connect

A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

VOGELSANG, W.

2005-09-07

107

Coal Extraction and Preparation Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolving extraction, preparation, and transportation techniques receiving Department of Energy (DOE) support do not create new or substantially different environmental impacts from those of both previous and contemporaroy techniques. As the coal minin...

1979-01-01

108

21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in...

2010-04-01

109

21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in...

2009-04-01

110

Probabilistic Model of Redundancy in Information Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unsupervised Information Extraction (UIE) is the task of extracting knowledge from text without using hand-tagged training examples. A fundamental problem for both UIE and supervised IE is assessing the probability that extracted information is correct. I...

D. Downey O. Etzioni S. Soderland

2006-01-01

111

Panel on Review of Allergenic Extracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains safety and effectiveness evaluations of allergenic extracts and poison ivy and poison oak extracts. Written by the Panel on Review of Allergenic Extracts, an advisory committee to the Bureau of Biologics, Food and Drug Administration, ...

1981-01-01

112

Antioxidant properties of marigold extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of methanolic and water extracts of growing wild marigold, Calendula arvensis L. (GWM) and cultivated marigold, Calendula officinalis L. (CM), in a concentration range of 0.10–0.90 mg\\/ml, was evaluated on three different free-radical species: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxyl radical using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. These extracts of CM and GWM, scavenged all

Gordana S ?etkovi?; Sonja M Djilas; Jasna M ?anadanovi?-Brunet; Vesna T Tumbas

2004-01-01

113

Extraction of hydrocarbon contamination from soils using accelerated solvent extraction.  

PubMed

Accelerated solvent extraction was studied as a method for the extraction of hydrocarbon contamination from wet and dry soils. Temperatures from 125 to 200 degrees C and six different solvents were investigated. Nonpolar solvents could not achieve complete recovery from wet soils at the temperatures studied. Optimum conditions were found to be 175 degrees C with dichloromethane-acetone (1:1, v/v) with 8 min heat-up time and 5 min static time. Quantitative recoveries for diesel range organics (DROs) and waste oil organics (WOOs) were obtained using the optimized conditions. The recovery of DROs and WOOs from three matrices at two concentrations (5 and 2000 mg/kg) averaged 115%. These results show that accelerated solvent extraction can generate results comparable to those obtained using Soxhlet or sonication. PMID:10817360

Richter, B E

2000-04-01

114

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

SciTech Connect

In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that are regulated as food supplements but are intended to treat disease or maintain health. Antioxidants and beneficial lipid products are major examples in this category. The final major category consists of environmental applications, both as an extraction technique for environmental analysis, and as a possible remediation strategy for removing contaminants that would otherwise be too expensive to recover. Most of the work in this area has focused on non-polar compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), where non-polar supercritical (SC) CO2 offers high extraction efficiencies. Co-solvent systems combining CO2 with one or more modifiers extend the utility of SC CO2 to polar and even ionic compounds. Supercritical water can extract polar compounds, and it has the additional advantage of combining extraction and destruction of contaminants via the supercritical water oxidation (SUWOX) process. Supercritical fluids are also useful in various niche applications. Fuel extraction, conversion, and analysis is one such application. Extraction of metals from various matrixes is also an area of continuing interest. The application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to production of nano-structured materials is a new area likely to see rapid growth in the next few years.

Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

2006-06-15

115

AGS slow extracted beam improvement  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

1997-07-01

116

Extraction of silicones from soil  

SciTech Connect

Silicone polymer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), was extracted from soil incubated at 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1] for 0,1,3,7,14, and 28 d with mean recovery of 95.4% ([sigma] = 2.1%). From four agricultural soils incubated for one week at 1, 10, and 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1], mean extraction recovery was 95.6% ([sigma] = 3.2%). The method is now being used in [sup 14]C studies on the fate of silicones in the soil environment and will later be used for extraction of silicones from field samples. Silicone polymers have a variety of uses, including lubricants, electrical insulators, and texturizers in personal care products. They can enter the environment through wastewater treatment systems in which they adsorb to the solids, and are then applied to the soil during disposal of the sludge.

Lehmann, R.G. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States). Health and Environmental Sciences)

1993-10-01

117

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

118

Cinnamon extracts’ inhibitory effect on Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol and methylene chloride extracts of cinnamon were compared for their effect on Helicobacter pylori growth and urease activity. Methylene chloride extract was found to inhibit growth of H. pylori, while ethanol extract counteracted its urease activity. Cinnamon extract (from methylene chloride) inhibited H. pylori at concentration range of common antibiotics. Complete inhibition in vitro was achieved by 50 ?g\\/ml

Mina Tabak; Robert Armon; Ishak Neeman

1999-01-01

119

Automatic facial feature extraction by genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic facial feature extraction algorithm is presented. The algorithm is composed of two main stages: the face region estimation stage and the feature extraction stage. In the face region estimation stage, a second-chance region growing method is adopted to estimate the face region of a target image. In the feature extraction stage, genetic search algorithms are applied to extract

Chun-Hung Lin; Ja-Ling Wu

1999-01-01

120

The Use of Extracts in Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is the purpose of this paper to explore the use of extracts by reporting the results of a survey of the current acceptability and use of extracts, by a literature review and by suggesting guidelines for selecting extract material. The survey shows that extracts are currently being used in information services, especially for current awareness.…

Helmuth, Nancy A.

121

Aqueous extraction of gibberellins from pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous buffers were used to extract gibberellin-like substances from pea tissue. The method possesses several distinct advantages when compared with extraction methods using organic solvents. Aqueous buffer extracts can be prepared more rapidly and produce extracts which are free of pigments and other alcohol soluble materials.

R. L. Jones

1968-01-01

122

The Use of Extracts in Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the purpose of this paper to explore the use of extracts by reporting the results of a survey of the current acceptability and use of extracts, by a literature review and by suggesting guidelines for selecting extract material. The survey shows that extracts are currently being used in information services, especially for current awareness.…

Helmuth, Nancy A.

123

Extraction of anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia by pressurized hot water: Antioxidant activity of extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of anthraquinones from Morinda citrifolia was evaluated by determining the capability of the extracts to scavenge the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro, as compared with the extracts obtained by other conventional extraction methods such as ethanol extraction in stirred vessel, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that PHWE

Boonchai Pongnaravane; Motonobu Goto; Mitsuru Sasaki; Thitiporn Anekpankul; Prasert Pavasant; Artiwan Shotipruk

2006-01-01

124

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

125

Extracting light out of LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

`External quantum efficiency', that is, the number of photons generated per electron passing through the p-n junction of an LED is probably the most important number to quantify the performance of an LED chip. Although advances in epitaxy have increased the fraction of radiative recombination to extremely high values, the extraction of the precious photons that are trapped in a high refractive index crystal is still tricky. In this brief tutorial, we look at the physics of light extraction both from a geometrical optics/thermodynamic and a wave optics point of view, discussing both random and deterministic surface structures.

Muschaweck, Julius; Wiesmann, Christopher

2013-08-01

126

Protein extraction from woody plants.  

PubMed

In this chapter we present a protocol for total protein extraction optimized for wood-forming tissue (differentiating secondary xylem). The protocol is then used for a series of other organs (root, leaf, pollen, bud, flower, cambium, and phloem) in broadleaf (oak and poplar) and conifer (pine) species. Proteins are first extracted from tissue powdered in liquid nitrogen using the TCA-acetone method and then solubilized in an optimized buffer. The resulting 2D gels can be viewed at http://cbi.labri.fr/outils/protic/index.php. PMID:17093300

Plomion, Christophe; Lalanne, Céline

2007-01-01

127

Supercritical extraction of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chromatographic methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extracts (essential oil obtained by steam distillation and extracts obtained by carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction\\u000a and methylene chloride) are described. The composition of extracts obtained at different pressures (from 80 bar to 400 bar)\\u000a and constant temperature (40°C) is discussed. The extraction system thyme— supercritical carbon

Z. Zekovi?; Ž. Lepojeviíc; Dj. Vuji?

2000-01-01

128

Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

129

Comparison of extracts prepared from plant by-products using different solvents and extraction time  

Microsoft Academic Search

By-products obtained after red fruit processing still contain large amounts of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins which act as antioxidants. The effect of solvent and extraction time on the yield of extracted antioxidants from grape, black and red currant by-products (marc) was investigated. Ethanol and methanol extracts of red and black currant contain twice more anthocyanins and polyphenols than water extracts, extracts

Brigita Lapornik; Mirko Prošek; Alenka Golc Wondra

2005-01-01

130

EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION BY SALT EFFECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractive distillation employing a dissolved salt instead of a liquid third component as the separating agent is a promising but relatively neglected technique for achieving azeotropic and other difficult separations. In systems for which a soluble and effective salt can be found, major savings in both capital and energy costs are possible. The technical aspects of such processing are described

WILLIAM F. FURTER

1992-01-01

131

Influence of temperature on extraction  

SciTech Connect

The literature data related to the influence of temperature on extraction are very often controversial. It appeared advisable to undertake an investigation of such an influence in systems containing diisopropyl ether (IPE), because of their ability to form three coexisting liquid phases. In the extraction system H/sub 2/O-HCl-FeCl/sub 3/-IPE, the volume changes and the metal distribution depending on temperature (ranging from 13 to 40/sup 0/C) and the initial concentration of hydrochloric acid (5 to 11 M) were examined. The formation of the third phase (heavy organic phase) is of special interest in the separation processes because a very high concentration of metal can be expected. The complexity of such a multi-component and multiphase system makes a phenomenological approach more appropriate than a thermodynamic one. In the three-phase system an increase in temperature increases the distribution ratio of iron(III) whereas in the two-phase system, the distribution ratio decreases. The extraction factors based on phase volume and distribution ratio were calculated. Phase transformations occur in a narrow temperature range. A decrease of the initial acid concentration and an increase in temperature contribute to an increase in the number of equilibrated phases. Choice of the appropriate temperature in similar systems offers new possibilities in the application of extraction in separation procedures.

Maljkovic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Maljkovic, D.; Branica, M.

1980-05-01

132

Body sculpturing by liposuction extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical open surgical contouring and sculpturing of the body has required significant scarring with long incisions and wide depressed scars. During the last decade, a small number of European surgeons have pioneered techniques for suction lipectomy. Illouz introduced the concept of lipolysis and blunt cannula extraction. The method described herein, which is termed lipo-suction, is a dry technique. No lipolytic

Richard L. Dolsky

1984-01-01

133

Extracting DNA from a Banana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners extract DNA from a banana. The procedure requires only basic lab equipment (i.e. beaker, test tube) and chemicals (i.e. liquid soap, meat tenderizer, ethanol). This activity is most appropriate for learners in grades 5-8. With slight modifications, this activity is appropriate for younger learners as well.

Gallo, Mark; Ventresca, Shannon; Cordts, Marcia

2012-01-01

134

New methods of pitch extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new methods will be described for the extraction of the fundamental pitch from a speech signal. These are: 1) spectrum flattening followed by a minimum phase correction to synchronize harmonics 2) spectrum flattening followed by auto-correlation, and 3) nonlinear distortion followed by autocorrelation. The last two methods will be shown to be exceptionally rugged, in that they can tolerate

MAX MOHAN SONDHI

1968-01-01

135

Scenario Customization for Information Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information Extraction (IE) is an emerging NLP technology, whose function is to process unstructured, natural language text, to locate specific pieces of information, or facts, in the text, and to use these facts to fill a database. IE systems today are c...

R. Yangarber

2001-01-01

136

Extracting Schema from Semistructured Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of late, especially with the advent of the world-wide web, there has been an increasing interest in semistructured data in the database community. Semistructured data is characterized by the lack of any fixed and rigid schema, although typically the data has some implicit structure. While the lack of fixed schema makes extracting semistructured data fairly easy and an attractive goal,

Svetlozar Nestorov; Serge Abiteboul; Rajeev Motwani

1998-01-01

137

Therapeutic composition from plant extracts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Therapeutic compositions are composed of four plant extracts: ginsenoside, tetramethyl pyrazine, astragalan and atractylol. Pharmaceutical dosage units are prepared by conventional means with specific weight ranges and proportions of each of the four ingredients. The pharmaceutical dosage units are highly effective in treating cerebral vascular disease and the sequelae thereof. The dosage units are also useful for bolstering immunofunction in healthy and diseased patients.

1987-11-24

138

Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

Greene, Richard

1981-01-01

139

Information Extraction Supported Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of our information extraction (IE) system, Textract, in the question- answering (QA) track of the recently held TREC-8 tests. One of our major objectives is to examine how IE can help IR (Information Retrieval) in applications like QA. Our study shows: (i) IE can provide solid support for QA; (ii) low-level IE like Named Entity

Rohini K. Srihari; Wei Li

1999-01-01

140

Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

Malmary, G.; And Others

1984-01-01

141

Morphological processing for features extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a morphological features extraction algorithm referred to as a morphological scanning edge detector (MSED) is presented. MSED consists of three cascaded processes which are filtering, detecting and scanning. First, a robust morphological filtering process is used to reduce noise in the image without disrupting the edge structures. Then, in the detecting process, two intermediate images are derived

Ke-Kang Chin; Jafar Saniie

1993-01-01

142

Lesson 10: Extraction of Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces quadratic equations and graphs. Equations of the form ax^2 + c = 0 are solved via extraction of roots. Later application problems involving volume and surface area and compound interest (problems of the form a(x - p)^2 = q ) are presented.

2011-01-01

143

Geometric Methods for Vortex Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two vortex detection methods which are based on the geometric properties of streamlines. Unlike traditional vortex detection meth- ods, which are based on point-samples of physical quantities, one of our methods is also effective in detecting weak vortices. In addition, it allows for quantitative feature extraction by calculating numerical attributes of vortices. Results are pre- sented of

I. Ari Sadarjoen; Frits H. Post

144

Extracting information from trading volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a method to extract information about the true value of a traded asset using the market price and the equilibrium trading volume when the joint distribution of the traders' demands, the market price, and the asset value is known and the market clears. The paper applies the method to a chosen noisy rational-expectations model. We first condition

Dominique Y. Dupont

2002-01-01

145

Geospatial route extraction from texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to collect vast amounts of geospatial data is driven by the emergence of geo-enabled Web applications and the suitability of geospatial data in general to organize information. Given that geospatial data collection and aggregation is a resource intensive task typically left to professionals, we, in this work, advocate the use of information extraction (IE) techniques to derive meaningful

Euthymios Drymonas; Dieter Pfoser

2010-01-01

146

Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)|

Greene, Richard

1981-01-01

147

IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

148

Practical extraction techniques for Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing application size is important for software that is distributed via the internet, in order to keep download times manageable, and in the domain of embedded systems, where applications are often stored in (Read-Only or Flash) memory. This paper explores extraction techniques such as the removal of unreachable methods and redundant fields, inlining of method calls, and transformation of the

Frank Tip; Peter F. Sweeney; Chris Laffra; Aldo Eisma; David Streeter

2002-01-01

149

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2013-07-01

150

Antioxidant capacity of bioactives extracted from canola meal by subcritical water, ethanolic and hot water extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant compounds were extracted from canola meal by subcritical water extraction (SWE) at 110 and 160°C, hot water extraction (80°C) and ethanolic (95%, v\\/v) extraction. The highest extract yields were obtained with SWE at 160°C. The total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by the total phenolics assay (using Folin–Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent), the 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging

Majid Hassas-Roudsari; Peter R. Chang; Ronald B. Pegg; Robert T. Tyler

2009-01-01

151

Materials for geopressure energy extraction  

SciTech Connect

The status of efforts in methane and energy extraction from the geopressured aquifer sources of the North Gulf of Mexico region is outlined. Three different schemes for energy extraction are considered, and the anticipated materials and corrosion problems are defined. Suitable materials are suggested for use in the production well and surface equipment. J-55 steel can be used for production well casing. Monel clad carbon steel or high chromium ferritic stainless steels, such as E-Brite or AL 29-4 can be used in the cyclone gas separator. Polymer-concrete coated steel pipings are suitable for brine piping. The hydraulic turbine as well as the power turbine in the thermal energy converter can be made of a titanium alloy such as Ticode-12. Monel or Hastelloy-C276 clad steel is recommended for steam processing areas and monel piping is recommended for the heat exchangers. 20 references.

Raman, A.

1982-01-01

152

Extracting messages masked by chaos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands.

Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H. A.

1995-01-01

153

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.

2002-11-01

154

Rediscovery of an Extraction Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique consists of putting a few milliliters of the aqueous sample in a mortar and adding enough anhydrous sodium sulfate to react with all of the water. The thick paste is then ground up several times with a pestle and the appropriate solvent. The liquid water phase has been remove by formation of the hydrated salt; this results in rapid and quantitative extraction. The Soxhlet apparatus may be used instead if heat and time are of no concern.

Behrman, Edward J.

1998-01-01

155

DNA Extraction from Activated Sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To optimize the cell lysis step for DNA extraction from activated sludge samples, two floc dispersion methods (sonication\\u000a versus stirring with a cation exchange resin), and three cell lysis treatments (lysozyme?+?SDS, sonication in a water bath,\\u000a and thermal shock) were tested. For dispersion, stirring with cation exchange resin was more efficient than sonication. The\\u000a cell lysis procedures were applied

Muriel Bourrain; Wafa Achouak; Vincent Urbain; Thierry Heulin

1999-01-01

156

Numi Proton Kicker Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This system extracts up to 9.6 µ s of 120 GeV beam every 1.87 seconds for the NuMI beamline neutrino experiments. A pulse forming network consisting of two continuous wound coils and 68 capacitors was designed and built to drive three kicker magnets. The field stability requirement is better than ± 1% with a field rise time of 1.52 ?s.

C. C. Jensen; G. E. Krafczyk

2005-01-01

157

Extraction of sucrose from molasses  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose is extracted from molasses by passing an aqueous molasses solution over an adsorbent, e.g., calcined Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported pyrolyzed C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Thus, 10 mL molasses (approximately 46% solids) was run through a column containing 70 cubic centimetres above adsorbent with sucrose retention volume 21.4 and selectivity for sucrose - betaine 23.8.

Landis, A.M.

1982-01-26

158

Towards Extracting Emotions from Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, there has been a tremendous need for the ability to query and process vast quantities of musical data. Automatic\\u000a content extraction is clearly needed here, relating to various aspects of music. One of desirable options is the ability of\\u000a identifying musical pieces representing different types of emotions, which music clearly evokes. This paper focuses on scrupulous\\u000a planning

Alicja A. Wieczorkowska

2004-01-01

159

PSR extraction kicker system improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to improve the reliability of the hardware required to operate the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) is under way. The extraction kicker system for the PSR was identified as one candidate for improvement. Pulse modulators produce 50-kV pulses 360 ns in length at up to a 24-Hz pulse repetition rate and drive two 4-m-long stripline electrodes. Sources

T. W. Hardek

1991-01-01

160

Titanium metal: extraction to application  

SciTech Connect

In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2002-09-01

161

Verifiable visualization for isosurface extraction.  

PubMed

Visual representations of isosurfaces are ubiquitous in the scientific and engineering literature. In this paper, we present techniques to assess the behavior of isosurface extraction codes. Where applicable, these techniques allow us to distinguish whether anomalies in isosurface features can be attributed to the underlying physical process or to artifacts from the extraction process. Such scientific scrutiny is at the heart of verifiable visualization--subjecting visualization algorithms to the same verification process that is used in other components of the scientific pipeline. More concretely, we derive formulas for the expected order of accuracy (or convergence rate) of several isosurface features, and compare them to experimentally observed results in the selected codes. This technique is practical: in two cases, it exposed actual problems in implementations. We provide the reader with the range of responses they can expect to encounter with isosurface techniques, both under "normal operating conditions" and also under adverse conditions. Armed with this information--the results of the verification process--practitioners can judiciously select the isosurface extraction technique appropriate for their problem of interest, and have confidence in its behavior. PMID:19834193

Etiene, Tiago; Scheidegger, Carlos; Nonato, L Gustavo; Kirby, Robert M; Silva, Cláudio T

162

Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

1989-06-01

163

Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems  

SciTech Connect

Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

Neuman, R.D.

1992-01-01

164

Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.  

PubMed

Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

2012-01-01

165

Supercritical fluid extraction of dandelion leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amyrin and ?-sitosterol were extracted from dandelion in preparative scale using supercritical carbon dioxide. A 32 full-factorial design was carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure and temperature (over the ranges 150–450 bar and 35–65°C, respectively) on the yields and recoveries of the active components. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared to Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane and

B. Simándi; Sz. T. Kristo; Á. Kéry; L. K. Selmeczi; I. Kmecz; S. Kemény

2002-01-01

166

Extractive distillation of binary azeotropic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions have been determined under which an azeotropic binary mixture can be separated by extractive distillation and\\u000a under which separation into almost pure components is impossible at any amount of the extracting agent. A general algorithm\\u000a is suggested for analysis of special manifolds in order to see whether extractive distillation is efficient.

L. A. Serafimov; A. K. Frolkova; D. I. Bushina

2008-01-01

167

Extraction, Fixed Costs and the Hotelling Rule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Starting from the matter of fact that in the extracting industry large-scale investments and fixed costs play an important role the influence of fixed extraction costs and a convex curve on the time path of extraction is investigated. Moreover the time pa...

H. Siebert

1981-01-01

168

PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

Grinstead, R.R.

1958-11-11

169

CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds,

James Boltz

2005-01-01

170

COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)  

EPA Science Inventory

Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

171

Biomolecular event extraction using Support Vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP) is to capture biomedical phenomena from textual data by extracting relevant entities, information and relations between biomedical entities (i.e. proteins and genes). In general, in most of the published papers, only binary relations were extracted. In a recent past, the focus is shifted towards extracting more complex relations in the form

Sriparna Saha; Amit Majumder; Asif Ekbal

2011-01-01

172

Plant extract compositions for affecting sleep  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A composition for affecting physiological sleep disorders comprising a therapeutically effective amount of Baiziren extract or any of its derivatives, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The composition may additionally comprise a therapeutically effective amount of at least one of a Suanzaoren extract and a Yuanzhi extract, or mixtures thereof.

Xie; Xueji (Richmond, CA); Ko; Yu-Lung (Richmond, CA); Ko; Chien-Kuang (Richmond, CA); Ko; Jason Jiang-Chung (Richmond, CA); Gafney; Richard William (Richmond, CA)

2011-06-28

173

Chart image understanding and numerical data extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chart images in digital documents are an important source of valuable information that is largely under-utilized for data indexing and information extraction purposes. We developed a framework to automatically extract data carried by charts and convert them to XML format. The proposed algorithm classifies image by chart type, detects graphical and textual components, extracts semantic relations between graphics and text.

Ales Mishchenko; Natalia Vassilieva

2011-01-01

174

Extraction Studies at the Khlopin Radium Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on actinide extraction were initiated at the Khlopin Radium Institute in 1946 with the aim to recover weapons-grade plutonium using diethyl ether. However, only since 1976 the extraction procedures came into industrial use for reprocessing of irradiated uranium using solutions of TBP in chlorinated hydrocarbon diluents. Subsequently, the extraction processes were modified for reprocessing of NPP spent fuel, with

B. Ya. Zilberman; V. N. Romanovskii

2003-01-01

175

Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-01

176

Digital Surface Models for Building Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to building extraction using Digital Surface Models (DSM) as input data. The approach consists of building detection and reconstruction using parametric and prismatic building models. The main focus is on the extraction of roof structures, an extension of the previously published work, as first step towards the extraction of polyhedral building descrip- tions in order

Uwe Weidner

1997-01-01

177

Resonant beam extraction scheme with constant separatrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new scheme for resonant extraction with a constant separatrix is presented to realize small emittance, constant position and size of the extracted beam. In this scheme, the amplitude of the betatron oscillations inside the constant separatrix is increased by electromagnetic transverse or longitudinal perturbations, or scattering by other particles. Particles outside the separatrix are extracted through nonlinear resonance. The

Kazuo Hiramoto; Masatugu Nishi

1992-01-01

178

Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin A deficiency is a health problem in Southeast Asia that can be corrected by feeding orange fruits and vegetables such as mango. Pumpkin is a traditional Korean food that is easy to store and is already believed to have health benefits. We extracted carotenoids from pumpkin by liquid–liquid extraction and by supercritical fluid extraction. We measured carotenoids by reversed-phase

Jung Sook Seo; Betty Jane Burri; Zhejiu Quan; Terry R. Neidlinger

2005-01-01

179

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food...Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl...

2009-04-01

180

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food...Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl...

2010-04-01

181

Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cynara scolymus L. leaves, heads and stems were tested for their antifungal activity using the agar-well diffusion assay technique. The leaves extracts and the ethanol fractions were found to be the most effective extract against all the tested organisms.

X. F. Zhu; H. X. Zhang; R. Lo

2005-01-01

182

A Real World Implementation of Answer Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe ExtrAns, an answer extraction system. Answer extraction (AE) aims at retrieving those ex- act passages of a document that directly answer a given user question. AE is more ambitious than information re- trieval and information extraction in that the retrieval re - sults are phrases, not entire documents, and in that the queries may be

Diego Mollá Aliod; Jawad Berri; Michael Hess

1998-01-01

183

Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view

A. Y. El-Etre

2003-01-01

184

Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract  

PubMed Central

The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

2007-01-01

185

Prevention of enzymatic browning of pear by onion extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onion extract was prepared by extracting onion with water, and the effects of the extract on pear polyphenol oxidase and browning of pear were investigated. The polyphenol oxidase of pear was inhibited by onion extract, and the inhibitory effect of onion extract toward pear polyphenol oxidase was increased with the heated extract. The inhibitory effect of the extract was increased

Mi-Jeong Kim; Choon Young Kim

2005-01-01

186

Extraction parameters significantly influence the quantity and the profile of PLFAs extracted from soils.  

PubMed

Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis is a robust method for characterizing soil microbial communities. We determined the effects of extraction solvent (chloroform vs dichloromethane) and buffer (phosphate vs citrate) on the yield and the profile of PLFAs extracted from an acidic (pH 5.5) and an alkaline (pH 8.6) soil following two 2-h sequential extractions. The yield and the profile of the PLFAs obtained separately by the first and the second 2-h extraction were compared to identify the impact of sequential extractions on the PLFA extraction efficiency. Chloroform-citrate and a 2?×?2-h extraction maximized PLFA yields in both soils. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the choice of the extraction mixture did not significantly influence the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the first 2-h extraction, whereas it had a profound effect on the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the second 2-h extraction. Most PLFAs were extracted during the first extraction except 18:2?6,9 and 22:0 which were almost equally extracted by the two sequential extractions. The choice of organic solvent significantly influenced the profile of the PLFAs extracted; their yield increased with chloroform with the exception of 18:2?6,9 and 22:0 which were favored by dichloromethane. Overall, a 2?×?2-h extraction with chloroform/methanol/citrate is expected to provide maximum PLFA yields. PMID:21556882

Papadopoulou, Evagelia S; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

2011-05-10

187

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic

PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY; AWANG BONO

188

Effects of Extraction Conditions on the Content of Anthocyanins and Bioelements in Berry Fruit Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for extracting anthocyanins and bioelements [calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe)] from black chokeberry, black currant, strawberry, and bilberry fruits were compared in this study. Correlations between the content of anthocyanins and bioelements in fruit extracts were determined using method A [extraction with hydrochloric acid (HCl)] and method B [extraction with water (H2O)]. Relationships between the

Barbara Pliszka; Elwira Wierzbicka

2008-01-01

189

Extraction of zirconium and hafnium from nitric acid solutions by solid extractant based on tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of extraction equilibrium and kinetics and the influence of temperature and aqueous phase acidity on the extraction of zirconium and hafnium from nitric acid solutions by a solid extractant based on tributyl phosphate. Results are presented from pilot-plant experiments on Zr and Hf extraction from acidic pulps with high silicon contents, using pulsed columns.

Korovin, V.Yu.; Yagodin, G.A.; Savel`eva, V.I. [Dnieper Scientific Center, Dneprodzerzhinsk (Ukraine)

1994-10-20

190

Supercritical fluid extraction of chamomile flower heads: Comparison with conventional extraction, kinetics and scale-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction of chamomile flower heads was performed on semi continuous extraction apparatus in the lab scale using carbon dioxide as solvent. The results of high pressure experiments were compared with those obtained with Soxhlet extraction, steam distillation and maceration. The obtained extracts were analysed by HPLC on ?-bisabolol, matricine and chamazulene content and by gravimetrical method on essential

Petra Kotnik; Mojca Škerget; Željko Knez

2007-01-01

191

Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction of twenty-two organochlorine pesticides from eggs.  

PubMed

The recoveries of twenty-two organochlorine pesticides spiked in egg samples were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide and solvent extraction using acetonitrile were compared. The extracts were cleaned up with C18 and Florisil SPE columns. At 0.1 ppm spike level, the recoveries were 52 - 100% by SFE and 53 - 93% by solvent extraction. The limits of detection calculated at 0.01 ppm spike level were 0.072 - 0.006 ppm for SFE and 0.06 - 0.006 ppm for solvent extraction. Both methods show improvement in sample preparation time and solvent consumption from the existing Soxhlet extraction method. PMID:8867140

Wigfield, Y Y; Selwyn, J; Khan, S; McDowell, R

1996-03-01

192

Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

Koumpis, Konstantinos; Renals, Steve

193

Burried broken extraction instrument fragment.  

PubMed

Despite adequate effort to perform tooth removal carefully, some accidents may happen when defective instruments are unknowingly used. This article reports of a non-symptomatic case of a retained fractured dental elevator tip during an uneventful extraction a decade earlier. Patient was not aware till routine radiographic examination revealed its presence. Use of three dimensional imaging techniques in this case is highlighted. Rarely, instruments breakage may occur during surgical procedures. It is duty of the dentists to check the surgical instrument for signs of breakage and be prepared to solve a possible emergency. Retained fragments should be carefully studied prior to attempt of removal. PMID:23662269

Balaji, S M

2013-01-01

194

The extractive metallurgy of gold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

1998-12-01

195

New AGS fast extraction system  

SciTech Connect

Both the high energy physics program and ISA injection require an improved fast extraction system from the AGS. The proposed new system consists of a fast kicker at H5 and an ejector magnet at H10. The H5 kicker is capable of producing 1.2 mrad deflection and rising up to 99% strength in 150 nsec with flat top ripple within +- 1%. It is found that the focusing strengths and positions of UQ3-UQ7 have to be modified to achieve an achromatic condition at the end of 8/sup 0/-bend. Also, the conceptual design of the H5 magnet and the pulser system are discussed.

Weng, W.T.

1980-09-01

196

Extraction and bioactivity of polygonatum polysaccharides.  

PubMed

The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters and liver protective effect of the polygonatum polysaccharides in vivo. The order of factor effects on polysaccharides production was found to be extraction time (min, A)>ratio of solvent to solid (C)>extraction temperature (°C, B)>extraction number (D). The results show that the effects of extraction time (min, A) and ratio of solvent to solid (C) were more significant than those of the other factors. Optimal extraction parameters were as followings: extraction time 120 min, extraction temperature 100 °C, ratio of solvent to solid 5, and extraction number 4. Polygonatum polysaccharides was administered orally at doses of 150, 300 and 450 mg/(kg day) to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated rats. Results showed that administration of polygonatum polysaccharides could increase rats' final body weight, liver antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR)), decrease serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The liver sections obtained from animals supplemented with polygonatum polysaccharides extract demonstrated reduced pathological damages, supporting that polygonatum polysaccharides extract could effectively decrease the toxicity of CCl(4). It can be concluded that polygonatum polysaccharides treatment may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative injury in experimental rats. PMID:23246900

Jiang, Qunguang; Lv, Yunxia; Dai, Weidong; Miao, Xiongying; Zhong, Dewu

2012-12-13

197

Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens.  

PubMed

An updated review on the biological activity of Tridax procumbens is presented. A detailed biological screening comprised of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi using crude extracts of this plant was undertaken. The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. The same extract of the whole aerial parts was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. The ethyl-acetate extract of the flowers was active against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella sp. The aerial parts extract also showed activity only against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus, while the aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Trichophyton rubrum. PMID:11185735

Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

2000-06-01

198

Guava leaf extract and topical haemostasis.  

PubMed

The effects of guava leaf extract on the bleeding time and the three main mechanisms of haemostasis: vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and blood coagulation, were investigated. The water extract of guava leaves did not shorten bleeding times in rats. Guava leaf extract potentiated the vascular muscle contraction induced in rabbits by phenylephrine, and when given alone it stimulated human platelet aggregation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, it significantly prolonged blood coagulation; activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test (p < 0.05). The higher the concentration of the extract, the longer APTT was observed. Thus, a water extract of guava leaves showed ambiguous effects on the haemostatic system. Guava leaf extract did not affect bleeding times, it stimulated vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation but it inhibited blood coagulation. Therefore, guava leaf extract is not recommended as a haemostatic agent. PMID:10925412

Jaiarj, P; Wongkrajang, Y; Thongpraditchote, S; Peungvicha, P; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Opartkiattikul, N

2000-08-01

199

Bioactive extracts from Senecio samnitum Huet.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from Senecio samnitum Huet are reported. Extracts from S. samnitum were able to inhibit the in vitro proliferation of four human tumor cell lines. The dichloromethane extract demonstrated effective cytotoxic activity with IC50 of 22.89 microg mL(-1) on the Caco-2 cell line and the EtOAc extract had IC50 value of 11.91 microg mL(-1) against the COR-L23 cell line. The n-hexane extract displayed the best antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal activity of all extracts was also seen, particularly against the dermatophytes Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum gypseum for the methanol and n-hexane extracts. PMID:16401558

Loizzo, M R; Tundis, R; Statti, G A; Miljkovic-Brake, Ana; Menichini, F; Houghton, P J

2006-03-01

200

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cedarwood oil: a study of extraction parameters and oil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of cedarwood oil (CWO) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-COZ) has been investigated with respect to the effects of extraction temperature and pressure, length of extraction, and age of cedarwood chips. Steam distilled and SC-CO2 derived CWOs were compared by gas chromatography and sensory evaluation. The extraction of CWO increased with extraction temperature, except at the lowest pressure utilised.

Fred J. Eller; Jerry W. King

2000-01-01

201

Valuable compounds in macroalgae extracts.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds present in ethanolic extracts from 18 macroalgae of the Portuguese coast were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the characterization of 14 compounds: proline, phloroglucinol, mannitol, 8 fatty acids and 3 sterols. A dose-dependent response against enzymes with biological significance (?-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) and free radicals (DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl) was found, Phaeophyta being the most promising group. A PCA analysis was performed and allowed the establishment of a correlation between the algae chemical composition and the biological activity. Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus are among the most active species, which is in accordance with their higher contents in phloroglucinol, mannitol, oleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, and fucosterol. The results point to the potential interest of the use of Phaeophyta species as food additives, due to their potent antiradical activities, and especially highlights the importance of F. spiralis in the food chain of Mediterranean countries. Moreover, the incorporation of the extracts of these species in food products, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations for human health should also be instigated, since they can suppress hyperglycemia and inhibit cholinesterases. PMID:23411314

Andrade, Paula B; Barbosa, Mariana; Matos, Rui Pedro; Lopes, Graciliana; Vinholes, Juliana; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

2012-11-28

202

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

2008-12-01

203

Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE. PMID:23666412

Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; González, Mónica

2013-06-01

204

Diagnostic value of three different latex extracts.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of latex allergy is made on clinical history, but a confirmatory skin prick test (SPT) or a serological assay based on a commercial latex extract is always recommendable. Different raw materials can be used in the preparation of commercial latex extracts. Such extracts can consequently show both different qualitative profiles and a different diagnostic potential. Therefore, the selection of a proper latex extract is essential for in vitro and in vivo diagnosis of latex allergy. In the present study three different latex extracts, prepared from different raw materials (ammoniated -AL-, serum -SL-, or rubber particles -RPE- latex), are compared by in vitro techniques using sera from twenty patients with latex allergy. SDS-PAGE technique was used to compare the antigenic profile of the three latex extracts. Subsequently, their allergenic profiles were evaluated by immunoblotting technique using the individual sera from the twenty latex allergic patients. The diagnostic potential of the three latex extracts was also evaluated using direct Radio-Allergo-Sorbent Test (RAST) as well as skin prick tests (SPTs). In order to establish the more appropriate latex extract in a perspective of in vivo diagnosis of latex sensitization, the same latex extracts were subsequently compared by an in vivo SPT involving ten of the above subjects. The SDS-PAGE profiles of the three latex extracts examined were quite different. SL extract showed numerous bands comprised between 10-100 kDa. RPE extract was characterized by two intense bands at 14 and 20 kDa while AL extract showed the poorer antigenic composition. Analogously, immunoblotting analysis evidenced a different profile in relation to both different patients and extracts. For only two out of the twenty sera, direct RAST results showed a same positive class in relation to the different latex extracts used. SPT with SL extract showed, in respect to the other extracts (AL, RPE), a significantly higher wheal. This study showed that SL extract is able to express the best in vitro and in vivo diagnostic potential. Thus, its use should be preferred for the diagnosis of patients affected by latex allergy. PMID:17624253

Bernardini, R; Mistrello, G; Pucci, N; Roncarolo, D; Lombardi, E; Zanoni, E; Mori, F; De Martino, M; Novembre, E; Massai, C; Azzari, C; Vierucci, A

205

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

PubMed

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

2011-08-03

206

The role of some compounds on extraction of chromium(VI) by amine extractants.  

PubMed

The extraction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from hydrochloric acid aqueous solution using Aliquat 336 and Alamine 336 extractants was performed under different experimental conditions. The data clarify that one molecule of amine extractants shares with approximately one molecule of HCl to extract two molecules of Cr(VI) from 1M HCl aqueous solutions. The extraction is an exothermic process and possesses enthalpy change values of -41.02 and -28.08 kJ mol(-1) for the extraction by Aliquat 336 and Alamine 336, respectively. The presence of potassium chloride greatly increases the extraction of Cr(VI) by amine extractants while the addition of some phenolic compounds such as phenol, dichlorophenol, o-nitrophenol and beta-naphthol decreases this extraction under the same experimental conditions. PMID:15629579

Someda, H H; El-Shazly, E A; Sheha, R R

2005-01-31

207

Line extraction in SAR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a line extraction algorithm in SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. The algorithm is designed based on the statistical characteristics of the speckle in SAR image. Three steps are involved. Firstly, a new edge detector, which combines the Canny operator and Ratio operator, is used to detect the edge points and calculate their directions, then the edge points are grouped according to their edge direction to form the initial lines. Finally, a high-level grouping step connects the fragmental lines. The proposed new edge operator is CFAR (Constant False Alert Rate) and prevents the line from cleavage. The algorithm has been applied in the X-band airborne SAR images, and the results are presented at the end of this paper.

Wang, Cheng; Wang, Runsheng

2003-06-01

208

Corneal astigmatism following cataract extraction.  

PubMed Central

The changes in corneal curvature in the first six months after cataract extraction were studied by performing sequential keratometry on a group of 57 patients. 8/0 Virgin silk interrupted sutures were used for the closure of corneoscleral incisions, and 10/0 monofilament tied in double running (bootlace) or single running (continuous) fashion was used for corneal wound closure. A high degree of with-the-rule astigmatism was evident in all patients two weeks postoperatively, but thereafter the character of the astigmatism produced by 8/0 virgin silk and 10/0 monofilament closure was quite different: in the 8/0 virgin silk group there was an early and pronounced shift in the axis of astigmatism to against-the-rule, whereas in the 10/0 monofilament group there was little further change in the astigmatism unless the sutures were removed. Wound compression and wound gape as factors responsible for these changes are discussed.

Wishart, M S; Wishart, P K; Gregor, Z J

1986-01-01

209

Extraction of TNT from aggregate soil fractions.  

PubMed

Past explosives manufacture, disposal, and training activities have contaminated soil at many military facilities, posing health and environmental risks through contact, potential detonation, and leaching into ground water. While methods have been confirmed for extraction and measuring explosives concentration in soil, no work has addressed aggregate size material (the >2 mm gravel and cobbles) that often occurs with the smaller soil fractions. This paper describes methods and results for extraction and measurement of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in aggregate material from 1/2 to 2-1/1 from a WWII era ammunition plant. TNT was extracted into acetonitrile by both Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction methods. High pressure liquid chromatography analyses of extracts showed expected variation among samples. Also effective extraction and determination of TNT concentration for each aggregate size fraction was achieved. PMID:10379027

Williford, C W; Mark Bricka, R

1999-04-23

210

The extraction of nickel with aliphatic oximes  

SciTech Connect

The use of aliphatic oximes to extract nickel from acidic, nickelous-chromic-chloride solutions was investigated. Batch solvent extraction tests were conducted to characterize the nickel extraction and stripping properties of several oximes. Results indicated that the oximes selectively extracted nickel over chromium by an ion pair mechanism. Nickel was most effectively stripped from the loaded oxime extractants with dilute hydrochloric acid; however, these acidic strip solutions partially degraded the oximes to their parent aldehydes by hydrolysis. The oximes could, however, be regenerated by contacting the solvent phase with a neutralized hydroxylamine-hydrochloride solution. Decyl oxime was successfully used in a continuous counter-current solvent extraction circuit that incorporated loading, stripping, and regeneration stages. The decyl oxime degraded 12 pct per loading and stripping cycle, but was effectively regenerated prior to recycling to the head of the circuit.

Redden, L.D.; Groves, R.D. [Dept. of the Interior, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1993-01-01

211

Degradation of organothiophosphorous extractant Cyanex 301.  

PubMed

The resistance of extractants to light is important during industrial extraction processes. A photodegradation of the organothiophosphorous extractant Cyanex 301 in toluene and hexane as organic diluent and the identification of possible degradation products using FT-IR and GC-MS techniques were performed. The influence of copper(II) and cobalt(II) ions on the stability of the extractant under UV-vis light exposure was also studied. The changes in the percentage composition of individual components of the extractant depended on the types of organic diluents and copper or cobalt ions. During this process, copper complex irradiation precipitation of black powder and photooxidation of toluene were observed. Based on these results we proposed a hypothetical mechanism of photodegradation of extractant Cyanex 301. PMID:21664046

Wieszczycka, Karolina; Tomczyk, Wiktoria

2011-05-20

212

Rate Processes in Solvent Extraction of Metal Ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism and kinetics of metal extraction with several extractants, including chelating agents, acidic organophosphorous extractant and neutral extractants are discussed in this paper.Firstly the extraction rate of metal ion for the general extraction system is formulated by solving the diffusional equation with chemical reaction, in which the interfacial reaction is considered by the boundary conditions. The overall rate expressions

YOSHIKAZU MIYAKE; YOSHINARI BABA

2000-01-01

213

Antioxidant activities of selected oriental herb extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were studied by determining the peroxide values of linoleic\\u000a acid during storage at 50C. Among the herb extracts tested, 44 species showed strong antioxidant activities on the oxidation\\u000a of linoleic acid. The antioxidative effects of these 44 selected herb extracts were studied further in a methyl linoleate\\u000a system during storage for

S. Y. Kim; J. H. Kim; M. J. Oh; M. Y. Jung

1994-01-01

214

An optimal extraction algorithm for CCD spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimal spectrum extraction procedure is described, and examples of its performance with CCD data are presented. The algorithm delivers the maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio while preserving spectrophotometric accuracy. The effects of moderate geometric distortion and of cosmic-ray hits on the spectrum are automatically accounted for. In tests with background-noise limited CCD spectra, optimal extraction offers a 70-percent gain in effective exposure time in comparison with conventional extraction procedures.

Horne, K.

1986-06-01

215

Extraction of nutraceuticals from milk thistle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds from milk thistle (Silybum marianum Gaert L.) contain flavanolignan and dihydroflavanol compounds that have interesting and important therapeutic activities.\\u000a The recovery of these silymarin compounds generally involves a two-step defatting and extraction process using organic solvents.\\u000a This study examined the batch, single-stage extraction of whole and defatted seeds using ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile,\\u000a and acetone as the solvents. In extracting

Sunny N. Wallace; Danielle Julie Carrier; Edgar C. Clausen

2003-01-01

216

Ontology Based Information Extraction from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information extraction systems employ ontologies as a means to describe formally the domain knowledge exploited by these systems\\u000a for their operation. The aim of this survey is to study the contribution of ontologies to information extraction systems.\\u000a We believe that this will help towards specifying a concrete methodology for ontology based information extraction exploiting\\u000a all levels of ontological knowledge, from

Vangelis Karkaletsis; Pavlina Fragkou; Georgios Petasis; Elias Iosif

2011-01-01

217

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOEpatents

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01

218

Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems  

SciTech Connect

Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

Neuman, R.D.

1993-01-01

219

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOEpatents

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1991-12-31

220

Side Extraction Duopigatron-Type Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters. In our ion source ions are extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1times40 mm. The ion source was developed to study physical and technological

V. I. Gushenets; E. M. Oks; A. Hershcovitch; B. M. Johnson

2007-01-01

221

Oil extraction from microalgae for biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the performance of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and hexane extraction of lipids from marine Chlorococcum sp. for lab-scale biodiesel production. Even though the strain of Chlorococcum sp. used in this study had a low maximum lipid yield (7.1 wt% to dry biomass), the extracted lipid displayed a suitable fatty acid profile for biodiesel [C18:1 (?63 wt%),

Ronald Halim; Brendan Gladman; Michael K. Danquah; Paul A. Webley

2011-01-01

222

Entity Profile Extraction from Large Corpora? ? ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information Extraction (IE) has two anchor points: (i) entity-centric information leads to an Entity Profile (EP); (ii) action-centric information leads to an Event Scenario. Based on a pipelined architecture which involves both document-level IE and corpus-level IE, a multi-level modular approach to EP extraction from large corpora is described: (i) named entity tagging; (ii) three-level pattern matching for extracting the

Wei Li; Rohini Srihari; Cheng Niu; Xiaoge Li

223

Detecting Corn Syrup in Barley Malt Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 78(3):349-353 Methods for detecting corn syrup in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malt extract were evaluated. Twelve samples representative of commercially available 2-rowed and 6-rowed malting barleys were malted. Extracts prepared from the finely ground malts were analyzed for 13 C\\/ 12 C ratios, Malt extract is produced from malted barley and used in the formulation of foodstuffs, where

David M. Peterson; Allen D. Budde; Cynthia A. Henson; Berne L. Jones

2001-01-01

224

Information Extraction by Convergent Boundary Classificat ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the application of classification technique s to the problem of information extraction (IE). In particular we use support vector machines and several different feature-sets to build a set of classifiers for information extraction. We show that this approach is competitive with current state-of- the-art information extraction algorithms based on special- ized learning algorithms. We also introduce a new

Aidan Finn; Nicholas Kushmerick

225

Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks  

SciTech Connect

The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

1996-12-31

226

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

227

Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

2010-05-03

228

Thermal behavior of conifer needle extractives  

SciTech Connect

Thermal generation of combustible vapors has been measured up to 500 degrees C for green Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine foliage. The relative contributions to combustible products are given for ether, benzene-ethanol, and total extractives, as well as for holocellulose and lignin. Each of these components makes a sizeable contribution to flammable vapors. Extractives account for about 80 percent of the volatiles below 300 degrees C. Most of these low-temperature volatiles were extracted with benzene-ethanol, but only 15 to 30 percent were ether soluble. For these fuels, ether extractive content was found to be of limited value as an indicator of differences in flammability.

Susott, R.A.

1980-09-01

229

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY  

DOEpatents

A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

1958-06-17

230

Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichiacoli.

R. K. Satdive; P. Abhilash; Devanand P. Fulzele

2003-01-01

231

Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea leaves extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves exhibited significant activity against Pseudomonas frutescens, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis.

E. Talla; D. Djamen; D. R. Djouldé; L. Tatsadjeu; D. Tantoh; J. T. Mbafor; Z. T. Fomum

2002-01-01

232

Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea leaves extracts.  

PubMed

Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves exhibited significant activity against Pseudomonas frutescens, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:12234581

Talla, E; Djamen, D; Djouldé, D; Tatsadjeu, L; Tantoh, D; Mbafor, J T; Fomum, Z T

2002-07-01

233

Microwave steam diffusion for extraction of essential oil from orange peel: Kinetic data, extract’s global yield and mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microwave steam diffusion (MSDf) apparatus for extraction of essential oils from orange peel (by-products) was studied. MSDf has been compared with conventional steam diffusion (SDf). A response surface methodology (RSM) was realised to investigate the influence of process variables by a central composite design (CCD) approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for the extraction of orange

Asma Farhat; Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier; Mohamed El Maataoui; Jean-François Maingonnat; Mehrez Romdhane; Farid Chemat

2011-01-01

234

Phenolic Acids and Lignins in the Lycopodiales.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-one species and varieties of Lycopodium have been examined for phenolic acids and for phenolic aldehydes, ketones and acids obtained on ethanolysis or alkaline oxidation of their extracted wood-meals. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric and feru...

G. H. N. Towers W. S. G. Maass

1964-01-01

235

[Sporangia ontogeny and sporogenesis of the lycopodium Huperzia brevifolia (Lycopodiaceae) from the high mountains of Colombia].  

PubMed

Huperzia brevifolia is one of the dominant species of the genus Huperzia living in paramos and superparamos from the Colombian Andes. A detailed study of the sporangium's ontogeny and sporogenesis was carried out using specimens collected at 4200m above sea level, in Parque Natural Nacional El Cocuy, Colombia. Small pieces of caulinar axis bearing sporangia were fixed, dehydrated, paraffin embedded, sectioned in a rotatory microtome, and stained using the common Safranin O-Fast Green technique; handmade cross sections were also made, stained with aqueous Toluidine Blue (TBO). The sporangia develops basipetally, a condition that allows observation of all the developmental stages taking place throughout the caulinar axis of adult plants. Each sporangium originates from a group of epidermal cells, axilar to the microphylls. These cells undergo active mitosis, and produce new external and internal cellular groups. The sporangium wall and the tapetum originate from the external group of cells, while the internal cellular group leads to the sporogenous tissue. Meiosis occur in the sporocytes and produce simultaneous types tetrads, each one giving rise four trilete spores, with foveolate ornamentation. During the sporangium ripening, the outermost layer of the wall develops anticlinally, and inner periclinal thickenings and the innermost one perform as a secretory tapetum, which persists until the spores are completely mature. All other cellular layers colapse. PMID:20073340

Barón, Edgar Javier Rincón; Landazábal, Leidy Vivivana Gélvez; Ballesteros, Helkin Giovany Forero; Prieto, Dagoberto Arrieta; Hleap, José Sergio

2009-12-01

236

Divergent and efficient syntheses of the lycopodium alkaloids (-)-lycojaponicumin?c, (-)-8-deoxyserratinine, (+)-fawcettimine, and (+)-fawcettidine.  

PubMed

Four from one: The four title alkaloids (structures shown in blue box) have been synthesized by using a common versatile intermediate with a 6/5/5 tricyclic skeleton. This tricyclic intermediate could be easily assembled by using an intramolecular carbene addition/cyclization and a Dieckmann condensation/Tsuji-Trost allylation as key steps. PMID:24000162

Hou, Si-Hua; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Fu-Min; Wang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

2013-09-02

237

Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

2010-01-01

238

Sulphur containing novel extractants for extraction-separation of palladium (II).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction performance of palladium (II) by sulphur containing extragents has unequivocally established their strong extraction ability toward this thiophilic soft metal. Hence a comprehensive investigative study was initiated by us to examine selective r...

J. P. Shukla S. R. Sawant Anil Kumar R. K. Singh

1995-01-01

239

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of...

2013-07-01

240

Parameter extraction with neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semiconductor processing, the modeling of the process is becoming more and more important. While the ultimate goal is that of developing a set of tools for designing a complete process (Technology CAD), it is also necessary to have modules to simulate the various technologies and, in particular, to optimize specific steps. This need is particularly acute in lithography, where the continuous decrease in CD forces the technologies to operate near their limits. In the development of a 'model' for a physical process, we face several levels of challenges. First, it is necessary to develop a 'physical model,' i.e. a rational description of the process itself on the basis of know physical laws. Second, we need an 'algorithmic model' to represent in a virtual environment the behavior of the 'physical model.' After a 'complete' model has been developed and verified, it becomes possible to do performance analysis. In many cases the input parameters are poorly known or not accessible directly to experiment. It would be extremely useful to obtain the values of these 'hidden' parameters from experimental results by comparing model to data. This is particularly severe, because the complexity and costs associated with semiconductor processing make a simple 'trial-and-error' approach infeasible and cost- inefficient. Even when computer models of the process already exists, obtaining data through simulations may be time consuming. Neural networks (NN) are powerful computational tools to predict the behavior of a system from an existing data set. They are able to adaptively 'learn' input/output mappings and to act as universal function approximators. In this paper we use artificial neural networks to build a mapping from the input parameters of the process to output parameters which are indicative of the performance of the process. Once the NN has been 'trained,' it is also possible to observe the process 'in reverse,' and to extract the values of the inputs which yield outputs with desired characteristics. Using this method, we can extract optimum values for the parameters and determine the process latitude very quickly.

Cazzanti, Luca; Khan, Mumit; Cerrina, Franco

1998-06-01

241

Repeat silica extraction: a simple technique for the removal of PCR inhibitors from DNA extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors are often co-extracted with ancient DNA (aDNA) and when present make the analysis of aDNA difficult, if not impossible. In this study we review previous research on PCR inhibitors and techniques that address their co-extraction with DNA from sub-optimal samples. Additionally, we introduce a simple extraction technique, “repeat silica extraction,” that effectively removed PCR inhibitors

Brian M. Kemp; Cara Monroe; David Glenn Smith

2006-01-01

242

Comparative Studies on the Extraction of Protactinium Using Different Kinds of Organic Extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction behavior of Pa(V) from various aqueous solutions was studied using different extractants, namely Amberlite-LA-2 (Amb-LA2), diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP), tributylphosphate (TBP) and Tricaprylylmethyl ammonium chloride (TCMA) in toluene. The extraction was carried out from slightly acidic as well as strong acidic solutions of HCl, HBr, and HI, at various temperatures. The extracted species in every case were postulated.

F. H. El-Sweify; A. A. Abdel Fattah; S. M. Ali

2009-01-01

243

Solvent extraction of silver from chloride media with some commercial sulfur-containing extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different kinds of commercial sulfur-containing extractants (SFI-6R, MSP-8, Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 301 in EXXSOL D-80) were examined to extract silver from chloride media. The aggregation of MSP-8 was analyzed quantitatively by means of vapor-pressure osmometry and it was found that this extractant exists as a dimeric species in aliphatic organic diluents. Extractants containing P = S and P(S)SH functional

M. Shafiqul Alam; K. Inoue; K. Yoshizuka; Y. Dong; P. Zhang

1997-01-01

244

Comparative study of copper extraction by nitric and microwave assisted nitric acid extraction from industrial sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu was removed from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave assisted acid extraction. The effects of acid concentration, extraction time, sludge particle size and solid\\/liquid (S \\/L) ratio on removal of Cu from industrial sludge were investigated. The results indicated that extraction of Cu by 1 N nitric acid for 90 min at an S \\/L ratio of 1\\/20 is

Xiangyi Zha; Chunwei Han; Jiancheng Tu; Dandan Ma

2011-01-01

245

Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of palladium (II) extraction by extractant mixtures containing LIX 63  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of palladium (II) by LIX 63, TOPO, TIBPS, Aliquat 336 and HDEHP individually or in mixture with LIX 63, was studied in HCl (1 mol l?1). It was found that the association of LIX 63 with TOPO or Aliquat 336 enhances the extraction rate of Pd(II). Aliquat 336 is the most powerful additive, the extraction thermodynamics were carefully investigated

C. Foulon; D. Pareau; G. Durand

1999-01-01

246

Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to modify the Mehlich 2 (M2) extractant to include Cu among the extractable nutrients, retain or enhance the wide range of soils for which it is suitable and minimize it's corrosive properties. The substitution of nitrate for chloride anions and the addition of EDTA accomplished those objectives. The new extracting solution, already designated Mehlich

A. Mehlich

1984-01-01

247

Resume Information Extraction with Cascaded Hybrid Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective approach for resume information extraction to support automatic resume management and routing. A cascaded information extraction (IE) framework is designed. In the first pass, a resume is segmented into a consecutive blocks attached with labels indicating the information types. Then in the second pass, the detailed information, such as Name and Address, are identified in

Kun Yu; Gang Guan; Ming Zhou

2005-01-01

248

Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

Earl, L. L.; And Others

249

NATURAL EXTRACTS UTILIZED IN COSMETOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this paper are presented the main plants whose alcoholic or aqueous extracts are used in cosmetically and pharmaceutical industry. For better understanding the therapeutically properties of a product which are based on his extracts it is necessary to know: (1) the taxonomic positions of producing species, their spreading, culture and biology; (2) the way they are obtained, preservation

Curelea Adina; Bolcu Constantin

250

Music Motive Extraction Through Hanson Intervallic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music motive extraction is an important concept to consider in music information retrieval. Among the possible applications are the creations of music databases that need of indexing tools and access in a dynamic way, copyright management and plagiarism detection, computer-aided composition, etc. This paper presents an unsupervised method for automatic music motive extraction from symbolic sources, using an intervallic analysis.

Johnny F. Serrano; Jose M. Inesta

2006-01-01

251

Significant Scene Extraction Method Using Situation Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports videos for mobile terminals and PCs and other multimedia information services have recently spread. The ability to efficiently extract significant scenes is important with these services. We proposed the personal digest making scheme (PDMS), which calculates the significance of events in a sports game based on video meta data and extracts significant scenes to compose a digest. PDMS calculations

Takako Hashimoto; Takashi Katooka; Atsushi Iizawa; Hiroyuki Kitagawa

2004-01-01

252

An Architecture for Biological Information Extraction and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivations: Technological advances in biomedical research are generating a plethora of heterogeneous data at a high rate. There is a critical need for extraction, integration and management tools for information discovery and synthesis from these heterogeneous data. Results: In this paper, we present a general architecture, called ALFA, for information extraction and representation from diverse biological data. The ALFA architecture

Peter Bluvas; Allan Kuchinsky; Michael Creech; Annette Adler

253

Extraction of vanadium into isobutyl methyl ketone.  

PubMed

Because of its advantages in atomic-absorption spectroscopy, isobutyl methyl ketone was chosen as organic solvent for an extraction study on vanadium. Of eight chelating agents which were evaluated for completeness of extraction, ease of use, working pH range, and freedom from interference, cupferron was judged best. PMID:18960477

Crump-Wiesner, H J; Purdy, W C

1969-01-01

254

Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans  

SciTech Connect

Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

1990-10-01

255

Producing concentrated anthracene by fractional extraction  

SciTech Connect

The results are presented of laboratory experiments in the production of 98-99% pure anthracene by fractional extraction using white spirit and an aqueous solution of dimethylacetamide. It was shown that under optimal conditions, concentrated anthracene at 99% purity may be obtained with 93-95% extraction of the feedstock.

Litvinenko, M.S.

1982-01-01

256

IN SITU SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is designed to physically remove volatile compounds, generally from the vadose or unsaturated zone. t is an in situ process employing vapor extraction wells alone or in combination with air injection wells. acuum blowers supply the motive force, induci...

257

Super Parsing: Sentiment Classification with Review Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the sentiment classification with review extraction. Whole process can be illustrated logically as: (1) extract the review expressions on specific subjects and attach sentiment tag and weight to each expression; (2) calculate the sentiment indicator of each tag by accumulating the weights of all the expression with the corresponding tag; (3) given the indicators on different tags,

Jian Liu; Jianxin Yao; Gengfeng Wu

2005-01-01

258

Effect of olive pomace extracts on hyperlipidaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have examined the hypolipidemic effect of olive pomace extracts. Identification and quantitation of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid as the potentially effective components of the pomace extracts were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography methods. Hyperlipidaemia was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days. The

Jun Liu; Hongbin Sun; Jing Shang; Yuanyuan Yong; Luyong Zhang

2011-01-01

259

Automatic Extraction of Fixed Multiword Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed multiword expressions are strings of words which to- gether behave like a single word. This research establishes a method for the automatic extraction of such expressions. Our method involves three stages. In the first, a statistical measure is used to extract candidate bi- grams. In the second, we use this list to select occurrences of candidate expressions in a

Campbell Hore; Masayuki Asahara; Yuji Matsumoto

2005-01-01

260

Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N.

1996-12-01

261

Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for

K. Vangelas; B. Looney; R. Kamath; D. Adamson; C. Newell

2010-01-01

262

Automated extraction of information in molecular biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review data mining techniques in molecular biology, specifically those that extract information from the scientific literature itself. As more of the biological literature is published electronically, there is an opportunity, and even a need, to automatically summarize the literature in a customized way, for example by associating keywords to a topic. These keywords can be extracted from relevant publications.

Miguel A. Andrade; Peer Bork

2000-01-01

263

Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

1999-01-01

264

EDIBLE OIL EXTRACTION SOLVENTS: FDA REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When a solvent is used to extract edible oil from oil bearing materials in the United States, federal and state workplace, environmental, and food safety regulations have to be complied with. Hexane has been the solvent of choice to extract edible oils since 1940's. The main component of hexane, n...

265

REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

266

DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

2010-01-01

267

Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)|

Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

1969-01-01

268

Evaluation of Road Marking Feature Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a systematic approach to evaluate algorithms for extracting road marking features from images. This specific topic is seldom addressed in the literature while many road marking detection algorithms have been proposed. Most of them can be decomposed into three steps: extracting road marking features, estimating a geometrical marking model, tracking the parameters of the geometrical model along

Thomas Veit; Jean-Philippe Tarel; Philippe Nicolle; Pierre Charbonnier

2008-01-01

269

Anomalous solvent extraction behavior of astatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the solvent extraction behavior of astatine and found the anomalous behavior of this element similar to radioiodine. Astatine was extracted into CS2 from acidic solution over a wide range of carrier iodine concentration. The distribution ratios of astatine were determined by measuring the -ray from 210 At with a Nal(TI) detector. A drastic change was observed around at

N. Takahashi; H. Baba

1997-01-01

270

EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

271

FEUDOR: Feature Extraction Using Distinctive Octagonal Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel feature extraction algorithm called FEUDOR. The features extracted by this method are octagonal homogeneous regions that have different mean square difference compared to their surrounding area. By using integral images we have implemented this algorithm effi- ciently. We have shown that the repeatability score of FEUDOR under vari- ous image transformations is comparable and in

Ario Emaminejad; Mike Brookes

2008-01-01

272

Extraction of phenolic compounds from soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the composition and amount of phenolic inputs from plants is important for studies of soil organic matter formation and nutrient cycling. However, some phenolic compounds, including tannins, can sorb or complex with the soil making them difficult to extract. We extracted soils with a...

273

IKONOS STEREO FEATURE EXTRACTION - RPC APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

IKONOS stereo imagery is particularly well suited for 3-D feature extraction. The sophisticated geometric and radiometric characteristics of the IKONOS sensor provide the end user with excellent metric accuracy and wealth of information which can be used for interpretive analysis. In order to be able to perform stereo feature extraction with sufficient accuracy the very complex IKONOS sensor model needs

Jacek Grodecki

2001-01-01

274

Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Solid Phase Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and solid phase extraction (SPE) is reviewed. MIPs, which have high selectivity and affinity for a predetermined molecule (template), have been used as sorbents for SPE to selectively isolate analytes from biological, pharmaceutical, and environmental samples. Solid phase extraction with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP–SPE) is a promising technique which allows specific analytes to

Fengxia Qiao; Hanwen Sun; Hongyuan Yan; Kyung Ho Row

2006-01-01

275

Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Infusions of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries, but to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken so far to determine the possible mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic properties of the fruit. The present study was designed to investigate whether these fruits possess insulinotropic effects. For this purpose, different extracts of Citrullus colocynthis seed components were obtained: RN II (crude extract), RN VI (hydro-alcoholic extract), RN X (purified extract) and RN XVII (beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine), the major free amino acid present in the seeds. The insulin secretory effects of these different extracts were evaluated in vitro in the isolated rat pancreas and isolated rat islets in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. All tested extracts, when perfused for 20 min at 0.1 mg/ml, immediately and significantly stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was transient. In addition, the purified extract (RN X) provoked a clear dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated islets. Moreover, a significant and persistant increase in pancreatic flow rate appeared during RN VI, RN X and RN XVII perfusions. In conclusion, our results show that different Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts have an insulinotropic effect which could at least partially account for the antidiabetic activities of these fruits. PMID:10909260

Nmila, R; Gross, R; Rchid, H; Roye, M; Manteghetti, M; Petit, P; Tijane, M; Ribes, G; Sauvaire, Y

2000-06-01

276

Extracting Events and Temporal Expressions from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracting temporal information from raw text is fundamental for deep language understanding, and key to many applications like question answering, information extraction, and document summarization. Our long-term goal is to build complete temporal structure of documents and apply the temporal structure in other applications like textual entailment, question answering, dialog systems or others. In this paper, we present a first

Naushad UzZaman; James F. Allen

2010-01-01

277

Antibacterial activity of some lichen extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from some lichens species were evaluated for antibacterial activity against six standard strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and two environmental strains (Aeromonas) that were isolated from different lakes. The aqueous and ethanol extracts showed a variable range of antibacterial activity to both standard strains and

Ali Karagöz; Nihal Doruöz; Zuhal Zeybek; Ali Aslan

2009-01-01

278

A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

1993-01-01

279

Whitening Effects of Marine Pseudomonas Extract  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria associated with marine invertebrates are a rich source of bioactive metabolites. Objective The effects of marine bacteria extracts on pigmentation were investigated to find novel whitening agents. Methods The marine bacteria collected near Gangwha Island in Korea were isolated and extracted using organic solvent. The organic extracts were screened and selected using the cell free tyrosinase activity. The whitening effects of the selected extract were further investigated using cultured melanocytes, cultured skin and in vivo zebrafish. The whitening mechanism of the marine extract was also investigated. Results The marine bacterial methylene chloride extract reduced the pigmentation of Melan-a cells, human melanocytes, cultured skin and in vivo zebrafish. The decrease in pigmentation was due to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity and the expression of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor protein. These bacteria were identified as a novel Pseudomonas species. Conclusion The methylene chloride extract of marine pseudomonas species possesses a whitening effect. Further chemical isolation and characterization of the active compounds from this marine bacterial extract are needed.

Yoon, Tae-Jin; Lee, Gyong Jae

2011-01-01

280

Supercritical fluid extraction. Principles and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors cover virtually every facet of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology: the history of SCF extraction, its underlying thermodynamic principles, process principles, industrial applications, and analysis of SCF research and development efforts. A review of 75 major SCF extraction patents provides an important source of technical and business information. Computer programs that can be used to calculate critical mixture and

M. A. McHugh; V. J. Krukonis

1986-01-01

281

Method of Extracting Boron from Natural Brines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the invention is a method of extracting boron from natural brines. For a more thorough extraction of boron, the brine is treated with a mixture of lime with aluminum sulfates, or with salt of trivalent iron (for example, chloride, or sulfate...

K. I. Khrennikov

1965-01-01

282

Extraction and purification of solanesol from tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanesol, a main polyprenol occurred in tobacco, has gained the attention of biochemists because of its value as a source of isoprene units for the synthesis of metabolically active quinones and vitamin K analogs. This article deals with extraction and purifyication of solanesol. Ground tobacco leaf was extracted with petroleum ether in 50°C water bath under reflux for 2h, and

De-Song Tang; Lin Zhang; Huan-Lin Chen; Yue-Rong Liang; Jian-Liang Lu; Hui-Ling Liang; Xin-Qiang Zheng

2007-01-01

283

Bacteremia in Children Following Dental Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and intensity of bacteremia following tooth extraction in children were measured by blood culture. The effects on bacteremia of the number and type of teeth extracted, oral hygiene, gingival health, presence of abscess, and antibiotic prophylaxis were assessed. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the incidence of bacteremia from 63% to 35%. The intensity of bacteremia was 2 cfu\\/mL of blood

W. A. Coulter; A. Coffey; I. D. F. Saunders; A. M. Emmerson

1990-01-01

284

Ontology-Based Terrorism Event Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferations of terrorism news articles from thousands of different sources are now available on the Web. Summarization of such information is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this paper is to study and compare the linguistic feature methods that are appropriate for use in terrorism event extraction systems. The event extraction has a main function to named entity recognition

Uraiwan Inyaem; Phayung Meesad; Choochart Haruechaiyasak; Dat Tran

2009-01-01

285

Solar cell parameter extraction using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for improving the accuracy of solar cell parameters extracted using conventional techniques. The approach is based on formulating the parameter extraction as a search and optimization problem. Current-voltage data used were generated by simulating a two-diode solar cell model of specified parameters. The genetic algorithm search range that simulates

Joseph A. Jervase; Hadj Bourdoucen; Ali Al-Lawati

2001-01-01

286

Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines  

SciTech Connect

The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

2008-06-01

287

Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.  

PubMed

A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum). PMID:10374253

Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

1999-05-01

288

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

1986-02-01

289

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

1986-02-01

290

Extraction of mercaptobenzothiazole compounds from rubber products.  

PubMed

At evaluation of contact dermatitis caused by solid material, patch testing is usually performed with the material as such and with extracts of it. In this study, optimization of the extraction technique monitored by quantitative HPLC analysis of the extracted haptens is described for mercaptobenzothiazole derivatives. Several solvents with different properties are included. Acetone has traditionally been a solvent widely used for the extraction of organic haptens from solid products. However, acetone and other ketones are not inert solvents. The rubber accelerators 2-(4-morpholinyl mercapto) benzothiazole (MMBT) and N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazyl sulfenamide (CBS) react with acetone, yielding 2 new compounds, which were isolated and characterised by NMR and MS. For the extraction of solid rubber products, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was found to be a more suitable solvent which is unreactive to most common haptens. PMID:9165202

Hansson, C; Bergendorff, O; Ezzelarab, M; Sterner, O

1997-04-01

291

Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts.  

PubMed

Biomolecules present in plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a single-step green synthesis process. This biogenic reduction of metal ion to base metal is quite rapid, readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and easily scaled up. Synthesis mediated by plant extracts is environmentally benign. The reducing agents involved include the various water soluble plant metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids) and co-enzymes. Silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles have been the particular focus of plant-based syntheses. Extracts of a diverse range of plant species have been successfully used in making nanoparticles. In addition to plant extracts, live plants can be used for the synthesis. Here we review the methods of making nanoparticles using plant extracts. Methods of particle characterization are reviewed and potential applications of the particles in medicine are discussed. PMID:23318667

Mittal, Amit Kumar; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

2013-01-12

292

Comparison of conventional extraction under reflux conditions and microwave-assisted extraction of oil from popcorn.  

PubMed

Popcorn offers an environmentally friendly alternative to the commercial synthetic loose-fill packing materials. Popcorn could be used for cushioning purposes if the oil is extracted after the popping process. Conventional and microwave-assisted extraction methods were used for oil extraction from whole and ground, popped and unpopped kernels. The conventional extraction method achieved 68.5% oil recovery from whole popped kernels. However, whole unpopped kernels were not efficiently de-oiled with either of the methods. Extraction of oil from popped kernels is recommended; corn varieties with higher starch content and lower oil content should be used. PMID:18161415

Cheng, Hoi Po; Dai, Jianming; Nemes, Simona; Raghavan, G S Vijaya

2007-01-01

293

Characteristics of Pinus pinaster bark extracts obtained under various extraction conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinus pinaster   bark extracts obtained by lixiviation with water or alkaline solutions followed by spray drying. Extract yield was 2.5- to\\u000a 6-fold higher with alkaline extractant solutions than with water. Within the ranges of temperature (T), NaOH dose (NaOH) and\\u000a solid\\/liquid ratio (S\\/L) that were studied, the formaldehyde-condensable polyphenols content of spray-dried extracts obtained\\u000a with NaOH as extractant was highest

G. Vázquez; J. González-Alvarez; S. Freire; F. López-Suevos; G. Antorrena

2001-01-01

294

Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines  

SciTech Connect

The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

2011-10-17

295

Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.  

PubMed

The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium. PMID:16924586

Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

2006-08-21

296

Extract of Touchi containing an .alpha.-glucosidase inhibitor  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An .alpha.-glucosidase inhibitor is described. It is comprised of an extract of Touchi selected from the group consisting of an extract of Touchi extracted with alcohol, an extract of Touchi extracted with a mixture of water and alcohol in a water to alcohol ratio of 1:5 to 5:1, and an extract of Touchi extracted with water at 100.degree. C. to 140.degree. C. The components in the extract which have a molecular weight of at least 3000 as determined by means of gel filtration or membrane filtration are at most 20% by weight and wherein the extract inhibits .alpha.-glucosidase at least 90.4%.

Kawabata; Jun (Sapporo, JP); Kasai; Takanori (Sapporo, JP); Fujita; Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP); Fukushima; Nobuhiro (Ibaraki, JP)

2001-10-09

297

Nuclear protein extraction from frozen porcine myocardium.  

PubMed

Protocols for the extraction of nuclear proteins have been developed for cultured cells and fresh tissue, but sometimes only frozen tissue is available. We have optimized the homogenization procedure and subsequent fractionation protocol for the preparation of nuclear protein extracts from frozen porcine left ventricular (LV) tissue. This method gave a highly reproducible protein yield (6.5±0.7% of total protein; mean±SE, n=9) and a 6-fold enrichment of the nuclear marker protein B23. The nuclear protein extracts were essentially devoid of cytosolic, myofilament, and histone proteins. Compared to nuclear extracts from fresh LV tissue, some loss of nuclear proteins to the cytosolic fraction was observed. Using this method, we studied the distribution of tyrosine phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (PY-STAT3) in LV tissue of animals treated with the ?-agonist dobutamine. Upon treatment, PY-STAT3 increased 30.2±8.5-fold in total homogenates, but only 6.9±2.1-fold (n=4, P=0.03) in nuclear protein extracts. Of all PY-STAT3 formed, only a minor fraction appeared in the nuclear fraction. This simple and reproducible protocol yielded nuclear protein extracts that were highly enriched in nuclear proteins with almost complete removal of cytosolic and myofilament proteins. This nuclear protein extraction protocol is therefore well-suited for nuclear proteome analysis of frozen heart tissue collected in biobanks. PMID:21061196

Kuster, Diederik W D; Merkus, Daphne; Jorna, Huub J J; Dekkers, Dick H W; Duncker, Dirk J; Verhoeven, Adrie J M

2011-06-01

298

Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L. [National Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

299

Enhancing p-cresol extraction from soil.  

PubMed

Soil washing is a potential technology for rapid removal of organic hydrocarbons sorbed to soils. In this work, p-cresol desorption with different non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Brij 30 and Triton X-100) was compared to cyclodextrine and citrate as solubilizer. A series of batch extraction experiments were conducted at 20°C using the field soil with different extracting solutions at various concentrations to investigate the removal efficiency and to optimize the concentration of the extractant. The use of the different extracting agents was very selective to p-cresol extraction, minimizing soil organic matter releasing and maintaining the natural pH of the soil. The highest asymptotic values of desorption percentages were obtained for Tween 80 and Brij 30 at 48 h. However, Brij 30 ecotoxicity (EC(50)=0.5 mgL(-1)) is in the same order of that obtained for p-cresol, being this surfactant clearly ruled out. Liquid to solid ratio of 2.5 mLg(-1) presented the best extraction results, while concentrations higher than 1 gL(-1) for Tween 80 and Citrate did not produce any significant effect on the desorption efficiency. p-Cresol extraction efficiencies higher than 70% and 60% for Tween 80 and Citrate, respectively. PMID:21524777

Rosas, J M; Vicente, F; Santos, A; Romero, A

2011-04-27

300

Microwave assisted extraction of anthocyanins from grape skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the analysis of anthocyanins in grapes based on a systematic study of the extractability of eleven anthocyanins from grapes has been developed. Microwave assisted extraction was applied as a prior stage to the chromatographic determination of anthocyanins in the extracts. The stability of anthocyanins under the extraction conditions was checked using a standardised extract from grape

A. Liazid; R. F. Guerrero; E. Cantos; M. Palma; C. G. Barroso

2011-01-01

301

Microwave-assisted solvent extraction of environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, microwave-assisted extraction has attracted growing interest as it allows rapid extractions of solutes from solid matrices, with extraction efficiency comparable to that of the classical techniques. In particular, numerous applications of this recent technique deal with the extraction of pollutants from environmental samples. This review gives a brief presentation of the theory of microwave and extraction systems,

Valérie Camel

2000-01-01

302

Extraction and characteristics of seed kernel oil from white pitaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuable oil in the seeds of white pitaya can be extracted by different methods. Traditional Soxhlet extraction was compared with microwave-assistant extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) and a combination of microwave and AEE (MAEE) for the yield and characteristics of the oil obtained. MAEE was proven to be the best method with the highest oil

Hanming Rui; Liyan Zhang; Zuowei Li; Yanli Pan

2009-01-01

303

Supercritical fluid extraction of wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work was to optimize the extraction of wormwood oil by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of growth-controlled plant material. Different extraction conditions, two growth techniques and various crops were tested and the evolution of the extracted oil composition was screened chromatographically. A comparison with conventional techniques such as hydrodistillation (HD) or organic solvent extraction (OSE) was also

L. Martín; A. M. Mainar; A. González-Coloma; J. Burillo; J. S. Urieta

2011-01-01

304

Breakage of extracted leads: another management option.  

PubMed

Extracted lead breakage is a well-known technical complication of lead extraction. If the remaining fragment is longer than a few cm, it should be removed. The femoral or jugular approach, with different tools, is used. We describe the utility of the extracted lead venous entry approach as the optional solution in six patients. The role of the shape of the utilised sheath and the presence of venous entry valve and favourable specific properties of basket catheters are discussed, and also the utility of a repeated Byrd dilator. PMID:22430423

Kutarski, Andrzej; Pietura, Rados?aw; Czajkowski, Marek

2012-01-01

305

Development of multi-stage countercurrent extraction technology for the extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice ( Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-stage countercurrent extraction (MCE) technique has been developed for the extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, a particular plant species of licorice. The effects of extraction stage numbers, temperature, extraction time and solvent to licorice ratio on the extraction yield of GA were investigated in detail. The process conditions of MCE were optimized using orthogonal array experimental

Qiao-e Wang; Shaomei Ma; Boqiang Fu; Frank S. C. Lee; Xiaoru Wang

2004-01-01

306

Recent Developments in Australian Gold Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes new technologies that have greatly improved the extraction efficiency of gold ore, including: altering plant layout to promote efficiency, engaging Filiblast forced oxidation and bioxidation systems, and updating the electrowinning procedure at the gold recovery stage. (JRH)|

Thiele, Rodney B.

1995-01-01

307

SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN  

DOEpatents

The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

Cooley, C.R.

1961-06-13

308

Solvent extraction of phenols from water  

SciTech Connect

Phenols are present in aqueous steams from coal gasification, liquefaction and coking, often in concentrations high enough to warrant recovery. Methyl isobutyl ketone and diisopropyl ether have been evaluated for the extraction of phenols, at high dilution, from water.

Greminger, D.C.

1982-01-01

309

Extraction of solvent-refined coal liquids  

SciTech Connect

Solvent extraction can provide an alternate approach to upgrading coal liquids by selectively removing the heteroatom compounds from the hydrocarbons. In this study, the distribution coefficients of the heteroatom compounds present in solvent refined coal liquids of different boiling points were determined. The objective was to evaluate the extraction process for maximum removal of these compounds from SRC-II liquids and prepare samples of raffinates and extracts for further hydrotreatment studies. It is found that the distribution coefficients for the different types of heteroatom compounds in coal liquids decrease with increasing boiling point. Phenolic compounds are the easiest to extract and basic nitrogen compounds are the most difficult. The selectivity of DMF for phenolic compounds relative to the nitrogen compounds is greater than the selectivity of aqueous methanol. 3 refs.

Scheibel, E.G.; Schneider, A.; Hollstein, E.J.

1981-01-01

310

Facial feature extraction from color images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust facial feature extraction algorithm is required for many applications. The method proposed in this paper utilizes techniques of color segmentation and color thresholding to isolate and pinpoint the eyes, nostrils, and mouth on a color image

Thomas C. Chang; T. S. Huang; Carol Novak

1994-01-01

311

Effect of olive pomace extracts on hyperlipidaemia.  

PubMed

In this study, we have examined the hypolipidemic effect of olive pomace extracts. Identification and quantitation of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid as the potentially effective components of the pomace extracts were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography methods. Hyperlipidaemia was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days. The olive pomace extracts were supplemented (200 mg kg?¹ body wt day?¹) for 15 days. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase increased in rats with hyperlipidaemia. Treatment with the olive pomace extracts significantly modulated the abnormalities induced by hyperlipidaemia. Lipid accumulation was decreased in histological findings. This study provides the possibility of utilising the olive pomaces for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidaemia. PMID:21740285

Liu, Jun; Sun, Hongbin; Shang, Jing; Yong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Luyong

2011-07-01

312

Stabilizing Unmilled Brown Rice by Ethanol Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is drawn to a highly advantageous and unobvious process for stabilizing unmilled brown rice comprising, contacting unmilled brown rice with ethanol under conditions providing extraction of 15% or less of brown rice oil from the unmilled brow...

E. T. Champagne R. J. Hron G. Abraham

1990-01-01

313

Extraction efficiency of laser active medium: Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the design of high power laser sources, the choice of the active medium geometry is of fundamental importance for the optimization of energy extraction capability. This paper compares, by means of simple analytical deductions and numerical simulations,...

F. Flora T. Hermsen

1991-01-01

314

[Extraction and analysis of sargassum hemiphyllum polysaccharides].  

PubMed

Sargassum hemiphyllum polysaccharides (SHP) was extracted by thermal water method and the physical and chemical characters, the extraction rate, contents, compositions of SHP was studied. The result showed that SHP was ashen powder, water-soluble, insoluble in organic solvents. The reaction of iodide-potassium iodide was negative to evaluate that SHP was nonstarch polysaccharides. Extraction rate was 7.04% and the content of polysaccharides was 82.9%. Ultraviolet spectrum showed that there were little DNA and protein. Infrared spectroscopy showed that SHP was main pyrano polysaccharides and had beta-linked glycopolysaccharides in molecule structure of SHP. Thin layer chromatography traced that SHP could be xylan. The results indicated that the extract was not only polysaccharides but also higher purity and the method was high efficiency. PMID:15828327

Meng, Qing-yong; Liu, Zhi-hui; Xu, Mei-yi; Dongye, Guang-zhi

2004-12-01

315

Methods for DNA extraction from Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Three different methods are described for the extraction of total genomic DNA from the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans. One method, which enables a large number of cultures to be processed simultaneously, involves pulverizing dried cells with glass beads and then allowing the disrupted cells to break apart, autolyse, by incubation in a solution which includes sorbitol and a nonionic detergent. DNA extraction by a second method with a French pressure cell can be utilized on cultures in any phase of growth, but is not practical for processing numerous samples. The third method, which involves induction of spheroplasts, is commonly used for DNA extraction from various yeasts but is not suited for processing many samples simultaneously. The DNA extracted with the three procedures is comparable in quality; in particular, it is of high molecular size (greater than 30 kbp) and reacts readily with DNA-modifying enzymes such as restriction endonucleases. PMID:2823631

Glee, P M; Russell, P J; Welsch, J A; Pratt, J C; Cutler, J E

1987-07-01

316

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

317

Asphaltene reaction via supercritical fluid extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of bitumen was carried out in a continuous extractor using propane as the solvent at several temperatures and pressures. The asphaltene contents of the residual fractions in the extractor were compared to the asphalten...

M. D. Deo F. V. Hanson

1993-01-01

318

Comparison of Bacterial Extracellular Polymer Extraction Methods  

PubMed Central

Five different bacterial extracellular polymer extraction methods and a combination of two of these methods were compared on cultures of activated sludge, synthetic activated sludge, and Klebsiella aerogenes. High-speed centrifugation was the most effective extraction method for the K. aerogenes culture, based on the comparatively small amount of cell disruption and the relatively high extracellular polymer yield. Steaming treatment was the most effective extraction method for the activated sludges, since it released a significant quantity of extracellular polymers from the flocs and caused less cellular disruption than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium hydroxide treatments. Sodium hydroxide treatment caused extensive disruption in all cultures. Ultrasonication released low concentrations of extracellular polymers from all cultures. However, it caused no significant cell disruption and therefore may be useful as a preliminary treatment in conjunction with another extraction method.

Brown, Melanie J.; Lester, John N.

1980-01-01

319

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature.

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

320

Design for Data Extraction from Digitized Contours,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem addressed by this exercise is the extraction of a sequence of points (ranges) along specified tracks (generally radials emanating from a given point) which intersect digitized contour lines (of e.g., bathymetry), along with the associated cont...

R. G. Stieglitz

1981-01-01

321

Extraction of Copper from Sulfide Ores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the patent application copper is extracted from sulfide ores or concentrates by electrolysis in a cell having separate anode and cathode sections, and having an intermediate liquid copper-mercury alloy electrode between the anode and cathode sections.

T. A. Henrie R. E. Lindstrom K. P. V. Lei

1976-01-01

322

Antimicrobial activity of extractives of Solidago microglossa.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from Solidago microglossa roots, essential oil from its aerial part and some isolated compounds was investigated. The oil exhibited concentration-dependent activity against all the tested bacteria and yeasts. PMID:16843619

Morel, A F; Dias, G O; Porto, C; Simionatto, E; Stuker, C Z; Dalcol, I I

2006-05-24

323

Cataract Extraction and Risk of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To prospectively examine the association between cataract extraction and breast cancer risk among 66,782 postmenopausal women who were 50 years or older in the Nurses' Health Study cohort from 1984 to 1998.

Shumin M. Zhang; Walter C. Willett; Frank B. Hu; Edward L. Giovannucci; JoAnn E. Manson; Graham A. Colditz; Susan E. Hankinson

2004-01-01

324

SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY PROTOTYPE TEST  

SciTech Connect

The SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) accumulator ring Extraction System consists of a Fast kicker and a Lambertson Septum magnet. The proposed design will use 14 kicker magnets powered by an Extraction Kicker Power Supply System. They will eject the high power beam from the SNS accumulator ring into RTBT (Ring to Target Beam Tunnel) through a Lambertson Septum magnet. This paper describes some test results of the SNS Extraction Kicker power supply prototype. The high repetition rate of 60 pulse per second operation is the challenging part of the design. In the prototype testing, a 3 kA damp current of 700ns pulse-width, 200 nS rise time and 60 Hz repetition rate at 32 kV PFN operation voltage has been demonstrated. An Extraction kicker power supply system design diagram is depicted.

MI,J.L.; SANDBERG,J.; SANDERS,R.; SOUKAS,A.; ZHANG,W.

2000-06-27

325

Antidiarrheal activity of Capparis zeylanica leaf extracts  

PubMed Central

The antidiarrheal activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Capparis zeylanica (Capparidaceae) was investigated by castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestine transit method on mice. Like loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight), C. zeylanica methanolic extract (100,150,200 mg/kg body weight) produced a significant decrease in the severity of diarrhea. The percentage protection in extract-treated animals showing diarrhea was compared with castor oil-treated and loperamide-treated animals. The activity was found to be dose-dependant. Its effect when evaluated on intestinal transit produced a decrease in intestinal transit (75.97%).The results revealed that the methanolic extract significantly reduced diarrhea in mice with reduction in weight of stools.

Sini, Karanayil R.; Sinha, Barij N.; Rajasekaran, Aiyolu

2011-01-01

326

Antidiarrheal activity of Capparis zeylanica leaf extracts.  

PubMed

The antidiarrheal activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Capparis zeylanica (Capparidaceae) was investigated by castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestine transit method on mice. Like loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight), C. zeylanica methanolic extract (100,150,200 mg/kg body weight) produced a significant decrease in the severity of diarrhea. The percentage protection in extract-treated animals showing diarrhea was compared with castor oil-treated and loperamide-treated animals. The activity was found to be dose-dependant. Its effect when evaluated on intestinal transit produced a decrease in intestinal transit (75.97%).The results revealed that the methanolic extract significantly reduced diarrhea in mice with reduction in weight of stools. PMID:22171290

Sini, Karanayil R; Sinha, Barij N; Rajasekaran, Aiyolu

2011-01-01

327

Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli. PMID:14630178

Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

2003-12-01

328

Military Applications for Information Extraction Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amount of information that must be processed for military purposes presents a daunting challenge to administrators, analysts, and leaders. The advent of information extraction technology that uses artificial intelligence techniques to apply meaning to...

P. S. Walczak

1995-01-01

329

Solar cell parameter extraction using genetic algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for improving the accuracy of solar cell parameters extracted using conventional techniques. The approach is based on formulating the parameter extraction as a search and optimization problem. Current-voltage data used were generated by simulating a two-diode solar cell model of specified parameters. The genetic algorithm search range that simulates the error in the extracted parameters was varied from ±5 to ±100% of the specified parameter values. Results obtained show that for a simulated error of ±5% in the solar cell model values, the deviation of the extracted parameters varied from 0.1 to 1% of the specified values. Even with a simulated error of as high as ±100%, the resulting deviation only varied from 2 to 36%. The performance of this technique is also shown to surpass the quasi-Newton method, a calculus-based search and optimization algorithm.

Jervase, Joseph A.; Bourdoucen, Hadj; Al-Lawati, Ali

2001-11-01

330

Antioxidant activity of extracts from the bark of Chamaecyparis ...  

Treesearch

... activities of the four extracts were evaluated using the DPPH• and ABTS+• methods. ... All the bark extracts showed significant radical-scavenging activity. In the ABTS+• assay, n-butanol extracts exhibited the strongest radical-scavenging  ...

331

21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the definition...

2013-04-01

332

21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the definition...

2009-04-01

333

21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the definition...

2010-04-01

334

21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169.176 ...and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract conforms to the definition and...

2010-04-01

335

21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169.176 ...and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract conforms to the definition and...

2009-04-01

336

Molten Salt Extraction of Americium from Molten Plutonium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical basis for molten salt extraction separation of americium from plutonium is presented. The extraction factor relationship is used to quantify this liquid-liquid extraction (molten salt-molten metal) unit operation. The amount of salt required ...

J. B. Knighton J. W. Berry R. C. Franchini R. G. Auge

1976-01-01

337

Estrogenic activity of the dichloromethane extract from Pueraria mirifica.  

PubMed

Pueraria mirifica and its extracts are widely used as the ingredient(s) in many rejuvenating products. Up to now, the extract of P. mirifica roots that has been used in most studies, is the alcoholic extract. In the present study, we investigated the estrogenic activity using uterotropic and MCF-7 cell proliferation models of the dichloromethane extract as well as the water extract which was obtained from partitioning the ethanolic extract. The results indicated that among the three extracts, i.e. the ethanolic extract (PM1), the water extract (PM2) and dichloromethane extract (PM3), PM3 exhibited the most potent estrogenic activity in both models, followed by PM1. The extracts produced uterotropic activity associated with the increase of water content while uterotropic activity of 17beta-estradiol was related to the increase of muscle mass. The two isoflavonoids, genistein and daidzein, were not the major active phytoestrogens involving the estrogenic activity of these extracts. PMID:18621111

Sookvanichsilp, N; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Boonleang, C

2008-06-22

338

THE IGOLI MERCURY - FREE GOLD EXTRACTION PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mintek has developed a process called iGoli Mercury-free Gold Extraction Process that can be used to extract gold from 0.1 % gold concentrate to produce 99.90 percent gold product. The process uses a mixture of pool acid (dilute hydrochloric acid), bleach (sodium hypochlorite) and sodium metabisulphate to leach and recover gold. Artisanal and small-scale miners concentrate their gold using sluice

Sidney Mahlatsi

339

Silicone rod extraction of pharmaceuticals from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicone elastomer (in the form of a flexible rod) is one of the materials currently tested for use in analytical extraction\\u000a techniques and passive sampling devices. We investigated the applicability of this material for the enrichment of selected\\u000a polar pharmaceuticals (antipyrine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, bezafibrate) from water. Time-resolved batch extraction\\u000a tests (up to five weeks in duration) were performed in stirred

Albrecht Paschke; Janine Brümmer; Gerrit Schüürmann

2007-01-01

340

Characterization of lipoxygenase extracts from Penicillum sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomasses of Penicillium camemberti and P. roqueforti strains were grown and harvested after 10 d of incubation, a period that corresponded to the maximal dry weight of mycelium\\u000a as well as to lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Partially purified LOX extracts were obtained by ammonium sulfate precipitation\\u000a of the crude enzymatic extracts that had been recovered from the biomasses. The partially purified

Xavier Perraud; Selim Kermasha

2000-01-01

341

Extracting differential pair distribution functions using MIXSCAT  

SciTech Connect

Differently weighted experimental scattering data have been used to extract partial or differential structure factors or pair distribution functions in studying many materials. However, this is not done routinely partly because of the lack of user-friendly software. This paper presents MIXSCAT, a new member of the DISCUS program package. MIXSCAT allows one to combine neutron and X-ray pair distribution functions and extract their respective differential functions.

Wurden, Caroline; Page, Katharine; Llobet, Anna; White, Claire E.; Proffen, Thomas (LANL)

2010-08-27

342

Sentiment Classification Using Information Extraction Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper explores the sentiment classification with Information Extraction (IE) approach. The IE approach here is required\\u000a to detect the sentiment expressions on specific subject (person, product, company and so on) and then to evaluate the sentiment\\u000a strength and\\/or the validation of them. Our method can be illustrated logically as: (1) From a given text, extract the sentiment\\u000a expressions on

Jian Liu; Jianxin Yao; Gengfeng Wu

2005-01-01

343

Automatic information extraction from large websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information extraction from websites is nowadays a relevant problem, usually performed by software modules called wrappers. A key requirement is that the wrapper generation process should be automated to the largest extent, in order to allow for large-scale extraction tasks even in presence of changes in the underlying sites. So far, however, only semi-automatic proposals have appeared in the literature.We

Valter Crescenzi; Giansalvatore Mecca

2004-01-01

344

Wide-Coverage Spanish Named Entity Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a proposal for wide-coverage Named EntityExtraction for Spanish. The extraction of named entities is treated\\u000a using robust Machine Learning techniques (AdaBoost) and simple attributes requiring non-linguisticallypro cessed corpora,\\u000a complemented with external information sources (a list of trigger words and a gazetteer). A thorough evaluation of the task\\u000a on real corpora is presented in order to validate the

Xavier Carreras; Lluís Màrquez; Lluís Padró

2002-01-01

345

Extraction of nutraceuticals from milk thistle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk thistle contains compounds that display hepatoxic protection properties. We examined the batch extraction of silymarin\\u000a compounds from milk thistle seed meal in 50, 70, 85, and 100°C water as a function of time. After 210 min of extraction at\\u000a 100°C, the yield of taxifolin was 1.2 mg\\/g of seed, a 6.2-fold increase over the results obtained in a Soxhlet

Jose F. Alvarez Barreto; Sunny N. Wallace; Danielle Julie Carrier; Edgar C. Clausen

2003-01-01

346

Whitening effect of Sophora flavescens extract.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Sophora flavescens Ait. (Leguminosae) has been proposed as a new whitening agent for cosmetics, because it has a strong ability to inhibit tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the formation of melanin. Objective: We conducted a study to determine whether ethanol extract of the roots of S. flavescens has the potential for use as a whitening cosmetic agent by investigating its underlying mechanisms of action. Materials and methods: To elucidate the mechanism of action of S. flavescens extract, we used DNA microarray technology. We investigated the changes in the mRNA levels of genes associated with the formation and transport of melanosomes. We also identified the formation and transport of melanosomes with immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. Finally, the skin-whitening effect in vivo of S. flavescens extract was analyzed on human skin. Results: We found that S. flavescens extract strongly inhibited tyrosinase activity (IC50, 10.4??g/mL). Results also showed that key proteins involved in the formation and transport of melanosomes were dramatically downregulated at both mRNA and protein level in keratinocytes exposed to S. flavescens extract. In addition, a clinical trial of a cream containing 0.05% S. flavescens extract on human skin showed it had a significant effect on skin whitening by mechanical and visual evaluation (1.14-fold). Discussion and conclusion: This study provides important clues toward understanding the effects of S. flavescens extract on the formation and transport of melanosomes. From these results, we suggest that naturally occurring S. flavescens extract might be useful as a new whitening agent in cosmetics. PMID:24106757

Shin, Dae Hyun; Cha, Youn Jeong; Joe, Gi Jung; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Kim, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Min

2013-11-01

347

SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

DOEpatents

A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

1960-10-11

348

Chemical Extraction of Arsenic from Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of batch extraction experiments were conducted using a fortified soil with different extracting solutions such as inorganic acids (hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), perchloric acid (HClO4), or nitric acid (HNO3)), organic acids (acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7)) and alkaline agent (NaOH). Various concentrations were used to investigate the removal efficiency and to optimise

M. G. M. ALAM; S. TOKUNAGA

2006-01-01

349

Pitch extraction algorithm for voice recognition applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two computationally simple pitch-extraction algorithms based on the autocorrelation method of pitch determination are presented. Both algorithms have been implemented in software, and their performance has been evaluated. The first pitch-extraction algorithm (PEA #1) uses center clipping and infinite peak dipping for time-domain preprocessing before computing autocorrelation while the second algorithm (PEA #2) nonlinearly distorts the speech signal before center

R. Sankar

1988-01-01

350

ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS OF CARBAMOYLMETHYLPHOSPHORYL EXTRACTANTS IN TOLUENE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity coefficients of four extractants belonging to the carbamoylmethylphosphoryl class were measured by vapor-phase osmometry. All of the activity coefficients were within 15% of unity for concentrations up to 0.5 M in toluene. As the basicity of the extractant's phosphoryl-group increases, its activity coefficient decreases. Octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide [O?D(iB)CMPO] in toluene exhibited a marked decrease in activity coefficient upon equilibration

H. Diamond; E. P. Horwitz; P. R. Danesi

1986-01-01

351

Antioxidant Principles in Peltophorum Ferrugineum Flower Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts from the petals of the flowers of Peltophorum ferrugineum were evaluated for their phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and HPLC profile. The total phenolic contents of the ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts, as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, were found to be 17.0 ± 0.8, 29.3 ± 0.4, and 18.6

S. Pavagadhi; G. S. Joseph; B. S. Jena

2012-01-01

352

Extraction of El-Lajjun oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Extraction of the bitumen fraction of El-Lajjun oil shale was carried out using 17 different solvents, pure and combined. Out of all the solvents used, toluene and chlorform were found to be the most efficient for extraction of the bitumen to perform the major part of the experiments. This selectivity was based on the quality and quantity of the yield and on the quantity of solvent recovered. Extraction was carried out using a Soxhlet extractor. For complete recovery of solvent the extract phase was subjected to two stages of distillation, simple distillation followed by fractional distillation, where different cuts of oil were obtained. It was found that an optimum shale size of 1.0 mm offered better solvent recovery. One hour was the optimum time needed for complete extraction. The yield of oil was determined from the material balance gained from fractional distillation after testing for the existence of any traces of solvent trapped in the different cuts by using a gas chromotography technique. When chloroform was used, it was found that the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.037 g/g of shale, which corresponds to 98% of the actual bitumen trapped in the oil shale (by assuming the bitumen represents 15% of the organic matter) and 84.1% of solvent recovered. When toluene was used, it was found that the average amount of oil extracted was 0.0293 g/g/ of shale, which corresponds to 78% of the actual bitumen trapped in the oil shale (by assuming bitumen represents 15% of the organic matter) and 89.9% of solvent for extraction with toluene.

Anabtawi, M.Z. [Univ. of Bahrain, Isa Town (Bahrain); Uysal, B.Z. [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

1995-10-01

353

Radiation extraction for transmission-line interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraction technique of radiation sources for non-uniform, transmission-lines has been introduced for the first time. The technique is to substitute solutions of the method of moments (MoM) for the lossless finite-length non-uniform transmission-line into modified transmission-line equations with dependent radiation sources to extract transmission-line parameters and the radiation source parameters

Y. W. Liu; K. K. Mei; J. S. Hong

2001-01-01

354

EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

DOEpatents

An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

1957-12-10

355

Experiments on Candidate Data for Collocation Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes ongoing work on the evaluation of methods for extracting collocation candidates from large text corpora. Our research is based on a German treebank corpus used as gold standard. Results are available for adjective+noun pairs, which proved to be a comparatively easy extraction task. We plan to extend the evaluation to other types of collocations (e.g., PP+verb pairs).

Stefan Evert; Hannah Kermes

2003-01-01

356

Methyl ethyl ketone extraction of Tc species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl ethyl ketone extraction of technetium species from aqueous solutions of neutron irradiated ammonium molybdate crystals was studied; the two species extracted were separated by high voltage paper electrophoresis. The one was the99mTcO\\u000a4\\u000a–\\u000a ion and the other, a99mTc non-charged immobile species, probably TcO2.aq, which concentrated at the point of application on the electrophoresis paper strip.

S. Bulbulian

1984-01-01

357

Automatic Panel Extraction of Color Comic Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an automatic approach for detecting and extracting panels in a color comic image is proposed. Panel extraction\\u000a is challenging because the background color, the background pixel locations, the panel shapes and the panel layout are not\\u000a known in advance. In our approach, uniform color stripes are first identified and used as separators to segment the color\\u000a comic

Chung Ho Chan; Howard Leung; Taku Komura

2007-01-01

358

Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells.

Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

1980-01-01

359

[Superoxide dismutase activity of Ginkgo biloba extract].  

PubMed

The Ginkgo biloba extract is obtained from green leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. Preparations with this active substance are among others used for the treatment of disturbances of the cerebral function and arteriosclerotic diseases. In in-vitro and in-vivo studies antagonistic effects of radical scavenger and PAF (platelet activating factor) were described. In this study a concentration-depending superoxide dismutase activity of the Ginkgo biloba extract rökan liquid could be made evident. PMID:1496840

Diwok, M; Kuklinski, B; Ernst, B

1992-07-01

360

Relation Extraction for Monitoring Economic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Relation extraction from texts is a research topic since the message understanding conferences. Most investigations dealt with English texts.\\u000a However, the heuristics found for these do not perform well when applied to a language with free word order, as is, e.g.,\\u000a German. In this paper, we present a German annotated corpus for relation extraction. We have implemented the state of

Felix Jungermann; Katharina Morik

2009-01-01

361

Hydration effects in quaternary amine extraction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of Al+++, Cd++, Co++, Cu+, Cu++, Fe++, Fe+++, In+++, Ni++, and Zn++ with quaternary amine was studied using chloride and sulfate as ligands. On the basis of loading experiments and slope analyses, the species extracted were: CdCl{4\\/=}, CoCl{4\\/=}, CuCl{2\\/-}, CuCl{4\\/=}, FeCl{4\\/-}, and ZnCl{4\\/=}. Water content of the organic phase was analyzed as a function of loading by Karl

J. D. Miller; M. C. Fuerstenau

1970-01-01

362

Hydration effects in quaternary amine extraction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of Al+++, Cd++, Co++, Cu+, Cu++, Fe++, Fe+++, In+++, Ni++, and Zn++ with quaternary amine was studied using chloride and sulfate as ligands. On the basis of loading experiments and slope analyses,\\u000a the species extracted were: CdCl4=, CoCl4=, CuCl2?, CuCl4=, FeCl4?, and ZnCl4=. Water content of the organic phase was analyzed as a function of loading by Karl

J. D. Miller; M. C. Fuerstenau

1970-01-01

363

ANTIOXDANT PRINCIPLES IN PELTOPHORUM FERRUGINEUM FLOWER EXTRACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts from the petals of the flowers of Peltophorum ferrugineum were evaluated for their phenolic content, antioxidant activity and HPLC profile. The total phenolic contents of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method were found to be 17.0± 0.8, 29.3 ± 0.4, 18.6 ± 0.9 %

S. Pavagadhi; G. S. Joseph; B. S. Jena

2011-01-01

364

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained

S. Ketnawa; P. Chaiwut; S. Rawdkuen

2011-01-01

365

Extraction of antioxidant compounds from energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy crops offer enormous opportunities for increasing the sustain ability of agriculture and energy production in the United\\u000a States. Nevertheless, opportunities for sustaining biomass energy production may well hinge on producing energy and extracting\\u000a high-value products from the same crop. Seven potential energy crops (mimosa, sericea, kudzu, arunzo, switchgrass, velvetbean,\\u000a and castor) were extracted and assayed for the presence of

Ching S. Lau; Danielle Julie Carrier; Luke R. Howard; Jackson O. Lay; Jean A. Archambault; Edgar C. Clausen

2004-01-01

366

Automated Metadata Extraction from Web Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of web wrapping technology in extracting metadata from web sources. This capability has been incorporated into a software tool known as Dynamic Dublin Core\\/Resource Description Framework Metadata Editor (DDC\\/RDF-Editor) which supports metadata development and management for resources in the World Wide Web. One key feature of the editor is the ability to automatically extract relevant

Nor Adnan Yahaya; Rosiza Buang

2006-01-01

367

Microwave assisted extraction for mercury speciation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to the work-up of environmental and biological samples in the study\\u000a of mercury speciation analysis has increased in recent years and is now increasingly accepted as a standard approach. The\\u000a review provides a brief theoretical background of microwave heating and the basic principles of microwave energy used for\\u000a extraction. The advantages and disadvantages of

Laura Hinojosa Reyes; Jorge Luis Guzmán Mar; Aracely Hernández-Ramírez; Juan Manuel Peralta-Hernández; Juan Manuel Alfaro Barbosa; H. M. Skip Kingston

2011-01-01

368

Clear lens extraction in high axial myopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Several ophthalmologists, during these past 20 years, supported by the great improvement in the surgical techniques of cataract\\u000a extraction, proposed again the surgical procedure of clear lens extraction (CLE) to correct high axial myopia. However, we\\u000a have to remember that vitreous and retinal changes in high myopic eyes can lead to retinal detachment (RD), in some cases\\u000a with a poor

M. Stirpe; A. Coppé; D. Gazzaniga; G. Ripandelli

2004-01-01

369

Extraction of Implantable Cardiac Electronic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing numbers of cardiac implantable devices in use, lead extraction has become a critical procedure in remedying\\u000a device-related infections and complications. Lead extraction technology has grown considerably over the past two decades from\\u000a simple traction maneuvers to the use of powered, telescoping sheaths equipped with laser technology. Data from single center\\u000a experiences and randomized control trials have continued

John Rickard; Bruce L. Wilkoff

370

Molecular Models of Leaf Extracts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our Featured Molecules this month come from the paper by Pelter et. al. on the analysis of leaf extracts by thin-layer chromatography (1). As the authors discuss, their experiment may be used in courses at various levels of the curriculum. The molecules discussed in the paper are also of wide interest both for their structural properties and their wide-ranging appearance in both natural and synthetic substances. Included in the molecule collection are all of the isomers for the molecules pictured in the text with the exception of menthyl acetate, for which only one structure is given (see below). All of these molecules have been optimized at the HF/631-G(d) level. The menthol family enantiomeric pairs of menthol, isomenthol, neomenthol and neoisomenthol provide a rich yet coherent group of molecules on which to base discussion of chirality, enantiomers and diastereomers. Treadwell and Black have described some of the differences in physical properties of four members of this family, and several other experiments using one or more menthols have been published in this Journal (2, 3). I have created a Web page in which the eight molecules are embedded in no particular order, and with no rational file names. This is being used in at least one of our organic sections to give students experience at identifying enantiomers, and diastereomers, and in applying R/S notation (4). As access to computational software becomes more common, and as efforts are being made to incorporate more relevant modeling experiments into all levels of the curriculum, the menthols again present some interesting possibilities. While students at the organic level know about enantiomers differing in their optical rotation, and about chiral molecules interacting with chiral and achiral environments, it is instructive for them to think of other ways in which enantiomers and diastereomers are the same or different. Three useful ways of checking to see whether two structures are truly enantiomers is to compute their total energies, vibrational spectra, and dipole moments. These calculations are available in most common computational packages. Figure 1 shows the results of energy calculations on optimized structures of the eight isomers. The enantiomeric pairs have, as expected, exactly the same total energy, while the various diastereomers differ in energy. The computation of the vibrational spectra is a very sensitive probe to determine whether two structures are optimized and enantiomeric or not. Structures that are almost enantiomeric, but not quite optimized, may exhibit similar energies, but the low frequency vibrations will be sensitive to any deviation from optimization. If two supposedly enantiomeric structures do not have the same computed vibrations, or if either shows a negative frequency, the structures need to be optimized more carefully. As with the vibrational frequencies, enantiomers should show identical dipole moments. Only one structure of the eight isomers in the menthyl acetate family is included in the collection, giving students the chance to build the other seven and verify their computed properties. Because of the central role that chirality plays in chemistry, and particularly in biochemistry, it seems appropriate to introduce some of these visualization and modeling exercises early in the curriculum, and in courses designed for students majoring in other areas. Students in various courses could pursue other aspects of these same molecules including odor and cooling properties, and green chemistry approaches to synthesizing menthols.

371

Facial Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial feature extraction is one of the most important processes in face recognition, expression recognition and face detection. The aims of facial feature extraction are eye location, shape of eyes, eye brow, mouth, head boundary, face boundary, chin and so on. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic facial feature extraction system, which is able to identify the eye location, the detailed shape of eyes and mouth, chin and inner boundary from facial images. This system not only extracts the location information of the eyes, but also estimates four important points in each eye, which helps us to rebuild the eye shape. To model mouth shape, mouth extraction gives us both mouth location and two corners of mouth, top and bottom lips. From inner boundary we obtain and chin, we have face boundary. Based on wavelet features, we can reduce the noise from the input image and detect edge information. In order to extract eyes, mouth, inner boundary, we combine wavelet features and facial character to design these algorithms for finding midpoint, eye's coordinates, four important eye's points, mouth's coordinates, four important mouth's points, chin coordinate and then inner boundary. The developed system is tested on Yale Faces and Pedagogy student's faces.

Hung, Nguyen Viet

372

Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.  

PubMed

Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals. PMID:19050923

Derda, Monika; Hada?, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

2008-12-03

373

Antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonically assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction using 95% ethanol were performed to obtain ultrasonically assisted\\u000a extract of Agrimonia pilosa (UEA) and Soxhlet extract of Agrimonia pilosa (SEA). The effects of the different extracting methods on the total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) content of the\\u000a extracts from Agrimonia pilosa were investigated. The findings showed that UEA contained higher TP

Chunhuan He; Xiaowen Ji; Yingming Pan; Hengshan Wang; Kai Wang; Min Liang; Lizhu Yang

2010-01-01

374

Volatile phytochemical composition of rhizome of ginger after extraction by headspace solid-phase microextraction, petrol ether extraction and steam distillation extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sampling techniques headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), petrol ether extraction (PEE) and steam distillation extraction (SDE) were compared for the GC-MS of volatile constituents present in ginger (Zingiber officinale). The effects of different parameters, such as extraction fibers, extraction time, extraction temperature and particle size ranges, on the HS- SPME of rhizome of ginger were investigated. Zingiberene (53.12%) were predominant

Zhan-nan Yang; Weiping Yang; Quancai Peng; Qiansong He; Yong Feng; Shiqiong Luo; Zhengwen Yu

2009-01-01

375

Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, o, p?-DDT, p, p?-DDT and p, p?-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua

2005-04-01

376

[Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].  

PubMed

According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

2007-11-01

377

Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of extracts from Cirsium japonicum roots  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the antioxidant activity of methanol (MeOH) and water extracts from roots of Cirsium japonicum in vitro. MeOH extract showed a stronger free radical scavenging activity than water extract. However, both of extracts showed a concentration dependent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating ability. MeOH extract had greater phenolic and flavonoid contents than water extract. The antidiabetic activity of these two extracts was evaluated by the ?-glucosidase inhibition assay. The water extract showed a considerable ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. To our knowledge, this may be the first time to report the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in Cirsium japonicum roots.

Yin, Jie; Heo, Seong-Il

2008-01-01

378

Extractability of labelled microbial biomass N by electro-ultrafiltration and CaCl 2 extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory soil incubation and a pot experiment with ryegrass were carried out in order to examine the extractability of microbial biomass N by using either 10-mM CaCl2 extraction or the electro-ultrafiltration (EUF) method. The aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis whether the organic N (Norg) extracted by EUF or CaCl2 from dried soil samples represents a

T. Appel; B. Schneider; H. Kosegarten

1996-01-01

379

Glyoxylate decarboxylation during glycollate oxidation by pea leaf extracts: significance of glyoxylate and extract concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide-dependent glyoxylate decarboxylation occurring during glycollate oxidation by pea leaf extracts (Pisum sativum L.) has been studied in relation to the effects of glyoxylate and extract concentration. With a saturating concentration of glycollate, decarboxylation was greatly stimulated by raising the glyoxylate concentration; at 30°C and with approx. 0.04 nkat of glycollate oxidase (as leaf extract) in the reaction mixture,

Nicholas J. Walton

1982-01-01

380

Supercritical fluid extraction from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis): Kinetic data, extract's global yield, composition, and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work the global yields isotherms and the overall extraction curves for the system rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)+CO2, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined. The experiments were performed in two supercritical extraction units. The following bed height to bed diameter ratios were used: 0.67, 1.34, 2.8, 5.6, and 8.4. The global yields were determined

Raul N. Carvalho; Lucinewton S. Moura; Paulo T. V. Rosa; M. Angela A. Meireles

2005-01-01

381

Supercritical fluid extraction from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis): Kinetic data, extract's global yield, composition, and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work the global yields isotherms and the overall extraction curves for the system rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis )+C O 2, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined. The experiments were performed in two supercritical extraction units. The following bed height to bed diameter ratios were used: 0.67, 1.34, 2.8, 5.6, and 8.4. The

Raul N. Carvalho Jr; Lucinewton S. Moura; Paulo T. V. Rosa; M. Angela; A. Meireles

2005-01-01

382

Extraction Parameters Significantly Influence the Quantity and the Profile of PLFAs Extracted from Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis is a robust method for characterizing soil microbial communities. We determined the\\u000a effects of extraction solvent (chloroform vs dichloromethane) and buffer (phosphate vs citrate) on the yield and the profile\\u000a of PLFAs extracted from an acidic (pH 5.5) and an alkaline (pH 8.6) soil following two 2-h sequential extractions. The yield\\u000a and the profile of the PLFAs

Evagelia S. Papadopoulou; Dimitrios G. Karpouzas; Urania Menkissoglu-Spiroudi

383

Co-extraction during reactive extraction of phenylalanine using Aliquat 336: interfacial mass transfer.  

PubMed

Reactive liquid-liquid extraction can be used to separate hydrophilic fermentation products that would not otherwise partition into nonpolar solvents. However, during extraction of the target solute other compounds present in the extraction medium will also react with the ion exchange reagent and are thus co-extracted. In this study the effect of co-extraction on the interfacial flux of the target solute phenylalanine has been investigated for reactive extraction using Aliquat 336. The effect of co-extracting compounds has been included in a new interfacial flux balance, and experimental results reveal that the interfacial concentrations are equal to the final equilibrium conditions of the system. Using this information a simple mass transfer model has been developed from which film mass transfer coefficients may be determined. Co-extraction of other compounds present in the feed was found to reduce the interfacial flux of the target solute by reducing the driving force. Co-extraction did not affect the value of the film mass transfer coefficient, and therefore, co-extraction does not effect the transport properties of the solute to the interface. Extraction from a multicomponent fermentation broth resulted in a reduced flux, which arises from a reduction in the driving force caused by high levels of co-extraction. Furthermore, the flux was also reduced as the result of a mass transfer resistance caused by soluble surface-active compounds present in the fermentation broth adsorbing to the interface. The biomass associated with the fermentation broth was also found to reduce the solute flux, and it is believed that this is due to blockage of the interfacial area. PMID:12675589

Pursell, Mark R; Mendes-Tatsis, M Alcina; Stuckey, David C

384

Enantioselective liquid-liquid extractions of underivatized general amino acids with a chiral ketone extractant.  

PubMed

The chiral ketone (S)-3 shows high kinetic enantioselectivities toward the L form for general underivatized amino acids with hydrophobic side chains and a high thermodynamic enantioselectivity toward the D form for cysteine with its -SH polar side chain when used as an extractant in enantioselective liquid-liquid extractions in the presence of Aliquat 336. Consecutive extractions by imine formation and hydrolysis increase the enantiopurity of the amino acid, as both of these reactions are L-form-selective. PMID:23317343

Huang, Haofei; Nandhakumar, Raju; Choi, Misun; Su, Zhishan; Kim, Kwan Mook

2013-02-05

385

Extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membranes using TOPO as extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results for the extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) using trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as extractant are presented. The membrane phase consists of kerosene as diluent, TOPO as extractant, ECA 4360J (a nonionic polyamine) as surfactant and (NH4)2CO3 solution as stripping phase. Effects of various parameters such as mixing speed, type and concentration

Recep Ali Kumbasar

2009-01-01

386

Solvent extraction studies of americium(III) using saponified acidic organophosphorous extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study on the extraction of Am(III) from aqueous nitric acid medium using saponified organophosphorous extractants 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (PC88A) and di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) has been carried out. The distribution data obtained for Am(III) showed significant increase in the values with saponified extractants. The studies carried out with variation of parameters such as HNO3 concentration and percentage

P. M. Mapara; A. G. Godbole; Rajendra Swarup; N. V. Thakur

1998-01-01

387

Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of palladium (II) extraction by extractant mixtures containing LIX 63  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to show that the addition of Aliquat 336 to LIX 63anti accelerates Pd(II) extraction, a kinetic study of this system was carried out. The extraction rate depends on the extractant concentrations and the rate-determining step is interfacial. The synthesis of all data allowed proposal of a mechanism whose consistency with thermodynamic and kinetic studies was demonstrated. Aliquat 336

C. Foulon; D. Pareau; M. Stambouli; G. Durand

1999-01-01

388

A plant proteinase, extracted from Bromelia fastuosa, as an alternative to proteinase K for DNA extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the use of brofasin, a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the fruits of Bromelia fastuosa, as a protective agent in DNA extraction protocols. Brofasin at concentrations varying between 236 units\\/µg to 2,372 units\\/µg was used to extract DNA of human leukocytes and Drosophila melanogaster tissues. At brofasin concentration between 1,186 and 2,372 units\\/µg the resulting DNA concentrations are similar

M. T. Ruiz; C. M. A. Carareto; G. O. Bonilla-Rodriguez; Gustavo O. Bonilla Rodriguez

389

Antioxidative activity of green tea catechin extract compared with that of rosemary extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the antioxidative activity of green tea catechin (GTC) extract with that of rosemary extract in canola\\u000a oil, pork lard, and chicken fat. The GTC extract was obtained from jasmine and longjing green teas and mainly consisted of\\u000a four epicatechin isomers including (?)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (?)epigallocatechin (EGC), (?)epicatechin (EC), and\\u000a (?)epicatechin gallate (ECG). The oxidation was conducted at

Zhen-Yu Chen; Li-Ya Wang; Ping Tim Chan; Zesheng Zhang; Hau Yin Chung; Chao Liang

1998-01-01

390

Evaluation of extractive contact units for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of an extractive system generally depends on kinetic, thermodynamic and technological parameters. Each of these\\u000a factors affects the extractive effectiveness, although the overall result depends on their interaction. In the present work\\u000a this interaction is analyzed for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed. Experiments on laboratory scale were made to\\u000a calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the

L. Tranchino; F. Melle

1984-01-01

391

Liquid–liquid extraction of Cibacron Red FN-R by TBAB as an extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid–liquid extraction of Cibacron Red FN-R from synthetic dye solution was carried out using Tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as an extractant. The various diluents used were benzene, hexane, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and dichloromethane. Among them dichloromethane was found to be the most effective diluent for extraction of Cibacron Red FN-R dye. The effect of parameters such as aqueous pH,

G. Muthuraman; Tjoon Tow Teng; Sheu Hting Tan

392

Relationship between magnesium extracted by 0.01 M calcium chloride extraction procedure and conventional procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multinutrient soil extraction procedure in routine soil testing is attractive. Therefore, it has been suggested to convert conventional soil testing programs into a 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) multinutrient soil testing program using the relationship between test values of the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractant and those of the various conventional extractants. However, these relationships are often weak and an

Erp van P. J; V. J. G. Houba; J. A. Reijneveld; Beusichem van M. L

2001-01-01

393

Evaluation of extraction and non-extraction treatment effects by two different superimposition methods.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether different evaluation methods may be the cause of the varied outcomes of research that have evaluated the effects of extraction and non-extraction therapy on jaw rotation. This retrospective study consisted of the pre- (T1) and post- (T2) treatment lateral cephalograms of 70 skeletal Class I subjects with an optimal vertical mandibular plane angle, who had undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Thirty-five of the subjects (20 females and 15 males, mean age: 14.7 years) were treated with four first premolar extractions and 35 (22 females and 13 males, mean age: 15 years) without extractions. T1 and T2 radiographs were superimposed using Björk's structural method and Steiner's method of sella-nasion line registered at sella. A Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the changes between T1 and T2 and the Mann-Whitney U-test to determine differences between the extraction and non-extraction and Björk and Steiner groups. No significant difference was found between the methods of Steiner and Björk according to the spatial changes of the cephalometric points in the extraction and non-extraction groups. The maxilla showed forward rotation in the extraction group and backward rotation in the non-extraction group with both superimposition methods, but the differences were not significant in either inter- or intraclass comparisons. The mandible showed forward rotation in the extraction group with both superimposition methods but, in the non-extraction group, forward rotation was recorded with Björk's method and backward rotation with Steiner's method. These findings were not significant in either inter- or intraclass evaluations. No significant difference was found between the groups or methods. PMID:21378094

Türköz, Ça?r?; ??can, Hakan Necip

2011-03-04

394

Supercritical fluid extraction of tobacco leaves: A preliminary study on the extraction of solanesol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanesol is a long-chain terpenoid alcohol mainly existing in tobacco leaves. It is a useful starting material for the synthesis of high-value biochemicals. It can be extracted with supercritical CO2, but nicotine is co-extracted, which may be hazardous. In this work, operating conditions to obtain a solanesol-rich extract from tobacco leaves with high solanesol\\/nicotine ratios were optimized. The ranges of

Alejandro Ruiz-Rodriguez; Maria-Rosário Bronze; Manuel Nunes da Ponte

2008-01-01

395

Application of microwave-assisted extraction to the fast extraction of plant phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of phenolic compounds in plants attracts considerable attention. Conventional (reflux) extraction as well as microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic substances from aromatic plants using different solvents has been studied. RP-HPLC with UV detection was employed for the analysis of phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The amount of extractable phenolic substances for this method

Charalampos Proestos; Michael Komaitis

2008-01-01

396

Approaches Toward Synthesizing Novel Extractant Systems: Polymeric Bifunctional Extractants with Synergistic Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of a monoarylphosphinic acid-diarylphosphine oxide extractant system supported on macroporous polystyrene beads is reported. The bifunctional resin was used in separate zinc and copper(I1) ion extraction studies. Results wth both metals show an excellent extent of extraction under low loading conditions and solution pH of 1–2; at equivalent meta1:resin concentrations, the resin absorbs 50% of the metalin solution.

S. D. Alexandratos; W. J. McDowell

1983-01-01

397

Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for PCR detection of fungal and bacterial contamination in cocoa extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct and sensitive PCR detection of contaminant microflora in cocoa extracts is affected by the quality of the template\\u000a DNA. This study compares the efficacy of five different commercial DNA extraction methods, selective enrichment broths and\\u000a use of glycolitic enzymes to obtain quality DNA for PCR detection of both fungi and bacteria in artificially inoculated cocoa\\u000a extract samples. PCR-based methods

Marta Tortajada; Pedro Vicente Martínez-Culebras; Verónica Navarro; Honorato Monzó; Daniel Ramón

2009-01-01

398

Coextraction during reactive extraction of phenylalanine using Aliquat 336: modeling extraction equilibrium.  

PubMed

Reactive liquid-liquid extraction can be used to recover hydrophilic fermentation products that would not otherwise partition into nonpolar solvents through an ion-exchange reaction at the two-phase interface. However, the ion-exchange reagent may not be specific to the solute of interest and other compounds present may also be extracted. In this study, the effect on solute extraction of other compounds present in the extraction medium was investigated for phenylalanine extraction using Aliquat 336. The extent of extraction at equilibrium was modeled using the equilibrium constants for the reactions present in the process. The interaction of different species within a multicomponent medium was examined using the model and experimental results. It was found that the extent of extraction and coextraction is controlled by the thermodynamics of each extraction reaction and, due to the formation of a common product, the interaction between each of the reactions. The main competition to reactive extraction will come from hydrophobic anionic compounds that will be present in fermentation broth. PMID:12652477

Pursell, Mark R; Mendes-Tatsis, M Alcina; Stuckey, David C

2003-06-01

399

Extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membranes using TOPO as extractant.  

PubMed

Experimental results for the extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) using trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as extractant are presented. The membrane phase consists of kerosene as diluent, TOPO as extractant, ECA 4360J (a nonionic polyamine) as surfactant and (NH(4))(2)CO(3) solution as stripping phase. Effects of various parameters such as mixing speed, type and concentration of stripping solution, surfactant and extractant concentrations, and volume ratio of the membrane phase to internal stripping phase on Cr (VI) extraction were studied and optimum conditions were determined. Results show that with proper adjustment of experimental conditions for the extraction of Cr (VI) can be enhanced to a great extent. This study also examined the effects of concentrations of acid and metal ions in the feed phase for the extraction of Cr (VI) ions. The results also showed that by appropriate selection of the extraction and stability conditions, nearly all of the Cr (VI) ions (100-500 mg/L) present in the acidic feed solution containing 1000 mg/L from each of Cu (II), Zn (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cd (II) ions were extracted within a few minutes. Concentration variations of Cr (VI) and other ions in the acidic solutions were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:19250744

Ali Kumbasar, Recep

2009-02-06

400

Effects of different extraction methods and conditions on the phenolic composition of mate tea extracts.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v) and liquid CO? extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar) and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C). Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO? with aqueous ethanol (40%) as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar. PMID:22388965

Grujic, Nevena; Lepojevic, Zika; Srdjenovic, Branislava; Vladic, Jelena; Sudji, Jan

2012-03-02

401

Extraction and determination of glucosinolates from soil.  

PubMed

The use of glucosinolate-containing plants as soil-incorporated biofumigants for pest and disease control has raised questions regarding the fate of glucosinolates in soil; however, no method for routine analysis of glucosinolates in soil has been reported. A simple method to extract glucosinolates from soil with quantification as desulfoglucosinolates by HPLC is presented. The method involves two extractions with 70% methanol at room temperature, centrifugation, and filtration prior to the desulfation step. The desulfoglucosinolates are then quantified by HPLC using established protocols for plant tissue analysis. There were no significant interfering peaks from the soil extracts, and the method provided high extraction efficiencies (around 100%) for both aromatic (benzyl) and aliphatic (2-propenyl) glucosinolates when amended at a wide range of realistic field soil concentrations (1.6-120 nmol/g of soil). The method was equally effective in three diverse Australian soils that varied in organic matter, clay content, and pH. The method was effective in air-dried or field-moist soil, although evidence for rapid glucosinolate degradation in field-moist soil indicates that extraction of moist soils should be performed as soon as possible after sampling. The method is compatible with field soil sampling at remote sites and utilizes the same equipment and protocols already established for plant tissue analysis. Extraction of glucosinolates in the field following incorporation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and rape (Brassica napus) green manure crops was also tested. Eight different glucosinolates contained in the plant tissues were identified and quantified in soil extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 21.7 nmol/g of soil. PMID:16332113

Gimsing, Anne Louise; Kirkegaard, John A; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

2005-12-14

402

On the significance of the extractable collagens.  

PubMed

This investigation has sought to determine the significance of the wide range of extractable collagen fractions which appear to exist in growing connective tissues and to determine their position in the process of fibrogenesis. Carrageenin granulomata were induced in guinea pigs and, after injection of (14)C-glycine, this tissue and skin from the same animal were subjected to successive extractions with neutral salt solutions of increasing ionic strength, citrate buffer pH 3.6, and to gelatinization. The specific activity of these fractions was determined at various time intervals. At 8 hours it was found that the specific activity decreased with increasing ionic strength of the neutral salts and was still lower in the citrate extracts and gelatin. At 36 hours the situation was almost completely reversed except that the citrate extract and gelatin still had the lowest activities. The data from skin were more clear cut than that from the granuloma and the reasons for this are discussed. It is concluded that at any given time in developing connective tissue, there is a continuous spectrum of collagen aggregates of varying degrees of strength of cross-linkage, dependent upon the time that has elapsed since their constituent molecules were synthesized. The various extraction media used remove a particular cross-section of these aggregates depending upon their disaggregating power. These extracts will thus be biologically heterogeneous. The fraction extracted with 0.14 M NaCl will contain the collagen molecules most recently synthesized and in this respect can be considered the earliest form of extracellular collagen. PMID:14406281

JACKSON, D S; BENTLEY, J P

1960-02-01

403

On the Significance of the Extractable Collagens  

PubMed Central

This investigation has sought to determine the significance of the wide range of extractable collagen fractions which appear to exist in growing connective tissues and to determine their position in the process of fibrogenesis. Carrageenin granulomata were induced in guinea pigs and, after injection of 14C-glycine, this tissue and skin from the same animal were subjected to successive extractions with neutral salt solutions of increasing ionic strength, citrate buffer pH 3.6, and to gelatinization. The specific activity of these fractions was determined at various time intervals. At 8 hours it was found that the specific activity decreased with increasing ionic strength of the neutral salts and was still lower in the citrate extracts and gelatin. At 36 hours the situation was almost completely reversed except that the citrate extract and gelatin still had the lowest activities. The data from skin were more clear cut than that from the granuloma and the reasons for this are discussed. It is concluded that at any given time in developing connective tissue, there is a continuous spectrum of collagen aggregates of varying degrees of strength of cross-linkage, dependent upon the time that has elapsed since their constituent molecules were synthesized. The various extraction media used remove a particular cross-section of these aggregates depending upon their disaggregating power. These extracts will thus be biologically heterogeneous. The fraction extracted with 0.14 M NaCl will contain the collagen molecules most recently synthesized and in this respect can be considered the earliest form of extracellular collagen.

Jackson, David S.; Bentley, John P.

1960-01-01

404

[Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].  

PubMed

Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin. PMID:20518317

Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

2010-01-01

405

Maximizing net extraction using an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer.  

PubMed

In this study, we examine the maximum net extraction rate from the novel arrangement of an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer, where fresh groundwater is reinjected through the injection well located between the interface toe and extraction well. Complex potential theory is employed to derive a new analytical solution for the maximum net extraction rate and corresponding stagnation-point locations and recirculation ratio, assuming steady-state, sharp-interface conditions. The injection-extraction well-pair system outperforms a traditional single extraction well in terms of net extraction rate for a broad range of well placement and pumping rates, which is up to 50% higher for an aquifer with a thickness of 20 m, hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, and fresh water influx of 0.24 m(2) /d. Sensitivity analyses show that for a given fresh water discharge from an inland aquifer, a larger maximum net extraction is expected in cases with a smaller hydraulic conductivity or a smaller aquifer thickness, notwithstanding physical limits to drawdown at the pumping well that are not considered here. For an extraction well with a fixed location, the optimal net extraction rate linearly increases with the distance between the injection well and the sea, and the corresponding injection rate and recirculation ratio also increase. The analytical analysis in this study provides initial guidance for the design of well-pair systems in coastal aquifers, and is therefore an extension beyond previous applications of analytical solutions of coastal pumping that apply only to extraction or injection wells. PMID:22880816

Lu, Chunhui; Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T; Robinson, Neville I; Luo, Jian

2012-08-08

406

Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, ?-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

2010-05-01

407

AGS RESONANT EXTRACTION WITH HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven AGS third integer resonant extraction system allows the AGS to provide high quality, high intensity 25.5 GeV/c proton beams simultaneously to four target stations and as many as 8 experiments. With the increasing intensities (over 7 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse) and associated longer spill periods (2.4 to 3 seconds long), we continue to run with low losses and high quality low modulation continuous current beams.[1] Learning to extract and transport these higher intensity beams has required a process of careful modeling and experimentation. We have had to learn how to correct for various instabilities and how to better match extraction and the transport lines to the higher emittance beams being accelerated in the AGS. Techniques employed include ''RF'' methods to smooth out momentum distributions and fine structure. We will present results of detailed multi-particle tracking modeling studies which enabled us to develop a clear understanding of beam loss mechanisms in the transport and extraction process. We will report on our status, experiences, and the present understanding of the intensity limitations imposed by resonant extraction and transport to fixed target stations.

AHRENS,L.; BROWN,K.; GLENN,J.W.; ROSER,T.; TSOUPAS,N.; VANASSELT,W.

1999-03-29

408

Vasoprotective activity of standardized Achillea millefolium extract.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of Achillea millefolium extract in vitro on the growth of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the potential involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) in this process. In addition, the ability of A. millefolium extract to modulate the NF-?B pathway was tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The fingerprinting of the extract was carried out by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS(n) and main constituents were flavonoids (10%) and dicaffeolylquinic acid derivatives (12%). The extract enhanced VSMC growth at least in part by acting through ERs and impaired NF-?B signaling in HUVECs. The various compounds may act with different mode of actions thus contributing to the final effect of the extract. Our findings support some of the traditional uses of A. millefolium, and suggest potential modes of action as related to its effects on vascular inflammation. Therefore, A. millefolium may induce novel potential actions in the cardiovascular system. PMID:21684130

Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Bolego, Chiara; Cignarella, Andrea; Gaion, Rosa Maria; Innocenti, Gabbriella

2011-09-15

409

Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogen extracts.  

PubMed

Adaptogens are harmless herbs which have pharmaceutical benefits due to their balancing, regulative and tonic functions. However, despite these medicinal effects, the antioxidant potential of adaptogens is rarely mentioned. This study investigated the antioxidant potential of 3 adaptogen extracts, Rhodiola rosea (golden root), Eleutherococcus senticosis (Siberian ginseng) and Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry, Amla). The results of this study showed that R. rosea had the highest potential for singlet oxygen scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing, ferrous chelating and protein thiol protection than either of the other 2 extracts. E. senticosis, on the other hand, showed the best potential for hypochlorite scavenging. In addition, the polyphenol content in the 3 adaptogen extracts followed the order: R. rosea, E. officinalis and E. senticosis. Our data suggest that the antioxidant potential of the 3 adaptogen extracts was proportional to their respective polyphenol content. The supplementation of adaptogen extracts containing high levels of polyphenols may not only have adaptogen properties, but may decrease the risk of complications induced by oxidative stress. PMID:19051347

Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Chang, Yen-Lin

2008-01-01

410

On the management of extraction sites.  

PubMed

Extraction sites may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition within the craniofacial complex. The fundamental reality that determines the final position of the dentition, however, is the control exercised by the clinician in closure of the extraction sites. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the reverse, or any number of purposeful alternatives of extraction site closure. An appliance system developed over time, which provides this control, is described. The system takes advantage of aspects of continuous arch therapy that provides constant, positive orientation of the anterior and posterior groups of teeth to each other in three-dimensional space across an extraction site, combined with aspects of the segmented arch technique that permit definable and predictable force systems to be applied to these teeth. Consequently, the clinician has the ability to forecast treatment outcomes with confidence. PMID:9423697

Braun, S; Sjursen, R C; Legan, H L

1997-12-01

411

Laparoscopic techniques for extracting ovarian teratomas.  

PubMed

We performed two techniques for laparoscopic extraction of benign ovarian teratomas. For cysts up to 5 cm, we used the pouch technique, with partial extraction followed by enlargement of the hypogastric port. A skin incision was enlarged to allow the use of a scalpel in the pouch. This enabled us to perform several stab incisions in the cyst to spill its contents while still holding it in the pouch. This was followed by suction irrigation and forceps removal of the contents until the collapsed cyst could be removed in the pouch. For a cyst over 5 cm, we performed endoscopic aspiration irrigation with hot water inside the cyst, followed by partial extraction of the cyst; an opening was made in the exposed cyst wall and the contents extracted as described. When the cyst wall collapsed, we proceeded with the final extraction. When spillage occurred, it was managed with extensive warm lavage of the peritoneum, skimming the floating debris with suction tubing until clear, and underwater inspection and removal of teeth and other solid material. With these techniques, we experienced no complications. PMID:9050641

Tsin, D A; Espinoza de los Monteros, J A; Colombero, L

1996-02-01

412

Fern spore extracts can damage DNA  

PubMed Central

The carcinogenicity of the vegetative tissues of bracken fern (Pteridium) has long been established. More recently, the carcinogenic effects of the spores of bracken have also been recognized. Both vegetative tissues and spores of bracken can induce adducts in DNA in animal tissues, but the possible genotoxic or carcinogenic effects of spores from fern species other than bracken are unknown. The single-cell gel electrophoresis (‘comet’) assay was used to investigate whether fern spores can cause DNA damage in vitro. Extracts of spores from six fern species were administered to cultured human premyeloid leukaemia (K562) cells. Spore extracts of five fern species: Anemia phyllitidis, Dicksonia antarctica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pteris vittata and Sadleria pallida, induced significantly more DNA strand breaks than those in the control groups. Only in one species, Osmunda regalis, was the effect no different from that in the control groups. Using extracts from A. phyllitidis and P. vittata, the extent of DNA damage was increased by increasing the original dose 10 times, whereas an experiment in which exposure times were varied suggested that the highest levels of strand breaks appear after 2 h exposure. Simultaneous incubation with human S9 liver enzyme mix ablated the damaging effect of the extracts. Our data show that fern spore extracts can cause DNA damage in human cells in vitro. Considering the strong correlation between DNA damage and carcinogenic events, the observations made in this report may well have some implications for human health. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

Siman, S E; Povey, A C; Ward, T H; Margison, G P; Sheffield, E

2000-01-01

413

Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4?mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515?nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. PMID:22294387

Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

2012-02-01

414

Natural resource extraction and exploration under uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

There are at least two reasons why the market for natural resources may differ from that of a standard commodity in a perfectly competitive economy. First, natural resources are nonrenewable: extracting a barrel of oil today leaves one less barrel for future generations. Second, the global endowment of resources - the size, quality and location of resource deposits - is for most part unknown. In this dissertation, a model is presented that captures these two aspects of natural resources, but does so in a manner somewhat different from the standard literature. The resource is viewed as inexhaustible, but occurring in a continuum of grades. Having spelled out this two-period, stochastic dynamic optimization model, it is used to answer three questions: (1) if extraction today places a burden on future users, what is the social cost of extracting a nonrenewable resource and how may it be estimated; (2) how does risky exploration affect the optimal strategies of resource firms; since extraction depletes reserves while exploration augments them, the uncertainty can affect both the extractive and exploratory decisions; and (3) the normative question, does exploratory risk cause the competitive equilibrium to diverge from the social optimum.

Devarajan, S.

1981-01-01

415

Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract.

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2011-01-01

416

Facial feature point extraction method based on combination of shape extraction and pattern matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this paper, we propose a method for fast and accurate extraction of feature points such as pupils, nostrils, mouth edges, and the like from dynamic images with the purpose of face recognition. Accuracy of face extraction with these feature points used as criteria greatly affects the capabilities of face recognition methods based on pattern matching. This processing must

Kazuhiro Fukui; Osamu Yamaguchi

1998-01-01

417

Extraction efficiencies for pesticides in crops: 14C-benomyl extraction from mustard green and radishes.  

PubMed

14C-labeled benomyl [methyl 1-(butylcarbamoyl)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate] suspended in a commercial benomyl formulation was sprayed on mustard greens and radishes. At 3 intervals after application, the crops were extracted with methanol, acetonitrile, or acetone. Crops were either blended and leached or repetitively blended followed by Soxhlet extraction. Essentially all of the extractable radioactivity was removed by blending. The 14C was more difficult to extract from radishes than from mustard greens as time increased. Respective percentages of 14C extracted at 1, 7, and 14 days were 99, 98, and 97 from mustard greens and 96, 88, and 79 from radishes. Methanol exhibited the highest extraction efficiency, and the blend-Soxhlet process was better than the blend-leach process. Thin layer chromatography of the organic-soluble extracts indicated that the majority of 14C was recovered as methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (MBC), a breakdown product of benomyl. Acid hydrolysis of the extracted tissues released 30--50% of the residual 14C. PMID:7451392

Wheeler, W B; Thompson, N P; Andrade, P; Krause, R T

1980-11-01

418

MANURE HANDLING AND EXTRACTION PROCEDURE EFFECTS ON DETERMINATION OF WATER-EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS IN MANURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated manure water-extractable phosphorus (WEP) measurements as a predictor of soluble phosphorus (P) in runoff following land application of manures. Water-extractable P concentrations were obtained with several methods and compared with dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrat...

419

Enzymatic improvement in the polyphenol extractability and antioxidant activity of green tea extracts.  

PubMed

This study describes increases in extraction efficiency and the bioconversion of catechins after treatment with several commercial enzymes. Tannase was also used to improve the anti-radical activities of green tea extracts. Enzymatic treatment with various commercial enzymes was introduced to improve the extraction efficiency of polyphenols. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and catechin contents and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the green tea extract treated with Viscozyme (VG) were significantly higher than those treated with other commercial enzymatic extractions (p<0.05). More than 95% of the epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and of the epicatechingallate (ECG) was hydrolyzed to epigallocatechin (EGC) and to epicatechin (EC) in successive 20 min treatments with Viscozyme and tannase (TG). Due to its hydrolytic activity, treatment involving tannase resulted in a significant release of gallic acid (GA), EGC, and EC, leading to greater radical scavenging activities. Regarding the IC(50) values of the DPPH and 2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, the green tea extract treated with TG showed values of 131.23 and 28.83 µg/mL, VG showed values of 224.70 and 32.54 µg/mL, and normal green tea extract (NG) showed values of 241.11 and 66.27 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that successive treatment with Viscozyme and tannase improves the extraction efficiency of polyphenols and increases radical scavenging activities. PMID:23291774

Hong, Yang-Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Park, Yooheon; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Tae Young; Yu, Kwang-Won; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

2013-01-07

420

Biological activity and safety of Tripterygium extract prepared by sodium carbonate extraction.  

PubMed

The commercial preparation named “Tripterygium glycosides” prepared by column chromatography has been used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with significant efficacy but concurrent toxicity. The aim of this study was to reduce the toxicity of Tripterygium extracts, using cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of the three principal active components of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. (TWHF)as guiding parameters. Column chromatography was replaced by sodium carbonate extraction for removing the acidic compounds and enriching epoxyditerpenoids and alkaloids in the extract. Results showed that the therapeutic index (IC50/EC50) on murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells and rat mesangial HBZY-1 cells of the extract prepared by sodium carbonate extraction was significantly higher than that of Tripterygium glycosides(0.8 and 5.2 vs. 0.3 and 2.6, p < 0.05), while its cytotoxicity on human liver HL7702 cells was significantly lower (14.5 ± 1.4 vs. 6.8 ± 0.9, p < 0.05). Further acute oral toxicity experiments showed that the LD50 value of this extract was 1,210 mg/kg compared to 257 mg/kg for Tripterygium glycosides. All the above results suggest that Tripterygium extract prepared by sodium carbonate extraction may represent a potentially optimal source of medicine with good therapeutic index. PMID:22986922

Fang, Wei; Peng, Fan; Yi, Tao; Zhang, Cong; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

2012-09-17

421

Extraction of formic and acetic acids from aqueous solution by dynamic headspace-needle trap extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined method of dynamic headspace-needle trap sample preparation and gas chromatography for the determination of formic and acetic acids in aqueous solution was developed in this study. A needle extraction device coupled with a gas aspirating pump was intended to perform sampling and preconcentration of target compounds from aqueous sample before gas chromatographic analysis. The needle trap extraction (NTE)

Da-Wei Lou; Xinqing Lee; Janusz Pawliszyn

2008-01-01

422

Bio-extraction of olive oil: improvement of quality and extraction outputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the development of a bio-extraction process by means of enzyme formulations, added at the beginning of the malaxation step, aiming at producing olive oils of Coratina cultivar with increased quality characteristics and extraction outputs. In particular, a combination of a 3 2 full factorial design with response surface methodology was used to investigate the combined effects

Converti A; G. B. Bonino

423

Processing to pure aromatics of phenosolvan extract and ''15%-residue Me'' from phenosolvan extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

These extracts contained very large concentrations of phenolic compounds. The experiments was meant to produce from them toluene (for explosives) and other aromatics. The actual starting material was a redistillate of the extracts mentioned above. The runs were carried out in a 1,000-cubic cm DHD oven over DHD catalyst on Tonerde Lu catalyst (a form of alumina), at hydrogen partial

Nonnenmacher

1943-01-01

424

Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.  

PubMed

The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

2011-03-18

425

Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

2010-11-16

426

Extracting Temporal Information from Electronic Patient Records  

PubMed Central

A method for automatic extraction of clinical temporal information would be of significant practical importance for deep medical language understanding, and a key to creating many successful applications, such as medical decision making, medical question and answering, etc. This paper proposes a rich statistical model for extracting temporal information from an extremely noisy clinical corpus. Besides the common linguistic, contextual and semantic features, the highly restricted training sample expansion and the structure distance between the temporal expression & related event expressions are also integrated into a supervised machine-learning approach. The learning method produces almost 80% F- score in the extraction of five temporal classes, and nearly 75% F-score in identifying temporally related events. This process has been integrated into the document-processing component of an implemented clinical question answering system that focuses on answering patient-specific questions (See demonstration at http://hitrl.cs.usyd.edu.au/ICNS/).

Li, Min; Patrick, Jon

2012-01-01

427

Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Introduced in this paper is the utilization of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to automatically perform endmember extraction from hyperspectral data. The strengths of SVM are exploited to provide a fast and accurate calculated representation of high-dimensional data sets that may consist of multiple distributions. Once this representation is computed, the number of distributions can be determined without prior knowledge. For each distribution, an optimal transform can be determined that preserves informational content while reducing the data dimensionality, and hence, the computational cost. Finally, endmember extraction for the whole data set is accomplished. Results indicate that this Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction (SVM-BEE) algorithm has the capability of autonomously determining endmembers from multiple clusters with computational speed and accuracy, while maintaining a robust tolerance to noise.

Filippi, Anthony M [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL

2009-01-01

428

Electrolytic extractions of precipitates from steel alloys  

SciTech Connect

During aging of an iron based alloy, the degree of preparation has significant effects on the properties of the alloy. Long-term heat treatments can produce rather large precipitates. In order to obtain compositional and/or structural information from these large precipitates, it is often necessary to examine them in the absence of the surrounding matrix. However it has been found that the extraction replica technique is reliable only for particles 1 ..mu..m in size or less. Any larger particle tends to stay embedded in the matrix. Electrolytic extraction from this bulk has been found to be the only reliable way to obtain precipitate particles larger than 1 ..mu..m. By modifying a gravimetric-vacuum filter assembly, a new method of extraction has been developed, eliminating the time consuming and laborious steps of centrifuging the electrolyte, retrieval of precipitates from test tubes, vacuum drying, and acid cleaning of glassware. 1 reference, 6 figures.

Smith, W.H.

1985-01-01

429

Soil vapor extraction enhanced by oscillatory flow  

SciTech Connect

The rate of contaminant removal by soil vapor extraction becomes low when diffusion limits the transfer of vapor from the soil to the channels in the soil where air preferentially flows. This paper suggests that adding an oscillatory component to the pressure and velocity of the subsurface air may increase the transport to the channels of flow, and thereby increase the rate of extraction, when the diffusion limit occurs. Three physical mechanisms by which oscillatory flow may increase the transport are described. Algebraic expressions and numerical estimates are given for the penetration of oscillatory pressure into various soils. Exploratory experiments with a laboratory soil column indicate enhanced extraction when an oscillatory component is superimposed upon nonequilibrium steady flow. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Neeper, D.A.

1991-01-01

430

Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

2006-06-07

431

Extraction of object lines in engineering drawings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classification of object lines in mechanical part drawings is a critical problem for automated conversion of drawings from paper medium to CAD databases. We describe new methods for classifying object lines. These methods include section line detection, hidden line detection, centerline detection and object line extraction. A self-supervised approach which includes a spacing estimation step and a recognition step to extract section lines is described. A general purpose algorithm that not only detects dashed lines but also classifies them based on their attributes is described. These attributes are used for classification of detected dashed lines as hidden lines or centerlines. Object line extraction facilitates intelligent interpretation of geometric objects for integration with CAD/CAM systems.

Lai, Chan P.; Kasturi, Rangachar

1994-03-01

432

Extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds constitute a major class of plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and show a large structural diversity. These compounds occur as aglycones or glycosides, as monomers or constituting highly polymerized structures, or as free or matrix-bound compounds. Furthermore, they are not uniformly distributed in the plant and their stability varies significantly. This greatly complicates their extraction and isolation processes, which means that a single standardized procedure cannot be recommended for all phenolics and/or plant materials; procedures have to be optimized depending on the nature of the sample and the target analytes, and also on the object of the study. In this chapter, the main techniques for sample preparation, and extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds have been reviewed-from classical solvent extraction procedures to more modern approaches, such as the use of molecularly imprinted polymers or counter-current chromatography. PMID:22367907

Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Dueñas, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M

2012-01-01

433

Extracting tissue deformation using Gabor filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach for accurate extraction of tissue deformation imaged with tagged MR. Our method, based on banks of Gabor filters, adjusts (1) the aspect and (2) orientation of the filter"s envelope and adjusts (3) the radial frequency and (4) angle of the filter"s sinusoidal grating to extract information about the deformation of tissue. The method accurately extracts tag line spacing, orientation, displacement and effective contrast. Existing, non-adaptive methods often fail to recover useful displacement information in the proximity of tissue boundaries while our method works in the proximity of the boundaries. We also present an interpolation method to recover all tag information at a finer resolution than the filter bank parameters. Results are shown on simulated images of translating and contracting tissue.

Montillo, Albert; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

2004-04-01

434

Extraction and identification of flavonoids from parsley extracts by HPLC analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flavonoids are phenolic compounds isolated from a wide variety of plants, and are valuable for their multiple properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In the present work, parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) extracts were obtained by three different extraction techniques: maceration, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted solvent extractions. The extractions were performed with ethanol-water mixtures in various ratios. From these extracts, flavonoids like the flavones apigenin and luteolin, and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol were identified using an HPLC Shimadzu apparatus equipped with PDA and MS detectors. The separation method involved a gradient step. The mobile phase consisted of two solvents: acetonitrile and distilled water with 0.1% formic acid. The separation was performed on a RP-C18 column.

Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.

2012-02-01

435

Supercritical fluid extraction of lipids from spent coffee grounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction of lipids from spent coffee grounds was studied in this work. Extraction experiments were carried out with supercritical carbon dioxide at different pressure and temperature conditions to study the influence of those process parameters on the extraction rate and oil composition. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted up to 85% of the total amount of oil of spent coffee

Ricardo M. Couto; João Fernandes; M. D. R. Gomes da Silva; Pedro C. Simões

2009-01-01

436

Determination of Antioxidant Properties of Aroma Extracts from Various Beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aroma extracts from fresh soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans were prepared using simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) under mild conditions (55 °C and 95 mmHg). Extracts were examined for antioxidative activities in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from all beans inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for nearly one month at a level of

Kwang-Geun Lee; Alyson E. Mitchell; Takayuki Shibamoto

2000-01-01

437

Extraction of Amaranth seed oil by supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work studied various aspects of extracting high value lipids from a model seed material (Amaranthcruentus) using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent. Experimentally, it investigated the effects of process temperature, pressure, solvent flow rate, scale of extraction, and sample pre-treatment on the extraction rate and yield. It was found that the rate of extraction was function of the solvent

D. Westerman; R. C. D. Santos; J. A. Bosley; J. S. Rogers; B. Al-Duri

2006-01-01

438

Arsenic fractionation in soils using an improved sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment of contaminants requires simple, meaningful tools to obtain information on contaminant pools of differential lability and bioavailability in the soil. We developed and tested a sequential extraction procedure (SEP) for As by choosing extraction reagents commonly used for sequential extraction of metals, Se and P. Tests with alternative extractants that have been used in SEPs for P and

Walter W. Wenzel; Natalie Kirchbaumer; Thomas Prohaska; Gerhard Stingeder; Enzo Lombi; Domy C. Adriano

2001-01-01

439

AUTOMATIC KEYWORD EXTRACTION OF CHINESE HOMEPAGE FOR WEB UNDERSTANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method to extract keyword from Web pages automatically. The automatic keyword extraction technique is a very important part for the document and web understanding on the Internet. Traditionally , keyword extraction always depends on the word dictionary and word frequency. However, it can not extract the keywords out of the dictionary and low-frequency keyword such as

WANG Jhing-Fa; HUANG Chieh-Yi

1998-01-01

440

Extracting Human Gait Signatures by Body Segment Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new method for extracting human gait signatures by topological analysis, using properties of body segments. The gait signature is extracted in three stages: extraction of the body contour by a thresholding and morphological filter; extraction of the leg angles based on regression analysis of contour data; finding the body points guided by known anatomical knowledge. A 2D

Jang-hee Yoo; Mark S. Nixon; Chris J. Harris

2002-01-01

441

A quality-aware optimizer for information extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large amounts of structured information is buried in unstructured text. Information extraction systems can extract structured relations from the documents and enable sophisticated, SQL-like queries over unstructured text. Information extraction systems are not perfect and their output has imperfect precision and recall (i.e., contains spurious tuples and misses good tuples). Typically, an extraction system has a set of parameters that

Alpa Jain; Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis

2009-01-01

442

An Inhibitor of Growth Extracted from Pea Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, Stewart, Bergren and Redemann1 and Stewart2 have extracted from the leafy cotyledons of radish seedlings a substance which retards the growth of oat coleoptiles. They extracted by a method devised by van Overbeek3 for extracting auxin, leaving the material in purified other without grinding it up, and then drying the extract by distillation and evaporation; and they tested the

R. Snow

1939-01-01

443

Some pharmacological properties of extracts of Terminalia sericea roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia sericea Burch. Ex. DC (Combretaceae) extracts are used to treat bacterial infections, diarrhea, and diabetes. Intermediate and polar extracts of the roots exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the petroleum ether extract was inactive. The extracts were mildly active against Bacillus anthracis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but exhibited the highest activity against

M. J. Moshi; Z. H. Mbwambo

2005-01-01

444

Subcritical Water Extraction of Nutraceutical Compounds from Citrus Pomaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water (SCW) extraction of citrus pomaces (CPs) was carried out, and antioxidant activity and nutraceutical compound levels of the SCW extracts were evaluated in detail. At first, CP samples were subjected to the SCW extraction under various conditions focusing on the extraction temperature and time. Consequently, the highest total phenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power were found

Jong-Wan Kim; Tatsuya Nagaoka; Yasuyuki Ishida; Tatsuya Hasegawa; Kuniyuki Kitagawa; Seung-Cheol Lee

2009-01-01

445

Supercritical fluid extraction and chemicals from biomass with supercritical fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) can reduce sample preparation time, and recovery from the methods can be equal or better than that of the classical extraction techniques for solid and semi-solid samples. The properties of a supercritical fluid (SCF) can also improve extraction efficiency and speed. The process is based on the use of dual effect (extraction and entrainment) SCF solvents.

A Demirba?

2001-01-01

446

Automated parameter extraction software for advanced IGBT modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A software package for extracting parameters to be used in advanced IGBT models is presented. In addition, new model equations and extraction procedures are introduced that more accurately describe a wide range of IGBT types including the Warp-Speed IGBTs. The parameter extraction software package consists of five programs that extract the 20 physical and structural parameters needed in the most

S. Bouche

2000-01-01

447

SOLID\\/LIQUID EXTRACTION OF ZINC FROM EAF-DUST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid\\/liquid extraction of nonferrous heavy metals was investigated. This process may be of technical importance in the upgrading of dust from steel mills and from electrical arc furnaces (EAF-dust). Extraction was carried out with aqueous acetic acid. Objectives of the project were the evaluation of partition data and the investigation of extraction kinetics. The extraction efficiency of the substances

T. Hilber; R. Marr; M. Siebenhofer; W. Zapfel

2001-01-01

448

Extracting laboratory test information from biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background: No previous study reported the efficacy of current natural language processing (NLP) methods for extracting laboratory test information from narrative documents. This study investigates the pathology informatics question of how accurately such information can be extracted from text with the current tools and techniques, especially machine learning and symbolic NLP methods. The study data came from a text corpus maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, containing a rich set of information on laboratory tests and test devices. Methods: The authors developed a symbolic information extraction (SIE) system to extract device and test specific information about four types of laboratory test entities: Specimens, analytes, units of measures and detection limits. They compared the performance of SIE and three prominent machine learning based NLP systems, LingPipe, GATE and BANNER, each implementing a distinct supervised machine learning method, hidden Markov models, support vector machines and conditional random fields, respectively. Results: Machine learning systems recognized laboratory test entities with moderately high recall, but low precision rates. Their recall rates were relatively higher when the number of distinct entity values (e.g., the spectrum of specimens) was very limited or when lexical morphology of the entity was distinctive (as in units of measures), yet SIE outperformed them with statistically significant margins on extracting specimen, analyte and detection limit information in both precision and F-measure. Its high recall performance was statistically significant on analyte information extraction. Conclusions: Despite its shortcomings against machine learning methods, a well-tailored symbolic system may better discern relevancy among a pile of information of the same type and may outperform a machine learning system by tapping into lexically non-local contextual information such as the document structure.

Kang, Yanna Shen; Kayaalp, Mehmet

2013-01-01

449

Extraction of phenolic compounds from a Spodosol profile: an evaluation of three extractants  

SciTech Connect

The authors extracted phenolic compounds from each horizon of a Spodosol profile using three extractants: 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate at pH 7.0 and 10.2, and 0.5 N sodium hydroxide at pH 13.4. Of 28 standard compounds evaluated seven phenolic compounds were identified: three carboxylic acids - protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and vanillic acids; two aldehydes - vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; and two cinnamic acids - trans p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The three most abundant compounds evaluated were protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid. The amounts of each phenolic compound extracted increased with increasing pH of the extractant except for protocatechuic acid. Protocatechuic acid was extracted in the highest amounts by sodium pyrophosphate pH 10. The pyrophosphate (pH .10) extracts revealed that protocatechuic acid tended to accumulate in the B horizons, suggesting that it may play a role in the translocation of metal ions during podzolization. The two cinnamic acids, trans p-coumaric and ferulic, were extracted primarily by NaOH. The identification of these cinnamic derivatives in an NaOH extraction of roots separated from the B horizon suggested that their presence may be due to degradation of plant residues by NaOH. Pyrophosphate (pH 7) extracted only small amounts of phenolic compounds. The specificity of pyrophosphate (pH 10) in removing organic complexes of a possible pedogenic nature suggest that it was the better extractant. Sodium pyrophosphate (pH 10) is recommended for use in future pedological studies of phenolic substances.

Vance, G.F.; Boyd, S.A.; Mokma, D.L.

1985-12-01

450

Rapid extraction methods for organics in soil  

SciTech Connect

This article presents rapid methods for the extraction and subsequent analysis of organics in soils potentially contaminated from chemical wastes. A methylene chloride extraction, on both a micro scale in a syringe and a macro scale in a shaken flask, with subsequent gravimetric analysis are described. On wet soils, anhydrous sodium sulfate is added to bind the water before adding methylene chloride and mixing with a vortex touch mixer. A baseline procedure is the direct gravimetric determination of volatile organics corrected with a Karl Fischer determination of water. Estimates of time saved by using the rapid methods, as well as precision and accuracy data, are presented.

Alsop, G.M.; Conway, R.A.

1983-03-01

451

Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W. [Washington Savannah River Company, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01

452

Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.  

PubMed

Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications. PMID:11204182

Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

453

Fractured Geothermal Growth Induced by Heat Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Field testing of a hydraulically stimulated, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal system at the Fenton Hill site in northern New Mexico indicated that significant reservoir growth occurred as energy was extracted. Tracer, microseismic, and geochemical measurements provided the primary quantitative evidence for the increases in accessible reservoir volume and fractured rock surface area that were observed during energy extraction operations that caused substantial thermal drawdown in portions of the reservoir. These temporal increases suggest that augmentation of reservoir hear-production capacity in an HDR system may be possible. [DJE 2005

Tester, J.W.; Murphy, H.D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Potter, R.M.; Robinson, B.A.

1989-02-01

454

What happens when vacuum extraction fails?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of forceps delivery or cesarean section (CS) following failed vacuum extraction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective cohort study of all women who underwent forceps delivery and\\/or CS after failed vacuum extraction in 1993–2006\\u000a was conducted. Cases were identified by searching the computerized delivery discharge database. All files were reviewed and\\u000a those who underwent CS were compared to

Nir Melamed; Yariv Yogev; Shirley Stainmetz; Avi Ben-Haroush

2009-01-01

455

Antimutagenicity of an acetone extract of yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstituted non-fat dry milk powder, fermented by a mixture of Streptococcus thermophilus CH3 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 191R to produce yogurt, was freeze-dried and extracted in acetone. After evaporation of the acetone, the extract was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and tested for antimutagenicity. In the Ames test, significant dose-dependent activity was observed against N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO), 3,2?-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB), 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene

Sudarshan R. Nadathur; Steven J. Gould; Alan T. Bakalinsky

1995-01-01

456

Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions  

DOEpatents

A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

457

Lens extraction with ultrasound. Experiments in rabbits.  

PubMed Central

The extraction of the rabbit lens is described using a 25 G irrigating needle and a 22 G aspirating needle; at the latter's bevelled tip lens fragmentation occurs due to the longitudinal ultrasonic vibrations generated there--an 'acoustic horn' causes the tip to vibrate with large amplitudes. The use of small needles allows considerable manoeuvrability in the anterior chamber and usually eliminates the need for corneal suturing. Push-pull coupled syringes equate the volume of irrigation with that of aspiration. This procedure makes possible lens extraction through an aperture in the anterior capsule of the rabbit's lens and a similar machine is being constructed for trial on human cataract. Images

Clarkson, D M; Phillips, C I

1976-01-01

458

Acceleration of Automated HI Source Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim to enable fast automated extraction of neutral hydrogen (HI) sources from large survey data sets. This requires both handling the large files (>5 TB) to be produced by next-generation interferometers and acceleration of the source extraction algorithm. We develop an efficient multithreaded implementation of the A'Trous wavelet reconstruction algorithm, which we evaluate against the serial implementation in the DUCHAMP package. We also evaluate three memory management libraries (Mmap, Boost and Stxxl) that enable processing of data files too large to fit into main memory, to establish which provides the best performance.

Badenhorst, S. J.; Blyth, S.; Kuttel, M. M.

2013-10-01

459

Comparison of extraction techniques for spray dried dispersion tablet formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-traditional sample preparation\\/extraction techniques that utilized the Caliper Life Sciences Tablet Processing Workstation II (TPW II), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE), and Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) were evaluated for the extraction of Compound A from a 50mgA, 15% Spray Dried Dispersion (SDD) immediate released (IR) tablet formulation. The TPW II consistently provided complete recoveries with very short preparation\\/extraction times (?30min). MAE

Carlos Lee; Jenny Gallo; William Arikpo; Vincent Bobin

2007-01-01

460

Knotwood and bark extracts: strong antioxidants from waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts of knotwood of several industrially important tree species were evaluated\\u000a by lipid-peroxidation inhibition and peroxyl-trapping capacity tests. The results were compared with the antioxidant properties\\u000a of hydrophilic extracts of bark, and pure lignans and flavonoids isolated from knotwood extracts. The knot extracts from several\\u000a tree species were stronger antioxidants than the bark extracts, which

Suvi P. Pietarinen; Stefan M. Willför; Markku O. Ahotupa; Jarl E. Hemming; Bjarne R. Holmbom

2006-01-01

461

Microwave-assisted extraction of solanesol from tobacco leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanesol is the starting material for many high-value biochemicals, including co-enzyme Q10 and Vitamin K analogues. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique has been developed for the fast extraction of solanesol from tobacco leaves. Compared to heat-reflux extraction, MAE reduced extraction time and obtained higher percentage extracted of solanesol. The effect of microwave on cell destruction of

Hua-Ying Zhou; Chun-Zhao Liu

2006-01-01

462

A novel approach of palm-line extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm-lines, including the principal lines and wrinkles, can describe a palmprint clearly. This paper presents a novel approach of palm-line extraction for the online palmprints. This approach is composed of two stages: coarse-level extraction stage and fine-level extraction stage. In the first stage, morphological operations are used to extract palm-lines in different directions. In the second stage, for each extracted

Xiangqian Wu; Kuanquan Wang; David Zhang

2004-01-01

463

Anti-inflammatory effect of microalgal extracts from Tetraselmis suecica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Tetraselmis suecica with respect to nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interlukin (IL)-6 release in lipopolysaccharide\\u000a (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We prepared methanolic extracts and water extract using protease. Of all the prepared extracts,\\u000a 80% methanol extract exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory effect.

Wol Soon Jo; Yoo Jin Choi; Hyoun Ji Kim; Byung Hyouk Nam; Sook Hee Hong; Gye An Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Su Yeong Seo; Min Ho Jeong

2010-01-01

464

Extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seed kernels by combination of ultrasonication and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment before aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction was found to be useful in the case of extraction of oil from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. The use of ultrasonication for 10 min at pH 9.0 followed by aqueous oil extraction gave a yield of 67%. However, the maximum yield of 74%

Shweta Shah; Aparna Sharma; M. N. Gupta

2005-01-01

465

Comparison of volatile and semivolatile compounds from commercial cigarette by supercritical fluid extraction and simultaneous distillation extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) was studied as a rapid method for extraction of volatile and semivolatile compounds of Chinese commercial cigarettes. The method was compared with simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE). Temperature and pressure for the SFE were optimized. The extracts obtained by the two methods showed different characters in composition and represented differently the flavor characteristics of

XU Zi-gang; ZHENG Lin

466

Phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of green and white tea extracts depending on extraction conditions and the solvent used  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiencies of different solvents in the extraction of phenolics from bagged and loose leaves of white and green tea, after different extraction times, as well as the antioxidative capacity of the obtained extracts, were investigated. The developed HPLC method has the potential to separate and determinate 17 phenolics widely distributed in plants, but in investigated tea extracts only four

Gordana Rusak; Draženka Komes; Saša Liki?; Dunja Horži?; Maja Kova?

2008-01-01

467

Molecular imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of flavonol aglycones from Moringa oleifera extracts.  

PubMed

Molecular imprinted polymer produced using quercetin as the imprinting compound was applied for the extraction of flavonol aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol) from Moringa oleifera methanolic extracts obtained using heated reflux extraction method. Identification and quantification of these flavonols in the Moringa extracts was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Breakthrough volume and retention capacity of molecular imprinted polymer SPE was investigated using a mixture of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. The calculated theoretical number of plates was found to be 14, 50 and 8 for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. Calculated adsorption capacities were 2.0, 3.4 and 3.7 ?mol/g for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. No myricetin was observed in Moringa methanol extracts. Recoveries of quercetin and kaempferol from Moringa methanol extracts of leaves and flowers ranged from 77 to 85% and 75 to 86%, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility of using the developed molecularly imprinted SPE method for quantitative clean-up of both of these flavonoids. Using heated reflux extraction combined with molecularly imprinted SPE, quercetin concentrations of 975 ± 58 and 845 ± 32 mg/kg were determined in Moringa leaves and flowers, respectively. However, the concentrations of kaempferol found in leaves and flowers were 2100 ± 176 and 2802 ± 157 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:23255435

Pakade, Vusumzi; Cukrowska, Ewa; Lindahl, Sofia; Turner, Charlotta; Chimuka, Luke

2012-12-18

468

Solvent Selection for Extraction from Dilute Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved strategy for the selection of solvents for recovery of chemicals from dilute solution is presented. Low solvent losses and a high solute distribution coefficient are primary goals for solvent selection. High relative volatility of the solvent also is an important property if the solute is to be recovered from the extract by distillation. Low solvent losses will ensure

M. C. M. Cockrem; J. H. Flatt; E. N. Lightfoot

1989-01-01

469

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception,

A. S. Kertes; C. J. King

1986-01-01

470

Patent claim decomposition for improved information extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several application domains research in natural language processing and information extraction has spawned valuable tools that support humans in structuring, aggregating and managing large amounts of information available as text. Patent claims, although subject to a number of rigid constraints and therefore forced into foreseeable structures, are written in a language even good parsing algorithms tend to fail miserably

Peter Parapatics; Michael Dittenbach

2009-01-01

471

Development of Hair Dye from Herbal Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared

Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai

2009-01-01

472

Extraction of eleutherococcus by aprotic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main disadvantage of aqueous alcoholicsolutions consists in their instability, since their most physiologically active constituents -eleutherosides -are cleavedin thepresenceof water under the influence of enzymespresent in the plant. Aqueous alcoholic mixtures cannot therefore be recommendedfor obtaining eleutherococcus extracts [i]. Theproduction of nonalcoholic preparations is possible by two methods: by eliminating thealcohol from the finished product and by replacing the

A. P. Sakharov; I. V. Vasil'tsova; G. L. Ryzhova

1989-01-01

473

Extraction of manufacturing features and their attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach to extract manufacturing features and their corresponding attributes from a constructive solid geometry based commercial CAD software. Manufacturing features are limited to blind hole, through hole, blind pocket, through pocket, depression, notch, slot, and step. The attributes are limited to height, length, and width for a block feature, height and diameter for a hole feature.

Ahluwalia, Rashpal S.; Jung, Jong-Yun

1997-12-01

474

ELECTRICAL EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES FOR VLSI CIRCUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents an electrical extractor implemented using Java and the main aspects of its development. From a layout description (CIF), the tool generates a Spice electrical description ready to be compared or simulated. During the extraction process there are two different kinds of elements that the software identifies: devices and parasitic elements. In this context, a device is an

Marcos Rafael Boschetti; Ricardo Augusto da Luz Reis

475

Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material  

DOEpatents

Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

1983-07-26

476

Facial feature extraction and pose determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined approach for facial feature extraction and determination of gaze direction isproposed that employs some improved variations of the adaptive Hough transform for curvedetection, minima analysis of feature candidates, template matching for inner facial featurelocalization, active contour models for inner face contour detection and projective geometryproperties for accurate pose determination. The aim is to provide a sufficient set of

Athanasios Nikolaidis; Ioannis Pitas

2000-01-01

477

Facial Feature Extraction and Determination of Pose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes a set of methods for the extraction offacial features as well as for the determination of the gaze direction.The ultimate goal of the approach followed is to define a sufficient setof feature distances so that a unique description of the structure of aface is produced. Eyebrows, eyes, nostrils, mouth, cheeks and chin areconsidered as interesting features.

Athanasios Nikolaidis; Ioannis Pitas

1998-01-01

478

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception,

A. S. Kertes; C. J. King

1986-01-01

479

Rule extraction from support vector machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support vector machines (SVMs) are learning systems based on the statistical learning theory, which are exhibiting good generalization ability on real data sets. Nevertheless, a possible limitation of SVM is that they generate black box models. In this work, a procedure for rule extraction from support vector machines is proposed: the SVM+Prototypes method. This method allows to give explanation ability

Haydemar Núñez; Cecilio Angulo; Andreu Català

2002-01-01

480

Slow beam extraction from the Nuclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on beam extraction from the Nuclotron, a superferric heavy ion synchrotron, were carried out last year and in March, 2001. The resonance Qx=20\\/3, used for a horizontal betatron amplitude growth, provides a beam entering the electrostatic septum deflector, where it obtains an initial deflection to avoid losses on the septum of the Lambertson Magnet. The latter bends the beam

N. N. Agapov; V. A. Andreev; A. M. Baldin; N. A. Blinov; O. I. Brovko; V. N. Buldakovsky; A. V. Butenko; O. M. Golubitsky; A. I. Govorov; E. V. Ivanov; I. B. Issinsky; S. V. Kalenov; V. I. Kaplin; H. G. Khodigbagiyan; A. E. Kirichenko; A. G. Kochurov; A. D. Kovalenko; O. S. Kozlov; I. I. Kulikov; L. A. Leonov; A. I. Malakhov; E. A. Matyshevsky; I. N. Meshkov; V. A. Mikhailov; V. A. Monchinsky; P. I. Nikitaev; S. A. Novikov; S. V. Ronamov; P. A. Rukoyatkin; S. Z. Sayfulin; A. A. Smirnov; B. N. Sveshnikov; V. V. Seleznev; B. V. Vasilishin; M. A. Voevodin; V. I. Volkov; A. V. Vol'nov

2001-01-01

481

Extraction of pharmaceuticals using pressurised carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the applications of super- and sub-critical carbon dioxide for the extraction of pharmaceuticals from various matrices. The matrices covered are divided into the following types: animal feed, formulations, biological and miscellaneous, with various sub-divisions as appropriate. The polar nature of most pharmaceuticals often precludes the use of carbon dioxide only, so it is common to find the addition of a more polar solvent, as modifier. As the majority of sample types covered are solid, little if any pre-treatment is required, with the exception of grinding, prior to insertion in the sample extraction cell. For liquid-type matrices, sample pre-treatment is the normal. Often this may involve adsorption on an inert support e.g. Celite or diatomaceous earth, or immobilisation on a functionalised silica surface, e.g. C18. The later may take the form of a solid phase extraction cartridge or disk. An attempt has also been made to sample from liquid matrices directly using a modified extraction cell. The variety of sample types, matrices and analyte polarity places stringent requirements on the use of pressurised carbon dioxide. Its potential for effective recovery is examined in this review. PMID:9160253

Dean, J R; Khundker, S

1997-04-01

482

Satisfying Constraints on Extraction and Adjunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a unified feature-based theory of complement, adjunct, and subject extraction, in which there is no need either for valence reducing lexical rules or for phonologically null traces. Our analysis rests on the assumption that the mapping between argument structure and valence is defined by realization constraints which are satisfied by all lexical heads. Arguments can

Gosse Bouma; Robert Malouf; Ivan A. Sag

1997-01-01

483

Linear feature extraction for infrared image  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear feature extraction method for infrared image is presented in this paper, which includes three major steps: image preprocessing using fuzzy feature transformation and fuzzy enhancement, edge strength map and direction map profile maximum method. Comparison with other edge detection methods, accuracy and robust experiments are made to prove its better position accuracy and reliability. Results show that the

Tiejun Li; Yanli Wang; Zhe Chen; Renxiang Wang

2001-01-01

484

Universal extraction method for gastrointestinal pathogens.  

PubMed

A universal stool extraction method for recovery of nucleic acids (NAs) from gastrointestinal pathogens was developed to support rapid diagnostics for the London 2012 Olympics. The method involved mechanical disruption (bead beating) of the stools, followed by automated extraction and detection using real-time PCR. This method had been used extensively in the Second Infectious Intestinal Disease Study (IID2) for the isolation of NA from bacteria and parasites (and was effective for the robust recovery of Cryptosporidium spp.) but had not been used for enteric viruses. To ensure this method was universally suitable, panels of samples known to contain target bacteria, viruses or parasites were processed in triplicate using the pre-treatment method routinely used for each target and the new extraction method (bead beating). The extracts were tested using real-time PCR and the cycle threshold values were compared. The results from this study showed that bead beating improved yields for the bacterial and parasitic targets and was suitable for the viral targets. The implementation of this universal method should confer cost- and time-saving benefits and streamline the processes required for the characterization of an array of pathogens from faecal samples. PMID:23831766

Halstead, Fenella D; Lee, Adele V; Couto-Parada, Xose; Polley, Spencer D; Ling, Clare; Jenkins, Claire; Chalmers, Rachel M; Elwin, Kristin; Gray, Jim J; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Wain, John; Clark, Duncan A; Bolton, Frederick J; Manuel, Rohini J

2013-07-05

485

Extraction of airways from CT (EXACT'09).  

PubMed

This paper describes a framework for establishing a reference airway tree segmentation, which was used to quantitatively evaluate fifteen different airway tree extraction algorithms in a standardized manner. Because of the sheer difficulty involved in manually constructing a complete reference standard from scratch, we propose to construct the reference using results from all algorithms that are to be evaluated. We start by subdividing each segmented airway tree into its individual branch segments. Each branch segment is then visually scored by trained observers to determine whether or not it is a correctly segmented part of the airway tree. Finally, the reference airway trees are constructed by taking the union of all correctly extracted branch segments. Fifteen airway tree extraction algorithms from different research groups are evaluated on a diverse set of twenty chest computed tomography (CT) scans of subjects ranging from healthy volunteers to patients with severe pathologies, scanned at different sites, with different CT scanner brands, models, and scanning protocols. Three performance measures covering different aspects of segmentation quality were computed for all participating algorithms. Results from the evaluation showed that no single algorithm could extract more than an average of 74% of the total length of all branches in the reference standard, indicating substantial differences between the algorithms. A fusion scheme that obtained superior results is presented, demonstrating that there is complementary information provided by the different algorithms and there is still room for further improvements in airway segmentation algorithms. PMID:22855226

Lo, Pechin; van Ginneken, Bram; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Yavarna, Tarunashree; de Jong, Pim A; Irving, Benjamin; Fetita, Catalin; Ortner, Margarete; Pinho, Rômulo; Sijbers, Jan; Feuerstein, Marco; Fabija?ska, Anna; Bauer, Christian; Beichel, Reinhard; Mendoza, Carlos S; Wiemker, Rafael; Lee, Jaesung; Reeves, Anthony P; Born, Silvia; Weinheimer, Oliver; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Tschirren, Juerg; Mori, Ken; Odry, Benjamin; Naidich, David P; Hartmann, Ieneke; Hoffman, Eric A; Prokop, Mathias; Pedersen, Jesper H; de Bruijne, Marleen

2012-07-26

486

Analysis of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Water-soluble melanin complexes were extracted with hot water from Inonotus obliquus fungus. They were characterized before and after reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid. The organic components as products of degradation of melanin complexes were separated by column chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS method. PMID:17438866

Mazurkiewicz, Witold

487

Extraction cycles design for La Hague plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with the extraction cycles design for La Hague plants. The work has consisted in basic laboratory studies with elaboration of computer models and their subsequent uses in flowsheet optimized design. To highlight this work, the case of UP3...

P. Baron B. Boullis M. Germain J. P. Gue P. Miquel

1993-01-01

488

Molecular Mechanism of Cyclodextrin Mediated Cholesterol Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depletion of cholesterol from membranes, mediated by ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is well known and documented, but the molecular details of this process are largely unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have been able to study the CD mediated extraction of cholesterol from model membranes, in particular from a pure cholesterol monolayer, at atomic resolution. Our results show that efficient cholesterol

Cesar A. López; Alex H. de Vries; Siewert J. Marrink

2011-01-01

489

Improving LED extraction efficiency through surface patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate improvement in performance attainable by etching Photonic Crystals and Photonic Quasicrystals (PQC) into the top emitting surface of LEDs (PQC-LEDs). We describe the physical mechanisms of extraction enhancement through ordered surface patterning and investigate benefits in terms of total extraction enhancement, beam directionality, and far field beam quality. We show that a great variety of far field beam profiles tailored for specific applications such as projection TV light engines and direct flat panel display illumination can be obtained simply by adjusting geometric design parameters. Our results show that PQC-LEDs can provide around 50% improvement in extraction enhancement and coupling efficiency for applications requiring non Lambertian beam shapes when etched into standard epitaxy wafers in comparison to "state of the art" surface roughened GaN LED devices. We also show that by tailoring the epi-structure to complement the properties of the PQC, extraction as well as directional light coupling enhancements can be improved by a factor of 9 amounting to a total coupling enhancement of around 78%.

Charlton, M. D. B.; Lee, T.; Zoorob, M. E.; Shields, P. A.; Wang, W. N.

2007-09-01

490

Extracting Regular Behaviors from Social Media Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media network analysis has become very popular in recent years. How do real networks evolve over time? What are the normal evolving behaviors in a social media network? In order to extract behaviors occurring regularly to reveal the microscopic evolving properties in social networks, the evolving process of networks is modeled as stochastic states transition, and the evolving behaviors

Leiming Yan; Jinwei Wang

2011-01-01

491

Information Extraction by Two Dimensional Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a learning algorithm for a two dimensional parser. The parser is designed to analyze page layout of documents and extract information using both textual and layout information. The parsing rules are expressed by an extended stochastic context free grammar that decomposes tokens located in two dimensional space both horizontally and vertically. In this paper we focus on

Atsuhiro Takasu

2008-01-01

492

Extracting Topographic Terrain Features from Elevation Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some applications such as the autonomous navigation in natural terrain and the automation of map making process require high- level scene descriptions as well as geometrical representation of the natural terrain environments. In this paper, we present meth- ods for building high level terrain descriptions, referred to as topo- graphic maps, by extracting terrain features like \\

TAKEO KANADE

1994-01-01

493

DNA extraction from keratin and chitin.  

PubMed

DNA extracted from keratinous and chitinous materials can be a useful source of genetic information. To effectively liberate the DNA from these materials, buffers containing relatively high levels of DTT, proteinase K, and detergent are recommended, followed by purification using either silica-column or organic methods. PMID:22237520

Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, Thomas M P

2012-01-01

494

Context-Aware Wrapping: Synchronized Data Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep Web presents a pressing need for integrating large numbers of dynamically evolving data sources. To be more automatic yet accurate in building an integration system, we observe two problems: First, across sequential tasks in integration, how can a wrapper (as an extraction task) con- sider the peer sources to facilitate the subsequent matching task? Second, across parallel sources,

Shui-lung Chuang; Kevin Chen-chuan Chang; Chengxiang Zhai

2007-01-01

495

AUTHENTICATION OF COMMERCIAL GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product that has reported antibacterial and antiviral properties. It is reported to be safe and effective to use internally and externally for a wide variety of conditions such as acne, allergies, athlete's foot, body odor, candida, colds, cold...

496

EXTRACTION OF GENOMIC DNA FROM PLANT TISSUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three general methods that are commonly used to extract genomic DNA from plant tissue were reviewed. The principles, critical factors, and optimization procedures were discussed to help researcher to choose and modify a method according to their research purpose. Emphasis is given to a simple 96-we...

497

Extracting and Evolving Mobile Games Product Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some organizations, the proactive approach to product lines may be inadequate due to prohibitively high investment and risks. As an alternative, the extractive and the reactive approaches are in- cremental, oering moderate costs and risks, and therefore sometimes may be more appropriate. However, combining these two approaches de- mands a more detailed process at the implementation level. This paper

Vander Alves; Pedro Matos Jr.; Leonardo Cole; Paulo Borba; Geber Ramalho

2005-01-01

498

EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION WITH AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF HYDROTROPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hydrotropes on vapor-liquid equilibrium of a mixture provides a potential technique of extractive distillation for systems which are difficult or impossible to separate by normal rectification. Various hydrotropes, such as sodium toluate, sodium toluence sulfonate, sodium cymcnc sulfonate, sodium mesitylene sulfonate and sodium salicylate, in aqueous solutions have been tested for the separation of close-boiling point mixtures,

MAMTA AGARWAL; V. G. GAIKAR

1992-01-01

499

Analytical theory of multipass crystal extraction  

SciTech Connect

An analytical theory for the efficiency of particle extraction from an accelerator by means of a bent crystal is proposed. The theory agrees with all the measurements performed in the broad energy range of 14 to 900 GeV, where the efficiency range also spans over two decades, from {approximately}0.3% to {approximately}30%.

Biryukov, V.; Murphy, C.T.

1997-10-01

500

EXTRACTING BUILDINGS FROM DIGITAL SURFACE MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach for building extraction using Digital Surface Models (DSM) as input data. The first task is the detection of areas within the DSM which describe buildings. The second task is the reconstruction of buildings for which we apply parametric and prismatic building models. The main focus is on the detection, namely on the use of height

Ansgar Brunn; Uwe Weidner

1997-01-01