Sample records for lycopodium clavatum extract

  1. Lycopodine from Lycopodium clavatum extract inhibits proliferation of HeLa cells through induction of apoptosis via caspase-3 activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushil Kumar Mandal; Raktim Biswas; Soumya Sundar Bhattacharyya; Saili Paul; Suman Dutta; Surajit Pathak; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2010-01-01

    Crude ethanolic extract of the plant Lycopodium clavatum has long been used in complementary and alternative medicine for treating various liver ailments and Alzheimer's disease. It has also been claimed to have potential anti-cancer properties in vivo in mice chronically fed liver carcinogens, p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter). Incidentally, crude ethanolic extract of Lycopodium clavatum is a mixture of

  2. Protective potentials of a plant extract (Lycopodium clavatum) on mice chronically fed hepato-carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Surajit; Banerjee, Antara; Paul, Saili; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2009-07-01

    Chronic feeding of carcinogens p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter) for 90 and 120 days elevated activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of blood glucose and cortisol and decreased the activities of glutathione reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, and blood cholesterol and hemoglobin contents, and levels of serum estradiol and testosterone in mice. Levels of these biomarkers in both liver and spleen tissues were positively altered along with a significant reduction of tumor incidence in liver of carcinogen intoxicated mice treated with spore extract of Lycopodium clavatum. The results validate the use of this plant extract in complementary and alternative medicines against hepato-toxicity. PMID:19761046

  3. Lycopodine from Lycopodium clavatum extract inhibits proliferation of HeLa cells through induction of apoptosis via caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sushil Kumar; Biswas, Raktim; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Paul, Saili; Dutta, Suman; Pathak, Surajit; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-01-25

    Crude ethanolic extract of the plant Lycopodium clavatum has long been used in complementary and alternative medicine for treating various liver ailments and Alzheimer's disease. It has also been claimed to have potential anti-cancer properties in vivo in mice chronically fed liver carcinogens, p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter). Incidentally, crude ethanolic extract of Lycopodium clavatum is a mixture of some 201 alkaloids. In order to ascertain if any major fraction can be attributed to have pronounced anti-cancer effect, we examined this major fraction by eluting the crude extract in petroleum ether:ethyl aetate (17:3 vol/vol;) solvent and tried to understand its underlying mechanism. Studies on morphological changes, cell viability and cytotoxicity by microscopy and FACS, Western blot and immunofluorescence of Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3 were conducted. Lycopodine was found to induce chromatin condensation, inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and enhanced cell population in sub-G1 region along with increase in reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 which are the events closely involved in apoptosis. An overall analysis of results showed that Lycopodine considerably inhibited growth of HeLa cells which indicates its potential use in chemotherapy. PMID:19786013

  4. Serratene triterpenoids from Lycopodium clavatum L. ( Lycopodiaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Trofimova; A. S. Gromova; A. A. Semenov

    1996-01-01

    Three serratene triterpenoids, 3\\\\,21a-dihydroxy-26-nor-8,14-sekogammaser-14(27)-en-n-8-one (1), 3ß,21a-dihydroxy-8,14-sekogammasera-8(26),14(2?)-diene (2), and 3a,21ß,24-trihydroxyserrat-14-ene (3), were isolated from the Siberian chemorace ofLycopodium clavatum L. and identified. Compound1 was isolated fromL. clavatum L. for the first time.

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial actions of the clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilkay Orhan; Berrin Özçelik; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Taner Karaoglu; Bilge ?ener; Salih Terzioglu; M. Iqbal Choudhary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of the petroleum\\u000a ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium clavatum L. (LC) from Lycopodiaceae growing in Turkey. Antioxidant activity of the LC extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical-scavenging method at 0.2 mg\\/ml using microplate-reader assay. Antiviral assessment

  6. Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

    1993-07-01

    Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

  7. Asthma following occupational exposure to Lycopodium clavatum in condom manufacturers.

    PubMed Central

    Cullinan, P; Cannon, J; Sheril, D; Newman Taylor, A

    1993-01-01

    Occupational asthma in two women employed in the manufacture of condoms is reported. The spores of Lycopodium clavatum, used as a rubber dusting agent, were identified as the causative agent. PMID:8153931

  8. Immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase on sporopollenin from Lycopodium clavatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Havva Tutar; Elif Yilmaz; Erol Pehlivan; Mustafa Yilmaz

    2009-01-01

    Sporopollenin is a natural polymer obtained from Lycopodium clavatum, which is highly stable with constant chemical structure and has high resistant capacity to chemical attack. In this study, immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) on sporopollenin by adsorption method is reported for the first time. Besides this, the enzyme adsorption capacity, activity and thermal stability of immobilized enzyme have

  9. Recent Progress on Bioactivity Studies on Turkish Lycopodium clavatum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilkay Orhan; Bilge ?ener

    In the current presentation, our latest results performed on Lycopodium clavatum L. the most common species in Turkey, are given in terms of biological activity, which include antibacterial, antifungal,\\u000a antiviral, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of this fern. Antioxidant activity of\\u000a the plant was assessed on the basis of the radical scavenging effect of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)

  10. Polyploid cytotypes and their habitat preferences in Lycopodium clavatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Takamiya; Ryuso Tanaka

    1982-01-01

    Morphological, cytological and ecological observations were made onLycopodium clavatum. Among 121 individuals from 26 populations studied 31 were of the diploid cytotype with 2n=68, 45 were of the triploid cytotype\\u000a with 2n=102 and 45 were of the tetraploid cytotype with 2n=136. The populations were divided into three types: (1) the sole\\u000a type—characterized by a single cytotype occupying an entire population,

  11. Appraisal of anti-inflammatory potential of the clubmoss, Lycopodium clavatum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilkay Orhan; Esra Küpeli; Bilge ?ener; Erdem Yesilada

    2007-01-01

    Studies on four extracts prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol as well as the alkaloid fraction from the aerial parts of Lycopodium clavatum L. of Turkish origin using acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability assessment in mice revealed that only the chloroform extract and the alkaloid fraction displayed marked anti-inflammatory effect at a dose of 500mg\\/kg having

  12. Appraisal of anti-inflammatory potential of the clubmoss, Lycopodium clavatum L.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay; Küpeli, Esra; Sener, Bilge; Yesilada, Erdem

    2007-01-01

    Studies on four extracts prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol as well as the alkaloid fraction from the aerial parts of Lycopodium clavatum L. of Turkish origin using acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability assessment in mice revealed that only the chloroform extract and the alkaloid fraction displayed marked anti-inflammatory effect at a dose of 500mg/kg having percentage of inhibition 24.3 and 32.1, respectively, as compared to indomethacin, which exhibited 44.6% of inhibition at 10mg/kg dose. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium clavatum revealed that the alkaloidal-type of compounds might possibly be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract, which supports the folk medicinal utilization of the plant. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrophotometric analysis of the active alkaloid fraction revealed that lycopodine (84.5%) is the major component. PMID:16962272

  13. New insights into the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Lycopodium clavatum.

    PubMed

    Rollinger, Judith M; Ewelt, Julia; Seger, Christoph; Sturm, Sonja; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Stuppner, Hermann

    2005-11-01

    Looking for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibiting compounds within the plant kingdom, we came across the triterpene alpha-onocerin, which has recently been described as the active principle (IC(50) of 5.2 microM) of Lycopodium clavatum L. In order to discover related terpenoid structures with similar AChE inhibitory activity, we investigated the roots of Ononis spinosa L. using Ellman's reagent in a microplate assay. No inhibitory effect could be measured, not even with the isolated alpha-onocerin (1), which is in contrast to previous findings. Bioassay-guided fractionation of L. clavatum resulted in the isolation of lyclavatol (2), showing a weak, but dose-dependent inhibitory effect on AChE. (1)H- and (13)C NMR shift assignments for 1 and 2 are presented and discussed. PMID:16320206

  14. Immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase on sporopollenin from Lycopodium clavatum.

    PubMed

    Tutar, Havva; Yilmaz, Elif; Pehlivan, Erol; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2009-10-01

    Sporopollenin is a natural polymer obtained from Lycopodium clavatum, which is highly stable with constant chemical structure and has high resistant capacity to chemical attack. In this study, immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) on sporopollenin by adsorption method is reported for the first time. Besides this, the enzyme adsorption capacity, activity and thermal stability of immobilized enzyme have also been investigated. It has been observed that under the optimum conditions (Spo-E((0.3))), the specific activity of the immobilized lipase on the sporopollenin by adsorption was 16.3U/mg protein, which is 0.46 times less than that of the free lipase (35.6U/mg protein). The pH and temperature of immobilized enzyme were optimized, which were 6.0 and 40 degrees C respectively. Kinetic parameters V(max) and K(m) were also determined for the immobilized lipase. It was observed that there is an increase of the K(m) value (7.54mM) and a decrease of the V(max) value (145.0U/mg-protein) comparing with that of the free lipase. PMID:19583977

  15. Development of a Tracer Test in a flooded Uranium Mine using Lycopodium clavatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Wolkersdorfer; Nicole Feldtner

    The polymetallic Niederschlema\\/Alberoda uranium deposit in the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) has been flooded since 1991. The objectives of the tests were to investigate the quality and rate of flow within a large part of the flooded mine to predict the mass flow of the pollutants. Based on the results of a first tracer test with Lycopodium clavatum in mid

  16. Simulating transfer and persistence of a chemical marker powder for Lycopodium clavatum spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Howarth; Sally Coulson; Angus Newton

    2009-01-01

    In this research a chemical marker powder, based on Lycopodium clavatum spores, was studied to determine its transfer and persistence on a T-shirt. Such chemical marker powders are used to provide evidence that a person has handled a covertly marked object, such as a drug package. The powder was found to transfer readily between a marked item and the person

  17. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions on New Metal-Ligand Complexes Chemically Derived from Lycopodium clavatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erol Pehlivan; Mustafa Ersoz; Salih Yildiz; Harry J. Duncan

    1994-01-01

    Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and

  18. Amino acid sequence study of ferredoxin from a club moss, Lycopodium clavatum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harumi Sakai; Susumu Morigasaki; Kaeko Kamide; Shichijo Sue; Yukika Sanada; Keishiro Wada

    1992-01-01

    A ferredoxin was purified as the pure state from a club moss (Lycopodium clavatum L.) and sequenced. The ferredoxin was composed of 99 amino acids and had a molecular mass of 10,728, excluding iron and sulfur\\u000a atoms. The ferredoxin sequence was rather distinct from that fromMarchantia polymorpha, Equisetum andGleichenia japonica. Based on comparison of ferredoxin sequences thus far established, the

  19. Ligand-Exchange Chromatography of Nucleosides, Nucleic Acid Bases and Amines of Copper(II) Glyoximated-Lycopodium Clavatum with Refractive Index Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ersoz; E. Pehlivan; S. Yildiz

    1989-01-01

    Ligand-exchange separation of nucleosides, nucleic acid bases and amines has been studied by using a new exchanger obtained by functionalyzing Lycopodium Clavatum with glyoxime.This study shows that 1igand-exchange chromatography with glyoximated-lycopodium clavatum can provide new opportunities for the rapid separation of ligands.

  20. Simulating transfer and persistence of a chemical marker powder for Lycopodium clavatum spores.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Jennifer; Coulson, Sally; Newton, Angus

    2009-11-20

    In this research a chemical marker powder, based on Lycopodium clavatum spores, was studied to determine its transfer and persistence on a T-shirt. Such chemical marker powders are used to provide evidence that a person has handled a covertly marked object, such as a drug package. The powder was found to transfer readily between a marked item and the person handling it. The powder was found to persist on a T-shirt for up to 13h; however, there was only a very small amount of powder remaining at this time. The rate of loss of the L. clavatum spores was found to follow a decay curve. The largest decrease in spores from the T-shirt was seen in the first 2h after the marked item had been handled. PMID:19729256

  1. Sorption of heavy metal ions on new metal-ligand complexes chemically derived from Lycopodium clavatum

    SciTech Connect

    Pehlivan, E.; Ersoz, M.; Yildiz, S. [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkey); Duncan, H.J. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1994-08-01

    Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and the possibilities to remove and to recover selectively heavy metal cations using these systems are discussed on the basis of their chemical natures and their complexing properties.

  2. UV and visible light screening by individual sporopollenin exines derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) and Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen L. Atkin; Sylvain Barrier; Zhenggang Cui; Paul D. I. Fletcher; Grahame Mackenzie; Vincent Panel; Vincent Sol; Xunli Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the UV–visible light transmission of three types of micrometre-sized sporopollenin exine shells, two derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) spores and one from Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) pollen. We have used spectrophotometer measurements of partial monolayers of exines and microscope absorbance imaging to derive the light transmission properties of individual exines. Measurements have been made for exines

  3. Apigenin, a bioactive flavonoid from Lycopodium clavatum, stimulates nucleotide excision repair genes to protect skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced reactive oxygen species and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we examined the antioxidative and the DNA protective potentials of apigenin, a flavonoid polyphenol isolated from Lycopodium clavatum, in both in-vitro (HaCaT skin keratinocytes) and in-vivo (mice) models against UV-B radiation. We used DAPI staining in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT skin keratinocytes pre-treated with and without apigenin to assess DNA damage. We also used a flow-cytometric analysis in mice exposed to UV-B radiation with or without topical application of apigenin to assess, through a comet assay, chromosomal aberrations and quanta from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Data from the stability curves for the Gibb's free energy determined from a melting-temperature profile study indicated that apigenin increased the stability of calf thymus DNA. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that apigenin caused a reduction in the number of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after 24 h, the time at which the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes were activated. Thus, apigenin accelerated reversal of UV-B-induced CPDs through up-regulation of NER genes, removal of cyclobutane rings, inhibition of ROS generation, and down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK, thereby revealing the precise mechanism of DNA repair. PMID:24139463

  4. Lycopodium granuloma.

    PubMed

    Nadjem, M A; Graham, J H; Johnson, F B

    1988-04-01

    The spores of Lycopodium (L) clavatum were used as a component of a dusting powder in many hospitals during the 1920's and 1930's. When L spores enter surgical wounds a lesion clinically resembling tuberculosis or neoplasia may develop months or even years later. We recently encountered a case of L granuloma occurring in a patient 50 years after an appendectomy. Three additional cases found in the files of the AFIP are also reported. PMID:3372789

  5. The potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium clavatum (5C and 15C) has anti-cancer effect on hela cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Samadder, Asmita; Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-08-01

    Cancer is a disease that needs a multi-faceted approach from different systems of medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether homeopathically-potentized ultra-high dilutions of Lycopodium Clavatum (LC-5C and LC-15C, respectively) have any anti-cancer effects on HeLa cells. Cells were exposed to either LC-5C (diluted below Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-10)) or LC-15C (diluted beyond Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-30)) (drug-treated) or to 30% succussed ethanol ("vehicle" of the drug). The drug-induced modulation in the percent cell viability, the onset of apoptosis, and changes in the expressions of Bax, Bcl2, caspase 3, and Apaf proteins in inter-nucleosomal DNA, in mitochondrial membrane potentials and in the release of cytochrome-c were analyzed by utilizing different experimental protocols. Results revealed that administration of LC-5C and LC-15C had little or no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but caused considerable cell death through apoptosis in cancer (HeLa) cells, which was evident from the induction of DNA fragmentation, the increases in the expressions of protein and mRNA of caspase 3 and Bax, and the decreases in the expressions of Bcl2 and Apaf and in the release of cytochrome-c. Thus, the highly-diluted, dynamized homeopathic remedies LC-5C and LC-15C demonstrated their capabilities to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, signifying their possible use as supportive medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23972240

  6. Protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium30, in ameliorating azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surajit Pathak; Jayanta Kumar Das; Surjyo Jyoti Biswas; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2006-01-01

    The protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, prepared from extract of spores of a plant, Lyocopodium clavatum (Fam: Lycopodiaceae) and used as a remedy for various liver ailments, have been tested in mice chronically fed p-dimethyl amino azo benzene (p-DAB) – an initiator, and phenobarbital (PB) – a promoter of hepatic cancer, by using some cytogenetic endpoints like

  7. Drying dissipative structures of lycopodium spore particles in aqueous dispersion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuneo Okubo; Etsuo Kokufuta; Masaharu Nakamuro; Kohji Yoshinaga; Masashi Mizutani; Akira Tsuchida

    2010-01-01

    Drying dissipative structures of aqueous dispersions of lycopodium particles (31?m in average diameter) from the spores of Lycopodium clavatum were studied as a function of the particle concentrations in the presence and the absence of sodium chloride. The drying patterns formed on a cover glass, a watch glass and a Petri glass dish were observed macroscopically and microscopically. Lycopodium particles

  8. Ten new fawcettimine-related alkaloids from three species of Lycopodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuaki Katakawa; Hiroko Mito; Noriyuki Kogure; Mariko Kitajima; Sumphan Wongseripipatana; Munehisa Arisawa; Hiromitsu Takayama

    2011-01-01

    Ten new fawcettimine-related alkaloids, i.e., lycopoclavamines, lycoposquarrosamine-A, and other hydroxylated fawcettimine derivatives, were isolated from three species of Lycopodium (Lycopodium clavatum, Lycopodium serratum, and Lycopodium squarrosum). The structures of the new alkaloids were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical correlation.

  9. Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    May 2009 Keywords: dinoflagellate cyst concentration Lycopodium clavatum tablets spike inter the addition of Lycopodium clavatum marker-grains as a spike to a sample before palynological processing: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test Kenneth Neil Mertens a, , Koen Verhoeven a , Thomas Verleye

  10. Protective potentials of a plant extract (Lycopodium clavatum) on mice chronically fed hepato-carcinogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surajit Pathak; Antara Banerjee; Saili Paul; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2009-01-01

    Chronic feeding of carcinogens p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter) for 90 and 120 days elevated activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of blood glucose and cortisol and decreased the activities of glutathione reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, and blood cholesterol and hemoglobin contents, and levels of serum estradiol and testosterone in mice. Levels of these biomarkers in both liver and

  11. GC\\/MS Examination of Lycopodium Extracts for Alkaloid Content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert V. Gerard

    1985-01-01

    Plants of the Lycopodium species have long been known to elaborate alkaloids. Over one hundred alkaloids have been isolated from these plants, but no efficient method exists to quickly screen plants to determine their alkaloid content. In this research it has been found that gas chromatography mass spectrometry. (GC\\/MS) is a suitable method to achieve this purpose. Seven species of

  12. Plasma treatment allows water suspending of the natural hydrophobic powder (lycopodium).

    PubMed

    Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman

    2012-09-01

    Lycopodium particles which are spores of the plant Lycopodium clavatum were exposed to cold oxygen and nitrogen plasma irradiation. Wetting properties of the particles changed dramatically from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Plasma treatment allowed obtaining stable water suspensions of lycopodium. Plasma treatment did not affect the morphology of lycopodium particles. The reported results open the way for surfactants-free manufacturing suspensions of hydrophobic particles. PMID:22609599

  13. An overlooked boreal clubmoss Lycopodium lagopus (Laest. ex Hartm.) Zinserl. ex Kusen. (Lycopodiaceae) in Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. RUMSEY

    Lycopodium lagopus (Laest. ex Hartm.) Zinserl. ex Kusen. (syn. L. clavatum L. subsp. monostachyon (Grev. & Hooker) Selander), a widespread circum- arctic taxon, is reported from Britain for the first time. First collected in the 19th century, it had been dismissed as L. clavatum and its significance not recognised. The appropriate taxonomic rank for this plant has long proved controversial

  14. Synthesis of the lycopodium alkaloid (+)-lycoflexine.

    PubMed

    Ramharter, Jürgen; Weinstabl, Harald; Mulzer, Johann

    2010-10-20

    The first total synthesis of (+)-lycoflexine (1), a constituent of Lycopodium clavatum var. inflexum , has been accomplished in eight steps with 13% overall yield. Our synthesis covers four one-pot reactions, including a tandem Sakurai/aldol sequence, a novel hydroboration/oxidation procedure, a deprotection/transannular Mannich reaction, and as a highlight, a tandem catalysis cascade combining an enynene ring-closing metathesis and a selective hydrogenation. PMID:20866095

  15. Drying dissipative structures of lycopodium spore particles in aqueous dispersion.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Tsuneo; Kokufuta, Etsuo; Nakamuro, Masaharu; Yoshinaga, Kohji; Mizutani, Masashi; Tsuchida, Akira

    2010-10-15

    Drying dissipative structures of aqueous dispersions of lycopodium particles (31 microm in average diameter) from the spores of Lycopodium clavatum were studied as a function of the particle concentrations in the presence and the absence of sodium chloride. The drying patterns formed on a cover glass, a watch glass and a Petri glass dish were observed macroscopically and microscopically. Lycopodium particles were the combination of hemisphere and tetrahedron in their shape and possessed the weakly acidic groups on their surfaces. The vague broad ring structure was observed even for the very large colloidal particles, and their size on a cover glass decreased as particle concentration decreased. Microscopic drying patterns almost disappeared except the short chain-like patterns. These observations support that the convectional contribution on the dissipative drying pattern formation is still effective in the lycopodium suspensions, though the convectional forces in the suspension are very weak compared with the sedimentation forces. PMID:20598865

  16. Lycopodium spores used in condom manufacture: Associated health hazards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Balick; Joseph M. Beitel

    1989-01-01

    The recommendation that condoms be used to limit the transmission of AIDS has resulted in their increased utilization. One\\u000a major brand of non-lubricated condoms was demonstrated to be coated withLycopodium clavatum spores, a product of known hazardous nature. Used previously in the manufacture of diverse products including hair powder,\\u000a suppositories, and surgical gloves, these spores have caused allergic reactions ranging

  17. Use of fluorescently labeled Lycopodium spores as a tracer for suspended particles in a lowland river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSANNE C. WANNER; MARTIN PUSCH

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescently labeled spores of the clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum L. (mean diameter 5 42 mm, r5 1175 kg\\/m3) were used as a tracer to estimate transport distances and vertical deposition velocities of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), dominated by phytoplankton and detritus flocs, in a 6th-order lowland river (River Spree, Germany). Three experiments were conducted at discharge levels of 7.9, 8.8,

  18. Lycopodium spores in transrectal ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Andersen, T C; Jürgensen, G W; Christensen, E

    1998-04-01

    Lycopodium clavatum (LC) spores were found in two cases in transrectal ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate. The source turned out to be the coating of the condoms used for protection of the ultrasound probe. To minimize confusion in analyzing the biopsies and to avoid granulomas of the prostate, LC spore-free condoms are available and are recommended for the biopsy procedure. PMID:9606792

  19. Nanoscale Similarities in the Substructure of the Exines of FagusPollen Grains and LycopodiumSpores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JESPER WITTBORN; K. V RAO; G EL-GHAZALY; J. R ROWLEY

    1998-01-01

    The exine substructure of an angiosperm,Fagus sylvatica(beech) pollen and a pteridophyte,Lycopodium clavatum(a club moss) spore was investigated by scanning tunnelling microscopy. These pollen and spores, despite their distinct differences in structure and morphology on a micrometre scale, have very similar substructure on a nanometre scale. The substructure appears to consist of a multi-helix, i.e. a helical chain in turn wound

  20. Lyconadins C and F, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Haruaki Ishiyama; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    New Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins C (1) and F (2), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin C (1) is a new C16N2-type Lycopodium alkaloid possessing unique fused-tetracyclic ring system consisting of a cycloheptene ring fused to a decahydroquinoline and pyridone rings. Lyconadin F (2) possesses a primary amide moiety in its molecular, which is the first example of

  1. Protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, in ameliorating azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Surajit; Kumar Das, Jayanta; Jyoti Biswas, Surjyo; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2006-04-01

    The protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, prepared from extract of spores of a plant, Lyocopodium clavatum (Fam: Lycopodiaceae) and used as a remedy for various liver ailments, have been tested in mice chronically fed p-dimethyl amino azo benzene (p-DAB) - an initiator, and phenobarbital (PB) - a promoter of hepatic cancer, by using some cytogenetic endpoints like chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), mitotic index (MI) and sperm head abnormality (SHA), and toxicity biomarkers like acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AlkP, respectively), alanine and aspartate amino transferases (ALT and AST, respectively) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities. The effects of chronic treatment of the carcinogens were assessed at different intervals of fixation, namely, at day 7, 15, 30, 60, 90 and day 120, and compared with that of mice fed conjointly with the carcinogens and the homeopathic remedy. Both the assay systems indicated considerable protective potentials of the homeopathic remedy against p-DAB induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. PMID:16538399

  2. Lyconadins D and E, and complanadine E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Haruaki Ishiyama; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Koichiro Mori; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins D (1) and E (2), and complanadine E (3), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin D (1) was the first example of fastigiatine-type alkaloid isolated from Lycopodium complanatum. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Complanadine E (3) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF.

  3. Serratezomines D and E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium serratum var. serratum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takaaki Kubota; Hiroko Yahata; Sunao Yamamoto; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2009-01-01

    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, serratezomines D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium serratum var. serratum. Serratezomine D (1) is a new lucidine-type alkaloid, while serratezomine E (2) is a new phlegmarane-type alkaloid. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Serratezomine D (1) exhibited an inhibitory

  4. Screening of crude drug extracts for prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Y; Fan, W; Kasimu, R; Kadota, S

    1999-07-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26) is an enzyme to play a role in metabolism of proline-containing neuropeptides, such as vasopressin, substance P and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which were suggested to be involved with learning and memory processes. Then, specific inhibitor of PEP is expected to have antiamnesic effects, and thus we screened forty-six water- and methanol-extracts from crude drugs selected on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine theory, for Flavobacterium prolyl endopeptidase inhibition. Among them, the water-extracts of Rhodiola sacra (IC50, 0.77 microgram/ml) and the methanol-extracts of Lycopodium clavatum (IC50, 1.3 micrograms/ml), Paeonia lactiflora var. trichocarpa (IC50, 5.7 micrograms/ml), Paeonia veitchii (IC50, 2.4 micrograms/ml) and Rhodiola sacra (IC50, 0.67 microgram/ml) showed strong inhibitory activity. In addition, we also examined the PEP inhibitory activity of eleven compounds from Salvia deserta, and found that in addition to a catechol group alpha-hydroxy-para-quinone group may be related to the PEP inhibition. PMID:10439485

  5. Complanadines C and D, new dimeric alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Yuzuru Mikami; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2007-01-01

    Two new dimeric Lycopodium alkaloids, complanadines C (1) and D (2), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structures and relative stereochemistry of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of the spectral data. Complanadine D (2) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF.

  6. Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics. PMID:21186373

  7. Complanadine A, a new dimeric alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun'ichi Kobayashi; Yusuke Hirasawa; Naotoshi Yoshida; Hiroshi Morita

    2000-01-01

    A new dimeric alkaloid with a lycodine-type skeleton, complanadine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structure including the absolute stereochemistry was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  8. Lyconesidines A–C, new alkaloids from Lycopodium chinense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Hirasawa; Hiroshi Morita; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2002-01-01

    Three new alkaloids, lyconesidines A (1), B (2), and C (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium chinense, and the structures and absolute stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR data, X-ray analysis, and modified Mosher's method.

  9. Lycoparins A–C, new alkaloids from Lycopodium casuarinoides inhibiting acetylcholinesterase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Hirasawa; Eri Kato; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Nobuo Kawahara; Yukihiro Goda; Motoo Shiro; Hiroshi Morita

    2008-01-01

    Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lycoparins A–C (1–3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium casuarinoides. Structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR correlations. Lycoparins C (3) exhibited an inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase, while lycoparins A (1) and B (2) did not show activity.

  10. Lannotinidines A–G, new alkaloids from two species of Lycopodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichiro Koyama; Hiroshi Morita; Yusuke Hirasawa; Miwa Yoshinaga; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2005-01-01

    Seven new Lycopodium alkaloids, lannotinidines A–G (1–7), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium annotinum and L. annotinum var. acrifolium. Stereochemistry of 1–7 was elucidated by combination of NOESY correlations and chemical transformation. Lannotinidines B–E (2–5) elevated NGF mRNA expression.

  11. Carinatumins A–C, new alkaloids from Lycopodium carinatum inhibiting acetylcholinesterase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee Yan Choo; Yusuke Hirasawa; Chiaki Karimata; Koichiro Koyama; Mitsuhiro Sekiguchi; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Hiroshi Morita

    2007-01-01

    Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, carinatumins A–C (1–3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium carinatum. Structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR correlations. Carinatumins A (1) and B (2) exhibited a potent inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase.

  12. Senepodine A, a novel C 22N 2 alkaloid from Lycopodium chinense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Morita; Yusuke Hirasawa; Naotoshi Yoshida; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2001-01-01

    A new class of C22N2Lycopodium alkaloid consisting of an octahydroquinoline and a quinolizidine ring, senepodine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium chinense, and the structure including relative stereochemistry was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  13. Lycochinines A–C, novel C 27N 3 alkaloids from Lycopodium chinense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Hirasawa; Tomoyuki Tanaka; Koichiro Koyama; Hiroshi Morita

    2009-01-01

    Three novel C27N3-type Lycopodium alkaloids, lycochinines A–C (1–3) consisting of an octahydroquinoline or a decahydroquinoline, a quinolizidine, and a piperidine, were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium chinense. The relative stereochemistry of 1–3 was determined by a combination of NOESY correlations and chemical transformations.

  14. Lycopladine H, a novel alkaloid with fused-tetracyclic skeleton from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2009-01-01

    A novel Lycopodium alkaloid, lycopladine H (1), with a fused-tetracyclic ring system consisting of an azocane ring connected to a [2,2,2]-bicyclooctane ring and a 3-piperidone ring, was isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  15. Author's personal copy Research paper

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    July 2012 Keywords: dinoflagellate cyst concentration Lycopodium clavatum tablets spike absolute abundance Lycopodium clavatum tablets are commonly added as a spike to determine dinoflagellate cyst to the method described by Stockmarr (1971). The marker commonly used is Lycopodium clavatum Linnaeus (Stag

  16. Lycopodiaceae from Panama: A new source of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela I. Calderón; Johayra Simithy-Williams; Rocío Sanchez; Alex Espinosa; Iván Valdespino; Mahabir P. Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Eleven whole plants from Panama belonging to the Lycopodiaceae family have been screened for their anticholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography method. Of these, only Lycopodium clavatum subsp. clavatum showed strong AChE inhibition. Seven plant extracts showed moderate inhibition, two of them,

  17. Lycopladine A, a new C 16N alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Hiroshi Morita; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2006-01-01

    A new C16N type alkaloid, lycopladine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

  18. Sieboldine A, a novel tetracyclic alkaloid from Lycopodium sieboldii, inhibiting acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Yusuke; Morita, Hiroshi; Shiro, Motoo; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2003-10-16

    [structure: see text] A novel Lycopodium alkaloid with an unprecedented fused-tetracyclic ring system consisting of an aza-cyclononane ring having a N-hydroxy group, a cyclohexanone, a cyclopentanone, and a tetrahydrofuran ring, sieboldine A (1), was isolated from the club moss Lycopodium sieboldii. The structure and relative stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR data and X-ray analysis. Sieboldine A (1) exhibited a potent inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and modest cytotoxicity. PMID:14535761

  19. Collective total synthesis of tetracyclic diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-paniculatine, (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone and analogues thereof.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Lei, Ting; Wei, Kun; Yang, Yu-Rong

    2014-11-01

    The collective total synthesis of tetracyclic diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids, (+)-paniculatine, (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone, and two analogues (-)-13-epi-paniculatine and (+)-3-hydroxyl-13-dehydro-paniculatine, has been accomplished. By logic-guided addition of a strategically useful hydroxyl group at C-3 of paniculatine, the formidable tetracyclic core was rapidly synthesized utilizing a site-specific and stereoselective aldol cyclization, thus making the ABD ? ABCD tetracyclic approach to diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids attainable for the first time. PMID:25299586

  20. Senepodines B–E, new C 22N 2 alkaloids from Lycopodium chinense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Hirasawa; Hiroshi Morita; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2003-01-01

    Four new C22N2Lycopodium alkaloids, senepodines B–E (2–5), consisting of an octahydroquinoline ring and a quinolizidine ring have been isolated together with senepodine A (1) from the club moss Lycopodium chinense. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of 2-5 were determined by combination of NOESY correlations and chemical transformation, while the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by exciton chirality method.

  1. Cryptadines A and B, novel C 27N 3-type pentacyclic alkaloids from Lycopodium cryptomerinum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichiro Koyama; Yusuke Hirasawa; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Hiroshi Morita

    2007-01-01

    Two novel C27N3-type Lycopodium alkaloids, cryptadines A (1) and B (2) consisting of two octahydroquinoline rings (C11N) and a piperidine ring (C5N), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium cryptomerinum, and their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, chemical transformations, and computational methods. Cryptadines A (1) and B (2) exhibited an inhibitory activity

  2. Lycopladines F and G, new C 16N 2-type alkaloids with an additional C 4N unit from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2009-01-01

    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, lycopladines F (1) and G (2), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structures and relative stereochemistries of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Lycopladine F (1) is a rare C16N2-type Lycopodium alkaloid possessing an amino acid residue (C4N).

  3. Lycopladines B–D and lyconadin B, new alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2006-01-01

    Four new alkaloids, lycopladines B–D (1–3) and lyconadin B (4), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and the structures including the stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and modified Mosher’s method. Lyconadin B (4) elevated NGF mRNA expression in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.

  4. Lycopodatines A-C, C(16)N alkaloids from Lycopodium inundatum.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2005-12-01

    Three new alkaloids, lycopodatines A (1), B (2), and C (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium inundatum, and the structures and absolute configuration were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR data and chemical transformation. PMID:16378384

  5. The extent of clonality in large stands of Lycopodium annotinum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rüdiger Wittig; Ruth Jungmann; Hans-Joachim Ballach

    2007-01-01

    In the Rothaargebirge (Northrhine-Westphalia) the interrupted club moss (Lycopodium annotinum L.) often grows in large (maximum size of patches observed: 18,000m2) and dense (club moss cover 60–90%) clusters. By DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) analysis it was shown in three populations comprising a total of 69 samples that the clusters are of great genetical uniformity. Based on data from 47 polymorphic

  6. Complanadine B, obscurumines A and B, new alkaloids from two species of Lycopodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Morita; Kan'ichiro Ishiuchi; Asami Haganuma; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2005-01-01

    A new dimer of C16N2 type alkaloid, complanadine B (1), and two new C16N type alkaloids, obscurumines A (2) and B (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and L. obscurum, respectively. The structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated by combination of 2D NMR spectra and chemical transformation. Complanadine A (4) isolated together with 1 induced

  7. Synthesis of the tetracyclic skeleton of the Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H via a pivotal double hydroformylation/intramolecular reductive amination sequence.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Pradeep S; Sacher, Joshua R; Weinreb, Steven M

    2015-02-20

    A synthesis of the complete tetracyclic framework of the structurally unique Lycopodium alkaloid lycopladine H has been accomplished using a strategy involving a double alkene hydroformylation/intramolecular reductive amination to form the azocane and spiro-piperidine moieties of the natural product. PMID:25658603

  8. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for standardisation of ingredients of an ayurvedic powdered formulation Shatavaryadi churna.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Puspendra; Jha, Shivesh; Naved, Tanveer

    2013-01-01

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of diagnostic characters of each ingredient of Shatavaryadi churna individually was carried out. Microscopic determination, counting of identifying number, measurement of area, length and breadth of identifying characters were performed using Leica DMLS-2 microscope. The method was validated for intraday precision, linearity, specificity, repeatability, accuracy and system suitability, respectively. The method is simple, precise, sensitive, and accurate, and can be used for routine standardisation of raw materials of herbal drugs. This method gives the ratio of individual ingredients in the powdered drug so that any adulteration of genuine drug with its adulterant can be found out. The method shows very good linearity value between 0.988-0.999 for number of identifying character and area of identifying character. Percentage purity of the sample drug can be determined by using the linear equation of standard genuine drug. PMID:24311861

  9. Lycopodiaceae from Panama: a new source of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Angela I; Simithy-Williams, Johayra; Sanchez, Rocío; Espinosa, Alex; Valdespino, Iván; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2013-03-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Eleven whole plants from Panama belonging to the Lycopodiaceae family have been screened for their anticholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography method. Of these, only Lycopodium clavatum subsp. clavatum showed strong AChE inhibition. Seven plant extracts showed moderate inhibition, two of them, Huperzia cf chamaeleon and Huperzia reflexa, also possessed an antioxidant activity. This is the first report of anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities in these two native plants. Additionally, alkaloid extracts of the Lycopodiaceae plants were also analysed by TLC and LC-MS to identify the well-known AchE inhibitor, huperzine A. Two plants, H. cf chamaeleon and H. reflexa var. minor, showed the presence of huperzine. PMID:22746970

  10. Column Chromatography and Kinetics of Nucleosides and Nucleic Acid Bases on Immobilized Nickel and Cobalt-CDAE-Sporopollenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erol Pehlivan; Salih Yildiz

    1994-01-01

    Sporopollenin, a natural polymer, has been modified for application as a ligand-exchange material. The ligand-exchange Chromatography with the functionalized Lycopodium clavatum is a useful method for the rapid separation of nucleosides and nucleic acid bases. The synthesis of tris(carboxymethyl) ethylene diamine Lycopodium clavatum has been described. The resin contained functional diaminoethane and carboxyl groups. Nickel(II) and cobalt(II) metal ions can

  11. Ligand-Exchange Chromatography of Aromatic Amines on Resin-Bound Cobalt Ion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erol Pehlivan; Ufuk S. Vural; Ahmet Ayar; Salih Yildiz

    1996-01-01

    The use of cobalt metal for the selective separation of aromatic amines is completed with a chemically bonded diamine and glyoxime functional groups onto Lycopodium clavatum. Oximes and amines are excellent complexing agents for transition metal ions. Cobalt(II) metal ions can easily be immobilized on bis-diami-noethyl-glyoximated sporopollenin (bDAEG-sporopollenin). The ligand-exchange behavior of modified Lycopodium clavatum with respect to aromatic amines

  12. Sporopollenin exines: A novel natural taste masking material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Barrier; Alan S. Rigby; Alberto Diego-Taboada; Matthew J. Thomasson; Grahame Mackenzie; Stephen L. Atkin

    2010-01-01

    Sporopollenin exines extracted from the spores of the plant Lycopodium clavatum were used to encapsulate water, sunflower oil (0.5g\\/g) and differing amounts of cod liver oil (cod liver oil per gram of sporopollenin exines: 0.5g\\/g, 1.0g\\/g, 2.0g\\/g, 4.0g\\/g). A double-blind taste trial, involving 20 volunteers, was conducted to compare the products. The encapsulated oils were in the form of a

  13. Total Synthesis of the Lycopodium Alkaloid Serratezomine A Using Free Radical-Mediated Vinyl Amination to Prepare a ?-Stannyl Enamine Linchpin

    PubMed Central

    Pigza, Julie A.; Han, Jeong-Seok; Chandra, Aroop; Mutnick, Daniel; Pink, Maren; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Serratezomine A is a member of the structurally diverse class of compounds known as the Lycopodium alkaloids. The key supporting studies and successful total synthesis of serratezomine A are described in this account. Significant features of the synthesis include the first application of free radical mediated vinyl amination and Hwu’s oxidative allylation in a total synthesis, and an intramolecular lactonization via a transannular SNi reaction. Minimal use of protecting groups and the highly diastereoselective formation of a hindered, quaternary stereocenter using an umpolung allylation are also highlights from a strategy perspective. Observation of quaternary carbon epimerization via a retro-Mannich/Mannich sequence highlights the additional challenge presented by the axial alcohol at C8 in serratezomine A. PMID:23273261

  14. Ligand-exchange chromatography of aromatic amines on resin-bound cobalt ion

    SciTech Connect

    Pehlivan, E.; Vural, U.S.; Ayar, A.; Yildiz, S. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey)

    1996-06-01

    The use of cobalt metal for the selective separation of aromatic amines is completed with a chemically bonded diamine and glyoxime functional groups onto Lycopodium clavatum. Oximes and amines are excellent complexing agents for transition metal ions. Cobalt(II) metal ions can easily be immobilized on bis-diaminoethyl-glyoximated sporopollenin (bDAEG-sporopollenin). The ligand-exchange behavior of modified Lycopodium clavatum with respect to aromatic amines was investigated. This will permit the evaluation of bDAEG-sporopollenin ligand exchangers for their utilization as sorbents in the recovery, pollution control, and elimination of amines from wastewater.

  15. Contaminants in commercial homoeopathic medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    1995-01-01

    2 sets of homoeopathic medicines prepared from Lycopodium clavatum (6cH, 12cH and 100cH) and the dynamized water and ethanol mixture used (3cH and 6cH) were analysed using ultraviolet spectroscopy. The spectra for each set of Lycopodium and dynamized solvent were similar and differed from that of the inert solvent. The 2 sets of dynamized medicines nevertheless showed significant differences. These

  16. A homoeopathic drug controls mango fruit rot caused by Pestalotia mangiferae Henn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Khanna; S. Chandra

    1978-01-01

    Summary Effect of 1–200 potencies of ten homoeopathic drugs on the spore germination ofPestalotia mangiferae, the causal organism of banana fruit rot, was studied. On the basis of results of in vivo studies with inhibitory doses of drugs, Lycopodium clavatum potency 190 has been recommended for the control of the disease.

  17. The collection and retention of a range of common airborne spore types trapped directly into microtiter wells for enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Wakeham; Roy Kennedy; Alastair McCartney

    2004-01-01

    The collection and retention of a range of fungal spores for a novel spore trap (Microtiter immunospore trap (MTIST)), designed for use with immunoassays, was investigated in wind tunnel experiments. Concentrations of spores of Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Lycopodium clavatum, Erysiphe cruciferarum and Penicillium roqueforti, were measured using the MTIST and miniature suction traps (same characteristics as a Burkard 7

  18. Sporopollenin. A novel, naturally occurring support for solid phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, G; Shaw, G

    1980-03-01

    Sporopollenin from Lycopodium clavatum has been found to be capable of acting as a solid support for peptide synthesis. It is stable to chloromethylation and to the standard deblocking procedures and its constant mesh size, ready commercial availability, and constant molecular structure give it potential important practical advantages over synthetic resins. PMID:7380612

  19. A seven-day volumetric spore trap for use within buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. Stedman

    1978-01-01

    The Burkard Volumetric spore trap, designed to operate for seven days continuously in the field, was modified to sample still air within buildings. The efficiency with which spores of Lycopodium clavatum and Agaricus bisporus were trapped at two rates of suction was determined. Spore distribution within traces and deposition on surfaces not beneath the orifice were assessed. In an appendix

  20. Aluminum accumulation and its relationship with mineral plant nutrients in 12 pteridophytes from Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Olivares; Eder Peña; Eunice Marcano; Julián Mostacero; Guillermina Aguiar; Malfy Benítez; Elizabeth Rengifo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aluminum (Al) concentration in Lycopodium clavatum, Dicranopteris flexuosa, Sticherus nudus, Anemia villosa, Cyathea gibbosa, Pteridium arachnoideum, Pteris vittata, Thelypteris dentata, Blechnum occidentale, Elaphoglossum sporadolepis, Nephrolepis cordifolia and Polypodium pseudoaureum, species from 11 families with different phylogenetic position, found on soils with a high concentration of Al (up to 13gkg?1dry mass (DM)).

  1. Ligand-Exchange Chromatography of Some Amino Acids on Co(II)Loaded CMDAE-Sporopollenin Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ayar; S. Yildiz; E. Pehlivan

    1995-01-01

    Sporopollenin obtained from Lycopodium clavatum has been modified as an ligand-exchange material. In this study, the possibility of using sporopollenin as a ligand exchanger in the chromatographic separation of amino acids is examined. Since sporopollenin has important advantages (it is stable to chemicals and has a constant mesh size), it can be used as a column packing material. By first

  2. Enantioselective hydrolysis of rasemic naproxen methyl ester with sol–gel encapsulated lipase in the presence of sporopollenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elif Yilmaz; Mehmet Sezgin; Mustafa Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    Sporopollenin is a natural polymer obtained from Lycopodium clavatum, which is highly stable with constant chemical structure and has high resistant capacity to chemical attack. In this study, the Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was encapsulated within a chemically inert sol–gel support prepared by polycondensation with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and octyltriethoxysilane (OTES) in the presence and absence of sporopollenin and activated sporopollenin

  3. Tracer Tests in flooded underground mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Wolkersdorfer

    Tracer tests are a common means to investigate the hydrogeological conditions in the hydro- sphere. Nevertheless, only few successful tracer tests in flooded underground mines have been described. In two flooded German underground mines tracer tests with club moss spores (Lycopodium clavatum) and mi- crospheres had been conducted by the use of the LydiA technique. Both times, effective velocities between

  4. Object extraction Object extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    (is a grass-roof a vegetation area?) · object ontologies are hierarchical (tree / forrest / vegetation · buildings · vegetation · roads #12;Interactive object extraction #12;Interactive object extraction angles in man-made structures · measurement accuracy of human operator is lower than that of automatic

  5. Chemical Structure of the Exine of Pollen Walls and a New Function for Carotenoids in Nature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brooks; G. Shaw

    1968-01-01

    RECENT communications1,2 have confirmed and extended the observation of Zetzsche et al.3 that there is a close chemical similarity between the nitrogen-free walls of a wide variety of pollen and spores. In particular the walls of Lycopodium clavatum and Pinus silvestris, which were studied in most detail, were found to consist of (a) an almost pure cellulose intine (10-15 per

  6. Contamination of the discharging electrode in an air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kanazawa; Toshikam Ohkubo; Yukiharu Nomoto; T. Adachi; Jcn-Shih Chang

    1993-01-01

    Contamination of the discharging electrode in a wire-to-plate air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator is studied experimentally. The correlation between the surface condition of the contaminated electrode and corona discharge is investigated. An optical-microscopic observation of the deposited contaminant on the wire electrode is also carried out. The contaminants employed were cigarette smoke particles and spore of Lycopodium clavatum, an example of pollen.

  7. Isotherms and thermodynamics for the sorption of heavy metal ions onto functionalized sporopollenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilkay Hilal Gubbuk

    2011-01-01

    In this study, sporopollenin of Lycopodium clavatum spores was used for the sorption experiment. Glutaraldehyde (GA) immobilized sporopollenin (Sp), is employed as a sorbent in sorption of selected heavy metal ions. The sorbent prepared by sequential treatment of sporopollenin by silanazing compound and glutaraldehyde is suggested for sorption of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) from aqueous solutions. Experimental conditions for effective

  8. A seven-day volumetric spore trap for use within buildings.

    PubMed

    Stedman, O J

    1978-12-29

    The Burkard Volumetric spore trap, designed to operate for seven days continuously in the field, was modified to sample still air within buildings. The efficiency with which spores of Lycopodium clavatum and Agaricus bisporus were trapped at two rates of suction was determined. Spore distribution within traces and deposition on surfaces not beneath the orifice were assessed. In an appendix catches of four spore types by the Hirst and Burkard (field model) spore traps operating over mown grass were compared. PMID:375094

  9. Ion exchange equilibria of heavy metals in aqueous solution on new chelating resins of sporopollenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ersoz; E. Pehlivan; H. J. Duncan; S. Yildiz; M. Pehlivan

    1995-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the sorption of several heavy metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Al(III) from aqueous solutions on the new chelating exchangers of sporopollenin (Lycopodium clavatum) as a function of pH at several temperatures between 20 and 50°C. The novel metal-ligand exchange resins possessing oxime and carboxylic acid side arm functionality were prepared through the reaction

  10. Micropaleontological observations on a Sphagnum bog in East Carpathian region – testate amoebae (Rhizopoda: Testacea) and their potential use for reconstruction of micro- and macroclimatic changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csaba Schnitchen; E Niký O Magyari; Béla Tóthmérész; István Grigorszky; Mihály Braun

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the possibilities of reconstructing the hydrological history of an East Carpathian Sphagnum bog (Fenyves-teto, near Erzsébetbánya) based on the Testacea fauna and the humification. A Russian-type sampler was used to supply undisturbed cores of 400 cm in depth. The exotic marker method (Lycopodium clavatum as a marker) was used for quantitative estimation of the abundances. Humic acid concentration was

  11. Anther Carotenoids and the Synthesis of Sporopollenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Heslop-Harrison

    1968-01-01

    SHAW et al.1-3 are at present carrying out valuable new work on the chemistry of resistant spore wall materials of the general class of sporopollenins following the pioneer studies of Zetzsche's group in the 1930s4. Shaw and Yeadon1,2 have concluded, from observations on the pollen of Pinus sylvestris and Lycopodium clavatum, that sporopollenin contains a lignin-like fraction of 10-25 per

  12. Tooth Extraction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3 to 4 hours after the procedure The extraction site becomes very painful -- This may be a sign that you have developed a dry socket. If you have an infection, your dentist usually will prescribe antibiotics.

  13. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Orhan, I; Sener, B; Choudhary, M I; Khalid, A

    2004-03-01

    The chloroform:medianol (1:1) extracts of a number of the plant species belonging to eight families, namely Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida and Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J. H. Rudolph (Papaveraceae), Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum and Rhododendron luteum Sweet. (Ericaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Caeselpiniaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae), Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae), Fumaria vaillantii Lois., Fumaria capreolata L., Fumaria kralikii Jordan, Fumaria asepala Boiss., Fumaria densiflora DC., Fumaria flabellata L., Fumaria petteri Reichb. subsp. thuretii (Boiss.) Pugsley, Fumaria macrocarpa Boiss. ex Hausskn., Fumaria cilicica Hauskkn., Fumaria parviflora Lam. and Fumaria judaica Boiss. (Fumariaceae) were screened for their anticholinesterase activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes by in vitro Ellman method at 10 microg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations. The extracts did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity against both of the enzymes at 10 microg/ml. The extracts of Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Rhododendron luteum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida, Glaucium corniculatum, and Buxus sempervirens showed remarkable inhibitory activity above 50% inhibition rate on AChE at 1 mg/ml. Among them, Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida and Buxus sempervirens were the most active extracts against BChE having 95.46 +/- 1.03%, 93.08 +/- 0.97%, and 93.45 +/- 0.88% inhibition rates, respectively. Among the extracts screened, all of the Fumaria extracts displayed highly potent inhibition against both of the enzymes at 1 mg/ml concentration compared to the standard. PMID:15036468

  15. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  16. Information extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zhang; C. Hoede

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to extract relevant information by knowledge graphs from natural language text. We give a multiple level model based on knowledge graphs for describing template information, and investigate the concept of partial structural parsing. Moreover, we point out that expansion of concepts plays an important role in thinking, so we study the expansion

  17. DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this interactive, adapted from the University of Nebraska's Plant and Soil Science eLibrary, with reading material and animations to help students learn the basics of DNA extraction. The lesson is divided into and introduction and the four processes involved: cell lysis, dismantling the cell membrane, removing unwanted cell parts, and precipitating the DNA. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

  18. Self-assembly of Fmoc-diphenylalanine inside liquid marbles.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hans-Georg; Cardoso, André Zamith

    2012-09-01

    Liquid marbles made from Lycopodium clavatum spores are used to encapsulate aqueous solutions of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF). Acidification of the Fmoc-FF solution at the liquid/air interface of the liquid marble triggers the self-assembly of ribbon-like peptide fibrils into an ultrathin peptide membrane (50-500 nm). The membrane incorporates the lycopodium microparticles and as a result stabilizes the liquid marble against collapse, that could otherwise occur through particle disintegration at the floating interphase. Ultrathin nanostructured peptide membrane formation at the liquid/air interface is also observed within artificial microstructured floating objects. Thus, peptide membranes formed were inspected by SEM and TEM. Electron diffraction data reveal information about the molecular organization inside the oligopeptide membranes. PMID:22584262

  19. Antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 cells of a homeopathic remedy and its constituent plant tinctures tested separately or in combination.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    Hepeel is a homeopathic remedy commonly used to treat primary and secondary functional disorders of the liver. It consists of highly diluted extracts from the following plants: Chelidonium from Chelidonium majus, L., Carduus marianus from Silybum marianum, L., Veratrum from Veratrum album L., Colocynthis from Citrullus colocynthis L., Lycopodium from Lycopodium clavatum L., Nux moschata from Myristica fragans, Houtt, and China from Cinchona pubescens, Vahl. The antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells of serial dilutions of these plant tinctures were tested, either separately or in various combinations. Upon damage of the cells with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, Carduus marianus, China and Nux moschata, in decreasing order, showed the strongest antioxidative effects. Greater than 95% inhibition of total production of malondialdehyde was reached with these three tinctures at dilutions of D4. The complete combination of the tinctures (COMB) realised in the homeopathic remedy showed an effect corresponding to the combined effects of the individual tinctures. The antiproliferative influence on the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA in normal HepG2 cells was significant (p < 0.01) but relatively weak, and decreased in the order Carduus marianus, Chelidonium, Colocynthis and Veratrum. At a dilution of D4 Colocynthis showed the strongest inhibition (13.5%). The effect of the combination of Colocynthis and Veratrum was markedly higher (22.3%) than that of the individual tinctures, but was not additive. With this combination, cell numbers were reduced. COMB had similar effects on proliferation and cell numbers, with the antiproliferative effect starting at a dilution of 1:40. The conjugation of 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene with glutathione was induced only by Carduus marianus and COMB, while all other tinctures were ineffective. Neither the individual tinctures, nor COMB showed cytotoxic effects in the dilutions tested. These results demonstrate that the complete combination (COMB) realised in the homeopathic remedy and its constituents exert specific antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects on HepG2 cells which all point to a potential hepatoprotective and tumouristatic action. PMID:14732962

  20. Apigenin-induced apoptosis in A375 and A549 cells through selective action and dysfunction of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Samadder, Asmita; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2012-12-01

    We isolated apigenin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy flavone) from ethanolic extract of Lycopodium clavatum (LC) used as a homeopathic mother tincture for treatment of various diseases. We assessed the anticancer potentials of the compound using human malignant melanoma cell line A375 and a lung carcinoma cell line A549 and focussed on its putative molecular mechanism of action on apoptosis induction. We examined the cytotoxicity of apigenin in both cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A375 cells were more prone to apigenin-induced apoptosis, as compared with A549 cells after 24 h of treatment, while PBMC showed little or no cytotoxicity to apigenin. We also evaluated the effects of apigenin on interaction with DNA by comparative analysis of circular dichroism spectral data and melting temperature profiles (Tm) of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) treated with or without apigenin. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in mitochondria, super-oxide dismutase and total thiol group (GSH) activities were also analyzed. The apoptotic process involved mitochondrial pathway associated with apigenin-DNA interaction, DNA fragmentation, ROS accumulation, cytochrome c (cyt c) release and mitochondrial transmembrane potential depolarization, Bax, caspase 3, 9, PARP, up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation and down-regulation of cyt c in the mitochondrial fraction. Results of mitochondrial inner membrane swelling measurements, intracellular ADP/ATP ratio and ATPase activity showed that in A549 cells, apigenin did not appear to directly target the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system but rather acted at an upstream step to activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. However, apigenin could directly target and impair mitochondrial function in A375 cells by breaking down their oxidative phosphorylation system. Collectively, these results suggest that apigenin exhibits anticancer potential in A375 and A549 cells that may be mediated through DNA interaction, damage and mitochondrial dysfunction either by direct or indirect action on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. PMID:23354402

  1. Binary Extraction in Hydrometallurgy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. KHOLKIN; G. L. PASHKOV; V. V. BELOVA

    2000-01-01

    Results obtained during technological application of binary extraction (extraction by salts of organic acids and organic bases) for recovery and separation of non-ferrous, rare, noble and associated metals are presented in the paper. The method of extraction of copper, especially from leaching solutions of oxidised ores, with the use of tertraoc-tylammonium dialkyldithiophosphate has been developed- The binary extractant is characterized

  2. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  3. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696699

  4. Uranium extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M.A.

    1983-05-03

    Uranium is extracted from wet process phosphoric acid by extraction with a mixture of a diorganophosphate and a neutral phosphorus compound, which is preferably a triorgano phosphine oxide, in the presence of nitrate to form an organic extract layer containing uranium and an aqueous acid layer, which are separated.

  5. Extraction of citrus glucosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. El-Nawawi

    1995-01-01

    Hesperidin and naringin were extracted from orange peel and grapefruit peel, respectively, by treating the peel with Ca(OH)2. The effect of maturity of the peel and recycling of the extracting liquor upon the yield of glucoside were investigated. The highest yields of hesperidin were obtained from orange peel extracted at the early season, increase in maturity led to a decrease

  6. TRITIUM EXTRACTION FACILITY ALARA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    The primary mission of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) is to extract tritium from tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) that have been irradiated in a commercial light water reactor and to deliver tritium-containing gas to the Savannah River Site Facility 233-H. The tritium extraction segment provides the capability to deliver three (3) kilograms per year to the nation's nuclear

  7. Lycopodium Alkaloids DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702695

    E-print Network

    Toste, Dean

    of over 60 natural products.[1] Typically, these tetracyclic com- pounds contain a single quaternary structure and lycoposerr- amine-B[8] (5) with a mono oxime functionality were discov- ered and proposed of the hydrindanone core, containing a quaternary carbon atom, through a transition-metal-catalyzed 5-endo-dig cycliza

  8. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  9. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  10. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction We report our experience with lead extraction in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and discuss the indications for extraction in these patients. Patients Eighteen patients with an ICD (mean age 58±12 years) were referred for lead extraction: two patients with infection and 16 with lead dysfunction. Methods Lead extraction was performed with a laser sheath (Excimer) if traction with a locking device was insufficient. New leads were implanted during the same procedure, if applicable. Results Shock leads were successfully extracted in 16 patients and additional pace-sense leads in seven patients. In two patients, the shock conductor was considered unaffected and only a pace-sense lead was exchanged or an additional pace-sense lead inserted. After extraction, new shock leads were implanted in 14 patients. Major complications occurred in one patient: a pericardial tamponade after perforation of the superior caval vein necessitating acute surgery. Conclusion Lead extraction with a laser sheath is effective in ICD patients, but major complications can occur. Our current policy with malfunctioning leads is to extract all leads in which insulation defects cannot be ruled out to avoid interference, but to abandon leads that are without insulation defects and properly insulated. In case of infection, extraction remains the primary treatment of choice. PMID:25696709

  11. TRITIUM EXTRACTION FACILITY ALARA

    SciTech Connect

    Joye, BROTHERTON

    2005-04-19

    The primary mission of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) is to extract tritium from tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) that have been irradiated in a commercial light water reactor and to deliver tritium-containing gas to the Savannah River Site Facility 233-H. The tritium extraction segment provides the capability to deliver three (3) kilograms per year to the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. The TEF includes processes, equipment and facilities capable of production-scale extraction of tritium while minimizing personnel radiation exposure, environmental releases, and waste generation.

  12. Extractive Metallurgy of Beryllium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. GUPTA; S. SAHA

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the extractive metallurgy of beryllium is presented. Due to the strategic importance and element of secrecy surrounding the metal, any open literature on beryllium is rather limited. However, this review has been made to cover all important aspects of beryllium extraction technology namely, resources of the metal; processing of ores; reduction of fluoride and oxide to

  13. Glomalin extraction and measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Janos; Sara Garamszegi; Bray Beltran

    2008-01-01

    We investigated extraction from soil of glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and we examined its measurement. The most commonly used protocols for extracting glomalin require autoclaving of soil in citrate solution, followed by centrifugation to separate the supernatant, and then measurement by either Bradford protein assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that lengthening the time

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Hedrick; Leah J. Mulcahey; Larry T. Taylor

    1992-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) provides for the first time a viable option to conventional and widely used Soxhlet extraction. The ability to change the solvating power of a single supercritical fluid by changing its density is an exceedingly attractive feature. An environmentally safe alternative such as supercritical carbon dioxide to organochlorine solvents which are widely used today in many government

  15. Distribution behavior of astatine: Solvent extraction and back extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Sultana; A. Toyoshima; N. Takahashi; H. Baba

    2001-01-01

    The distribution behavior of astatine was studied at tracer concentrations and over a wide range of carrier iodide concentration in both solvent extraction and back extraction processes. Astatine compounds were extracted instantly into the organic solvent, CS2 from the carrier free and carrier iodide containing solutions. Back extraction of astatine with various NaOH solutions followed by solvent extraction caused the

  16. Extracting the Max From a DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edmund Marek

    2009-01-01

    Students of all ages get a thrill out of actually seeing clumps or strands of DNA. The Biotechnology/Bioinformatics Discovery! Project, a professional development workshop offered to science teachers, has always included a DNA-extraction activity. Over the course of four years, as the authors conducted these workshops for scores of teachers, they extended and refined the DNA-extraction activity to make it relevant to middle school students. Although the protocol for this exercise is on their project website along with teaching tips, they describe here the use of oral directions to give teachers many opportunities to interact with their students, and to assess how well students can follow directions and stay focused on the task.

  17. Oilseed extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D. A.

    1985-05-07

    A process is provided for the recovery of a separate lecithin/phosphatide-rich product during the extraction of soybeans with an isopropanol-based solvent. The invention comprises steps for contacting soybeans with solvent to obtain an extracted seed meal and a solvent extract of seedoils and lecithin and related phosphatides, cooling miscella to a temperature in the range from about 30/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ F., phase separating the cooled miscella, recovering from the phase separation an upper solvent-rich phase, an intermediate lecithin/phosphatide-rich phase and a lower crude oil phase, and directly recycling the solvent-rich phase to the extractor.

  18. Threshold voltage extraction circuit 

    E-print Network

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01

    A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

  19. Supercritical Fluid Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    In supercritical fluid extraction, many options are available for achieving and controlling the desired selectivity, which is extremely sensitive to variations in pressure, temperature, and choice of solvent. The ability of supercritical fluids...

  20. Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    E-print Network

    Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    In supercritical fluid extraction, many options are available for achieving and controlling the desired selectivity, which is extremely sensitive to variations in pressure, temperature, and choice of solvent. The ability of supercritical fluids...

  1. Threshold voltage extraction circuit

    E-print Network

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01

    A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

  2. Standardized extracts, foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Lemanske; Steve L. Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Summary  While progress has been made in the areas of food allergen characterization, both the complexity of the biochemical constituents\\u000a of food and the body’s normal physiologic (digestion) and immunologic responses to food ingestion provide challenging obstacles\\u000a to efforts aimed at developing standardized food extracts. As indicated above, while currently available food extracts can\\u000a be useful in the evaluation of food

  3. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  4. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. (CSIR, Trivandrum (India))

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Nano-electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Jensen, Henrik; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2013-06-27

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 ?L acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary electrophoresis (CE). In that way the sample preparation performed by nano-EME was coupled directly with a CE separation. Separation performance of 42,000-193,000 theoretical plates could easily be obtained by this direct sample preparation and injection technique that both provided enrichment as well as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction. This corresponded to 100-times enrichment per minute of nano-EME. Nano-EME was found to be a very soft extraction technique, and about 99.2-99.9% of the analytes remained in the sample volume of 200 ?L. The SLM could be reused for more than 200 nano-EME extractions, and memory effects in the membrane were avoided by effective electro-assisted cleaning, where the electrical potential was actively used to clean the membrane. PMID:23764444

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RARE EARTHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. Plaksin; K. F. Barysheva; A. V. Astafeva

    1962-01-01

    Descriptions are given of rare earth separation by acid leaching and ; solvent extraction with TBP. Hydrometallurgical treatment of enriched rare earth ; products enables 85 to 95% extraction into nitric acid with 50% HNOâ ; Ieaching at 80 to 904DEC. Multistaged and counter-current extraction with TBP ; separates Ca and Fe from rare earth products, extracting up to 94

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY OF EUXENITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. May; J. L. Tews; A. W. Henderson; W. G. Gruzensky

    1959-01-01

    Results of this study demonstrate that multiple-oxide minerals can be ; processed to usable compounds by the techniques described. The chlorination ; procedure offers an efficient method for extracting tantalum, niobium, uranium, ; titanium, thorium, and the rare-earth elements from their ores. Separation of ; the chloride products into four groups is of additional benefit for processing ; materials such

  9. Solidphase extraction of phenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Rodr??guez; M. P Llompart; R Cela

    2000-01-01

    Sample preparation for phenol analysis using solid-phase extraction (SPE) is reviewed. The scope of the review has been restricted to the literature dealing with the analysis of phenols as the main objective. The use, advantages and disadvantages of silica sorbents, polymeric, functionalised, carbon-based and mixed available sorbents, when applied to the separation and preconcentration of phenols, as well as the

  10. Introduction to DNA Extractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hays, Lana

    This lab exercise, authored by Lana Hays of Access Excellence at the National Health Museum, giving instructions for the extraction of DNA from several different starting materials. The lab employs everyday material which can be found at your local grocery store. The exercise is designed for the 6-12 grade level.

  11. Naturally occurring spore particles at planar fluid interfaces and in emulsions.

    PubMed

    Binks, B P; Clint, J H; Mackenzie, G; Simcock, C; Whitby, C P

    2005-08-30

    We have investigated the potential of utilizing naturally occurring spore particles of Lycopodium clavatum as sole emulsifiers of oil and water mixtures. The preferred emulsions, prepared from either oil-borne or aqueous-borne dispersions of the monodispersed particles of diameter 30 microm, are oil-in-water. The particles act as efficient stabilizers for oils of different polarity. Droplets as large as several millimeters are stable to coalescence indefinitely, despite the low coverage of interfaces by particles observed microscopically. Consistent with the emulsion findings, we discover that particles spontaneously adsorb to bare oil-water interfaces of single drops from oil dispersions, whereas adsorption is less spontaneous and extensive from aqueous dispersions. Monolayers of the spore particles at both air-water and oil-water planar interfaces contain particles in an aggregated state forming clusters and chains. The influence of particle concentration, oil/water ratio, and additives in the aqueous phase is studied. PMID:16114917

  12. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  13. Extraction of gamma

    E-print Network

    Robert Fleischer

    2001-10-22

    After a brief look at the well-known standard approaches to determine the angle gamma of the unitarity triangle, we focus on two kinds of strategies, employing $B\\to\\pi K$ modes, and U-spin-related B decays. Interesting "puzzles", which may already be indicated by the present B-factory data, are pointed out, and the importance of the extraction of hadronic parameters, which are provided by these strategies as by-products, is emphasized.

  14. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  15. Bactericidal activity of herbal extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus Thuille; Manfred Fille; Markus Nagl

    2003-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of total herbal extracts has been investigated. The MIC of extracts of Evodia rutaecarpa and grape kernel ranged between 0.25 and 1 mg\\/ml against gram-positive cocci and P. aeruginosa. Cocci were killed after 30 – 90 min of incubation in grape kernel extract (0.5 – 1.5 mg\\/ml), and after 8 h in evodia extract (0.5 – 1

  16. Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Martella; J. D. Navratil; W. F. Santiago

    1978-01-01

    The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction

  17. Joint Inference in Information Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoifung Poon; Pedro Domingos

    2007-01-01

    The goal of information extraction is to extract database records from text or semi-structured sources. Traditionally, information extraction proceeds by first segmenting each can- didate record separately, and then merging records that refer to the same entities. While computationally efficient, this ap- proach is suboptimal, because it ignores the fact that segment- ing one candidate record can help to segment

  18. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover, recommendation systems could also benefit from a tag hierarchy. PMID:24391901

  19. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  20. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Henna Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubiay, Kathem K.; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K.

    2008-01-01

    Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000. Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050). When comparing the extracts’ MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050. PMID:22334837

  1. The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1913-01-01

    I39-3I3-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. 155 JANUARY, 1913 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY TECHNICAL BULLETIN THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLORO? FORM EXTRACT OF SOILS BY G. S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION... postal card will bring these publications. THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF SOILS. (t. S. FliAPS , Chemist. ?J. B. o Y . C U G O Assistant Chemist. The soil may coDtarn any of the Substances which are found in plants or animals...

  2. Impurity Extraction by Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G.; Kincaid, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The goals are to model and to measure the phase equilibrium properties of a finely divided fluid containing a large number of chemically similar species. The objective is to develop an accurate, usable model for such phenomena as pollutant extraction of rain clouds, industrial separation in spray towers, and separation in emulsions. The project was designed as a hierarchy of complementary theoretical and experimental steps. A theory was developed to describe the segregation of complex impurities at the interface of a solvent. This phenomenon is important in phase behavior when a large fraction of molecules in a material are near an interface, the situation in a finely divided material. The theory will be modified to account for the effect of surface curvature on the surface tension. The study of mixtures differs from pure fluids not only because of the surface effects but also because composition differences between the droplet and the surrounding vapor can stabilize a droplet with respect to a bulk phase.

  3. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  4. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. (Moore, ID) [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  5. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Minier; G. Goma

    1982-01-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

  6. Automatic breast border extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Christina M.

    2005-04-01

    In computer aided mammography algorithms there are several processing steps, which must be performed. The basic segmentation procedure involves extracting the principal feature on a mammogram; the breast border. This is performed by segmenting the breast and the non-breast into distinct regions. In this paper, a method for extracting the breast border is proposed. The method has performance similar to established techniques but with higher degrees of automatization and robustness. It iteratively adapts a model of the background to ensure a robust object detection yielding a smooth outline of the breast. The main idea is to identify the "knee" in the cumulative intensity histogram of the image. The intensity value at the knee is thereafter used to automatically define a region, to be modelled by a two-dimensional polynomial surface of degree two. The modelled background is then subtracted from the original image. The procedure described is iteratively performed until the degree of non-uniformity of the grey-scale background is smaller then a certain value. Thereafter the difference image is post-processed by a flood-filling algorithm, a new threshold is estimated as above and applied to yield a binary image. Lastly morphological operations are performed to smoothen the breast border. In conclusion, the strength in the proposed method, compared to similar methods, is that it makes use of an iterative approach to reduce the effects of the background, it produces smooth edges and automatically finds thresholds. It is also evaluated on the entire MIAS database (322 images) with a performance of 94%.

  7. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  8. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency. PMID:10209581

  9. NAMED ENTITY EXTRACTION FROM SPEECH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Kubala; Richard Schwartz; Ralph Weischedel

    We report results using a hidden Markov model to extract information from broadcast news. IdentiFinder™ was trained on the broadcast news corpus and tested on both the 1996 HUB-4 development test data and the 1997 HUB-4 evaluation test data with respect to the named entity (NE) task: extracting ? names of locations, persons, and organizations;

  10. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Fearnside

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive

  11. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  12. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED EXTRACTION PROCEDURE (PBEP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to develop an extraction procedure which mimics the physiological conditions in the human gastrointestinal track. Using this extraction procedure, the mass of contaminants which desorb from hazardous soil will be estimated. This project has focused ...

  13. Extracting company names from text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa F. Rau

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description is given of an implemented algorithm that extracts company names automatically from financial news. Extracting company names from text is one problem; recognizing subsequent references to a company is another. The author addresses both problems in an implemented, well-tested module that operates as a detachable process from a set of natural language processing tools. She implements a

  14. Delignification of Miscanthus by Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasisanker Padmanabhan; Edmond Zaia; Katherine Wu; Harvey W. Blanch; Douglas S Clark; Alexis T Bell; John M. Prausnitz

    2011-01-01

    Removal of lignin from miscanthus liberates cellulose and hemicellulose for hydrolysis to obtain sugars that can subsequently be fermented to ethanol or butanol. Extraction of lignin from raw miscanthus at 70°C is feasible when the extracting solvent contains a base (Ethylenediamine, EDA) mixed with an organic solvent or a mildly hydrophobic ionic liquid. A 50–50 (by weight) mixture of EDA

  15. Delignification of Miscanthus by Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasisanker Padmanabhan; Edmond Zaia; Katherine Wu; Harvey W. Blanch; Douglas S. Clark; Alexis T. Bell; John M. Prausnitz

    2012-01-01

    Removal of lignin from miscanthus liberates cellulose and hemicellulose for hydrolysis to obtain sugars that can subsequently be fermented to ethanol or butanol. Extraction of lignin from raw miscanthus at 70°C is feasible when the extracting solvent contains a base (Ethylenediamine, EDA) mixed with an organic solvent or a mildly hydrophobic ionic liquid. A 50–50 (by weight) mixture of EDA

  16. Information Extraction Using Link Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norshuhani Zamin; Bandar Seri Iskandar

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, information extraction (IE) has become a rapidly expanding field as the machine-readable documents keep growing exponentially. IE is the perfect solution to transform factual knowledge from publications into database entries. Many efforts have been made to automatically extract and mine scientific texts ranging from biochemical to terrorism attacks reports. This study is looking into the

  17. Pitch Extraction and Fundamental Frequency

    E-print Network

    Regina, University of

    Pitch Extraction and Fundamental Frequency: History and Current Techniques David Gerhard Technical and Fundamental Frequency: History and Current Techniques David Gerhard Abstract: Pitch extraction (also called fundamental frequency estimation) has been a popular topic in many fields of research since the age

  18. Keyword Extraction Using Language Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianyi Liu; Jinghua Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced language network and described three kinds of networks. Keyword extraction is an important technology in many areas of document processing. In particularly, a keyword extraction algorithm based on language network and PageRank is proposed. Firstly a semantic network for a single document is build, then Pagerank is applied in the network to decide on the

  19. Successive solvolytic extraction of petrocrops

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, D.K.; Pradeep, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, M. [M.D. Univ., Rohtak (India)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Petrocrops may provide a renewable source of petroleum in the future. The use of low boiling nonpolar (hexane) and polar (methanol) solvents may afford nonpolar and polar biocrudes respectively by successive extractions. However, further successive extraction of spent residue obtained in anthracene oil, quinoline, or liquid paraffin may afford recovery of biopolymer biocrude. These biocrudes may be hydro treated to yield liquid fuels.

  20. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  1. Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

    1999-01-01

    The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

  2. Development of signal-extraction scheme for Resonant Sideband Extraction

    E-print Network

    K. Kokeyama; K. Somiya; F. Kawazoe; S. Sato; S. Kawamura; A. Sugamoto

    2008-05-26

    As a future plan, an advanced gravitational-wave detector will employ an optical configuration of resonant sideband extraction (RSE), achieved with an additional mirror at the signal-detection port of the power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. To control the complex coupled cavity system, one of the most important design issues is how to extract the longitudinal control signals of the cavities. We developed a new signal-extraction scheme which provides an appropriate sensing matrix. The new method uses two sets of sidebands: one of the sideband components satisfies the critical coupling ondition for the RSE interferometer and reaches the signal-extraction port, and the other sideband is completely reflected by the Michelson interferometer. They provide a diagonalized sensing matrix and enable the RSE control to be robust.

  3. Endovascular extraction techniques for pacemaker and ICD lead extraction

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years, comprehensive endovascular techniques have been developed to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads. It is important that referring physician have knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results of the currently used endovascular extraction techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696690

  4. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    PubMed Central

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V.; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements.

  5. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, S; Chen, Y; Saravanan, D; Sundram, K M; Yoga Latha, L

    2011-01-01

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed. PMID:22238476

  6. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  7. DNA Extraction & Staging Laboratory (DESL)

    Cancer.gov

    As part of the Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR), the DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL) located in Frederick, MD, is responsible for the preparation of samples for investigators at NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

  8. Parallel algorithms for inductance extraction

    E-print Network

    Mahawar, Hemant

    2007-09-17

    of the iterative method becomes a challenging task. This work presents a class of parallel algorithms for fast and accurate inductance extraction of VLSI circuits. We use the solenoidal basis approach that converts the linear system into a reduced system...

  9. Extracting information from informal communication

    E-print Network

    Rennie, Jason D. M. (Jason Daniel Malyutin), 1976-

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the problem of extracting information from informal communication. Textual informal communication, such as e-mail, bulletin boards and blogs, has become a vast information resource. However, such ...

  10. Hub4 Information Extraction Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Pallett; John S. Garofolo; Jonathan G. Fiscus; Mark A. Przybocki

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the Information Extraction Named-EntityEvaluation (IE-NE), one of the new spokes added to theDARPA-sponsored 1998 Hub-4 Broadcast News Evaluation.This paper discusses the information extraction task as posedfor the 1998 Broadcast News Evaluation. This paper reviewsthe evaluation metrics, the scoring process, and the test corpusthat was used for the evaluation. Finally, this paper reviews theresults of the first running

  11. Extraction of silicones from soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Lehmann

    1993-01-01

    Silicone polymer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), was extracted from soil incubated at 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1] for 0,1,3,7,14, and 28 d with mean recovery of 95.4% ([sigma] = 2.1%). From four agricultural soils incubated for one week at 1, 10, and 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1], mean extraction recovery was 95.6% ([sigma] = 3.2%). The method is now being used in [sup 14]C

  12. Point Source Extraction with MOPEX

    E-print Network

    David Makovoz; Francine R. Marleau

    2005-06-30

    MOPEX (MOsaicking and Point source EXtraction) is a package developed at the Spitzer Science Center for astronomical image processing. We report on the point source extraction capabilities of MOPEX. Point source extraction is implemented as a two step process: point source detection and profile fitting. Non-linear matched filtering of input images can be performed optionally to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and improve detection of faint point sources. Point Response Function (PRF) fitting of point sources produces the final point source list which includes the fluxes and improved positions of the point sources, along with other parameters characterizing the fit. Passive and active deblending allows for successful fitting of confused point sources. Aperture photometry can also be computed for every extracted point source for an unlimited number of aperture sizes. PRF is estimated directly from the input images. Implementation of efficient methods of background and noise estimation, and modified Simplex algorithm contribute to the computational efficiency of MOPEX. The package is implemented as a loosely connected set of perl scripts, where each script runs a number of modules written in C/C++. Input parameter setting is done through namelists, ASCII configuration files. We present applications of point source extraction to the mosaic images taken at 24 and 70 micron with the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) as part of the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey and to a Digital Sky Survey image. Completeness and reliability of point source extraction is computed using simulated data.

  13. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  14. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that are regulated as food supplements but are intended to treat disease or maintain health. Antioxidants and beneficial lipid products are major examples in this category. The final major category consists of environmental applications, both as an extraction technique for environmental analysis, and as a possible remediation strategy for removing contaminants that would otherwise be too expensive to recover. Most of the work in this area has focused on non-polar compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), where non-polar supercritical (SC) CO2 offers high extraction efficiencies. Co-solvent systems combining CO2 with one or more modifiers extend the utility of SC CO2 to polar and even ionic compounds. Supercritical water can extract polar compounds, and it has the additional advantage of combining extraction and destruction of contaminants via the supercritical water oxidation (SUWOX) process. Supercritical fluids are also useful in various niche applications. Fuel extraction, conversion, and analysis is one such application. Extraction of metals from various matrixes is also an area of continuing interest. The application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to production of nano-structured materials is a new area likely to see rapid growth in the next few years.

  16. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  17. Antimicrobial effect of rosemary extracts.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, J; Amiot, M J; Nguyen-The, C

    2000-10-01

    A rosemary extract commercially exploited (Oxy'less) as an antioxidant of lipids in foods was dissolved in ethanol (100 mg/ml), and the solution was tested against foodborne microorganisms. For gram-positive bacteria, the MIC of the ethanolic solution was 1% for Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 0.5% for Listeria monocytogenes, 0.5% for Staphylococcus aureus, 0.13% for Streptococcus mutans, and 0.06% for Bacillus cereus. It slowed the growth of Penicillium roquefortii and Botrytis cinerea. Up to 1% of the ethanolic solution had no activity on the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Erwinia carotovora and on the yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis and Cryptococcus laurentii. Antibacterial activity of the rosemary extract was strongly influenced by the composition of the media. The MIC was reduced by low pH, high NaCl contents, and low temperatures. Low pH and high NaCl concentration had a synergistic effect on the MIC of the rosemary extract for S. aureus. Lipids, surface-active agents, and some proteins decreased its antibacterial activity, whereas pectin had no effect. The inhibitory effect was little modified by heat treatment (100 degrees C). The natural microflora of pasteurized zucchini broth was inhibited by 0.5% of the rosemary extract. The antibacterial activity was linked to the compounds extracted with hexane, which are presumably phenolic diterpenoids. PMID:11041135

  18. Three-dimensional feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, D.

    1983-06-01

    Range images offer significant advantages over passive reflectance images because they preserve the 3-D information of the scene viewed from the sensor. Therefore, range data is becoming an increasingly important source of information for a variety of applications including 3-D target classification, autonomous vehicles, and robot vision. This research is part of an effort to develop a 3-D object recognition system for vehicle objects in air-to-ground laser range imagery. The full system includes image feature extraction, object modeling, model-driven prediction, and feature to model matching. This paper presents several three-dimensional feature extraction techniques for use on laser range imagery. These include object-ground segmentation, projection image generation from range data, and 3-D physical edge detection. We emphasize extracting 3-D physical features of the object from 3-D range data without restricting ourselves in a sensor-centered range image format. The object-ground segmentation and projection image generation techniques extract global object features from range data, and are useful for object orientation estimation and major structures identification. The 3-D physical edge detector directly calculates the physical angle of the object surface. It is not only useful for physical edge (convex, concave, occluding) detection, but also provides useful information for extracting planar and curved surfaces.

  19. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction · DNA was extracted from the ileo-cecal nodes of 475 Holstein cows from two herds using the Qiagen DNA extraction kit (Valencia, CA). 2) Map detection · Map and Jerome, Idaho, respectively. DNA was extracted from ileo-cecal lymph nodes using the Qiagen (Valencia, CA

  20. Extraction of silicones from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, R.G. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States). Health and Environmental Sciences)

    1993-10-01

    Silicone polymer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), was extracted from soil incubated at 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1] for 0,1,3,7,14, and 28 d with mean recovery of 95.4% ([sigma] = 2.1%). From four agricultural soils incubated for one week at 1, 10, and 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1], mean extraction recovery was 95.6% ([sigma] = 3.2%). The method is now being used in [sup 14]C studies on the fate of silicones in the soil environment and will later be used for extraction of silicones from field samples. Silicone polymers have a variety of uses, including lubricants, electrical insulators, and texturizers in personal care products. They can enter the environment through wastewater treatment systems in which they adsorb to the solids, and are then applied to the soil during disposal of the sludge.

  1. Accurate extraction of the News

    E-print Network

    Shrirang S. Deshingkar

    2006-09-14

    We propose a new scheme for extracting gravitational radiation from a characteristic numerical simulation of a spacetime. This method is similar in conception to our earlier work but analytical and numerical implementation is different. The scheme is based on direct transformation to the Bondi coordinates and the gravitational waves are extracted by calculating the Bondi news function in Bondi coordinates. The entire calculation is done in a way which will make the implementation easy when we use uniform Bondi angular grid at $\\mathcal I^+$. Using uniform Bondi grid for news calculation has added advantage that we have to solve only ordinary differential equations instead of partial differential equation. For the test problems this new scheme allows us to extract gravitational radiation much more accurately than the previous schemes.

  2. Phoenix I energy extraction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J. M.; Patterson, E. L.; Tisone, G. C.; Moreno, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF/sub 6/-HI or SF/sub 6/-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H/sub 2/ and F/sub 2/ mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF/sub 6/-HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H/sub 2/-F/sub 2/ fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H/sub 2/ and F/sub 2/ mixtures. For an input intensity of 10/sup 7/ W/cm/sup 2/, 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF/sub 6/-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature.

  3. Extracting Context To Improve Accuracy For HTML Content Extraction

    E-print Network

    Web pages contain clutter (such as ads, unnecessary images and extraneous links) around the body of an article, which distracts a user from actual content. Extraction of "useful and relevant" content from web impaired, reducing noise for information retrieval systems and to generally improve the web browsing

  4. [Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

    1998-01-01

    Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

  5. Extraction Techniques Leveraging Elevated Temperature and Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Brannegan; Carlos Lee; Jian Wang; Larry Taylor

    \\u000a This chapter introduces, explains, and evaluates several important sample preparation techniques available for pharmaceutical\\u000a applications. In-depth discussion of Pressurized Fluid Extraction (also known as Pressurized Liquid Extraction, or Accelerated\\u000a Solvent Extraction), Microwave Assisted Extraction, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction is presented. The principles of each\\u000a technique, including instrumentation, method development, key parameters, and advantages\\/limitations, are detailed. A number\\u000a of pharmaceutical applications

  6. Pressurized solvent extraction of wheat germ oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurhan Turgut Dunford; Minquan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the pressurized solvent extraction of wheat germ oil. The effects of temperature (45–135 °C at 1500 psi), extraction time, sample size and solvent type on the extraction efficiency and oil quality were studied. Extraction efficiency of the normal-hexane was compared to that of the iso- and high purity-hexane, iso-propanol, ethanol and acetone. The extracts were analyzed for n-3

  7. Antioxidative activities of water extract and ethanol extract from field horsetail ( tsukushi) Equisetum arvense L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Nagai; Takao Myoda; Toshio Nagashima

    2005-01-01

    Water extract and ethanol extract from top and body portions of field horsetail (tsukushi) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity was investigated using four different methods. The contents of total phenolic components were richer in the ethanol extract fractions of each portion than in the water extracts. On the other hand, protein contents were much lower in ethanol extract fractions

  8. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-02-01

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000?L of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. PMID:21190688

  9. PERFORMANCE MEASURES FOR INFORMATION EXTRACTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Makhoul; Francis Kubala; Richard Schwartz; Ralph Weischedel

    1999-01-01

    While precision and recall have served the information extraction community well as two separate measures of system performance, we show that the F-measure, the weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall, exhibits certain undesirable behaviors. To overcome these limitations, we define an error measure, the slot error rate, which combines the different types of error directly, without having to resort

  10. Performance measures for information extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Makhoul; F. Kubala; R. Schwartz

    1998-01-01

    While precision and recall have served the information extraction community well as two separate measures of system performance, we show that the F-measure, the weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall, exhibits certain undesirable behaviors. To overcome these limitations, we define an error measure, the slot error rate, which combines the different types of error directly, without having to resort

  11. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  12. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes 

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic...

  13. Parameter extraction from spaceborne MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Moore, B. T.; Nixon, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An addressable matrix of 32 CMOS transistors was designed into a test chip to be flown on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). In this paper the matrix is described along with a SPICE-like parameter extraction procedure called JMOSFIT, and Cobalt 60 radiation test results are presented that illustrate the shift in the 21-MOSFET parameters derived from JMOSFIT.

  14. Adaptive Text Extraction and Mining

    E-print Network

    Ciravegna, Fabio

    9.6 percent #12;2 Intranet The Big Picture query processor data base Web IE ontology Ciravegna University of Sheffield F.Ciravegna@dcs.shef.ac.uk www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/~fabio ECML-2003 Tutorial Ciravegna & Kushmerick: ECML-2003 Tutorial2 What is IE What can we extract from the Web and why? n Introduction: (20

  15. Model extraction for fault isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rattikorn Hewett

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation-based approach for fault isolation in complex dynamic systems. A machine learning technique is used to extract, from simulated data, models representing regularities in system behavior. A heuristic based on the degree of coverage of the model on the data is then applied to isolate faults. To test tolerance to incomplete models, our simulation model only

  16. Signature extraction using mutual interdependencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Claussen; Justinian Rosca; Robert I. Damper

    2011-01-01

    Recently, mutual interdependence analysis (MIA) has been successfully used to extract representations, or “mutual features”, accounting for samples in the class. For example, a mutual feature is a face signature under varying illumination conditions or a speaker signature under varying channel conditions. A mutual feature is a linear regression that is equally correlated with all samples of the input class.

  17. Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

  18. Lesson 10: Extraction of Roots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This lesson introduces quadratic equations and graphs. Equations of the form ax^2 + c = 0 are solved via extraction of roots. Later application problems involving volume and surface area and compound interest (problems of the form a(x - p)^2 = q ) are presented.

  19. Example-based skeleton extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Schaefer; Can Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for extracting a hierarchical, rigid skeleton from a set of example poses. We then use this skeleton to not only reproduce the example poses, but create new deformations in the same style as the examples. Since rigid skeletons are used by most 3D modeling software, this skeleton and the corresponding vertex weights can be inserted directly

  20. Extracting Geospatial Entities from Wikipedia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Witmer; Jugal Kalita

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of extracting geospatial data from the article text of the English Wikipedia. In the first phase of our work, we create a training corpus and select a set of word-based features to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) for the task of geospatial named entity recognition. We target for testing a corpus of Wikipedia articles

  1. Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted

    E-print Network

    Milling of Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted from ore with strong acids or bases. The uranium is concentrated in a solid substance called"yellowcake." Chemical Conversion Plants convert the uranium in yellowcake to uranium hexafluoride (UF6 ), a compound that can be made into nuclear fuel. Enrichment

  2. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ‘no visible scarring’ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  3. On extraction of oscillation parameters

    E-print Network

    Sobczyk, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We discuss methods to extract neutrino oscillation parameters based on the directly observable quantities, without reconstruction of neutrino energy. The distributions of muon energies and production angles are compared to Monte Carlo predictions made for a set of different neutrino oscillation parameters. The method is applied to T2K neutrino beam and tested for a set of MC data samples in order to evaluate the statistical error.

  4. On extraction of oscillation parameters

    E-print Network

    Jan Sobczyk; Jakub Zmuda

    2009-11-30

    We discuss methods to extract neutrino oscillation parameters based on the directly observable quantities, without reconstruction of neutrino energy. The distributions of muon energies and production angles are compared to Monte Carlo predictions made for a set of different neutrino oscillation parameters. The method is applied to T2K neutrino beam and tested for a set of MC data samples in order to evaluate the statistical error.

  5. Named Entity Extraction From Speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Kubala

    1998-01-01

    We report results using a hidden Markov model to extractinformation from broadcast news. IdentiFinder^TM was trainedon the broadcast news corpus and tested on both the 1996HUB-4 development test data and the 1997 HUB-4 evaluationtest data with respect to the named entity (NE) task: extracting. names of locations, persons, andorganizations;. dates and times;. monetary amounts and percentages.Evaluation is based on automatic

  6. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

  7. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  8. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents ...

  9. Melody Extraction: A Blind Source Separation Approach

    E-print Network

    Clausen, Michael

    Melody Extraction: A Blind Source Separation Approach Shankar Vembu German Research Center Source separation approach Experiments Conclusion #12;3 Extraction of melody Computer music transcription using source separation techniques Idea: Separate vocals from the polyphonic input Apply monophonic

  10. How to Extract DNA From Anything Living

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-10

    In this genetics activity, learners discover how to extract DNA from green split peas. This resource guide includes a brief explanation of DNA and provides suggestions for ways to experiment with DNA extraction further.

  11. Qualitative terminology extraction: Identifying relational adjectives

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualitative terminology extraction: Identifying relational adjectives Béatrice Daille IRIN for terminology extraction and other automatic terminology tasks. 1. Introduction Identifying relational be interesting in several fields of NLP, such as terminology acquisition, topic detection, updating of thesauri

  12. Accelerated solvent extraction of petroleum contaminated sediments

    E-print Network

    Bauguss, Jeffery Lynn

    1997-01-01

    Attempts have been made in recent years to find acceptable alternatives to classical soxhlet extraction of petroleum contaminated sediments. One such method that is very promising is accelerated solvent extraction also referred to as high pressure...

  13. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  14. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  15. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  16. Adaptive Mesh Extraction using Simplification and Refinement

    E-print Network

    Adaptive Mesh Extraction using Simplification and Refinement Adelailson Peixoto and Luiz Velho of iso-surface extraction from volumes. If one desires to extract an adaptively sampled hierarchical mesh, e.g., it is more natural that samples are adaptively added to the mesh in accord with the specific

  17. Process for extracting materials from biological material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Van Spronsen; G. J. Witkamp; F. Hollman; Y. H. Choi; R. Verpoorte

    2011-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for extracting materials from biological material, which process is characterized in that the naturally occurring biological material is treated with an extractant consisting of a deep eutectic solvent of natural origin or a an ionic liquid of natural origin to produce a biological extract of natural origin dissolved in the said solvent or

  18. Extracting Conceptual Relations from Persian Resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hakimeh Fadaei; Mehrnoush Shamsfard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a relation extraction system which uses a combination of pattern based, structure based and statistical approaches. This system uses raw texts and Wikipedia articles to learn conceptual relations. Wikipedia structures are rich source of information in relation extraction and are well used in this system. A set of patterns are extracted for Persian language and

  19. Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Sook Seo; Betty Jane Burri; Zhejiu Quan; Terry R. Neidlinger

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a health problem in Southeast Asia that can be corrected by feeding orange fruits and vegetables such as mango. Pumpkin is a traditional Korean food that is easy to store and is already believed to have health benefits. We extracted carotenoids from pumpkin by liquid–liquid extraction and by supercritical fluid extraction. We measured carotenoids by reversed-phase

  20. Improved extraction technique for biological fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction technique speeds up separation of biological fluids into number of compounds. This eliminates agitation, emulsion formation, centrifugation, mechanical separation of phases, filtration, and other steps that have been used previously. Extraction efficiencies are equal or better than current manual liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

  1. Antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activities of Garcinia extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Joseph; G. K. Jayaprakasha; A. T. Selvi; B. S. Jena; K. K. Sakariah

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hexane and chloroform extracts from the fruit rinds of Garcinia cowa and Garcinia pedunculata on the growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus was studied using peanut powder as a model food system. The growth of A. flavus was completely inhibited by the hexane and chloroform extracts from G. cowa and chloroform extract from G. pedunculata at

  2. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  3. Video Object Extraction for Surveillance System

    E-print Network

    Tian, Qi

    10/22/2004 Video Object Extraction for Surveillance System Like Zhang CS, UTSA #12;Reference 1. C. Kim and J.-N. Hwang, "Object-based video abstraction for video surveillance systems", IEEE/extraction #12;Video Object Extraction Original Frame Background Object #12;VSAM by CMU Video Surveillance

  4. Transposon extraction protocol Maitreya Dunham November 2006

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Maitreya

    precipitate. Mix equal amounts of DNA from each digest if multiple digests. Extraction In a screw-cap tube extraction, or 1 µg sonicated wt genomic DNA. Aliquot 21 µl gel-purified DNA into a new tube. Add 20 µl 2.5XTransposon extraction protocol Maitreya Dunham November 2006 modification of the Qiagen HSE

  5. Hydrophilic solutes in modified carbon dioxide extraction—prediction of the extractability using molecular dynamic simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Günther; Martin Maus; Karl Gerhard Wagner; Peter Christian Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Super- and subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extractions of crude drugs were simulated by molecular modelling to predict the extractability of different hydrophilic plant constituents under various extraction conditions. The CO2 extraction fluids were simulated either with pure CO2 or with solvent modified CO2 at different pressures and temperatures. Molecular modelling resulted in three different solubility parameters: the total solubility parameter

  6. Effects of Extraction Conditions on the Content of Anthocyanins and Bioelements in Berry Fruit Extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Pliszka; Elwira Wierzbicka

    2008-01-01

    Two methods for extracting anthocyanins and bioelements [calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe)] from black chokeberry, black currant, strawberry, and bilberry fruits were compared in this study. Correlations between the content of anthocyanins and bioelements in fruit extracts were determined using method A [extraction with hydrochloric acid (HCl)] and method B [extraction with water (H2O)]. Relationships between the

  7. Microwave Assisted Extraction - An Innovative and Promising Extraction Tool for Medicinal Plant Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivekananda Mandal; Yogesh Mohan; S. Hemalatha

    In recent years, the use of microwave for extraction of constituents from plant material has shown tremendous research interest and potential. Conventional techniques for the extraction of active constituents are time and solvent consuming, thermally unsafe and the analysis of numerous constituents in plant material is limited by the extraction step. This review highlights the importance of extraction step in

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts.

    PubMed

    Battinelli, L; Tita, B; Evandri, M G; Mazzanti, G

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 microgml of dry extract. E. angustifolium and E. rosmarinifolium had the most broad spectrum of action inhibiting bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The extracts were devoid of toxicity on Artemia salina within the range of antimicrobial concentrations, suggesting that the action is selective on microorganisms. PMID:11482755

  9. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  10. Thermal extraction/pyrolysis gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Brandurski, E.L.; Yu, P.F.N.; Bruce, G.D.

    1990-04-04

    This patent describes a method for converting a nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph into a thermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph. It comprises: adapting a temperature control assembly for replacing the heater in the nonthermal extraction gas chromatograph and for receiving the insert chamber of the nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph without modifying the sample flow path of the nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph. The temperature control assembly comprises a furnace for controllably heating the sample insert to thermal extraction and pyrolysis temperatures and a cooling means for controlling the temperature of the inlet assembly and for returning the temperature of the inlet assembly to initial state conditions following use of the apparatus, replacing the heater with the thus-adapted temperature control assembly, and maintaining the sample flow path of the nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph substantially without modification.

  11. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction in the analysis of 21 organochlorine pesticides in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Barriada-Pereira; E Concha-Graña; M. J González-Castro; S Muniategui-Lorenzo; P López-Mah??a; D Prada-Rodr??guez; E Fernández-Fernández

    2003-01-01

    A method to determine 21 organochlorine pesticides in vegetation samples using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is described and compared with Soxhlet extraction. Samples were extracted with hexane–acetone (1:1, v\\/v) and the extracts were cleaned using solid-phase extraction with Florisil and alumine as adsorbents. Pesticides were eluted with hexane–ethyl acetate (80:20, v\\/v) and determined by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. Recoveries obtained

  12. Antioxidant activity of extracts of black sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiuhui; Xu, Juan; Chen, Shubing; Yang, Fangmei

    2004-02-25

    Antioxidant activities of extracts derived from sesame seed by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction and by n-hexane were determined using alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and linoleic acid system methods. The highest extracted yield was given at 35 degrees C, 40 MPa, and a CO(2) flow rate of 2.5 mL min(-1) by an orthogonal experiment. The yields of extracts increased with increasing pressure, and yields at 40 and 30 MPa were higher than that by solvent extraction at 46.50%. Results from the linoleic acid system showed that the antioxidant activity follows the order: extract at 35 degrees C, 20 MPa > BHT > extract at 55 degrees C, 40 MPa > extract at 55 degrees C, 30 MPa > Trolox > solvent extraction > alpha-tocopherol. The SC-CO(2) extracts exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activities comparable to that by n-hexane extraction. The extracts at 30 MPa presented the highest antioxidant activities assessed in the DPPH method. At 20 MPa, the EC(50) increased with temperature, which indicated that the antioxidant activity was decreased in a temperature-dependent manner. The significant differences of antioxidant activities were found between the extracts by SC-CO(2) extraction and n-hexane. However, no significant differences were exhibited among the extracts by SC-CO(2) extraction. The vitamin E concentrations were also significantly higher in SC-CO(2) extracts than in n-hexane extracts, and its concentrations in extracts corresponded with the antioxidant activity of extracts. PMID:14969554

  13. Rate of the vegetable oil extraction with supercritical CO 2—III. Extraction from sea buckthorn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bártlová; H. Sovová

    1996-01-01

    Oil from the seed and pulp of sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) was extracted with carbon dioxide at pressures 9.6–27 MPa and temperatures 25–60°C. Influence of extraction conditions on solubility and mass transfer rate was studied. No marked changes in composition of extracted oil in the course of extraction were observed. Experimental extraction curves were evaluated using a model

  14. Antioxidant-Rich Extract from Dehydrated Seabuckthorn Berries by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lalit D. Kagliwal; Anuradha S. Pol; Sushant C. Patil; Rekha S. Singhal; Vandana B. Patravale

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry oil having high nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and therapeutic activity has been extracted from dried seabuckthorn\\u000a (SBT) whole berry powder using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), a green process for extraction of bioactives. The SC-CO2 process was optimized using Box–Behnken design. Three SC-CO2 parameters namely extracting pressure, extracting temperature, and time of extraction were examined. The optimal SC-CO2

  15. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  16. Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Koumpis, Konstantinos

    This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

  17. Membrane clarification of tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Kumar, Chandini S; Sharma, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    The ready-to-drink (RTD) tea beverages are becoming increasingly popular owing to the health benefits associated with tea polyphenols, but instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is a common problem encountered in the product. Membrane technology provides a scope to produce natural, additive-free RTD teas while overcoming the major disadvantages associated with the conventional decreaming methods. Approaches employing membranes for the clarification of extracts from black and green tea have been discussed together with their relative advantages and limitations. The article also outlines the concerns to be addressed in the future attempts employing membrane technology. PMID:24499147

  18. Techniques for transvenous leads extraction.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, M G; Soldati, E; De Lucia, R; Marzilli, M

    2007-12-01

    The number of implanted cardiac pacing and defibrillating devices is currently increasing, leading to an increasing number of device-related complications, due to either malfunction or infection. Removal of the whole system, including the leads, was proven to be the most effective therapy. At present the importance of transvenous lead extraction is consequently increased. In order to remove pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) leads, they have to be made free from any binding site from the entry in the vein to the tip. Different techniques, including mechanical dilation, powered dilation and intravascular approaches have been developed over the last years and are currently available. Results reported in the literature show a significant success rate (ranging between 90% and 98% of the leads) and a reduced incidence of serious complications (1% to 3% in different series) in selected centres. The extraction procedures are complex and life-threatening complications may always occur, suggesting the need of trained and experienced operators as well as the availability of a surgical standby. At present indications to removal are restricted to infection or to damage of the leads inducing serious risk for the patients; the availability of a more effective and safe technique will probably spread indications to most of abandoned leads. PMID:18091645

  19. Development of an Enantioselective Route towards the Lycopodium Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of Lycopodine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Carter, Rich G.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of a C15-desmethyl tricycle core of lycopodine has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthetic sequence include organocatalytic, intramolecular Michael addition of a keto sulfone and a tandem 1,3-sulfonyl shift / Mannich cyclization to construct the tricyclic core ring system. Synthetic work towards this natural product family led to the development of N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide – an organocatalyst which facilitiates enantioselective, intramolecular Michael additions. A detailed mechanistic discussion is provided for both the intramolecular Michael addition and the sulfone rearrangement. Finally, the application of these discoveries to the enantioselective total synthesis of alkaloid lycopodine is described. PMID:20586477

  20. New phlegmarane-type, cernuane-type, and quinolizidine alkaloids from two species of Lycopodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Morita; Yusuke Hirasawa; Takakazu Shinzato; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2004-01-01

    Two new phlegmarane-type alkaloids, cermizines A (1) and B (2), three new quinolizidine alkaloids, cermizine C (3) and senepodines G (4) and H (5), and a new C16N2 type alkaloid consisting of a quinolizidine and a piperidine ring, cermizine D (6), as well as two new cernuane-type alkaloids, cernuine N-oxide (7) and lycocernuine N-oxide (8), have been isolated together with

  1. Homeopathic preparations to control the rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.).

    PubMed

    Wyss, Eric; Tamm, Lucius; Siebenwirth, Joachim; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory model system with the rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.) on apple seedlings was developed to study the effects of homeopathic preparations on this apple pest. The assessment included the substance Lycopodium clavatum and a nosode of the rosy apple aphid. Each preparation was applied on the substrate surface as aqueous solution of granules (6c, 15c, or 30c). Controls were aqueous solutions of placebo granules or pure water. In eight independent, randomized, and blinded experiments under standardized conditions in growth chambers, the development of aphids on treated and untreated apple seedlings was observed over 17 days, each. Six experiments were determined to assess the effects of a strict therapeutic treatment; two experiments were designed to determine the effects of a combined preventative and therapeutic treatment. After application of the preparations, the number of juvenile offspring and the damage on apple seedlings were assessed after 7 and 17 days, respectively. In addition, after 17 days, the seedling weight was measured. In the final evaluation of the six strictly therapeutic trials after 17 days, the number of juvenile offspring was reduced after application of L. clavatum 15c (-17%, p = 0.002) and nosode 6c (-14%, p = 0.02) compared to the pure water control. No significant effects were observed for leaf damage or fresh weight for any application. In the two experiments with combined preventative and therapeutic treatment, no significant effects were observed in any measured parameter. Homeopathic remedies may be effective in plant-pest systems. The magnitude of observed effects seems to be larger than in models with healthy plants, which renders plant-pest systems promising candidates for homeopathic basic research. For successful application in agriculture, however, the effect is not yet sufficient. This calls for further optimization concerning homeopathic remedy selection, potency level, dosage, and application routes. PMID:20062949

  2. Evaluation of extraction method on the chemical composition in Apeiba tibourbou Aubl's extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the potential of Apeiba tibourbou Aubl, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of fatty acid, rosmarinic (Ra) and caffeic (Ca) acid from A. tibourbou. Materials and Methods: Determinations of residual moisture (Rm), proteins (Pt), lipids (Lp), total fiber (Tf), and carbohydrate (Cy) were performed in triplicate samples according assessment of antioxidant capacity. Extraction of fatty acids was carried out by two different methods: (i) By shoxlet and (ii) bligh and dyer. The optimized conditions were determined by surface response methodology (RSM), and the criterion of desirability was the maximum extraction of Ra and Ca. Results: The method of bligh and dyer was able to extraction more total Lp than the shoxlet. However, the extraction of fatty acid was different for the two methods. The optimized conditions to extract RA and Ca was calculated by RSM, 42°C, 30% (alcohol degree) and 24 min, this conditions maximize simultaneously the extraction of Ca (0, 04%) and Ry (1.89), Conclusion: It was observed that the extraction method alters the chemical composition of extract, and it is possible to extract Ca and Ra from A. tibourbou's leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction. PMID:25829777

  3. Selective extraction of Cyclopia for enhanced in vitro phytoestrogenicity and benchmarking against commercial phytoestrogen extracts.

    PubMed

    Mfenyana, Ciko; DeBeer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Louw, Ann

    2008-11-01

    Previous work established the phytoestrogenicity of "unfermented"Cyclopia (honeybush) extracts. The current study investigated the phytoestrogenicity of four Cyclopia harvestings (M6-9) for preparation of extracts with enhanced phytoestrogenicity for benchmarking against commercial preparations. Two extracts, from M6 (C. subternata) and M7 (C. genistoides), were identified as most phytoestrogenic using estrogen receptor binding, an estrogen receptor response element containing promoter reporter assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, and E-screen. M6 and M7 were sequentially and non-sequentially extracted with five solvents of differing polarities. Additionally, two extracts were prepared in the traditional way of preparing a cup of honeybush tea. The resultant 22 extracts were evaluated for estrogenicity. Select extracts were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The sequentially extracted M6 methanol extract (SM6Met) had the highest potency and the sequentially extracted M6 ethyl acetate extract (SM6EAc) had the highest efficacy of all the extracts. The HPLC results suggested enrichment of luteolin in SM6EAc and enrichment of an unidentified polyphenol in SM6Met. Benchmarking against four commercial phytoestrogenic preparations suggest that in terms of the assays used, Cyclopia extracts have comparable potency and efficacy to the commercial extracts and thus have potential as marketable phytoestrogenic nutraceuticals. PMID:18793725

  4. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are important as they indicate the changing perceptions of local residents in relation to both their local geology and human exploitation of geological resources. The implications of this research for developing strategies of engagement with local communities will be discussed.

  5. Supercritical CO 2 Extraction of Flax Lignans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren M. Comin; Feral Temelli; Marleny Aranda Saldaña

    2011-01-01

    Lignans, such as flaxseed secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have been implicated in the prevention of hormonally related\\u000a cancers and other prevalent diseases. Lignans are typically extracted using organic solvents, which must then be removed from\\u000a the extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is a non-toxic, inexpensive solvent, which, when combined with polar modifiers, can be used to extract polar phenolic compounds,\\u000a such

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Battinelli; Beatrice Tita; Maria Grazia Evandri; Gabriela Mazzanti

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 ?g\\/ml of

  7. A Study of Terpeneless Lemon Extracts

    E-print Network

    Spilman, C. Clay

    1912-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection A Study of Terpeneless Lemon Extracts 1912 by C. Clay Spilman This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center... paper for credit as a Senior Thesis, such as is required of all applicants for a degree in the school of Engineering, Very respectfully submitted, 1. TERPENELESS LEMON EXTRACTS• There are two extracts which have the flavor of lemon and which have...

  8. Entity Profile Extraction from Large Corpora? ? ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Li; Rohini Srihari; Cheng Niu; Xiaoge Li

    Information Extraction (IE) has two anchor points: (i) entity-centric information leads to an Entity Profile (EP); (ii) action-centric information leads to an Event Scenario. Based on a pipelined architecture which involves both document-level IE and corpus-level IE, a multi-level modular approach to EP extraction from large corpora is described: (i) named entity tagging; (ii) three-level pattern matching for extracting the

  9. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  10. Extracting Rx information from clinical narrative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Mork; Olivier Bodenreider; Dina Demner-Fushman; Rezarta Islamaj Dogan; François-Michel Lang; Zhiyong Lu; Aurélie Névéol; Lee B. Peters; Sonya E. Shooshan; Alan R. Aronson

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveThe authors used the i2b2 Medication Extraction Challenge to evaluate their entity extraction methods, contribute to the generation of a publicly available collection of annotated clinical notes, and start developing methods for ontology-based reasoning using structured information generated from the unstructured clinical narrative.DesignExtraction of salient features of medication orders from the text of de-identified hospital discharge summaries was addressed with

  11. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  12. Antioxidant activities of selected oriental herb extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Kim; J. H. Kim; M. J. Oh; M. Y. Jung

    1994-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were studied by determining the peroxide values of linoleic\\u000a acid during storage at 50C. Among the herb extracts tested, 44 species showed strong antioxidant activities on the oxidation\\u000a of linoleic acid. The antioxidative effects of these 44 selected herb extracts were studied further in a methyl linoleate\\u000a system during storage for

  13. Extraction of arsenic compounds from lichens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanja Mrak; Zdenka Šlejkovec; Zvonka Jeran

    2006-01-01

    Different extraction procedures were applied to improve the extraction efficiency of arsenic compounds from lichens. Two lichen species were chosen from an arsenic-contaminated environment: epiphytic Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and terricolous Cladonia rei Schaer. Samples were extracted with water at temperatures of 20, 60 and 90°C, using mixtures of methanol\\/water (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9), Tris buffer and acetone and the

  14. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  15. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie; Mark C. Meckes; Teri L. Richardson

    1996-01-01

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,pâ²-DDT, p,pâ²-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can

  16. Hydrotropic Extraction of Curcuminoids from Turmeric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak V. Dandekar; V. G. Gaikar

    2003-01-01

    A novel hydrotropy-based extraction method for selective extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa (turmeric) was investigated. The degree of extraction was dependent upon the effect of a hydrotrope on the cellular structure and hydrotrope–curcuminoids interactions. Hydrotropes directly affect the cell structure, making curcuminoids more accessible either by dissolution of the cell membrane\\/wall constituents or by disorganizing cell wall. Sodium cumene

  17. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, re-circulation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; isc-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  18. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, recirculation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; iso-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for (co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  19. The effect of extraction temperature, time and number of steps on the antioxidant capacity of methanolic banana peel extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafaela González-Montelongo; M. Gloria Lobo; Mónica González

    2010-01-01

    A solvent extraction method was developed to obtain methanolic extracts rich in antioxidants from banana peel. Central composite design “23+star” and response surface methodology were used in order to optimise the number of extraction steps, extraction temperature and extraction time. The number of extractions was statistically the most significant factor in scavenging activity against both DPPH and ABTS+ radicals and

  20. Optimization of Protein Extraction for Lichen Thalli

    PubMed Central

    Kondratiuk, Anna S.; Savchuk, Oleksiy M.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen-forming fungal proteins have been seldom searched due to many difficulties in their extraction. Phenols, quinones, proteases, and other components released during cell disruption have been known to be the greatest challenges related to protein extraction from lichens. To overcome these problems and maintain good electrophoretic resolution and high protein concentration, an extraction buffer containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, ascorbic acid, Triton X-100, polyethylene glycol, proteinase, and oxidase inhibitors in sodium phosphate buffer was developed. This extraction buffer showed high efficiency for all lichen species tested in the study.

  1. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

  2. Antimutagenicity of extracts of Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J C; Hu, S H; Lee, W L; Tsai, L Y

    2001-05-01

    Hericium erinaceus is valuable in the diet and in medical treatment. It contains water-soluble polysaccharides that have been found to enhance immunity and which show anti-artificial pulmonary metastatic tumor effects. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of the mycelium and fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus were examined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 to screen for antimutagenic effects against 5 mutagens: AFB1, B[a]P, Glu-P-1, NQNO, and Trp-P-1. We found that both extracts have the strongest antimutagenic activity against Trp-P-1, followed by Glu-P-1, B[a]P-1, AFB1, and finally NQNO. In addition, the antimutagenicity of the extracts was produced in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 200 ppm, both extracts showed the highest inhibitory action. However, the linear correlation indicated that concentration-activity relationship was not significant (p > 0.05). In addition, extracts showed less antimutagenicity after heat treatment (p < 0.05). This suggests that the antimutagenicity of the extracts is heat-labile. The ethanol extract from mycelium or fruiting body had better antimutagenic effects than did the water extract (p < 0.05). Also, the extract from the fruiting body had better antimutagenic effects than did that from the mycelium. PMID:11517861

  3. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid. PMID:18962288

  4. Extraction Of Emissivities From Thermal Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, Simon J.; Kahle, Anne B.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents evaluation of two techniques for processing multispectral data. One technique for extraction of emissivity data called "model emittance calculation." Other technique called "thermal log residuals."

  5. Self Describing and Self Extracting Data Flows

    E-print Network

    )..................................................................................7 2.3.2.1 Schema/Contents SQL to File..................................................................................................................................8 2.3.2.4 Data Extraction as SQL-92

  6. Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

  7. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  8. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  9. Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  10. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  11. Extraction of arsenic compounds from lichens.

    PubMed

    Mrak, Tanja; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Jeran, Zvonka

    2006-03-15

    Different extraction procedures were applied to improve the extraction efficiency of arsenic compounds from lichens. Two lichen species were chosen from an arsenic-contaminated environment: epiphytic Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and terricolous Cladonia rei Schaer. Samples were extracted with water at temperatures of 20, 60 and 90 degrees C, using mixtures of methanol/water (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9), Tris buffer and acetone and the extracts speciated. Water and Tris buffer showed the best extraction efficiency of all extractants used; however, the extraction efficiency was still less than 23%. Since a major fraction of arsenic appeared to be associated with trapped soil particles, a sequential extraction procedure originally designed for soils (extraction steps: (1) 0.05 mol l(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4); (2) 0.05 mol l(-1) (NH)(4)H(2)PO(4); (3) 0.2 mol l(-1) NH(4)-oxalate buffer, pH 3.25; (4) mixture of 0.2 mol l(-1) NH(4)-oxalate buffer and 0.1 mol l(-1) ascorbic acid, pH 3.25; (5) 0.5 mol l(-1) KOH) was applied and found to remove 45% of the total arsenic from H. physodes and 83% from C. rei. The lipid-soluble fraction of arsenic was estimated by k(0)-INAA analysis of diethylether extracts and was found to be negligible. An HPLC-UV-HGAFS system was used to determine the arsenic compounds extracted. In both lichen species, arsenous acid, arsenic acid, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, trimethylarsine oxide and glycerol-ribose were detected. In addition, phosphate-ribose was found in H. physodes. PMID:18970562

  12. A Comparison Between the Oil, Hexane Extract and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extract of Juniperus communis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biljana M. Damjanovic; Dejan Skala; Dusanka Petrovic-Djakov; Josip Baras

    2003-01-01

    Volatile compounds from the berries of common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) were isolated by hydrodistillation, hexane extraction and supercritical CO2 extraction. The hydrodistillation yield was 2.17%, the hexane extraction yield 5.31 % and supercritical CO2 extraction yield 0.96%. Their compositions were compared using GC\\/M S as the method of analysis. Analyses reveal that samples differ quantitatively and qualitatively. The concentrations

  13. Extraction of rare earth metals from nitrate solutions with a binary extractant based on Cyanex 272

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Belova; A. A. Voshkin; N. S. Egorova; A. I. Khol’kin

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms for the extraction of rare earth metals with a binary extracting agent based on bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic\\u000a acid with the formation of various complexes in the organic phase were proposed. The compositions of the extracted compounds\\u000a were determined, and the distribution of these compounds was adequately described by calculated curves.

  14. Factors Influencing Phase Disengagement Rates in Solvent Extraction Systems Employing Tertiary Amine Extractants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Mover; W. J. Mc Dowell

    1981-01-01

    Phase disengagement rate is a critical property in determining the usefulness of a particular solvent extraction system in hydro-metallurgy. A survey of a number of commercial tertiary amine extractants of the type used in uranium extraction hydrometallurgy has been carried out to suggest whether structural factors influence phase disengagement behavior and to provide a useful comparison of different amines with

  15. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P < 0.05. Compared to the group of ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Based on these analyses, it can be concluded that persimmon leaf extract is better than ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief. PMID:25864752

  16. Antioxidant and anti-cancer cell proliferation activity of propolis extracts from two extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Khacha-ananda, Supakit; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Tragoolpua, Yingmanee

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total flavonoid compounds and cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines of propolis extracts from two extraction methods were investigated in this study. Propolis was collected from Phayao province and extracted with 70% ethanol using maceration and sonication techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were also determined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of propolis was evaluated using MTT assay. The percentage propolis yield after extraction using maceration (18.1%) was higher than using sonication (15.7%). Nevertheless, antioxidant and flavonoid compounds of the sonication propolis extract were significant greater than using maceration. Propolis extract from sonication showed antioxidant activity by 3.30 ± 0.15 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract. Total phenolic compound was 18.3 ± 3.30 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and flavonoid compound was 20.49 ± 0.62 mg quercetin/g extract. Additionally, propolis extracts from two extraction methods demonstrated the inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines at 24, 48 and 72 hours in a dose-dependent manner. These results are of interest for the selection of the most appropriate method for preparation of propolis extracts as potential antioxidant and anticancer agents. PMID:24377638

  17. Ultrahigh pressure extraction as a tool to improve the antioxidant activities of green tea extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Xi; Deji Shen; Ye Li; Rui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of ultrahigh pressure extraction at pressures of 150MPa, 250MPa, 350MPa and 450MPa on the total phenolic contents, the extraction yields and the antioxidant activities of green tea were investigated. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were analyzed using DPPH radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. The results showed that the phenolic contents and the

  18. Data Extraction from Deep Web Pages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jufeng Yang; Guangshun Shi; Yan Zheng; Qingren Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel model to extract data from Deep Web pages. The model has four layers, among which the access schedule, extraction layer and data cleaner are based on the rules of structure, logic and application. In the experiment section, we apply the new model to three intelligent system, scientific paper retrieval, electronic ticket ordering and

  19. Testbed for information extraction from deep web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Yamada; Nick Craswell; Tetsuya Nakatoh; Sachio Hirokawa

    2004-01-01

    Search results generated by searchable databases are served dynamically and far larger than the static documents on the Web. These results pages have been referred to as the Deep Web. We need to extract the target data in results pages to integrate them on different searchable databases. We propose a test bed for information extraction from search results. We chose

  20. Logic extraction and factorization for low power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasan Iman; Massoud Pedram

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes algebraic procedures for node extraction and factorization that target low power consump- tion. New power cost functions are introduced for the sum-of- products and factored form representations of functions. These cost functions are then used to guide the power optimi- zation procedures. It is also shown that using the proposed SOP power cost function, all extractions resulting

  1. Extracting Patterns from Location History Andrew Kirmse

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    " to infer the user's important locations. The "Place lab client" infers locations by listening to RF-emissionsExtracting Patterns from Location History Andrew Kirmse Google Inc Mountain View, California device location with his permission) is used to extract the user's location patterns. We describe how we

  2. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  3. Biomedical Relation Extraction: From Binary to Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical relation extraction aims to uncover high-quality relations from life science literature with high accuracy and efficiency. Early biomedical relation extraction tasks focused on capturing binary relations, such as protein-protein interactions, which are crucial for virtually every process in a living cell. Information about these interactions provides the foundations for new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, more interests have been shifted to the extraction of complex relations such as biomolecular events. While complex relations go beyond binary relations and involve more than two arguments, they might also take another relation as an argument. In the paper, we conduct a thorough survey on the research in biomedical relation extraction. We first present a general framework for biomedical relation extraction and then discuss the approaches proposed for binary and complex relation extraction with focus on the latter since it is a much more difficult task compared to binary relation extraction. Finally, we discuss challenges that we are facing with complex relation extraction and outline possible solutions and future directions. PMID:25214883

  4. Extractive Metallurgy Today, Progress and Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FATHI HABASHI

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years extractive metallurgy has been advancing gradually. There have beun probably few remarkable new ideas but there has been an important progress in the metallurgical literature. Numerous meetings devoted to various aspects of extractive metallurgy were held and,the proceedings of these meetings were published in the form of useful books readily available to the scientific community.

  5. [Extraction of thermolabile compounds with supercritical gases.].

    PubMed

    Stahl, E; Keller, K

    1983-02-01

    The thermolabile acoragermacrone and other sesquiterpenes could be extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide from beta-asarone free calamus rhizomes ( Acorus calamus L. var. americanus Wulff. A usual steam distillation lets this substance partly decompose into shyobunone. By using high pressure extraction with fractionated separation a higher yield of the bitter principles of calamus, acorone and isoacorone, is obtained. PMID:17405097

  6. Extraction in Coq: an Overview Pierre Letouzey

    E-print Network

    Letouzey, Pierre - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7

    of Coq allows one to transform Coq proofs and functions into functional programs. We illustrate the behavior of this tool by reviewing several variants of Coq denitions for Euclidean division, as well the current status of the extraction mechanism available in the Coq proof assistant [7, 8]. The extraction

  7. Separation of Rare Earths by Solvent Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. THAKUR

    2000-01-01

    Solvent extraction technology for the separation of rare earths is a recent one. This is mainly due to the low separation factors between the adjacent rare earths for any type of extractants that have been investigated so far. In spite of this inherent weakness arising due to the gradual small changes in basicity in the series of rare earths few

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction. Principles and practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. McHugh; V. J. Krukonis

    1986-01-01

    The authors cover virtually every facet of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology: the history of SCF extraction, its underlying thermodynamic principles, process principles, industrial applications, and analysis of SCF research and development efforts. A review of 75 major SCF extraction patents provides an important source of technical and business information. Computer programs that can be used to calculate critical mixture and

  9. Extracting windows registry information from physical memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuhui Zhang; Lianhai Wang; Lei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Windows registry from physical memory contains lots of important information that are of potential evidential value in forensic analysis. In this paper, a method of extracting windows registry information from physical memory has been proposed. The algorithm for extracting the hive files from memory is presented and mainly composed of the following steps: judging the version of operating system, acquiring

  10. Information Extraction from Traffic Images Masahiro Tanaka

    E-print Network

    Bargiela, Andrzej

    Information Extraction from Traffic Images Masahiro Tanaka , Ryo Hamamura and Andrzej Bargiela extraction from traffic images. The images have been provided for the monitoring purpose by humans, but we here consider how we can utilise them by automatic monitoring. Al- gorithms for detecting running cars

  11. A Review of Relation Extraction Nguyen Bach

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    A Review of Relation Extraction Nguyen Bach Language Technologies Institute School of Computer review of various aspects of the entity rela- tion extraction task. Some of the most important supervised a vast amount of unstructured electronic text on the Web, including newswire, blogs, email communications

  12. A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  13. Extracting Semistructured Information from the Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hammer; H. Garcia-Molina; J. Cho; R. Aranha; Arturo Crespo

    1997-01-01

    We describe a configurable tool for extracting semistructured data from a set of HTML pages and for converting the extracted information into database objects. The input to the extractor is a declarative specification that states where the data of interest is located on the HTML pages, and how the data should be \\

  14. Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Adam; J. Mainwaring; Michael N. Quigley

    1996-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

  15. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

  16. Slit extraction type compact microwave ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Tsuji; Junzo Ishikawa; Toshinori Takagi

    1989-01-01

    A new compact microwave ion source with three antennas has been constructed; it has a large plasma production chamber (16 × 66 × 5 mm3) for increasing the extraction of ion current by a slit extraction electrode. Even in such a large plasma production chamber, the axial magnetic field (about 900 G) was formed uniformly with a combination of permanent

  17. Evaluation of Extraction Techniques for Ontology Excerpts

    E-print Network

    Baader, Franz

    Evaluation of Extraction Techniques for Ontology Excerpts Jieying Chen1 , Michel Ludwig2,3 , Yue Ma of an ontology excerpt as being a fixed-size subset of an ontology that preserves as much knowledge as pos- sible about the terms in a given vocabulary as described in the ontology. We consider different extraction

  18. Manufacture of coke from a coal extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Gray; G. M. Kimber; D. E. Shipley

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for the production of coke having a low mineral matter content, which process comprises digesting coal in a high boiling aromatic oil solvent at a temperature within the range of 350°C to 480°C., separating insoluble matter from the coal digest to give a coal extract and coking the coal extract.

  19. Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N.

    1996-12-01

    A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

  20. Fast Multiresolution Extraction of Multiple Transparent Isosurfaces

    E-print Network

    Fast Multiresolution Extraction of Multiple Transparent Isosurfaces Thomas Gerstner Department@iam.uni-bonn.de Abstract. In this paper, we present a multiresolution algorithm which is capa- ble to render multiple with a hierarchical tetrahedral grid. The multiresolution extraction algorithm is then based on an adaptive traversal

  1. Effect of olive pomace extracts on hyperlipidaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Liu; Hongbin Sun; Jing Shang; Yuanyuan Yong; Luyong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the hypolipidemic effect of olive pomace extracts. Identification and quantitation of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid as the potentially effective components of the pomace extracts were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography methods. Hyperlipidaemia was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days. The

  2. Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

  3. Antiradical Activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae) Extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel Smejkal; Pavla Holubova; Ales Zima; Jan Muselik; Margita Dvorska

    2007-01-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decoratative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid\\/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence

  4. Terminology Extraction from Comparable Corpora for Latvian

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Terminology Extraction from Comparable Corpora for Latvian Tatiana GORNOSTAYa,1 , Anita RAMMb on terminology extraction from comparable corpora for Latvian. In the first section we introduce our work; the second section briefly describes the concept of the project and the implemented general terminology

  5. Resume Information Extraction with Cascaded Hybrid Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Yu; Gang Guan; Ming Zhou

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for resume information extraction to support automatic resume management and routing. A cascaded information extraction (IE) framework is designed. In the first pass, a resume is segmented into a consecutive blocks attached with labels indicating the information types. Then in the second pass, the detailed information, such as Name and Address, are identified in

  6. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  7. Information Extraction Using Hidden Markov Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Robert Leek

    1997-01-01

    This thesis shows how to design and tune a hidden Markov model to extract factual information from a corpus of machine-readable English prose. In particular, the thesis presents a HMM that classifies and parses natural language assertions about genes being located at particular positions on chromosomes. The facts extracted by this HMM can be inserted into biological databases. The HMM

  8. Anomalous solvent extraction behavior of astatine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Takahashi; H. Baba

    1997-01-01

    We studied the solvent extraction behavior of astatine and found the anomalous behavior of this element similar to radioiodine. Astatine was extracted into CS2 from acidic solution over a wide range of carrier iodine concentration. The distribution ratios of astatine were determined by measuring the -ray from 210 At with a Nal(TI) detector. A drastic change was observed around at

  9. MT Spindowns from Extracts Arshad Desai

    E-print Network

    Mitchison, Tim

    not seeing competition effects. For a unknown protein, it is best totry a variety of conditions. Below on ice. 2. Extracts must have a source of GTP. For Xenopus egg extracts, we simply add an energy the speed and/or time to reach an equivalent clearing factor. 5. Save supe for gel/blot, aspirate cushion

  10. Extracting Falsifiable Predictions from Sloppy Models

    E-print Network

    Myers, Chris

    Extracting Falsifiable Predictions from Sloppy Models RYAN N. GUTENKUNST,a FERGAL P. CASEY,b JOSHUA, USA ABSTRACT: Successful predictions are among the most compelling vali- dations of any model. Extracting falsifiable predictions from nonlinear multiparameter models is complicated by the fact

  11. Antibacterial activity of some lichen extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Karagöz; Nihal Doruöz; Zuhal Zeybek; Ali Aslan

    2009-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from some lichens species were evaluated for antibacterial activity against six standard strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and two environmental strains (Aeromonas) that were isolated from different lakes. The aqueous and ethanol extracts showed a variable range of antibacterial activity to both standard strains and

  12. Extraction of fetal ECG from maternal ECG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Serdengecti; M. Engin; E. Z. Engin; S. Balci

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical signals taken from body surface by non-invasive methods include problems such as noise and mixing with other physiological signals. These problems also appear evidently during the extraction of fetal ECG's. Therefore, the fetal EKG signal is contaminated by maternal ECG signal and noise. In this study, the purpose is to determine the best algorithm for fetal ECG extraction by

  13. Glomerulus Extraction by Optimizing the Fitting Curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhang; Jinglu Hu

    2008-01-01

    Glomerulus extraction is an important step for automatic analysis of the kidney diseases in the computer-aided diagnosis system. A method based on searching the best fitting curve is proposed based on the characteristics of the renal biopsy images in microscope. This method can solve the problem of the large defect of the enhanced boundary, which lead to unsuccessful extraction. Firstly,

  14. Critical area extraction for soft fault estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard A. Allan; Anthony J. Walton

    1998-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for extracting the critical area associated with extra and missing material soft faults of an integrated circuit from the mask layout. These algorithms have been implemented within the Edinburgh Yield Estimator (EYE) tool which permits efficient extraction of the critical area from an arbitrary mask layout. Accurate estimates of device critical area of even the largest devices

  15. Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

    1969-01-01

    Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    1999-05-01

    A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum). PMID:10374253

  17. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  18. Treatment of trinitrotoluene by crude plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Medina, Victor F; Larson, Steven L; Agwaramgbo, Lovell; Perez, Waleska; Escalon, Lynn

    2004-05-01

    Crude plant extract solutions (spinach and parrotfeather) were prepared and spiked with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) (20 mgl(-1)). 90-h TNT removal by these solutions was compared to controls. Spinach and parrotfeather extract solutions removed 99% and 50% of the initial TNT, respectively; TNT was not eliminated in the controls or in extract solutions where removal activity was deactivated by boiling. A first-order removal constant of 0.052 h(-1) was estimated for spinach extract solutions treating 20 mgl(-1) TNT concentrations, which compared favorably to intact plant removal. Concentration variation was described by Michaelis-Menton kinetics. Detectable TNT degradation products represented only a fraction of the total TNT transformed, and the transformation favored the formation of 4-aminodinitrotoluene. The results indicated that crude plant extracts transform TNT, without the presence of the live plant. PMID:15013677

  19. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  20. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from chicory extract administered orally at 70, 350, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Since there were no observed adverse effects of chicory extract in these studies, the NOAEL for the extract is 1000 mg/kg/g administered orally for 28 days. PMID:17306431

  1. Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

  2. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  3. Micellar extraction of europium (III) by a bolaform extractant and parent compounds derived from 5-pyrazolone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Hebrant; Christophe Provin; Jean-Pierre Brunette; Christian Tondre

    2001-01-01

    Micellar ultrafiltration is used to determine the extraction of europium (III) by a series of micelle-solubilized extractants derived from 5-pyrazolone. The extractants, solubilized in CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) micelles, have either a single complexing site: 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HPMBP), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-lauroyl-5-pyrazolone (HPMLP) or they are bis-ligands which can be called ‘bolaform’ extractants: 1,6-bis(1?-phenyl-3?-methyl-5?-pyrazolone-4?-)-1,6-hexanedione (HP-4-PH), 1,12-bis(1?-phenyl-3?-methyl-5?-pyrazolone-4?-)-1,12-dodecanedione (HP-10-PH). The yield of extraction is measured as a

  4. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  5. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. PMID:25929197

  6. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  7. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  8. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  9. Biological Activity of Root Extracts from Dalbergia saxatilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Uchendu

    2000-01-01

    The spasmogenic activity of root extracts of Dalbergia saxatilis on rat uterine muscles was investigated. Petroleum ether (60°–80°) and chloroform extracts and chromatographic fractions of these extracts had no contractile effect on uterine muscle preparations. In contrast, contractile responses were observed in the polar extracts and chromatographic fractions of these extracts, with most activity in the 70 percent aqueous ethanol

  10. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction of environmental samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Camel

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, microwave-assisted extraction has attracted growing interest as it allows rapid extractions of solutes from solid matrices, with extraction efficiency comparable to that of the classical techniques. In particular, numerous applications of this recent technique deal with the extraction of pollutants from environmental samples. This review gives a brief presentation of the theory of microwave and extraction systems,

  11. PRESSURIZED FLUIDS FOR EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extraction of cedarwood oil (CWO) using liquid carbon dioxide (LC-CO2) was investigated, including the effects of extraction pressure and length of extraction. The chemical composition of the extracts were monitored over the course of the extraction as well. When 80 liters of carbon dioxide we...

  12. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ? -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  13. Groundwater Extraction from Multiple-Layer Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, W.; Hsu, K.; Chang, C.; Lin, Z.; Hou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater over extraction has caused seriously seawater intrusion and subsidence problems in Taiwan. Pumping in deep aquifer is considered as the main reason to cause the subsidence. Since multiple-layer pumping wells are popular in Taiwan due to their convenience and low cost in installation, responsibilities for the deterioration in both groundwater quantity and quality are therefore difficult to be identified for different groundwater users. Conventionally groundwater was considered to evenly extract from the layers covered by the multiple-layer wells. We investigated this issue by applying numerical modeling software TOUGH2 to simulate the multiple-layer pumping. In the conceptual model, we designed fully penetrated pumping wells and partially penetrated pumping wells. The modeling of multiple pumping was applied to a field site. Both in the conceptual and field models, the effects of screen locations, extraction locations and properties of filter pack on the distribution of extraction rates are considered. Our results show that 1. the screens closer to the extraction location contribute more extraction flux, 2. locations of extraction and screen dominantly control the flow rate in each layer. These results are different from the common thought in the multiple-layer pumping and can be used as a general idea of large-scale multiple-layer pumping modeling.

  14. Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T. [LPGP, University Paris-Sud 11, bat 210, 15 rue G. Clemenceau-Orsay, F91405 (France)

    2012-06-01

    The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  15. Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkaya, M.

    2012-07-01

    Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

  16. [Multi-objective optimization of extraction process for red ginseng based upon extraction efficiency and cost control].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

    2014-07-01

    It is the objective of this study to optimize the extraction process of red ginseng to minimize the unit cost of extracting effective ingredients. The relation between the target variables of total quantity of ginsenosides and first extraction time, first extraction solution amount, second extraction time, second extract solution amount were studied with Box-Behnken experimental design method. At the same we also considered the cost of extraction solution and energy usage. The objective function was set as unit cost of target (total quantity of ginsenosides or its purity) for the multi-objective optimization of extraction process. As a result, the optimal process parameters were found as first extraction time (108.7 min), first extraction solution amount folds (12), second extraction time (30 min), second extraction solution amount folds (8) to minimize the unit cost. It indicated that this approach could potentially be used to optimize industrial extraction process for manufacturing Chinese medicine. PMID:25276970

  17. Continuous extraction of organic materials from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

    1971-01-01

    A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

  18. 3D Feature Extraction for Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Visualization techniques provide tools that help scientists identify observed phenomena in scientific simulation. To be useful, these tools must allow the user to extract regions, classify and visualize them, abstract them for simplified representations, and track their evolution. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This article explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and those from Finite Element Analysis.

  19. Optimization of extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Sumaira; Ali, Muhammad; Mahmood, Asif

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves using response surface methodology (RSM). A user-defined design was applied to determine the effects of extraction time (min), extraction temperature ((o)C) and ethanol concentration (%), on total phenolic content (TPC) from Moringa oleifera leaves dried by three methods (oven, sunlight and ambient air). The RSM was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of TPC of Moringa oleifera leaves. The optimum conditions that maximize the extraction of TPC were extraction time, 60 min; extraction temperature, 90(o)C and % of methanol, 50 % (v/v). TPC extracted under these conditions were 12.28, 12.65 and 13.14 mg GAE/g DW for samples dried by different methods. Significant difference between drying methods was found (p<0.001). Pair wise significant difference was found only between oven and ambient air drying methods (p<0.001). PMID:22713938

  20. Compositional variance in extracted particulate matter using different filter extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bein, K. J.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Collection and subsequent extraction of particulate matter (PM) from filter substrates is a common requirement for in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies, as well as chemical analyses such as ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Several filter extraction protocols exist and different laboratories employ different methods, potentially biasing inter-study comparisons. Previous studies have shown significant differences in extraction efficiency between techniques and identified the relevant extraction artifacts. However, a comprehensive inter-comparison of different methods based on the chemical composition of the extracted PM has never been conducted. In the current study, an exhaustive suite of chemical analyses is performed on PM extracted from glass micro-fiber filters using techniques commonly employed in different laboratories: Multi-solvent extraction (MSE) and spin-down extraction (SDE). PM samples were collected simultaneously during field studies conducted in an urban and rural setting using a high-volume PM2.5 sampler. Results show remarkable compositional variance between the PM extracts for all chemical components analyzed, including metals, water soluble ions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, non-aromatic organics, elemental carbon and organic carbon. Mass closure was greater than 90% for MSE but deviated substantially for SDE. Detailed retrospective gravimetric analysis of archived SDE samples revealed that a process-based loss of PM mass is the root cause of the differences. These losses are shown to be compositionally biased, both externally between different PM mixtures and internally within a given PM mixture. In combination, the results of this study are the first to demonstrate (i) an exhaustive chemical characterization of a single PM extract, (ii) the significance of directly characterizing the extracted PM used in toxicological studies, (iii) the existence of substantial compositional biases between different filter extraction techniques and (iv) the importance of standardizing filter extraction objectives and procedures to avoid introducing study bias into toxicological studies.

  1. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the definition...

  2. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the definition...

  3. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the definition...

  4. ROSE Process Offers Energy Savings for Solvent Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Gearheart, J. A.; Nelson, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Kerr-McGee has developed and commercialized an energy-efficient solvent extraction process known as ROSE (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) in which the extraction solvent is recovered as a supercritical fluid. The energy requirement...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  9. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

  10. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin. (2) Propylene glycol. (3) Sugar (including invert sugar). (4) Dextrose. (5) Corn sirup (including dried corn...

  11. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin. (2) Propylene glycol. (3) Sugar (including invert sugar). (4) Dextrose. (5) Corn sirup (including dried corn...

  12. Web Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    market opportunity, market penetration strategy, and market development metrics." Market intelligenceWeb Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory Online market intelligence (OMI), and especially competitive intelligence for product pricing, is a very

  13. Natural Language Tools for Information Extraction

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Stuart C.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4 Tools that automatically process text 34 4.1 AeroText (Lockheed MartinNatural Language Tools for Information Extraction for Soft Target Exploitation and Fusion Final

  14. Using language models for generic entity extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian H. Witten; Zane Bray; Malika Mahoui; W. J. Teahan

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of statistical language modeling techniques, such as are commonly used for text compression, to extract meaningful, low-level, information about the location of semantic tokens, or \\

  15. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    The common juniper is a tree that grows in Europe, Asia, and North America. The ripe fruit of Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus is alcohol extracted to produce Juniperus Communis Extract and Juniperus Oxycedrus Extract, respectively. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is the volatile oil from the wood of J. oxycedrus. Juniperus Phoenicea Extract comes from the gum of Juniperus phoenicea, and Juniperus Virginiana Extract is extracted from the wood of Juniperus virginiana. Although Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is produced as a by-product of distillation, no information was available on the manufacturing process for any of the Extracts. Oils derived from these varieties of juniper are used solely as fragrance ingredients; they are commonly produced using steam distillation of the source material, but it is not known if that procedure is used to produce extracts. One report does state that the chemical composition of Juniper Communis Oil and Juniperus Communis Extract is similar, each containing a wide variety of terpenoids and aromatic compounds, with the occasional aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes, and, more rarely, alkanes. The principle component of Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is cadinene, a sesquiterpene, but cresol and guaiacol are also found. No data were available, however, indicating the extent to which there would be variations in composition that may occur as a result of extraction differences or any other factor such as plant growth conditions. Information on the composition of the other ingredients was not available. All of the Extracts function as biological additives in cosmetic formulations, and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is used as a hair-conditioning agent and a fragrance component. Most of the available safety test data are from studies using oils derived from the various varieties of juniper. Because of the expected similarity in composition to the extract, these data were considered. Acute studies using animals show little toxicity of the oil or tar. The oils derived from J. communis and J. virginiana and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar were not skin irritants in animals. The oil from J. virginiana was not a sensitizer, and the oil from J. communis was not phototoxic in animal tests. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar was genotoxic in several assays. No genotoxicity data were available for any of the extracts. Juniperus Communis Extract did affect fertility and was abortifacient in studies using albino rats. Clinical tests showed no evidence of irritation or sensitization with any of the tested oils, but some evidence of sensitization to the tar. These data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; methods of manufacturing and impurities data, especially pesticides; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; dermal reproductive/developmental toxicity data (to include determination of a no-effect level); two genotoxicity assays (one in a mammalian system) for each extract; if positive, a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity assay performed using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods is needed; a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity assay performed using NTP methods on Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar; and irritation and sensitization data on each extract and the tar (these data are needed because the available data on the oils cannot be extrapolated). Until these data are available, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic formulations. PMID:11558640

  18. Local feature point extraction for quantum images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Xu, Kai; Gao, Yinghui; Wilson, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Quantum image processing has been a hot issue in the last decade. However, the lack of the quantum feature extraction method leads to the limitation of quantum image understanding. In this paper, a quantum feature extraction framework is proposed based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. Based on the design of quantum image addition and subtraction operations and some quantum image transformations, the feature points could be extracted by comparing and thresholding the gradients of the pixels. Different methods of computing the pixel gradient and different thresholds can be realized under this quantum framework. The feature points extracted from quantum image can be used to construct quantum graph. Our work bridges the gap between quantum image processing and graph analysis based on quantum mechanics.

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  20. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  1. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  2. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  3. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  4. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  5. Supercritical Fluid Extraction- Process Simulation and Design 

    E-print Network

    Martin, C. L.; Seibert, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) currently finds application in the food and petroleum industries. Research is aimed at using the unique properties of supercritical fluids to perform industrially significant separations. One major problem...

  6. Comparison of Bacterial Extracellular Polymer Extraction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Melanie J.; Lester, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Five different bacterial extracellular polymer extraction methods and a combination of two of these methods were compared on cultures of activated sludge, synthetic activated sludge, and Klebsiella aerogenes. High-speed centrifugation was the most effective extraction method for the K. aerogenes culture, based on the comparatively small amount of cell disruption and the relatively high extracellular polymer yield. Steaming treatment was the most effective extraction method for the activated sludges, since it released a significant quantity of extracellular polymers from the flocs and caused less cellular disruption than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium hydroxide treatments. Sodium hydroxide treatment caused extensive disruption in all cultures. Ultrasonication released low concentrations of extracellular polymers from all cultures. However, it caused no significant cell disruption and therefore may be useful as a preliminary treatment in conjunction with another extraction method. PMID:16345600

  7. Molecular Mechanism of Cyclodextrin Mediated Cholesterol Extraction

    PubMed Central

    López, Cesar A.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2011-01-01

    The depletion of cholesterol from membranes, mediated by ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is well known and documented, but the molecular details of this process are largely unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have been able to study the CD mediated extraction of cholesterol from model membranes, in particular from a pure cholesterol monolayer, at atomic resolution. Our results show that efficient cholesterol extraction depends on the structural distribution of the CDs on the surface of the monolayer. With a suitably oriented dimer, cholesterol is extracted spontaneously on a nanosecond time scale. Additional free energy calculations reveal that the CDs have a strong affinity to bind to the membrane surface, and, by doing so, destabilize the local packing of cholesterol molecules making their extraction favorable. Our results have implications for the interpretation of experimental measurements, and may help in the rational design of efficient CD based nano-carriers. PMID:21455285

  8. Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W 

    E-print Network

    Brinker, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam ...

  9. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  10. Extracting secret keys from integrated circuits

    E-print Network

    Lim, Daihyun, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Modern cryptographic protocols are based on the premise that only authorized participants can obtain secret keys and access to information systems. However, various kinds of tampering methods have been devised to extract ...

  11. Co-extraction of DNA and PLFA from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Sheridan; Techtmann, Stephen M; Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Niang, Dijibril; Pfiffner, Susan; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid/DNA co-extraction from one sample is attractive in limiting biases associated with microbial community analysis from separate extractions. We sought to enhance established co-extraction methods and use high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to identify preferentially extracted taxa from co-extracted DNA. Co-extraction results in low DNA yields and distinct community structure changes. PMID:26027542

  12. 1998 HUB4 INFORMATION EXTRACTION EVALUATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Przybocki; Jonathan G. Fiscus; John S. Garofolo; David S. Pallett

    This paper documents the Information Extraction Named-Entity Evaluation (IE-NE), one of the new spokes added to the DARPA-sponsored 1998 Hub-4 Broadcast News Evaluation. This paper discusses the information extraction task as posed for the 1998 Broadcast News Evaluation. This paper reviews the evaluation metrics, the scoring process, and the test corpus that was used for the evaluation. Finally, this paper

  13. Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

    1980-01-01

    Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

  14. Plant extracts as modulators of genotoxic effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debisri Sarkar; Archana Sharma; Geeta Talukder

    1996-01-01

    Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity\\u000a of environmental genotoxicants. The property of preventing carcinogenesis has been reported in many plant extracts. The observation\\u000a of a close association between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis has extended the survey to include plant extracts and plant\\u000a products able to modify the process of

  15. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Grzenia; D. J. Schell; S. R. Wickramasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed.

  16. Automatic information extraction from large websites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valter Crescenzi; Giansalvatore Mecca

    2004-01-01

    Information extraction from websites is nowadays a relevant problem, usually performed by software modules called wrappers. A key requirement is that the wrapper generation process should be automated to the largest extent, in order to allow for large-scale extraction tasks even in presence of changes in the underlying sites. So far, however, only semi-automatic proposals have appeared in the literature.We

  17. Purification of Polonium210 Using Pyrochemical Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Wheelwright; J. L. Swanson; T. R. Myers

    1980-01-01

    An efficient extraction process that does not utilize halides or organic solvents has been developed for the recovery and purification of 210po. Polonium-210, produced in bismuth metal by neutron irradiation, is extracted from molten bismuth metal into molten NaOH in an unique 3-compartment contactor under an inert atmosphere. At a temperature of 450±25°C, and at a NaOH\\/Bi weight ratio of

  18. Solvent extraction process for tar sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Funk; W. G. May; J. C. Pirkle

    1982-01-01

    A solvent extraction process for tar sands is disclosed wherein a low boiling solvent having a normal boiling point of from 20* to 70* C. Is used to extract tar sands. The solvent is mixed with tar sands in a dissolution zone, the solvent:bitumen weight ratio being maintained at from about 0.5:1 to 2:1. This mixture is passed to a

  19. Aromatics Extraction Plant Design Using Synthesis Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Wilcox, R. J.; Nedwick, R.

    1987-01-01

    the reboiler and condenser duties and temperatures and estimating the traffic and number of trays in each column to estimate its capital cost. APPUCATION TO THE SPECIFIC DESIGN A new plant was designed to produce benzene, toluene, and xylene by extraction... to extract an aromatics stream from a C 6 -C o heart cut of hydrogenated pyrolysis gasoline, leaving a raffinate containing paraffins and naphthenes. The Distillation Section distills the aromatics stream into high purity benzene, toluene, and Co...

  20. A Distributed Knowledge Extraction Data Mining Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang B. Liu; Umadevi Thanneru; Daizhan Cheng

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a We have developed a distributed data mining algorithm based on the progressive knowledge extraction principle. The knowledge\\u000a factors, the data attributes that are significant statistically or based on a predefined mining function, are extracted progressively\\u000a from the distributed data sets. The critical data attributes and sample data set are selected iteratively from distributed\\u000a data sources. The experiments showed that the

  1. Hydration effects in quaternary amine extraction systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Miller; M. C. Fuerstenau

    1970-01-01

    The extraction of Al+++, Cd++, Co++, Cu+, Cu++, Fe++, Fe+++, In+++, Ni++, and Zn++ with quaternary amine was studied using chloride and sulfate as ligands. On the basis of loading experiments and slope analyses,\\u000a the species extracted were: CdCl4=, CoCl4=, CuCl2?, CuCl4=, FeCl4?, and ZnCl4=. Water content of the organic phase was analyzed as a function of loading by Karl

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, T; Banerjee, S; Mandal, S C; Maity, T K; Saha, B P; Pal, M

    2001-05-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of the n-heptane extract of Cassia fistula leaves was investigated by inducing hepatotoxicity with paracetamol in rats. The extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt. exhibited orally, significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The effects produced were comparable to that of a standard hepatoprotective agent. PMID:11417916

  3. Efficient fast thumbnail extraction algorithm for HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonjin; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we proposed a fast thumbnail extraction algorithm using partial decoding for HEVC. The proposed algorithm reconstructs only 4x4 boundary and TU boundary needed for thumbnail image with partial decoding. Experimental results show that proposed method significantly reduces the computational complexity and extraction time for thumbnail. In addition, the visual quality of thumbnail image of proposed method had no big difference compared to conventional method.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

  5. Alkaline extraction of wastewater activated sludge biosolids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flor Y. García Becerra; Edgar J. Acosta; D. Grant Allen

    2010-01-01

    Activated sludge produced by wastewater treatment facilities are a sub-utilized by-product whose handling and disposal represent significant costs to these facilities. In this work, we introduced a simple and effective alkaline extraction technique that extracts up to 75% of the sludge’s organic matter into a liquor containing potentially useful organic material (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.). The results suggest that at pH

  6. Calibrations of a tritium extraction facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Bretscher; B. M. Oliver; H. IV Farrar

    1983-01-01

    A tritium extraction facility has been built for the purpose of measuring the absolute tritium concentration in neutron-irradiated lithium metal samples. Two independent calibration procedures have been used to determine what fraction, if any, of tritium is lost during the extraction process. The first procedure compares independently measured ⁴He and ³H concentrations from the ⁶Li(n,..cap alpha..)T reaction. The second procedure

  7. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of coconut oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. B. Che Man; Suhardiyono; A. B. Asbi; M. N. Azudin; L. S. Wei

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous extraction of coconut oil with various enzymes was investigated. Several enzyme preparations (cellulase, polygalacturonase,\\u000a protease, and ?-amylase) were used at different concentrations, pH, and temperature values to enhance oil extraction. After\\u000a the oil had been released by the enzyme reaction, it was separated by centrifugation. The results showed that an enzyme mixture\\u000a at 1% (w\\/w) each of cellulase, ?-amylase,

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Esclapez; J. V. García-Pérez; A. Mulet; J. A. Cárcel

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is an interesting process to obtain high valuable compounds and could contribute to\\u000a the increase in the value of some food by-products when used as sources of natural compounds. The main benefits will be a\\u000a more effective extraction, thus saving energy, and also the use of moderate temperatures, which is beneficial for heat-sensitive\\u000a compounds. For a successful

  9. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  10. Phase extraction in disordered isospectral shapes

    E-print Network

    Mugurel ?olea; Bogdan Ostahie; Marian Ni??; Felicia ?olea; Alexandru Aldea

    2012-03-04

    The phase of the electronic wave function is not directly measurable but, quite remarkably, it becomes accessible in pairs of isospectral shapes, as recently proposed in the experiment of Christopher R. Moon {\\it et al.}, Science {\\bf 319}, 782 (2008). The method is based on a special property, called transplantation, which relates the eigenfunctions of the isospectral pairs, and allows to extract the phase distributions, if the amplitude distributions are known. We numerically simulate such a phase extraction procedure in the presence of disorder, which is introduced both as Anderson disorder and as roughness at edges. With disorder, the transplantation can no longer lead to a perfect fit of the wave functions, however we show that a phase can still be extracted - defined as the phase that minimizes the misfit. Interestingly, this extracted phase coincides with (or differs negligibly from) the phase of the disorder-free system, up to a certain disorder amplitude, and a misfit of the wave functions as high as $\\sim 5%$, proving a robustness of the phase extraction method against disorder. However, if the disorder is increased further, the extracted phase shows a puzzle structure, no longer correlated with the phase of the disorder-free system. A discrete model is used, which is the natural approach for disorder analysis. We provide a proof that discretization preserves isospectrality and the transplantation can be adapted to the discrete systems.

  11. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  12. The inner synergistic effect of bifunctional ionic liquid extractant for solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Ji, Yang; Hu, Fengchun; He, Bo; Chen, Ji; Li, Deqian

    2010-06-15

    The inner synergistic effect of bifunctional ionic liquid extractant (Bif-ILE) for solvent extraction is reported for the first time using [tricaprylmethylammonium][di-2-ethylhexylphosphinate] ([A336][P204]) as n extractant for Eu(III), which can be attributed to better stability and hydrophobicity of the complex formed by [A336][P204] with Eu(III). Some other Bif-ILEs are also found to have the similar inner synergistic effect. Distribution coefficient, stripping property and extraction mechanism of the novel extraction protocol are discussed in this report. The study contributes towards acquiring a new understanding of synergistic extraction and task specific ionic liquid (TSIL), furthermore, providing a positive influence on their potential application in analytical chemistry. PMID:20441990

  13. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

  14. Molecular Models of Leaf Extracts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Our Featured Molecules this month come from the paper by Pelter et. al. on the analysis of leaf extracts by thin-layer chromatography (1). As the authors discuss, their experiment may be used in courses at various levels of the curriculum. The molecules discussed in the paper are also of wide interest both for their structural properties and their wide-ranging appearance in both natural and synthetic substances. Included in the molecule collection are all of the isomers for the molecules pictured in the text with the exception of menthyl acetate, for which only one structure is given (see below). All of these molecules have been optimized at the HF/631-G(d) level. The menthol family enantiomeric pairs of menthol, isomenthol, neomenthol and neoisomenthol provide a rich yet coherent group of molecules on which to base discussion of chirality, enantiomers and diastereomers. Treadwell and Black have described some of the differences in physical properties of four members of this family, and several other experiments using one or more menthols have been published in this Journal (2, 3). I have created a Web page in which the eight molecules are embedded in no particular order, and with no rational file names. This is being used in at least one of our organic sections to give students experience at identifying enantiomers, and diastereomers, and in applying R/S notation (4). As access to computational software becomes more common, and as efforts are being made to incorporate more relevant modeling experiments into all levels of the curriculum, the menthols again present some interesting possibilities. While students at the organic level know about enantiomers differing in their optical rotation, and about chiral molecules interacting with chiral and achiral environments, it is instructive for them to think of other ways in which enantiomers and diastereomers are the same or different. Three useful ways of checking to see whether two structures are truly enantiomers is to compute their total energies, vibrational spectra, and dipole moments. These calculations are available in most common computational packages. Figure 1 shows the results of energy calculations on optimized structures of the eight isomers. The enantiomeric pairs have, as expected, exactly the same total energy, while the various diastereomers differ in energy. The computation of the vibrational spectra is a very sensitive probe to determine whether two structures are optimized and enantiomeric or not. Structures that are almost enantiomeric, but not quite optimized, may exhibit similar energies, but the low frequency vibrations will be sensitive to any deviation from optimization. If two supposedly enantiomeric structures do not have the same computed vibrations, or if either shows a negative frequency, the structures need to be optimized more carefully. As with the vibrational frequencies, enantiomers should show identical dipole moments. Only one structure of the eight isomers in the menthyl acetate family is included in the collection, giving students the chance to build the other seven and verify their computed properties. Because of the central role that chirality plays in chemistry, and particularly in biochemistry, it seems appropriate to introduce some of these visualization and modeling exercises early in the curriculum, and in courses designed for students majoring in other areas. Students in various courses could pursue other aspects of these same molecules including odor and cooling properties, and green chemistry approaches to synthesizing menthols.

  15. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naifu Zhou; Jinguang Wu; Zhijian Yu; R. D. Neuman; Dujin Wang; Guangxian Xu

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl\\u000a ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination\\u000a structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemica nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of\\u000a the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed

  16. Modifications to the New Soil Extractant H3A-1: A Multinutrient Extractant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Haney; E. B. Haney; L. R. Hossner; J. G. Arnold

    2010-01-01

    A new soil extractant (H3A-1) with the ability to extract ammonium (NH4) nitrogen (N), nitrate (NO3) N, and phosphorus (P) from soil was originally developed and tested against 32 soils (Haney et al. 2006). H3A-1 is composed of organic acid root exudates, which are naturally occurring, and lithium citrate. In this study, H3A-1 was modified to reduce the extractable iron

  17. Application of microwave-assisted extraction to the fast extraction of plant phenolic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charalampos Proestos; Michael Komaitis

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of phenolic compounds in plants attracts considerable attention. Conventional (reflux) extraction as well as microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic substances from aromatic plants using different solvents has been studied. RP-HPLC with UV detection was employed for the analysis of phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The amount of extractable phenolic substances for this method

  18. Ultrasonically Assisted Extraction of Rutin from Artemisia selengensis Turcz: Comparison with Conventional Extraction Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Peng; Xiaopin Jia; Yuzhi Wang; Hongbin Zhu; Qingmei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonically assisted extraction (UAE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method for the\\u000a fast extraction and determination of rutin in Artemisia selengensis Turcz has been developed. Artemisia selengensis Turcz has been used as food and herbal medicine for thousands of years in China. Rutin is one of the main active ingredients\\u000a of this plant. The extraction of rutin

  19. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2015-06-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1-25:1) and time (2-6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. Optimal condition in microwave assisted method were ethanol 80 % as solvent, extraction time of 5-6 min and liquid/solid ratio of 12.7/1. Results were compared with those obtained by soxhlet extraction. In soxhlet extraction, Optimum conditions were extraction time of 6 h for ethanol 80 % as solvent. Value of phenolic compounds and extraction yield of licorice root in microwave assisted (MAE), and soxhlet were 47.47 mg/g and 16.38 %, 41.709 mg/g and 14.49 %, respectively. These results implied that MAE was more efficient extracting method than soxhlet. PMID:26028705

  20. Extracting fumonisins from maize: efficiency of different extraction solvents in multi-mycotoxin analytics.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Stefanie; Hepperle, Julia; Lauber, Uwe; Schnaufer, Renate; Maier, Susanne; Kühn, Caren; Schwab-Bohnert, Gabriele

    2013-05-01

    The complete extraction of analytes is of utmost importance when analyzing matrix samples for mycotoxins. Mycotoxins consist of substances with widely different physicochemical properties; therefore, the loss of toxins that occurs in multi-mycotoxin methods due to compromises in the extraction solvent is currently a topic under discussion. With regard to fumonisins, several extractants from recently published multi-mycotoxin methods were investigated when analyzing unprocessed and processed maize matrices. All extractants were tested in a validated on-site method and the extraction yields were compared to those of an HPLC-FLD reference method (EN 14352). Most of the compared multi-mycotoxin methods that have been published were only for analyzing fumonisins in maize or maize-meal; we have applied the extractants of these methods to processed, complex maize matrices for the first time. Our results show that, for extractions with aqueous acetonitrile mixtures with the addition of acid, e.g. MeCN/H2O/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v), higher extraction yields are obtained than with MeCN/H2O (80/20, v/v), in both spiked and naturally contaminated maize matrices. But compared to the results of the reference method EN 14352, the two extractants did not show a similar extraction efficiency. Overall, the extractant MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v) turned out to be the most appropriate extractant applied in all experiments, obtaining the best and most comparable extraction yields and recoveries. Furthermore, our investigations showed that, with some of the tested extraction solvents, e.g. MeCN/H2O (75/25) containing 50 mmol/l formic acid, stark differences occur when analyzing spiked and naturally contaminated matrices. With spiked matrices, recoveries of approximately 80-110% were obtained, but with naturally contaminated matrices no results comparable to the EN method have been achieved. In contrast, a double extraction with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (80/19,9/0,1, v/v/v), followed by a second polar extraction step with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (20/79,9/0,1, v/v/v), led, for most naturally contaminated samples, to comparable results with the EN method. However, for spiked samples, the same extractant led to raised recoveries of between 120 and 140 %. For some processed matrices, like taco-chips, all tested extractants showed a poor extraction efficiency for fumonisins. By extending the extraction time from 1 to 15 min, a result comparable to that of the reference method could also be obtained for the extractant using MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v). As this extractant has been used in our recently published method (Trebstein et al. Mycotoxin Res 25:201, 2009), this work also presents an update on this method with respect to the extended extraction time. PMID:23436221

  1. Process for extracting hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon bearing ores

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.; Eakin, B.E.

    1986-02-18

    This patent describes a process for recovering hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore consisting of: reducing the size of the ore to less than about 5 mesh to form a reduced ore; combining the reduced ore with liquid to form ore pellets; treating the ore pellets to form extractable ore pellets; contacting a bed of the extractable pellets with extracting solvent in an extraction zone such that the relative velocity of the solvent to the extractable pellets is at least about one-half gallon per square foot per minute or more to thereby extract hydrocarbons from the extractable pellets and form spent pellets and a hydrocarbon rich solvent stream comprising extracting solvent and extracted hydrocarbons. The extracted hydrocarbons have an ash content of about less than 3 weight percent; and recovering extracting solvent from the spent pellets while retaining the spent pellets in pellet form without release of a significant amount of fines.

  2. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  3. Empirical Evaluation of Bone Extraction Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Timothy P.; Voegele, Kristyn; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2012-01-01

    The application of high-resolution analytical techniques to characterize ancient bone proteins requires clean, efficient extraction to obtain high quality data. Here, we evaluated many different protocols from the literature on ostrich cortical bone and moa cortical bone to evaluate their yield and relative purity using the identification of antibody-antigen complexes on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis. Moa bone provided an ancient comparison for the effectiveness of bone extraction protocols tested on ostrich bone. For the immunological part of this study, we focused on collagen I, osteocalcin, and hemoglobin because collagen and osteocalcin are the most abundant proteins in the mineralized extracellular matrix and hemoglobin is common in the vasculature. Most of these procedures demineralize the bone first, and then the remaining organics are chemically extracted. We found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed. In contrast, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in smearing upon electrophoretic separation, possibly indicating these samples were not as pure. The denaturing agents sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and guanidine HCl have been used extensively for the solubilization of proteins in non-biomineralized tissue, but only the latter has been used on bone. We show that all three denaturing agents are effective for extracting bone proteins. One additional method tested uses ammonium bicarbonate as a solubilizing buffer that is more appropriate for post-extraction analyses (e.g., proteomics) by removing the need for desalting. We found that both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. With the increasing use of proteomics, a new generation of scientists are now interested in the study of proteins from not only extant bone but also from ancient bone. PMID:22348088

  4. Antioxidant activity of fermented soybean extract.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chih-Chieh; Hsiao, Ching-Huang; Huang, Sin-Yi; Fu, Sheng-Hwa; Lai, Chih-Chia; Hong, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2004-09-01

    Free radicals are considered to be important causative factors in the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This relationship has led to interest in evaluating the antioxidant capacities of many dietary supplements. Fermented soybean extract is produced by symbiotic fermentation of organic soybean with 20 types of Lactobacillus and yeast. In vitro and in vivo models are used in this study to evaluate the antioxidant effect of fermented soybean extract. Several in vitro models are used to detect the antioxidant capacity of the fermented soybean extract, which is compared to vitamin C and Trolox. The results demonstrate that the fermented soybean extract has strong antioxidant activity against unsaturated fatty acid peroxidation compared to vitamin C and Trolox. By the means of the test system developed by Y. Toshiki et al., it is shown that the fermented soybean extract can function both as an antioxidant and as a free radical acceptor that can convert free radicals into harmless substances through an energy-decreasing procedure. An in vivo study examines the effects of fermented soybean extract on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes (AOE) including total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are measured in liver, kidney, and brain from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The activities of CAT, SOD, and GPX are increased in the liver. However, the SOD activity is decreased in the kidney. SOD and GPX activities are decreased in the brain. These results lead to the conclusion that fermented soybean extract not only has antioxidant activity but also has an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver. PMID:15373417

  5. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, ?-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  6. Evaluation of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and histochemical tests for aluminium detection in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Naiara V; Pereira, Tiago A R; Machado, Mariana F; Guerra, Marcelo B B; Tolentino, Gláucia S; Araújo, Josiane S; Rezende, Maíra Q; Silva, Maria Carolina N A da; Schaefer, Carlos E G R

    2014-03-01

    The soils developed under High Altitude Rocky Complexes in Brazil are generally of very low chemical fertility, with low base saturation and high exchangeable aluminium concentration. This stressful condition imposes evolutionary pressures that lead to ecological success of plant species that are able to tolerate or accumulate high amounts of aluminium. Several analytical methods are currently available for elemental mapping of biological structures, such as micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-EDX) and histochemical tests. The aim of this study was to combine ?-EDX analysis and histochemical tests to quantify aluminium in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, identifying the main sites for Al-accumulation. Among the studied species, five showed total Al concentration higher than 1000 mg kg-1. The main Al-hyperaccumulator plants, Lavoisiera pectinata, Lycopodium clavatum and Trembleya parviflora presented positive reactions in the histochemical tests using Chrome Azurol and Aluminon. Strong positive correlations were observed between the total Al concentrations and data obtained by ?-EDX analysis. The ?-EDX analysis is a potential tool to map and quantify Al in hyperaccumulator species, and a valuable technique due to its non-destructive capacity. Histochemical tests can be helpful to indicate the accumulation pattern of samples before they are submitted for further ?-EDX scrutiny. PMID:24676168

  7. Isotherms and thermodynamics for the sorption of heavy metal ions onto functionalized sporopollenin.

    PubMed

    Gubbuk, Ilkay Hilal

    2011-02-15

    In this study, sporopollenin of Lycopodium clavatum spores was used for the sorption experiment. Glutaraldehyde (GA) immobilized sporopollenin (Sp), is employed as a sorbent in sorption of selected heavy metal ions. The sorbent prepared by sequential treatment of sporopollenin by silanazing compound and glutaraldehyde is suggested for sorption of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) from aqueous solutions. Experimental conditions for effective sorption of heavy metal ions were optimized with respect to different experimental parameters using batch method in detail. Optimum pH range of Cu(II) has occurred at pH?5.5 and Zn(II), Co(II) at pH?5.0, for the batch method. All of the metal ions can be desorbed with 10 cm(3) of 0.5 mol dm(-3) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm equations were applied to the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (?G(o)), entropy (?S(o)) and enthalpy (?H(o)) were also calculated from the sorption results used to explain the mechanism of the sorption. The results indicated that this sorbent is successfully employed in the separation of trace Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) from the aqueous solutions. PMID:21144652

  8. Lycopodine triggers apoptosis by modulating 5-lipoxygenase, and depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential in androgen sensitive and refractory prostate cancer cells without modulating p53 activity: signaling cascade and drug-DNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Bishayee, Kausik; Chakraborty, Debrup; Ghosh, Samrat; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    When the prostate cancer cells become unresponsive to androgen therapy, resistance to chemotherapy becomes imminent, resulting in high mortality. To combat this situation, lycopodine, a pharmacologically important bioactive component derived from Lycopodium clavatum spores, was tested against hormone sensitive (LnCaP) and refractory (PC3) prostate cancer cells in vitro. This study aims to check if lycopodine has demonstrable anti-cancer effects and if it has, to find out the possible mechanism of its action. The MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect. Depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle, EGF receptor activity and apoptosis were recorded by FACS; profiles of different anti- and pro-apoptotic genes and their products were studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, indirect-ELISA, western blotting. Drug-DNA interaction was determined by CD spectroscopy. Administration of lycopodine down-regulated the expression of 5-lipoxygenase and the 5-oxo-ETE receptor (OXE receptor1) and EGF receptor, and caused up-regulation of cytochrome c with depolarization of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, without palpable change in p53 activity, resulting in apoptosis, cell arrest at G0/G1 stage and ultimately reduced proliferation of cancer cells; concomitantly, there was externalization of phosphotidyl serine residues. CD spectroscopic analysis revealed intercalating property of lycopodine with DNA molecule, implicating its ability to block cellular DNA synthesis. The overall results suggest that lycopodine is a promising candidate suitable for therapeutic use as an anti-cancer drug. PMID:23142370

  9. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  10. [Contrastive study on dynamic spectrum extraction method].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui-quan; Xiong, Chan; Lin, Ling

    2012-05-01

    Dynamic spectrum method extracts the absorbance of the artery pulse blood with some wavelengths. The method can reduce some influence such as measurement condition, individual difference and spectrum overlap. It is a new way for noninvasive blood components detection However, how to choose a dynamic spectrum extraction method is one of the key links for the weak ingredient spectrum signal. Now there are two methods to extract the dynamic spectral signal-frequency domain analysis and single-trial estimation in time domain In the present research, comparison analysis and research on the two methods were carrued out completely. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the two methods extract the dynamic spectrum from different angles. But they are the same in essence--the basic principle of dynamic spectrum, the signal statistical and average properties. With the pulse wave of relative stable period and amplitude, high precision dynamic spectrum can be obtained by the two methods. With the unstable pulse wave due to the influence of finger shake and contact-pressure change, the dynamic spectrum extracted by single-trial estimation is more accurate than the one by frequecy domain analysis. PMID:22827082

  11. Reexamination of Pure Qubit Work Extraction

    E-print Network

    Max F. Frenzel; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph

    2014-11-19

    Many work extraction or information erasure processes in the literature involve the raising and lowering of energy levels via external fields. But even if the actual system is treated quantum mechanically, the field is assumed to be classical and of infinite strength, hence not developing any correlations with the system or experiencing back-actions. We extend these considerations to a fully quantum mechanical treatment, by studying a spin-1/2 particle coupled to a finite-sized directional quantum reference frame, a spin-l system, which models an external field. With this concrete model together with a bosonic thermal bath, we analyse the back-action a finite-size field suffers during a quantum-mechanical work extraction process, the effect this has on the extractable work, and highlight a range of assumptions commonly made when considering such processes. The well-known semi-classical treatment of work extraction from a pure qubit predicts a maximum extractable work W = kT log 2 for a quasi-static process, which holds as a strict upper bound in the fully quantum mechanical case, and is only attained in the classical limit. We also address the problem of emergent local time-dependence in a joint system with globally fixed Hamiltonian.

  12. Vasoprotective activity of standardized Achillea millefolium extract.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Bolego, Chiara; Cignarella, Andrea; Gaion, Rosa Maria; Innocenti, Gabbriella

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the effects of Achillea millefolium extract in vitro on the growth of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the potential involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) in this process. In addition, the ability of A. millefolium extract to modulate the NF-?B pathway was tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The fingerprinting of the extract was carried out by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS(n) and main constituents were flavonoids (10%) and dicaffeolylquinic acid derivatives (12%). The extract enhanced VSMC growth at least in part by acting through ERs and impaired NF-?B signaling in HUVECs. The various compounds may act with different mode of actions thus contributing to the final effect of the extract. Our findings support some of the traditional uses of A. millefolium, and suggest potential modes of action as related to its effects on vascular inflammation. Therefore, A. millefolium may induce novel potential actions in the cardiovascular system. PMID:21684130

  13. Fern spore extracts can damage DNA.

    PubMed

    Simán, S E; Povey, A C; Ward, T H; Margison, G P; Sheffield, E

    2000-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of the vegetative tissues of bracken fern (Pteridium) has long been established. More recently, the carcinogenic effects of the spores of bracken have also been recognized. Both vegetative tissues and spores of bracken can induce adducts in DNA in animal tissues, but the possible genotoxic or carcinogenic effects of spores from fern species other than bracken are unknown. The single-cell gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay was used to investigate whether fern spores can cause DNA damage in vitro. Extracts of spores from six fern species were administered to cultured human premyeloid leukaemia (K562) cells. Spore extracts of five fern species: Anemia phyllitidis, Dicksonia antarctica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pteris vittata and Sadleria pallida, induced significantly more DNA strand breaks than those in the control groups. Only in one species, Osmunda regalis, was the effect no different from that in the control groups. Using extracts from A. phyllitidis and P. vittata, the extent of DNA damage was increased by increasing the original dose 10 times, whereas an experiment in which exposure times were varied suggested that the highest levels of strand breaks appear after 2 h exposure. Simultaneous incubation with human S9 liver enzyme mix ablated the damaging effect of the extracts. Our data show that fern spore extracts can cause DNA damage in human cells in vitro. Considering the strong correlation between DNA damage and carcinogenic events, the observations made in this report may well have some implications for human health. PMID:10883670

  14. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4?mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515?nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. PMID:22294387

  15. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogen extracts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Chang, Yen-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Adaptogens are harmless herbs which have pharmaceutical benefits due to their balancing, regulative and tonic functions. However, despite these medicinal effects, the antioxidant potential of adaptogens is rarely mentioned. This study investigated the antioxidant potential of 3 adaptogen extracts, Rhodiola rosea (golden root), Eleutherococcus senticosis (Siberian ginseng) and Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry, Amla). The results of this study showed that R. rosea had the highest potential for singlet oxygen scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing, ferrous chelating and protein thiol protection than either of the other 2 extracts. E. senticosis, on the other hand, showed the best potential for hypochlorite scavenging. In addition, the polyphenol content in the 3 adaptogen extracts followed the order: R. rosea, E. officinalis and E. senticosis. Our data suggest that the antioxidant potential of the 3 adaptogen extracts was proportional to their respective polyphenol content. The supplementation of adaptogen extracts containing high levels of polyphenols may not only have adaptogen properties, but may decrease the risk of complications induced by oxidative stress. PMID:19051347

  16. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic comparisons of multi-ingredients after oral administration of radix salviae miltiorrhizae extract, hawthorn extract, and a combination of both extracts to rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Qiang; Cai, Qian; Liu, Chang; Bao, Feng-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma. This method validated was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the main active ingredients after oral administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract (SME), hawthorn extract (HTE), and a combination of both extracts (2.5?:?1) to rats. The results indicated that there have been great differences in pharmacokinetics between a single extract and a combination of both extracts. A combination of both extracts can enhance their bioavailabilities and delay the elimination of SAB and DSS in rats. PMID:24660090

  17. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Comparisons of Multi-Ingredients after Oral Administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Extract, Hawthorn Extract, and a Combination of Both Extracts to Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Qiang; Cai, Qian; Liu, Chang; Bao, Feng-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma. This method validated was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the main active ingredients after oral administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract (SME), hawthorn extract (HTE), and a combination of both extracts (2.5?:?1) to rats. The results indicated that there have been great differences in pharmacokinetics between a single extract and a combination of both extracts. A combination of both extracts can enhance their bioavailabilities and delay the elimination of SAB and DSS in rats. PMID:24660090

  18. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

  19. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 905.702 ? Section 905.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  20. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 941.702 ? Section 941.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  1. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 921.702 ? Section 921.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  2. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 937.702 ? Section 937.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  3. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 912.702 ? Section 912.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  4. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 922.702 ? Section 922.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  5. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 947.702 ? Section 947.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  6. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 942.702 ? Section 942.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  7. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 903.702 ? Section 903.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  8. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 939.702 ? Section 939.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  9. Extraction of rare earth metals with a multistage mixer-settler extraction column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuroku Takahashi; Ahmed Abdel-Sattar Abdel-Tawab; Susumu Nii; Toshihiro Yajima; Fumio Kawaizumi

    2002-01-01

    Extraction behavior of rare earth metals within a mixer–settler extraction column has been analyzed with the stage efficiency calculated from mass transfer coefficients and interfacial area. The mass transfer coefficient within the dispersed drops is determined from a rigid sphere model by taking into account the residence time distribution of drops, and the coefficient around the drops is calculated by

  10. Efficient extraction of vaccines formulated in aluminum hydroxide gel by including surfactants in the extraction buffer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daming; Huang, Shuhui; McClellan, Holly; Dai, Weili; Syed, Najam R; Gebregeorgis, Elizabeth; Rausch, Kelly M; Mullen, Gregory E D; Long, Carole; Martin, Laura B; Narum, David; Duffy, Patrick; Miller, Louis H; Saul, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Efficient antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on aluminum hydroxide gels is a critical step for the evaluation of the quality of vaccines following formulation. It has been shown in our laboratory that the efficiency of antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on Alhydrogel decreased significantly with increased storage time. To increase antigen extraction efficiency, the present study determined the effect of surfactants on antigen recovery from vaccine formulations. The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated on Alhydrogel and stored at 2-8°C for 3 years was used as a model in this study. The AMA1 on Alhydrogel was extracted in the presence or absence of 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 20mM cetylpyridinium chloride in the extraction buffer (0.60 M citrate, 0.55 M phosphate, pH 8.5) using our standard antigen extraction protocols. Extracted AMA1 antigen was analyzed by 4-20% Tris-glycine SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining or western blotting. The results showed that inclusion of SDS or cetylpyridinium chloride in extraction buffer increased the antigen recovery dramatically and can be used for efficient characterization of Alhydrogel vaccines. PMID:22107848

  11. Extraction and separation of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with chitosan as extractant.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Qin, Yukun; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution?:?sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4?mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30?:?1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6?h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan. PMID:24350250

  12. Extraction and Separation of Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with Chitosan as Extractant

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Qin, Yukun; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution?:?sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4?mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30?:?1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6?h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan. PMID:24350250

  13. Development of a novel supercritical fluid extraction procedure for lanolin extraction from raw wool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Alzaga; Esther Pascual; Pilar Erra; Josep M. Bayona

    1999-01-01

    A procedure based on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been developed for the determination of lanolin present on raw wool fibres. Residual lanolin remaining in the fibres following a SFE was determined according to a standard method (Soxhlet with dichloromethane) for all the SFE conditions evaluated. Selected extraction variables affecting the SFE were optimised in two steps. In the first

  14. Repeat silica extraction: a simple technique for the removal of PCR inhibitors from DNA extracts

    E-print Network

    Kemp, Brian M.

    Repeat silica extraction: a simple technique for the removal of PCR inhibitors from DNA extracts; accepted 28 February 2006 Abstract Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors are often co we review previous research on PCR inhibitors and techniques that address their co

  15. Exhaustive extraction of sulfonamide antibiotics from aged agricultural soils using pressurized liquid extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krispin Stoob; Heinz P. Singer; Sandra Stettler; Niccolo Hartmann; Stephan R. Mueller; Christian H. Stamm

    2006-01-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method was developed for the quantification of five sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfathiazole) in aged soil samples. To account for sequestration effects the extraction was optimized using a composite grassland soil sample collected 11 days after the application of manure containing these substances. The optimized method uses a mixture of buffered water

  16. OPTIMIZING EXTRACTION OF ZEIN AND GLUTEILIN RICH FRACTION DURING IN SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION PROCESSING OF CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to improve the yields and qualities of corn protein co-products produced by the Sequential Extraction Process (SEP), a process using ethanol to fractionate corn. A two-stage extraction protocol was evaluated for recovering zein and subsequently recovering a glutelin-rich fr...

  17. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

  18. Extraction parameters in the mutagenicity assay of soil samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Júnior; Jocelita Aparecida Vaz Rocha; Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating parameters of chemical extraction associated with the detection of mutagenicity in soil samples extracts. In order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of inorganic mutagens, besides the chemical analysis of metals, the Salmonella\\/microsome assay was performed in the preincubation and microsuspension procedures, using two solvents, and using two extraction methodologies. The efficiency of two organic compound

  19. Subcritical Water Extraction of Nutraceutical Compounds from Citrus Pomaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Wan Kim; Tatsuya Nagaoka; Yasuyuki Ishida; Tatsuya Hasegawa; Kuniyuki Kitagawa; Seung-Cheol Lee

    2009-01-01

    Subcritical water (SCW) extraction of citrus pomaces (CPs) was carried out, and antioxidant activity and nutraceutical compound levels of the SCW extracts were evaluated in detail. At first, CP samples were subjected to the SCW extraction under various conditions focusing on the extraction temperature and time. Consequently, the highest total phenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power were found

  20. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Bauer; A. C. Rice; J. S. Berber

    1960-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction techniques were investigated for use in ; fractionation of rare-earth solutions. Laboratory extractions using TBP for ; ceric nitrate resulted in almost complete extraction. Tests with primary amines ; were also promising. In scale-up extractions of the ceric nitrate procedure 84% ; efficiency was obtained. (J.R.D.);

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smain Chemat; Hamid Aït-Amar; Ahcène Lagha; D. C. Esveld

    2005-01-01

    The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical solid–liquid extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were

  2. Modeling of supercritical fluid extraction from herbaceous matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto Reverchon; Giorgio Donsi; Libero Sesti Osseo

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results of supercritical fluid extraction from various herbaceous matrices are presented. In optimal extraction conditions, the use of a fractional separation technique allows a nearly complete separation of the extract in cuticular waxes and essential oil. The modeling of these results is proposed starting from the description of the mass transfer from a single spherical particle. The simultaneous extraction

  3. Interferonogenic and antiviral effect of extracts from Erodium cicutarium.

    PubMed

    Zieli?ska-Jenczylik, J; Sypu?a, A; Budko, E; Rzadkowska-Bodalska, H

    1987-01-01

    Extracts from Erodium cicutarium L. Herit were tested for antiviral and interferon inducing properties. Both water extract and methanol extract as well as its fractions were observed to exert antiviral effect in relation to myxoviruses, Herpes virus type 1, Vesicular stomatitis and vaccinia virus. None of these extracts did induce interferon in a suspension of human leukocytes. PMID:3128960

  4. Solvent Extraction of Organomercury Compound with Quaternary Amines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Moore

    1975-01-01

    Methylmercuric chloride and phenylmercuric acetate extract very efficiently with quaternary amines dissolved in diethylbenzene or other simple solvents. The extraction is effective from either alkaline or acidic solution. The technique considerably extends the scope of conventional solvent extraction practice to permit the extraction and concentration of total mercury in environmental and biological matrices.

  5. Improving Named Entity Disambiguation by Iteratively Enhancing Certainty of Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Habib; Keulen van Maurice

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This paper addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost no existing works examine the extraction and disambiguation interdependency. Second, existing disambiguation techniques mostly take as input extracted named entities without

  6. A Hybrid Approach for Robust Multilingual Toponym Extraction and Disambiguation

    E-print Network

    A Hybrid Approach for Robust Multilingual Toponym Extraction and Disambiguation Mena B. Habib.b.habib,m.vankeulen}@ewi.utwente.nl Abstract. Toponym extraction and disambiguation are key topics re- cently addressed by fields of Information Extraction and Geographical In- formation Retrieval. Toponym extraction and disambiguation

  7. Named Entity Extraction and Disambiguation from an Uncertainty Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Habib; Keulen van Maurice

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This work addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost no existing works examine the extraction and disambiguation interdependency. Second, existing disambiguation techniques mostly take as input extracted named entities without

  8. Arsenic fractionation in soils using an improved sequential extraction procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter W. Wenzel; Natalie Kirchbaumer; Thomas Prohaska; Gerhard Stingeder; Enzo Lombi; Domy C. Adriano

    2001-01-01

    Risk assessment of contaminants requires simple, meaningful tools to obtain information on contaminant pools of differential lability and bioavailability in the soil. We developed and tested a sequential extraction procedure (SEP) for As by choosing extraction reagents commonly used for sequential extraction of metals, Se and P. Tests with alternative extractants that have been used in SEPs for P and

  9. Antibacterial activity of grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi ) peel extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Negi; G. K. Jayaprakasha

    2001-01-01

    Citrus paradisi peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor for 8 h each. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) of hexane and chloroform extracts showed three spots with different concentrations; hence both the extracts were mixed and fractionated into alcohol soluble and insoluble fractions. Naringin was isolated from acetone and methanol extracts by column chromatography

  10. Molecular techniques: Extracting DNA from dried dots, PCR and sequencing

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Molecular techniques: Extracting DNA from dried dots, PCR and sequencing Every molecular laboratory, but we are always tinkering with protocols. 1. Extracting DNA from filter paper disks. A piece of a dried results. 2. Extracting DNA from vectors. For several projects we have extracted parasite DNA from vectors

  11. The Desulfurization of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Gasoline by Extractive Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shen; Z. Mei; B. Shen; H. Ling

    2011-01-01

    Desulfurization of fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was investigated in a lab scale extractive distillation column. Before the extractive distillation, fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was distillated into light and heavy fractions. Then, the light fraction was desulfurized by extractive distillation using dimethylformamide as the solvent. Factors impacting the desulfurization efficiency of the extractive distillation were studied. Under optimal desulfurization conditions, distillate

  12. Extraction of lipids from microalgae by ultrasound application: prospection of the optimal extraction method.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Fernandes, Jader O; Cartaxo, Samuel J M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry will depend on the selection of appropriate microalgal strains and the selection of the most suitable lipid extraction method. In this paper, five extraction methods were evaluated regarding the extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris: Bligh and Dyer, Chen, Folch, Hara and Radin, and Soxhlet. Furthermore, the addition of silica powder was studied to evaluate the introduction of more shear stress to the system as to increase the disruption of cell walls. Among the studied methods, the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound resulted in the highest extraction of oil from C. vulgaris (52.5% w/w). Addition of powder silica did not improve the extraction of oil. PMID:22938999

  13. Extraction and identification of flavonoids from parsley extracts by HPLC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.

    2012-02-01

    Flavonoids are phenolic compounds isolated from a wide variety of plants, and are valuable for their multiple properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In the present work, parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) extracts were obtained by three different extraction techniques: maceration, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted solvent extractions. The extractions were performed with ethanol-water mixtures in various ratios. From these extracts, flavonoids like the flavones apigenin and luteolin, and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol were identified using an HPLC Shimadzu apparatus equipped with PDA and MS detectors. The separation method involved a gradient step. The mobile phase consisted of two solvents: acetonitrile and distilled water with 0.1% formic acid. The separation was performed on a RP-C18 column.

  14. Extracting Temporal Information from Electronic Patient Records

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Patrick, Jon

    2012-01-01

    A method for automatic extraction of clinical temporal information would be of significant practical importance for deep medical language understanding, and a key to creating many successful applications, such as medical decision making, medical question and answering, etc. This paper proposes a rich statistical model for extracting temporal information from an extremely noisy clinical corpus. Besides the common linguistic, contextual and semantic features, the highly restricted training sample expansion and the structure distance between the temporal expression & related event expressions are also integrated into a supervised machine-learning approach. The learning method produces almost 80% F- score in the extraction of five temporal classes, and nearly 75% F-score in identifying temporally related events. This process has been integrated into the document-processing component of an implemented clinical question answering system that focuses on answering patient-specific questions (See demonstration at http://hitrl.cs.usyd.edu.au/ICNS/). PMID:23304326

  15. Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Filippi, Anthony M [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Introduced in this paper is the utilization of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to automatically perform endmember extraction from hyperspectral data. The strengths of SVM are exploited to provide a fast and accurate calculated representation of high-dimensional data sets that may consist of multiple distributions. Once this representation is computed, the number of distributions can be determined without prior knowledge. For each distribution, an optimal transform can be determined that preserves informational content while reducing the data dimensionality, and hence, the computational cost. Finally, endmember extraction for the whole data set is accomplished. Results indicate that this Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction (SVM-BEE) algorithm has the capability of autonomously determining endmembers from multiple clusters with computational speed and accuracy, while maintaining a robust tolerance to noise.

  16. Purification of polonium-210 using pyrochemical extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Myers, T.R.

    1980-05-01

    An efficient extraction process that does not utilize halides or organic solvents has been developed for the recovery and purification of /sup 210/Po. Polonium-210, produced in bismuth metal by neutron irradiation, is extracted from molten bismuth metal into molten NaOH in an unique 3-compartment contactor under an inert atmosphere. At a temperature of 450+-25/sup 0/C, and at a NaOH/Bi weight ratio of 0.044, five successive 60-minute extractions remove > 96% of the /sup 210/Po. Following phase separation and freezing, additional purification steps include dissolution of the solidified NaOH in HNO/sub 3/, recovery of /sup 210/Po from this solution by MnO/sub 2/ carrier precipitation, dissolution of the precipitate by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in HNO/sub 3/, and , finally, electrodeposition of /sup 210/Po onto platinum gauze.

  17. Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  18. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  19. Integrated continuous microfluidic liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Jason G; Sahoo, Hemantkumar R; Jensen, Klavs F

    2007-02-01

    We describe continuous flow liquid-liquid phase separation in microfluidic devices based on capillary forces and selective wetting surfaces. Effective liquid-liquid phase separation is achieved by using a thin porous fluoropolymer membrane that selectively wets non-aqueous solvents, has average pore sizes in the 0.1-1 microm range, and has a high pore density for high separation throughput. Pressure drops throughout the microfluidic network are modelled and operating regimes for the membrane phase separator are determined based on hydrodynamic pressure drops and capillary forces. A microfluidic extraction device integrating mixing and phase separation is realized by using silicon micromachining. Modeling of the phase separator establishes the operating limits. The device is capable of completely separating several organic-aqueous and fluorous-aqueous liquid-liquid systems, even with high fractions of partially miscible compounds. In each case, extraction is equivalent to one equilibrium extraction stage. PMID:17268629

  20. Cytoprotective agent in Lactobacillus bulgaricus extracts.

    PubMed

    Johns, Paul; Pereira, Suzette L; Leonard, Amanda E; Mukerji, Pradip; Shalwitz, Robert A; Dowlati, Lobat; Phillips, Rosalyn R; Bergana, Marti S; Holton, Jason D; Das, Tapas

    2007-02-01

    Adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADP-ribose) has been identified as a significant contributor to the anti-cytotoxic activity of Lactobacillus bulgaricus extracts. Although the biological activities associated with the administration of probiotic bacteria and components thereof are sometimes attributed to the peptidoglycans that comprise a substantial portion of the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall, we found that the beta-nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) hydrolysis product ADP-ribose was a significant contributor to the observed anti-cytotoxicity in our L. bulgaricus extracts. The ADP-ribose was isolated, identified, and quantitated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. ADP-ribose levels as low as 5 mg/L exhibited a measurable inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mediated cytotoxicity in an in vitro cell assay, whereas the ADP-ribose content of the L. bulgaricus extracts often exceeded 5 mg/g dry weight. PMID:17211541

  1. Automation of the Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.

    1999-12-15

    The US Department of Energy has determined its future requirements for tritium will be met using the existing reactors of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) will replace the existing burnable absorber rods in the reactor core to beneficially use excess neutrons to create the tritium. The irradiated TPBARs will be shipped from the reactor to a new facility at the Savannah River Site. This new facility, the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF), will receive the shipments from the reactor, store the TPBARs, prepare the TPBARs for tritium extraction, extract the tritium, and package the waste for disposal. The high level of gamma radiation emitted from the TPBARs will preclude human contact. Automation and remote handling will be used to accomplish the required operations, while minimizing radiation exposure to workers.

  2. Potential antitermite compounds from Juniperus procera extracts.

    PubMed

    Kinyanjui, T; Gitu, P M; Kamau, G N

    2000-10-01

    Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis revealed that destructive distillation of Juniperus procera tree gave ten major components, whereas Croton megalocarpus tree yielded five components. This was confirmed by gas chromatography (GC). The components were isolated by column chromatography and analysed using infrared, ultra-violet, visible and mass spectroscopy (MS) techniques. The whole extract was about 30.3% of the starting material (sawdust) and consisted of 77.5% water and 22.5% oily reddish-brown layer. The extracts had alcoholic and phenolic compounds together with acids. Cedrol, a tertiary tricyclic alcohol, was found to be in the greatest proportion in the oily layer. IR spectra with a peak beyond 3000 cm(-1), UV-VIS absorption maxima at 230 nm and mass spectra with m/e 204 suggested the presence of cedrene in the extract. PMID:10879825

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extracts of seed, hexane extracts of pulp, and hexane extracts of seed. The antioxidant potential of Cassia fistula extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.02) with the phenolic content of the methanolic extracts. Ascorbic acid taken as control showed highest antioxidant power in the present study. PMID:25374682

  4. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  5. Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. PMID:24996300

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Md; Zafaryab, Md; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M Moshahid A

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe(3+) reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extracts of seed, hexane extracts of pulp, and hexane extracts of seed. The antioxidant potential of Cassia fistula extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.02) with the phenolic content of the methanolic extracts. Ascorbic acid taken as control showed highest antioxidant power in the present study. PMID:25374682

  7. Extraction of phenolic compounds from a Spodosol profile: an evaluation of three extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, G.F.; Boyd, S.A.; Mokma, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The authors extracted phenolic compounds from each horizon of a Spodosol profile using three extractants: 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate at pH 7.0 and 10.2, and 0.5 N sodium hydroxide at pH 13.4. Of 28 standard compounds evaluated seven phenolic compounds were identified: three carboxylic acids - protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and vanillic acids; two aldehydes - vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; and two cinnamic acids - trans p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The three most abundant compounds evaluated were protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid. The amounts of each phenolic compound extracted increased with increasing pH of the extractant except for protocatechuic acid. Protocatechuic acid was extracted in the highest amounts by sodium pyrophosphate pH 10. The pyrophosphate (pH .10) extracts revealed that protocatechuic acid tended to accumulate in the B horizons, suggesting that it may play a role in the translocation of metal ions during podzolization. The two cinnamic acids, trans p-coumaric and ferulic, were extracted primarily by NaOH. The identification of these cinnamic derivatives in an NaOH extraction of roots separated from the B horizon suggested that their presence may be due to degradation of plant residues by NaOH. Pyrophosphate (pH 7) extracted only small amounts of phenolic compounds. The specificity of pyrophosphate (pH 10) in removing organic complexes of a possible pedogenic nature suggest that it was the better extractant. Sodium pyrophosphate (pH 10) is recommended for use in future pedological studies of phenolic substances.

  8. Large datasets: Segmentation, feature extraction, and compression

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

    1996-07-01

    Large data sets with more than several mission multivariate observations (tens of megabytes or gigabytes of stored information) are difficult or impossible to analyze with traditional software. The amount of output which must be scanned quickly dilutes the ability of the investigator to confidently identify all the meaningful patterns and trends which may be present. The purpose of this project is to develop both a theoretical foundation and a collection of tools for automated feature extraction that can be easily customized to specific applications. Cluster analysis techniques are applied as a final step in the feature extraction process, which helps make data surveying simple and effective.

  9. General-Purpose Element-Extracting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed ore-refining or element-extracting process nonspecific: decomposes any ore or other raw material into constituent elements, regardless of composition. Enables conversion of ores into elements and recombination of elements into usefulmaterials as necessary. Effected on small scale to supplement such other mineral-refining processes as fluidized-bed reduction or carbochlorination. Alternatively, effected on large scale to produce wide range of materials. Conceived to provide materials for self-sufficient lunar base from such local ores as anorthite, ilmenite, and olivine. Proves useful on Earth in recovery or extraction of scarce, valuable, or hazardous materials.

  10. Allelopathic potential of Rapanea umbellata leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Paula; Imatomi, Maristela; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Lacret, Rodney; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-08-01

    The stressful conditions associated with the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) environment were supposed to favor higher levels of allelochemicals in Rapanea umbellata from this ecosystem. The allelopathic potential of R. umbellata leaf extracts was studied using the etiolated wheat coleoptile and standard phytotoxicity bioassays. The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation, which allowed identifying lutein (1) and (-)-catechin (2) as potential allelochemicals. Finally, the general bioactivity of the two compounds was studied, which indicated that the presence of 1 might be part of the defense mechanisms of this plant. PMID:23939802

  11. Extraction and separation of bismuth(III).

    PubMed

    Langade, A D; Shinde, V M

    1981-10-01

    Separation of bismuth from beryllium, lead, iron(III), indium, scandium, lanthanum, antimony(III), zirconium, titanium, thorium, vanadium(V), molybdenum(VI), uranium (VI) and chromium(VI) is achieved by selective extraction of bismuth from 0.1M sodium salicylate solution (adjusted to pH 7) into mesityl oxide (MeO). The extracted species is Bi (HOC(6)H(4)COO)(3).3MeO. The results are accurate within +/- 0.5%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. The separation and determination of bismuth takes only 15 min. PMID:18963000

  12. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  13. Software Artifacts Extraction for Program Comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasool, Ghulam; Philippow, Ilka

    The maintenance of legacy software applications is a complex, expensive, quiet challenging, time consuming and daunting task due to program comprehension difficulties. The first step for software maintenance is to understand the existing software and to extract the high level abstractions from the source code. A number of methods, techniques and tools are applied to understand the legacy code. Each technique supports the particular legacy applications with automated/semi-automated tool support keeping in view the requirements of the maintainer. Most of the techniques support the modern languages but lacks support for older technologies. This paper presents a lightweight methodology for extraction of different artifacts from legacy COBOL and other applications

  14. On statistical methods of structure function extraction

    E-print Network

    S. N. Sevbitov; T. V. Shishkina; I. L. Solovtsov

    2007-11-29

    Several methods of statistical analysis are proposed and analyzed in application for a specific task -- extraction of the structure functions from the cross sections of deep inelastic interactions of any type. We formulate the method based on the orthogonal weight functions and on an optimization procedure of errors minimization as well as methods underlying common $\\chi^2$ minimization. Effectiveness of these methods usage is analyzed by comparison of the statistical parameters such as bias, extraction variance etc., for sample deep inelastic scattering data set.

  15. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yupo J. (Naperville, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  16. Antidiarrhoeal effects of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in experimental animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica N. Offiah; Unoma A. Chikwendu

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum was screened for antidiarrhoeal effects. The extract inhibited castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats as judged by a decrease in the number of wet faeces in the extract-treated rats. In addition, the extract inhibited the propulsive movement of intestinal contents. On the isolated ileum of guinea-pig, the extract showed no direct action;

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of microalgal extracts from Tetraselmis suecica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wol Soon Jo; Yoo Jin Choi; Hyoun Ji Kim; Byung Hyouk Nam; Sook Hee Hong; Gye An Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Su Yeong Seo; Min Ho Jeong

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Tetraselmis suecica with respect to nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interlukin (IL)-6 release in lipopolysaccharide\\u000a (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We prepared methanolic extracts and water extract using protease. Of all the prepared extracts,\\u000a 80% methanol extract exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory effect.

  18. Region-based high-level semantics extraction with CEDD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzhu Zhou; Le Li; Tong Zhao; Honggang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Given an image, our proposed model can extract its dominant high-level semantics information through low-level feature extraction and image classification. It contains 3 main parts: image segmentation, feature extraction and classification. To our knowledge, this is the first model that applies Color and Edge Directivity Descriptor (CEDD), a multiple feature extraction algorithm, into the high-level semantics extraction field. Further, we

  19. Knotwood and bark extracts: strong antioxidants from waste materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suvi P. Pietarinen; Stefan M. Willför; Markku O. Ahotupa; Jarl E. Hemming; Bjarne R. Holmbom

    2006-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts of knotwood of several industrially important tree species were evaluated\\u000a by lipid-peroxidation inhibition and peroxyl-trapping capacity tests. The results were compared with the antioxidant properties\\u000a of hydrophilic extracts of bark, and pure lignans and flavonoids isolated from knotwood extracts. The knot extracts from several\\u000a tree species were stronger antioxidants than the bark extracts, which

  20. Anti – Inflammatory and analgesic Activity of Anacardium Occidentale Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, S.P.; Sathwane, P.N.; Metkar, B.R.; Pal, S.C; Kasture, V.S.; Kasture, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    The extracts of the dried leaves of Anacardium occidentale  were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. The petroleum ether and chloroform extract and acetone soluble fraction of methanolic extract showed 57.14%, 47.61% and 61.90% inhibition of paw edema respectively. Acetone soluble extract showed better activity than petroleum either and chloroform extracts. PMID:22556940

  1. Phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of green and white tea extracts depending on extraction conditions and the solvent used

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordana Rusak; Draženka Komes; Saša Liki?; Dunja Horži?; Maja Kova?

    2008-01-01

    The efficiencies of different solvents in the extraction of phenolics from bagged and loose leaves of white and green tea, after different extraction times, as well as the antioxidative capacity of the obtained extracts, were investigated. The developed HPLC method has the potential to separate and determinate 17 phenolics widely distributed in plants, but in investigated tea extracts only four

  2. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Studies of Trivalent Yttrium from Phosphoric Acid Solutions Using TOPS 99 as an Extractant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ramachandra Reddy; S. Radhika; B. Nagaphani Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of trivalent yttrium (Y) from phosphoric acid solutions have been carried out with commercial organophosphoric acid based extractant TOPS 99 (Talcher Organo phosphorus solvent, an equivalent of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid). The parameters studied include equilibration time, acid concentration, extractant concentration, diluent, metal concentration, temperature, stripping, and regeneration of the extractant. Increase of phosphoric acid concentration in the

  3. An Alternative Method for Determination of Additives in Polypropylene Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Enhanced Solvent Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne De Paepe; Bengt Erlandsson; Jan Östelius; Ulla Gasslander; Astrid Arbin

    2006-01-01

    The extraction of Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168, and Irganox 1010 from polypropylene (PP) by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and enhanced fluid extraction (ESE) was investigated to find an alternative method to the dissolution extraction required by regulators for polymers used for the packaging of liquid pharmaceutical formulations. The maximum recovery with SFE was obtained at a CO2 pressure of 680 bar

  4. Simultaneous extraction of tetracycline, macrolide and sulfonamide antibiotics from agricultural soils using pressurised liquid extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Marie Jacobsen; Bent Halling-Sørensen; Flemming Ingerslev; Steen Honoré Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The veterinary antibacterial agents chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfadiazine (SDZ), erythromycin (ERY) and tylosin (TYL A, B, C and D) were extracted from soil using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Citric acid (pH 4.7) and methanol was used as extraction buffer, followed by tandem-solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up (SAX+HLB) for all compounds. For quantification two slightly different methods were employed using LC–MS–MS

  5. Sono-assisted extraction of alcohol-insoluble extract from Althaea rosea: purification and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Meghdad; Samavati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and water to raw material ratio on extraction yield of alcohol-insoluble polysaccharide of Althaea rosea leaf (ARLP). Purification was carried out by dialysis method. Chemical analysis of ARLP revealed contained 12.69 ± 0.48% moisture, 79.33 ± 0.51% total sugar, 3.82 ± 0.21% protein, 11.25 ± 0.37% uronic acid and 3.77 ± 0.15% ash. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant quadratic regression equation with high R(2) (=0.9997) was successfully fitted for extraction yield of ARLP as function of independent variables. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of ultrasonic power 91.85 W, extraction time 29.94 min, extraction temperature 89.78 °C, and the ratio of water to raw material 28.77 (mL/g). At this optimum point, extraction yield of ARLP was 19.47 ± 0.41%. No significant (p>0.05) difference was found between the actual and predicted (19.30 ± 0.075%) values. The results demonstrated that ARLP had strong scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. PMID:25130864

  6. Molecular imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of flavonol aglycones from Moringa oleifera extracts.

    PubMed

    Pakade, Vusumzi; Cukrowska, Ewa; Lindahl, Sofia; Turner, Charlotta; Chimuka, Luke

    2013-02-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer produced using quercetin as the imprinting compound was applied for the extraction of flavonol aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol) from Moringa oleifera methanolic extracts obtained using heated reflux extraction method. Identification and quantification of these flavonols in the Moringa extracts was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Breakthrough volume and retention capacity of molecular imprinted polymer SPE was investigated using a mixture of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. The calculated theoretical number of plates was found to be 14, 50 and 8 for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. Calculated adsorption capacities were 2.0, 3.4 and 3.7 ?mol/g for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. No myricetin was observed in Moringa methanol extracts. Recoveries of quercetin and kaempferol from Moringa methanol extracts of leaves and flowers ranged from 77 to 85% and 75 to 86%, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility of using the developed molecularly imprinted SPE method for quantitative clean-up of both of these flavonoids. Using heated reflux extraction combined with molecularly imprinted SPE, quercetin concentrations of 975 ± 58 and 845 ± 32 mg/kg were determined in Moringa leaves and flowers, respectively. However, the concentrations of kaempferol found in leaves and flowers were 2100 ± 176 and 2802 ± 157 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:23255435

  7. Factors affecting high-pressure solvent extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) of additives from polymers.

    PubMed

    Vandenburg, H J; Clifford, A A; Bartle, K D; Zhu, S A; Carroll, J; Newton, I D; Garden, L M

    1998-05-01

    Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)] propionate) is successfully extracted from polypropylene using solvents at high temperatures and pressures in a homemade accelerated solvent extraction system. For example, using freeze-ground polymer, 90% extraction is possible within 5 min with 2-propanol at 150 °C. Extraction curves for 2-propanol and acetone fit well to the "hot ball" model, previously developed for supercritical fluid extraction. Diffusion coefficients are determined for extractions with 2-propanol, acetone, and cyclohexane over a range of temperatures, and the activation energies for the diffusion are 134, 107, and 61 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively. The lower figure for acetone and cyclohexane indicates that these solvents swell the polymer more than does 2-propanol. The polymer dissolves in the solvent at too high a temperature, which causes blockage of the transfer lines. For maximum extraction rates, the highest temperature for each solvent that avoids dissolution of the polymer should be used. The use of mixed solvents is investigated and shows advantages in some cases, with the aim of producing a solvent that will swell the polymer but not dissolve it. PMID:21651286

  8. Iron(III) extraction by LIX 860 and its influence on copper(II) extraction from sulphuric solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Simpson; P. Navarro; F. J. Alguacil

    1996-01-01

    Solvent extraction of iron(III) by means of the commercial salicylaldoxime LIX 860 and its influence on copper(II) extraction from sulphuric solutions has been studied. Extraction experiments were carried out varying the equilibration time, temperature, extractant concentration, aqueous pH and the ferric and cupric ions concentrations. Iron(III) extraction by LIX 860 can be represented by the reaction: Fe3aq+3HRorg?FeR3org+3H+aq in which HR

  9. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Transitioning to Passive Extraction at the Former DUS-II Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Noonkester, Jay V.; Looney, Brian B.

    2013-04-03

    This investigation evaluated mass extraction rate from individual wells associated with the Western Sector Treatment System (formerly known as the DUS-II project). This was critical since each individual well can have a radius of influence in excess of 100-ft when operating using an active extraction system. Future soil vapor extraction should use the existing active extraction system, supplemented with deployment of passive extraction where appropriate.

  10. Gallium complexes and solvent extraction of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Graham, C.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes a process for recovering gallium from aqueous solutions containing gallium which comprises contacting such a solution with an organic solvent containing at least 2% by weight of a water-insoluble N-organo hydroxamic acid having at least about 8 carbon atoms to extract gallium, and separating the gallium loaded organic solvent phase from the aqueous phase.

  11. ODF MAXIMA EXTRACTION IN SPHERICAL HARMONIC REPRESENTATION

    E-print Network

    By Iman Aganj Christophe Lenglet and Guillermo Sapiro IMA Preprint Series # 2309 ( May 2010 ) INSTITUTE Extraction in Spherical Harmonic Representation via Analytical Search Space Reduction Iman Aganj1 of Minnesota, USA 2 Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, USA {iman, clenglet

  12. Phosphorus Recovery by Liquid–Liquid Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Qian Jiang; Onesmus Mwabonje

    2009-01-01

    It is acknowledged that phosphorus removal is more crucial in comparison with nitrogen removal for preventing algae glooming and eutrophication. Chemical and biological methods are common methods for the P removal. Excessive sludge production and difficulties of recovering phosphorus are concerns in terms of sustainable waste management. A liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process is thus considered for the study aiming at

  13. Automated Feature Extraction from Transient CFD Simulations

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    Automated Feature Extraction from Transient CFD Simulations Robert Haimes \\Lambda Department physics of fluid flow simulations. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso only one ``snap­shot'' of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas

  14. Technology Treaties and Fossil-Fuels Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Strand

    2007-01-01

    We consider some unintended effects of a technology treaty to increase the (stochastic) possibility of developing an energy alternative to fossil fuels which, when available, makes fossil fuels redundant. One implication of such a treaty is to increase the incentives for fossil-fuels producers to extract fossil fuels existing in given quantity more rapidly, under competition when the equilibrium price path

  15. Automatic Program Extraction From TV Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaël Manson; Xavier Naturel; Sid-Ahmed Berrani

    This demo presents a method of detecting television programs in TV streams. The objective is to automatically detect the precise start and end of broadcasted television programs. The method first detects inter-programs (commercials, trailers. . . ) as repeated se- quences in the broadcast stream, and then deduces the programs boundaries. The extracted programs can then be stored in a

  16. Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy) [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Laboratoire des plasma de décharges, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout BP 17 Baba Hassen, 16081 Algiers (Algeria); Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)] [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Aanesland, A.; Raimbault, J.-L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2013-10-15

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = ?100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and ?100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

  17. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  18. Facial feature extraction based on GSLDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Meng; Yong Cai; Yuanxing Li; Min Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a general and efficient facial feature extraction approach, global search linear discriminant analysis (GSLDA), is presented. It is designed to solve the puzzle of standard linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for small sample size problems (SSSP). Compared with PCA-LDA, in GSLDA, raw data dimension can be greatly decreased without discarding important discriminant information. In this process, all basis

  19. A Cascade Approach to Extracting Medication Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Patrick; Min Li

    Information Extraction, from the electronic clinical record is a comparatively new topic for computational linguists. In order to utilize the records to improve the efficiency and quality of health care, the knowledge content should be automatically encoded; however this poses a number of challenges for Natural Language Processing (NLP). In this paper, we present a cascade approach to discover the

  20. Enhancing clinical concept extraction with distributional semantics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhartha Jonnalagadda; Trevor Cohen; Stephen Wu; Graciela Gonzalez

    Extracting concepts (such as drugs, symptoms, and diagnoses) from clinical narratives constitutes a basic enabling technology to unlock the knowledge within and support more advanced reasoning applications such as diagnosis explanation, disease progression modeling, and intelligent analysis of the effectiveness of treatment. The recent release of annotated training sets of de-identified clinical narratives has contributed to the development and refinement