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Sample records for lymphoblastoid tk6 cells

  1. Investigation of the apoptotic way induced by digallic acid in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The digallic acid (DGA) purified from Pistacia lentiscus. L fruits was investigated for its antiproliferative and apoptotic activities on human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. Methods We attempt to characterize the apoptotic pathway activated by DGA. Apoptosis was detected by DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage and by evaluating caspase activities. Results The inhibition of lymphoblastoid cell proliferation was noted from 8.5 μg/ml of DGA. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation and PARP cleavage. We have demonstrated that DGA induces apoptosis by activating the caspase-8 extrinsic pathway. Caspase-3 was also activated in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion In summary, DGA exhibited an apoptosis inductor effect in TK6 cells revealing thus its potential as a cancer-preventive agent. PMID:22686580

  2. Humic acids reduce the genotoxicity of mitomycin C in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, G; Loffredo, E; Senesi, N; Marcos, R

    2006-01-31

    The antimutagenic/desmutagenic activity of a leonardite humic acid (LHA) and a soil humic acid (SHA) was studied in the cultured human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 treated with mitomycin C (MMC) as reference mutagen by evaluating the induction of micronuclei (MN). Two different concentrations of HA were used, 2.5 and 10 microg/ml, in three different treatments: (1) HA alone (genotoxic test); (2) HA after 2-h pre-incubation with 0.3 microM of MMC (desmutagenic test) and (3) combinations of HA and MMC at 0.3 microM without pre-incubation (antimutagenic test). Neither of the HA used alone did produce genotoxic effects, but both HAs reduced significantly the frequencies of MN induced by MMC, especially in the desmutagenic test. A slight cell-protective effect against the cytotoxicity of MMC was also exhibited by the two HAs in the desmutagenic test. The LHA showed a desmutagenic/antimutagenic activity that was more pronounced than that of SHA, which is possibly related to the higher carboxylic group content and lower phenolic group content of LHA. These results confirm the antigenotoxic action exerted by HAs in human cells, similarly to what has been previously observed in various plant species. PMID:16386451

  3. Genotoxicity of microcystin-LR in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Li; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Sakuraba, Mayumi; Wu, De Sheng; Zhang, Li Shi; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Honma, Masamitsu

    2004-01-10

    Toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) water blooms have become a serious problem in several industrialized areas of the world. Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a cyclic heptapeptidic toxin produced by the cyanobacteria. In the present study, we used human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 to investigate the in vitro genotoxicity of MCLR. In a standard 4h treatment, MCLR did not induce a significant cytotoxic response at <80 microg/ml. In a prolonged 24h treatment, in contrast, it induced cytotoxic as well as mutagenic responses concentration-dependently starting at 20 microg/ml. At the maximum concentration (80 microg/ml), the micronucleus frequency and the mutation frequency at the heterozygous thymidine kinase (TK) locus were approximately five-times the control values. Molecular analysis of the TK mutants revealed that MCLR specifically induced loss of heterozygosity at the TK locus, but not point mutations or other small structural changes. These results indicate that MCLR had a clastogenic effect. We discuss the mechanisms of MCLR genotoxicity and the possibility of its being a hepatocarcinogen. PMID:14706513

  4. Induction of centrosome amplification by formaldehyde, but not hydroquinone, in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiying; McHale, Cliona M; Bersonda, Jessica; Tung, Judy; Smith, Martyn T; Zhang, Luoping

    2015-07-01

    Benzene and formaldehyde (FA) are important industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants that cause leukemia by inducing DNA damage and chromosome aberrations in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), the target cells for leukemia. Our previous studies showed that workers exposed to benzene and FA exhibit increased levels of aneuploidy in their blood cells. As centrosome amplification is a common phenomenon in human cancers, including leukemia, and is associated with aneuploidy in carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that benzene and FA would induce centrosome amplification in vitro. We treated human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells with a range of concentrations of hydroquinone (HQ, a benzene metabolite) or FA for 24 h, allowed the cells to recover in fresh medium for 24 h, and examined centrosome amplification; chromosomal gain, loss, and breakage; and cytotoxicity. We included melphalan and etoposide, chemotherapeutic drugs that cause therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and that have been shown to induce centrosome amplification as well as chromosomal aneuploidy and breakage, as positive controls. Melphalan and etoposide induced centrosome amplification and chromosome gain and breakage in a dose-dependent manner, at cytotoxic concentrations. HQ, though cytotoxic, did not induce centrosome amplification or any chromosomal aberration. FA-induced centrosome amplification and cytotoxicity, but did not induce chromosomal aberrations. Our data suggest, for the first time, that centrosome amplification is a potential mechanism underlying FA-induced leukemogenesis, but not benzene-induced leukemogenesis, as mediated through HQ. Future studies are needed to delineate the mechanisms of centrosome amplification and its association with DNA damage, chromosomal aneuploidy and carcinogenesis, following exposure to FA. PMID:25821186

  5. Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Human Lymphoblastoid TK6 Cells Following [13C2]-Acetaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Swenberg, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The dose-response relationship for biomarkers of exposure (N2-ethylidene-dG adducts) and effect (cell survival and micronucleus formation) was determined across 4.5 orders of magnitude (50nM–2mM) using [13C2]-acetaldehyde exposures to human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells for 12h. There was a clear increase in exogenous N 2-ethylidene-dG formation at exposure concentrations ≥ 1µM, whereas the endogenous adducts remained nearly constant across all exposure concentrations, with an average of 3.0 adducts/107 dG. Exogenous adducts were lower than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≤ 10µM and were greater than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≥ 250µM. When the endogenous and exogenous adducts were summed together, statistically significant increases in total adduct formation over the endogenous background occurred at 50µM. Cell survival and micronucleus formation were monitored across the exposure range and statistically significant decreases in cell survival and increases in micronucleus formation occurred at ≥ 1000µM. This research supports the hypothesis that endogenously produced reactive species, including acetaldehyde, are always present and constitute the majority of the observed biological effects following very low exposures to exogenous acetaldehyde. These data can replace default assumptions of linear extrapolation to very low doses of exogenous acetaldehyde for risk prediction. PMID:23425604

  6. Noninvolvement of the X chromosome in radiation-induced chromosome translocations in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, R.; Schwartz, J.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization procedures were used to examine the influence of chromosome locus on the frequency and type of chromosome aberrations induced by [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. Aberrations involving the X chromosome were compared to those involving the similarly sized autosome chromosome 7. When corrected for DNA content, acentric fragments were induced with equal frequency in the X and 7 chromosomes. Dose-dependent increases in chromosomal interchanges involving chromosome 7 were noted, and the frequencies of balanced translocations and dicentrics produced were approximately equal. Chromosome interchanges involving the X chromosome were rare and showed no apparent dose dependence. Thus, while chromosomes 7 and X are equally sensitive to the induction of chromosome breaks, the X chromosome is much less likely to interact with autosomes than chromosome 7. The noninvolvement of the X chromosome in translocations with autosomes may reflect a more peripheral and separate location for the X chromosome in the mammalian nucleus. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Analysis of cellular response by exposure to acute or chronic radiation in human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.

    To clarify the biological effects of low-dose rate radiation on human health for long-term stay in space, we analyzed the induction of apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression after irradiation with different dose-rate in human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells harboring wild-type p53 gene. We irradiated TK-6 cells by X-ray at 1.5 Gy (1 Gy/min) and then sampled at 25 hr after culturing. We also irradiated by gamma-ray at 1.5 Gy (1 mGy/min) and then sampled immediately or 25 hr after irradiation. For DNA ladder analysis, we extracted DNA from these samples and electrophoresed with 2% agarose gel. In addition, we extracted mRNA from these samples for DNA-array analysis. mRNA from non-irradiated cells was used as a control. After labeling the cDNA against mRNA with [α -33P]-dCTP and hybridizing onto DNA array (Human Apoptosis Expression Array, R&D Systems), we scanned the profiles of the spots by a phosphorimager (BAS5000, FUJI FILM) and calculated using a NIH Image program. The data of each DNA-array were normalized with eight kinds of house keeping genes. We analyzed the expression level of apoptosis-related genes such as p53-related, Bcl-2 family, Caspase family and Fas-related genes. DNA ladders were obviously detected in the cells exposed to a high dose-rate radiation. We detected the induction of the gene expression of apoptosis-promotive genes. In contrast, almost no apoptosis was observed in the cells exposed to the chronic radiation at a low dose-rate. In addition, we detected the induction of the gene expression of apoptosis-suppressive genes as compared with apoptosis promotive-genes immediately after chronic irradiation. These results lead the importance of biological meaning of exposure to radiation at low dose-rate from an aspect of carcinogenesis. Finally, the effects of chronic irradiation become a highly important issue in space radiation biology for human health.

  8. Whole genome and normalized mRNA sequencing reveal genetic status of TK6, WTK1, and NH32 human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Revollo, Javier; Petibone, Dayton M; McKinzie, Page; Knox, Bridgett; Morris, Suzanne M; Ning, Baitang; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N

    2016-01-01

    Closely related TK6, WTK1, and NH32 human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines differ in their p53 functional status. These lines are used frequently in genotoxicity studies and in studies aimed at understanding the role of p53 in DNA repair. Despite their routine use, little is known about the genetic status of these cells. To provide insight into their genetic composition, we sequenced and analyzed the entire genome of TK6 cells, as well as the normalized transcriptomes of TK6, WTK1, and NH32 cells. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) identified 21,561 genes and 5.17×10(6) small variants. Within the small variants, 50.54% were naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 49.46% were mutations. The mutations were comprised of 92.97% single base-pair substitutions and 7.03% insertions or deletions (indels). The number of predicted genes, SNPs, and small mutations are similar to frequencies observed in the human population in general. Normalized mRNA-seq analysis identified the expression of transcripts bearing SNPs or mutations for TK6, WTK1, and NH32 as 2.88%, 2.04%, and 1.71%, respectively, and several of the variant transcripts identified appear to have important implications in genetic toxicology. These include a single base deletion mutation in the ferritin heavy chain gene (FTH1) resulting in a frame shift and protein truncation in TK6 that impairs iron metabolism. SNPs in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene (TPMT*3A SNP), and in the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, NADPH quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene (NQO1*2 SNP), are both associated with decreased enzyme activity. The clinically relevant TPMT*3A and NQO1*2 SNPs can make these cell lines useful in pharmacogenetic studies aimed at improving or tailoring drug treatment regimens that minimize toxicity and enhance efficacy. PMID:26774668

  9. Ciprofloxacin-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis in TK6 lymphoblastoid cells is not dependent on DNA double-strand break formation

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Daniel J.; Halicka, H. Dorota; Traganos, Frank; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Williams, Gary M.

    2008-01-01

    Drugs developed for the treatment of conditions other than neoplasia can also show promise as potential antitumor agents. The fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CPFX) is known to modulate cycle cell progression and apoptosis in cancer cells, and is thought to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibition and stabilized cleavage complex (SCC) formation. DSBs trigger Ser-139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX) by PI-3-like kinases including ATM; γH2AX can serve as a marker of DNA damage when measured in situ using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between CPFX-mediated DNA damage and induction of apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid cells and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes (Lymphs). Treatment of TK6 cells (wild-type p53) with 100 µg/ml CPFX for 2-10 h produced no increase in γH2AX; to the contrary, its level in S phase cells was reduced at 10 h compared to controls. Nevertheless, stabilization of topo IIα, ATM Ser-1981 phosphorylation and G2 arrest was observed in TK6 cells exposed to CPFX for ≥4 h. However, following 24 h treatment, γH2AX was dramatically increased in a sub-population of cells indicating the onset of apoptosis (confirmed by presence of activated caspase 3). CPFX had a similar lack of effect on induction of γH2AX at early time points in WTK1 and NH32 cells (devoid of functional p53) and proliferating Lymphs, however, induction of apoptosis was less pronounced than in TK6 cells. Formation of SCC and activation of ATM (but lack of γH2AX induction) indicates topo II-mediated chromatin or DNA changes in the absence of DSBs; ATM activation apparently triggers the G2M checkpoint leading to G2 arrest. The subsequent induction of apoptosis appears to be facilitated by functional p53. CPFX may therefore have a potential use as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of lymphoblast-derived cancer. PMID:18059176

  10. Effect of caffeine on radiation-induced apoptosis in TK6 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, W.; Vaughan, A.T.M.

    1995-02-01

    Apoptosis has been measured in cells of the human TK6 lymphoblastoid cell line by recording the release of endonuclease-digested DNA from affected cells using flow cytometry. In asynchronously dividing cells, DNA degradation characteristic of apoptosis was first seen 12 h after irradiation as a defined DNA fluorescent peak of sub-G{sub 1}-phase content, reaching a maximum of 30-50% of the population by 24-72 h. Treating cells with 2 mM caffeine either before or up to 3 h after irradiation eliminated the degradation of DNA entirely. In addition, the percentage of cells in which apoptosis could be detected microscopically decreased from 62.4 {+-} 0.95% to 16.7 {+-} 1.5% 72 h after caffeine treatment. Delaying caffeine treatment for 12 h after irradiation reduced DNA degradation by approximately 50% compared to cells receiving radiation alone. DNA degradation induced by serum deprivation was unaffected by caffeine treatment. These data support the contention that irradiation of TK6 cells produces a long-lived cellular signal which triggers apoptosis. Apoptosis produced by serum deprivation does not operate through the same pathway. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  11. A predictive toxicogenomics signature to classify genotoxic versus non-genotoxic chemicals in human TK6 cells

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie K.; Moffat, Ivy; Swartz, Carol D.; Recio, Leslie; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Li, Heng-Hong; Fornace, Albert J.; Aubrecht, Jiri; Yauk, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxicity testing is a critical component of chemical assessment. The use of integrated approaches in genetic toxicology, including the incorporation of gene expression data to determine the DNA damage response pathways involved in response, is becoming more common. In companion papers previously published in Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Li et al. (2015) [6] developed a dose optimization protocol that was based on evaluating expression changes in several well-characterized stress-response genes using quantitative real-time PCR in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells in culture. This optimization approach was applied to the analysis of TK6 cells exposed to one of 14 genotoxic or 14 non-genotoxic agents, with sampling 4 h post-exposure. Microarray-based transcriptomic analyses were then used to develop a classifier for genotoxicity using the nearest shrunken centroids method. A panel of 65 genes was identified that could accurately classify toxicants as genotoxic or non-genotoxic. In Buick et al. (2015) [1], the utility of the biomarker for chemicals that require metabolic activation was evaluated. In this study, TK6 cells were exposed to increasing doses of four chemicals (two genotoxic that require metabolic activation and two non-genotoxic chemicals) in the presence of rat liver S9 to demonstrate that S9 does not impair the ability to classify genotoxicity using this genomic biomarker in TK6cells. PMID:26425668

  12. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage induced by perfluorinated compounds in TK6 cells.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Doha; Haruka, Igarashi; Kagashi, Yae; Tsuda, Shuji

    2016-02-01

    8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is the most common biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, it is formed by chemical carcinogens and can be measured in any species. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) are suspected genotoxic carcinogens through induction of reactive oxygen species that are responsible for oxidative DNA damage. This study was conducted to investigate the in vitro genotoxicity of PFOA and PFNA in human lymphoblastoid (TK6) cell line. TK6 cells were exposed to PFOA at 0, 125, 250, and 500 ppm and PFNA at 125 and 250 ppm for 2 h. Single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was used to measure DNA damage; at least 50 cells per sample were analyzed using comet Assay Software Project (CASP). 8-OHdG was measured in DNA of exposed cells using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Results showed that both PFOA and PFNA induced DNA damage indicated by increased tail length (DNA migration). The level of 8-OHdG was increased in a dose-dependent manner in both PFOA and PFNA exposure. We concluded that PFOA and PFNA induced DNA damage and the biomarker of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG) could be measured by HPLC-MS/MS. In addition, PFNA produced high level of 8-OHdG at concentrations lower than PFOA, this may indicate that PFNA is more potent genotoxicant for TK6 cells than PFOA. PMID:25113910

  13. The in vitro PIG-A gene mutation assay: glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-related genotype-to-phenotype relationship in TK6 cells.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christopher T; Fischer, Bettina M; Armant, Olivier; Morath, Volker; Strähle, Uwe; Hartwig, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    In our previous work, we established an in vitro variant of the currently developed in vivo PIG-A assay as promising mutagenicity test system. We applied the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 for the in vitro assay development, which is based on the cellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) status. At least 22 genes are involved in GPI biosynthesis, leading to the complex situation that, in principle, multiple genes could induce a GPI-deficient phenotype by acquiring inactivating mutations. However, only the PIG-A gene is located on the X-chromosome, rendering PIG-A more sensitive compared to autosomal linked, GPI-relevant genes. In this work, we investigated the GPI-related genotype-to-phenotype relationship in TK6 cells. By a next-generation sequencing approach, we identified a heterozygous chromosomal deletion on chromosome 17, where the PIG-L gene is located. In the analyzed TK6 cell clones, the GPI-deficient phenotype was induced either by mutations in PIG-A, by the complete absence of PIG-A mRNA, or by deletions in the remaining functional PIG-L gene, causing loss of heterozygosity. The identified PIG-L heterozygosity could also be responsible for the increased sensitivity toward mutagenic ethyl methanesulfonate or UV-C treatments of p53-proficient TK6 compared to the TK6-related, but p53-deficient WI-L2-NS cell line. Moreover, the WI-L2-NS cell line was found to exhibit a much lower number of GPI-deficient mutant cells in the purchased cell batch, and WI-L2-NS exerted a lower spontaneous rate of GPI deficiency compared to TK6 cells. PMID:27100116

  14. Effect of Chemical Mutagens and Carcinogens on Gene Expression Profiles in Human TK6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Godderis, Lode; Thomas, Reuben; Hubbard, Alan E.; Tabish, Ali M.; Hoet, Peter; Zhang, Luoping; Smith, Martyn T.; Veulemans, Hendrik; McHale, Cliona M.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of toxicogenomic signatures of carcinogen exposure holds significant promise for mechanistic and predictive toxicology. In vitro transcriptomic studies allow the comparison of the response to chemicals with diverse mode of actions under controlled experimental conditions. We conducted an in vitro study in TK6 cells to characterize gene expression signatures of exposure to 15 genotoxic carcinogens frequently used in European industries. We also examined the dose-responsive changes in gene expression, and perturbation of biochemical pathways in response to these carcinogens. TK6 cells were exposed at 3 dose levels for 24 h with and without S9 human metabolic mix. Since S9 had an impact on gene expression (885 genes), we analyzed the gene expression data from cells cultures incubated with S9 and without S9 independently. The ribosome pathway was affected by all chemical-dose combinations. However in general, no similar gene expression was observed among carcinogens. Further, pathways, i.e. cell cycle, DNA repair mechanisms, RNA degradation, that were common within sets of chemical-dose combination were suggested by clustergram. Linear trends in dose–response of gene expression were observed for Trichloroethylene, Benz[a]anthracene, Epichlorohydrin, Benzene, and Hydroquinone. The significantly altered genes were involved in the regulation of (anti-) apoptosis, maintenance of cell survival, tumor necrosis factor-related pathways and immune response, in agreement with several other studies. Similarly in S9+ cultures, Benz[a]pyrene, Styrene and Trichloroethylene each modified over 1000 genes at high concentrations. Our findings expand our understanding of the transcriptomic response to genotoxic carcinogens, revealing the alteration of diverse sets of genes and pathways involved in cellular homeostasis and cell cycle control. PMID:22723965

  15. Coupling cytotoxicity biomarkers with DNA damage assessment in TK6 human lymphoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Springer, Sandra; Escobar, Patricia

    2010-02-01

    There is considerable discussion within the scientific community as to the appropriate measures of cytotoxicity to use when deciding on the maximum concentration of a substance to test in vitro for its ability to induce DNA damage using the Comet assay. Conventional cytotoxicity assessment methods, such as trypan blue dye exclusion or relative cell number (cell counts) may not be the most biologically relevant measurement for cytotoxicity in this assay. Thus, we evaluated for decreased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and activation of Caspase-3/7 as well as relative cell number and trypan blue exclusion in order to understand the correlation among test compound concentration, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity outcomes in the Comet assay. We tested two non-genotoxic and non-cytotoxic compounds (d-glucose and ethanol), two non-genotoxic but cytotoxic compounds (2,4-dichlorophenol and tunicamycin) and four genotoxic and cytotoxic compounds (methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, etoposide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide) in TK6 human lymphoblast cells. Our data show that measuring ATP and Caspase-3/7 levels provides more rapid and perhaps more biologically relevant measures of cytotoxicity compared with trypan blue dye exclusion and relative cell number. Furthermore, incorporating these two assays into the Comet assay also provided insight on the cytotoxic mode of action of the chemicals tested. By extrapolation, such assays may also be useful in other in vitro genotoxicity assays. PMID:20100597

  16. Integration of metabolic activation with a predictive toxicogenomics signature to classify genotoxic versus nongenotoxic chemicals in human TK6 cells.

    PubMed

    Buick, Julie K; Moffat, Ivy; Williams, Andrew; Swartz, Carol D; Recio, Leslie; Hyduke, Daniel R; Li, Heng-Hong; Fornace, Albert J; Aubrecht, Jiri; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-07-01

    The use of integrated approaches in genetic toxicology, including the incorporation of gene expression data to determine the molecular pathways involved in the response, is becoming more common. In a companion article, a genomic biomarker was developed in human TK6 cells to classify chemicals as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. Because TK6 cells are not metabolically competent, we set out to broaden the utility of the biomarker for use with chemicals requiring metabolic activation. Specifically, chemical exposures were conducted in the presence of rat liver S9. The ability of the biomarker to classify genotoxic (benzo[a]pyrene, BaP; aflatoxin B1, AFB1) and nongenotoxic (dexamethasone, DEX; phenobarbital, PB) agents correctly was evaluated. Cells were exposed to increasing chemical concentrations for 4 hr and collected 0 hr, 4 hr, and 20 hr postexposure. Relative survival, apoptosis, and micronucleus frequency were measured at 24 hr. Transcriptome profiles were measured with Agilent microarrays. Statistical modeling and bioinformatics tools were applied to classify each chemical using the genomic biomarker. BaP and AFB1 were correctly classified as genotoxic at the mid- and high concentrations at all three time points, whereas DEX was correctly classified as nongenotoxic at all concentrations and time points. The high concentration of PB was misclassified at 24 hr, suggesting that cytotoxicity at later time points may cause misclassification. The data suggest that the use of S9 does not impair the ability of the biomarker to classify genotoxicity in TK6 cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the biomarker is also able to accurately classify genotoxicity using a publicly available dataset derived from human HepaRG cells. PMID:25733247

  17. The TP53 dependence of radiation-induced chromosome instability in human lymphoblastoid cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Jordan, Robert; Evans, Helen H.; Lenarczyk, Marek; Liber, Howard

    2003-01-01

    The dose and TP53 dependence for the induction of chromosome instability were examined in cells of three human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from WIL2 cells: TK6, a TP53-normal cell line, NH32, a TP53-knockout created from TK6, and WTK1, a WIL2-derived cell line that spontaneously developed a TP53 mutation. Cells of each cell line were exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays, and then surviving clones were isolated and expanded in culture for approximately 35 generations before the frequency and characteristics of the instability were analyzed. The presence of dicentric chromosomes, formed by end-to-end fusions, served as a marker of chromosomal instability. Unexposed TK6 cells had low levels of chromosomal instability (0.002 +/- 0.001 dicentrics/cell). Exposure of TK6 cells to doses as low as 5 cGy gamma rays increased chromosome instability levels nearly 10-fold to 0.019 +/- 0.008 dicentrics/cell. There was no further increase in instability levels beyond 5 cGy. In contrast to TK6 cells, unexposed cultures of WTK1 and NH32 cells had much higher levels of chromosome instability of 0.034 +/- 0.007 and 0.041 +/- 0.009, respectively, but showed little if any effect of radiation on levels of chromosome instability. The results suggest that radiation exposure alters the normal TP53-dependent cell cycle checkpoint controls that recognize alterations in telomere structure and activate apoptosis.

  18. Application of the TGx-28.65 transcriptomic biomarker to classify genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals in human TK6 cells in the presence of rat liver S9.

    PubMed

    Yauk, Carole L; Buick, Julie K; Williams, Andrew; Swartz, Carol D; Recio, Leslie; Li, Heng-Hong; Fornace, Albert J; Thomson, Errol M; Aubrecht, Jiri

    2016-05-01

    In vitro transcriptional signatures that predict toxicities can facilitate chemical screening. We previously developed a transcriptomic biomarker (known as TGx-28.65) for classifying agents as genotoxic (DNA damaging) and non-genotoxic in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. Because TK6 cells do not express cytochrome P450s, we confirmed accurate classification by the biomarker in cells co-exposed to 1% 5,6 benzoflavone/phenobarbital-induced rat liver S9 for metabolic activation. However, chemicals may require different types of S9 for activation. Here we investigated the response of TK6 cells to higher percentages of Aroclor-, benzoflavone/phenobarbital-, or ethanol-induced rat liver S9 to expand TGx-28.65 biomarker applicability. Transcriptional profiles were derived 3 to 4 hr following a 4 hr co-exposure of TK6 cells to test chemicals and S9. Preliminary studies established that 10% Aroclor- and 5% ethanol-induced S9 alone did not induce the TGx-28.65 biomarker genes. Seven genotoxic and two non-genotoxic chemicals (and concurrent solvent and positive controls) were then tested with one of the S9s (selected based on cell survival and micronucleus induction). Relative survival and micronucleus frequency was assessed by flow cytometry in cells 20 hr post-exposure. Genotoxic/non-genotoxic chemicals were accurately classified using the different S9s. One technical replicate of cells co-treated with dexamethasone and 10% Aroclor-induced S9 was falsely classified as genotoxic, suggesting caution in using high S9 concentrations. Even low concentrations of genotoxic chemicals (those not causing cytotoxicity) were correctly classified, demonstrating that TGx-28.65 is a sensitive biomarker of genotoxicity. A meta-analysis of datasets from 13 chemicals supports that different S9s can be used in TK6 cells, without impairing classification using the TGx-28.65 biomarker. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:243-260, 2016. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Environmental and

  19. Estrogen treatment induces MLL aberrations in human lymphoblastoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Sabine; Du, Nga T.; Le, Hongan B.; Singh, Sheetal; Loredo, Grace A.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicates increased risk of infant acute leukemia involving MLL gene aberrations with use of oral contraceptives. To determine whether estrogens might be implicated, we examined the effect of estradiol (E2) or 4-OH-E2 in an in vitro model of translocation susceptibility. Genomic DNA from the TK6 human lymphoblastoid cell line was screened by ligation mediated PCR and inverse PCR at a rearrangement hot spot within the MLL breakpoint cluster region to detect DNA aberrations. An increase in DNA double strand breaks was observed within this region after exposure to either E2 or 4-OH-E2. An increase in the frequency of MLL translocations was only found after exposure to E2. Induction of cleavage due to increased activation of apoptotic nucleases was excluded by pre-treatment with the pancaspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk. We conclude that concentrations of E2 and 4-OH-E2 that may occur during pregnancy, or during use of oral contraceptives, can cause aberrations of the MLL gene and could thus be a factor in the early events of leukemogenesis occurring in utero. PMID:19264358

  20. Perspectives on fast-neutron mutagenesis of human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, A

    1991-10-01

    The effects of low-fluence exposures to (Pu, Be) neutrons (En = 4.2 MeV) have been studied in a sensitive human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6. Mutations were scored for two genetic loci, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hgprt) and thymidine kinase (tk), as a function of dose and dose rate. For exposures limited to less than one cell cycle, the mutation frequency for the hgprt locus was 1.92 X 10(-7)/cGy. When exposures were protracted over multiple cell generations, mutation yields were increased to 6.07 X 10(-7)/cGy. Similar yields were obtained for the induction of tk-deficient mutants with a normal cell generation time (tk-ng) when exposures were carried out at very low dose rates over multiple cell generations. In the series of data presented here, the results obtained for short-duration neutron exposures are compared with data obtained for monoenergetic heavy charged particles of defined linear energy transfer (LET) produced at the BEVALAC accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. TK6 cells have been exposed to beams ranging in atomic number from 20Ne to 40Ar over an energy range from 330 to 670 MeV/amu. Mutation induction was evaluated for both loci for a subset of these beams. The results obtained with 20Ne ions of 425 MeV/amu (LET = 32 keV/microns) and 28Si ions of 670 MeV/amu (LET = 50 keV/microns) closely resemble the mutation yields obtained for brief exposures to (Pu, Be) neutrons. The nature of alterations in DNA structure induced within the tk locus of tk-ng mutants is reviewed for a series of neutron-induced mutants and a series of mutants induced by exposure to 40Ar ions (470 MeV/amu, LET = 95 keV/microns). The mutational spectra for these two types of mutants were similar and were dominated by allele loss mutations. Multilocus deletions inclusive of the c-erbA1 locus were common among tk-deficient mutants induced by these densely ionizing radiations. For the mutants induced by 40Ar ions, it is likely that the mutations were produced by

  1. Estimation of Mutation Rates Based on the Analysis of Polypeptide Constituents of Cultured Human Lymphoblastoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, EHY.; Boehnke, M.; Hanash, S. M.; Kuick, R. D.; Lamb, B. J.; Neel, J. V.; Niezgoda, W.; Pivirotto, S.; Sundling, G.

    1988-01-01

    A subclone of a human diploid lymphoblastoid cell line, TK-6, with consistently high cloning efficiency has been used to estimate the rates of somatic mutations on the basis of protein variation detected by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A panel of 267 polypeptide spots per gel was screened, representing the products of approximately 263 unselected loci. The rate of human somatic mutation in vitro was estimated by measuring the proportion of protein variants among cell clones isolated at various times during continuous exponential growth of a TK-6 cell population. Three mutants of spontaneous origin were observed, giving an estimated spontaneous rate of 6 X 10(-8) electrophoretic mutations per allele per cell generation (i.e., 1.2 X 10(-7) per locus per cell generation). Following treatment of cells with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a total of 74 confirmed variants at 54 loci were identified among 1143 clones analyzed (approximately 601,000 allele tests). The induced variants include 65 electromorphs which exhibit altered isoelectric charge and/or apparent molecular weight and nine nullimorphs for each of which a gene product was not detected at its usual location on the gel. The induced frequency for these 65 structural gene mutants is 1.1 X 10(-4) per allele. An excess of structural gene mutations at ten known polymorphic loci and repeat mutations at these and other loci suggest nonrandomness of mutation in human somatic cells. Nullimorphs occurring at three heterozygous loci in TK-6 cells may be caused by genetic processes other than structural gene mutation. PMID:3402732

  2. γH2AX and p53 responses in TK6 cells discriminate promutagens and nongenotoxicants in the presence of rat liver S9.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, Derek T; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Kirkland, David; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2016-08-01

    Previous work with a diverse set of reference chemicals suggests that an in vitro multiplexed flow cytometry-based assay (MultiFlow™ DNA Damage Kit-p53, γH2AX, Phospho-Histone H3) can distinguish direct-acting clastogens and aneugens from nongenotoxicants (Bryce SM et al. []: Environ Mol Mutagen 57:171-189). This work extends this line of investigation to include compounds that require metabolic activation to form reactive electrophiles. For these experiments, TK6 cells were exposed to 11 promutagens and 37 presumed nongenotoxicants in 96 well plates. Unless precipitation or foreknowledge about cytotoxicity suggested otherwise, the highest concentration was 1 mM. Exposure occurred for 4 hr after which time cells were washed to remove S9 and test article. Immediately following the wash and again at 24 hr, cell aliquots were added to wells of a microtiter plate containing the working detergent/stain/antibody cocktail. After a brief incubation, robotic sampling was employed for walk-away flow cytometric data acquisition. Univariate logistic regression analyses indicated that γH2AX induction and p53 activation provide the greatest degree of discrimination between clastogens and nongenotoxicants. Multivariate prediction algorithms that incorporated both of these endpoints, in each combination of time points, were evaluated. The best performing models correctly predicted 9 clastogens out of 11 and 36 nongenotoxicants out of 37. These results are encouraging as they suggest that an efficient and highly scalable multiplexed assay can effectively identify clastogenic chemicals that require bioactivation. More work is planned with a broader range of chemicals, additional cell lines, and other laboratories to further evaluate the merits and limitations of this approach. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:546-558, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27364561

  3. Effects of simulated microgravity on expression profile of microRNA in human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Mangala, Lingegowda S; Zhang, Ye; He, Zhenhua; Emami, Kamal; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Story, Michael; Rohde, Larry H; Wu, Honglu

    2011-09-16

    This study explores the changes in expression of microRNA (miRNA) and related genes under simulated microgravity conditions. In comparison with static 1 × g, microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells or animals. miRNA has recently emerged as an important regulator of gene expression, possibly regulating as many as one-third of all human genes. However, very little is known about the effect of altered gravity on miRNA expression. To test the hypothesis that the miRNA expression profile would be altered in zero gravity resulting in altered regulation of gene expression leading to metabolic or functional changes in cells, we cultured TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells in a high aspect ratio vessel (bioreactor) for 72 h either in the rotating condition to model microgravity in space or in the static condition as a control. Expression of several miRNAs was changed significantly in the simulated microgravity condition including miR-150, miR-34a, miR-423-5p, miR-22, miR-141, miR-618, and miR-222. To confirm whether this altered miRNA expression correlates with gene expression and functional changes of the cells, we performed DNA microarray and validated the related genes using quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of several transcription factors including EGR2, ETS1, and c-REL was altered in simulated microgravity conditions. Taken together, the results reported here indicate that simulated microgravity alters the expression of miRNAs and genes in TK6 cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the effects of simulated microgravity on the expression of miRNA and related genes. PMID:21775437

  4. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on the Expression Profile of Microrna in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu; Ramesh, Govindarajan; Rohde, Larry; Story, Michael; Mangala, Lingegowda

    2012-07-01

    EFFECTS OF SIMULATED MICROGRAVITY ON THE EXPRESSION PROFILE OF MICRORNA IN HUMAN LYMPHOBLASTOID CELLS Lingegowda S. Mangala1,2, Ye Zhang1,3, Zhenhua He2, Kamal Emami1, Govindarajan T. Ramesh4, Michael Story 5, Larry H. Rohde2, and Honglu Wu1 1 NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA 2 University of Houston Clear Lake, Houston, Texas, USA 3 Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, Texas, USA 4 Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA, USA 5 University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA This study explores the changes in expression of microRNA (miRNA) and related genes under simulated microgravity conditions. In comparison to static 1g, microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells or animals. miRNA has recently emerged as an important regulator of gene expression, possibly regulating as many as one-third of all human genes. However, very little is known about the effect of altered gravity on miRNA expression. To test the hypothesis that the miRNA expression profile would be altered in zero gravity resulting in altered regulation of gene expression leading to metabolic or functional changes in cells, we cultured TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells in a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV; bioreactor) for 72 h either in the rotating condition to model microgravity in space or in the static condition as a control. Expression of several miRNA was changed significantly in the simulated microgravity condition including miR-150, miR-34a, miR-423-5p, miR-22 and miR-141, miR-618 and miR-222. To confirm whether this altered miRNA expression correlates with gene expression and functional changes of the cells, we performed DNA microarray and validated the related genes using q-RT PCR. Network and pathway analysis of gene and miRNA expression profiles indicates that the regulation of cell communication and catalytic activities, as well as pathways involved in immune response_IL-15

  5. Restricted Replication of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Maja; Bloom, Barry R.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie; Summers, Donald F.

    1973-01-01

    Replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is restricted in one human lymphoblastoid cell line (Raji), but not in another similar cell line (Wil-2), compared with growth in HeLa cells. This restriction is characterized by a low proportion of cells yielding infectious virus and is associated with limited production of 42S virion RNA. Primary transcription of 13S and 26S VSV-specific RNA is not restricted in Raji cells, and the 13S RNA produced contains adenylate-rich sequences. This suggests that the block in Raji cells involves some step required for the replication of virion RNA. PMID:4357508

  6. Characterization of a TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159-ala Human Lymphoblast Clone

    SciTech Connect

    Chyall, L.: Gauny, S.; Kronenberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    TK6 cells are a well-characterized human B-lymphoblast cell line derived from WIL-2 cells. A derivative of the TK6 cell line that was stably transfected to express a mutated form of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL (TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159- ala clone #38) is compared with the parent cell line. Four parameters were evaluated for each cell line: growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency, and frequency of spontaneous mutation to 6‑thioguanine resistance (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase locus) or trifluorothymidine resistance (thymidine kinase locus). We conclude that the mutated Bcl-xL protein did not affect growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency or spontaneous mutation frequencies at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. Results at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus were inconclusive. A mutant fraction for TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells exposed to 150cGy of 160kVp x-rays was also calculated. Exposure to x-irradiation increased the mutant fraction of TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells.

  7. Effects of Modeled Microgravity on Expression Profiles of Micro RNA in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Emami, Kamal; Story, Michael; Ramesh, Govindarajan; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    Among space radiation and other environmental factors, microgravity or an altered gravity is undoubtedly the most significant stress experienced by living organisms during flight. In comparison to the static 1g, microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells or animals. Micro RNA (miRNA) has recently emerged as an important regulator of gene expression, possibly regulating as many as one-third of all human genes. miRNA represents a class of single-stranded noncoding regulatory RNA molecules ( 22 nt) that control gene expressions by inhibiting the translation of mRNA to proteins. However, very little is known on the effect of altered gravity on miRNA expression. We hypothesized that the miRNA expression profile will be altered in zero gravity resulting in regulation of the gene expression and functional changes of the cells. To test this hypothesis, we cultured TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells in Synthecon s Rotary cell culture system (bioreactors) for 72 h either in the rotating (10 rpm) to model the microgravity in space or in the static condition. The cell viability was determined before and after culturing the cells in the bioreactor using both trypan blue and guava via count. Expressions of a panel of 352 human miRNA were analyzed using the miRNA PCRarray. Out of 352 miRNAs, expressions of 75 were significantly altered by a change of greater than 1.5 folds and seven miRNAs were altered by a fold change greater than 2 under the rotating culture condition. Among these seven, miR-545 and miR-517a were down regulated by 2 folds, whereas miR-150, miR-302a, miR-139-3p, miR-515-3p and miR-564 were up regulated by 2 to 8 folds. To confirm whether this altered miRNA expression correlates with gene expression and functional changes of the cells, we performed DNA Illumina Microarray Analysis and validated the related genes using q-RT PCR.

  8. [Production of a dialysable transfer factor of cell mediated immunity by lymphoblastoid cells in continuous proliferation].

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Viza, D; Moulias, R; Trejdosiewicz, L; Lesourd, B; Marescot, M R; Prévot, A

    1975-01-20

    Four lymphoblastoid cell lines tested in this work contain normally a dialysable moiety having by ultraviolet spectroscopy, column chromatography (Biogel P 10) and chemically the same properties than human dialysable Transfer Factor (TFd), but unable to transfer cell mediated immune response against common antigens. Two of them are able to do so after incubation with minimal amounts of TFd. Production of a molecule identical to human TFd is possible in some lymphoblastoid cell lines after induction with TFd. PMID:808340

  9. Molecular signatures in response to Isoliquiritigenin in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Nam, Hye-Young; Hwang, Meeyul; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jeon, Jae-Pil

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the inhibitory effect of ISL on cell proliferation of LCLs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ISL-induced genes and miRNAs through microarray approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs associated with ISL effect. -- Abstract: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been known to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of various cancer cells. However, genetic factors regulating ISL effects remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular signatures involved in ISL-induced cell death of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) using microarray analyses. For gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) microarray experiments, each of 12 LCL strains was independently treated with ISL or DMSO as a vehicle control for a day prior to total RNA extraction. ISL treatment inhibited cell proliferation of LCLs in a dose-dependent manner. Microarray analysis showed that ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway, having a potential as regulators in LCL survival and sensitivity to ISL-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, 36 miRNAs including five miRNAs with unknown functions were differentially expressed in ISL-treated LCLs. The integrative analysis of miRNA and gene expression profiles revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs. Among them, miR-1207-5p and miR-575 were negatively correlated with p53 pathway- and cell cycle-associated genes, respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that miRNAs play an important role in ISL-induced cytotoxicity in LCLs by targeting signaling pathways including p53 pathway and cell cycle.

  10. Getting personal: Endogenous adenosine receptor signaling in lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hillger, J M; Diehl, C; van Spronsen, E; Boomsma, D I; Slagboom, P E; Heitman, L H; IJzerman, A P

    2016-09-01

    Genetic differences between individuals that affect drug action form a challenge in drug therapy. Many drugs target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and a number of receptor variants have been noted to impact drug efficacy. This, however, has never been addressed in a systematic way, and, hence, we studied real-life genetic variation of receptor function in personalized cell lines. As a showcase we studied adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from a family of four from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), using a non-invasive label-free cellular assay. The potency of a partial agonist differed significantly for one individual. Genotype comparison revealed differences in two intron SNPs including rs2236624, which has been associated with caffeine-induced sleep disorders. While further validation is needed to confirm genotype-specific effects, this set-up clearly demonstrated that LCLs are a suitable model system to study genetic influences on A2AR response in particular and GPCR responses in general. PMID:27297283

  11. Different toxic effects of YTX in tumor K-562 and lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Sánchez, Jon A.; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Yessotoxin (YTX) modulates cellular phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In this regard, opposite effects had been described in the tumor model K-562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes in terms of cell viability, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production and protein expression after YTX treatment. Studies in depth of the pathways activated by YTX in K-562 cell line, have demonstrated the activation of two different cell death types, apoptosis, and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the key role of type 4A PDE (PDE4A) in both pathways activated by YTX was demonstrated. Therefore, taking into account the differences between cellular lines and fresh cells, a study of cell death pathways activated by YTX in a non-tumor cell line with mitotic activity, was performed. The cellular model used was the lymphoblastoid cell line that represents a non-tumor model with normal apoptotic and mitotic machinery. In this context, cell viability and cell proliferation, expression of proteins involved in cell death activated by YTX and mitochondrial mass, were studied after the incubation with the toxin. Opposite to the tumor model, no cell death activation was observed in lymphoblastoid cell line in the presence of YTX. In this sense, variations in apoptosis hallmarks were not detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line after YTX incubation, whereas this type I of programmed cell death was observed in K-562 cells. On the other hand, autophagy cell death was triggered in this cellular line, while other autophagic process is suggested in lymphoblastoid cells. These YTX effects are related to PDE4A in both cellular lines. In addition, while cell death is triggered in K-562 cells after YTX treatment, in lymphoblastoid cells the toxin stops cellular proliferation. These results point to YTX as a specific toxic compound of tumor cells, since in the non-tumor lymphoblastoid cell line, no cell death hallmarks are observed. PMID:26136685

  12. Network signatures of cellular immortalization in human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Sung-Mi; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jeon, Jae-Pil

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We identified network signatures of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles. •More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCLs. •MicroRNA target genes in LCLs are involved in apoptosis and immune-related functions. •This approach is useful to find functional miRNA targets in specific cell conditions. -- Abstract: Human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) has been used as an in vitro cell model in genetic and pharmacogenomic studies, as well as a good model for studying gene expression regulatory machinery using integrated genomic analyses. In this study, we aimed to identify biological networks of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles of microRNAs and their target genes in LCLs. We first selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and microRNAs (DEmiRs) between early passage LCLs (eLCLs) and terminally differentiated late passage LCLs (tLCLs). The in silico and correlation analysis of these DEGs and DEmiRs revealed that 1098 DEG–DEmiR pairs were found to be positively (n = 591 pairs) or negatively (n = 507 pairs) correlated with each other. More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCL immortalizations. The target DEGs of DEmiRs were enriched for cellular functions associated with apoptosis, immune response, cell death, JAK–STAT cascade and lymphocyte activation while non-miRNA target DEGs were over-represented for basic cell metabolisms. The target DEGs correlated negatively with miR-548a-3p and miR-219-5p were significantly associated with protein kinase cascade, and the lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. In addition, the miR-106a and miR-424 clusters located in the X chromosome were enriched in DEmiR–mRNA pairs for LCL immortalization. In this study, the integrated transcriptomic analysis of LCLs could identify functional networks of biologically active microRNAs and their target genes involved in LCL immortalization.

  13. Integrity of genome-wide genotype data from low passage lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Nina S; Allan, Spencer M; Chandler, David; Jablensky, Assen; Morar, Bharti

    2016-09-01

    We compared genotype data from the HumanExomeCore Array in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and low passage lymphoblastoid cell lines from the same 24 individuals to test for genotypic errors caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus transformation process. Genotype concordance across the 24 comparisons was 99.57% for unfiltered genotype data, and 99.63% following standard genotype quality control filters. Mendelian error rates and levels of heterozygosity were not significantly different between lymphoblastoid cell lines and their parent peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results show that at low passage numbers, genotype discrepancies are minimal even before stringent quality control, and extend current evidence qualifying the use of low-passage lymphoblastoid cell lines as a reliable DNA source for genotype analysis. PMID:27330997

  14. [Antiviral activity of interferon and its inducers in human lymphoblastoid and somatic cells].

    PubMed

    Novokhatskiĭ, A S; Labzo, S S; Tsareva, A A

    1979-04-01

    The antiviral effect of interferon inductors, such as poly-I--poly-C, phage f2 RNA replicative form and low molecular inductor GSN and their influence on cellular DNA synthesis were studied in the cultures of lymphoblastoid (inplanting lines Raji Namalva) and somatic human cells. The Semliki forest virus used as the test organism multiplicated well in cells Raji accumulating up to 9 lg BOU/ml. The two-strand RNA was less active in the lymphoid cells than in the somatic ones. GSN was 10 times more active and less toxic in cells Raji as compared to the fibroblasts. The lymphoblastoid interferon had higher antiviral activity as compared to the fibroblast interferon in the system of Raji--Semliki forest virus than in the system of the human embryon fibroblast--Venezuela Horse Encephalytic Virus. Romantadin actively inhibited (100 times) production of the alfavirus in both the somatic and lymphoblastoid cells. PMID:220908

  15. Different capacities for recombination in closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different mutational responses to X-irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Xia, F; Amundson, S A; Nickoloff, J A; Liber, H L

    1994-01-01

    WIL2-NS and TK6 are two distinct human lymphoblast cell lines derived from a single male donor. WIL2-NS cells are significantly more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of X-irradiation but considerably more sensitive to induced mutation. In an effort to determine the mechanistic basis for these differences, we analyzed the physical structures of thymidine kinase (tk)-deficient mutants isolated after X-ray treatment of tk heterozygotes derived from TK6 and the more mutable WIL2-NS. Southern analysis showed that while 84% of TK6-derived mutants had arisen by loss of heterozygosity (LOH), all 106 mutants from WIL2-NS derivatives arose with LOH at tk and all but one showed LOH at other linked loci on chromosome 17. We adapted a fluorescence in situ hybridization technique to distinguish between LOH due to deletion, which results in retention of only one tk allele, and LOH due to a mechanism involving the homologous chromosome (e.g., recombination), which results in the retention of two alleles. Among the LOH mutants derived that were analyzed in this way, 9 of 26 from WIL2-NS and 11 of 17 from TK6 cell lines arose by deletion. The remaining mutants retained two copies of the tk gene and thus arose by a mechanism involving the homologous allele. Since many of these mutants arising by a homologous mechanism retained partial heterozygosity of chromosome 17, they must have arisen by recombination or gene conversion, and not chromosome loss and reduplication. Finally, the recombinational capacities of WIL2-NS and TK6 were compared in transfection assays with plasmid recombination substrates. Intermolecular recombination frequencies were greater in WIL2-NS than in TK6. These data are consistent with a model suggesting that a recombinational repair system is functioning at a higher level in WIL2-NS than in TK6; the greater mutability of the tk locus in WIL2-NS results from more frequent inter- and intramolecular recombination events. Images PMID:8065318

  16. Use of lymphoblastoid cell lines to evaluate the hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation in Cockayne syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, F.; Tarone, R.E.; Cayeux, S.; Robbins, J.H.

    1984-05-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by acute sun sensitivity, cachectic dwarfism, and neurologic and skeletal abnormalities. Cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with this disease are known to be hypersensitive to the lethal effects of 254-nm UV radiation. The authors have studied the sensitivity of 254-nm UV radiation of lymphoblastoid lines derived from 3 typical CS patients, 1 atypical CS patient who had a very late age of onset of clinical manifestations, 2 patients who had both xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and typical CS, and 3 heterozygous parents of these patients. Post-UV survival was determined by the trypan-blue dye-exclusion method. The lymphoblastoid lines from the 3 typical CS patients, the atypical CS patient, and the 2 patients with both CS and XP had decreased post-UV viability in comparison with lines from normal donors. Lines from the heterozygous parents had normal post-UV viability. The post-UV viability of the typical CS lines was similar to that of a XP complementation group C line. The relative post-UV viability of lymphoblastoid lines from the typical CS patients was similar to the relative post-UV survival of their fibroblast lines. The lymphoblastoid line from the atypical CS patient had a post-UV viability similar to that of the typical CS patients. Thus, the relative hypersensitivity of CS patients cells in vitro does not reflect the severity or age of onset of the patients clinical manifestations. The lymphoblastoid lines from the 2 patients who had both CS and XP were significantly more sensitive to the UV radiation than those from patients with only CS. Our studies demonstrate that lymphoblastoid lines from patients with CS are appropriate and useful cell lines for the study of the inherited hypersensitivity to UV radiation.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Howard L. Liber; Jeffrey L. Schwartz

    2005-10-31

    There are many different model systems that have been used to study chromosome instability. What is clear from all these studies is that conclusions concerning chromosome instability depend greatly on the model system and instability endpoint that is studied. The model system for our studies was the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. TK6 was isolated from a spontaneously immortalized lymphoblast culture. Thus there was no outside genetic manipulation used to immortalize them. TK6 is a relatively stable p53-normal immortal cell line (37). It shows low gene and chromosome mutation frequencies (19;28;31). Our general approach to studying instability in TK6 cells has been to isolate individual clones and analyze gene and chromosome mutation frequencies in each. This approach maximizes the possibility of detecting low frequency events that might be selected against in mass cultures.

  18. Utilization of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines as a System for the Molecular Modeling of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Colin A.; Liu, Stephenie Y.; Hicks, Chindo; Gregg, Jeffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide an alternative approach for understanding the biology and genetics of autism, we performed statistical analysis of gene expression profiles of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from children with autism and their families. The goal was to assess the feasibility of using this model in identifying autism-associated genes.…

  19. Impairment of natural killer functions by interleukin 6 increases lymphoblastoid cell tumorigenicity in athymic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, J; Tosato, G

    1991-01-01

    Expression of the human IL-6 gene in EBV-immortalized normal human B lymphocytes following retroviral-mediated transduction rendered these cells highly tumorigenic in athymic mice. The tumors were lymphomas composed of the originally inoculated human lymphoblastoid cells. Co-injection of IL-6 expressing EBV-immortalized cells with IL-6 nonexpressing control cells resulted in increased tumorigenicity of the IL-6 nonexpressing cells. The lymphoblastoid cells expressing IL-6 were indistinguishable from parental cell lines in morphology and in a variety of cell surface characteristics, and did not exhibit growth advantage over parental cell lines in vitro, such that increased tumorigenicity is unlikely to depend upon a direct oncogenic effect of IL-6 on the B cells. Rather, at high concentrations, IL-6 markedly inhibits human lymphoblastoid cell killing by IL-2-activated murine splenocytes in vitro, suggesting that IL-6-related tumorigenicity might depend upon IL-6 inhibiting cytotoxicity at the tumor site. Thus, production of IL-6 by tumor cells that results in natural killer cell dysfunctions illustrates a novel mechanism of tumor cell escape from immune surveillance. Images PMID:1647416

  20. [Functional activity of lymphoblastoid cells infected by human adenovirus type 2 and Epstein-Barr virus].

    PubMed

    Povnitsa, O Iu; Diachenko, N S; Nosach, L N; Olevinskaia, Z M; Zhovnovataia, V L; Polishchuk, V N; Spivak, N Ia

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the influence of the adenovirus (Ad) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on functional activity of lymphocytes, in particular, the production of alpha- and gamma-interferons, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in conditions of mono- or double infection of B- and T-phenotype (CEM) lymphoblastoid cells. It is shown, that Ad, EBV or both viruses induce high enough levels of interferon on both lines of cells and in control epithelial cells. The lymphoblastoid cells infected by viruses deep ability to synthesize alpha- and gamma-interferons under the influence of the corresponding inducers (Newcastle disease virus and hemagglutinine). Nevertheless, the levels of their formation are not high. Rather high parameters of activity of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were revealed during a day in the initial B95-8 cells and superinfected Ad after the effect of LPS of E. coli. Their activity in CEM cells also did not depend on the infection type. PMID:16018208

  1. Characteristics of genomic instability in clones of TK6 human lymphoblasts surviving exposure to 56Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Helen H.; Horng, Min-Fen; Ricanati, Marlene; Diaz-Insua, Mireya; Jordan, Robert; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Genomic instability in the human lymphoblast cell line TK6 was studied in clones surviving 36 generations after exposure to accelerated 56Fe ions. Clones were assayed for 20 characteristics, including chromosome aberrations, plating efficiency, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, response to a second irradiation, and mutant frequency at two loci. The primary effect of the 56Fe-ion exposure on the surviving clones was a significant increase in the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations compared to the very low spontaneous frequency, along with an increase in the phenotypic complexity of the unstable clones. The radiation-induced increase in the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations was much greater than that observed previously in clones of the related cell line, WTK1, which in comparison to the TK6 cell line expresses an increased radiation resistance, a mutant TP53 protein, and an increased frequency of spontaneous unstable chromosome aberrations. The characteristics of the unstable clones of the two cell lines also differed. Most of the TK6 clones surviving exposure to 56Fe ions showed unstable cytogenetic abnormalities, while the phenotype of the WTK1 clones was more diverse. The results underscore the importance of genotype in the characteristics of instability after radiation exposure.

  2. Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines as a Tool to Study Inter-Individual Differences in the Response to Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Michael A.; Rao, Vidhya R.; Chen, Siquan; Cao, Dingcai; Gao, Xiaoyu; Cleary, Patricia A.; Huang, R. Stephanie; Paterson, Andrew D.; Natarajan, Rama; Rehman, Jalees; Kern, Timothy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background White blood cells have been shown in animal studies to play a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Lymphoblastoid cells are immortalized EBV-transformed primary B-cell leukocytes that have been extensively used as a model for conditions in which white blood cells play a primary role. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lymphoblastoid cell lines, by retaining many of the key features of primary leukocytes, can be induced with glucose to demonstrate relevant biological responses to those found in diabetic retinopathy. Methods Lymphoblastoid cell lines were obtained from twenty-three human subjects. Differences between high and standard glucose conditions were assessed for expression, endothelial adhesion, and reactive oxygen species. Results Collectively, stimulation of the lymphoblastoid cell lines with high glucose demonstrated corresponding changes on molecular, cellular and functional levels. Lymphoblastoid cell lines up-regulated expression of a panel of genes associated with the leukocyte-mediated inflammation found in diabetic retinopathy that include: a cytokine (IL-1B fold change = 2.11, p-value = 0.02), an enzyme (PKCB fold change = 2.30, p-value = 0.01), transcription factors (NFKB-p50 fold change = 2.05, p-value = 0.01), (NFKB-p65 fold change = 2.82, p-value = 0.003), and an adhesion molecule (CD18 fold change = 2.59, 0.02). Protein expression of CD18 was also increased (p-value = 2.14x10-5). The lymphoblastoid cell lines demonstrated increased adhesiveness to endothelial cells (p = 1.28x10-5). Reactive oxygen species were increased (p = 2.56x10-6). Significant inter-individual variation among the lymphoblastoid cell lines in these responses was evident (F = 18.70, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Exposure of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from different human subjects to high glucose demonstrated differential and heterogeneous gene expression, adhesion, and cellular effects that recapitulated features found in

  3. Histone markers identify the mode of action for compounds positive in the TK6 micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jennifer R; Dickinson, Donna A; Moss, Jocelyn; Schuler, Maik J; Spellman, Richard A; Heard, Pamela L

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro micronucleus assay with TK6 cells is frequently used as part of the genotoxicity testing battery for pharmaceuticals. Consequently, follow-up testing strategies are needed for positive compounds to determine their mode of action, which would then allow for deployment of appropriate in vivo follow-up strategies. We have chosen 3 micronucleus positive compounds, the clastogen etoposide, the aneugen noscapine and the cytotoxicant tunicamycin to evaluate different approaches to determine their aneugenic or clastogenic properties. Each of the three compounds were evaluated following 4 and 24h of continuous treatment by flow cytometry for micronucleus induction, the aneugenicity markers phosphorylated-histone 3 (p-H3) and polyploidy, the clastogenicity marker γH2AX and the apoptosis marker cleaved caspase 3. They were further evaluated by Western blot for mono-ubiquitinated and γH2AX. Results show that the clastogen etoposide produced a dose related increase in γH2AX and mono-ubiquitinated H2AX and a dose related decrease in p-H3 positive mitotic cells. Conversely, the aneugen produced increases in p-H3 and polyploidy with no significant increases seen in mono-ubiquitinated H2AX or γH2AX. Lastly, the cytotoxicant tunicamycin induced neither an increase in p-H3 nor γH2AX. All three compounds produced dose-related increases in cleaved caspase 3. The results from this study provide evidence that adding clastogenicity and aneugenicity markers to the in vitro micronucleus assay in TK6 cells could help to identify the mode of action of positive compounds. The combination of endpoints suggested here needs to be further evaluated by a broader set of test compounds. PMID:25726170

  4. Autophagy is the predominant process induced by arsenite in human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, Alicia M.; Byrd, Randi M.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic is a widespread environmental toxicant with a diverse array of molecular targets and associated diseases, making the identification of the critical mechanisms and pathways of arsenic-induced cytotoxicity a challenge. In a variety of experimental models, over a range of arsenic exposure levels, apoptosis is a commonly identified arsenic-induced cytotoxic pathway. Human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) have been used as a model system in arsenic toxicology for many years, but the exact mechanism of arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in LCL is still unknown. We investigated the cytotoxicity of sodium arsenite in LCL 18564 using a set of complementary markers for cell death pathways. Markers indicative of apoptosis (phosphatidylserine externalization, PARP cleavage, and sensitivity to caspase inhibition) were uniformly negative in arsenite exposed cells. Interestingly, electron microscopy, acidic vesicle fluorescence, and expression of LC3 in LCL 18564 identified autophagy as an arsenite-induced process that was associated with cytotoxicity. Autophagy, a cellular programmed response that is associated with both cellular stress adaptation as well as cell death appears to be the predominant process in LCL cytotoxicity induced by arsenite. It is unclear, however, whether LCL autophagy is an effector mechanism of arsenite cytotoxicity or alternatively a cellular compensatory mechanism. The ability of arsenite to induce autophagy in lymphoblastoid cell lines introduces a potentially novel mechanistic explanation of the well-characterized in vitro and in vivo toxicity of arsenic to lymphoid cells.

  5. Cytotoxic effect of anti-idiotype antibody-chlorambucil conjugates against human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, E; Goust, J M; Chen, W Y; Kang, S S; Wang, I Y; Wang, A C

    1983-09-01

    The secreted IgMs of two human lymphoblastoid cell lines, RPMI-6410 and RPMI-8392, were purified. Antisera against these two IgMs were raised in rabbits and made idiotypically specific to the respective antigens through various absorption procedures. By immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay techniques, the purified anti-idiotype antibodies were found to react also with the membrane Igs of the respective cell lines, but not with those of other cell lines. The purified anti-idiotype antibodies were then coupled with Chlorambucil to form antibody-drug conjugates, whose effectiveness in the in-vitro killing of target cells was evaluated by a chromium-release cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that these anti-idiotype antibody-Chlorambucil conjugates were specifically cytotoxic to lymphoblastoid cells that bore membrane Igs carrying the respective idiotypic determinant(s). Furthermore, the conjugates were far more effective in causing cytolysis to the target cells than either Chlorambucil or the anti-idiotype antibodies alone. PMID:6350169

  6. Cytotoxic effect of anti-idiotype antibody-chlorambucil conjugates against human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tung, E; Goust, J M; Chen, W Y; Kang, S S; Wang, I Y; Wang, A C

    1983-01-01

    The secreted IgMs of two human lymphoblastoid cell lines, RPMI-6410 and RPMI-8392, were purified. Antisera against these two IgMs were raised in rabbits and made idiotypically specific to the respective antigens through various absorption procedures. By immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay techniques, the purified anti-idiotype antibodies were found to react also with the membrane Igs of the respective cell lines, but not with those of other cell lines. The purified anti-idiotype antibodies were then coupled with Chlorambucil to form antibody-drug conjugates, whose effectiveness in the in-vitro killing of target cells was evaluated by a chromium-release cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that these anti-idiotype antibody-Chlorambucil conjugates were specifically cytotoxic to lymphoblastoid cells that bore membrane Igs carrying the respective idiotypic determinant(s). Furthermore, the conjugates were far more effective in causing cytolysis to the target cells than either Chlorambucil or the anti-idiotype antibodies alone. PMID:6350169

  7. Involvement of recombination in x-ray mutagenesis of human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, S.A. ); Xia, F.; Liber, H.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from WI-L2 differ greatly in their responses to X-irradiation. Compared with TK6 (ATCC CRL 8015), WI-L2-NS (ATCC CRL 8155) has an enhanced X-ray survival. The induction of mutation by X-rays is also markedly different. The hemizygous hprt locus is slightly more mutable in WI-L2-NS than in TK6, and the dose response fits best to a linear-quadratic curve rather than the linear fit of TK6X-ray induced mutation at the autosomal tk locus in heterozygotes derived from WI-L2-NS is 20-50 fold higher than in heterozygotes derived from TK6. A larger proportion of WI-L2-NS mutants had lost heterozygosity compared with mutants of TK6. , Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that loss of heterozygosity was due almost uniformly to deletion of an allele in mutants of TK6, and to recombination or gene conversion in mutants of WI-L2-NS. These results indicate that recombinational repair contributes to both cell survival and mutation following exposure to ionizing radiation.

  8. Induction of apoptosis by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human lymphoblastoid B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Chiseko He, Jinsong; Takano, Tomoko; Tanaka, Chisato; Kondo, Toshinori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Yamamura, Hirohei; Tohyama, Yumi

    2007-11-03

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea polyphenols, has been shown to suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In this study we investigated its efficacy and the mechanism underlying its effect using human B lymphoblastoid cell line Ramos, and effect of co-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent on apoptotic cell death. EGCG induced dose- and time-dependent apoptotic cell death accompanied by loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and cleavage of pro-caspase-9 to its active form. EGCG also enhanced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium chloride, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase and an antioxidant, partially suppressed both EGCG-induced apoptosis and production of ROS, implying that oxidative stress is involved in the apoptotic response. Furthermore, we showed that combined-treatment with EGCG and a chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, synergistically induced apoptosis in Ramos cells.

  9. Selective production of interferon-alpha subtypes by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, A L; Overall, M L; Sattayasai, N; Rowley, M J; Hertzog, P J; McMullen, G L; Cheetham, B F; Marzuki, S

    1992-01-01

    The biological significance of the existence of multiple interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) subtypes is unknown but may represent a finely tuned mechanism whereby different subtypes are produced in response to different stimuli. To investigate the expression of individual IFN-alpha subtypes, polyclonal antipeptide antisera designed to react with all IFN-alpha subtypes, or with a particular subtype, IFN-alpha 2 or IFN-alpha 4, have been produced. In this study we demonstrate the utility of these antisera for the detection, using indirect immunofluorescence staining, of intracellular IFN-alpha produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lymphoblastoid cells. Secreted IFN-alpha was also investigated by bioassay and a sandwich radioimmunoassay (RIA), using two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and specific for IFN-alpha 4. The PBMC were shown to produce IFN reactive with all three polyclonal antisera, after stimulation with Sendai virus. The lymphoblastoid cells also produced IFN, including IFN-alpha 2, but IFN-alpha 4 was not detected either intracellularly, by immunofluorescence, or in the medium, by sandwich RIA. The immunofluorescence studies also demonstrate that in the absence of viral stimulation IFN-alpha is found in the cytoplasm of PBMC and lymphoblastoid cells but not secreted in detectable levels. The finding that two lymphoblastoid cell lines do not produce the subtype IFN-alpha 4 raises important questions as to whether other cell lines and cell types produce IFN-alpha subtypes selectively, and whether individual IFN-alpha subtypes have different roles in human physiology and pathology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1537595

  10. Genetic instability on chromosome 16 in a Human B lymphoblastoid cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.E.; Grosovsky, A.J. )

    1993-11-01

    Mutagenesis at the aprt locus in TK6 human lymphoblasts has been found to occur at an unusually high rate (1.2 [times] 10[sup [minus]9]) for a homozygous diploid locus. Evaluation of linked microsatellite polymorphisms demonstrated that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) accompanies conventional intragenic sequence alterations in each APRT[sup [minus

  11. The influence of various bovine sera on the maintenance of Theileria parva lymphoblastoid cell culture.

    PubMed

    Siddig, H A; Franssen, F F; Spanjer, A A; Jongejan, F; Uilenberg, G

    1982-01-01

    Theileria parva infected lymphoblastoid bovine cells were grown in a medium based on HEPES-buffered RPMI 1640 with glutamine and antibiotics, supplemented with bovine serum. There were no significant differences in growth rate, viability, and percentage of infected cells when the substrate contained 10 or 20 per cent of either commercially available newborn calf serum of serum prepared from adult non-infected Friesian cattle or of serum prepared from a Friesian calf immunised against East Coast fever and having a high titre of antibodies to T. parva antigen in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. If studies showing that newborn calf serum gives results in the establishment and maintenance of T. parva cell culture similar to those of foetal calf serum are confirmed, this finding could mean an appreciable saving in the cost of in vitro work on this parasite. PMID:6815877

  12. Fast neutrons-induced apoptosis is Fas-independent in lymphoblastoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Barbara; Benzina, Sami; Jeannequin, Pierre; Dufour, Patrick; Bergerat, Jean-Pierre; Denis, Jean-Marc; Gueulette, John; Bischoff, Pierre L. . E-mail: Pierre.Bischoff@ircad.u-strasbg.fr

    2005-08-26

    We have previously shown that ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid cells differs according to their p53 status, and that caspase 8-mediated cleavage of BID is involved in the p53-dependent pathway. In the present study, we investigated the role of Fas signaling in caspase 8 activation induced by fast neutrons irradiation in these cells. Fas and FasL expression was assessed by flow cytometry and by immunoblot. We also measured Fas aggregation after irradiation by fluorescence microscopy. We found a decrease of Fas expression after irradiation, but no change in Fas ligand expression. We also showed that, in contrast to the stimulation of Fas by an agonistic antibody, Fas aggregation did not occur after irradiation. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that fast neutrons induced-apoptosis is Fas-independent, even in p53-dependent apoptosis.

  13. Sorting of chromosome 13 from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from patients with Wilson disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nasedkina, T.V.; Polesskaya, A.N.; Surkov, S.A.; Poletaev, A.I. ); Aksenov, N.; Zenin, V.V. )

    1993-01-01

    Lymphoblastoid cell lines were established from patients with Wilson disease (WD) which maps to human chromosome 13 and served as a source of chromosomes. The authors used a modified isolation procedure to increase the yield of metaphase chromosomes and additional purification of the chromosome suspension on Percoll gradient to achieve more stable sorting conditions. Vibariate flow analysis using dual laser cell-sorter, ATC-3000, showed a sufficient resolution of the flow karyotype and a low level of debris. They sorted chromosome 13 at a speed of up to 5,000 chr/sec, providing about 2 million chromosomes per day. The purity of the sorted fraction was about 90%. The fractions will be further used to construct cosmid libraries to facilitate studies of the WD locus.

  14. Phorbol diesters and transferrin modulate lymphoblastoid cell transferrin receptor expression by two different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alcantara, O.; Phillips, J.L.; Boldt, D.H.

    1986-12-01

    Expression of transferrin receptors (TfR) by activated lymphocytes is necessary for lymphocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Regulation of TfR expression, therefore, is a mechanism by which the lymphocyte's proliferative potential may be directed and controlled. The authors studied mechanisms by which lymphoblastoid cells modulate TfR expression during treatment with phorbol diesters or iron transferrin (FeTf), agents which cause downregulation of cell surface TfR. Phorbol diester-induced TfR downregulation occurred rapidly, being detectable at 2 min and reaching maximal decreases of 50% by 15 min. It was inhibited by cold but not by agents that destabilize cytoskeletal elements. Furthermore, this downregulation was reversed rapidly by washing or by treatment with the membrane interactive agent, chlorpromazine. In contrast, FeTf-induced TfR downregulation occurred slowly. Decreased expression of TfR was detectable only after 15 min and maximal downregulation was achieved after 60 min. Although FeTf-induced downregulation also was inhibited by cold, it was inhibited in addition by a group of microtubule destabilizing agents (colchicine, vinblastine, podophyllotoxin) or cytochalasin B, a microfilament inhibitor. Furthermore, FeTf-induced downregulation was not reversed readily by washing or by treatment with chlorpromazine. Phorbol diesters cause TfR downregulation by a cytoskeleton-independent mechanism. These data indicate that TfR expression is regulated by two independent mechanisms in lymphoblastoid cells, and they provide the possibility that downregulation of TfR by different mechanisms may result in different effects in these cells.

  15. Modulation of tubulin mRNA levels by interferon in human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fellous, A; Ginzburg, I; Littauer, U Z

    1982-01-01

    Blot hybridization with labeled tubulin cDNA showed that treatment of Ramos cells, a human cell line of lymphoblastoid origin, with either alpha or beta interferon (IFN) induced a marked increase in the amount of tubulin mRNA sequences. The level of tubulin mRNA sequences increased rapidly after exposure of cells to IFN-alpha and reached a maximum after 1 h of treatment, which was four times the control level. Treatment with IFN-beta induced a maximal increase after 4 h; the amount of tubulin mRNA sequences was seven times higher than the control level. The mRNA extracted from IFN-treated and nontreated cells was translated in vitro in a reticulocyte lysate cell-free system containing [35S]methionine. Electrophoretic analysis of the labeled cell-free products showed an increase in the amount of translatable tubulin mRNA that parallels the time course of induction of tubulin mRNA sequences. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the labeled protein products directed by mRNA indicates that IFN caused a more pronounced increase in the level of alpha-tubulin than beta-tubulin mRNA. Treatment with colchicine, which disrupts the cell microtubules, caused a marked decrease in the tubulin mRNA content. Concomitant treatment of the cells with colchicine and IFN abolished the interferon-dependent induction of tubulin mRNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6964957

  16. Different Mechanisms of Regulation of the Warburg Effect in Lymphoblastoid and Burkitt Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Darekar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    Background The Warburg effect is one of the hallmarks of cancer and rapidly proliferating cells. It is known that the hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A) and MYC proteins cooperatively regulate expression of the HK2 and PDK1 genes, respectively, in the Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cell line P493-6, carrying an inducible MYC gene repression system. However, the mechanism of aerobic glycolysis in BL cells has not yet been fully understood. Methods and Findings Western blot analysis showed that the HIF1A protein was highly expressed in Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive BL cell lines. Using biochemical assays and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), we found that—unlike in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)—the MYC protein was the master regulator of the Warburg effect in these BL cell lines. Inhibition of the transactivation ability of MYC had no influence on aerobic glycolysis in LCLs, but it led to decreased expression of MYC-dependent genes and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity in BL cells. Conclusions Our data suggest that aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg effect, in BL cells is regulated by MYC expressed at high levels, whereas in LCLs, HIF1A is responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:26312753

  17. Cytogenetic characterization of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity in Cobalt-60 irradiated human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gnanada S; Joiner, Michael C; Tucker, James D

    2014-12-01

    The dose-effect relationships of cells exposed to ionizing radiation are frequently described by linear quadratic (LQ) models over an extended dose range. However, many mammalian cell lines, when acutely irradiated in G2 at doses ≤0.3Gy, show hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) as measured by reduced clonogenic cell survival, thereby indicating greater cell lethality than is predicted by extrapolation from high-dose responses. We therefore hypothesized that the cytogenetic response in G2 cells to low doses would also be steeper than predicted by LQ extrapolation from high doses. We tested our hypothesis by exposing four normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines to 0-400cGy of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The cytokinesis block micronucleus assay was used to determine the frequencies of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges. To characterize the dependence of the cytogenetic damage on dose, univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to compare the responses in the low- (HRS) and high-dose response regions. Our data indicate that the slope of the response for all four cell lines at ≤20cGy during G2 is greater than predicted by an LQ extrapolation from the high-dose responses for both micronuclei and bridges. These results suggest that the biological consequences of low-dose exposures could be underestimated and may not provide accurate risk assessments following such exposures. PMID:25771872

  18. The impact of FANCD2 deficiency on formaldehyde-induced toxicity in human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xuefeng; Ji, Zhiying; McHale, Cliona M.; Yuh, Jessica; Bersonda, Jessica; Tang, Maycky; Smith, Martyn T.; Zhang, Luoping

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), a major industrial chemical and ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has recently been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a human leukemogen. The major mode of action of FA is thought to be the formation of DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). Repair of DPCs may be mediated by the Fanconi anemia pathway; however, data supporting the involvement of this pathway is limited, particularly in human hematopoietic cells. Therefore, we assessed the role of FANCD2, a critical component of the Fanconi anemia pathway, in FA-induced toxicity in human lymphoblast cell models of FANCD2-deficiency (PD20 cells) and FANCD2-sufficiency (PD20-D2 cells). After treatment of the cells with 0-150 μM FA for 24 hours, DPCs were increased in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines, with greater increases in FANCD2-deficient PD20 cells. FA also induced cytotoxicity, micronuclei, chromosome aberrations, and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines, with greater increases in cytotoxicity and apoptosis in PD20 cells. Increased levels of γ-ATR and γ-H2AX in both cell lines suggested the recognition of FA-induced DNA damage; however, the induction of BRCA2 was compromised in FANCD2-deficient PD20 cells, potentially reducing the capacity to repair DPCs. Together, these findings suggest that FANCD2 protein and the Fanconi anemia pathway are essential to protect human lymphoblastoid cells against FA toxicity. Future studies are needed to delineate the role of this pathway in mitigating FA-induced toxicity, particularly in hematopoietic stem cells, the target cells in leukemia. PMID:22872141

  19. Proliferation-dependent positioning of individual centromeres in the interphase nucleus of human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ollion, Jean; Loll, François; Cochennec, Julien; Boudier, Thomas; Escudé, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus is a highly organized structure and plays an important role in gene regulation. Understanding the mechanisms that sustain this organization is therefore essential for understanding genome function. Centromeric regions (CRs) of chromosomes have been known for years to adopt specific nuclear positioning patterns, but the significance of this observation is not yet completely understood. Here, using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunochemistry on fixed human cells and high-throughput imaging, we directly and quantitatively investigated the nuclear positioning of specific human CRs. We observe differential attraction of individual CRs toward both the nuclear border and the nucleoli, the former being enhanced in nonproliferating cells and the latter being enhanced in proliferating cells. Similar positioning patterns are observed in two different lymphoblastoid cell lines. Moreover, the positioning of CRs differs from that of noncentromeric regions, and CRs display specific orientations within chromosome territories. These results suggest the existence of not-yet-characterized mechanisms that drive the nuclear positioning of CRs and therefore pave the way toward a better understanding of how CRs affect nuclear organization. PMID:25947134

  20. Expression of genes and proteins in human cultured lymphoblastoid cells during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-07-01

    The space environment contains two major biologically significant influences: space radiations and microgravity. The aim of this study was to clarify the biological effects of space radiations, microgravity and a space environment on the gene and protein expression. Space experiments were performed with human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines at the first life science experiment to be conducted on the Japanese Experimental Module "Kibo" of the International Space Station (ISS). Under one gravity or microgravity condition, the cells were grown in the cell biology experimental facility (CBEF) of the ISS for 8 days without experiencing the stress during launching and landing because the cells were frozen during these periods. Ground control samples also were cultured for 8 days in the CBEF on the ground during the spaceflight. Gene and protein expression was analyzed by using DNA chip (a 44k whole human genome microarray, Agilent Technologies Inc.) and protein chip (Panorama ^{TM} Ab MicroArray, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), respectively. We already reported the behavior of p53-dependent regulated genes and proteins after exposure to space radiations, microgravity, and the space environment during spaceflight. Next stage, we will profile the expression except for the p53 gene status and discuss the biological meaning during spaceflight

  1. No defect in G1/S cell cycle arrest in irradiated Li-Fraumeni lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, K. J.; Heighway, J.; Birch, J. M.; Norton, J. D.; Scott, D.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation response of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalised lymphoblastoid cell lines derive from Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and LFS-like individuals was investigated. Cells from all LFS and LFS-like cases showed an accumulation of p53 protein following 137Cs gamma-irradiation, which was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G1/S border. This response was indistinguishable from that seen in cells derived from normal individuals, and occurred in cases with missense mutations in the TP53 gene at codons 175, 180, 220 and 248 and also in two LFS-like individuals with no TP53 mutation. Previous studies using lymphocytes and fibroblasts from LFS individuals have demonstrated abnormal radiation responses in these cells. This suggest cell type specificity in the contribution of a mutant p53 protein to phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8795570

  2. Transcriptomic variation of pharmacogenes in multiple human tissues and lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Chhibber, Aparna; French, Courtney E.; Yee, Sook Wah; Gamazon, Eric R.; Theusch, Elizabeth; Qin, Xiang; Webb, Amy; Papp, Audrey C.; Wang, Ann; Simmons, Christine Q.; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Chaudhry, Amarjit S.; Mitchel, Katrina; Stryke, Doug; Ferrin, Thomas E.; Weiss, Scott T.; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Sadee, Wolfgang; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; George, Alfred L.; Schuetz, Erin G.; Medina, Marisa W.; Cox, Nancy J.; Scherer, Steven E.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Brenner, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the expression level and activity of genes involved in drug disposition and action (“pharmacogenes”) can affect drug response and toxicity, especially when in tissues of pharmacological importance. Previous studies have relied primarily on microarrays to understand gene expression differences, or have focused on a single tissue or small number of samples. The goal of this study was to use RNA-seq to determine the expression levels and alternative splicing of 389 PGRN pharmacogenes across four tissues (liver, kidney, heart and adipose) and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), which are used widely in pharmacogenomics studies. Analysis of RNA-seq data from 139 different individuals across the 5 tissues (20–45 individuals per tissue type) revealed substantial variation in both expression levels and splicing across samples and tissue types. This in-depth exploration also revealed 183 splicing events in pharmacogenes that were previously not annotated. Overall, this study serves as a rich resource for the research community to inform biomarker and drug discovery and use. PMID:26856248

  3. Increased Susceptibility to Ethylmercury-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Subset of Autism Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wynne, Rebecca; Frye, Richard E.; Melnyk, Stepan; James, S. Jill

    2015-01-01

    The association of autism spectrum disorders with oxidative stress, redox imbalance, and mitochondrial dysfunction has become increasingly recognized. In this study, extracellular flux analysis was used to compare mitochondrial respiration in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from individuals with autism and unaffected controls exposed to ethylmercury, an environmental toxin known to deplete glutathione and induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We also tested whether pretreating the autism LCLs with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to increase glutathione concentrations conferred protection from ethylmercury. Examination of 16 autism/control LCL pairs revealed that a subgroup (31%) of autism LCLs exhibited a greater reduction in ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, and reserve capacity when exposed to ethylmercury, compared to control LCLs. These respiratory parameters were significantly elevated at baseline in the ethylmercury-sensitive autism subgroup as compared to control LCLs. NAC pretreatment of the sensitive subgroup reduced (normalized) baseline respiratory parameters and blunted the exaggerated ethylmercury-induced reserve capacity depletion. These findings suggest that the epidemiological link between environmental mercury exposure and an increased risk of developing autism may be mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and support the notion that a subset of individuals with autism may be vulnerable to environmental influences with detrimental effects on development through mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25688267

  4. Pro-oxidant Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells: Homeostatic Mechanisms of Genotoxic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Seager, Anna L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to many disease etiologies including ageing, neurodegeneration, and cancer, partly through DNA damage induction (genotoxicity). Understanding the i nteractions of free radicals with DNA is fundamental to discern mutation risks. In genetic toxicology, regulatory authorities consider that most genotoxins exhibit a linear relationship between dose and mutagenic response. Yet, homeostatic mechanisms, including DNA repair, that allow cells to tolerate low levels of genotoxic exposure exist. Acceptance of thresholds for genotoxicity has widespread consequences in terms of understanding cancer risk and regulating human exposure to chemicals/drugs. Three pro-oxidant chemicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), potassium bromate (KBrO3), and menadione, were examined for low dose-response curves in human lymphoblastoid cells. DNA repair and antioxidant capacity were assessed as possible threshold mechanisms. H2O2 and KBrO3, but not menadione, exhibited thresholded responses, containing a range of nongenotoxic low doses. Levels of the DNA glycosylase 8-oxoguanine glycosylase were unchanged in response to pro- oxidant stress. DNA repair–focused gene expression arrays reported changes in ATM and BRCA1, involved in double-strand break repair, in response to low-dose pro-oxidant exposure; however, these alterations were not substantiated at the protein level. Determination of oxidatively induced DNA damage in H2O2-treated AHH-1 cells reported accumulation of thymine glycol above the genotoxic threshold. Further, the H2O2 dose-response curve was shifted by modulating the antioxidant glutathione. Hence, observed pro- oxidant thresholds were due to protective capacities of base excision repair enzymes and antioxidants against DNA damage, highlighting the importance of homeostatic mechanisms in “genotoxic tolerance.” PMID:22539617

  5. Characterization of DNA methylation and its association with other biological systems in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Jinglan; Kaur, Maninder; Krantz, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) is a common tool to study genetic disorders. However, it has not been fully characterized to what degree LCLs preserve the in vivo status of non-genetic biological systems, such as DNA methylation and gene transcription. We previously reported that DNA methylation in LCLs is highly variable in a data set of ~27,000 CpG dinucleotide sites around transcription start site (TSS) and 63 human subjects including healthy controls and probands of genetic disorders. Disease-causing mutations are linked to differential methylation at some CpG sites, but account for a small proportion of the total variance. In this study, we repeated the experiments to ensure that the high variance is not due to technical error and scrutinized the characteristics of DNA methylation and its association with other biological systems. Using sequence information and ChIP-seq data, we conclude that local CpG density and histone modifications not only correlate to baseline methylation level, but also affect the direction of methylation change in LCLs. Integrative analysis of gene transcription and DNA methylation data of the same subjects shows that medium or high methylation around TSS blocks the transcription while low methylation is a necessary, but not sufficient condition of downstream gene transcription. We utilized epigenetic information around TSS to predict active gene transcription via logistic regression models. The multivariate model using DNA methylation, eight histone modifications, and two regulatory protein complexes (CTCF and cohesin) as predictors has better performance (accuracy = 95.1%) than any univariate models of single predictors. Linear regression analysis further shows that the transcriptional levels predicted by epigenetic markers have significant correlation to microarray measurements (p = 2.2e-10). This study provides new insights into the epigenetic systems of LCLs and suggests that more specifically designed experiments are needed to

  6. Arsenite-induced autophagy is associated with proteotoxicity in human lymphoblastoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, Alicia M.; Zhao, Fei; Pacheco, Samantha; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2012-10-15

    Epidemiological studies of arsenic-exposed populations have provided evidence that arsenic exposure in humans is associated with immunosuppression. Previously, we have reported that arsenite-induced toxicity is associated with the induction of autophagy in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL). Autophagy is a cellular process that functions in the degradation of damaged cellular components, including protein aggregates formed by misfolded or damaged proteins. Accumulation of misfolded or damaged proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). In an effort to investigate the mechanism of autophagy induction by arsenite in the LCL model, we examined the potential contribution of ER stress and activation of the UPR. LCL exposed to sodium arsenite for 8-days induced expression of UPR-activated genes, including CHOP and GRP78, at the RNA and the protein level. Evidence for activation of the three arms of the UPR was observed. The arsenite-induced activation of the UPR was associated with an accumulation of protein aggregates containing p62 and LC3, proteins with established roles in the sequestration and autophagic clearance of protein aggregates. Taken together, these data provide evidence that arsenite-induced autophagy is associated with the generation of ER stress, activation of the UPR, and formation of protein aggregates that may be targeted to the lysosome for degradation. -- Highlights: ► Arsenite induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response. ► Arsenite induces the formation of protein aggregates that contain p62 and LC3-II. ► Time-course data suggests that arsenite-induced autophagy precedes ER stress.

  7. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction in a subset of autistic lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rose, S; Frye, R E; Slattery, J; Wynne, R; Tippett, M; Melnyk, S; James, S J

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing recognition that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with autism spectrum disorders. However, little attention has been given to the etiology of mitochondrial dysfunction and how mitochondrial abnormalities might interact with other physiological disturbances such as oxidative stress. Reserve capacity is a measure of the ability of the mitochondria to respond to physiological stress. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from children with autistic disorder (AD) have an abnormal mitochondrial reserve capacity before and after exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ten (44%) of 22 AD LCLs exhibited abnormally high reserve capacity at baseline and a sharp depletion of reserve capacity when challenged with ROS. This depletion of reserve capacity was found to be directly related to an atypical simultaneous increase in both proton-leak respiration and adenosine triphosphate-linked respiration in response to increased ROS in this AD LCL subgroup. In this AD LCL subgroup, 48-hour pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, prevented these abnormalities and improved glutathione metabolism, suggesting a role for altered glutathione metabolism associated with this type of mitochondrial dysfunction. The results of this study suggest that a significant subgroup of AD children may have alterations in mitochondrial function, which could render them more vulnerable to a pro-oxidant microenvironment as well as intrinsic and extrinsic sources of ROS such as immune activation and pro-oxidant environmental toxins. These findings are consistent with the notion that AD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24690598

  8. Linking short tandem repeat polymorphisms with cytosine modifications in human lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhou; Zheng, Yinan; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Cong; Joyce, Brian Thomas; Kibbe, Warren A; Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Inter-individual variation in cytosine modifications has been linked to complex traits in humans. Cytosine modification variation is partially controlled by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), known as modified cytosine quantitative trait loci (mQTL). However, little is known about the role of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs), a class of structural genetic variants, in regulating cytosine modifications. Utilizing the published data on the International HapMap Project lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), we assessed the relationships between 721 STRPs and the modification levels of 283,540 autosomal CpG sites. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the predominant cis-acting mode for SNP-based mQTL, STRPs are associated with cytosine modification levels in both cis-acting (local) and trans-acting (distant) modes. In local scans within the ±1 Mb windows of target CpGs, 21, 9, and 21 cis-acting STRP-based mQTL were detected in CEU (Caucasian residents from Utah, USA), YRI (Yoruba people from Ibadan, Nigeria), and the combined samples, respectively. In contrast, 139,420, 76,817, and 121,866 trans-acting STRP-based mQTL were identified in CEU, YRI, and the combined samples, respectively. A substantial proportion of CpG sites detected with local STRP-based mQTL were not associated with SNP-based mQTL, suggesting that STRPs represent an independent class of mQTL. Functionally, genetic variants neighboring CpG-associated STRPs are enriched with genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci for a variety of complex traits and diseases, including cancers, based on the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS Catalog. Therefore, elucidating these STRP-based mQTL in addition to SNP-based mQTL can provide novel insights into the genetic architectures of complex traits. PMID:26714498

  9. Effect of cell-derived growth factors and cytokines on the clonal outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells and established lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ifversen, P; Zhang, X M; Ohlin, M; Zeuthen, J; Borrebaeck, C A

    1993-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a potent inducer of polyclonal B lymphocyte proliferation and is widely used as a tool for the establishment of B cell lines producing human monoclonal antibodies. However, because of low transformability, low clonability, and the inherent instability of EBV-infected B cells, valuable antibody-producing B cells are often lost during this procedure. We have here examined various cell-derived cytokines for their ability to enhance both the cellular outgrowth of newly infected B cells and the clonability of infected B cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Our results show that the murine thymoma cell line EL-4 is superior to peripheral blood mononuclear cells in both cellular outgrowth and cloning experiments, whereas monocyte-derived factors and monocyte cell lines were less capable than peripheral blood mononuclear cells in enhancing cellular outgrowth and cloning. Furthermore, the human T cell hybridoma cell line MP6 that secretes a B cell growth and differentiation factor, recently identified as an isoform of thioredoxin, is also capable of stimulating EBV-infected B cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Co-cultivation of EBV-infected B cells with MP6 cells significantly enhanced the cloning efficiency at the 1 cell/well level. The present results also suggest that one potential role of the MP6-derived thioredoxin could be the up regulation of IL-6 receptor expression in EBV-infected B cells. PMID:8395232

  10. Identification of low-dose responsive metabolites in X-irradiated human B lymphoblastoid cells and fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Tsuyama, Naohiro; Mizuno, Hajime; Katafuchi, Atsushi; Abe, Yu; Kurosu, Yumiko; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Sakai, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces cellular stress responses, such as signal transduction, gene expression, protein modification, and metabolite change that affect cellular behavior. We analyzed X-irradiated human Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphoblastoid cells and normal fibroblasts to search for metabolites that would be suitable IR-responsive markers by Liquid Chromotography–Mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Mass spectra, as analyzed with principal component analysis, showed that the proportion of peaks with IR-induced change was relatively small compared with the influence of culture time. Dozens of peaks that had either been upregulated or downregulated by IR were extracted as candidate IR markers. The IR-changed peaks were identified by comparing mock-treated groups to 100 mGy-irradiated groups that had recovered after 10 h, and the results indicated that the metabolites involved in nucleoside synthesis increased and that some acylcarnitine levels decreased in B lymphoblastoids. Some peaks changed by as much as 20 mGy, indicating the presence of an IR-sensitive signal transduction/metabolism control mechanism in these cells. On the other hand, we could not find common IR-changed peaks in fibroblasts of different origin. These data suggest that cell phenotype-specific pathways exist, even in low-dose responses, and could determine cell behavior. PMID:25227127

  11. Effects of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) on genome-wide DNA methylation in human B lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jianlin; Wang, Yu; Chen, Junqiang; Ju, Li; Yu, Min; Jiang, Zhaoqiang; Feng, Lingfang; Jin, Lingzhi; Zhang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Several previous studies highlighted the potential epigenetic effects of Cr(VI), especially DNA methylation. However, few studies have compared the effects of Cr(VI) on DNA methylation profiles between soluble and particulate chromate in vitro. Accordingly, Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip array was used to analyze DNA methylation profiles of human B lymphoblastoid cells exposed to potassium dichromate or lead chromate, and the cell viability was also studied. Array based DNA methylation analysis showed that the impacts of Cr(VI) on DNA methylation were limited, only about 40 differentially methylated CpG sites, with an overlap of 15CpG sites, were induced by both potassium dichromate and lead chromate. The results of mRNA expression showed that after Cr(VI) treatment, mRNA expression changes of four genes (TBL1Y, FZD5, IKZF2, and KIAA1949) were consistent with their DNA methylation alteration, but DNA methylation changes of other six genes did not correlate with mRNA expression. In conclusion, both of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) could induce a small amount of differentially methylated sites in human B lymphoblastoid cells, and the correlations between DNA methylation changes and mRNA expression varied between different genes. PMID:26433257

  12. Identification and localization of huntingtin in brain and human lymphoblastoid cell lines with anti-fusion protein antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Gutekunst, C A; Levey, A I; Heilman, C J; Whaley, W L; Yi, H; Nash, N R; Rees, H D; Madden, J J; Hersch, S M

    1995-01-01

    The Huntington disease (HD) phenotype is associated with expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the IT15 gene, which is predicted to encode a 348-kDa protein named huntington. We used polyclonal and monoclonal anti-fusion protein antibodies to identify native huntingtin in rat, monkey, and human. Western blots revealed a protein with the expected molecular weight which is present in the soluble fraction of rat and monkey brain tissues and lymphoblastoid cells from control cases. In lymphoblastoid cell lines from juvenile-onset heterozygote HD cases, both normal and mutant huntingtin are expressed, and increasing repeat expansion leads to lower levels of the mutant protein. Immunocytochemistry indicates that huntingtin is located in neurons throughout the brain, with the highest levels evident in larger neurons. In the human striatum, huntingtin is enriched in a patch-like distribution, potentially corresponding to the first areas affected in HD. Subcellular localization of huntingtin is consistent with a cytosolic protein primarily found in somatodendritic regions. Huntingtin appears to particularly associate with microtubules, although some is also associated with synaptic vesicles. On the basis of the localization of huntingtin in association with microtubules, we speculate that the mutation impairs the cytoskeletal anchoring or transport of mitochondria, vesicles, or other organelles or molecules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568002

  13. B lymphoblastoid cell lines as efficient APC to elicit CD8+ T cell responses against a cytomegalovirus antigen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Burton, R L; Dai, L J; Britt, W J; Lucas, K G

    2000-10-01

    Potent and readily accessible APC are critical for development of immunotherapy protocols to treat viral disease and cancer. We have shown that B lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCL) that stably express CMV phosphoprotein 65 (BLCLpp65), as a result of retroviral transduction, can be used to generate ex vivo CTL cultures that possess cytotoxicity against CMV and EBV. In this report, we demonstrate that the EBV-specific cytotoxicity in the BLCLpp65-primed culture had a spectrum of EBV-Ag recognition similar to that of the BLCL-primed counterpart, suggesting that retroviral transduction and expression of the CMV Ag would not compromise the Ag-presenting capacity of BLCL. In addition, BLCLpp65 appeared to present multiple natural pp65 epitopes, because pp65-specific CTL, which recognized different CMV clinical isolates, were generated in BLCLpp65-primed cultures from individuals with various HLA backgrounds. Consistent with a polyclonal expansion of virus-specific CTL, T cell lines established from the BLCLpp65-primed CTL cultures expressed different TCR-Vbeta Although most of the virus-specific T cell isolates were CD8+, EBV-specific CD4+ lines were also established from BLCLpp65-primed cultures. Western blot analysis revealed that the CD8+ lines, but not the CD4+ line, expressed granzyme B, consistent with features of classic CTL. Thus, our results suggested that BLCL stably expressing a foreign Ag might be used as a practical APC to elicit CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:11034422

  14. Protein degradation in a LAMP-2-deficient B-lymphoblastoid cell line from a patient with Danon disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Lanzas, Raul; Alvarez-Castelao, Beatriz; Bermejo, Teresa; Ayuso, Teresa; Tuñón, Teresa; Castaño, José G

    2016-08-01

    Danon disease, a condition characterized by cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and intellectual disability, is caused by mutations in the LAMP-2 gene. Lamp-2A protein, generated by alternative splicing from the Lamp-2 pre-mRNA, is reported to be the lysosomal membrane receptor essential for the chaperone-mediated autophagic pathway (CMA) aimed to selective protein targeting and translocation into the lysosomal lumen for degradation. To study the relevance of Lamp-2 in protein degradation, a lymphoblastoid cell line was obtained by EBV transformation of B-cells from a Danon patient. The derived cell line showed no significant expression of Lamp-2 protein. The steady-state mRNA and protein levels of alpha-synuclein, IΚBα, Rcan1, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, four proteins reported to be selective substrates of the CMA pathway, were similar in control and Lamp-2-deficient cells. Inhibition of protein synthesis showed that the half-life of alpha-synuclein, IΚBα, and Rcan1 was similar in control and Lamp-2-deficient cells, and its degradation prevented by proteasome inhibitors. Both in control and Lamp-2-deficient cells, induction of CMA and macroautophagy by serum and aminoacid starvation of cells for 8h produced a similar decrease in IΚBα and Rcan1 protein levels and was prevented by the addition of lysosome and autophagy inhibitors. In conclusion, the results presented here showed that Lamp-2 deficiency in human lymphoblastoid cells did not modify the steady-state levels or the degradation of several protein substrates reported as selective substrates of the CMA pathway. PMID:27130438

  15. Gene expression analysis of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymphoblastoid cell lines from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Barb, Jennifer J.; Raghavachari, Nalini; Liu, Poching; Woodhouse, Kimberly A.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Munson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of reports of gene expression analysis from blood-derived RNA sources, there have been few systematic comparisons of various RNA sources in transcriptomic analysis or for biomarker discovery in the context of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As a pilot study of the Systems Approach to Biomarker Research (SABRe) in CVD Initiative, this investigation used Affymetrix Exon arrays to characterize gene expression of three blood-derived RNA sources: lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), whole blood using PAXgene tubes (PAX), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Their performance was compared in relation to identifying transcript associations with sex and CVD risk factors, such as age, high-density lipoprotein, and smoking status, and the differential blood cell count. We also identified a set of exons that vary substantially between participants, but consistently in each RNA source. Such exons are thus stable phenotypes of the participant and may potentially become useful fingerprinting biomarkers. In agreement with previous studies, we found that each of the RNA sources is distinct. Unlike PAX and PBMC, LCL gene expression showed little association with the differential blood count. LCL, however, was able to detect two genes related to smoking status. PAX and PBMC identified Y-chromosome probe sets similarly and slightly better than LCL. PMID:22045913

  16. Targeting Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphoblastoid cells using antibodies with T-cell receptor-like specificities.

    PubMed

    Lai, Junyun; Tan, Wei Jian; Too, Chien Tei; Choo, Joanna Ai Ling; Wong, Lan Hiong; Mustafa, Fatimah Bte; Srinivasan, Nalini; Lim, Angeline Pei Chiew; Zhong, Youjia; Gascoigne, Nicholas R J; Hanson, Brendon J; Chan, Soh Ha; Chen, Jianzhu; MacAry, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncovirus associated with several human malignancies including posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in immunosuppressed patients. We show here that anti-EBV T-cell receptor-like monoclonal antibodies (TCR-like mAbs) E1, L1, and L2 bound to their respective HLA-A*0201-restricted EBV peptides EBNA1562-570, LMP1125-133, and LMP2A426-434 with high affinities and specificities. These mAbs recognized endogenously presented targets on EBV B lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCLs), but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells, from which they were derived. Furthermore, these mAbs displayed similar binding activities on several BLCLs, despite inherent heterogeneity between different donor samples. A single weekly administration of the naked mAbs reduced splenomegaly, liver tumor spots, and tumor burden in BLCL-engrafted immunodeficient NOD-SCID/Il2rg(-/-) mice. In particular, mice that were treated with the E1 mAb displayed a delayed weight loss and significantly prolonged survival. In vitro, these TCR-like mAbs induced early apoptosis of BLCLs, thereby enhancing their Fc-dependent phagocytic uptake by macrophages. These data provide evidence for TCR-like mAbs as potential therapeutic modalities to target EBV-associated diseases. PMID:27338099

  17. A genome-wide association analysis of temozolomide response using lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals a clinically relevant association with MGMT

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chad C.; Havener, Tammy M.; Medina, Marisa Wong; Auman, J. Todd; Mangravite, Lara M.; Krauss, Ronald M.; McLeod, Howard L.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) have emerged as an innovative model system for mapping gene variants that predict dose response to chemotherapy drugs. In the current study, this strategy was expanded to the in vitro genome-wide association approach, using 516 LCLs derived from a Caucasian cohort to assess cytotoxic response to temozolomide. Genome-wide association analysis using approximately 2.1 million quality controlled single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified a statistically significant association (p < 10−8) with SNPs in the O6-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. We also demonstrate that the primary SNP in this region is significantly associated with differential gene expression of MGMT (p< 10−26) in LCLs, and differential methylation in glioblastoma samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The previously documented clinical and functional relationships between MGMT and temozolomide response highlight the potential of well-powered GWAS of the LCL model system to identify meaningful genetic associations. PMID:23047291

  18. Effects of glucocorticoids on the interaction of lymphoblastoid cells with human endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maca, R D; Fry, G L; Hakes, A D

    1978-08-01

    The adhesive characteristics of cultured acute lymphocytic leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM), lymphoma cells (Raji), and freshly isolated acute lymphocytic leukemia cells to human cultured endothelial cells were studied. An assay system was used whereby these neoplastic cells were allowed to interact with endothelial cells while being continuously agitated on a rocking platform. All cell lines adhered significantly to the endothelium monolayers. This process appeared not to be dependent upon intact microtubular or microfilament function. Likewise, removing surface sialic acid from either cell type did not alter this process. In contrast incubating the endothelial cells for 24 or 48 hr with dexamethasone decreased adhesiveness of either CCRF-CEM or Raji cells to the endothelial cells by approximately 40%. Incubating these cells with hydrocortisone instead of dexamethasone for 48 hr was equally as effective in altering the endothelial cell adhesiveness. The decreased adhesiveness could be blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that this altered adhesiveness of the endothelial cells involves protein synthesis, presumably of a surface protein. We suggest that this assay system may provide a means to evaluate other agents that can alter the surface characteristics of endothelial cells, which may have important implications in various disease states such as inflammation, thrombogenesis, and metastatic disease. PMID:276420

  19. [The reproductive characteristics of human adenovirus type 2 in cultures of lymphoblastoid cells with B and T phenotypes].

    PubMed

    Povnitsa, O Iu; Diachenko, N S; Chernomaz, A A; Nosach, L N; Rybalko, S L; Gritsak, T F; Beregovenko, V N; Diadiun, S T

    1997-01-01

    A comparative characteristic of the reproduction process of type 2 human adenovirus in several lines of lymphoblastoid cells of B- and T-phenotype is presented. Formation of hexone and infectious virus in the cells of Jurkat, MT4, Raji lines was rather intensive and approached to that in the culture of the permissive epithelium cells Hep-2. These indices were much lower in the cultures of cells B 95-8 and MT4/BIII LBK which were chronically infected by VEB and HIV, accordingly and produced them that can evidence for the interference of Ad and VEB or Ad and HIV under superinfection of cells. Cells of SEM line possessing T-phenotype, were apparently semi-permissive for Ad h2, though the low almost unchanged content of hexone and infectious virus remains in them for a rather long time: about 15 days. Thus, obtained data within analyzed series of experiments expand the present ideas about lymphotropicity of Ad as their important property realized at the level of cell and infected macroorganism. PMID:9511371

  20. The effect of uranyl acetate on human lymphoblastoid cells (RPMI 6410) and HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, F. N.; Yang-Steppuhn, S. E.; Lalonde, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    RPMI 6410 cells and HeLa cells were exposed to uranyl acetate. In RPMI 6410 cell cultures this produced single-membrane-bound presumably lysosomal bodies (called "uraniosomes") containing electron-dense crystals in the cultured cells and crystalline deposits in extracellular locations. Neither uraniosomes nor extracellular uranium deposits were found in HeLa cell cultures. All uraniosomes and extracellular uranium deposits analysed by electron-probed X-ray analysis were found to contain uranium, potassium and phosphorus. Traces of sulphur were detected in some but not all uraniosomes and extracellular uranium deposits. Traces of calcium were found in all extracellular uranium deposits and in some uraniosomes also. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7093141

  1. Size-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ZnO particles to human lymphoblastoid (WIL2-NS) cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Casey, Philip S; McCall, Maxine J; Fenech, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between particle size and cytogenotoxicity of ZnO particles was systematically studied in vitro using WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cells. Before toxicity measurements, the ZnO particles of three different sizes (26 nm, 78 nm, and 147 nm) were well characterized for their physical and chemical properties to ensure that variations in other properties including surface chemistry and particle shape, which also may influence particle toxicity, were minimal. Cell viability testing showed that increasing cytotoxicity was associated with decreasing particle size. Both the dissolution kinetics of ZnO particles in supplemented cell culture medium and the apparent numbers of ZnO particles internalized by cells were size dependent and showed strong correlation with cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity, as measured by micronucleus formation, was significantly enhanced in the presence of the medium-sized and large-sized particles. The observation that necrosis increased with smaller- sized particles but micronuclei were present to a greater extent with larger- sized particles suggests that different mechanisms of cell damage induction or susceptibilities are operating depending on particle size. PMID:26248212

  2. NBS1 knockdown by small interfering RNA increases ionizing radiation mutagenesis and telomere association in human cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ying; Lim, Chang U K.; Williams, Eli S.; Zhou, Junqing; Zhang, Qinming; Fox, Michael H.; Bailey, Susan M.; Liber, Howard L.

    2005-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations which lead to decreased function of the NBS1 gene are responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disorder that imparts an increased predisposition to development of malignancy. The NBS1 protein is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex that plays a critical role in cellular responses to DNA damage and the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Using small interfering RNA transfection, we have knocked down NBS1 protein levels and analyzed relevant phenotypes in two closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different p53 status, namely wild-type TK6 and mutated WTK1. Both TK6 and WTK1 cells showed an increased level of ionizing radiation-induced mutation at the TK and HPRT loci, impaired phosphorylation of H2AX (gamma-H2AX), and impaired activation of the cell cycle checkpoint regulating kinase, Chk2. In TK6 cells, ionizing radiation-induced accumulation of p53/p21 and apoptosis were reduced. There was a differential response to ionizing radiation-induced cell killing between TK6 and WTK1 cells after NBS1 knockdown; TK6 cells were more resistant to killing, whereas WTK1 cells were more sensitive. NBS1 deficiency also resulted in a significant increase in telomere association that was independent of radiation exposure and p53 status. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that NBS1 deficiency in human cells leads to hypermutability and telomere associations, phenotypes that may contribute to the cancer predisposition seen among patients with this disease.

  3. Establishment of clival chordoma cell line MUG-CC1 and lymphoblastoid cells as a model for potential new treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gellner, Verena; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Lohberger, Birgit; Meditz, Katharina; Heitzer, Ellen; Mokry, Michael; Koele, Wolfgang; Leithner, Andreas; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Rinner, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are rare malignant tumors that develop from embryonic remnants of the notochord and arise only in the midline from the clivus to the sacrum. Surgery followed by radiotherapy is the standard treatment. As chordomas are resistant to standard chemotherapy, further treatment options are urgently needed. We describe the establishment of a clivus chordoma cell line, MUG-CC1. The cell line is characterized according to its morphology, immunohistochemistry, and growth kinetics. During establishment, cell culture supernatants were collected, and the growth factors HGF, SDF-1, FGF2, and PDGF analyzed using xMAP® technology. A spontaneous lymphoblastoid EBV-positive cell line was also developed and characterized. MUG-CC1 is strongly positive for brachyury, cytokeratin, and S100. The cell line showed gains of the entire chromosomes 7, 8, 12, 13, 16, 18, and 20, and high level gains on chromosomes 1q21–1q24 and 17q21–17q25. During cultivation, there was significant expression of HGF and SDF-1 compared to continuous chordoma cell lines. A new, well-characterized clival chordoma cell line, as well as a non-tumorigenic lymphoblastoid cell line should serve as an in vitro model for the development of potential new treatment strategies for patients suffering from this disease. PMID:27072875

  4. Host Genetic Variants and Gene Expression Patterns Associated with Epstein-Barr Virus Copy Number in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Houldcroft, Charlotte J.; Petrova, Velislava; Liu, Jimmy Z.; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Carl A.; Gall, Astrid; Kellam, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are commonly used in molecular genetics, supplying DNA for the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Projects, used to test chemotherapeutic agents, and informing the basis of a number of population genetics studies of gene expression. The process of transforming human B cells into LCLs requires the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a double-stranded DNA virus which through B-cell immortalisation maintains an episomal virus genome in every cell of an LCL at variable copy numbers. Previous studies have reported that EBV alters host-gene expression and EBV copy number may be under host genetic control. We performed a genome-wide association study of EBV genome copy number in LCLs and found the phenotype to be highly heritable, although no individual SNPs achieved a significant association with EBV copy number. The expression of two host genes (CXCL16 and AGL) was positively correlated and expression of ADARB2 was negatively correlated with EBV copy number in a genotype-independent manner. This study shows an association between EBV copy number and the gene expression profile of LCLs, and suggests that EBV copy number should be considered as a covariate in future studies of host gene expression in LCLs. PMID:25290448

  5. Cellular factors associated with latency and spontaneous Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in B-lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael L; Xu, Shushen; Lyons-Weiler, James; Rosendorff, Adam; Webber, Steven A; Wasil, Laura R; Metes, Diana; Rowe, David T

    2010-04-25

    EBV-immortalized B-lymphoblastoid cell lines are used as models for cellular transformation and as antigen-presenting cells in immunological assays. LCLs vary in surface markers and other phenotypic properties, but it is not known how this heterogeneity relates to the EBV life cycle. To explore correlations, we examined 62 LCLs for cellular and viral phenotypes. LCLs generated from pediatric and adult donors could similarly be categorized as either low in EBV copy number or fluctuating within a high range. High-copy status accompanied higher lytic viral gene expression and lower latent gene expression. Inhibiting lytic EBV replication did not affect cellular phenotype or lytic switch protein expression, indicating that an LCL's lytic permissivity was a stable property. Among the cellular genes overexpressed in permissive LCLs were unfolded protein response genes and plasma cell markers. Among genes overexpressed in non-permissive LCLs were transcription factors involved in maintaining B cell lineage, in particular EBF1. This study suggests previously undetected mechanisms by which cellular pathways influence the lytic reactivation of EBV. PMID:20153012

  6. Gene conversion is strongly induced in human cells by double-strand breaks and is modulated by the expression of BCL-XL

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, Claudia; Pierce, Andrew J.; Gauny, Stacey S.; Jasin, Maria; Kronenberg, Amy

    2001-09-25

    Homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is a well-established mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability in rodent cells, and it has been assumed that HDR is of similar importance in the repair of DSBs in human cells. However, in addition to promoting genomic stability, some outcomes of homologous recombination can be deleterious, suggesting that factors exist to regulate HDR. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of BCL-2 or BCL-xL enhanced the frequency of x-ray-induced mutations involving the TK1 locus, including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events presumed to arise by mitotic recombination. The present study was designed to test whether HDR is a prominent DSB repair pathway in human cells, and to directly determine whether ectopic expression of BCL-xL affects HDR. We used the B-lymphoblastoid cell line TK6, which expresses wild-type TP53 and resembles normal lymphocytes in undergoing apoptosis following! genotoxic stress. U sing isogenic derivatives of TK6 cells (TK6-neo, TK6-bcl-xL), we find that a DSB in an integrated HDR reporter stimulates gene conversion 40-50-fold in TK6-neo cells, demonstrating that a DSB can be efficiently repaired by gene conversion in human cells. Significantly, DSB-induced gene conversion events are 3- to 4-fold more frequent in BCL-xL overexpressing cells. The results demonstrate that HDR plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity in human cells and that ectopic expression of BCL-xL enhances HDR of DSBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight a function for BCL-xL in modulating DSB repair in human cells.

  7. Constant splice-isoform ratios in human lymphoblastoid cells support the concept of a splico-stat.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marcel; Huse, Klaus; Menzel, Uwe; Backhaus, Oliver; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan; Hampe, Jochen; Platzer, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    Splicing generates mature transcripts from genes in pieces in eukaryotic cells. Overwhelming evidence has accumulated that alternative routes in splicing are possible for most human and mammalian genes, thereby allowing formation of different transcripts from one gene. No function has been assigned to the majority of identified alternative splice forms, and it has been assumed that they compose inert or tolerated waste from aberrant or noisy splicing. Here we demonstrate that five human transcription units (WT1, NOD2, GNAS, RABL2A, RABL2B) have constant splice-isoform ratios in genetically diverse lymphoblastoid cell lines independent of the type of alternative splicing (exon skipping, alternative donor/acceptor, tandem splice sites) and gene expression level. Even splice events that create premature stop codons and potentially trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay are found at constant fractions. The analyzed alternative splicing events were qualitatively but not quantitatively conserved in corresponding chimpanzee cell lines. Additionally, subtle splicing at tandem acceptor splice sites (GNAS, RABL2A/B) was highly constrained and strongly depends on the upstream donor sequence content. These results also demonstrate that unusual and unproductive splice variants are produced in a regulated manner. PMID:21220357

  8. Utility of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Curran, Joanne E.; Glahn, David C.; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    A large number of EBV immortalized LCLs have been generated and maintained in genetic/epidemiological studies as a perpetual source of DNA and as a surrogate in vitro cell model. Recent successes in reprograming LCLs into iPSCs have paved the way for generating more relevant in vitro disease models using this existing bioresource. However, the overall reprogramming efficiency and success rate remain poor and very little is known about the mechanistic changes that take place at the transcriptome and cellular functional level during LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming. Here, we report a new optimized LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming protocol using episomal plasmids encoding pluripotency transcription factors and mouse p53DD (p53 carboxy-terminal dominant-negative fragment) and commercially available reprogramming media. We achieved a consistently high reprogramming efficiency and 100% success rate using this optimized protocol. Further, we investigated the transcriptional changes in mRNA and miRNA levels, using FC-abs ≥ 2.0 and FDR ≤ 0.05 cutoffs; 5,228 mRNAs and 77 miRNAs were differentially expressed during LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming. The functional enrichment analysis of the upregulated genes and activation of human pluripotency pathways in the reprogrammed iPSCs showed that the generated iPSCs possess transcriptional and functional profiles very similar to those of human ESCs. PMID:27375745

  9. Complete genome sequence of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus type strain (TK-6T)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeytun, Ahmet; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ngatchou, Olivier Duplex; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Ubler, Susanne; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Wirth, Reinhard; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogenobacter thermophilus Kawasumi et al. 1984 is the type species of the genus Hydrogenobacter. H. thermophilus was the first obligate autotrophic organism reported among aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Strain TK-6T is of interest because of the unusually efficient hydrogen-oxidizing ability of this strain, which results in a faster generation time compared to other autotrophs. It is also able to grow anaerobically using nitrate as an electron acceptor when molecular hydrogen is used as the energy source, and able to aerobically fix CO2 via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. This is the fifth completed genome sequence in the family Aquificaceae, and the second genome sequence determined from a strain derived from the original isolate. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 1,742,932 bp long genome with its 1,899 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with a combination of human lymphoblastoid interferon-alpha and cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Kotake, T; Kinouchi, T; Saiki, S; Kuroda, M; Miki, T; Kiyohara, H; Usami, M

    1991-02-01

    Human lymphoblastoid interferon-alpha was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 5 x 10(6) units/day to 20 metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. For potentiating the antitumor effect of interferon, cimetidine was also given to them orally at a dose of 800 mg/day. The combination therapy obtained a complete response in three patients (15%) and a partial response in three (15%). Nine patients (45%) had stable disease and five (25%), progressive disease. All six patients who responded to the combination therapy had been nephrectomized and had pulmonary metastases. Two of them also had metastases to other sites (mediastinal lymph nodes and bone). The pulmonary metastases were significantly more receptive to interferon therapy than those at the other sites. The average times before a response was obtained were 2.2 months for a minor response, 2.7 months for a partial response and 3.0 months for a complete response, and the average duration of response was 26 months. The six patients who responded survived for a significantly longer period than the 14 non-responding patients treated with interferon in combination with cimetidine. The major toxicities encountered were fever, fatigue and anorexia due to interferon, and the combination therapy was well tolerated except in three patients. The results suggest that interferon-alpha and cimetidine combination therapy may be of use in the management of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:2067120

  11. Membrane permeation characteristics of abacavir in human erythrocytes and human T-lymphoblastoid CD4+ CEM cells: comparison with (-)-carbovir.

    PubMed

    Mahony, William B; Domin, Barbara A; Daluge, Susan M; Zimmerman, Thomas P

    2004-11-01

    Abacavir, (-)-(1S,4R)-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-cyclopentene-1-methanol, is a novel purine carbocyclic nucleoside analogue that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of HIV (as Ziagen trade mark [abacavir sulfate]). Chemically, abacavir and (-)-carbovir (CBV) differ only at the 6-position of the purine ring; abacavir contains a cyclopropylamino moiety in place of the 6-lactam functionality of CBV. Intracellularly both are ultimately metabolized to CBV triphosphate. We compared the membrane permeation characteristics of these two compounds at 20 degrees C in human erythrocytes and in human T-lymphoblastoid CD4+ CEM cells, using a "papaverine-stop" assay. In erythrocytes, abacavir influx was rapid, nonsaturable (rate constant=200 pmol/s/mM/microl cell water), and unaffected by inhibitors of nucleoside or nucleobase transport. CBV influx was slow, saturable, strongly inhibited by adenine or hypoxanthine, and occurred via both the nucleobase carrier (Vmax=0.67 pmol/s/microl cell water; Km=50 microM) and the nucleoside carrier (Vmax=0.47 pmol/s/microl cell water; Km=440 microM). Similar qualitative results were obtained with CD4+ CEM cells, although CBV influx rates were somewhat higher and abacavir influx rates lower, compared to the corresponding rates in erythrocytes. Equilibrium studies further revealed that both compounds are concentrated intracellularly, but nonmetabolically, in both cell types, apparently due to cytosolic protein binding (absent in erythrocyte ghosts). We conclude that, in both cell types, while CBV influx is slow and carrier-dependent, abacavir influx occurs rapidly by nonfacilitated diffusion. The membrane permeation characteristics of abacavir are consistent with its superior oral bioavailability and its impressive ability to penetrate the central nervous system. PMID:15450945

  12. Human pathogenic Mycoplasma species induced cytokine gene expression in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Schäffner, E; Opitz, O; Pietsch, K; Bauer, G; Ehlers, S; Jacobs, E

    1998-04-01

    We addressed the question whether the in vitro interaction of two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-genome-positive B cell lines (EB-3 and HilB-gamma) with either Mycoplasma pneumoniae or M. hominis, with the mycoplasma species (M. fermentans, M. fermentans subsp. incognitus, M. penetrans, M. genitalium) or with mycoplasma species known to be mere commensals of the respiratory tract (M. orale and M. salivarium) would result in expression of mRNAs for IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4 and IL-6 as determined by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR after 4 and 24 h of cocultivation. The pattern of cytokine gene expression observed depended on (i) the origin of the transformed cell line, (ii) the pathogenicity of the Mycoplasma species, and (iii) the length of cocultivation. The EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell line HilB-gamma showed mRNA expression for IL-2, IL-2-receptor, IL-4 and IL-6 peaking 24 h after stimulation with M. pneumoniae and all AIDS-related mycoplasma species tested. The Burkitt lymphoma cell line EB-3 showed a distinct and isolated strong II-2/IL-2 R-mRNA expression within 4 h after contact with the pathogenic and all of the AIDS related mycoplasma species. In neither EBV-containing cell line cytokine was gene expression detectable after stimulation with the commensal mycoplasma species, M. orale and M. salivarium, indicating species differences in the ability of mycoplasmas to interact with and stimulate B-cell lines. Our data suggest that some mcyoplasma species may act as immunomodulatory cofactors by eliciting inappropriate cytokine gene expression in B cells latently infected with EBV. Therefore, this cultivation model may prove useful in evaluating the pathogenetic potential of novel isolated mycoplasma species. PMID:9533897

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Lymphoblastoid Cells from Nasu-Hakola Patients: A Step Forward in Our Understanding of This Neurodegenerative Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Serena; Agresta, Anna Maria; De Palma, Antonella; Viglio, Simona; Mauri, Pierluigi; Fumagalli, Marco; Iadarola, Paolo; Montalbetti, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a recessively inherited rare disorder characterized by a combination of neuropsychiatric and bone symptoms which, while being unique to this disease, do not provide a rationale for the unambiguous identification of patients. These individuals, in fact, are likely to go unrecognized either because they are considered to be affected by other kinds of dementia or by fibrous dysplasia of bone. Given that dementia in NHD has much in common with Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, it cannot be expected to achieve the differential diagnosis of this disease without performing a genetic analysis. Under this scenario, the availability of protein biomarkers would indeed provide a novel context to facilitate interpretation of symptoms and to make the precise identification of this disease possible. The work here reported was designed to generate, for the first time, protein profiles of lymphoblastoid cells from NHD patients. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) have been applied to all components of an Italian family (seven subjects) and to five healthy subjects included as controls. Comparative analyses revealed differences in the expression profile of 21 proteins involved in glucose metabolism and information pathways as well as in stress responses. PMID:25470616

  14. Expression of LFA-1 by a lymphoblastoid cell line from a patient with monosomy 21: effects on intercellular adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, G M; Braddock, D; Robson, A J; Fergusson, W D; Duckett, D P; D'Souza, S W; Brenchley, P

    1990-01-01

    Monosomy 21 (M21) is a rare aneuploid condition which in certain cases leads to reduced levels of chromosome 21 gene products. We have prepared an Epstein-Barr virus lymphoblastoid cell-line (LCL) from patient with M21 who has immunological abnormalities, and analysed the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). This heterodimeric leucocyte integrin consists of CD11a (alpha) subunits non-covalently associated with CD18 (beta) subunits coded, respectively, by genes on chromosomes 16 and 21. To determine whether monosomy 21 results in decreased expression of LFA-1, monoclonal antibodies were used to compare the expression of CD11a and CD18 on the M21 LCL with LCL from trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome, T21), normal controls and a possible case of leucocyte adhesion deficiency. In addition, phorbol-ester-induced homotypic adhesion, an LFA-1-mediated effect, was compared in these LCLs. The results are consistent with a gene dosage mediated reduction of LFA-1 expression by the M21 LCL. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1975779

  15. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. PMID:22939910

  16. Genetic Regulation of Charged Particle Mutagenesis in Human Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, S.; Cherbonnel-Lasserre, C.; Liu, W.; Wiese, C.

    1999-01-01

    Our studies use a series of syngeneic, and where possible, isogenic human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines to assess the genetic factors that modulate susceptibility apoptosis and their impact on the mutagenic risks of low fluence exposures to 1 GeV Fe ions and 55 MeV protons. These ions are representative of the types of charged particle radiation that are of particular significance for human health in the space radiation environment. The model system employs cell lines derived from the male donor WIL-2. These cells have a single X chromosome and they are hemizygous for one mutation marker, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). TK6 and WTK1 cells were each derived from descendants of WIL-2 and were each selected as heterozygotes for a second mutation marker, the thymidine kinase (TK) gene located on chromosome 17q. The HPRT and TK loci can detect many different types of mutations, from single basepair substitutions up to large scale loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The single expressing copy of TK in the TK6 and WTKI cell lines is found on the same copy of chromosome 17, and this allele can be identified by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) identified when high molecular weight DNA is digested by the SacI restriction endonuclease and hybridized against the cDNA probe for TK. A large series of polymorphic linked markers has been identified that span more than 60 cM of DNA (approx. 60 megabasepairs) and distinguish the copy of chromosome 17 bearing the initially active TK allele from the copy of chromosome 17 bearing the silent TK allele in both TK6 and WTKI cells. TK6 cells express normal p53 protein while WTKI cells express homozygous mutant p53. Expression of mutant p53 can increase susceptibility to x-ray-induced mutations. It's been suggested that the increased mutagenesis in p53 mutant cells might be due to reduced apoptosis.

  17. Sodium arsenite induces apoptosis and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Zebboudj, Abderezak; Maroui, Mohamed Ali; Dutrieux, Jacques; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia; Bourouba, Mehdi; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K; Nisole, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including carcinomas, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and lymphomas, such as Burkitt's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. The Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) is the major oncogene protein of EBV as its expression is responsible for the induction of cell transformation, immortalization and proliferation. Arsenic trioxide was shown to induce a cytotoxic effect on nasopharyngeal cancer cells associated with LMP1 down-regulation. However, the effect of arsenic on EBV-associated lymphoproliferative malignancies has been less studied. We investigated the effect of two different arsenical compounds, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) and sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) on the induction of cell death in P3HR1 cells, an Epstein-Barr virus-positive Burkitt lymphoma derived cell line. Both compounds inhibited cell growth and induced cell death. By flow-cytometry and Western blot analysis, we provide evidence that NaAsO2 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis whereas As2O3 triggered autophagic cell death. Furthermore, we show that NaAsO2 treatment led to a dramatic decrease of the expression level of LMP1 and the cellular protein PML. Importantly, this down-regulation was associated with a reactivation of EBV lytic cycle through the induction of immediate-early proteins Zta and Rta. These results are in agreement with a model in which LMP1 maintains EBV in a latent state by stabilizing PML expression. Altogether, our results suggest that NaAsO2 would represent a better therapeutic candidate than As2O3 in EBV-induced B lymphoma for its capacity to promote viral reactivation. PMID:25241256

  18. Radiosensitivity in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from Shwachman-Diamond syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Morini, J; Babini, G; Mariotti, L; Baiocco, G; Nacci, L; Maccario, C; Rößler, U; Minelli, A; Savio, M; Gomolka, M; Kulka, U; Ottolenghi, A; Danesino, C

    2015-09-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterised by bone marrow failure and a cumulative risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia. The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene, the only gene known to be causative of the pathology, is involved in ribosomal biogenesis, stress responses and DNA repair, and the lack of SBDS sensitises cells to many stressors and leads to mitotic spindle destabilisation. The effect of ionising radiation on SBDS-deficient cells was investigated using immortalised lymphocytes from SDS patients in comparison with positive and negative controls in order to test whether, in response to ionising radiation exposure, any impairment in the DNA repair machinery could be observed. After irradiating cells with different doses of X-rays or gamma-rays, DNA repair kinetics and the residual damages using the alkaline COMET assay and the γ-H2AX assay were assessed, respectively. In this work, preliminary data about the comparison between ionising radiation effects in different patients-derived cells and healthy control cells are presented. PMID:25870433

  19. Leukemia patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines exhibit increased induction of leukemia-associated transcripts following high-dose irradiation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A; Granter, N

    1999-09-01

    Improvement in diagnostic cytogenetic techniques has led to the recognition of an increasing number of leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations and inversions. These genetic lesions frequently are associated with the disruption of putative transcription factors and the production of hybrid transcripts that are implicated in leukemogenesis. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that some, but not all, individuals with a history of gamma-irradiation exposure are at increased risk of developing chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). CML is characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome and transcription of the resulting hybrid BCR-ABL gene. Utilizing the leukemia-associated BCR-ABL p210 transcript as a marker, we sought differences in the induction of illegitimate genetic recombination following high-dose gamma-irradiation of karyotypically normal lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) derived from individuals with and without a history of myeloid leukemias. Six LCL [4 leukemia patient derived [2 acute myeloid leukemia and 2 CML] and 2 from normal individuals were analyzed with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for BCR-ABL under stringent conditions following exposure to 0, 50, or 100 Gy of LET gamma-irradiation delivered via a Varian linear accelerator at 4 MV. Transcripts identical to disease-associated b2a2 and b3a2 transcripts were detected both spontaneously (background illegitimate genetic recombination) and following gamma-irradiation. Background BCR-ABL positivity was demonstrable in 4 of the 6 LCL, with no significant difference in detection between leukemic- and nonleukemic-derived LCL. Overall, increasing gamma-irradiation dose resulted in an increased frequency of BCR-ABL transcript detection (0 Gy vs 50 Gy vs 100 Gy,p = 0.0023, Chi-square test). Within the leukemic- but not the nonleukemic-derived LCL there was significantly greater BCR-ABL positivity after gamma-irradiation compared to unirradiated equivalents. Furthermore, the BCR-ABL positivity of both

  20. Effects of cell cycle position on ionizing radiation mutagenesis. I. Quantitative assays of two genetic loci in a human lymphoblastoid cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Yao-Yu; Liber, H.L.

    1996-11-01

    Relatively little work has been done on the influence of the position of the cell in the cell cycle on ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis. We synchronized WTK1 human lymphoblastoid cells with 200 {mu}M lovastatin for 48 h; under these conditions more than 80% of the cells were arrested in G{sub 1} phase. Upon release, there was a 12-15-h lag followed by movement of a large fraction into S phase. We irradiated cells with either 1.5 Gy X rays at 1, 15, 18, 21 or 24 h or 1.5 Gy {gamma} rays at 1, 5, 10, 15 or 24 h after release from lovastatin. We showed that WTK1 cells were most sensitive to ionizing radiation-induced toxicity in G{sub 1} and into S phase, and more resistant in mid to late S and G{sub 2}/M phase. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that the two different gene loci had different sensitivities to radiation-induced mutation through the cell cycle. Cells in late G{sub 1} through mid-S phase were most sensitive to radiation-induced mutations at the autosomal thymidine kinase (TK) locus, whereas G{sub 1} phase was the most sensitive phase at the X-linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. [The viral genome status studied under the conditions of a mixed infection in lymphoblastoid cells by adenovirus and the Epstein-Barr virus].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Diachenko, N S; Povnitsa, O Iu; Smirnova, I A; Kishinskaia, E G; Butenko, Z A; Panasenko, G V

    1998-01-01

    Some indices have been studied which characterized the state of Epstein-Barr virus genome and adenovirus in the implanted lines of lymphoblastoid cells of B and T phenotype under the mixed or monoinfection. It has been shown that super infection by type 2 adenovirus rather sharply affects the state of Epstein-Barr virus genome in the Raji cells containing integrated Epstein-Barr virus genome. The state of adenovirus genome in the studied cells is less subject to changes. Its early area is revealed by hybridization using DNA-DNA method in a form of two fragments of different intensity which is maximum in the Raji and Jurkat cells, which evidences for the more expressivity of adenovirus genome in these cells. PMID:9813890

  2. Studying the protein expression in human B lymphoblastoid cells exposed to 1.8-GHz (GSM) radiofrequency radiation (RFR) with protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhijian, Chen; Xiaoxue, Li; Wei, Zheng; Yezhen, Lu; Jianlin, Lou; Deqiang, Lu; Shijie, Chen; Lifen, Jin; Jiliang, He

    2013-03-29

    In the present study, the protein microarray was used to investigate the protein expression in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells intermittently exposed to 1.8-GHz GSM radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.0 W/kg for 24 h. The differential expression of 27 proteins was found, which were related to DNA damage repair, apoptosis, oncogenesis, cell cycle and proliferation (ratio >1.5-fold, P<0.05). The results validated with Western blot assay indicated that the expression of RPA32 was significantly down-regulated (P<0.05) while the expression of p73 was significantly up-regulated in RFR exposure group (P<0.05). Because of the crucial roles of those proteins in DNA repair and cell apoptosis, the results of present investigation may explain the biological effects of RFR on DNA damage/repair and cell apoptosis. PMID:23454122

  3. Apoptotic death induced by the cyclophosphamide analogue mafosfamide in human lymphoblastoid cells: Contribution of DNA replication, transcription inhibition and Chk/p53 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Michael; Roos, Wynand P. Kaina, Bernd

    2008-05-15

    Cyclophosphamide is one of the most often used anticancer drugs. Although DNA interstrand cross-links are considered responsible for its cytotoxicity, the mechanism of initiation and execution of cell death is largely unknown. Using the cyclophosphamide analogue mafosfamide, which does not need metabolic activation, we show that mafosfamide induces apoptosis dose and time dependently in lymphoblastoid cells, with clearly more apoptosis in p53{sup wt} cells. We identified two upstream processes that initiate apoptosis, DNA replication blockage and transcriptional inhibition. In lymphoblastoid cells, wherein DNA replication can be switched off by tetracycline, proliferation is required for inducing apoptosis at low dose mafosfamide. At high dose, transcriptional inhibition also contributes to cell death. The RNA synthesis inhibitor {alpha}-amanitin induced similar to mafosfamide more apoptosis in p53{sup wt} than in p53{sup mt} cells. In combination with mafosfamide, however, {alpha}-amanitin had no additive effect. Mafosfamide caused p53 stabilization by phosphorylation of Ser15, 20 and 37, and activation of ATM/ATR and Chk1/Chk2. Inhibition of ATM/ATR, PI3-kinase and Chk1/Chk2 by CGK733, wortmannin and DBH, respectively, attenuated the apoptotic response in p53{sup wt} but not p53{sup mt} cells. Mafosfamide induced caspase dependent apoptosis and, for low dose treated cells, caspases were preferentially activated in the S-phase, whereas at high dose caspases were activated in all cell cycle stages. These data support the conclusion that at low dose level of mafosfamide, DNA replication blockage is the dominant apoptosis-inducing event, while at high dose, transcriptional inhibition comes into play. The data provide a mechanistic explanation of why cyclophosphamide applied at therapeutic doses preferentially kills replicating tumor cells.

  4. Use of lymphoblastoid cells for the estimation of environmental insults to DNA. Comprehensive report of the overall activities of the contract during the past three years. Progress report, August 1, 1978-June 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    Research progress is reported on a study to detect chronic low-level exposure of individuals to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by analysis of DNA in cells with low turnover rates. The technique used was to measure the level of excision repair activity in lymphoblastoid and lymphoma cell lines. (ACR)

  5. Expression of p53-regulated genes in human cultured lymphoblastoid TSCE5 and WTK1 cell lines after spaceflight in a frozen state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Suzuki, H.; Omori, K.; Seki, M.; Hashizume, T.; Shimazu, T.; Ishioka, N.; Ohnishi, T.

    2011-03-01

    The 53 kDa tumor suppressor protein p53 is generally thought to contribute to the genetic stability of cells and to protect cells from DNA damage through the activity of p53-centered signal transduction pathways. To clarify the effect of space radiation on the expression of p53-dependent regulated genes, gene expression profiles were compared between two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines: one line (TSCE5) has a wild-type p53 gene status, and the other line (WTK1) has a mutated p53 gene status. Frozen human lymphoblastoid cells were stored in a freezer in the International Space Station (ISS) for 133 days. Gene expression was analyzed using DNA chips after culturing the space samples for 6 h on the ground after their return from space. Ground control samples were also cultured for 6 h after being stored in a frozen state on the ground for the same time period that the frozen cells were in space. p53-Dependent gene expression was calculated from the ratio of the gene expression values in wild-type p53 cells and in mutated p53 cells. The expression of 50 p53-dependent genes was up-regulated, and the expression of 94 p53-dependent genes was down-regulated after spaceflight. These expression data identified genes which could be useful in advancing studies in basic space radiation biology. The biological meaning of these results is discussed from the aspect of gene functions in the up- and down-regulated genes after exposure to low doses of space radiation.

  6. Lymphoblastoid cell supernatants increase expression of C3b receptors on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes: direct binding studies with 125I-C3b.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M; Cross, A S

    1984-01-01

    Human PMN incubated in culture supernatants of the Raji long-term human lymphoblastoid cell line showed increased rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes coated with C3b (EIgM C4b3b) but no change in rosette formation with IgG-coated erythrocytes. This suggested a specific increase in cell surface C3b receptors, which was further investigated using 125I-C3b for direct binding studies. The results confirmed that specific binding of 125I-C3b to PMN incubated in culture supernatants increased up to three- to four-fold over binding to PMN incubated in control media alone. Scatchard analysis revealed that the apparent Ka for supernatant-treated cells, 3.36 +/- 0.89 X 10(7) L/M did not differ from the Ka for cells incubated in control media, 3.76 +/- 0.75 X 10(7) L/M, suggesting an increase in a single class of C3b receptors. Kinetic studies revealed that the active factor was present within 24 hr of culture of the Raji cells, and that neutrophils incubated in culture supernatants increased their C3b receptors continuously for up to 4 hr, the longest interval tested. The effect of the culture supernatant was lost with dilution beyond eight- to 10-fold. The results suggest that culture supernatants of this long-term lymphoblastoid cell line contain soluble factors that induce increased expression of C3b receptors on PMN and may thus serve as a model for study of important physiologic effects of lymphocyte products on PMN in vivo. PMID:6230308

  7. Host cell reactivation of uv- and X-ray-damaged herpes simplex virus by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, E.E.; Long, W.K.

    1981-12-01

    The efficacy of using an infected centers assay, employing herpes simplex virus-infected, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as components, to study host cell reactivation has been explored. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was shown through the infected centers assay to have detectable but varying ability to lytically infect LCLs established from chromosomal breakage syndromes or closely related genetic disorders. The rate of HSV inactivation by ultraviolet (uv) irradiation was faster in LCLs established from Cockaynes's syndrome than in normal LCLs, and faster still in LCLs established from xeroderma pigmentosum. These results indicate that Cockayne's syndrome, while having what appears to be quantitatively normal levels of uv-induced DNA repair replication, shows decreased ability to host cell reactivated uv-damaged HSV. In direct contrast, X-irradiated HSV showed identical survival when assayed on normal LCLs or LCLs established from ataxia telangiectasia showing increased sensitivity to X irradiation as measured by colony formation. Through the infected centers assay, it has also been possible to demonstrate low levels of multiplicity reactivation of mutagen-damaged HSV in permanently proliferating LCLs.

  8. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Rex regulatory protein exhibits an impaired functionality in human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hamaia, S; Cassé, H; Gazzolo, L; Duc Dodon, M

    1997-01-01

    The Rex protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) intervenes in the posttranscriptional regulation of proviral gene expression. Its binding to the Rex response element (XRE) present in the 3' long terminal repeat ensures the coordinate cytoplasmic accumulation of spliced and unspliced forms of viral messengers. Consequently, synthesis of viral structural and enzymatic proteins is strictly dependent on the Rex posttranscriptional activity. Here we report that synthesis of HTLV-1 envelope glycoproteins by Jurkat T cells could be detected only when they were regulated in a Rex-independent manner. Indeed, Jurkat T cells transfected with a Rex-dependent env expression vector (encompassing both the env and pX open reading frames) do not produce significant levels of envelope glycoproteins despite the production of significant amounts of Rex protein. The analysis of levels and distribution patterns of the unspliced env and of the singly spliced tax/rex transcripts suggests that the failure in envelope glycoprotein synthesis may be ascribed to a deficiency of Rex in mediating the nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced env RNAs in these cells. Furthermore, despite the synthesis of regulatory proteins, HTLV-1 structural proteins were not detected in Jurkat T cells transfected with an HTLV-1 infectious provirus. Conversely, and as expected, structural proteins were produced by Jurkat cells transfected by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectious provirus. This phenotype appeared to be linked to a specific dysfunction of Rex, since the functionally equivalent Rev protein of HIV-1 was shown to be fully efficient in promoting the synthesis of HTLV-1 envelope glycoproteins in Jurkat cells. Therefore, it seems likely that the block to Rex function in these lymphoblastoid T cells is determined by inefficient Rex-XRE interactions. These observations suggest that the acquisition of this Rex-deficient phenotype by in vivo-infected HTLV-1 T cells may

  9. Failure to detect DUP25 in lymphoblastoid cells derived from patients with panic disorder and control individuals representing European and American populations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanshan; Bartsch, Oliver; Skrypnyk, Cristina; Rotondo, Alessandro; Akhtar, Longina A; Harris, Claudia; Virkkunen, Matti; Cassano, Giovanni; Goldman, David

    2004-06-01

    Investigation of the co-occurrence of panic and phobic disorders with joint laxity led to the identification of interstitial duplications involving human chromosome 15q24-26 (named 'DUP25') in a Spanish population. DUP25 was observed in 97% of patients and in 7% of control individuals. In the present study, we used two different methods to detect DUP25: high-throughput molecular gene dosage analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We evaluated 56 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 26 unrelated patients with panic disorder obtained from several European and American populations and 30 normal controls. We could not find any cell line showing a result consistent with DUP25. These data do not support any association of DUP25 with panic disorder. PMID:15054397

  10. The EBNA3 Family of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Proteins Associates with the USP46/USP12 Deubiquitination Complexes to Regulate Lymphoblastoid Cell Line Growth

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, Michael A.; Lai, Chiou-Yan; Krastins, Bryan; Sarracino, David; Johannsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear proteins EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C interact with the cell DNA binding protein RBPJ and regulate cell and viral genes. Repression of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene products p16INK4A and p14ARF by EBNA3A and EBNA3C is critical for EBV mediated transformation of resting B lymphocytes into immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). To define the composition of endogenous EBNA3 protein complexes, we generated lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) expressing flag-HA tagged EBNA3A, EBNA3B, or EBNA3C and used tandem affinity purification to isolate each EBNA3 complex. Our results demonstrated that each EBNA3 protein forms a distinct complex with RBPJ. Mass-spectrometry revealed that the EBNA3A and EBNA3B complexes also contained the deubquitylation complex consisting of WDR48, WDR20, and USP46 (or its paralog USP12) and that EBNA3C complexes contained WDR48. Immunoprecipitation confirmed that EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C association with the USP46 complex. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that WDR48 and USP46 are recruited to the p14ARF promoter in an EBNA3C dependent manner. Mapping studies were consistent with WDR48 being the primary mediator of EBNA3 association with the DUB complex. By ChIP assay, WDR48 was recruited to the p14ARF promoter in an EBNA3C dependent manner. Importantly, WDR48 associated with EBNA3A and EBNA3C domains that are critical for LCL growth, suggesting a role for USP46/USP12 in EBV induced growth transformation. PMID:25855980

  11. A Single Amino Acid in EBNA-2 Determines Superior B Lymphoblastoid Cell Line Growth Maintenance by Epstein-Barr Virus Type 1 EBNA-2

    PubMed Central

    Tzellos, Stelios; Correia, Paulo B.; Karstegl, Claudio Elgueta; Cancian, Laila; Cano-Flanagan, Julian; McClellan, Michael J.; West, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequence differences in the EBNA-2 protein mediate the superior ability of type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to transform human B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines compared to that of type 2 EBV. Here we show that changing a single amino acid (S442D) from serine in type 2 EBNA-2 to the aspartate found in type 1 EBNA-2 confers a type 1 growth phenotype in a lymphoblastoid cell line growth maintenance assay. This amino acid lies in the transactivation domain of EBNA-2, and the S442D change increases activity in a transactivation domain assay. The superior growth properties of type 1 EBNA-2 correlate with the greater induction of EBV LMP-1 and about 10 cell genes, including CXCR7. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, type 1 EBNA-2 is shown to associate more strongly with EBNA-2 binding sites near the LMP-1 and CXCR7 genes. Unbiased motif searching of the EBNA-2 binding regions of the differentially regulated cell genes identified an ETS-interferon regulatory factor composite element motif that closely corresponds to the sequences known to mediate EBNA-2 regulation of the LMP-1 promoter. It appears that the superior induction by type 1 EBNA-2 of the cell genes contributing to cell growth is due to their being regulated in a manner different from that for most EBNA-2-responsive genes and in a way similar to that for the LMP-1 gene. IMPORTANCE The EBNA-2 transcription factor plays a key role in B cell transformation by EBV and defines the two EBV types. Here we identify a single amino acid (Ser in type 1 EBV, Asp in type 2 EBV) of EBNA-2 that determines the superior ability of type 1 EBNA-2 to induce a key group of cell genes and the EBV LMP-1 gene, which mediate the growth advantage of B cells infected with type 1 EBV. The EBNA-2 binding sites in these cell genes have a sequence motif similar to the sequence known to mediate regulation of the EBV LMP-1 promoter. Further detailed analysis of transactivation and promoter binding provides new insight into the

  12. Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

    2011-04-18

    We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

  13. Infection of simian B lymphoblastoid cells with simian immunodeficiency virus is associated with upregulation of CD23 and CD40 cell surface markers.

    PubMed

    Titti, Fausto; Zamarchi, Rita; Maggiorella, Maria Teresa; Sernicola, Leonardo; Geraci, Andrea; Negri, Donatella Rita Maria; Borsetti, Alessandra; Menin, Chiara; D'Andrea, Emma; Modesti, Andrea; Masuelli, Laura; Verani, Paola; Chieco-Bianchi, Luigi; Amadori, Alberto

    2002-09-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induce polyclonal B-cell activation and are associated with the appearance of lymphomas in their respective hosts in either the presence or the absence of other co-infecting viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, the pathogenic role of these retroviruses in the development of lymphoproliferative disorders remains poorly understood. To explore the virus-B-cell interactions, two immortalized lymphoblastoid B-cell lines (SL-P1 and SL-691) were established from cynomolgus monkeys that were naturally co-infected with a simian type D retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) and with the herpes virus Macaca fascicularis (HVMF-1). We addressed their susceptibility to SIV infection and the phenotypic modifications associated with SIV infection. In response, both cell lines (1) were co-infected with HVMF-1 (latent infection) and with SRV-2 (productive infection), (2) had a transformed phenotype because they did not require exogenous growth factors, and (3) when injected into mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), generated serially transplantable tumors. The B-cell origin of SL cells was demonstrated by the presence of rearrangements of the IgH gene and by the expression of typical B-cell lineage markers, such as CD20. SL-P1 and SL-691 could be discriminated on the basis of different expressions of CD23 and CD40 and of kappa- and lambda-chains. Most importantly, SL-691 cells, but not SL-P1 cells, were susceptible to chronic noncytolytic SIV infection. This infection occurred in a CD4/CCR5/CXCR4-independent manner and was associated with the upregulated expression of CD23 and CD40 cell surface markers. In addition, CD20 expression, which progressively disappeared in SL-691 noninfected cells, was maintained in the SIV-infected counterpart. These findings support the hypothesis that SIV induce phenotypic perturbations in B cells that might eventually contribute to the development of

  14. Studying the protein expression in human B lymphoblastoid cells exposed to 1.8-GHz (GSM) radiofrequency radiation (RFR) with protein microarray

    SciTech Connect

    Zhijian, Chen; Institute of Environmental Health, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang ; Xiaoxue, Li; Wei, Zheng; Yezhen, Lu; Jianlin, Lou; Deqiang, Lu; Shijie, Chen; Lifen, Jin; Jiliang, He

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Protein microarray shows the differential expression of 27 proteins induced by RFR. ► RPA32 related to DNA repair is down-regulated in Western blot. ► p73 related to cell genome stability and apoptosis is up-regulated in Western blot. -- Abstract: In the present study, the protein microarray was used to investigate the protein expression in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells intermittently exposed to 1.8-GHz GSM radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.0 W/kg for 24 h. The differential expression of 27 proteins was found, which were related to DNA damage repair, apoptosis, oncogenesis, cell cycle and proliferation (ratio >1.5-fold, P < 0.05). The results validated with Western blot assay indicated that the expression of RPA32 was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) while the expression of p73 was significantly up-regulated in RFR exposure group (P < 0.05). Because of the crucial roles of those proteins in DNA repair and cell apoptosis, the results of present investigation may explain the biological effects of RFR on DNA damage/repair and cell apoptosis.

  15. Marek's disease virus undergoes complete morphogenesis after reactivation in a T-lymphoblastoid cell line transformed by recombinant fluorescent marker virus.

    PubMed

    Denesvre, Caroline; Rémy, Sylvie; Trapp-Fragnet, Laetitia; Smith, Lorraine P; Georgeault, Sonia; Vautherot, Jean-François; Nair, Venugopal

    2016-02-01

    T-lymphocytes are central targets of Marek's disease, a major chicken disease induced by the oncogenic alphaherpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV). T-lymphocyte infection is also associated with immunosuppression and virus latency. To decipher viral morphogenesis in T-lymphocytes, we used the recombinant vRB-1B 47EGFP marker virus to generate a new lymphoblastoid cell line, 3867K, that exhibited typical properties of other MDV-transformed chicken cell lines in term of cell markers, reactivation rate and infectivity. Examination of reactivating EGFP-positive 3867K cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of most types of herpesvirus particles inside the cells but no extracellular ones. Quantification of virion types indicated only 5% cytoplasmic particles, with 0.5% being mature. This study demonstrated that MDV morphogenesis is complete upon reactivation in T-lymphocytes, albeit with poor efficiency, with a defect in the exit of virions from the nucleus and secondary envelopment, as occurs in infected fibroblasts. PMID:26612074

  16. Cytoskeletal proteins from human skin fibroblasts, peripheral blood leukocytes, and a lymphoblastoid cell line compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Willard, K.E.; Anderson, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    Differences in proteins between cells grown as suspension cultures and those grown as attached cultures were studied by comparing the proteins of detergent-resistant cytoskeletons prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line (GM607) (both grown as suspension cultures) and those of human skin fibroblasts (grown as attached cultures) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major cytoskeletal proteins of the leukocytes were also present in the protein pattern of GM607 cytoskeletons. In contrast, the fibroblast cytoskeletal protein pattern contained four groups of proteins that differed from the patterns of the leukocytes and GM607. In addition, surface labeling of GM607 and human fibroblasts with /sup 125/I demonstrated that substantial amounts of vimentin and actin are exposed at the surface of the attached fibroblasts, but there is little evidence of similar exposure at the surface of the suspension-grown GM607. These results demonstrate some differences in cytoskeletal protein composition between different types of cells could be related to their ability or lack of ability to grow as attached cells in tissue culture.

  17. Purification and characterization of 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from a thermophilic, obligately chemolithoautotrophic bacterium, Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6.

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, K S; Ishii, M; Igarashi, Y; Kodama, T

    1996-01-01

    2-Oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from a thermophilic, obligately autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and by fractionation by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, polyacrylate-quaternary amine, hydroxyapatite, and Superdex-200 chromatography. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of about 105 kDa and comprised two subunits (70 kDa and 35 kDa). The activity of the 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase was detected by the use of 2-oxoglutarate, coenzyme A, and one of several electron acceptors in substrate amounts (ferredoxin isolated from H. thermophilus, flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide, or methyl viologen). NAD, NADP, and ferredoxins from Chlorella spp. and Clostridium pasteurianum were ineffective. The enzyme was extremely thermostable; the temperature optimum for 2-oxoglutarate oxidation was above 80 degrees C, and the time for a 50% loss of activity at 70 degrees C under anaerobic conditions was 22 h. The optimum pH for a 2-oxoglutarate oxidation reaction was 7.6 to 7.8. The apparent Km values for 2-oxoglutarate and coenzyme A at 70 degrees C were 1.42 mM and 80 microM, respectively. PMID:8655524

  18. Microwave electromagnetic field regulates gene expression in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line exposed to 900 MHz.

    PubMed

    Trivino Pardo, Juan Carlos; Grimaldi, Settimio; Taranta, Monia; Naldi, Ilaria; Cinti, Caterina

    2012-03-01

    Electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in our society, and concerns have been expressed regarding possible adverse effects of these exposures. Research on Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been performed for more than two decades, and the methodology and quality of studies have improved over time. Studies have consistently shown increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with ELF magnetic fields. There are still inadequate data for other outcomes. More recently, focus has shifted toward Radio Frequencies (RF) exposures from mobile telephony. There are no persuasive data suggesting a health risk, but this research field is still immature with regard to the quantity and quality of available data. This technology is constantly changing and there is a need for continued research on this issue. To investigate whether exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) could induce adverse health effects, we cultured acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM) in the presence of 900 MHz MW-EMF generated by a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell at short and long exposure times. We evaluated the effect of high-frequency EMF on gene expression and we identified functional pathways influenced by 900 MHz MW-EMF exposure. PMID:22332889

  19. Zinc carnosine protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in WIL2-NS lymphoblastoid cell line independent of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase expression.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Mohammad, Nur Hafiza; Sharif, Razinah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of zinc carnosine to protect the human lymphoblastoid (WIL2-NS) cell line from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage. Cells were cultured with medium containing zinc carnosine at the concentrations of 0.4, 4, 16 and 32 μM for 9 days prior to treatment with 30 μM of hydrogen peroxide (30 min). Zinc carnosine at the concentration 16 μM was optimal in protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and gave the lowest percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Results showed that zinc carnosine was able to induce glutathione production and protect cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress at all concentration and the highest protection was observed at 32-μM zinc carnosine culture. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay showed that cells cultured with 4-32 μM of zinc carnosine showed significant reduction in micronuclei formation, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear bud frequencies (p < 0.05), suggesting that these concentrations maybe optimal in protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage. However, after being challenged with hydrogen peroxide, no increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression was observed. Thus, results from this study demonstrate that zinc carnosines possess antioxidant properties and are able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in vitro independent of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Further studies are warranted to understand the mechanism of protection of zinc carnosine against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage. PMID:25326781

  20. Induction of epstein-barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle in vitro causes lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage in lymphoblastoid B cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the oxidative modifications of lipids, proteins and DNA, potential molecular targets of oxidative stress, in two lymphoblastoid cell lines: B95-8 and Raji, after EBV lytic cycle induction. Conjugated dienes level was measured as biomarker of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde adduct and protein carbonyl levels, as well as protein thiol levels were measured as biomarkers of protein oxidation. DNA fragmentation was evaluated as biomarker of DNA oxidation. Results After 48 h (peak of lytic cycle), a significant increase in conjugated dienes level was observed in B95-8 and Raji cell lines (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.019 respectively). Malondialdehyde adduct, protein carbonyl levels were increased in B95-8 and Raji cell lines after EBV lytic cycle induction as compared to controls (MDA-adduct: p = 0.008 and p = 0.006 respectively; Carbonyl: p = 0.003 and p = 0.0039 respectively). Proteins thiol levels were decreased by induction in B95-8 and Raji cell lines (p = 0.046; p = 0.002 respectively). DNA fragmentation was also detected in B95-8 and Raji cell lines after EBV lytic cycle induction as compared to controls. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the presence of increased combined oxidative modifications in lipids, proteins in B95-8 and Raji cells lines after EBV lytic cycle induction. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA fragmentation are generally induced during EBV lytic cycle induction and probably contribute to the cytopathic effect of EBV. PMID:21722381

  1. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Differentially Affects Lithium Sensitivity of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines from Lithium Responder and Non-responder Bipolar Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Elena; Hadar, Adva; Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Werner, Haim; Shomron, Noam; Gennarelli, Massimo; Schulze, Thomas G; Costa, Marta; Del Zompo, Maria; Squassina, Alessio; Gurwitz, David

    2015-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric illness with an unknown etiology. Lithium is considered the cornerstone in the management of BD, though about 50-60 % of patients do not respond sufficiently to chronic treatment. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been identified as a candidate gene for BD susceptibility, and its low expression has been suggested as a putative biomarker for lithium unresponsiveness. In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on lithium sensitivity in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from lithium responder (R) and non-responder (NR) bipolar patients. Moreover, we evaluated levels of microRNA let-7c, a small RNA predicted to target IGF1. We found that exogenous IGF-1 added to serum-free media increased lithium sensitivity selectively in LCLs from NR BD patients. However, no significant differences were observed when comparing let-7c expression in LCLs from R vs. NR BD patients. Our data support a key role for IGF-1 in lithium resistance/response in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:25740013

  2. Growth of diploid, Epstein-Barr virus-carrying human lymphoblastoid cell lines heterotransplanted into nude mice under immunologically privileged conditions.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, B; Nilsson, K; Zech, L; Yim, O; Klein, G; Stehlin, J S

    1979-07-15

    Human Epstein-Barr virus-carrying lymphoid cell lines which have been classified on the basis of studies on clonality and morphological, chromosomal and functional parameters as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) of presumed non-neoplastic origin were inoculated intracerebrally into nude mice. All eighteen of them grew, killing the host mice within 7 to 25 days, except for 2 which grew more slowly. At autopsy, the brain of the nudes was found to be invaded by infiltrating lymphomas. Sixteen of these lymphomas, when recultured in vitro, gave rise to cell lines with growth properties and morphology indistinguishable from those of the inoculated LCL. Chromosomal examinations showed that 3/7 cell lines injected, which grew as lymphomas in the brain, were still normal diploid on reexplantation whereas the remaining four had become aneuploid. Four lines derived from intracerebral lymphomas (2 diploid, 1 aneuploid and 1 untested) were inoculated subcutaneously into adult nude mice. None of them grew. When the corresponding four original LCL lines were inoculated subcutaneously into newborn nude mice, they grew rapidly, but failed to do so in newborn normal mice or intracerebrally in adult normal mice. One such line, U-1450, was treated with anti-lymphocyte serum (ALS). Small nodules developed at the site of inoculation. From one nodule a cell line was cultured, 1450 ALSAD. It was morphologically indistinguishable from the line of origin. The lines obtained from nude mice inoculated with polyclonal LCL seem to have a restricted clonal representation, but were not monoclonal, as evidenced by analyses of their pattern of immunoglobulin synthesis. PMID:225282

  3. Effect of oxidative stress on DNA damage and beta-amyloid precursor proteins in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, D K; Xu, Y; Klaunig, J; Baiyewu, O; Ogunniyi, A; Hall, K; Hendrie, H; Sahota, A

    1999-01-01

    The epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is strongly associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian populations, but our studies suggest that APOE epsilon 4 is not a risk factor for AD in Nigerian blacks and is a weak risk factor in African-Americans. The prevalence of AD is lower in Nigerians than in African-Americans. Increased oxidative damage to macromolecules in brain tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been reported in AD. Here we examined the effects of endogenous and induced oxidative stress on total (nuclear and mitochondrial) DNA damage in lymphoblastoid cell lines (5 probable AD and 3 controls) from Ibadan, Nigeria. Cells were exposed to 200 microM t-butyl peroxide (a generator of ROS) for 4 hours. Total DNA was isolated and digested with nuclease P1 and alkaline phosphatase. DNA fragments were separated by HPLC and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG, an indicator of DNA damage) and deoxyguanosine (dG) determined. We did not detect a significant difference in the OH8dG/dG ratio in untreated or treated cell lines in the two groups, and this was independent of APOE genotype. We also examined, by Western blotting, the level of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) which is involved in AD. The level of the heat shock protein (HSP-70) was examined as a control. There was a slight decrease in levels of APP and HSP-70 following treatment. Studies in cell lines from Caucasian subjects have shown an increase in mitochondrial DNA damage following oxidative challenge. Our preliminary results suggest that African populations are less vulnerable to chemical-induced oxidative DNA damage. PMID:10672260

  4. Human B lymphoblastoid cells contain distinct patterns of cathepsin activity in endocytic compartments and regulate MHC class II transport in a cathepsin S-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Lautwein, Alfred; Kraus, Marianne; Reich, Michael; Burster, Timo; Brandenburg, J; Overkleeft, Herman S; Schwarz, Gerold; Kammer, Winfried; Weber, Ekkehard; Kalbacher, Hubert; Nordheim, Alfred; Driessen, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    Endocytic proteolysis represents a major functional component of the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-presentation machinery. Although transport and assembly of class II molecules in the endocytic compartment are well characterized, we lack information about the pattern of endocytic protease activity along this pathway. Here, we used chemical tools that visualize endocytic proteases in an activity-dependent manner in combination with subcellular fractionation to dissect the subcellular distribution of the major cathepsins (Cat) CatS, CatB, CatH, CatD, CatC, and CatZ as well as the asparagine-specific endoprotease (AEP) in human B-lymphoblastoid cells (BLC). Endocytic proteases were distributed in two distinct patterns: CatB and CatZ were most prominent in early and late endosomes but absent from lysosomes, and CatH, CatS, CatD, CatC, and AEP distributed between late endosomes and lysosomes, suggesting that CatB and CatZ might be involved in the initial proteolytic attack on a given antigen. The entire spectrum of protease activity colocalized with human leukocyte antigen-DM and the C-terminal and N-terminal processing of invariant chain (Ii) in late endosomes. CatS was active in all endocytic compartments. Surprisingly and in contrast with results from dendritic cells, inhibition of CatS activity by leucine-homophenylalanine-vinylsulfone-phenol prevented N-terminal processing of Ii but did not alter the subcellular trafficking or surface delivery of class II complexes, as deferred from pulse-chase analysis in combination with subcellular fractionation and biotinylation of cell-surface protein. Thus, BLC contain distinct activity patterns of proteases in endocytic compartments and regulate the intracellular transport and surface-delivery of class II in a CatS-independent manner. PMID:14966190

  5. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Main, Penelope A E; Thomas, Philip; Esterman, Adrian; Fenech, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case-sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  6. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    Fenech, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case–sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  7. The effect of zinc sulphate and zinc carnosine on genome stability and cytotoxicity in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Graham, Robin D; Fenech, Michael

    2011-02-28

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential cofactor required by numerous enzymes that are essential for cell metabolism and the maintenance of DNA integrity. We investigated the effect of Zn deficiency or excess on genomic instability events and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds that minimize DNA-damage events. The effects of Zn sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and Zn carnosine (ZnC) on cell proliferation were investigated in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line. DNA damage was determined by the use of both the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Zn-deficient medium (0μM) was produced using Chelex treatment, and the two Zn compounds (i.e. ZnSO(4) and ZnC) were tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 4.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 100.0μM. Results from an MTT assay showed that cell growth and viability were decreased in Zn-depleted cells (0μM) as well as at 32μM and 100μM for both Zn compounds (P<0.0001). DNA strand-breaks, as measured by the comet assay, were found to be increased in Zn-depleted cells compared with the other treatment groups (P<0.05). The CBMN-Cyt assay showed a significant increase in the frequency of both apoptotic and necrotic cells under Zn-deficient conditions (P<0.0001). Elevated frequencies of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBuds) were induced in Zn-depleted cells (P<0.0001), whereas genome damage was reduced in supplemented cultures for both Zn compounds at 4μM and 16μM, possibly suggesting that these concentrations may be optimal for genome stability. The potential protective effect of ZnSO(4) and ZnC was also investigated following exposure to 1.0Gy γ-radiation. Culture in medium containing these compounds at 4-32μM prior to irradiation displayed significantly reduced frequencies of MNi, NPBs and NBuds compared with cells maintained in 0μM medium (P<0.0001). Expression of γ-H2AX and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase measured by western blotting was increased in Zn

  8. A Study of Alterations in DNA Epigenetic Modifications (5mC and 5hmC) and Gene Expression Influenced by Simulated Microgravity in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Yunlong; Lossie, Amy C.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Cells alter their gene expression in response to exposure to various environmental changes. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are believed to regulate the alterations in gene expression patterns. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented changes in cellular proliferation, cytoskeletal remodeling, signal transduction, bone mineralization and immune deficiency under the influence of microgravity conditions experienced in space. However microgravity induced changes in the epigenome have not been well characterized. In this study we have used Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) to profile ground-based “simulated” microgravity induced changes on DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine or 5mC), hydroxymethylation (5-hydroxymethylcytosine or 5hmC), and simultaneous gene expression in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity induced alterations in the methylome (~60% of the differentially methylated regions or DMRs are hypomethylated and ~92% of the differentially hydroxymethylated regions or DHMRs are hyperhydroxymethylated). Simulated microgravity also induced differential expression in 370 transcripts that were associated with crucial biological processes such as oxidative stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of transcription. While we were not able to obtain any global trend correlating the changes of methylation/ hydroxylation with gene expression, we have been able to profile the simulated microgravity induced changes of 5mC over some of the differentially expressed genes that includes five genes undergoing differential methylation over their promoters and twenty five genes undergoing differential methylation over their gene-bodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first NGS-based study to profile epigenomic patterns induced by short time exposure of simulated microgravity and we believe that our findings can be a valuable resource for future explorations. PMID:26820575

  9. A Study of Alterations in DNA Epigenetic Modifications (5mC and 5hmC) and Gene Expression Influenced by Simulated Microgravity in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Basudev; Seetharam, Arun; Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Yunlong; Lossie, Amy C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Cells alter their gene expression in response to exposure to various environmental changes. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are believed to regulate the alterations in gene expression patterns. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented changes in cellular proliferation, cytoskeletal remodeling, signal transduction, bone mineralization and immune deficiency under the influence of microgravity conditions experienced in space. However microgravity induced changes in the epigenome have not been well characterized. In this study we have used Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) to profile ground-based "simulated" microgravity induced changes on DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine or 5mC), hydroxymethylation (5-hydroxymethylcytosine or 5hmC), and simultaneous gene expression in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity induced alterations in the methylome (~60% of the differentially methylated regions or DMRs are hypomethylated and ~92% of the differentially hydroxymethylated regions or DHMRs are hyperhydroxymethylated). Simulated microgravity also induced differential expression in 370 transcripts that were associated with crucial biological processes such as oxidative stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of transcription. While we were not able to obtain any global trend correlating the changes of methylation/ hydroxylation with gene expression, we have been able to profile the simulated microgravity induced changes of 5mC over some of the differentially expressed genes that includes five genes undergoing differential methylation over their promoters and twenty five genes undergoing differential methylation over their gene-bodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first NGS-based study to profile epigenomic patterns induced by short time exposure of simulated microgravity and we believe that our findings can be a valuable resource for future explorations. PMID:26820575

  10. Nitroxide TEMPO: a genotoxic and oxidative stress inducer in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mittelstaedt, Roberta A; Guo, Lei; Shaddock, Joseph G; Heflich, Robert H; Bigger, Anita H; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2013-08-01

    2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) is a low molecular weight nitroxide and stable free radical. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of TEMPO in mammalian cells using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. In the absence of metabolic activation (S9), 3mM TEMPO produced significant cytotoxicity and marginal mutagenicity in the MLA; in the presence of S9, treatment of mouse lymphoma cells with 1-2mM TEMPO resulted in dose-dependent decreases of the relative total growth and increases in mutant frequency. Treatment of TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells with 0.9-2.3mM TEMPO increased the frequency of both micronuclei (a marker for clastogenicity) and hypodiploid nuclei (a marker of aneugenicity) in a dose-dependent manner; greater responses were produced in the presence of S9. Within the dose range tested, TEMPO induced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in mouse lymphoma cells. In addition, the majority of TEMPO-induced mutants had loss of heterozygosity at the Tk locus, with allele loss of ⩽34Mbp. These results indicate that TEMPO is mutagenic in the MLA and induces micronuclei and hypodiploid nuclei in TK6 cells. Oxidative stress may account for part of the genotoxicity induced by TEMPO in both cell lines. PMID:23517621

  11. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction in a subset of autism lymphoblastoid cell lines in a well-matched case control cohort.

    PubMed

    Rose, Shannon; Frye, Richard E; Slattery, John; Wynne, Rebecca; Tippett, Marie; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Melnyk, Stepan; James, S Jill

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the autism spectrum disorders. However, little attention has been given to the etiology of mitochondrial dysfunction or how mitochondrial abnormalities might interact with other physiological disturbances associated with autism, such as oxidative stress. In the current study we used respirometry to examine reserve capacity, a measure of the mitochondrial ability to respond to physiological stress, in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from children with autistic disorder (AD) as well as age and gender-matched control LCLs. We demonstrate, for the first time, that LCLs derived from children with AD have an abnormal mitochondrial reserve capacity before and after exposure to increasingly higher concentrations of 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-napthoquinone (DMNQ), an agent that increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Specifically, the AD LCLs exhibit a higher reserve capacity at baseline and a sharper depletion of reserve capacity when ROS exposure is increased, as compared to control LCLs. Detailed investigation indicated that reserve capacity abnormalities seen in AD LCLs were the result of higher ATP-linked respiration and maximal respiratory capacity at baseline combined with a marked increase in proton leak respiration as ROS was increased. We further demonstrate that these reserve capacity abnormalities are driven by a subgroup of eight (32%) of 25 AD LCLs. Additional investigation of this subgroup of AD LCLs with reserve capacity abnormalities revealed that it demonstrated a greater reliance on glycolysis and on uncoupling protein 2 to regulate oxidative stress at the inner mitochondria membrane. This study suggests that a significant subgroup of AD children may have alterations in mitochondrial function which could render them more vulnerable to a pro-oxidant microenvironment derived from intrinsic and extrinsic sources of ROS such as immune activation and pro

  12. Analysis of the tumorigenic potential of common marmoset lymphoblastoid cells expressing a constitutively activated c-myc gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hotchin, N. A.; Wedderburn, N.; Roberts, I.; Thomas, J. A.; Bungey, J. A.; Naylor, B.; Crawford, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    The respective roles of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and c-myc in the pathogenesis of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) are unclear. In order to help resolve the question whether constitutive expression of the c-myc gene in an EBV-immortalised B cell is sufficient to induce a tumorigenic phenotype, B cells from a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) were immortalised with EBV, transfected with a constitutively activated c-myc gene and inoculated into the host animals. Despite the cell line transfected with c-myc displaying enhanced growth characteristics, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that this was not sufficient to induce a tumorigenic phenotype. This supports our previous findings with EBV-immortalised human B cells transfected with an activated c-myc gene (Hotchin et al., 1990). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8388232

  13. Effects of maglev-spectrum magnetic field exposure on CEM T-lymphoblastoid human cell growth and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, K.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Collart, F.R.; Huberman, E.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to magnetic fields similar to those produced by maglev vehicles (combined ac and dc components) was studied for the ability to alter cell growth and chemically induced cellular differentiation processes in cultured human CEM Tlymphoblastoid leukemia cells. A series of continuous and intermittent magnetic field (MF) exposures for varying lengths of time were tested at intensities up to 7-fold greater than that produced by the German TR07 maglev vehicle. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or mycophenolic acid were used to induce cell differentiation. Changes in cell number, morphology, and fluorescence expression of antigenic markers of differentiation were monitored. The results indicated that maglev-spectrum magnetic field exposures up to 2 gauss had little effect on culture growth or chemically induced cellular differentiation when exposed to maglev-spectrum magnetic fields compared to chemically treated but MF-unexposed controls.

  14. Interferon-dependent induction of mRNA for the major histocompatibility antigens in human fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fellous, M; Nir, U; Wallach, D; Merlin, G; Rubinstein, M; Revel, M

    1982-01-01

    In human cells treated with interferons, there is an increase in the amount of HLA-A,B,C and beta 2-microglobulin exposed on the cell surface. We have used a cloned HLA-A,B,C cDNA probe to demonstrate by molecular hybridization that this effect of interferon is preceded by a large increase in the amount of HLA mRNA in the cell. This effect was found in five different human cell lines, with purified leukocyte and fibroblast interferons. The increase in HLA mRNA is comparable in its kinetics and dose-response to the induction of (2'-5') oligo(A) synthetase mRNA by interferons. Therefore, interferons seem to activate at least two cellular genes which have different biochemical functions. Images PMID:6179076

  15. Mutagenicity and clastogenicity of extracts of Helicobacter pylori detected by the Ames test and in the micronucleus test using human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Ohta, Kaori; Yuhara, Yuta; Ayabe, Yuka; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Oguma, Keiji; Otsuka, Takanao

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close association between infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) and the development of gastric carcinoma. Chronic H.pylori infection increases the frequency of mutation in gastric epithelial cells. However, the mechanism by which infection of H.pylori leads to mutation in gastric epithelial cells is unclear. We suspected that components in H.pylori may be related to the mutagenic response associated with DNA alkylation, and could be detected with the Ames test using a more sensitive strain for alkylating agents. Our investigation revealed that an extract of H.pylori was mutagenic in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium YG7108, which is deficient in the DNA repair of O(6)-methylguanine. The extract of H.pylori may contain methylating or alkylating agents, which might induce O (6)-alkylguanine in DNA. Mutagenicity of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in the Ames test with S.typhimurium TA1535 was enhanced significantly in the presence of the extract of H.pylori. The tested extracts of H.pylori resulted in a significant induction of micronuclei in human-derived lymphoblastoid cells. Heat instability and dialysis resistance of the extracts of H.pylori suggest that the mutagenic component in the extracts of H.pylori is a heat-unstable large molecule or a heat-labile small molecule strongly attached or adsorbed to a large molecule. Proteins in the extracts of H.pylori were subsequently fractionated using ammonium sulphate precipitation. However, all fractions expressed enhancing effects toward MNU mutagenicity. These results suggest the mutagenic component is a small molecule that is absorbed into proteins in the extract of H.pylori, which resist dialysis. Continuous and chronic exposure of gastric epithelial cells to the alkylative mutagenic component from H.pylori chronically infected in the stomach might be a causal factor in the gastric carcinogenesis

  16. Induction of anti-EBNA-1 protein by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment of human lymphoblastoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Longthung; Tanaka, Akiko; Nonoyama, Meihan )

    1989-08-01

    Binding of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA-1) to BamHI-C DNA was studied by affinity column chromatography followed by immunoblotting with human serum specific for EBNA-1. Two species of EBNA-1 (68 and 70 kilodaltons) were identified in nuclear extracts of the EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Raji and not in nuclear extracts of the EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell line BJAB. Both EBNA-1s bound specifically to the region required for EBV plasmid DNA maintenance (oriP) located in the BamHI-C fragment. Upon treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activates latent EBV genome in Raji cells, the 68-kilodalton EBNA-1 was uncoupled from binding to EBV oriP. Nuclear extracts from 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated BJAB cells also uncoupled the binding of both EBNA-1s to oriP. DNA-cellulose column chromatography identified two protein species which competed for and uncoupled the binding of EBNA-1 to oriP. The two cellular competitors the authors called anti-EBNA-1 proteins had molecular masses of 60 and 40 kilodaltons, respectively. They were not found in nuclear extracts of BJAB cells not activated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

  17. Epitope analysis of peanut allergen Ara h1 with oligoclonal IgM antibody from human B-lymphoblastoid cells.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To analyze epitopes of peanut allergen Ara h1, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human peripheral oligoclonal B-cells were cultured to obtain antibodies to Ara h1. The combined reaction pattern with six oligoclonal antibodies showed there were six antibody binding areas named a to f in Ara h1. We found...

  18. Epstein-Barr Viruses (EBVs) Deficient in EBV-Encoded RNAs Have Higher Levels of Latent Membrane Protein 2 RNA Expression in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and Efficiently Establish Persistent Infections in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gregorovic, Goran; Boulden, Elizabeth A.; Bosshard, Rachel; Elgueta Karstegl, Claudio; Skalsky, Rebecca; Cullen, Bryan R.; Gujer, Cornelia; Rämer, Patrick; Münz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Functions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNAs (EBERs) were tested in lymphoblastoid cell lines containing EBER mutants of EBV. Binding of EBER1 to ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22) was confirmed. Deletion of EBER1 or EBER2 correlated with increased levels of cytoplasmic EBV LMP2 RNA and with small effects on specific cellular microRNA (miRNA) levels, but protein levels of LMP1 and LMP2A were not affected. Wild-type EBV and EBER deletion EBV had approximately equal abilities to infect immunodeficient mice reconstituted with a human hematopoietic system. PMID:26339045

  19. Epstein-Barr Viruses (EBVs) Deficient in EBV-Encoded RNAs Have Higher Levels of Latent Membrane Protein 2 RNA Expression in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and Efficiently Establish Persistent Infections in Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Gregorovic, Goran; Boulden, Elizabeth A; Bosshard, Rachel; Elgueta Karstegl, Claudio; Skalsky, Rebecca; Cullen, Bryan R; Gujer, Cornelia; Rämer, Patrick; Münz, Christian; Farrell, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Functions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNAs (EBERs) were tested in lymphoblastoid cell lines containing EBER mutants of EBV. Binding of EBER1 to ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22) was confirmed. Deletion of EBER1 or EBER2 correlated with increased levels of cytoplasmic EBV LMP2 RNA and with small effects on specific cellular microRNA (miRNA) levels, but protein levels of LMP1 and LMP2A were not affected. Wild-type EBV and EBER deletion EBV had approximately equal abilities to infect immunodeficient mice reconstituted with a human hematopoietic system. PMID:26339045

  20. Cis-regulation of IRF5 expression is unable to fully account for systemic lupus erythematosus association: analysis of multiple experiments with lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Interferon regulatory factor 5 gene (IRF5) polymorphisms are strongly associated with several diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The association includes risk and protective components. They could be due to combinations of functional polymorphisms and related to cis-regulation of IRF5 expression, but their mechanisms are still uncertain. We hypothesised that thorough testing of the relationships between IRF5 polymorphisms, expression data from multiple experiments and SLE-associated haplotypes might provide useful new information. Methods Expression data from four published microarray hybridisation experiments with lymphoblastoid cell lines (57 to 181 cell lines) were retrieved. Genotypes of 109 IRF5 polymorphisms, including four known functional polymorphisms, were considered. The best linear regression models accounting for the IRF5 expression data were selected by using a forward entry procedure. SLE-associated IRF5 haplotypes were correlated with the expression data and with the best cis-regulatory models. Results A large fraction of variability in IRF5 expression was accounted for by linear regression models with IRF5 polymorphisms, but at a different level in each expression data set. Also, the best models from each expression data set were different, although there was overlap between them. The SNP introducing an early polyadenylation signal, rs10954213, was included in the best models for two of the expression data sets and in good models for the other two data sets. The SLE risk haplotype was associated with high IRF5 expression in the four expression data sets. However, there was also a trend towards high IRF5 expression with some protective and neutral haplotypes, and the protective haplotypes were not associated with IRF5 expression. As a consequence, correlation between the cis-regulatory best models and SLE-associated haplotypes, regarding either the risk or protective component, was poor. Conclusions Our analysis

  1. The NRF2-KEAP1 Pathway Is an Early Responsive Gene Network in Arsenic Exposed Lymphoblastoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Córdova, Emilio J.; Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Centeno, Federico; Morales-Marín, Mirna; Koneru, Harsha; Coleman, Matthew A.; Orozco, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs), a major environmental contaminant, has risen as an important health problem worldwide. More detailed identification of the molecular mechanisms associated with iAs exposure would help to establish better strategies for prevention and treatment. Although chronic iAs exposures have been previously studied there is little to no information regarding the early events of exposure to iAs. To better characterize the early mechanisms of iAs exposure we conducted gene expression studies using sublethal doses of iAs at two different time-points. The major transcripts differentially regulated at 2 hrs of iAs exposure included antioxidants, detoxificants and chaperones. Moreover, after 12 hrs of exposure many of the down-regulated genes were associated with DNA replication and S phase cell cycle progression. Interestingly, the most affected biological pathway by both 2 or 12 hrs of iAs exposure were the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, represented by the highly up-regulated HMOX1 transcript, which is transcriptionally regulated by the transcription factor Nrf2. Additional Nrf2 targets included SQSTM1 and ABCB6, which were not previously associated with acute iAs exposure. Signalling pathways such as interferon, B cell receptor and AhR route were also responsive to acute iAs exposure. Since HMOX1 expression increased early (20 min) and was responsive to low iAs concentrations (0.1 µM), this gene could be a suitable early biomarker for iAs exposure. In addition, the novel Nrf2 targets SQSTM1 and ABCB6 could play an important and previously unrecognized role in cellular protection against iAs. PMID:24516582

  2. Investigation of micronucleus induction in MTH1 knockdown cells exposed to UVA, UVB or UVC.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi, Asal; Cornella, Nicola; Ramezani, Mehrafarin; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2015-11-01

    The longer wave parts of UVR can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can oxidize nucleotides in the DNA or in the nucleotide pool leading to mutations. Oxidized bases in the DNA are repaired mainly by the DNA base excision repair system and incorporation of oxidized nucleotides into newly synthesized DNA can be prevented by the enzyme MTH1. Here we hypothesize that the formation of several oxidized base damages (from pool and DNA) in close proximity, would cause a high number of base excision repair events, leading to DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and therefore giving rise to cytogenetic damage. If this hypothesis is true, cells with low levels of MTH1 will show higher cytogenetic damage after the longer wave parts of UVR. We analyzed micronuclei induction (MN) as an endpoint for cytogenetic damage in the human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6, with a normal and a reduced level of MTH1 exposed to UVR. The results indicate a higher level of micronuclei at all incubation times after exposure to the longer wave parts of UVR. There is no significant difference between wildtype and MTH1-knockdown TK6 cells, indicating that MTH1 has no protective role in UVR-induced cytogenetic damage. This indicates that DSBs induced by UV arise from damage forms by direct interaction of UV or ROS with the DNA rather than through oxidation of dNTP. PMID:26520386

  3. Comparative mutagenesis of human cells in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Thilly, W.G.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses measuring methods of point mutations; high density cell cultures for low dose studies; measurement and sequence determination of mutations in DNA; the mutational spectra of styrene oxide and ethlyene oxide in TK-6 cells; mutational spectrum of Cr in human lymphoblast cells; mutational spectra of radon in TK-6 cells; and the mutational spectra of smokeless tobacco. (CBS)

  4. Induction of genomic instability in TK6 human lymphoblasts exposed to 137Cs gamma radiation: comparison to the induction by exposure to accelerated 56Fe particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Helen H.; Horng, Min-Fen; Ricanati, Marlene; Diaz-Insua, M.; Jordan, Robert; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The induction of genomic instability in TK6 human lymphoblasts by exposure to (137)Cs gamma radiation was investigated by measuring the frequency and characteristics of unstable clones isolated approximately 36 generations after exposure. Clones surviving irradiation and control clones were analyzed for 17 characteristics including chromosomal aberrations, growth defects, alterations in response to a second irradiation, and mutant frequencies at the thymidine kinase and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase loci. Putative unstable clones were defined as those that exhibited a significant alteration in one or more characteristics compared to the controls. The frequency and characteristics of the unstable clones were compared in clones exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays or (56)Fe particles. The majority of the unstable clones isolated after exposure to either gamma rays or (56)Fe particles exhibited chromosomal instability. Alterations in growth characteristics, radiation response and mutant frequencies occurred much less often than cytogenetic alterations in these unstable clones. The frequency and complexity of the unstable clones were greater after exposure to (56)Fe particles than to gamma rays. Unstable clones that survived 36 generations after exposure to gamma rays exhibited increases in the incidence of dicentric chromosomes but not of chromatid breaks, whereas unstable clones that survived 36 generations after exposure to (56)Fe particles exhibited increases in both chromatid and chromosome aberrations.

  5. The clastogenicity of 4NQO is cell-type dependent and linked to cytotoxicity, length of exposure and p53 proficiency.

    PubMed

    Brüsehafer, Katja; Manshian, Bella B; Doherty, Ann T; Zaïr, Zoulikha M; Johnson, George E; Doak, Shareen H; Jenkins, Gareth J S

    2016-03-01

    4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) is used as a positive control in various genotoxicity assays because of its known mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The chemical is converted into 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide and gives rise to three main DNA adducts, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4AQO, 3-(desoxyguanosin-N (2)-yl)-4AQO and 3-(deoxyadenosin-N (6)-yl)-4AQO. This study was designed to assess the shape of the dose-response curve at low concentrations of 4NQO in three human lymphoblastoid cell lines, MCL-5, AHH-1 and TK6 as well as the mouse lymphoma L5178Y cell line in vitro. Chromosomal damage was investigated using the in vitro micronucleus assay, while further gene mutation and DNA damage studies were carried out using the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase forward mutation and comet assays. 4NQO showed little to no significant increases in micronucleus induction in the human lymphoblastoid cell lines, even up to 55±5% toxicity. A dose-response relationship could only be observed in the mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y after 4NQO treatment, even at concentrations with no reduction in cell viability. Further significant increases in gene mutation and DNA damage induction were observed. Hence, 4NQO is a more effective point mutagen than clastogen, and its suitability as a positive control for genotoxicity testing has to be evaluated for every individual assay. PMID:26362870

  6. The clastogenicity of 4NQO is cell-type dependent and linked to cytotoxicity, length of exposure and p53 proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Brüsehafer, Katja; Manshian, Bella B.; Doherty, Ann T.; Zaïr, Zoulikha M.; Johnson, George E.; Doak, Shareen H.; Jenkins, Gareth J. S.

    2016-01-01

    4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) is used as a positive control in various genotoxicity assays because of its known mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The chemical is converted into 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide and gives rise to three main DNA adducts, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4AQO, 3-(desoxyguanosin-N 2-yl)-4AQO and 3-(deoxyadenosin-N 6-yl)-4AQO. This study was designed to assess the shape of the dose–response curve at low concentrations of 4NQO in three human lymphoblastoid cell lines, MCL-5, AHH-1 and TK6 as well as the mouse lymphoma L5178Y cell line in vitro. Chromosomal damage was investigated using the in vitro micronucleus assay, while further gene mutation and DNA damage studies were carried out using the hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase forward mutation and comet assays. 4NQO showed little to no significant increases in micronucleus induction in the human lymphoblastoid cell lines, even up to 55±5% toxicity. A dose–response relationship could only be observed in the mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y after 4NQO treatment, even at concentrations with no reduction in cell viability. Further significant increases in gene mutation and DNA damage induction were observed. Hence, 4NQO is a more effective point mutagen than clastogen, and its suitability as a positive control for genotoxicity testing has to be evaluated for every individual assay. PMID:26362870

  7. Impaired 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine accumulation in T-lymphoblastoid cells as a mechanism of acquired resistance independent of multidrug resistant protein 4 with a possible role for ATP-binding cassette C11.

    PubMed Central

    Turriziani, O; Schuetz, J D; Focher, F; Scagnolari, C; Sampath, J; Adachi, M; Bambacioni, F; Riva, E; Antonelli, G

    2002-01-01

    Cellular factors may contribute to the decreased efficacy of chemotherapy in HIV infection. Indeed, prolonged treatment with nucleoside analogues, such as azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-deoxycytidine or 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, induces cellular resistance. We have developed a human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM 3TC) that is selectively resistant to the antiproliferative effect of 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) because the CEM 3TC cells were equally sensitive to AZT, as well as the antimitotic agent, vinblastine. The anti-retroviral activity of 3TC against HIV-1 was also severely impaired in the CEM 3TC cells. Despite similar deoxycytidine kinase activity and unchanged uptake of nucleosides such as AZT and 2'-deoxycytidine, CEM 3TC had profoundly impaired 3TC accumulation. Further studies indicated that CEM 3TC retained much less 3TC. However, despite a small overexpression of multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 4, additional studies with cells specifically engineered to overexpress MRP4 demonstrated there was no impact on either 3TC accumulation or efflux. Finally, an increased expression of the MRP5 homologue, ATP-binding cassette C11 (ABCC11) was observed in the CEM 3TC cells. We speculate that the decreased 3TC accumulation in the CEM 3TC might be due to the upregulation of ABCC11. PMID:12133003

  8. Inhibition of cell proliferation by interferons. 2. Changes in processing and stability of newly synthesized DNA in human lymphoblastoid (Daudi) cells.

    PubMed

    Moore, G; Gewert, D R; Clemens, M J

    1984-03-15

    The inhibition of proliferation of Daudi cells in culture by human interferons is characterized by a change in the kinetics of labelling of different size classes of newly synthesized DNA. Initially, labelled precursors are incorporated exclusively into small DNA (Okazaki fragments) in both control and interferon-treated cells, as revealed by alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. In the interferon-treated cells, there is enhanced labelling of this small DNA after short periods of incorporation and slower conversion to larger DNA size classes, in comparison with the DNA of control cells. This effect is apparent after 12 h of interferon treatment, coincident with the onset of the inhibition of cell proliferation. It becomes progressively more marked up to 4 days, by which time cell growth has ceased completely. Experiments using bromodeoxyuridine as a density label and analysis of radioactive DNA on caesium chloride/caesium sulphate gradients also reveal that some newly replicated DNA may be unstable and may turn over within a few hours of its synthesis. The label derived from DNA breakdown is efficiently reincorporated into newly synthesized molecules. It is suggested that interferon treatment inhibits DNA replication by activating DNA turnover rather than by directly inhibiting synthesis. This effect, together with the progressive retardation of conversion of Okazaki fragments to larger DNA, may lead to the eventual failure of cell proliferation. PMID:6698030

  9. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 3C binds to the N-terminal (NTD) and beta trefoil domains (BTD) of RBP/CSL; Only the NTD interaction is essential for lymphoblastoid cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Calderwood, Michael A.; Lee, Sungwook; Holthaus, Amy M.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Kieff, Elliott; Johannsen, Eric

    2011-05-25

    Association of EBV nuclear proteins EBNA2, EBNA3A and EBNA3C with RBP/CSL, is essential for lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) proliferation. Conserved residues in the EBNA3 homology domain, required for RBP/CSL interaction, lack the W{Phi}P motif that mediates EBNA2 and Notch binding to the RBP/CSL beta-trefoil domain (BTD). We map RBP/CSL interacting residues within EBNA3A(aa128-204) and EBNA3C(aa211-233). The EBNA3A results are consistent with an earlier report (aa125-222), but the EBNA3C domain is unexpectedly small and includes a 'WTP' sequence. This EBNA3C WTP motif confers RBP/CSL binding in vitro, in yeast, and in mammalian cells. Further, an EBNA3C WTP {yields} STP(W227S) mutation impaired BTD binding whereas EBNA3 homology domain mutations disrupted RBP/CSL N-terminal domain (NTD) binding. WTP was not essential for EBNA3C repression of EBNA2 in reporter assays or for maintenance of LCL growth. Our results indicate that EBNA3 proteins interact with multiple RBP/CSL domains, but only NTD interactions are required for LCL growth.

  10. Cell Type-Dependent Changes in CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Uptake and Toxic Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Soenen, Stefaan J.; Al-Ali, Abdullah; Brown, Andy; Hondow, Nicole; Wills, John; Jenkins, Gareth J. S.; Doak, Shareen H.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is often correlated with the physicochemical characteristics of the materials. However, some discrepancies are noted in in-vitro studies on quantum dots (QDs) with similar physicochemical properties. This is partly related to variations in cell type. In this study, we show that epithelial (BEAS-2B), fibroblast (HFF-1), and lymphoblastoid (TK6) cells show different biological responses following exposure to QDs. These cells represented the 3 main portals of NP exposure: bronchial, skin, and circulatory. The uptake and toxicity of negatively and positively charged CdSe:ZnS QDs of the same core size but with different surface chemistries (carboxyl or amine polymer coatings) were investigated in full and reduced serum containing media following 1 and 3 cell cycles. Following thorough physicochemical characterization, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and gross chromosomal damage were measured. Cellular damage mechanisms in the form of reactive oxygen species and the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α were assessed. QDs uptake and toxicity significantly varied in the different cell lines. BEAS-2B cells demonstrated the highest level of QDs uptake yet displayed a strong resilience with minimal genotoxicity following exposure to these NPs. In contrast, HFF-1 and TK6 cells were more susceptible to toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, as a result of exposure to QDs. Thus, this study demonstrates that in addition to nanomaterial physicochemical characterization, a clear understanding of cell type-dependent variation in uptake coupled to the inherently different capacities of the cell types to cope with exposure to these exogenous materials are all required to predict genotoxicity. PMID:25601991

  11. Cell type-dependent changes in CdSe/ZnS quantum dot uptake and toxic endpoints.

    PubMed

    Manshian, Bella B; Soenen, Stefaan J; Al-Ali, Abdullah; Brown, Andy; Hondow, Nicole; Wills, John; Jenkins, Gareth J S; Doak, Shareen H

    2015-04-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is often correlated with the physicochemical characteristics of the materials. However, some discrepancies are noted in in-vitro studies on quantum dots (QDs) with similar physicochemical properties. This is partly related to variations in cell type. In this study, we show that epithelial (BEAS-2B), fibroblast (HFF-1), and lymphoblastoid (TK6) cells show different biological responses following exposure to QDs. These cells represented the 3 main portals of NP exposure: bronchial, skin, and circulatory. The uptake and toxicity of negatively and positively charged CdSe:ZnS QDs of the same core size but with different surface chemistries (carboxyl or amine polymer coatings) were investigated in full and reduced serum containing media following 1 and 3 cell cycles. Following thorough physicochemical characterization, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and gross chromosomal damage were measured. Cellular damage mechanisms in the form of reactive oxygen species and the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α were assessed. QDs uptake and toxicity significantly varied in the different cell lines. BEAS-2B cells demonstrated the highest level of QDs uptake yet displayed a strong resilience with minimal genotoxicity following exposure to these NPs. In contrast, HFF-1 and TK6 cells were more susceptible to toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, as a result of exposure to QDs. Thus, this study demonstrates that in addition to nanomaterial physicochemical characterization, a clear understanding of cell type-dependent variation in uptake coupled to the inherently different capacities of the cell types to cope with exposure to these exogenous materials are all required to predict genotoxicity. PMID:25601991

  12. Combination of SAHA and bortezomib up-regulates CDKN2A and CDKN1A and induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus-positive Wp-restricted Burkitt lymphoma and lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hui, Kwai Fung; Leung, Yvonne Y; Yeung, Po L; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Chiang, Alan K S

    2014-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent proteins exert anti-apoptotic effects on EBV-transformed lymphoid cells by down-regulating BCL2L11 (BIM), CDKN2A (p16(INK4A) ) and CDKN1A (p21(WAF1) ). However, the potential therapeutic effects of targeting these anti-apoptotic mechanisms remain unexplored. Here, we tested both in vitro and in vivo effects of the combination of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and proteasome inhibitors on the apoptosis of six endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lines of different latency patterns (types I and III and Wp-restricted) and three lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). We found that the combination of HDAC and proteasome inhibitors (e.g. SAHA/bortezomib) synergistically induced the killing of Wp-restricted and latency III BL and LCLs but not latency I BL cells. The synergistic killing was due to apoptosis, as evidenced by the high percentage of annexin V positivity and strong cleavage of PARP1 (PARP) and CASP3 (caspase-3). Concomitantly, SAHA/bortezomib up-regulated the expression of CDKN2A and CDKN1A but did not affect the level of BCL2L11 or BHRF1 (viral homologue of BCL2). The apoptotic effects were dependent on reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, SAHA/bortezomib suppressed the growth of Wp-restricted BL xenografts in nude mice. This study provides the rationale to test the novel application of SAHA/bortezomib on the treatment of EBV-associated Wp-restricted BL and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:25155625

  13. Characterization of a lymphoblastoid line deleted for lambda immunoglobulin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A., White, B.N., Holden, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    While characterizing the cat eye syndrome (CES) supernumerary chromosome for the presence of {lambda} immunoglobulin gene region sequences, a lymphoblastoid cell line from one CES patient was identified in which there was selection of cells deleted from some IGLC and IGLV genes. Two distinct deletions, one on each chromosome 22, were identified, presumably arising from independent somatic recombination events occurring during B-lymphocyte differentiation. The extent of the deleted regions was determined using probes from the various IGLV subgroups and they each covered at least 82 kilobases. The precise definition of the deletions was not possible because of conservation of some restriction sites in the IGLV region. The cell line was used to map putative IGLV genes within the recombinant phage {lambda}V{lambda}135 to the distal part of the IGLV gene region. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Vitamin B12 and methionine deficiencies induce genome damage measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay in human B lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiayu; Cheng, Jiaoni; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    One-carbon metabolism is a network of interrelated biochemical reactions that has 2 major functions: DNA methylation and DNA synthesis. Methionine (Met), an essential amino acid, is converted to S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), the body's main methyl group donor, which is converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine during methylation reactions. Vitamin B12 (B12) acts as a coenzyme of methionine synthase, which is required for the synthesis of Met and SAM. To determine the effects of Met and B12, we used the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in GM13705 and GM12593 cell line cultures exposed to 13 unique combinations of B12 and Met concentrations over 9 days. The nutrient levels chosen span the normal physiological ranges in humans. The Met-B12 concentration significantly and negatively correlated with all markers of genotoxicity in the 2 cell lines tested. In both cell lines, all markers of genotoxicity were significantly higher when treated with 15 μM Met than when treated with 50 μM Met, regardless of the B12 treatment level. Genotoxicity was significantly reduced in the group treated with 50 μM Met and 600 pM B12. Concentrations of 50 μM Met and 600 pM B12 are an optimal combination for stabilizing the genome. It is advisable to acquire adequate amounts of Met and B12 for maintaining genome stability. PMID:23909731

  15. Induction of heme oxygenase: A general response to oxidant stress in cultured mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, L.A.; Luscher, P.; Tyrrell, R.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA is strongly stimulated by treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or the sulfhydryl reagent sodium arsenite. Since this will result in a transient reduction in the prooxidant state of cells, the phenomenon may represent an important inducible antioxidant defense mechanism. To examine the generality of the response, we have measured the accumulation of the specific mRNA in a variety of human and mammalian cell types after inducing treatments. Induction by sodium arsenite is observed in all additional human cell types tested. This includes primary epidermal keratinocytes and lung and colon fibroblasts as well as established cell lines such as HeLa, TK6 lymphoblastoid, and transformed fetal keratinocytes. Strong induction of heme oxygenase mRNA is also observed following sodium arsenite treatment of cell lines of rat, hamster, mouse, monkey, and marsupial origin. The agents which lead to induction in cultured human skin fibroblasts fall into two categories: (a) those which are oxidants or can generate active intermediates (ultraviolet A radiation, hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate); (b) agents which are known to interact with or modify cellular glutathione levels (buthionine sulfoximine, sodium arsenite, iodoacetamide, diamide, and cadmium chloride). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that induction of the enzyme is a general response to oxidant stress in mammalian cells and are consistent with the possibility that the cellular redox state plays a key role.

  16. Mutation induction by 125iodoacetylproflavine, a DNA-intercalating agent, in human cells.

    PubMed

    Whaley, J M; Kassis, A I; Kinsey, B M; Adelstein, S J; Little, J B

    1990-06-01

    Survival and the induction of mutations at the hprt and tk loci were measured in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells following treatment with the DNA-intercalating agent 125iodoacetylproflavine (125IAP). 125IAP was readily taken up into the cells, was localized to the nucleus, and was released rapidly following resuspension of the cells in fresh medium. Treatment with 125IAP for 24 h yielded a D0 of 110 decays/cell and an induced mutant fraction of 0.13 x 10(-6) per decay at the hprt locus and 0.4 x 10(-6) per decay at the tk locus. Molecular analyses of 125IAP-induced hprt mutants by Southern blot revealed a high proportion of large-scale changes at this locus. When these results are compared with those observed with 125IdUrd, 125IAP shows a reduced effectiveness per decay, related perhaps to the non-covalent nature of intercalator binding, resulting in reduced energy deposition in the DNA. PMID:1971836

  17. Interchromosomal gene conversion at an endogenous human cell locus.

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, P J; Neuwirth, E A; Grosovsky, A J

    2001-01-01

    To examine the relationship between gene conversion and reciprocal exchange at an endogenous chromosomal locus, we developed a reversion assay in a thymidine kinase deficient mutant, TX545, derived from the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. Selectable revertants of TX545 can be generated through interchromosomal gene conversion at the site of inactivating mutations on each tk allele or by reciprocal exchange that alters the linkage relationships of inactivating polymorphisms within the tk locus. Analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at intragenic polymorphisms and flanking microsatellite markers was used to initially evaluate allelotypes in TK(+) revertants for patterns associated with either gene conversion or crossing over. The linkage pattern in a subset of convertants was then unambiguously established, even in the event of prereplicative recombinational exchanges, by haplotype analysis of flanking microsatellite loci in tk(-/-) LOH mutants collected from the tk(+/-) parental convertant. Some (7/38; 18%) revertants were attributable to easily discriminated nonrecombinational mechanisms, including suppressor mutations within the tk coding sequence. However, all revertants classified as a recombinational event (28/38; 74%) were attributed to localized gene conversion, representing a highly significant preference (P < 0.0001) over gene conversion with associated reciprocal exchange, which was never observed. PMID:11404339

  18. Induction of selective cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human T4-lymphoblastoid cell line (CEMss) by boesenbergin a isolated from boesenbergia rotunda rhizomes involves mitochondrial pathway, activation of caspase 3 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Boesenbergia rotunda (Roxb.) Schlecht (family zingiberaceae) is a rhizomatous herb that is distributed from north-eastern India to south-east Asia, especially in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Previous research has shown that the crude extract of this plant has cytotoxic properties. The current study examines the cytotoxic properties of boesenbergin A isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda. Methods MTT assay was used to check the cytotoxicity of boesenbergin A. The morphological assessment of apoptosis was monitored using normal and fluorescence microscopy. The early and late phase of apoptosis was investigated using annexin V and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were performed to investigate the mechanism of cell death. In addition, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl2 and HSP 70 were also analyzed using western blot. Assays of caspase =-3/7, -8 and =-9 were carried out in order to test for induction during treatment. Lastly, cell cycle progression was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results Boesenbergin A was found to have the highest toxicity towards CEMss cancer cells (IC50 = 8 μg/ml). The morphology of CEMss cells after treatment showed evidence of apoptosis that included blebbing and chromatin condensation. The annexin V assay revealed that early apoptosis is induced after treatment. The DNA laddering assay confirmed that DNA fragmentation had occurred during late apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis indicated that boesenbergin A was able to induce G2/M phase arrest in CEMss cells. The activity of caspases -3/7, -8 and -9 was increased after treatment which indicates both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are induced during apoptosis. The involvement of mitochondria was established by increased mitochondrial membrane potential and up and down regulation of Bcl2 and Bax proteins as well as HSP70. Conclusion In conclusion, the

  19. Polyphenolic Profile and Targeted Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Mediterranean Ethnomedicinal Plants on Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Pollio, Antonino; Zarrelli, Armando; Romanucci, Valeria; Di Mauro, Alfredo; Barra, Federica; Pinto, Gabriele; Crescenzi, Elvira; Roscetto, Emanuela; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The methanol extracts of the aerial part of four ethnomedicinal plants of Mediterranean region, two non-seed vascular plants, Equisetum hyemale L. and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman, and two Spermatophyta, Juniperus communis L. (J. communis) and Cotinus coggygria Scop. (C. coggygria), were screened against four human cells lines (A549, MCF7, TK6 and U937). Only the extracts of J. communis and C. coggygria showed marked cytotoxic effects, affecting both cell morphology and growth. A dose-dependent effect of these two extracts was also observed on the cell cycle distribution. Incubation of all the cell lines in a medium containing J. communis extract determined a remarkable accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase, whereas the C. coggygria extract induced a significant increase in the percentage of G1 cells. The novelty of our findings stands on the observation that the two extracts, consistently, elicited coherent effects on the cell cycle in four cell lines, independently from their phenotype, as two of them have epithelial origin and grow adherent and two are lymphoblastoid and grow in suspension. Even the expression profiles of several proteins regulating cell cycle progression and cell death were affected by both extracts. LC-MS investigation of methanol extract of C. coggygria led to the identification of twelve flavonoids (compounds 1-11, 19) and eight polyphenols derivatives (12-18, 20), while in J. communis extract, eight flavonoids (21-28), a α-ionone glycoside (29) and a lignin (30) were found. Although many of these compounds have interesting individual biological activities, their natural blends seem to exert specific effects on the proliferation of cell lines either growing adherent or in suspension, suggesting potential use in fighting cancer. PMID:27023497

  20. [Combination therapy with natural type human tumor necrosis factor (MHR-24) and human lymphoblastoid interferon-alpha (MOR-22) against renal cell carcinoma--a multiclinic cooperative, early phase II study. Subcommittee on Urogenital Malignancy, Committee on MHR-24 against Tumors].

    PubMed

    Niijima, T; Akaza, H; Koyanagi, T; Togashi, M; Kumamoto, Y; Funyu, T; Suzuki, T; Orikasa, S; Yoshikawa, K; Koiso, K

    1992-10-01

    The combination therapy with natural type human tumor necrosis factor (n-TNF; MHR-24) and human lymphoblastoid interferon-alpha (n-IFN-alpha; MOR-22) was investigated for antitumor effect against renal cell carcinoma in a multiclinic cooperative study throughout Japan. The "Response criteria of Japan Society for Cancer Therapy" were followed for the handling of subjects and the evaluation of antitumor effect. MHR-24 was administered at a daily dosage of 5,000-10,000 JRU by intravenous drip and MOR-22 at a dosage of 5,000,000 IU daily was administered intramuscularly at the same time. Both drugs were administered for 4 weeks or longer. A total of 36 patients were enrolled as subjects in the study. None of them were classified as ineligible. Five patients, were classified as imperfectly evaluable, and 31, as evaluable for the results of treatment. The responses in the evaluable patients were partial response (PR) in 4 patients, minor response (MR) in 3 patients, no change (NC) in 14 patients and progressive disease (PD) in 10 patients, with a response rate of 12.9%. Adverse reactions to the therapy were investigated in all 36 patients. The frequent subjective and objective reactions that occurred were fever, rigors and shivering, anorexia, and generalized malaise, and the frequent abnormal laboratory findings were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevation of GOT, and elevation of GPT. PMID:1481783

  1. Distinct patterns of somatic alterations in a lymphoblastoid and a tumor genome derived from the same individual

    PubMed Central

    Galante, Pedro A. F.; Parmigiani, Raphael B.; Zhao, Qi; Caballero, Otávia L.; de Souza, Jorge E.; Navarro, Fábio C. P.; Gerber, Alexandra L.; Nicolás, Marisa F.; Salim, Anna Christina M.; Silva, Ana Paula M.; Edsall, Lee; Devalle, Sylvie; Almeida, Luiz G.; Ye, Zhen; Kuan, Samantha; Pinheiro, Daniel G.; Tojal, Israel; Pedigoni, Renato G.; de Sousa, Rodrigo G. M. A.; Oliveira, Thiago Y. K.; de Paula, Marcelo G.; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Levy, Samuel; da Silva, Wilson A.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Ren, Bing; Zago, Marco Antonio; Strausberg, Robert L.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; de Souza, Sandro J.; Camargo, Anamaria A.

    2011-01-01

    Although patterns of somatic alterations have been reported for tumor genomes, little is known on how they compare with alterations present in non-tumor genomes. A comparison of the two would be crucial to better characterize the genetic alterations driving tumorigenesis. We sequenced the genomes of a lymphoblastoid (HCC1954BL) and a breast tumor (HCC1954) cell line derived from the same patient and compared the somatic alterations present in both. The lymphoblastoid genome presents a comparable number and similar spectrum of nucleotide substitutions to that found in the tumor genome. However, a significant difference in the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions was observed between both genomes (P = 0.031). Protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that mutations in the tumor genome preferentially affect hub-genes (P = 0.0017) and are co-selected to present synergistic functions (P < 0.0001). KEGG analysis showed that in the tumor genome most mutated genes were organized into signaling pathways related to tumorigenesis. No such organization or synergy was observed in the lymphoblastoid genome. Our results indicate that endogenous mutagens and replication errors can generate the overall number of mutations required to drive tumorigenesis and that it is the combination rather than the frequency of mutations that is crucial to complete tumorigenic transformation. PMID:21493686

  2. Ionizing radiation-induced mutation of human cells with different DNA repair capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, S.A.; Chen, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    We have observed significant differences in the response to ionizing radiation of two closely related human cell lines, and now compare the effects on these lines of both low and intermediate LET radiation. Compared to TK6, WTK1 has an enhanced X-ray survival, and is also more resistant to cell killing by {alpha}-particles. The hprt locus is more mutable in WTK1 than in TK6 by both X-rays and {alpha}-particles. WTK1 is also more mutable by {alpha}-particles than by X-rays at the hprt locus. X-ray-induced mutation at the heterozygous tk locus in WTK1 is about 25 fold higher than in TK6, while {alpha}-particle-induced mutation is nearly 50 fold higher at this locus. Also, the slowly growing tk- mutants, which comprise the majority of spontaneous and X-ray-induced tk- mutants of TK6, were not induced significantly by {alpha}-particles. Previously, we showed that TK6 has a reduced capacity for recombination compared with WTK1, and therefore, these results indicate that recombinational repair may contribute to both cell survival and mutation-induction following exposure to ionizing radiation. Such a mechanism may aid cell survival, but could also result in increased deleterious effects such as the unmasking of recessive mutations in cancer suppresser genes.

  3. Ionizing radiation-induced mutation of human cells with different DNA repair capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, S. A.; Chen, D. J.

    We have observed significant differences in the response to ionizing radiation of two closely related human cell lines, and now compare the effects on these lines of both low and intermediate LET radiation. Compared to TK6, WTK1 has an enhanced X-ray survival, and is also more resistant to cell killing by alpha-particles. The hprt locus is more mutable in WTK1 than in TK6 by both X-rays and alpha-particles. WTK1 is also more mutable by alpha-particles than by X-rays at the hprt locus. X-ray-induced mutation at the heterozygous tk locus in WTK1 is about 25 fold higher than in TK6, while alpha-particle-induced mutation is nearly 50 fold higher at this locus. Also, the slowly growing tk- mutants, which comprise the majority of spontaneous and X-ray-inducedtk - mutants of TK6, were not induced significantly by alpha-particles. Previously, we showed that TK6 has a reduced capacity for recombination compared with WTK1, and therefore, these results indicate that recombinational repair may contribute to both cell survival and mutation-induction following exposure to ionizing radiation. Such a mechanism may aid cell survival, but could also result in increased deleterious effects such as the unmasking of recessive mutations in cancer suppresser genes.

  4. Apoptotic regulation and mutagenesis in human cells exposes to charged particles of importance for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, A.; Gauny, S.; Hain, J.; Wu, P.; Wiese, C.

    Exposure to ionizing radiation can elicit two modes of cell death - necrosis or apoptosis. In human lymphoid cells, the predominant mechanism of radiation- induced cell death is apoptosis. The most likely exposure of individual human cells to heavy ions (e.g. Fe or Si) during spaceflight will result from single particle traversals. Here we report the fluence-response for apoptosis in human TK6 B- lymp hoblasts and provide evidence that single Fe ion traversals can stimulate an apoptotic response. The apoptotic response to charged particle exposures includes scrambling of the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membrane, activation of caspase signaling cascades and degradation of DNA into oligonucleosomes. We have also explored the importance of apoptotic regulation on the frequency and spectrum of mutations arising after exposure to charged particles. We used isogenic derivatives of TK6 cells stably transfected with pSFFV-neo-bcl-xL (encoding the anti-apoptotic gene BCL-XL and the neomycin resistance gene) or with pSFFV neo (encoding only- the neomycin resistance gene). TK6-bclxL cells were more susceptible to mutations at the TK1 locus than TK6-neo cells following exposure to protons, silicon ions or Fe ions. Molecular analysis demonstrated that most Fe-ion-induced mutations arose by loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In TK6-bclxL cells, more of the LOH occurred via mitotic recombination than in TK6-neo cells where the predominant mode of LOH was via deletion. We are currently mapping the LOH tracts to further define the biological bases for the differential sensitivity to Fe-ion-induced mutagenesis as a function of the genotype of the cell at risk. Supported by NASA grant T-964W to A. Kronenberg

  5. [Clinical effect of human lymphoblastoid interferon in patients with multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Ohta, M; Muroi, K; Takeda, K; Kitagawa, S; Tsuboyama, A; Sakamoto, S; Miura, Y; Mutoh, Y

    1984-07-01

    Five patients with multiple myeloma were treated with human lymphoblastoid interferon (HLBI). HLBI, 3 X 10(6) IU/day, was administered daily for more than two weeks by intramuscular injection. Out of four evaluable patients, a minor response was obtained in 3 patients. In these responders, one patient developed pleural effusion due to the infiltration of myeloma cells during the administration of HLBI, and drug resistance was observed in another patient during the re-administration of HLBI. Therefore, out of six evaluable courses, a minor response was obtained in 3 courses of HLBI treatment. No severe side effects were observed. Thrombocytopenia, general malaise, liver dysfunction and anorexia were the main reasons for discontinuation of HLBI administration. On the basis of the preliminary study, it is concluded that HLBI is worth trying in the management of refractory multiple myeloma. PMID:6742866

  6. Frozen human cells can record radiation damage accumulated during space flight: mutation induction and radioadaptation.

    PubMed

    Yatagai, Fumio; Honma, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Akihisa; Omori, Katsunori; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Ukai, Akiko; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Abe, Tomoko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Ohnishi, Takeo; Gordon, Alasdair; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the space-radiation effects separately from other space-environmental effects such as microgravity, frozen human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were sent to the "Kibo" module of the International Space Station (ISS), preserved under frozen condition during the mission and finally recovered to Earth (after a total of 134 days flight, 72 mSv). Biological assays were performed on the cells recovered to Earth. We observed a tendency of increase (2.3-fold) in thymidine kinase deficient (TK(-)) mutations over the ground control. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis on the mutants also demonstrated a tendency of increase in proportion of the large deletion (beyond the TK locus) events, 6/41 in the in-flight samples and 1/17 in the ground control. Furthermore, in-flight samples exhibited 48% of the ground-control level in TK(-) mutation frequency upon exposure to a subsequent 2 Gy dose of X-rays, suggesting a tendency of radioadaptation when compared with the ground-control samples. The tendency of radioadaptation was also supported by the post-flight assays on DNA double-strand break repair: a 1.8- and 1.7-fold higher efficiency of in-flight samples compared to ground control via non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination, respectively. These observations suggest that this system can be used as a biodosimeter, because DNA damage generated by space radiation is considered to be accumulated in the cells preserved frozen during the mission, Furthermore, this system is also suggested to be applicable for evaluating various cellular responses to low-dose space radiation, providing a better understanding of biological space-radiation effects as well as estimation of health influences of future space explores. PMID:21161544

  7. Preliminary results of space experiment: Implications for the effects of space radiation and microgravity on survival and mutation induction in human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, F.; Honma, M.; Ukai, A.; Omori, K.; Suzuki, H.; Shimazu, T.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.; Dohmae, N.; Ishioka, N.

    2012-02-01

    In view of the concern for the health of astronauts that may one day journey to Mars or the Moon, we investigated the effect that space radiation and microgravity might have on DNA damage and repair. We sent frozen human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to the International Space Station where they were maintained under frozen conditions during a 134-day mission (14 November 2008 to 28 March 2009) except for an incubation period of 8 days under 1G or μG conditions in a CO2 incubator. The incubation period started after 100 days during which the cells had been exposed to 54 mSv of space radiation. The incubated cells were then refrozen, returned to Earth, and compared to ground control samples for the determination of the influence of microgravity on cell survival and mutation induction. The results for both varied from experiment to experiment, yielding a large SD, but the μG sample results differed significantly from the 1G sample results for each of 2 experiments, with the mean ratio of μG to 1G being 0.55 for the concentration of viable cells and 0.59 for the fraction of thymidine kinase deficient (TK-) mutants. Among the mutants, non-loss of zygosity events (point mutations) were less frequent (31%) after μG incubation than after 1G incubation, which might be explained by the influence of μG on cellular metabolic or physiological function. Additional experiments are needed to clarify the effect of μG interferes on DNA repair.

  8. Are there x-ray induced signature mutations in human cells?

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Giver, C.R.; Grosovsky, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    Investigations of mutational spectra generally have two primary objectives: identification of mutagen specific hallmark mutations, and insight into mutagenic mechanisms. In order to address these two crucial issues we have examined the spectrum of 116 x-ray induced, and 78 spontaneous, HPRT{sup -} mutants derived from the human B lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. Multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the overall representation of large deletions was not significantly different in the 2 spectra, although highly significant differences were observed for specific deletion types. Total gene deletions represented 41/78 (.53) of x-ray induced, but only 7/43 (.16) of spontaneous, deletions (p < .0001). In contrast, 5{prime} terminal deletions were significantly more common among spontaneous (17/43, .40) than x-ray induced (13/78, .17) large deletions (p=.0079). Chromosomal scale investigation of x-ray induced and spontaneous hprt total deletion mutants was also performed using cytogenetic examination, and X-linked PCR probes. The types of point mutations induced by x-ray exposure were very diverse, including all classes of transitions and transversions, tandem base substitutions, frameshifts, and a deletion/insertion compound mutation. Compared to spontaneous data, radiation induced point mutations exhibited a significantly reduced number of transitions, and an increased representation of small deletions. Small deletions were uniformly surrounded by direct sequence repeats. The distribution of x-ray induced point mutations was characterized by a cluster of 8 mutants within a 30 base region of exon 8. Thirteen HPRT{sup -} point mutants exhibited aberrant splicing, 4 of which were attributable to coding sequence alterations within exons 4 and 8. These results suggest that it may be possible to identify hallmark mutations associated with x-ray exposure of human cells.

  9. Influence of low-dose and low-dose-rate ionizing radiation on mutation induction in human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, F.; Umebayashi, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Abe, T.; Suzuki, H.; Shimazu, T.; Ishioka, N.; Iwaki, M.; Honma, M.

    This is a review paper to introduce our recent studies on the genetic effects of low-dose and low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (IR). Human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were exposed to γ-rays at a dose-rate of 1.2 mGy/h (total 30 mGy). The frequency of early mutations (EMs) in the thymidine kinase ( TK) gene locus was determined to be 1.7 × 10 -6, or 1.9-fold higher than the level seen in unirradated controls [Umebayashi, Y., Honma, M., Suzuki, M., Suzuki, H., Shimazu, T., Ishioka, N., Iwaki, M., Yatagai, F., Mutation induction in cultured human cells after low-dose and low-dose-rate γ-ray irradiation: detection by LOH analysis. J. Radiat. Res., 48, 7-11, 2007]. These mutants were then analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events. Small interstitial-deletion events were restricted to the TK gene locus and were not observed in EMs in unirradated controls, but they comprised about half of the EMs (8/15) after IR exposure. Because of the low level of exposure to IR, this specific type of event cannot be considered to be the direct result of an IR-induced DNA double strand break (DSB). To better understand the effects of low-level IR exposure, the repair efficiency of site-specific chromosomal DSBs was also examined. The pre γ-irradiation under the same condition did not largely influence the efficiency of DSB repair via end-joining, but enhanced such efficiency via homologous recombination to an about 40% higher level (unpublished data). All these results suggest that DNA repair and mutagenesis can be indirectly influenced by low-dose/dose-rate IR.

  10. Mechanisms of mutagenesis in human cells exposed to 55 MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauny, S.; Wiese, C.; Kronenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Protons represent the major type of charged particle radiation in spaceflight environments. The purpose of this study was to assess mutations arising in human lymphoid cells exposed to protons. Mutations were quantitated at the thymidine kinase (TK1) locus in cell lines derived from the same donor: TK6 cells (wt TP53) and WTK1 cells (mutant TP53). WTK1 cells were much more susceptible to mutagenesis following proton exposure than TK6 cells. Intragenic deletions were observed among early-arising TK1 mutants in TK6 cells, but not in WTK1 cells where all of the mutants arose by LOH. Deletion was the predominant mode of LOH in TK6 cells, while allelic recombination was the major mode of LOH in WTK1 cells. Deletions were of variable lengths, from <1 cM to 64 cM, while mutations that arose by allelic recombination often extended to the telomere. In summary, proton exposures elicited many types of mutations at an autosomal locus in human cells. Most involved large scale loss of genetic information, either through deletion or by recombination.

  11. Reduction of misleading ("false") positive results in mammalian cell genotoxicity assays. III: sensitivity of human cell types to known genotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Paul; Smith, Robert; Smith, Katie; Young, Jamie; Jeffrey, Laura; Carmichael, Paul; Kirkland, David; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    We have demonstrated previously that the seemingly high rate of "false" or "misleading" positive results from in vitro micronucleus assays (MNvit) was greater when rodent derived cell lines and certain toxicity measures, such as relative cell count or replication index, were used. These studies suggested that the use of a human cell type with functional p53 and a toxicity measure that included a function of cell proliferation could dramatically reduce the detection of misleading positive results. A reduced "false positive rate" should not be at the expense of a loss of sensitivity of the assay. Therefore, we have investigated the sensitivity of the MNvit assay to known genotoxic agents using three cell types shown previously to be less prone to misleading positives, namely human lymphocytes (HuLy), TK6 and HepG2 cells. The 17 chemicals are well characterised and are from a list of chemicals known to produce positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays. These data demonstrated a high sensitivity of the assay in which TK6 and HuLy cells were employed, such that 15 out of the 17 chemicals were correctly identified. By contrast, the use of HepG2 cells resulted in far fewer than expected positive responses. In conclusion, using TK6 and HuLy cells in preference to long established rodent cell lines in order to improve specificity does not compromise the sensitivity of the MNvit to detect known genotoxic agents. PMID:24632063

  12. Reduction of immunoglobulin G secretion in vitro following long term lymphoblastoid interferon (Wellferon) treatment in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    O'Gorman, M R; Oger, J; Kastrukoff, L F

    1987-01-01

    Pokeweed-mitogen-induced IgG secretion, Con A suppression and T cell surface markers were measured in 30 chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 21 healthy controls. Mean IgG secretion was higher in the MS patients than in the controls (2392 +/- 270 vs 1499 +/- 243); Con A suppression was lower (4 +/- 5% vs 24 +/- 4%) and the CD4/CD8 ratio was higher (4.1 +/- 0.4 vs 2.9 +/- 0.4). The above assays were used in vitro to monitor the effects of Wellferon (lymphoblastoid interferon) injections on this group of MS patients. Before treatment the INF-group (n = 14) did not differ from the PLA-group (n = 16). After 1 week of daily injections the level of IgG secreted was dramatically reduced in the INF group (629 +/- 96 ng/ml) compared to the PLA-group (1756 +/- 319 ng/ml). There was no change in either Con A suppression or T cell surface markers. IgG secretion remained lower in the INF-group for the 6 month treatment period. Following cessation of the injections and a 6 month washout period, IgG secretion in the INF-group rose and was equivalent to that observed in the PLA-group. A series of lymphocyte subset mixing experiments implicates the B lymphocyte subset as being directly affected by interferon injections in vitro. PMID:2957131

  13. Relationships between p53 status, apoptosis and induction of micronuclei in different human and mouse cell lines in vitro: Implications for improving existing assays.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, James; Smith, Robert; Jenner, Karen; Lyon, Heather; Wood, Deborah; Clements, Julie; Aschcroft-Hawley, Kelly; Gollapudi, Bhaskar; Kirkland, David; Lorge, Elisabeth; Pfuhler, Stefan; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Thybaud, Veronique

    2015-08-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity assays produce high frequencies of "misleading" positive results, i.e. predicted hazard is not confirmed in in vivo and/or carcinogenicity studies [1], raising the question of relevance to human risk assessment. A recent study of micronucleus (MN) induction [2] showed that commonly used p53-deficient rodent cell lines (CHL, CHO and V79) gave a higher frequency of "misleading" positive results with 9 non-DNA reactive, Ames-negative and in vivo negative chemicals [3] than human p53-competent cells (blood lymphocytes, TK6 and HepG2 cell lines). This raised the question of whether these differences were due to p53 status or species origin. This present study compared human versus mouse and p53-competent versus p53-mutated function. The same 9 chemicals were tested for induction of MN in mouse lymphoma L5178Y (mutated p53), human TK6 (functional p53) and WIL2-NS (TK6 related, with mutated p53) cells. Six chemicals provided clear positive increases in MN frequency in at least one cell type. L5178Y cells yielded clear positive responses with more chemicals than either TK6 or WIL2-NS, indicating origin rather than p53 functionality was most relevant. Apoptosis induction (measured via caspase-3/7) was also investigated with clear differences in the timing and extent of apoptosis induction between mouse and human cells noted. With curcumin in TK6 cells, induction of caspase-3/7 activity coincided with MN induction, whereas for L5178Y cells, MN induction occurred in the absence of increased caspase activity. By contrast, with MMS in TK6 cells, MN induction preceded increased caspase-3/7 activity. These data suggest that MN induction by "misleading positive" genotoxins in p53-competent human cell lines may result from apoptosis, whereas in p53-defective rodent cells such as L5178Y, MN induction may be independent of apoptosis. PMID:26232254

  14. (Comparative) mutagenesis of human cells in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Thilly, W.G.

    1989-01-01

    We have combined Fischer and Lerman's denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, high fidelity DNA amplification, and quantitative mutational measurements in a 104 bp sequence within the third exon of the hprt gene in cultured human TK6 cells in order to observe predominant point mutations. We have now characterized the mutations arising spontaneously or after treatment with ICR-191, MNNG, benzo({alpha})pyrene diol epoxide, ultraviolet light, hyperbaric oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide.

  15. [Clinical study on the effect of human lymphoblastoid interferon in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Takeyama, H; Yano, K; Kataoka, T; Yamamoto, M; Emi, N; Kodera, Y; Kawashima, K; Ohno, R; Yokomaku, S; Kobayashi, M

    1983-09-01

    Ten patients with multiple myeloma were treated with human lymphoblastoid interferon (HLBI). The dosages used were 3 X 10(6) IU to 6 X 10(6) IU of HLBI intramuscularly daily. Out of eight evaluable patients, one partial remission and 3 minor response were observed. More than half patients experienced fever exceeding 38 degrees C and mild myelosuppression. Other toxic effects consisted of anorexia, malaise, liver dysfunction and skin rash. On the basis of our preliminary study, we conclude that HLBI is an effective agent against multiple myeloma. PMID:6614939

  16. Deviation from additivity in mixture toxicity: relevance of nonlinear dose-response relationships and cell line differences in genotoxicity assays with combinations of chemical mutagens and gamma-radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Werner K; Vamvakas, Spyros; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Schlatter, Josef; Stopper, Helga

    2002-01-01

    Sublinear dose-response relationships are often seen in toxicity testing, particularly with bioassays for carcinogenicity. This is the result of a superimposition of various effects that modulate and contribute to the process of cancer formation. Examples are saturation of detoxification pathways or DNA repair with increasing dose, or regenerative hyperplasia and indirect DNA damage as a consequence of high-dose cytotoxicity and cell death. The response to a combination treatment can appear to be supra-additive, although it is in fact dose-additive along a sublinear dose-response curve for the single agents. Because environmental exposure of humans is usually in a low-dose range and deviation from linearity is less likely at the low-dose end, combination effects should be tested at the lowest observable effect levels (LOEL) of the components. This principle has been applied to combinations of genotoxic agents in various cellular models. For statistical analysis, all experiments were analyzed for deviation from additivity with an n-factor analysis of variance with an interaction term, n being the number of components tested in combination. Benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and dibenz[a,c]anthracene were tested at the LOEL, separately and in combination, for the induction of revertants in the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and rat liver S9 fraction. Combined treatment produced no deviation from additivity. The induction of micronuclei in vitro was investigated with ionizing radiation from a 137Cs source and ethyl methanesulfonate. Mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells revealed a significant 40% supra-additive combination effect in an experiment based on three independent replicates for controls and single and combination treatments. On the other hand, two human lymphoblastoid cell lines (TK6 and WTK1) as well as a pilot study with human primary fibroblasts from fetal lung did not show deviation from additivity. Data derived from one cell line should therefore

  17. [Comparative] mutagenesis of human cells in vivo and in vitro. Progress report, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Thilly, W.G.

    1989-12-31

    We have combined Fischer and Lerman`s denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, high fidelity DNA amplification, and quantitative mutational measurements in a 104 bp sequence within the third exon of the hprt gene in cultured human TK6 cells in order to observe predominant point mutations. We have now characterized the mutations arising spontaneously or after treatment with ICR-191, MNNG, benzo({alpha})pyrene diol epoxide, ultraviolet light, hyperbaric oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide.

  18. FMLP- and TNF-stimulated monoclonal Lym-1 antibody-dependent lysis of B lymphoblastoid tumour targets by neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Morone, P; Mancini, M; Amelotti, M; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

    1999-05-01

    Human neutrophils, incubated with Cr51-labelled B lymphoblastoid Raji cells in the presence of the anti-target monoclonal antibody (mAb) Lym-1 plus formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), were found to induce significant C51 release, i.e. significant cytolysis. The lytic process was inhibited by mAb IV.3, specific for the Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR) type II. The mAb 3G8, which reacts with FcgammaR type III, was ineffective. Moreover, the lysis was inhibited by the anti-CD18 mAb MEM-48. These data suggest that FMLP/Lym-1 as well as TNF-alpha/Lym-1 cytolytic systems strictly require FcgammaRII and CD18 integrins. As the lysis induced by TNF-alpha/Lym-1 was prevented by pertussis toxin (PT), PT-sensitive G-proteins are likely to intervene in post-FcgammaRII signal transduction. Both the FMLP- and the TNF-alpha-dependent systems were also found to be equally susceptible to inhibition by various inhibitors of kinases (genistein, staurosporin, 1-(5-isoquinolinnylsulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine and wortmannin). On the contrary, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (bis-indolyl-maleimide, BIM) was effective only in the FMLP/Lym-1 cytolytic system. Therefore, it appears that signals delivered by FMLP or TNF-alpha, BIM-sensitive and insensitive respectively, converge and synergize with those from G-protein-coupled FcgammaRII and, probably, CD18-integrins to promote the expression of the neutrophil cytolytic potential. PMID:10408834

  19. FMLP- and TNF-stimulated monoclonal Lym-1 antibody-dependent lysis of B lymphoblastoid tumour targets by neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Ottonello, L; Morone, P; Mancini, M; Amelotti, M; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

    1999-01-01

    Human neutrophils, incubated with Cr51-labelled B lymphoblastoid Raji cells in the presence of the anti-target monoclonal antibody (mAb) Lym-1 plus formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were found to induce significant Cr51 release, i.e. significant cytolysis. The lytic process was inhibited by mAb IV.3, specific for the Fcγ receptor (FcγR) type II. The mAb 3G8, which reacts with FcγR type III, was ineffective. Moreover, the lysis was inhibited by the anti-CD18 mAb MEM-48. These data suggest that FMLP/Lym-1 as well as TNF-α/Lym-1 cytolytic systems strictly require FcγRII and CD18 integrins. As the lysis induced by TNF-α/Lym-1 was prevented by pertussis toxin (PT), PT-sensitive G-proteins are likely to intervene in post-FcγRII signal transduction. Both the FMLP- and the TNF-α-dependent systems were also found to be equally susceptible to inhibition by various inhibitors of kinases (genistein, staurosporin, 1-(5-isoquinolinnylsulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine and wortmannin). On the contrary, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (bis-indolyl-maleimide, BIM) was effective only in the FMLP/Lym-1 cytolytic system. Therefore, it appears that signals delivered by FMLP or TNF-α, BIM-sensitive and insensitive respectively, converge and synergize with those from G-protein-coupled FcγRII and, probably, CD18-integrins to promote the expression of the neutrophil cytolytic potential. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408834

  20. [Phase I study of human lymphoblastoid alpha-interferon on malignant tumor].

    PubMed

    Furue, H

    1986-04-01

    A phase I study with human lymphoblastoid alpha-interferon (IFN-alpha) was conducted in 31 patients with malignant tumors. IFN-alpha was administered by intravenous drip infusion, intramuscular injection or local injection. In each patient, the dose was increased in 6 steps from 3 X 10(6) IU/body up to 54 X 10(6) IU/body for the purpose of investigating the safety, optimal regimen, pharmacokinetics and antitumor effect. The following findings were obtained: 1) Fever as a side effect was most frequently (in about 80%) found. However, the temperature did not exceed 40 degrees C in most cases and, on the next day, spontaneously fell to normal. 2) The dose-limiting factors (DLF) may include the subjective symptoms of anorexia, general fatigue and nausea/vomiting and the objective symptom of pancytopenia. 3) The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was estimated to be between 36 X 10(6) and 54 X 10(6) IU/body per dose. 4) As for the route of administration, the intramuscular one was considered most suitable on the basis of the plasma concentration profile of INF-alpha. It was therefore concluded that the drug may be further submitted to a phase II study which is to be conducted with due consideration of its safety. PMID:3963861

  1. Different mechanisms of radiation-induced loss of heterozygosity in two human lymphoid cell lines from a single donor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, C.; Gauny, S. S.; Liu, W. C.; Cherbonnel-Lasserre, C. L.; Kronenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allelic loss is an important mutational mechanism in human carcinogenesis. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at an autosomal locus is one outcome of the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and can occur by deletion or by mitotic recombination. We report that mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes occurred in human lymphoid cells exposed to densely ionizing radiation. We used cells derived from the same donor that express either normal TP53 (TK6 cells) or homozygous mutant TP53 (WTK1 cells) to assess the influence of TP53 on radiation-induced mutagenesis. Expression of mutant TP53 (Met 237 Ile) was associated with a small increase in mutation frequencies at the hemizygous HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase) locus, but the mutation spectra were unaffected at this locus. In contrast, WTK1 cells (mutant TP53) were 30-fold more susceptible than TK6 cells (wild-type TP53) to radiation-induced mutagenesis at the TK1 (thymidine kinase) locus. Gene dosage analysis combined with microsatellite marker analysis showed that the increase in TK1 mutagenesis in WTK1 cells could be attributed, in part, to mitotic recombination. The microsatellite marker analysis over a 64-cM region on chromosome 17q indicated that the recombinational events could initiate at different positions between the TK1 locus and the centromere. Virtually all of the recombinational LOH events extended beyond the TK1 locus to the most telomeric marker. In general, longer LOH tracts were observed in mutants from WTK1 cells than in mutants from TK6 cells. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the incidence of radi-ation-induced mutations is dependent on the genetic background of the cell at risk, on the locus examined, and on the mechanisms for mutation available at the locus of interest.

  2. Distinct Signaling Pathways After Higher or Lower Doses of Radiation in Three Closely Related Human Lymphoblast Cell Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, T.-P.; Lai, L.-C.; Lin, B.-I.; Chen, L.-H.; Hsiao, T.-H.; Liber, Howard L.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Tsai, M.-H.; Chuang, Eric Y.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The tumor suppressor p53 plays an essential role in cellular responses to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation; therefore, this study aims to further explore the role that p53 plays at different doses of radiation. Materials and Methods: The global cellular responses to higher-dose (10 Gy) and lower dose (iso-survival dose, i.e., the respective D0 levels) radiation were analyzed using microarrays in three human lymphoblast cell lines with different p53 status: TK6 (wild-type p53), NH32 (p53-null), and WTK1 (mutant p53). Total RNAs were extracted from cells harvested at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 24 h after higher and lower dose radiation exposures. Template-based clustering, hierarchical clustering, and principle component analysis were applied to examine the transcriptional profiles. Results: Differential expression profiles between 10 Gy and iso-survival radiation in cells with different p53 status were observed. Moreover, distinct gene expression patterns were exhibited among these three cells after 10 Gy radiation treatment, but similar transcriptional responses were observed in TK6 and NH32 cells treated with iso-survival radiation. Conclusions: After 10 Gy radiation exposure, the p53 signaling pathway played an important role in TK6, whereas the NFkB signaling pathway appeared to replace the role of p53 in WTK1. In contrast, after iso-survival radiation treatment, E2F4 seemed to play a dominant role independent of p53 status. This study dissected the impacts of p53, NFkB and E2F4 in response to higher or lower doses of gamma-irradiation.

  3. Gene conversion is strongly induced in human cells by double-strand breaks and is modulated by the expression of BCL-x(L)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Claudia; Pierce, Andrew J.; Gauny, Stacey S.; Jasin, Maria; Kronenberg, Amy; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability in rodent cells, and it has been assumed that HDR is of similar importance in DSB repair in human cells. However, some outcomes of homologous recombination can be deleterious, suggesting that factors exist to regulate HDR. We demonstrated previously that overexpression of BCL-2 or BCL-x(L) enhanced the frequency of X-ray-induced TK1 mutations, including loss of heterozygosity events presumed to arise by mitotic recombination. The present study was designed to test whether HDR is a prominent DSB repair pathway in human cells and to determine whether ectopic expression of BCL-x(L) affects HDR. Using TK6-neo cells, we find that a single DSB in an integrated HDR reporter stimulates gene conversion 40-50-fold, demonstrating efficient DSB repair by gene conversion in human cells. Significantly, DSB-induced gene conversion events are 3-4-fold more frequent in TK6 cells that stably overexpress the antiapoptotic protein BCL-X(L). Thus, HDR plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity in human cells, and ectopic expression of BCL-x(L) enhances HDR of DSBs. This is the first study to highlight a function for BCL-x(L) in modulating DSB repair in human cells.

  4. Quantification of the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5'-aldehyde products of 2-deoxyribose oxidation in DNA and cells by isotope-dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry: differential effects of gamma-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wan; Chen, Bingzi; Wang, Lianrong; Taghizadeh, Koli; Demott, Michael S; Dedon, Peter C

    2010-05-01

    -deoxyribonolactone at 7% and 24% of total 2-deoxyribose oxidation, respectively, with frequencies of 10 lesions per 10(6) nt per Gy (G-value, 13 nmol/J) and 2.4 lesions per 10(6) nt per microM. Studies in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells, in which the analytical data were corrected for losses sustained during DNA isolation, revealed background levels of 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5'-aldehyde of 9.7 and 73 lesions per 10(6) nt, respectively. Gamma-irradiation of the cells caused increases of 0.045 and 0.22 lesions per 10(6) nt per Gy, respectively, which represents a approximately 250-fold quenching effect of the cellular environment similar to that observed in previous studies. The proportions of the various 2-deoxyribose oxidation products generated by gamma-radiation are similar for purified DNA and cells. These results are consistent with solvent exposure as a major determinant of hydroxyl radical reactivity with 2-deoxyribose in DNA, but the large differences between gamma-radiation and Fe(2+)-EDTA suggest that factors other than hydroxyl radical reactivity govern DNA oxidation chemistry. PMID:20377226

  5. Quantification of the 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5’-aldehyde products of 2-deoxyribose oxidation in DNA and cells by isotope-dilution gas chromatography mass spectrometry: Differential effects of γ-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wan; Chen, Bingzi; Wang, Lianrong; Taghizadeh, Koli; Demott, Michael S.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    % and 24% of total 2-deoxyribose oxidation, respectively, with frequencies of 10 lesions per 106 nt per Gy (G-value, 13 nmol/J) and 2.4 lesions per 106 nt per µM. Studies in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells, in which the analytical data were corrected for losses sustained during DNA isolation, revealed background levels of 2-deoxyribonolactone and nucleoside 5’-aldehyde of 9.7 and 73 lesions per 106 nt, respectively. γ-Irradiation of the cells caused increases of 0.045 and 0.22 lesions per 106 nt per Gy, respectively, which represents a ~250-fold quenching effect of the cellular environment similar to that observed in previous studies. The proportions of the various 2-deoxyribose oxidation products generated by γ-radiation are similar for purified DNA and cells. These results are consistent with solvent exposure as a major determinant of hydroxyl radical reactivity with 2-deoxyribose in DNA, but the large differences between γ-radiation and Fe2+-EDTA suggest that factors other than hydroxyl radical reactivity govern DNA oxidation chemistry. PMID:20377226

  6. Genomic instability in human lymphoid cells exposed to 1 GeV/amu Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosovsky, A.; Bethel, H.; Parks, K.; Ritter, L.; Giver, C.; Gauny, S.; Wiese, C.; Kronenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether charged particle radiations of importance to spaceflight elicit genomic instability in human TK6 lymphoblasts. The incidence of genomic instability in TK6 cells was assessed 21 days after exposure to 2, 4, or 6 Fe ions (1 GeV/amu, LET= 146 keV/micrometers). Three indices of instability were used: intraclonal karyotypic heterogeneity, mutation rate analysis at the thymidine kinase (TK1) locus, and re-cloning efficiency. Fifteen of sixty clones demonstrated karyotypic heterogeneity. Five clones had multiple indicators of karyotypic change. One clone was markedly hypomutable and polyploid. Six clones were hypomutable, while 21 clones were mutators. Of these, seven were karyotypically unstable. Six clones had low re-cloning efficiencies, one of which was a mutator. All had normal karyotypes. In summary, many clones that survived exposure to a low fluence of Fe ions manifested one or more forms of genomic instability that may hasten the development of neoplasia through deletion or by recombination.

  7. In vitro sensitization of human lymphocytes to a myeloma cell-related antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, M.E.; Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.; Solomon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal human donors were cocultivated with cells from two established human multiple myeloma cell lines, RPMI 8226 and K-737, and with lymphoblastoid cells from a third B cell line, RAMM. After a comparison of three methods of lymphocyte sensitization, a 6-day incubation protocol with equal numbers of normal lymphocytes and mitomycin C-treated tumor cells was selected. Cells fom the RPMI 8226 myeloma line stimulated the differentiation of lymphocytes into cytotoxic effector cells as measured by /sup 51/Cr release from labeled target cells. The RPMI 8226-sensitized lymphocytes were cytotoxic for myeloma cells (RPMI 8226 and K-737) and for lymphoblastoid cells (RAMM) but not for cells from human lung tumor lines (A549, A427, MB9812), a breast carcinoma line (ALAB), a normal diploid fibroblast line (HSBP), or normal lymphocytes.

  8. Mutagenesis in human cells with accelerated H and Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, Amy

    1994-01-01

    The overall goals of this research were to determine the risks of mutation induction and the spectra of mutations induced by energetic protons and iron ions at two loci in human lymphoid cells. During the three year grant period the research has focused in three major areas: (1) the acquisition of sufficient statistics for human TK6 cell mutation experiments using Fe ions (400 MeV/amu), Fe ions (600 MeV/amu) and protons (250 MeV/amu); (2) collection of thymidine kinase- deficient (tk) mutants or hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficient (hprt) mutants induced by either Fe 400 MeV/amu, Fe 600 MeV/amu, or H 250 MeV/amu for subsequent molecular analysis; and (3) molecular characterization of mutants isolated after exposure to Fe ions (600 MeV/amu). As a result of the shutdown of the BEVALAC heavy ion accelerator in December 1992, efforts were rearranged somewhat in time to complete our dose-response studies and to complete mutant collections in particular for the Fe ion beams prior to the shutdown. These goals have been achieved. A major effort was placed on collection, re-screening, and archiving of 3 different series of mutants for the various particle beam exposures: tk-ng mutants, tk-sg mutants, and hprt-deficient mutants. Where possible, groups of mutants were isolated for several particle fluences. Comparative analysis of mutation spectra has occured with characterization of the mutation spectrum for hprt-deficient mutants obtained after exposure of TK6 cells to Fe ions (600 MeV/amu) and a series of spontaneous mutants.

  9. Cellular responses and genetic consequences by DSBs induced after heavy- ion exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, S.; Tomita, M.; Morimoto, S.; Yatagai, F.

    Molecular analyses for LOH (loss of heterozygosity) events in human cells after low-dose heavy-ion exposure could contribute to estimation of genetic influences by high background of high-LET radiation. Exposure of human lymphoblastoid TK6-20C cells to 10 cGy of accelerated C ion (22 keV/um) beam demonstrated- about 20-fold induction of TK mutants exhibiting the specific hemizygous -type LOH, which can be considered as a result of mis - endjoining of DSBs. The delays in cell-cycle progression into G2/M were observed after exposure of TK6 cells to heavy-ions. These results can be also explained by clustered DNA damage, including DSBs. Evidence of such clustered damage was provided by formation of localizedH2AX and Rad51 foci following Fe-ion (1000 keV/um). These facts implicate that DSBs produced by heavy -i o n exposure are difficult to be repaired by non-homologous endjoining repair. The rate of apoptosis did not significant ly differ between low- and high-LET irradiation, suggesting the possibility that the densely damaged cells could survive with risk to cause unique genetic-alterations.

  10. Gender differences in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene to butadiene diepoxide in Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Dahl, A.R.; Bechtold, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a gaseous compound used in the production of rubber, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weak carcinogen in rats. The mechanism of BD-induced carcinogenicity is thought to involve genotoxic effects of its reactive epoxide metabolites butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO{sub 2}). Studies in our laboratory have shown that levels of the epoxides, particularly BDO{sub 2}, are greater in mice-the more sensitive species-than rats. While both epoxides are genotoxic in a number of assays, BDO{sub 2} is mutagenic in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells at concentrations approximately 100-fold lower than BDO. Species differences in carcinogenicity of BD have posed a dilemma to investigators deciding which animal model is most appropriate for BD risk assessment.

  11. Preclinical development of hybrid cell vaccines for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Walewska, Renata; Teobald, Iryna; Dunnion, Debbie; Abdulmajed, Hind; Aldred, Micheala; Sadler, Jean; Chapman, Claire; Browning, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Immunotherapy may provide alternative or supplementary treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). We propose that hybrid cells, formed by fusing professional antigen-presenting cells with malignant plasma cells, would induce immune responses capable of mediating tumour regression. The human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, HMy2, was fused in vitro with CD138+ bead-separated myeloma plasma cells from five patients with MM. The hybrid cell lines generated in these studies grew stably in tissue culture, and maintained their phenotypic and functional characteristics, providing self-renewing cell lines with potential for therapeutic vaccination. The hybrid cells stimulated allogeneic and autologous T-cell proliferative responses in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent myeloma plasma cells, and directly activated both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. The enhanced T-cell stimulation correlated with expression of CD80 on the hybrid cells, and was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein. The hybrid cell lines expressed several tumour-associated antigens known to be expressed in myeloma. These data show that self-replicating cell lines with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination can be generated by in vitro fusion of ex vivo myeloma cells and B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. PMID:17302859

  12. TP53-dependent chromosome instability is associated with transient reductions in telomere length in immortal telomerase-positive cell lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, J. L.; Jordan, R.; Liber, H.; Murnane, J. P.; Evans, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    Telomere shortening in telomerase-negative somatic cells leads to the activation of the TP53 protein and the elimination of potentially unstable cells. We examined the effect of TP53 gene expression on both telomere metabolism and chromosome stability in immortal, telomerase-positive cell lines. Telomere length, telomerase activity, and chromosome instability were measured in multiple clones isolated from three related human B-lymphoblast cell lines that vary in TP53 expression; TK6 cells express wild-type TP53, WTK1 cells overexpress a mutant form of TP53, and NH32 cells express no TP53 protein. Clonal variations in both telomere length and chromosome stability were observed, and shorter telomeres were associated with higher levels of chromosome instability. The shortest telomeres were found in WTK1- and NH32-derived cells, and these cells had 5- to 10-fold higher levels of chromosome instability. The primary marker of instability was the presence of dicentric chromosomes. Aneuploidy and other stable chromosome alterations were also found in clones showing high levels of dicentrics. Polyploidy was found only in WTK1-derived cells. Both telomere length and chromosome instability fluctuated in the different cell populations with time in culture, presumably as unstable cells and cells with short telomeres were eliminated from the growing population. Our results suggest that transient reductions in telomere lengths may be common in immortal cell lines and that these alterations in telomere metabolism can have a profound effect on chromosome stability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Diverse delayed effects in human lymphoblastoid cells surviving exposure to high-LET (56)Fe particles or low-LET (137)Cs gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, H. H.; Horng, M. F.; Ricanati, M.; Diaz-Insua, M.; Jordan, R.; Schwartz, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain information on the origin of radiation-induced genomic instability, we characterized a total of 166 clones that survived exposure to (56)Fe particles or (137)Cs gamma radiation, isolated approximately 36 generations after exposure, along with their respective control clones. Cytogenetic aberrations, growth alterations, responses to a second irradiation, and mutant frequencies at the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and thymidine kinase loci were determined. A greater percentage of clones that survived exposure to (56)Fe particles exhibited instability (defined as clones showing one or more outlying characteristics) than in the case of those that survived gamma irradiation. The phenotypes of the unstable clones that survived exposure to (56)Fe particles were also qualitatively different from those of the clones that survived gamma irradiation. A greater percentage (20%) of the unstable clones that survived gamma irradiation than those that survived exposure to (56)Fe particles (4%) showed an altered response to the second irradiation, while an increase in the percentage of clones that had an outlying frequency of ouabain-resistant and thymidine kinase mutants was more evident in the clones exposed to (56)Fe particles than in those exposed to gamma rays. Growth alterations and increases in dicentric chromosomes were found only in clones with more than one alteration. These results underscore the complex nature of genomic instability and the likelihood that radiation-induced genomic instability arises from different original events.

  14. Influence of the surface charge of PLGA nanoparticles on their in vitro genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, ROS production and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Platel, Anne; Carpentier, Rodolphe; Becart, Elodie; Mordacq, Gwendoline; Betbeder, Didier; Nesslany, Fabrice

    2016-03-01

    With the ongoing commercialization of nanotechnology products, human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) is set to increase dramatically and an evaluation of their potential adverse effects is essential. Surface charge, among other physico-chemicals parameters, is a key criterion that should be considered when using a definition for nanomaterials in a regulatory context. It has recently been recognized as an important factor in determining the toxicity of NPs; however, a complete understanding of the mechanisms involved is still lacking. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the surface charge modification of NPs on in vitro toxicity assays. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles bearing different surface charges, positive(+), neutral(n) or negative(-), were synthesized. In vitro genotoxicity assays (micronucleus and comet assays) coupled with an assessment of cytotoxicity, were performed in different cell lines (L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, TK6 human B-lymphoblastoid cells and 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and endocytosis studies were also performed. Our results showed that PLGA(+) NPs were cytotoxic. They are endocytosed by the clathrin pathway and induced ROS in the three cell lines. They led to chromosomal aberrations without primary DNA damage in 16HBE14o- cells, suggesting that aneuploidy may be considered as an important biomarker when assessing the genotoxic potential of NPs. Moreover, 16HBE14o- cells seem to be more suitable for the in vitro screening of inhaled NPs than the regulatory L5178Y and TK6 cells. PMID:26487569

  15. Xenohybridization of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cells for the production of human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tiebout, R F; Stricker, E A; Oosterhof, F; van Heemstra, D J; Zeijlemaker, W P

    1985-12-01

    Transformation of human B lymphocytes, obtained from hyperimmune donors with Epstein-Barr virus, yields polyclonal cell populations in which a minority of cells produce IgG antibodies of predetermined specificity, whereas the majority of cells produce 'non-specific' immunoglobulin (mainly of the IgM class). Such lymphoblastoid cell lines can be easily propagated in high-density cultures. Because cloning at 1 cell per well is not possible, stabilization of lymphoblastoid cell lines by limiting dilution is not feasible and most newly established lines cease to produce specific antibody within a few weeks. Xenohybrids, resulting from fusion of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cells with NS1 mouse plasmacytoma cells, can be cloned at 1 cell per well. Stable xenohybridoma subclones, producing antibody of the desired specificity, can be isolated after a series of limiting dilutions. In a model system, we have studied the efficiency of xenohybridization of human lymphoblastoid cells. Using this system, we have constructed IgG anti-tetanus-toxoid- and IgG anti-HBsAg-producing cell lines. Next, we investigated whether transformation with Epstein-Barr virus is essential in such a two-step procedure or whether a polyclonal stimulator, such as pokeweed mitogen, could also be used. It was found that antibody-producing xenohybrids can be obtained after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. However, this latter system is subject to more variations and lacks the advantage of pre-selection of antibody-producing cells as compared to xenohybridization after transformation. PMID:3003887

  16. Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Tang, D. S.; Comardelle, A. M.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Garry, R. F.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data currently available on HIV-1-induced cytopathology is unclear regarding the mechanism of cell killing. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the extent to which apoptosis or necrosis is involved in HIV-1-induced cell death in view of conflicting existing data. METHODS: T lymphoblastoid cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected by various strains of HIV-1 and the numbers of apoptotic or necrotic cells were quantified at various times after infection using video-image analysis techniques; the results were compared with the amount of fragmented DNA using a quantitative method. Measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (deltapsi(m)) and intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i was performed with fluorescent probes and fluorescence concentration analysis (FCA). RESULTS: Although lymphoblastoid and monocytoid cells acutely infected by HIV-1 had increased levels of fragmented DNA, a marker of apoptotic cell death, few (<12%) had condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei, the morphological features of apoptosis. The predominant alterations in acutely infected cells were distended endoplasmic reticulum and abnormal mitochondria; these ultrastructural changes are consistent with necrosis, although some infected cells simultaneously displayed features of both necrosis and apoptosis. Viability of cells persistently infected by HIV-1 was only minimally reduced from that of uninfected cells. This reduction was accounted for by an increased propensity of the persistently infected cells to die by apoptosis. Alterations in [Ca2+]i and deltapsi(m) occurred in both acutely and persistently infected cells. CONCLUSION: Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells.

  17. Up-regulation of the embryonic self-renewal network through reversible polyploidy in irradiated p53-mutant tumour cells

    SciTech Connect

    Salmina, Kristine; Jankevics, Eriks; Huna, Anda; Perminov, Dmitry; Radovica, Ilze; Klymenko, Tetyana; Ivanov, Andrey; Jascenko, Elina; Scherthan, Harry; Cragg, Mark; Erenpreisa, Jekaterina

    2010-08-01

    We have previously documented that transient polyploidy is a potential cell survival strategy underlying the clonogenic re-growth of tumour cells after genotoxic treatment. In an attempt to better define this mechanism, we recently documented the key role of meiotic genes in regulating the DNA repair and return of the endopolyploid tumour cells (ETC) to diploidy through reduction divisions after irradiation. Here, we studied the role of the pluripotency and self-renewal stem cell genes NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 in this polyploidy-dependent survival mechanism. In irradiation-resistant p53-mutated lymphoma cell-lines (Namalwa and WI-L2-NS) but not sensitive p53 wild-type counterparts (TK6), low background expression of OCT4 and NANOG was up-regulated by ionising radiation with protein accumulation evident in ETC as detected by OCT4/DNA flow cytometry and immunofluorescence (IF). IF analysis also showed that the ETC generate PML bodies that appear to concentrate OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 proteins, which extend into complex nuclear networks. These polyploid tumour cells resist apoptosis, overcome cellular senescence and undergo bi- and multi-polar divisions transmitting the up-regulated OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 self-renewal cassette to their descendents. Altogether, our observations indicate that irradiation-induced ETC up-regulate key components of germ-line cells, which potentially facilitate survival and propagation of the tumour cell population.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces expression of B-cell activation markers on in vitro infection of EBV-negative B-lymphoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Calender, A; Billaud, M; Aubry, J P; Banchereau, J; Vuillaume, M; Lenoir, G M

    1987-01-01

    A set of B-cell activation markers, including the EBV/C3d receptor [complement receptor type 2 (CR2) (CD21)], the 45-kDa lymphoblastoid cell-associated (Blast-2) antigen (CD23), and the B-cell restricted activation (Bac-1) antigen (which was recently identified as a potential B-cell growth factor receptor) can be turned on by infecting lymphoma cells that are genome negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with the B95-8 immortalizing strain of the virus. The nonimmortalizing EBV variant, strain P3HR-1, which possesses a deletion within the BamHI WYH region of the genome containing the coding sequence for the EBV-determined nuclear antigen 2, does not induce expression of these markers. Other lymphoblastoid cell-associated antigen markers can be activated by infection with either immortalizing or nonimmortalizing viruses. These results suggest that the immortalizing potential of EBV is correlated with its ability to induce expression of B-cell activation markers, which are suspected to play a major role in the physiological pathway leading to lymphoid cell proliferation. The viral genomic region deleted in the nonimmortalizing strain of EBV seems to be required for activation of some of these markers. Human lymphoma cell lines, such as those used in this study, can thus help identify the specific EBV genes involved in lymphoid B-cell proliferation and the mechanism of action of these genes. PMID:2825176

  19. High-Throughput Screening Platform for Engineered Nanoparticle-Mediated Genotoxicity Using CometChip Technology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of intentional and unintentional engineered nanoparticle (ENP) exposure has dramatically increased due to the use of nanoenabled products. Indeed, ENPs have been incorporated in many useful products and have enhanced our way of life. However, there are many unanswered questions about the consequences of nanoparticle exposures, in particular, with regard to their potential to damage the genome and thus potentially promote cancer. In this study, we present a high-throughput screening assay based upon the recently developed CometChip technology, which enables evaluation of single-stranded DNA breaks, abasic sites, and alkali-sensitive sites in cells exposed to ENPs. The strategic microfabricated, 96-well design and automated processing improves efficiency, reduces processing time, and suppresses user bias in comparison to the standard comet assay. We evaluated the versatility of this assay by screening five industrially relevant ENP exposures (SiO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, Ag, and CeO2) on both suspension human lymphoblastoid (TK6) and adherent Chinese hamster ovary (H9T3) cell lines. MTT and CyQuant NF assays were employed to assess cellular viability and proliferation after ENP exposure. Exposure to ENPs at a dose range of 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL induced dose-dependent increases in DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity profiles of ZnO > Ag > Fe2O3 > CeO2 > SiO2 in TK6 cells at 4 h and Ag > Fe2O3 > ZnO > CeO2 > SiO2 in H9T3 cells at 24 h were observed. The presented CometChip platform enabled efficient and reliable measurement of ENP-mediated DNA damage, therefore demonstrating the efficacy of this powerful tool in nanogenotoxicity studies. PMID:24617523

  20. Mechanisms of lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells: studies using a LFA-1-deficient cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Haskard, D O; Strobel, S; Thornhill, M; Pitzalis, C; Levinsky, R J

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (EC), we have studied the adhesion of a LFA-1-deficient lymphoblastoid cell line, ICH-KM, which has < 10% of the cell surface LFA-1 expressed on a normal lymphoblastoid cell line, ICH-BJ. The adhesion of ICH-KM cells to unstimulated EC was 49.9 +/- 8.6% (mean +/- SD) that of ICH-BJ cells. Moreover, phorbol ester-stimulated ICH-KM cells showed a considerably weaker increase in adhesion to unstimulated EC compared with ICH-BJ cells (mean +/- SD increase in percentage adhesion, 3.8 +/- 2.3 compared with 18.5 +/- 8.0; P<0.025). In contrast, there was no significant difference between the enhanced adhesion of ICH-KM cells and ICH-BJ cells to interleukin-1 (IL-1)-stimulated EC. Thus ICH-KM cells showed a 22.7 +/- 11.0 (mean +/- SD) increase in percentage adhesion to IL-1-stimulated EC compared with the 24.8 +/- 8.5 increase in percentage adhesion of ICH-BJ cells. Anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies had no effect on the enhanced adhesion of ICH-KM and ICH-BJ cells to IL-1-stimulated EC but abolished the differences in adhesion between the two cell lines. The study therefore indicates that although a major part of unstimulated and phorbol ester-stimulated lymphocyte-EC adhesion is dependent upon LFA-1, the enhanced adhesion due to stimulation of EC with IL-1 is not dependent upon this molecule. The data therefore supports the existence of cytokine-inducible LFA-1-independent adhesion molecules for lymphocytes on EC. PMID:15493272

  1. Silencing expression of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase by small interfering RNA sensitizes human cells for radiation-induced chromosome damage, cell killing, and mutation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Yuanlin; Zhang, Qinming; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Liber, Howard L.; Bedford, Joel S.

    2002-01-01

    Targeted gene silencing in mammalian cells by RNA interference (RNAi) using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was recently described by Elbashir et al. (S. M. Elbashir et al., Nature (Lond.), 411: 494-498, 2001). We have used this methodology in several human cell strains to reduce expression of the Prkdc (DNA-PKcs) gene coding for the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) that is involved in the nonhomologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks. We have also demonstrated a radiosensitization for several phenotypic endpoints of radiation damage. In low-passage normal human fibroblasts, siRNA knock-down of DNA-PKcs resulted in a reduced capacity for restitution of radiation-induced interphase chromosome breaks as measured by premature chromosome condensation, an increased yield of acentric chromosome fragments at the first postirradiation mitosis, and an increased radiosensitivity for cell killing. For three strains of related human lymphoblasts, DNA-PKcs-targeted siRNA transfection resulted in little or no increase in radiosensitivity with respect to cell killing, a 1.5-fold decrease in induced mutant yield in TK6- and p53-null NH32 cells, but about a 2-fold increase in induced mutant yield in p53-mutant WTK1 cells at both the hypoxanthine quanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) and the thymidine kinase loci.

  2. An application of LOH analysis for detecting the genetic influences of space environmental radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, F.; Umebayashi, Y.; Honma, M.; Abe, T.; Suzuki, H.; Shimazu, T.; Ishioka, N.; Iwaki, M.

    To detect the genetic influence of space environmental radiation at the chromosome level we proposed an application of loss of heterozygosity LOH analysis system for the mutations induced in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells Surprisingly we succeeded the mutation detection in the frozen dells which were exposed to a low-dose 10 cGy of carbon-ion beam irradiation Mutation assays were performed within a few days or after about one month preservation at --80 r C following irradiation The results showed an increase in mutation frequency at the thymidine kinase TK gene locus 1 6-fold 2 5 X 10 -6 to 3 9 X 10 -6 and 2 1-fold 2 5 X 10 -6 to 5 3 X 10 -6 respectively Although the relative distributions of mutation classes were not changed by the radiation exposure in either assay an interesting characteristic was detected using this LOH analysis system two TK locus markers and eleven microsatellite loci spanning chromosome 17 The radiation-specific patterns of interstitial deletions were observed in the hemizygous LOH mutants which were considered as a result of end-joining repair of carbon ion-induced DNA double-strand breaks These results clearly demonstrate that this analysis can be used for the detection of low-dose ionizing radiation effects in the frozen cells In addition we performed so called adaptive response experiments in which TK6 cells were pre-irradiated with low-dose 2 5 sim 10 cGy of X-ray and then exposed to challenging dose 2Gy of X-rays Interestingly the

  3. IDS transfer from overexpressing cells to IDS-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Millat, G; Froissart, R; Maire, I; Bozon, D

    1997-02-01

    Iduronate sulfatase (IDS) is responsible for mucopolysaccharidosis type II, a rare recessive X-linked lysosomal storage disease. The aim of this work was to test the ability of overexpressing cells to transfer IDS to deficient cells. In the first part of our work, IDS processing steps were compared in fibroblasts, COS cells, and lymphoblastoid cell lines and shown to be identical: the two precursor forms (76 and 90 kDa) were processed by a series of intermediate forms to the 55- and 45-kDa mature polypeptides. Then IDS transfer to IDS-deficient cells was tested either by incubation with cell-free medium of overexpressing cells or by coculture. Endocytosis and coculture experiments between transfected L beta and deleted fibroblasts showed that IDS transfer occurred preferentially by cell-to-cell contact as IDS precursors are poorly secreted by transfected L beta. The 76- and 62-kDa IDS polypeptides transferred to deleted fibroblasts were correctly processed to the mature 55- and 45-kDa forms. L beta were not able to internalize the 90-kDa phosphorylated precursor forms excreted in large amounts in the medium of overexpressing fibroblasts. Enzyme transfer occurred only by cell-to-cell contact, but the precursor forms transferred in L beta after cell-to-cell contact were not processed. This absence of maturation was probably due to a mistargeting of IDS precursors in these cells. PMID:9024795

  4. Selective activation of functional suppressor cells by human seminal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, S S

    1986-01-01

    The ability of seminal fluid (SF) to induce suppressor cell activity from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) was examined. PBMN were incubated with SF for 48 h, washed to remove SF components, treated with mitomycin C (mit C) and co-cultured with Raji cells, a lymphoblastoid cell line. Raji cell proliferation was inhibited by SF-treated PBMN proportionally to SF concentration. SF (50-200 micrograms), mit C-treated Raji cells or mit C-treated PBMN pre-incubated with phytohaemagglutinin were without effect on Raji cell growth. Suppressor T lymphocytes generated by incubation of PBMN with concanavalin A inhibited Raji cells to the same extent as did SF-treated PBMN. All activity was lost following heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min; freezing and thawing reduced the ability of SF to induce suppression by 50%. Dialysis of SF or treatment with antibody to prostaglandin E2 led to a 50% reduction in suppression. PMID:2943541

  5. Correlation of In Vivo Versus In Vitro Benchmark Doses (BMDs) Derived From Micronucleus Test Data: A Proof of Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; Fellows, Mick D; Johnson, George E; Slob, Wout

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we explored the applicability of using in vitro micronucleus (MN) data from human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to derive in vivo genotoxicity potency information. Nineteen chemicals covering a broad spectrum of genotoxic modes of action were tested in an in vitro MN test using TK6 cells using the same study protocol. Several of these chemicals were considered to need metabolic activation, and these were administered in the presence of S9. The Benchmark dose (BMD) approach was applied using the dose-response modeling program PROAST to estimate the genotoxic potency from the in vitro data. The resulting in vitro BMDs were compared with previously derived BMDs from in vivo MN and carcinogenicity studies. A proportional correlation was observed between the BMDs from the in vitro MN and the BMDs from the in vivo MN assays. Further, a clear correlation was found between the BMDs from in vitro MN and the associated BMDs for malignant tumors. Although these results are based on only 19 compounds, they show that genotoxicity potencies estimated from in vitro tests may result in useful information regarding in vivo genotoxic potency, as well as expected cancer potency. Extension of the number of compounds and further investigation of metabolic activation (S9) and of other toxicokinetic factors would be needed to validate our initial conclusions. However, this initial work suggests that this approach could be used for in vitro to in vivo extrapolations which would support the reduction of animals used in research (3Rs: replacement, reduction, and refinement). PMID:26443842

  6. Acute dosing and p53-deficiency promote cellular sensitivity to DNA methylating agents.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Katherine E; Doak, Shareen H; Jenkins, Gareth J S

    2015-04-01

    Risk assessment of human exposure to chemicals is crucial for understanding whether such agents can cause cancer. The current emphasis on avoidance of animal testing has placed greater importance on in vitro tests for the identification of genotoxicants. Selection of an appropriate in vitro dosing regime is imperative in determining the genotoxic effects of test chemicals. Here, the issue of dosing approaches was addressed by comparing acute and chronic dosing, uniquely using low-dose experiments. Acute 24 h exposures were compared with equivalent dosing every 24 h over 5-day, fractionated treatment periods. The in vitro micronucleus assay was used to measure clastogenicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6. Quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR was used to measure mRNA level induction of DNA repair enzymes. Lowest observed genotoxic effect levels (LOGELs) for MMS were obtained at 0.7 µg/ml for the acute study and 1.0 µg/ml for the chronic study. For acute MNU dosing, a LOGEL was observed at 0.46 µg/ml, yet genotoxicity was completely removed following the chronic study. Interestingly, acute MNU dosing demonstrated a statistically significant decrease at 0.009 µg/ml. Levels of selected DNA repair enzymes did not change significantly following doses tested. However, p53 deficiency (using the TK6-isogenic cell line, NH32) increased sensitivity to MMS during chronic dosing, causing this LOGEL to equate to the acute treatment LOGEL. In the context of the present data for 2 alkylating agents, chronic dosing could be a valuable in vitro supplement to acute dosing and could contribute to reduction of unnecessary in vivo follow-up tests. PMID:25595616

  7. Correlation of In  Vivo Versus In Vitro Benchmark Doses (BMDs) Derived From Micronucleus Test Data: A Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G.; Fellows, Mick D.; Johnson, George E.; Slob, Wout

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the applicability of using in vitro micronucleus (MN) data from human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to derive in vivo genotoxicity potency information. Nineteen chemicals covering a broad spectrum of genotoxic modes of action were tested in an in vitro MN test using TK6 cells using the same study protocol. Several of these chemicals were considered to need metabolic activation, and these were administered in the presence of S9. The Benchmark dose (BMD) approach was applied using the dose-response modeling program PROAST to estimate the genotoxic potency from the in vitro data. The resulting in vitro BMDs were compared with previously derived BMDs from in vivo MN and carcinogenicity studies. A proportional correlation was observed between the BMDs from the in vitro MN and the BMDs from the in vivo MN assays. Further, a clear correlation was found between the BMDs from in vitro MN and the associated BMDs for malignant tumors. Although these results are based on only 19 compounds, they show that genotoxicity potencies estimated from in vitro tests may result in useful information regarding in vivo genotoxic potency, as well as expected cancer potency. Extension of the number of compounds and further investigation of metabolic activation (S9) and of other toxicokinetic factors would be needed to validate our initial conclusions. However, this initial work suggests that this approach could be used for in vitro to in vivo extrapolations which would support the reduction of animals used in research (3Rs: replacement, reduction, and refinement). PMID:26443842

  8. Retama monosperma n-hexane extract induces cell cycle arrest and extrinsic pathway-dependent apoptosis in Jurkat cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Retama monosperma L. (Boiss.) or Genista monosperma L. (Lam.), locally named as “R’tam”, is an annual and spontaneous plant belonging to the Fabaceae family. In Morocco, Retama genus is located in desert regions and across the Middle Atlas and it has been widely used in traditional medicine in many countries. In this study, we show that Retama monosperma hexane extract presents significant anti-leukemic effects against human Jurkat cells. Methods Human Jurkat cells, together with other cell lines were screened with different concentrations of Retama monosperma hexane extract at different time intervals. Growth inhibition was determined using luminescent-based viability assays. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry analysis. Combined caspase 3 and 7 activities were measured using luminometric caspase assays and immunoblots were performed to analyze expression of relevant pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. GC-MS were used to determine the chemical constituents of the active extract. Results Retama monosperma hexane extract (Rm-HE) showed significant cytotoxicity against Jurkat cells, whereas it proved to be essentially ineffective against both normal mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and normal lymphocytes (TK-6). Cytometric analysis indicated that Rm-HE promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction accompanied by DNA damage induction indicated by an increase in p-H2A.X levels. Rm-HE induced apoptosis was partially JNK-dependent and characterized by an increase in Fas-L levels together with activation of caspases 8, 3, 7 and 9, whereas neither the pro-apoptotic nor anti-apoptotic mitochondrial membrane proteins analyzed were significantly altered. Chemical identification analysis indicated that α-linolenic acid, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol were the major bioactive components within the extract. Conclusions Our data suggest that bioactive compounds present in Rm-HE show significant anti leukemic activity inducing

  9. Increased initial levels of chromosome damage and heterogeneous chromosome repair in ataxia telangiectasia heterozygote cells.

    PubMed

    Pandita, T K; Hittelman, W N

    1994-10-01

    Individuals heterozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (AT) appear clinically normal but have a 2-3-fold overall excess risk of cancer. Various approaches have been used to identify AT heterozygotes, however, the results are ambiguous. We recently reported that AT homozygotes exhibit more initial chromosome damage after irradiation than normal cells despite identical levels of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) as well as a reduced fast repair component at both the DNA and chromosome levels. To determine whether AT heterozygotes exhibit the AT or normal cellular phenotype, we compared four AT heterozygote lymphoblastoid cell lines with normal control and AT homozygote lymphoblastoid cells with regard to cell survival, initial levels of damage, and repair at the DNA and chromosome levels after gamma-irradiation in G1, S, and G2 phase (estimated by neutral DNA filter elution and premature chromosome condensation). There was no significant difference in survival, induction and repair of DNA DSBs, or chromosome repair between AT heterozygote and normal cells. In contrast, all four AT heterozygote cell lines showed increased levels of chromosome damage; G1 phase cells showed intermediate levels and G2 phase cells showed levels equivalent to the AT homozygote phenotype. These results suggest that premature chromosome condensation may be useful for detecting AT heterozygotes. PMID:7523872

  10. Broad target cell selectivity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion and virion entry

    SciTech Connect

    Kaleeba, Johnan A.R.; Berger, Edward A. . E-mail: edward_berger@nih.gov

    2006-10-10

    The molecular mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) entry is poorly understood. We tested a broad variety of cell types of diverse species and tissue origin for their ability to function as targets in a quantitative reporter gene assay for KSHV-glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion. Several human, non-human primate, and rabbit cell lines were efficient targets, whereas rodent and all human lymphoblastoid cell lines were weak targets. Parallel findings were obtained with a virion entry assay using a recombinant KSHV encoding a reporter gene. No correlation was observed between target cell activity and surface expression of {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin, a proposed KSHV receptor. We hypothesize that target cell permissiveness in both the cell fusion and virion entry assays reflects the presence of a putative KSHV fusion-entry receptor.

  11. Expansion of NK Cells Using Genetically Engineered K562 Feeder Cells.

    PubMed

    Phan, Minh-Trang Thi; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Ki; Cho, Duck

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can be expanded upon activation by proliferative cytokines (such as IL-2 and IL-15). The NK cell expansion can be greatly enhanced by proteins from feeder cells such as tumor cell lines or PBMCs. Therefore, coculture systems of irradiated feeder cells and NK cells in media containing IL-2 and IL-15 have been developed to generate large numbers of NK cells, although NK cell expansion protocol using anti-CD3 antibody (OKT-3) without feeder cells has also been developed. Commonly used feeder cell lines are RPMI8866, Epstein-Barr lymphoblastoid cell line (EBV-LCL), and K562. Stimulation with NK-sensitive K562 cells is known to augment NK cell proliferation to IL-2, IL-15, and IL-21 in combination.Recently, remarkable NK cell-expansion rates are achieved when genetically engineered (GE) feeder cells are used. Dr. Dario Campana's group found that membrane-bound IL-15 and 4-1BBL, coexpressed by K562 cells, acted synergistically to augment K562-specific NK stimulatory capacity, resulting in vigorous expansion of peripheral blood CD56(+) CD3(-) NK cells without concomitant growth of T lymphocytes. Here, we describe an in vitro expansion method of human NK cells among PBMCs by coculturing with GE_K562 cells. PMID:27177665

  12. Monoclonal Lym-1 antibody-dependent lysis of B-lymphoblastoid tumor targets by human complement and cytokinine-exposed mononuclear and neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Morone, P; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

    1996-06-15

    Lym-1 is a murine IgG2a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a polymorphic variant of HLA-DR antigens on malignant B cells, with minimal cross-reactivity with normal tissues. Because it can be safely administered in vivo, a detailed knowledge of its ability to recruit and trigger the antitumor immune effector systems is required to optimize potential serotherapeutic approaches in B-lymphoma patients. By using Raji cells as a model of B-lymphoma targets, we found that Lym-1 activates complement-mediated lysis efficiently. Moreover, Lym-1 was capable of triggering the antibody-dependent cellular cytolysis (ADCC) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs). On the contrary, it failed to trigger neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-mediated ADCC activity. In an attempt to enhance Lym-1 ADCC by MNCs and PMNs, nine biologic response modifiers were tested. MNC-mediated Lym-1 ADCC was significantly stimulated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and unaffected by other mediators, including gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN), tumor necrosis factor a (TNFalpha), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). On the other hand, PMN-mediated Lym-1 ADCC was induced or significantly augmented by various cytokines, such as GM-CSF, TNFalpha, and gamma-IFN, and chemotaxins, such as formyl peptides (FMLP), complement fragment C5a, and IL-8. Both MNC- and PMN-mediated ADCC was unaffected by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G- CSF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Finally, only GM-CSF and TNFalpha augmented the number of PMNs actually engaged in the binding of Raji target cells. The findings presented here, in particular those showing stimulatory activity of biologic response modifiers, may inspire new attempts for developing Lym-1 antibody-based approaches to the therapy of B lymphomas. PMID:8652830

  13. Role of interleukin in human natural killer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    London, L.; Perussia, B.; Trinchieri, G.

    1986-03-01

    Human NK cells, defined by the antibody B73.1, can be induced to proliferate in vitro in the presence of an IL-2 containing conditioned medium (CM) and an irradiated lymphoblastoid line, Daudi. Proliferating NK cells maintain phenotypic and functional characteristics of resting NK cells while newly expressing surface activation antigens (HLA-DR, transferrin receptor, and IL-2 receptor recognized by anti-TAC antibody). A goat anti-IL-2 antiserum and the anti-TAC monoclonal antibody completely block /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation in NK cells stimulated with CM alone or with irradiated Daudi cells. Inhibition is also observed when the antibodies are added up to day 4 of culture, indicating that IL-2 is required for both initiation and maintenance of proliferation. Human recombinant IL-2, either alone or with irradiated lymphoblastoid cells, replaces the CM in initiating /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation. In limiting dilution analysis the frequency of B73.1 (+) cells responding to rIL-2 is approximately 1/2000 and it is increased ten to thirty fold with the addition of irradiated Daudi cells to the cultures. Cultures stimulated with rIL-2 in the presence of colchicine, show a significant proportion of B73.1 + cells entering cycle each day during the first 3 days. These data show that a significant proportion of resting NK cells are capable of responding to IL-2 and that this response can occur over a period of several days after initiation of cultures.

  14. Characterization of DNA reactive and non-DNA reactive anticancer drugs by gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Le Fevre, Anne-Celine; Boitier, Eric; Marchandeau, Jean-Pierre; Sarasin, Alain; Thybaud, Veronique

    2007-06-01

    Gene expression profiling technology is expected to advance our understanding of genotoxic mechanisms involving direct or indirect interaction with DNA. We exposed human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to 14 anticancer drugs (vincristine, paclitaxel, etoposide, daunorubicin, camptothecin, amsacrine, cytosine arabinoside, hydroxyurea, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU), 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), and bleomycin) for 4-h and examined them immediately or after a 20-h recovery period. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, were evaluated by cell counting and by in vitro micronucleus assay at 24h. Effects on the cell cycle were determined by flow cytometry at 4 and 24h. Gene expression was profiled at both sampling times by using human Affymetrix U133A GeneChips (22K). Bioanalysis was done with Resolver/Rosetta software and an in-house annotation program. Cell cycle analysis and gene expression profiling allowed us to classify the drugs according to their mechanisms of action. The molecular signature is composed of 28 marker genes mainly involved in signal transduction and cell cycle pathways. Our results suggest that these marker genes could be used as a predictive model to classify genotoxins according to their direct or indirect interaction with DNA. PMID:17374387

  15. Lymphocyte culture: induction of colonies by conditioned medium from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R M; Goust, J M; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The presence of phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in agar is known to stimulate the formation of lymphoid colonies. We now report that similar colonies can be induced in the absence of plant lectins upon addition of filtered and ultracentrifuged conditioned medium (CM) obtained from certain human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Colony formation required at least 6 X 10(5) mononuclear cells per milliliter, and optimum results were obtained at concentrations of 1 X 10(6) cells/ml in the presence of 20% CM (50-500 colonies per 10(6) cells cultured). Individual cells within colonies displayed uniform morphological characteristics of lymphoid cells, and the majority formed rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, suggesting that they were of T-cell type. PMID:303689

  16. Detection of high affinity receptor sites for IL 1. beta. on a human B lymphoblastoid line which fail to recognize IL 1. cap alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.; Cameron, P.; Sigal, N.H.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    A large number of EBV-transformed human B lines were screened for their ability to bind human pI 6.8 IL 1 (IL 1..beta..) which was labeled to high specific radioactivity with Bolton-Hunter reagent. One of these, designated 2C2, bound (/sup 125/)I-IL 1 in a saturable dose-dependent fashion. Scatchard analysis of direct binding data obtained at equilibrium suggested a single family of receptor sites, at approx. 10,000 sites per cell, with a K/sub d/ = 1.5 +/- 0.2 (+SD) nM. Competition experiments with cold pI 6.8 IL 1 gave a K/sub i/ = 1.0 +/- 0.3 nM. No competition was seen with a 20-fold molar excess of human IL 2, human gamma-INF, or the pI 5.2 and pI 5.4 species of human IL 1. These anionic species of IL 1 have recently been purified to homogeneity by us from monocyte culture supernatants. Amino acid sequence analysis of the pI 5.4 species demonstrates that it is encoded by the recently reported IL 1..cap alpha.. cDNA. Cross linking of pI 6.8 (/sup 125/)I-IL 1 to intact 2C2 cells with increasing amounts of cross linker revealed a single band with a MW congruent to 80,000. Cross-linking was totally abolished by excess unlabeled pI 6.8 IL 1 but not by excess pI 5.4 IL 1. These results show that the receptor for IL 1..beta.. on 2C2 cells is highly specific for one species of human IL 1 and raises the possibility that IL 1..cap alpha.. and IL 1..beta.., though very similar in their biological properties, have separate receptor sites.

  17. Genotoxicity analysis of two halonitromethanes, a novel group of disinfection by-products (DBPs), in human cells treated in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Liviac, Danae; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2009-04-15

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) constitute an emerging class of disinfection by-products (DBPs) produced when chlorine and/or ozone are used for water treatment. The HNMs are structurally similar to halomethanes, but have a nitro-group in place of hydrogen bonded to the central carbon atom. Since little information exists on the genotoxic potential of HNMs, a study has been carried out with two HNM compounds, namely trichloronitromethane (TCNM) and bromonitromethane (BNM) by using human cells. Primary damage induction has been measured with the Comet assay, which is used to determine both the repair kinetics of the induced damage and the proportion of induced oxidative damage. In addition, the fixed DNA damage has been evaluated by using the micronucleus (MN) assay. The results obtained indicate that both compounds are genotoxic, inducing high levels of DNA breaks in the Comet assay, and that this DNA damage repairs well over time. In addition, oxidized bases constitute a high proportion of DNA-induced damage (50-75%). Contrarily, no positive effects were observed in the frequency of micronucleus, which measures both clastogenic and aneugenic effects, neither using TK6 cells nor peripheral blood lymphocytes. This lack of fixed genetic damage would minimize the potential mutagenic risk associated with HNMs exposure.

  18. Decreased Mitochondrial DNA Content in Association with Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in House Dust during Wintertime: From a Population Enquiry to Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Nicky; Koppen, Gudrun; Smeets, Karen; Napierska, Dorota; Plusquin, Michelle; De Prins, Sofie; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Nelen, Vera; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Hoet, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number) was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM) of benzo(a)pyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (±SD) 0.95±0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25th–75th percentile: 390.7–767.3) and 1385ng/g dust (25th–75th percentile: 1000–1980) in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: −15.16 to −4.2; p = 0.002) for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was −7.3% (95% CI: −13.71 to −0.42; p = 0.04). Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(a)pyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM) to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans

  19. Genotoxic capacity of Cd/Se semiconductor quantum dots with differing surface chemistries

    PubMed Central

    Manshian, Bella B.; Soenen, Stefaan J.; Brown, Andy; Hondow, Nicole; Wills, John; Jenkins, Gareth J. S.; Doak, Shareen H.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dots (QD) have unique electronic and optical properties promoting biotechnological advances. However, our understanding of the toxicological structure–activity relationships remains limited. This study aimed to determine the biological impact of varying nanomaterial surface chemistry by assessing the interaction of QD with either a negative (carboxyl), neutral (hexadecylamine; HDA) or positive (amine) polymer coating with human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. Following QD physico-chemical characterisation, cellular uptake was quantified by optical and electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity was evaluated and genotoxicity was characterised using the micronucleus assay (gross chromosomal damage) and the HPRT forward mutation assay (point mutagenicity). Cellular damage mechanisms were also explored, focusing on oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Cell uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were found to be dependent on QD surface chemistry. Carboxyl-QD demonstrated the smallest agglomerate size and greatest cellular uptake, which correlated with a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Amine-QD induced minimal cellular damage, while HDA-QD promoted substantial induction of cell death and genotoxicity. However, HDA-QD were not internalised by the cells and the damage they caused was most likely due to free cadmium release caused by QD dissolution. Oxidative stress and induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were only partially associated with cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by the QD, hence were not the only mechanisms of importance. Colloidal stability, nanoparticle (NP) surface chemistry, cellular uptake levels and the intrinsic characteristics of the NPs are therefore critical parameters impacting genotoxicity induced by QD. PMID:26275419

  20. From single-cell to cell-pool transcriptomes: stochasticity in gene expression and RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; McCue, Ken; Schroth, Gary P; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M; Wold, Barbara J

    2014-03-01

    Single-cell RNA-seq mammalian transcriptome studies are at an early stage in uncovering cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, transcript processing and editing, and regulatory module activity. Despite great progress recently, substantial challenges remain, including discriminating biological variation from technical noise. Here we apply the SMART-seq single-cell RNA-seq protocol to study the reference lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. By using spike-in quantification standards, we estimate the absolute number of RNA molecules per cell for each gene and find significant variation in total mRNA content: between 50,000 and 300,000 transcripts per cell. We directly measure technical stochasticity by a pool/split design and find that there are significant differences in expression between individual cells, over and above technical variation. Specific gene coexpression modules were preferentially expressed in subsets of individual cells, including one enriched for mRNA processing and splicing factors. We assess cell-to-cell variation in alternative splicing and allelic bias and report evidence of significant differences in splice site usage that exceed splice variation in the pool/split comparison. Finally, we show that transcriptomes from small pools of 30-100 cells approach the information content and reproducibility of contemporary RNA-seq from large amounts of input material. Together, our results define an experimental and computational path forward for analyzing gene expression in rare cell types and cell states. PMID:24299736

  1. Development of a cell microarray chip for detection of circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, S.; Yatsushiro, S.; Abe, K.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of metastatic cancer patients has clinical significance in earlier diagnosis of metastases. In this study, a novel cell microarray chip for accurate and rapid detection of tumor cells from human leukocytes was developed. The chip with 20,944 microchambers (105 μm diameter and 50 μm depth) was made from polystyrene, and the surface was rendered to hydrophilic by means of reactive-ion etching, which led to the formation of mono-layers of leukocytes on the microchambers. As the model of CTCs detection, we spiked human bronchioalveolar carcinoma (H1650) cells into human T lymphoblastoid leukemia (CEM) cells suspension and detected H1650 cells using the chip. A CEM suspension contained with H1650 cells was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 10 min standing to allow the cells to settle down into the microchambers. About 30 CEM cells were accommodated in each microchamber, over 600,000 CEM cells in total being on a chip. We could detect 1 H1650 cell per 106 CEM cells on the microarray by staining with fluorescence-conjugated antibody (Anti-Cytokeratin) and cell membrane marker (DiD). Thus, this cell microarray chip has highly potential to be a novel tool of accurate and rapid detection of CTCs.

  2. Apoptosis induction after exposure to heavy-ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, T.; Goto, S.; Yatagai, F.

    Recently, the tumor suppressor gene p53 has come to be regarded as a guardian of cells against not only radiation but also various chemicals. Here, we assess the induction of apoptosis after exposure of human lymphoblastoid cell TK6 and its p53 null mutant NH32 to accelerated beams of C-ion (22 keV/um), Ne-ion (67 keV/um), and Fe-ion (1000 keV/um). Our preliminary results obtained with 3 Gy C-ion exposure indicate the possibility of different induction kinetics of apoptosis between p53-proficient and deficient cell lines. Consistent with this result, G2 accumulation was also different between them, especially during the period, 24 to 72 h urs aftero the exposure. The G2 accumulation did not show such a significant difference after 3Gy Fe-ion exposure in our preliminary experiment. From these results, we might not expect a large contribution of p53-dependent pathway to apoptosis induction after Fe-ion beam exposure. Now we are doing an examination for this possibility.

  3. Human gamma delta T-cell recognition of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed Central

    Young, J L; Goodall, J C; Beacock-Sharp, H; Gaston, J S

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the human gamma delta T-cell response to Yersinia enterocolitica, a facultative intracellular bacterium which causes gastroenteritis and, particularly in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27+ individuals, reactive arthritis (ReA). A marked proliferation of that cytotoxic gamma delta T cells is seen when Yersinia-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines or fixed intact Yersinia are added to cultures of mononuclear cells derived from the synovial fluid of ReA patients or from the peripheral blood of healthy donors. In contrast, heat-inactivated Yersinia fail to stimulate the gamma delta T-cell response. The gamma delta T-cell lines generated killed both autologous and allogeneic infected cell lines. Interestingly, a T-cell line generated from synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) killed infected autologous cell lines and a cell line matched for HLA-B27 less well than infected allogeneic target cells. gamma delta T-cell clones isolated from this line were found to express V gamma 9V delta 2 T-cell receptor (TCR) and also killed infected mismatched cells more efficiently than autologous targets. Moreover, from experiments using major histocompatability complex (MHC)-deficient cell lines, it was apparent that target cell recognition was MHC independent. Our results suggest that gamma delta T cells can be involved in immunity to Yersinia enterocolitica and should be taken into account when considering immunopathological mechanisms leading to reactive arthritis. PMID:9378487

  4. Different sensitivities of cultured mammalian cells towards aphidicolin-enhanced DNA effects in the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter; Schütz, Petra; Bausinger, Julia

    2016-06-01

    The comet assay in combination with the polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin (APC) has been used to measure DNA excision repair activity, DNA repair kinetics and individual DNA repair capacity. Since APC can enhance genotoxic effects of mutagens measured by the comet assay, this approach has been proposed for increasing the sensitivity of the comet assay in human biomonitoring. The APC-modified comet assay has mainly been performed with human blood and it was shown that it not only enhances the detection of DNA damage repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) but also damage typically repaired by base excision repair (BER). Recently, we reported that in contrast to blood leukocytes, A549 cells (a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) seem to be insensitive towards the repair-inhibiting action of APC. To further elucidate the general usefulness of the APC-modified comet assay for studying repair in cultured mammalian cells, we comparatively investigated further cell lines (HeLa, TK6, V79). DNA damage was induced by BPDE (benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide) and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) in the absence and presence of APC (3 or 15μM). APC was either added for 2h together with the mutagen or cells were pre-incubated for 30min with APC before the mutagen was added. The results indicate that the cell lines tested differ fundamentally with regard to their sensitivity and specificity towards the repair-inhibiting effect of APC. The actual cause for these differences is still unclear but potential molecular explanations are discussed. Irrespective of the underlying mechanism(s), our study revealed practical limitations of the use of the APC-modified comet assay. PMID:27265376

  5. Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

  6. Mapping the end points of large deletions affecting the hprt locus in human peripheral blood cells and cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Grosovsky, A.J.; Jones, I.M.; Burkhart-Schultz, K.; Fuscoe, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the extent of of HPRT{sup {minus}} total gene deletions in three mutant collections: spontaneous and X-ray-induced deletions in TK6 human B lymphoblasts, and HPRT{sup {minus}} deletions arising in vivo in T cells. A set of 13 Xq26 STS markers surrounding hprt and spanning approximately 3.3 Mb was used. Each marker used was observed to be missing in at least one of the hprt deletion mutants analyzed. The largest deletion observed encompassed at least 3 Mb. Nine deletions extended outside of the mapped region in the centromeric direction (>1.7 Mb). In contrast, only two telomeric deletions extended to marker 342R (1.26 Mb), and both exhibited slowed or limited cell growth. These data suggest the existence of a gene, within the vicinity of 342R, which establishes the telomeric limit of recoverable deletions. Most (25/41) X-ray-induced total gene deletion mutants exhibited marker loss, but only 1/8 of the spontaneous deletions encompassed any Xq26 markers (P = 0.0187). Furthermore, nearly half (3/8) of the spontaneous 3{prime} total deletion breakpoints were within 14 kb of the hprt coding sequence. In contrast, 40/41 X-ray-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} total deletions extended beyond this point (P = 0.011). Although the overall representation of total gene deletions in the in vivo spectrum is low, 4/5 encompass Xq26 markers flanking hprt. This pattern differs significantly from spontaneous HPRT{sup {minus}} large deletions occurring in vitro (P = 0.032) but resembles the spectrum of X-ray-induced deletions. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Genotoxicity evaluation of the flavonoid, myricitrin, and its aglycone, myricetin.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Cheryl A; Swartz, Carol; Maronpot, Robert; Davis, Jeffrey; Recio, Leslie; Koyanagi, Mihoko; Hayashi, Shim-mo

    2015-09-01

    Myricitrin, a flavonoid extracted from the fruit, leaves, and bark of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra SIEBOLD), is currently used as a flavor modifier in snack foods, dairy products, and beverages in Japan. Myricitrin is converted to myricetin by intestinal microflora; myricetin also occurs ubiquitously in plants and is consumed in fruits, vegetables, and beverages. The genotoxic potential of myricitrin and myricetin was evaluated in anticipation of worldwide marketing of food products containing myricitrin. In a bacterial reverse mutation assay, myricetin tested positive for frameshift mutations under metabolic activation conditions whereas myricitrin tested negative for mutagenic potential. Both myricitrin and myricetin induced micronuclei formation in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells under conditions lacking metabolic activation; however, the negative response observed in the presence of metabolic activation suggests that rat liver S9 homogenate may detoxify reactive metabolites of these chemicals in mammalian cells. In 3-day combined micronucleus/Comet assays using male and female B6C3F1 mice, no induction of micronuclei was observed in peripheral blood, or conclusive evidence of damage detected in the liver, glandular stomach, or duodenum following exposure to myricitrin or myricetin. Our studies did not reveal evidence of genotoxic potential of myricitrin in vivo, supporting its safe use in food and beverages. PMID:26142838

  8. Combinatorial Measurement of CDKN1A/p21 and KIF20A Expression for Discrimination of DNA Damage-Induced Clastogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Rina; Morikawa, Yuji; Kondo, Chiaki; Oka, Hiroyuki; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Kubo, Kihei; Uehara, Takeki

    2014-01-01

    In vitro mammalian cytogenetic tests detect chromosomal aberrations and are used for testing the genotoxicity of compounds. This study aimed to identify a supportive genomic biomarker could minimize the risk of misjudgments and aid appropriate decision making in genotoxicity testing. Human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were treated with each of six DNA damage-inducing genotoxins (clastogens) or two genotoxins that do not cause DNA damage. Cells were exposed to each compound for 4 h, and gene expression was comprehensively examined using Affymetrix U133A microarrays. Toxicogenomic analysis revealed characteristic alterations in the expression of genes included in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A/p21)-centered network. The majority of genes included in this network were upregulated on treatment with DNA damage-inducing clastogens. The network, however, also included kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A) downregulated by treatment with all the DNA damage-inducing clastogens. Downregulation of KIF20A expression was successfully confirmed using additional DNA damage-inducing clastogens. Our analysis also demonstrated that nucleic acid constituents falsely downregulated the expression of KIF20A, possibly via p16 activation, independently of the CDKN1A signaling pathway. Our results indicate the potential of KIF20A as a supportive biomarker for clastogenicity judgment and possible mechanisms involved in KIF20A downregulation in DNA damage and non-DNA damage signaling networks. PMID:25264741

  9. Expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase protects ramos B cells from oxidation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Karp, D R; Shimooku, K; Lipsky, P E

    2001-02-01

    The ectoenzyme, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, EC ) cleaves glutathione (GSH) to facilitate the recapture of cysteine for synthesis of intracellular GSH. The impact of GGT expression on cell survival during oxidative stress was investigated using the human B cell lymphoblastoid cell line, Ramos. Ramos cells did not express surface GGT and exhibited no GGT enzyme activity. In contrast, Ramos cells stably transfected with the human GGT cDNA expressed high levels of surface GGT and enzymatic activity. GGT-transfected Ramos cells were protected from apoptosis when cultured in cyst(e)ine-deficient medium. The GGT-expressing cells also had lower levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Homocysteic acid and alanine, inhibitors of cystine and cysteine uptake, respectively, caused increased ROS content and diminished viability of GGT expressing cells. Exogenous GSH increased the viability of the GGT-transfected cells more effectively than that of control cells, whereas the products of GSH metabolism prevented death of both the control and GGT-transfected cells comparably. These data indicate that GGT cleavage of GSH and the subsequent recapture of cysteine and cystine allow cells to maintain low levels of cellular ROS and thereby avoid apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. PMID:11080500

  10. Assay of immunoglobulins in supernatants of lymphoid cell lines by conventional laser nephelometry.

    PubMed

    Virella, G; Muñoz, J; Robinson, J E; Goust, J M

    1979-03-01

    An adaptation of the nephelometric assay for serum immunoglobulins has been developed for detection and quantitation of extracellular immunoglobulins in cultures of lymphoblastoid cell lines. This assay employs the standard equipment for laser nephelometry and commercial reagents for immunoglobulin quantitation. By adjusting dilutions of controls and sample volumes of culture supernatants, amounts of IgG and IgM below 1 microgram/ml can be detected in culture supernatants. At concentrations between 1 and 4 microgram/ml, day-to-day and within-run variations for IgM assays were 16 and 11% respectively. The possibility of measuring immunoglobulins secreted by cell lines by conventional laser nephelometry opens several areas of application in the study of the functional activity of B cells and of cell-cell interactions. PMID:313634

  11. [Comparative analysis of natural and synthetic antimutagens as regulators of gene expression in human cells under exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Mikhailov, V F; Shishkina, A A; Vasilyeva, I M; Shulenina, L V; Raeva, N F; Rogozhin, E A; Startsev, M I; Zasukhina, G D; Gromov, S P; Alfimov, M V

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the effect of plant peptides of thionine Ns-W2 extracted from seeds of fennel flower (Nigella sativa) and β-purothionine from wheat germs (Triticum kiharae), as well as a synthetic antimutagen (crown-compound), on the expression of several genes involved in the.control of cellular homeostasis, processes of carcinogenesis, and radiation response in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cells), T-lymphoblastoid cell line Jurkat, and blood cells. All of these agents acted as antimutagens-anticarcinogens, reducing the expression of genes involved in carcinogenesis (genes of families MMP, TIMP, and IAP and G-protein genes) in a tumor cell. A pronounced reduction in the mRNA level of these genes was caused by thionine Ns-W2, and the least effect was demonstrated by β-purothionine. Antimutagens had very little effect on the mRNA levels of the several studied genes in normal blood cells. PMID:25966580

  12. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M; Darrah, Thomas H; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  13. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D.; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  14. Validation of the cell cycle G2 delay assay in assessing ionizing radiation sensitivity and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jeff W; Tansavatdi, Kristina; Lockett, Kristin L; Allen, Glenn O; Takita, Cristiane; Pollack, Alan; Hu, Jennifer J

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variations in cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair genes are associated with prolonged cell cycle G2 delay following ionizing radiation (IR) treatment and breast cancer risk. However, different studies reported conflicting results examining the association between post-IR cell cycle delay and breast cancer risk utilizing four different parameters: cell cycle G2 delay index, %G2–M, G2/G0–G1, and (G2/G0–G1)/S. Therefore, we evaluated whether different parameters may influence study results using a data set from 118 breast cancer cases and 225 controls as well as lymphoblastoid and breast cancer cell lines with different genetic defects. Our results suggest that cell cycle G2 delay index may serve as the best parameter in assessing breast cancer risk, genetic regulation of IR-sensitivity, and mutations of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and TP53. Cell cycle delay in 21 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers was not different from that in controls. We also showed that IR-induced DNA-damage signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of H2AX on serine 139 (γ-H2AX) was inversely associated with cell cycle G2 delay index. In summary, the cellular responses to IR are extremely complex; mutations or genetic variations in DNA damage signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair contribute to cell cycle G2 delay and breast cancer risk. The cell cycle G2 delay assay characterized in this study may help identify subpopulations with elevated risk of breast cancer or susceptibility to adverse effects in normal tissue following radiotherapy. PMID:21188122

  15. DNA damage in dihydroartemisinin-resistant Molt-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsoo; Lai, Henry C; Sasaki, Tomikazu; Singh, Narendra P

    2015-03-01

    Artemisinin generates carbon-based free radicals when it reacts with iron, and induces molecular damage and apoptosis. Its toxicity is more selective toward cancer cells because cancer cells contain a higher level of intracellular free iron. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an analog of artemisinin, has selective cytotoxicity toward Molt-4 human lymphoblastoid cells. A major concern is whether cancer cells could develop resistance to DHA, thus limiting its therapeutic efficacy. We have developed a DHA-resistant Molt-4 cell line (RTN) and found out that these cells exhibited resistance to DHA but no significant cross- resistance to artemisinin-tagged holotransferrin (ART-TF), a synthetic artemisinin compound. In the present study, we investigated DNA damage induced by DHA and ART-TF in both Molt-4 and RTN cells using the comet assay. RTN cells exhibited a significantly lower level of basal and X-ray-induced DNA damage compared to Molt-4 cells. Both DHA and ART-TF induced DNA damage in Molt-4 cells, whereas DNA damage was induced in RTN cells by ART-TF, and not DHA. The result of this study shows that by the cell selection method, it is possible to generate a Molt-4 cell line which is not sensitive to DHA, but sensitive to ART-TF, as measured by DNA damage. PMID:25750283

  16. Noncytotoxic T cell clones obtained from a human mixed leukocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Chu, M H; Wee, S L; Bach, F H

    1990-02-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a DQW-1 homozygous individual were cocultured with irradiated lymphoblastoid cell line from a DQW-1 homozygous unrelated donor bearing BW35-DW1 haplotype. From T cell cloning of primary and twice-stimulated mixed leukocyte cultures (MLC), 7 and 11 T cell clones were obtained respectively. None of the 18 clones showed specific cytotoxic activity against the alloantigen of the stimulator cell as well as natural killer (NK)-like activity against K562 cells. However, most T cell clones from both primary and re-stimulated MLC demonstrated moderate cytotoxic activity in lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytolysis (LDCC) assay. Screening assay for cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) performed on growing microcultures obtained from restimulated MLC cloning confirmed the non-cytotoxic status of these T cell clones by showing that 41 out of 44 growing microcultures were not cytotoxic against the stimulator cell; the other 3 clones lyzed the target cell mildly. The cells from all 5 T cell clones detected for indirect fluorescence expressed CD3 and CD4 surface markers. Taken together, the results suggested that proliferation-regulating T cell subsets or factor(s) may be generated during the course of MLCs under the present responder-stimulator combination, and may suppress the development of alloreactive cytotoxic T cells and NK-like cells. PMID:2144231

  17. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo. PMID:26559182

  18. Assay for mutagenesis in heterozygous diploid human lymphoblasts

    DOEpatents

    Skopek, Thomas R.; Liber, Howard L.; Penman, Bruce W.; Thilly, William G.; Hoppe, IV, Henry

    1981-01-01

    An assay is disclosed for determining mutagenic damage caused by the administration of a known or suspected mutagen to diploid human lymphoblastoid cell lines. The gene locus employed for this assay is the gene for thymidine kinase, uridine kinase, or cytidine deaminase. Since human lymphoblastoid cells contain two genes for these enzymes, heterozygotes of human lymphoblastoid cells are used in this assay.

  19. Effects of Laser Printer–Emitted Engineered Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity, Chemokine Expression, Reactive Oxygen Species, DNA Methylation, and DNA Damage: A Comprehensive in Vitro Analysis in Human Small Airway Epithelial Cells, Macrophages, and Lymphoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pirela, Sandra V.; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Lu, Xiaoyan; Castranova, Vincent; Thomas, Treye; Qian, Yong; Bello, Dhimiter; Kobzik, Lester; Koturbash, Igor; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) incorporated into toner formulations of printing equipment become airborne during consumer use. Although information on the complex physicochemical and toxicological properties of both toner powders and printer-emitted particles (PEPs) continues to grow, most toxicological studies have not used the actual PEPs but rather have primarily used raw toner powders, which are not representative of current exposures experienced at the consumer level during printing. Objectives We assessed the biological responses of a panel of human cell lines to PEPs. Methods Three physiologically relevant cell lines—small airway epithelial cells (SAECs), macrophages (THP-1 cells), and lymphoblasts (TK6 cells)—were exposed to PEPs at a wide range of doses (0.5–100 μg/mL) corresponding to human inhalation exposure durations at the consumer level of 8 hr or more. Following treatment, toxicological parameters reflecting distinct mechanisms were evaluated. Results PEPs caused significant membrane integrity damage, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine release in different cell lines at doses equivalent to exposure durations from 7.8 to 1,500 hr. Furthermore, there were differences in methylation patterns that, although not statistically significant, demonstrate the potential effects of PEPs on the overall epigenome following exposure. Conclusions The in vitro findings obtained in this study suggest that laser printer–emitted engineered nanoparticles may be deleterious to lung cells and provide preliminary evidence of epigenetic modifications that might translate to pulmonary disorders. Citation Pirela SV, Miousse IR, Lu X, Castranova V, Thomas T, Qian Y, Bello D, Kobzik L, Koturbash I, Demokritou P. 2016. Effects of laser printer–emitted engineered nanoparticles on cytotoxicity, chemokine expression, reactive oxygen species, DNA methylation, and DNA damage: a comprehensive in

  20. Reprogramming human B cells into induced pluripotent stem cells and its enhancement by C/EBPα.

    PubMed

    Bueno, C; Sardina, J L; Di Stefano, B; Romero-Moya, D; Muñoz-López, A; Ariza, L; Chillón, M C; Balanzategui, A; Castaño, J; Herreros, A; Fraga, M F; Fernández, A; Granada, I; Quintana-Bustamante, O; Segovia, J C; Nishimura, K; Ohtaka, M; Nakanishi, M; Graf, T; Menendez, P

    2016-03-01

    B cells have been shown to be refractory to reprogramming and B-cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have only been generated from murine B cells engineered to carry doxycycline-inducible Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc (OSKM) cassette in every tissue and from EBV/SV40LT-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines. Here, we show for the first time that freshly isolated non-cultured human cord blood (CB)- and peripheral blood (PB)-derived CD19+CD20+ B cells can be reprogrammed to iPSCs carrying complete VDJH immunoglobulin (Ig) gene monoclonal rearrangements using non-integrative tetracistronic, but not monocistronic, OSKM-expressing Sendai Virus. Co-expression of C/EBPα with OSKM facilitates iPSC generation from both CB- and PB-derived B cells. We also demonstrate that myeloid cells are much easier to reprogram than B and T lymphocytes. Differentiation potential back into the cell type of their origin of B-cell-, T-cell-, myeloid- and fibroblast-iPSCs is not skewed, suggesting that their differentiation does not seem influenced by 'epigenetic memory'. Our data reflect the actual cell-autonomous reprogramming capacity of human primary B cells because biased reprogramming was avoided by using freshly isolated primary cells, not exposed to cytokine cocktails favoring proliferation, differentiation or survival. The ability to reprogram CB/PB-derived primary human B cells offers an unprecedented opportunity for studying developmental B lymphopoiesis and modeling B-cell malignancies. PMID:26500142

  1. Interaction of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) with owl monkey kidney cells in enhancing the yields of Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) and its antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Faggioni, A.; Ablashi, D.V.; Dahlberg, J.; Armstrong, G.; Sundar, S.K.

    1984-05-01

    Pre- and posttreatment with N-methyl-N'-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) of owl monkey kidney (OMK) cells infected with Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) resulted in one to three logs higher yields of virus, depending upon the dose of MNNG. A higher percentage of cells also showed HVS early antigen (EA) and late antigen (LA) by immunofluorescence when OMK cells infected with HVS were fed with medium containing MNNG. The high yields of HVS were also observed by electron microscopy. MNNG did not induce HVS-EA in HVS nonproducer lymphoblastoid T cells, nor did it enhance TPA-induced EA to LA. The data suggest that MNNG could be useful in obtaining high yields of virus and/or antigen-producing cells for immunofluorescence or other biomedical experiments, especially from those strains of HVS which grow poorly in vitro. The interaction of MNNG and HVS could also be useful for in vitro transformation or in vivo enhancement of the malignant process.

  2. Identification of a novel gene expressed in activated natural killer cells and T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, C.A.; Schall, R.P.; He, H.; Cairns, J.S. )

    1992-01-15

    The authors have isolated a cDNA clone from a human activated NK cell-derived cDNA library that identifies a transcript [NK4] that is selectively expressed in lymphocytes. The expression of this transcript is increased after activation of T cells by mitogens or activation of NK cells by IL-2 (lymphokine-activated killer cells). The transcript levels demonstrated by Northern blot analysis increase by 12 h after activation, remain high for at least 48 h, and require protein synthesis for expression. Southern blot analysis of B lymphoblastoid lines derived from 18 unrelated individuals reveal variable banding patterns suggestive of polymorphism within the NK4 gene. No homology was found between the sequence of the coding region of this transcript and any sequences in the GenBank data base. Sequence homology to the U1 small nuclear RNA was found within the 3[prime] untranslated region immediately upstream of the site of polyadenylation, suggesting a possible role for U1 in the polyadenylation process. Sequence analysis indicates the transcript would encode a protein having a mass of 27 kDa. The presence of a signal sequence and lack of a transmembrane region suggests that the protein is secreted. In addition, the protein contains an RGD sequence that may be involved in cellular adhesion. This transcript appears to encode a novel product common to the activation pathways of both NK cells and T cells. 50 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, Niluka M.; Current, Kelley M.; Obare, Sherine O.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism’s ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells. PMID:26437397

  4. Gene expression in cell lines from propionic acidemia patients, carrier parents, and controls.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kimberly A; Bush, William S; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-08-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is an inborn of metabolism which usually presents with metabolic acidosis and accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionate among other toxins. Examining the gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from PA patients, their carrier parents and age/sex-matched controls at normal glucose and low glucose growth conditions demonstrated differences among and between these groups. Using three-way ANOVA analysis, four DAVID clusters of response were identified of which three of the four clusters showed that LCLs from carrier parents had an intermediate response between healthy controls and PA patients. These differences included changes in expression of cell cycle regulatory genes, mitochondrial related genes, and transcriptional regulation. In addition, differences also were observed in expression of genes involved in transendothelial migration and focal adhesion at normal growth conditions when comparing the LCLs from PA patients and controls. These studies demonstrate transcriptional differences between LCLs from PA patients, their parents and biochemically normal controls. PMID:25963861

  5. [Intracellular immunoglobulins in Namalwa and U266 cells co-cultivated with mesenchymal stromal cells].

    PubMed

    Aĭzenshtadt, A A; Ivanova, N A; Bagaeva, V V; Smolianinov, A B; Pinevich, A A; Samoĭlovich, M P; Klimovich, V B

    2014-01-01

    There are contradictory data concerning the influence of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on immunoglobulin (Ig) production. Most of them were obtained using MSC from bone marrow. Properties of MSC from other tissues are elusive. In the present work MSC cultures were derived from umbilical cord, adipose tissue, and bone marrow of healthy donors, as well as from bone marrow of patients with autoimmune diseases. MSC from all these sources had similar surface markers phenotype. The influence of co-cultivation with MSC at exponential or stationary phase on IgM and IgE content in Namalva and U266 cells was evaluated. MSC from bone marrow of healthy donors had no effect on IgM and IgE production. Proliferating MSC obtained from patients with Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis stimulated Ig production. Exponentially growing MSC derived from umbilical cord and adipose tissue also stimulated Ig synthesis. MSC at stationary cultures amplified IgM production in Namalva cells and suppressed IgE synthesis in U266. Thus, MSC with similar phenotype but derived from different sources differ in their capacity to modulate Ig production in B-lymphoid cells. The effect of MSC depends on their growth stage and may differ for lymphoblastoid and myeloma cells. PMID:25509151

  6. Long Noncoding RNA Expression Profiling in Normal B-Cell Subsets and Hodgkin Lymphoma Reveals Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg Cell-Specific Long Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Tayari, Mina Masoumeh; Winkle, Melanie; Kortman, Gertrud; Sietzema, Jantine; de Jong, Debora; Terpstra, Martijn; Mestdagh, Pieter; Kroese, Frans G M; Visser, Lydia; Diepstra, Arjan; Kok, Klaas; van den Berg, Anke; Kluiver, Joost

    2016-09-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of germinal center (GC) B-cell origin. To explore the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in HL, we studied lncRNA expression patterns in normal B-cell subsets, HL cell lines, and tissues. Naive and memory B cells showed a highly similar lncRNA expression pattern, distinct from GC-B cells. Significant differential expression between HL and normal GC-B cells was observed for 475 lncRNA loci. For two validated lncRNAs, an enhanced expression was observed in HL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and lymphoblastoid cell lines. For a third lncRNA, increased expression levels were observed in HL and part of Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization on primary HL tissues revealed a tumor cell-specific expression pattern for all three lncRNAs. A potential cis-regulatory role was observed for 107 differentially expressed lncRNA-mRNA pairs localizing within a 60-kb region. Consistent with a cis-acting role, we showed a preferential nuclear localization for two selected candidates. Thus, we showed dynamic lncRNA expression changes during the transit of normal B cells through the GC reaction and widely deregulated lncRNA expression patterns in HL. Three lncRNAs showed a tumor cell-specific expression pattern in HL tissues and might therefore be of value as a biomarker. PMID:27423697

  7. Human clusterin gene expression is confined to surviving cells during in vitro programmed cell death.

    PubMed Central

    French, L E; Wohlwend, A; Sappino, A P; Tschopp, J; Schifferli, J A

    1994-01-01

    Clusterin is a serum glycoprotein endowed with cell aggregating, complement inhibitory, and lipid binding properties, and is also considered as a specific marker of dying cells, its expression being increased in various tissues undergoing programmed cell death (PCD). However, no study has so far directly shown that cells expressing clusterin in these tissues are actually apoptotic as defined by morphological and biochemical criteria. We have studied cellular clusterin gene expression in vitro using three different models of PCD: (a) ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation of human U937, HeLa, and A431 cell lines, (b) in vitro aging of human peripheral blood neutrophils (PMNs), and (c) dexamethasone-induced cell death of the human lymphoblastoid cell line CEM-C7. In all three models, the classical morphological and biochemical features of PCD observed did not correlate with an increase, but with either a marked decrease or an absence of clusterin gene expression as assessed by Northern blot analysis. In situ hybridization of U937 and A431 cells after UV-B irradiation revealed, in addition, that only morphologically normal cells that are surviving continue to express the clusterin gene. Our results demonstrate that in the human myeloid, lymphoid, and epithelial cell types studied, clusterin gene expression is not a prerequisite to their death by apoptosis. In addition, and most interestingly, in situ hybridization of U937 and A431 cells revealed that only surviving cells express the clusterin gene after the induction of PCD, thus providing novel evidence suggesting that clusterin may be associated with cell survival within tissues regressing as a consequence of PCD. Images PMID:8113419

  8. Proteomics Based Identification of Proteins with Deregulated Expression in B Cell Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Nijland, Marcel; Rutgers, Bea; Veenstra, Rianne; Langendonk, Myra; van der Meeren, Lotte E; Kluin, Philip M; Li, Guanwu; Diepstra, Arjan; Chiu, Jen-Fu; van den Berg, Anke; Visser, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphomas comprise the main entities of adult B cell malignancies. Although multiple disease driving gene aberrations have been identified by gene expression and genomic studies, only a few studies focused at the protein level. We applied 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis to compare seven GC B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cell lines with a lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). An average of 130 spots were at least two folds different in intensity between NHL cell lines and the LCL. We selected approximately 38 protein spots per NHL cell line and linked them to 145 unique spots based on the location in the gel. 34 spots that were found altered in at least three NHL cell lines when compared to LCL, were submitted for LC-MS/MS. This resulted in 28 unique proteins, a substantial proportion of these proteins were involved in cell motility and cell metabolism. Loss of expression of B2M, and gain of expression of PRDX1 and PPIA was confirmed in the cell lines and primary lymphoma tissue. Moreover, inhibition of PPIA with cyclosporine A blocked cell growth of the cell lines, the effect size was associated with the PPIA expression levels. In conclusion, we identified multiple differentially expressed proteins by 2-D proteomics, and showed that some of these proteins might play a role in the pathogenesis of NHL. PMID:26752561

  9. Gammaherpesvirus Infection of Human Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Hem Chandra; Mehta, Devan; Lu, Jie; El-Naccache, Darine; Shukla, Sanket K.; Kovacsics, Colleen; Kolson, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gammaherpesviruses human herpesvirus 4 (HHV4) and HHV8 are two prominent members of the herpesvirus family associated with a number of human cancers. HHV4, also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus prevalent in 90 to 95% of the human population, is clinically associated with various neurological diseases such as primary central nervous system lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebellar ataxia, and encephalitis. However, the possibility that EBV and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can directly infect neurons has been largely overlooked. This study has, for the first time, characterized EBV infection in neural cell backgrounds by using the Sh-Sy5y neuroblastoma cell line, teratocarcinoma Ntera2 neurons, and primary human fetal neurons. Furthermore, we also demonstrated KSHV infection of neural Sh-Sy5y cells. These neuronal cells were infected with green fluorescent protein-expressing recombinant EBV or KSHV. Microscopy, genetic analysis, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses for specific viral antigens supported and validated the infection of these cells by EBV and KSHV and showed that the infection was efficient and productive. Progeny virus produced from infected neuronal cells efficiently infected fresh neuronal cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, acyclovir was effective at inhibiting the production of virus from neuronal cells similar to lymphoblastoid cell lines; this suggests active lytic replication in infected neurons in vitro. These studies represent a potentially new in vitro model of EBV- and KSHV-associated neuronal disease development and pathogenesis. PMID:26628726

  10. Development of a dihydroartemisinin-resistant Molt-4 leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsoo; Lai, Henry C; Singh, Mallika; Sasaki, Tomikazu; Singh, Narendra P

    2014-06-01

    Artemisinin generates cytotoxic free radicals when it reacts with iron. Its toxicity is more selective toward cancer cells because cancer cells contain a higher level of intracellular-free iron. We previously reported that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an active metabolite of artemisinin, has selective cytotoxicity toward Molt-4 human lymphoblastoid cells. A concern is whether cancer cells could develop resistance to DHA after repeated administration, thus limiting its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we developed a DHA-resistant Molt-4 cell line (RTN) by exposing Molt-4 cells to gradually increasing concentrations of DHA in vitro. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DHA for RTN cells is 7.1-times higher than that of Molt-4 cells. RTN cells have a higher growth rate than Molt-4 cells. In addition, we investigated the toxicities of two more potent synthetic artemisinin compounds, artemisinin dimer-alcohol and artemisinin-tagged holotransferrin toward RTN cells; RTN cells showed no significant cross-resistance to these compounds. PMID:24922643