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Sample records for lymphocyte cell lines

  1. Modeling adenovirus latency in human lymphocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A; Gooding, Linda R

    2010-09-01

    Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then declined in BJAB cells below one genome per cell at 130 to 150 days postinfection. Ramos and KE37 cells maintained the virus genome at over 100 copies per cell over a comparable period of time. BJAB cells maintained the viral DNA as a monomeric episome. All three persistently infected cells lost expression of the cell surface coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) within 24 h postinfection, and CAR expression remained low for at least 340 days postinfection. CAR loss proceeded via a two-stage process. First, an initial loss of cell surface staining for CAR required virus late gene expression and a CAR-binding fiber protein even while CAR protein and mRNA levels remained high. Second, CAR mRNA disappeared at around 30 days postinfection and remained low even after virus DNA was lost from the cells. At late times postinfection (day 180), BJAB cells could not be reinfected with adenovirus, even when CAR was reintroduced to the cells via retroviral transduction, suggesting that the expression of multiple genes had been stably altered in these cells following infection. PMID:20573817

  2. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for label-free lymphocyte cell line discrimination.

    PubMed

    Hobro, Alison J; Kumagai, Yutaro; Akira, Shizuo; Smith, Nicholas I

    2016-06-21

    Unactivated lymphocytes are morphologically identical and biochemically relatively similar, making them difficult to distinguish from one another with conventional light microscopy. Here, we use Raman spectroscopy to provide biochemical information on the composition of different lymphocyte cell lines. As could be expected, the biochemical differences measured with Raman spectroscopy between lymphocyte cell lines are small, but in combination with partial least squares discriminant analysis it is possible not only to distinguish between T- and B-cells, but also between individual T-cell and B-cell lines. PMID:27067644

  3. Mechanisms of lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells: studies using a LFA-1-deficient cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Haskard, D O; Strobel, S; Thornhill, M; Pitzalis, C; Levinsky, R J

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (EC), we have studied the adhesion of a LFA-1-deficient lymphoblastoid cell line, ICH-KM, which has < 10% of the cell surface LFA-1 expressed on a normal lymphoblastoid cell line, ICH-BJ. The adhesion of ICH-KM cells to unstimulated EC was 49.9 +/- 8.6% (mean +/- SD) that of ICH-BJ cells. Moreover, phorbol ester-stimulated ICH-KM cells showed a considerably weaker increase in adhesion to unstimulated EC compared with ICH-BJ cells (mean +/- SD increase in percentage adhesion, 3.8 +/- 2.3 compared with 18.5 +/- 8.0; P<0.025). In contrast, there was no significant difference between the enhanced adhesion of ICH-KM cells and ICH-BJ cells to interleukin-1 (IL-1)-stimulated EC. Thus ICH-KM cells showed a 22.7 +/- 11.0 (mean +/- SD) increase in percentage adhesion to IL-1-stimulated EC compared with the 24.8 +/- 8.5 increase in percentage adhesion of ICH-BJ cells. Anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies had no effect on the enhanced adhesion of ICH-KM and ICH-BJ cells to IL-1-stimulated EC but abolished the differences in adhesion between the two cell lines. The study therefore indicates that although a major part of unstimulated and phorbol ester-stimulated lymphocyte-EC adhesion is dependent upon LFA-1, the enhanced adhesion due to stimulation of EC with IL-1 is not dependent upon this molecule. The data therefore supports the existence of cytokine-inducible LFA-1-independent adhesion molecules for lymphocytes on EC. PMID:15493272

  4. Expression Profiles of Cloned Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Lymphoid Cell Lines and Mixed Lymphocyte Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clonal channel catfish lymphoid cell lines and mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) have proven extremely useful in examining immune responses at the cellular and molecular levels. To date clonal catfish cell lines and MLC have been biologically and phenotypically characterized using a variety of techniq...

  5. Reprogramming of EBV-immortalized B-lymphocyte cell lines into induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su Mi; Liu, Hua; Chaudhari, Pooja; Kim, Yonghak; Cheng, Linzhao; Feng, Jian; Sharkis, Saul

    2011-01-01

    EBV-immortalized B lymphocyte cell lines have been widely banked for studying a variety of diseases, including rare genetic disorders. These cell lines represent an important resource for disease modeling with the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here we report the generation of iPSCs from EBV-immortalized B-cell lines derived from multiple inherited disease patients via a nonviral method. The reprogramming method for the EBV cell lines involves a distinct protocol compared with that of patient fibroblasts. The B-cell line–derived iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers, retained the inherited mutation and the parental V(D)J rearrangement profile, and differentiated into all 3 germ layer cell types. There was no integration of the reprogramming-related transgenes or the EBV-associated genes in these iPSCs. The ability to reprogram the widely banked patient B-cell lines will offer an unprecedented opportunity to generate human disease models and provide novel drug therapies. PMID:21628406

  6. Cardiomyocyte marker expression in a human lymphocyte cell line using mouse cardiomyocyte extract.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Zahra; Tavakolinejad, Sima; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Rasooli, Manuchehr

    2011-03-01

    Cell transplantation shows potential for the treatment of cardiac diseases. Embryonic stem cells, cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have been suggested as sources for transplantation therapy. Because of some technical limitations with the use of stem cells, transdifferentiation of fully differentiated cells is a potentially useful alternative. We investigated whether human peripheral blood cells could transdifferentiate into cardiomyocyte. Transdifferentiation was induced in a human B lymphocyte cell line (Raji). Cardiomyocyte extract was prepared from adult mouse cardiomyocytes. The cells were treated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, permeabilized with streptolysin O, and exposed to the mouse cardiomyocyte extract. They were cultured for 10 days, 3 weeks and 4 weeks. Cardiomyocyte markers were detected with immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Immunocytochemistry revealed that some cells expressed myosin heavy chain, α-actinin and cardiac troponin T after 3 and 4 weeks. Flow cytometry confirmed these data. In cells exposed to trichostatin A and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and permeabilized in the presence of the cardiomyocyte extract, troponin T expression was seen in 3.53% of the cells and 3.11% of them expressed α-actinin. After exposure to the cardiomyocyte extract, some permeabilized cells adhered to the plate loosely; however, the morphology did not change significantly, and they continued to show a rounded shape after 4 weeks. Our treated lymphocytes expressed cardiomyocyte markers. Our results suggest that lymphocytes may be useful in future research as a source of cells for reprogramming procedures. PMID:21547694

  7. Stimulators and inhibitors of lymphocyte DNA synthesis in supernatants from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vesole, D H; Goust, J M; Fett, J W; Fudenberg, H H

    1979-09-01

    Some T and B lymphoid cell lines (LCL) were found to secrete into their supernatants a substance able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation. This substance produced an increase in [3H]thymidine uptake by mononuclear cells when added to unstimulated cultures (mitogenic effect) or when added to cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) (potentiating effect). When complete supernatants were used, the potentiating effect was sometimes masked by an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Fractionation on Sephadex G-100 separated these two activities. The stimulatory substance eluted at a m.w. range of 15,000 to 30,000, and the inhibitor eluted with the albumin peak. B cells with or without monocytes were the most sensitive to the mitogenic effect, whereas T cells were unaffected. Responses to PHA and PWM were potentiated when T cells were present, but the maximum effect was observed when the proportion of T cells was less than 50%. The stimulatory material may be similar to lymphocyte mitogenic factor and may function as a T cell-replacing factor in B cell stimulation. PMID:313950

  8. Establishment and Characterization of PCL12, a Novel CD5+ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Agathangelidis, Andreas; Scarfò, Lydia; Barbaglio, Federica; Apollonio, Benedetta; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Ranghetti, Pamela; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Leone, Gabriella; De Pascali, Valeria; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Ghia, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Immortalized cell lines representative of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can assist in understanding disease pathogenesis and testing new therapeutic agents. At present, very few representative cell lines are available. We here describe the characterization of a new cell line (PCL12) that grew spontaneously from the peripheral blood (PB) of a CLL patient with progressive disease and EBV infection. The CLL cell origin of PCL12 was confirmed after the alignment of its IGH sequence against the “original” clonotypic sequence. The IGH gene rearrangement was truly unmutated and no CLL-related cytogenetic or genetic lesions were detected. PCL12 cells express CD19, CD20, CD5, CD23, low levels of IgM and IgD and the poor-outcome-associated prognostic markers CD38, ZAP70 and TCL1. In accordance with its aggressive phenotype the cell line is inactive in terms of LYN and HS1 phosphorylation. BcR signalling pathway is constitutively active and anergic in terms of p-ERK and Calcium flux response to α-IgM stimulation. PCL12 cells strongly migrate in vitro in response to SDF-1 and form clusters. Finally, they grow rapidly and localize in all lymphoid organs when xenotrasplanted in Rag2-/-γc-/- mice. PCL12 represents a suitable preclinical model for testing pharmacological agents. PMID:26110819

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF NORMAL HUMAN LUNG LYMPHOCYTES AND INTERLEUKIN-2-INDUCED LUNG T CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lymphocytes from the lower respiratory tract were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking individuals. arious monoclonal antibodies characterizing activated T cells, helper-inducer and suppressor-inducer T cell subsets, and naive versus memory cells were used t...

  10. Combined treatment with low concentrations of decitabine and SAHA causes cell death in leukemic cell lines but not in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Brodská, Barbora; Holoubek, Aleš; Otevřelová, Petra; Kuželová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic therapy reverting aberrant acetylation or methylation offers the possibility to target preferentially tumor cells and to preserve normal cells. Combination epigenetic therapy may further improve the effect of individual drugs. We investigated combined action of demethylating agent decitabine and histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA (Vorinostat) on different leukemic cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood lymphocytes. Large decrease of viability, as well as huge p21WAF1 induction, reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptotic features due to combined decitabine and SAHA action were detected in leukemic cell lines irrespective of their p53 status, while essentially no effect was observed in response to the combined drug action in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors. p53-dependent apoptotic pathway was demonstrated to participate in the wtp53 CML-T1 leukemic cell line response, while significant influence of reactive oxygen species on viability decrease has been detected in p53-null HL-60 cell line. PMID:24000324

  11. Chemical sensitization and regulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in a panel of B-lymphocytic leukaemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Kisenge, Rodrick R; Toyoda, Hidemi; Tanaka, Shigeki; Bu, Jun; Azuma, Eiichi; Komada, Yoshihiro

    2003-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) effectively kills tumour cells but not normal cells. We investigated TRAIL sensitivity and the TRAIL-induced apoptosis signalling pathway in a panel of B-lymphocytic leukaemia cell lines. Depending upon TRAIL sensitivity, leukaemia cells could be divided into three groups: highly sensitive, moderately sensitive and resistant. TRAIL receptor-2 (DR5) plays an important role in transducing apoptosis signals. DR5 was internalized into the cytoplasm where it recruited FAS-associated death domain protein (FADD) under TRAIL stimulation in both sensitive and resistant cells. However, the active form of caspase-8 was recruited to FADD and only sensitive cells showed increased caspase-8 activity upon TRAIL stimulation. The caspase-8 specific inhibitor, Z-IETD, impaired caspase-8 activation and completely abrogated TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that TRAIL resistance in B-lymphocytic leukaemia cells is due to negative regulation at the level of caspase-8 activation and that caspase-8 activation is an indispensable process in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. However, FADD-like interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) was similarly expressed and down-regulated after TRAIL stimulation in both sensitive and resistant cells. Interestingly, in some cell lines, TRAIL sensitivity and caspase-8 activity was enhanced or restored with the treatment of cycloheximide (CHX). In addition, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) levels decreased significantly and rapidly following treatment with CHX. Down-regulation of XIAP may be responsible for enhancement or restoration of TRAIL sensitivity after CHX treatment in B-lymphocytic leukaemia cells. PMID:14632785

  12. Lymphocyte culture: induction of colonies by conditioned medium from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R M; Goust, J M; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The presence of phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in agar is known to stimulate the formation of lymphoid colonies. We now report that similar colonies can be induced in the absence of plant lectins upon addition of filtered and ultracentrifuged conditioned medium (CM) obtained from certain human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Colony formation required at least 6 X 10(5) mononuclear cells per milliliter, and optimum results were obtained at concentrations of 1 X 10(6) cells/ml in the presence of 20% CM (50-500 colonies per 10(6) cells cultured). Individual cells within colonies displayed uniform morphological characteristics of lymphoid cells, and the majority formed rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, suggesting that they were of T-cell type. PMID:303689

  13. Gold nanoparticles induce transcriptional activity of NF-κB in a B-lymphocyte cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Monita; Salisbury, Richard L.; Maurer, Elizabeth I.; Hussain, Saber M.; Sulentic, Courtney E. W.

    2013-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been designated as superior tools for biological applications owing to their characteristic surface plasmon absorption/scattering and amperometric (electron transfer) properties, in conjunction with low or no immediate toxicity towards biological systems. Many studies have shown the ease of designing application-based tools using Au-NPs but the interaction of this nanosized material with biomolecules in a physiological environment is an area requiring deeper investigation. Immune cells such as lymphocytes circulate through the blood and lymph and therefore are likely cellular components to come in contact with Au-NPs. The main aim of this study was to mechanistically determine the functional impact of Au-NPs on B-lymphocytes. Using a murine B-lymphocyte cell line (CH12.LX), treatment with citrate-stabilized 10 nm Au-NPs induced activation of an NF-κB-regulated luciferase reporter, which correlated with altered B lymphocyte function (i.e. increased antibody expression). TEM imaging demonstrated that Au-NPs can pass through the cellular membrane and therefore could interact with intracellular components of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Based on the inherent property of Au-NPs to bind to -thiol groups and the presence of cysteine residues on the NF-κB signal transduction proteins IκB kinases (IKK), proteins specifically bound to Au-NPs were extracted from CH12.LX cellular lysate exposed to 10 nm Au-NPs. Electrophoresis identified several bands, of which IKKα and IKKβ were immunoreactive. Further evaluation revealed activation of the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway as evidenced by IκBα phosphorylation at serine residues 32 and 36 followed by IκBα degradation and increased nuclear RelA. Additionally, expression of an IκBα super-repressor (resistant to proteasomal degradation) reversed Au-NP-induced NF-κB activation. Altered NF-κB signaling and cellular function in B-lymphocytes suggests a potential for off-target effects

  14. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gotia, Hanzel T.; Munro, James B.; Knowles, Donald P.; Daubenberger, Claudia A.; Bishop, Richard P.; Silva, Joana C.

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field. PMID:26930209

  15. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Gotia, Hanzel T; Munro, James B; Knowles, Donald P; Daubenberger, Claudia A; Bishop, Richard P; Silva, Joana C

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field. PMID:26930209

  16. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors produced by a superinfection-resistant stable packaging cell line allow genetic modification of primary human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Labenski, Verena; Suerth, Julia D; Barczak, Elke; Heckl, Dirk; Levy, Camille; Bernadin, Ornellie; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Williams, David A; Fehse, Boris; Verhoeyen, Els; Schambach, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Primary human T lymphocytes represent an important cell population for adoptive immunotherapies, including chimeric-antigen and T-cell receptor applications, as they have the capability to eliminate non-self, virus-infected and tumor cells. Given the increasing numbers of clinical immunotherapy applications, the development of an optimal vector platform for genetic T lymphocyte engineering, which allows cost-effective high-quality vector productions, remains a critical goal. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors (ARV) have several advantages compared to other vector platforms, including a more random genomic integration pattern and reduced likelihood for inducing aberrant splicing of integrated proviruses. We developed an ARV platform for the transduction of primary human T lymphocytes. We demonstrated functional transgene transfer using the clinically relevant herpes-simplex-virus thymidine kinase variant TK.007. Proof-of-concept of alpharetroviral-mediated T-lymphocyte engineering was shown in vitro and in a humanized transplantation model in vivo. Furthermore, we established a stable, human alpharetroviral packaging cell line in which we deleted the entry receptor (SLC1A5) for RD114/TR-pseudotyped ARVs to prevent superinfection and enhance genomic integrity of the packaging cell line and viral particles. We showed that superinfection can be entirely prevented, while maintaining high recombinant virus titers. Taken together, this resulted in an improved production platform representing an economic strategy for translating the promising features of ARVs for therapeutic T-lymphocyte engineering. PMID:27162078

  17. Promising anticancer activity of a lichen, Parmelia sulcata Taylor, against breast cancer cell lines and genotoxic effect on human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ari, Ferda; Ulukaya, Engin; Oran, Seyhan; Celikler, Serap; Ozturk, Sule; Ozel, Mustafa Zafer

    2015-05-01

    Plants are still to be explored for new anti-cancer compounds because overall success in cancer treatment is still not satisfactory. As a new possible source for such compounds, the lichens are recently taking a great attention. We, therefore, explored both the genotoxic and anti-growth properties of lichen species Parmelia sulcata Taylor. The chemical composition of P. sulcata was analyzed with comprehensive gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. Anti-growth effect was tested in human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) by the MTT and ATP viability assays, while the genotoxic activity was studied by assays for micronucleus, chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation in human lymphocytes culture. Cell death modes (apoptosis/necrosis) were morphologically assessed. P. sulcata inhibited the growth in a dose-dependent manner up to a dose of 100 μg/ml and induced caspase-independent apoptosis. It also showed genotoxic activity at doses (>125 μg/ml) higher than that required for apoptosis. These results suggest that P. sulcata may induce caspase-independent apoptotic cell death at lower doses, while it may be genotoxic at relatively higher doses. PMID:24676908

  18. Apoptosis induced by the Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, Marcel; Schwaiger, Wolfgang; Bernhard, David; Wrulich, Oliver A; Cosaceanu, Daria; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ueberall, Florian

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 revealed promising results to support treatment of atherosclerosis, Charot syndrome (intermittent claudication), chronic active hepatitis and infection of the respiratory tract. The remedy was confirmed to be closely linked with anti- and pro-oxidative properties in vitro. In this study, apoptogenic and survival effects of PADMA 28 were investigated in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2. PADMA 28 led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation accompanied by the accumulation of CEM-C7H2 cells in subG1 phase, fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and nuclear body formation. Treatment with PADMA 28 rescued to some extent cells over-expressing Bcl-2 from apoptosis. This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of PADMA 28 may be via interference with Bcl-2 triggered survival pathways. PMID:16138918

  19. Effect of adenosine on the growth of human T-lymphocyte leukemia cell line MOLT-4.

    PubMed

    Streitová, Denisa; Weiterová, Lenka; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jirina; Horváth, Viktor; Kozubík, Alois; Znojil, Vladimír

    2007-09-01

    Adenosine has been observed to suppress the growth of MOLT-4 human leukemia cells in vitro. Changes in the cell cycle, especially increased percentage of cells in S phase, prolonged generation time, and induction of apoptosis at higher adenosine concentrations have been found to be responsible for the growth suppression. Dipyridamole, a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, reversed partially but significantly the adenosine-induced growth suppression. It follows from these results that the action of adenosine on the MOLT-4 cells comprises its cellular uptake and intracellular operation. These findings present new data on anticancer efficacy of adenosine. PMID:17882653

  20. Alvocidib in Treating Patients With B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  1. Constitutively expressing cell lines that secrete a truncated bovine herpes virus-1 glycoprotein (gpI) stimulate T-lymphocyte responsiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Leary, T P; Gao, Y; Splitter, G A

    1992-01-01

    The desire to obtain authentically glycosylated viral protein products in sufficient quantity for immunological study has led to the use of eucaryotic expression vectors for protein production. An additional advantage is that these protein products can be studied individually in the absence of their native viral environment. We have cloned a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein 1 (gpI) into the eucaryotic expression vector, pZipNeo SVX1. Since this protein is normally embedded within the membrane of BHV-1 infected cells, we removed sequences encoding the transmembrane domain of the native protein. After transfection of the plasmid construct into the canine osteosarcoma cell line, D17, or Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, a truncated BHV-1 (gpI) was secreted into the culture medium as demonstrated by radioimmunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE. Both a CD4+ T-lymphocyte line specific for BHV-1 and freshly isolated T lymphocytes could recognize and respond to the secreted recombinant gpI. Further, recombinant gpI could elicit both antibody and cellular responses in cattle when used as an immunogen. Having established constitutively glycoprotein producing cell lines, future studies in vaccine evaluation of gpI will be facilitated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1526647

  2. Anti-proliferative effects of lichen-derived inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase on malignant cell-lines and mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ogmundsdóttir, H M; Zoëga, G M; Gissurarson, S R; Ingólfsdóttir, K

    1998-01-01

    Several lichen species have been used traditionally as medicinal plants. It has previously been shown that two low-molecular-weight lichen metabolites, lobaric acid isolated from Stereocaulon alpinum Laur. and protolichesterinic acid isolated from Cetraria islandica L. (Ach.), have in-vitro inhibitory effects on arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. We have studied the effects of these compounds on cultured cells from man, including three malignant cell-lines (T-47D and ZR-75-1 from breast carcinomas and K-562 from erythro-leukaemia), as well as normal skin fibroblasts and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Both test substances caused a significant reduction in DNA synthesis, as measured by thymidine uptake, in all three malignant cell-lines; the dose inducing 50% of maximum inhibition (ED50) was between 1.1 and 24.6 microg mL(-1) for protolichesterinic acid and between 14.5 and 44.7 microg mL(-1) for lobaric acid. The breast-cancer cell-lines were more sensitive than K-562. The proliferative response of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes was inhibited with a mean ED50 of 8.4 microg mL(-1) and 24.5 microg mL(-1) for protolichesterinic acid and lobaric acid, respectively. These concentrations are of the same order of magnitude as the IC50 values in the 5-lipoxygenase assay. Significant cell death (assessed by the MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-( 4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay and trypan blue exclusion) occurred in the three malignant cell-lines at protolichesterinic acid and lobaric acid concentrations above 20 and 30 microg mL(-1), respectively. In K-562 morphological changes consistent with apoptosis were detected. Up to 38% cell death was observed at 20 microg mL(-1) for protolichesterinic acid and 15 microg mL(-1) for lobaric acid in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes but unstimulated lymphocytes were clearly less sensitive. In contrast, the DNA synthesis, proliferation and survival of normal skin fibroblasts were not affected at doses up to 20

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON): New mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Katika, Madhumohan R.; Hendriksen, Peter J.M.; Shao, Jia; Loveren, Henk van; Peijnenburg, Ad

    2012-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) or vomitoxin is a commonly encountered type-B trichothecene mycotoxin, produced by Fusarium species predominantly found in cereals and grains. DON is known to exert toxic effects on the gastrointestinal, reproductive and neuroendocrine systems, and particularly on the immune system. Depending on dose and exposure time, it can either stimulate or suppress immune function. The main objective of this study was to obtain a deeper insight into DON-induced effects on lymphoid cells. For this, we exposed the human T-lymphocyte cell line Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to various concentrations of DON for various times and examined gene expression changes by DNA microarray analysis. Jurkat cells were exposed to 0.25 and 0.5 μM DON for 3, 6 and 24 h. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicated that DON affects various processes in these cells: It upregulates genes involved in ribosome structure and function, RNA/protein synthesis and processing, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium-mediated signaling, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, the NFAT and NF-κB/TNF-α pathways, T cell activation and apoptosis. The effects of DON on the expression of genes involved in ER stress, NFAT activation and apoptosis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Other biochemical experiments confirmed that DON activates calcium-dependent proteins such as calcineurin and M-calpain that are known to be involved in T cell activation and apoptosis. Induction of T cell activation was also confirmed by demonstrating that DON activates NFATC1 and induces its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. For the gene expression profiling of PBMCs, cells were exposed to 2 and 4 μM DON for 6 and 24 h. Comparison of the Jurkat microarray data with those obtained with PBMCs showed that most of the processes affected by DON in the Jurkat cell line were also affected in the PBMCs. -- Highlights: ► The human T cell line Jurkat and human

  4. Chromosome site for Epstein-Barr virus DNA in a Burkitt tumor cell line and in lymphocytes growth-transformed in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, A; Ripley, S; Heller, M; Kieff, E

    1983-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome stably persists in latently infected Burkitt tumor cells and growth-transformed B lymphocytes. These cells usually contain multiple copies of episomal viral DNA. Cytological hybridization of recombinant viral DNA fragments to metaphase chromosomes of two latently infected cell lines demonstrates that viral DNA localizes to both chromatids of one homologue of chromosome 1 in Namalwa, a Burkitt tumor cell line, and to both chromatids of one homologue of chromosome 4 in IB4, a cell line with transformed growth properties in vitro. The site of chromosome association remains stable in a clone of IB4 cells. Probes from five separate regions of the EBV genome hybridize to the same chromosome regions. A previously undescribed achromatic site is identified within the region of EBV chromosome cytological hybridization. These observations suggest that most or all of the EBV genome is integrated into the chromosomal DNA of Namalwa and IB4 cells. Although the chromosomal sites of EBV DNA association are among those regions with homology to the EBV IR3 repeated DNA sequence, EBV IR3 did not mediate recombination between EBV and chromosomal DNA. Images PMID:6300885

  5. The A-myb gene is preferentially expressed in tonsillar CD38+, CD39-, and sIgM- B lymphocytes and in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Golay, J; Erba, E; Bernasconi, S; Peri, G; Introna, M

    1994-07-15

    The A-myb gene is structurally related to the c-mby proto-oncogene, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of hemopoietic proliferation and differentiation. Recent evidence has shown that A-myb also functions as a transcriptional activator. We have previously demonstrated that A-myb RNA is not expressed in most mature human leukocytes at rest or after mitogenic or functional activation. We show here, by using cell sorting, PCR, and Western analyses that A-myb is most highly expressed in the subsets of human tonsillar B lymphocytes with the phenotypes CD38+, CD39-, and SIgM-. The preferential expression of A-myb in these populations was seen at both the RNA and protein levels. CD38 was consistently best at separating high from low A-myb-expressing cells, whereas other markers (CD10, 22, 23, 77, 11a, and 49d) did not correlate with A-myb expression. The CD38+ population expressing the highest levels of A-myb was shown to contain mostly cycling cells inasmuch as more than 95% were in the late G1, S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle. In addition, A-myb expression always correlated with the percentage of cells in S/G2/M in the populations sorted with either CD38, CD39, or sIgM. Small resting tonsillar B lymphocytes induced to proliferate in vitro by several different polyclonal B cell activators did not, however, express detectable levels of A-myb, although these cells were demonstrated to express CD38 and enter the S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle. These data suggest that A-myb is a marker of in vivo-activated but not in vitro-activated B lymphocytes. Finally, A-myb was also found to be highly expressed in five of seven Burkitt's lymphoma lines and in none of three EBV lymphoblastoid cell lines. This finding is in agreement with the phenotype of the normal B cells that express high levels of A-myb in vivo and suggests that A-myb may be specifically induced within germinal center B cells. PMID:8021494

  6. Damage formation and repair efficiency in the p53 gene of cell lines and blood lymphocytes assayed by multiplex long quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chieh; Lee, Pei-Jung; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lee, Chin-Chu; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Liang, Ying-Ju; Wang, Li-Ya; Han, Wen-Hua; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2003-08-15

    We examined ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and cisplatin treatment damage formation and repair efficiency in the p53 tumor suppressor gene of various cultured cell lines and lymphocytes using a nonradioactive multiplex long quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assay, which amplified a 7-kb fragment of the target gene and a 500-bp fragment of the template control to successfully increase the sensitivity and reliability of the assay. The multiplex long QPCR detected a lesion frequency of 0.63 lesions/10kb/10J/m(2) in the p53 gene of fibroblast cells. In addition, the multiplex long QPCR assay detected pronounced differences in the repair of UV damage in the p53 gene among repair-proficient CRL-1475 cells and repair-deficient XP-A and XP-C cells. The multiplex long QPCR assay was also evaluated as a sensitive assay for the detection of DNA damage induced by cisplatin. The data indicated that the lesion frequency in the p53 gene was 1.27-1.75 times higher in the H23 cisplatin-sensitive cell than in the H1435 cisplatin-resistant cell at the IC(70) dose. After 8-h and 24-h repair periods, only 13 and 75% of cisplatin-induced damage had been removed in the H23 cells, whereas these values were 92 and 100% in the H1435 cells. In addition, our data indicate that multiplex long QPCR is a sensitive method for validly estimating repair in freshly isolated lymphocytes. The results suggest that the current protocol of the multiplex long QPCR method can be used to assess the damage formation and repair efficiency of various agents at biologically relevant doses and to allow a more precise determination of gene-specific repair in disease susceptibility and drug resistance in epidemiological studies. PMID:12871714

  7. Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic: Overview Print to PDF Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic: Overview Approved by the ... Platelets that help the blood to clot About leukemia Types of leukemia are named after the specific ...

  8. Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Gong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We review the properties and uses of cell lines in Drosophila research, emphasizing the variety of lines, the large body of genomic and transcriptional data available for many of the lines, and the variety of ways the lines have been used to provide tools for and insights into the developmental, molecular, and cell biology of Drosophila and mammals. PMID:24434506

  9. In vitro sensitization of human lymphocytes to a myeloma cell-related antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, M.E.; Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.; Solomon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal human donors were cocultivated with cells from two established human multiple myeloma cell lines, RPMI 8226 and K-737, and with lymphoblastoid cells from a third B cell line, RAMM. After a comparison of three methods of lymphocyte sensitization, a 6-day incubation protocol with equal numbers of normal lymphocytes and mitomycin C-treated tumor cells was selected. Cells fom the RPMI 8226 myeloma line stimulated the differentiation of lymphocytes into cytotoxic effector cells as measured by /sup 51/Cr release from labeled target cells. The RPMI 8226-sensitized lymphocytes were cytotoxic for myeloma cells (RPMI 8226 and K-737) and for lymphoblastoid cells (RAMM) but not for cells from human lung tumor lines (A549, A427, MB9812), a breast carcinoma line (ALAB), a normal diploid fibroblast line (HSBP), or normal lymphocytes.

  10. T lymphocyte line specific for thyroglobulin produces or vaccinates against autoimmune thyroiditis in mice.

    PubMed

    Maron, R; Zerubavel, R; Friedman, A; Cohen, I R

    1983-11-01

    We investigated Ly-1+ T lymphocyte line cells specifically reactive to thyroglobulin (Tg) that were isolated from mice primed with mouse Tg in adjuvant. Intravenous inoculation of as few as 10(5) line cells was sufficient to cause severe and prolonged thyroiditis in recipient mice that were intact, irradiated, or athymic nudes. Disease was independent of circulating Tg antibodies, suggesting that anti-Tg T lymphocytes could cause thyroiditis unaided by antibodies. Thyroiditogenic T lymphocytes could be isolated as cell lines from apparently healthy mice that had been immunized with non-thyroiditogenic bovine Tg in adjuvant, which indicates that autoimmune effector T lymphocytes may develop covertly in the course of immunization with foreign antigens. Finally, a single i.v. inoculation of anti-Tg T lymphocyte line cells attenuated by irradiation vaccinated mice completely against subsequent development of autoimmune thyroiditis produced either by active immunization to Tg or by passive transfer of intact line cells. Vaccinated mice that were protected from inflammatory lesions of thyroiditis still produced high titers of Tg antibodies in response to active immunization. Thus, vaccination specifically inhibited thyroiditogenic T lymphocytes but not helper T lymphocytes required for the production of Tg autoantibodies. PMID:6195260

  11. Up-regulation of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex expression in side-population cells derived from a human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Tetsunori; Kusunoki, Soshi; Tabu, Kouichi; Okabe, Hitomi; Yamada, Izumi; Taga, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Akemi; Makino, Shintaro; Takeda, Satoru; Kato, Kiyoko

    2016-01-01

    The continual proliferation and differentiation of trophoblasts are critical for the maintenance of pregnancy. It is well known that the tissue stem cells are associated with the development of tissues and pathologies. It has been demonstrated that side-population (SP) cells identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) are enriched with stem cells. The SP cells in HTR-8/SVneo cells derived from human primary trophoblast cells were isolated by FACS. HTR-8/SVneo-SP cell cultures generated both SP and non-SP (NSP) subpopulations. In contrast, NSP cell cultures produced NSP cells and failed to produce SP cells. These SP cells showed self-renewal capability by serial colony-forming assay. Microarray expression analysis using a set of HTR-8/SVneo-SP and -NSP cells revealed that SP cells overexpressed several stemness genes including caudal type homeobox2 (CDX2) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus D (LY6D) gene was the most highly up-regulated in HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. LY6D gene reduced its expression in the course of a 7-day cultivation in differentiation medium. SP cells tended to reduce its fraction by treatment of LY6D siRNA indicating that LY6D had potential to maintain cell proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. On ontology analysis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway was involved in the up-regulated genes on microarray analysis. HTR-SVneo-SP cells showed enhanced migration. This is the first report that LY6D was important for the maintenance of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. EMT was associated with the phenotype of these SP cells. PMID:26223706

  12. NOD/SCID IL2Rγ-null mouse xenograft model of human p53-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia and ATM-mutated mantle cell lymphoma using permanent cell lines.

    PubMed

    Verner, Jan; Trbusek, Martin; Chovancova, Jana; Jaskova, Zuzana; Moulis, Mojmir; Folber, Frantisek; Halouzka, Roman; Mayer, Jiri; Pospisilova, Sarka; Doubek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Xenograft models represent a promising tool to study the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. To establish a reliable and appropriate in vivo model of aggressive human B-cell leukemia and lymphoma we xenotransplanted four p53-mutated cell lines and one ATM-mutated cell line into immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2Rγ-null mice. The cell lines MEC-1, SU-DHL-4, JEKO-1, REC-1, and GRANTA-519 were transplanted intraperitoneally or subcutaneously and the engraftment was investigated using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We found significant differences in engraftment efficiency. MEC-1, JEKO-1 and GRANTA-519 cell lines engrafted most efficiently, while SU-DHL-4 cells did not engraft at all. MEC-1 and GRANTA-519 massively infiltrated organs and the whole intraperitoneal cavity showing very aggressive growth. In addition, GRANTA-519 cells massively migrated to the bone marrow regardless of the transplantation route. The MEC-1 and GRANTA-519 cells can be especially recommended for in vivo study of p53-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia and ATM-mutated mantle cell lymphoma, respectively. PMID:25827173

  13. T cell immunity using transgenic B lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerloni, Mara; Rizzi, Marta; Castiglioni, Paola; Zanetti, Maurizio

    2004-03-01

    Adaptive immunity exists in all vertebrates and plays a defense role against microbial pathogens and tumors. T cell responses begin when precursor T cells recognize antigen on specialized antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into effector cells. Currently, dendritic cells are considered the only cells capable of stimulating T lymphocytes. Here, we show that mature naïve B lymphocytes can be genetically programmed by using nonviral DNA and turned into powerful antigen-presenting cells with a dual capacity of synthesis and presentation of antigen to T cells in vivo. A single i.v. injection of transgenic lymphocytes activates T cell responses reproducibly and specifically even at very low cell doses (102). We also demonstrate that T cell priming can occur in the absence of dendritic cells and results in immunological memory with protective effector functions. These findings disclose aspects in the regulation of adaptive immunity and indicate possibilities for vaccination against viruses and cancer in humans.

  14. Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells, like other pluripotent stem cells, can be killed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes despite low expression of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules

    PubMed Central

    Dressel, Ralf; Guan, Kaomei; Nolte, Jessica; Elsner, Leslie; Monecke, Sebastian; Nayernia, Karim; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Engel, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Background Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells (maGSCs) represent a new pluripotent cell type that can be derived without genetic manipulation from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) present in adult testis. Similarly to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they could provide a source of cellular grafts for new transplantation therapies of a broad variety of diseases. To test whether these stem cells can be rejected by the recipients, we have analyzed whether maGSCs and iPSCs can become targets for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) or whether they are protected, as previously proposed for embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Results We have observed that maGSCs can be maintained in prolonged culture with or without leukemia inhibitory factor and/or feeder cells and still retain the capacity to form teratomas in immunodeficient recipients. They were, however, rejected in immunocompetent allogeneic recipients, and the immune response controlled teratoma growth. We analyzed the susceptibility of three maGSC lines to CTL in comparison to ESCs, iPSCs, and F9 teratocarcinoma cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules were not detectable by flow cytometry on these stem cell lines, apart from low levels on one maGSC line (maGSC Stra8 SSC5). However, using a quantitative real time PCR analysis H2K and B2m transcripts were detected in all pluripotent stem cell lines. All pluripotent stem cell lines were killed in a peptide-dependent manner by activated CTLs derived from T cell receptor transgenic OT-I mice after pulsing of the targets with the SIINFEKL peptide. Conclusion Pluripotent stem cells, including maGSCs, ESCs, and iPSCs can become targets for CTLs, even if the expression level of MHC class I molecules is below the detection limit of flow cytometry. Thus they are not protected against CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Therefore, pluripotent cells might be rejected after transplantation by this mechanism if specific antigens are presented and if specific

  15. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-18

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  16. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. inhibits human lymphocyte proliferation and the growth of tumour cell lines and induces apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Geetha, B S; Nair, Mangalam S; Latha, P G; Remani, P

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to isolate the compounds responsible for the cytotoxic properties of South Indian Elephantopus scaber L. and further investigate their effects on quiescent and proliferating cells. Bioassay-guided isolation of the whole plant of chloroform extract of South Indian Elephantopus scaber afforded the known sesquiterpene lactone, deoxyelephantopin, and isodeoxyelephantopin whose structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. These compounds caused a dose dependent reduction in the viability of L-929 tumour cells in 72 h culture (IC(50) value of 2.7 μg/mL and 3.3 μg/mL) by the cell viability assay. Both the compounds act selectively on quiescent and PHA-stimulated proliferating human lymphocytes and inhibited tritiated thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA of DLA tumour cells. The compound deoxyelephantopin at a concentration of 3 μg/mL caused maximum apoptotic cells. It also exhibited significant in vivo antitumour efficacy against DLA tumour cells. The results, therefore, indicate that the antiproliferative property of deoxyelephantopin and isodeoxyelephantopin could be used in regimens for treating tumors with extensive proliferative potencies. PMID:22500104

  17. Real-time analysis of the detailed sequence of cellular events in mAb-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity of B-cell lines and of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cells.

    PubMed

    Lindorfer, Margaret A; Cook, Erika M; Tupitza, Jillian C; Zent, Clive S; Burack, Richard; de Jong, Rob N; Beurskens, Frank J; Schuurman, Janine; Parren, Paul W H I; Taylor, Ronald P

    2016-02-01

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity is an important mechanism of action of certain mAbs used in cancer immunotherapy, including ofatumumab and rituximab. However, the detailed sequence of cellular changes that occur in nucleated cells attacked by mAb and complement has not been delineated. Recently developed CD20 mAbs, engineered to form hexamers on binding to cells, react with B-cells in serum, chelate C1q, and then activate complement and promote cell killing considerably more effectively than their wild-type precursors. We used these engineered mAbs as a model to investigate the sequence of events that occur when mAbs bind to B-cell lines and to primary cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and then activate complement. Based on four-color confocal microscopy real-time movies and high resolution digital imaging, we find that after CD20 mAb binding and C1q uptake, C3b deposits on cells, followed by Ca(2+) influx, revealed by bright green signals generated on cells labeled with FLUO-4, a Ca(2+) indicator. The bright FLUO-4/Ca(2+) signal fades, replaced by punctate green signals in mitochondria, indicating Ca(2+) localization. This step leads to mitochondrial poisoning followed by cell death. The entire sequence is completed in <2 min for hexamerization-enhanced CD20 mAb-mediated killing. To our knowledge this is the first time the entire process has been characterized in detail in real time. By identifying multiple discrete steps in the cytotoxic pathway for nucleated cells our findings may inform future development and more effective application of complement-fixing mAbs to cancer treatment. PMID:26690706

  18. Cell Death Mechanisms Induced by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Galán, L; Arenas-Del Angel, M C; Zenteno, E; Chávez, R; Lascurain, R

    2009-01-01

    One of the functions of the immune system is to recognize and destroy abnormal or infected cells to maintain homeostasis. This is accomplished by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity is a highly organized multifactor process. Here, we reviewed the apoptosis pathways induced by the two main cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells. In base to recent experimental evidence, we reviewed NK receptors involved in recognition of target-cell, as well as lytic molecules such as perforin, granzymes-A and -B, and granulysin. In addition, we reviewed the Fas-FasL intercellular linkage mediated pathway, and briefly the cross-linking of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor pathway. We discussed three models of possible molecular interaction between lytic molecules from effector cytotoxic cells and target-cell membrane to induction of apoptosis. PMID:19254476

  19. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor exert differential immunomodulatory effects on blood lymphocytes and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewska, Małgorzata; Piotrowski, Jakub; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    The protein-bound polysaccharides (PBP), isolated from Coriolus versicolor (CV) fungus, are considered as natural compounds with potential therapeutic applications. The immunopotentiating and antitumor activity of polysaccharopeptides has been previously examined, however similar findings could not be achieved. The source of PBP, variations in extraction process as well as environmental factors seems to affect the biological properties of these active CV components. Since further analysis are needed to draw more definite conclusion, the present study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of the PBP extract, isolated from commercially available capsules of C. versicolor. Our results revealed that the effect mediated by PBP extract depends on the target cells. We reported that the polysaccharopeptides induced a significant decrease in breast cancer MCF-7 cells growth, which was TNF-α-dependent phenomenon. Interestingly, the level of two others cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6 was not affected. On the other hand, in this study we noticed that protein-bound polysaccharides extracted from CV significantly augmented the proliferative response of blood lymphocytes in a time-dependent manner, which was associated with IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA upregulation. Moreover we found that the cells response to PBP stimuli might be inversely related to its concentration. PMID:27091479

  20. B cell conducts the lymphocyte orchestra.

    PubMed

    Youinou, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The interest for B cells has recently been revived. They normally play a role in the development, the regulation, as well as the activation of lymphoid architecture: they regulate dendritic cells and T-cell subsets function through cytokine production. Receptor editing is also essential in B cells and aids in preventing autoimmunity. Both abnormalities in the distribution of B-cell subsets and clinical benefit response to B-cell depletion in autoimmune states illustrate their importance. A new area has thus been reached, whereby B lymphocytes return as a significant contributor to autoimmune disorders. PMID:17363215

  1. Fludarabine Phosphate, Radiation Therapy, and Rituximab in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Rituximab for High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-28

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  2. On-line studies of activation events in primary human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bental, M; Deutsch, C

    1994-04-01

    In this paper, we review our NMR studies of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. These studies focus on the physiological and biochemical alterations accompanying cell cycle progression. In particular, we have characterized phosphorus metabolism, glucose utilization and lactate production, and pH regulation using 31P, 13C, and 19F NMR, respectively. These studies required developing new methods for monitoring on-line stimulation of quiescent T cells under sterile, physiological conditions (i.e., CO2/HCO3- buffer, 37 degrees C) for prolonged periods of time. A perfusion system optimized for T lymphocytes inside agarose beads is described. In addition, custom-designed 19F NMR pH indicators were synthesized, characterized, and used to determine intracellular pH in quiescent lymphocytes, stimulated lymphocytes, and lymphocytes undergoing the G0-G1 transition. These unique molecular probes are described in detail. Finally, the physiological relevance of our findings regarding carbon metabolism and pH regulation is considered in the context of mitogenesis. PMID:8069534

  3. Functional characteristics of lymphocytes isolated from the rat large intestine. Response to T-cell mitogens and natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Nauss, K M; Pavlina, T M; Kumar, V; Newberne, P M

    1984-03-01

    Using successive ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and collagenase treatments, two fractions of mucosal lymphocytes have been isolated from the rat large intestine that differ in morphologic and functional characteristics. Intraepithelial lymphocytes consisted largely of granular lymphocytes (91 +/- 6%) that did not respond to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin or concanavalin A, but had natural killer cytotoxic activity against the YAC-1 cell line. The natural killer cytotoxicity of the intraepithelial lymphocytes was specifically reduced by the addition of increasing numbers of unlabeled homologous tumor cells but not by unlabeled thymocytes. The sensitivity of different target cell lines to lysis by intraepithelial lymphocytes was the same as splenocytes from the same rat strain. Lymphocytes from the lamina propria contained 21 +/- 4% granular cells with the remainder being typical small lymphocytes. The lamina propria fraction responded well to stimulation with concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and pokeweek mitogen, and also had natural killer activity against YAC-1 cells. PMID:6607187

  4. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-26

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma,; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  5. Modulation of dendritic cell maturation and function by B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien; Kazatchkine, Michel D; Hermine, Olivier; Tough, David F; Kaveri, Srini V

    2005-07-01

    Investigating the signals that regulate the function of dendritic cells (DC), the sentinels of the immune system, is critical to understanding the role of DC in the regulation of immune responses. Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that in addition to innate stimuli and T cell-derived signals, B lymphocytes exert a profound regulatory effect in vitro and in vivo on the Ag-presenting function of DC. The identification of B cells as a cellular source of cytokines, chemokines, and autoantibodies that are critically involved in the process of maturation, migration, and function of DC provides a rationale for immunotherapeutic intervention of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions by targeting B cells. Conversely, efficient cross-presentation of Ags by DC pulsed with immune complexes provides an alternative approach in the immunotherapy of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:15972625

  6. Modulating Heat Shock Proteins 70 and 90 Expression by Low Power Laser Irradiation (635nm and 780nm) in Jurkat E6.1 T-lymphocyte Leukemia Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Ad’hiah, Ali Hussein; Al-Ameri, Layla Mohammed Hassan; Maki, Amel Mustfa; Wang, Qiuyu; ALQaisi, Mayada Hameed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones involved in protein folding, stability and turnover, and due to their role in cancer progression, the effect of low power laser irradiation (LPLI) on the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 in Jurkat E6.1 T-lymphocyte leukemia (JELT) cell line was investigated in vitro. Methods: JETL cells were irradiated with LPLI at 635nm and 780m wavelengths (energy density 9.174 J/cm2), and assessed for the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 by flow cytometry after 24, 48 and 72 incubation time periods (ITPs). Results: At 24 hours ITP post-irradiation, control cultures showed that 10.7% of cells expressed HSP70, while LPLI cultures at 635nm and 780nm manifested a higher expression (32.1and 21.3%, respectively), and the difference was significant (P ≤ 0.05). However, at 48 hours ITP, the three means were decreased but approximated (5.6, 4.9 and 6.2%, respectively), while at 72 hours ITP, they were markedly increased (45.2, 76.5 and 66.7%, respectively). In contrast, HSP90 responded differently to LPLI. At 24 hours ITP, control cultures and 780nm cultures showed a similar expression (55.9 and 55.9%, respectively), but both means were significantly higher than that of 635nm cultures (24.0%). No such difference was observed at 48 hours ITP, and at 72 hours ITP, control cultures and 635nm cultures shared approximated means (31.7 and 35.6%, respectively); but both means were significantly higher than the observed mean in 780nm cultures (15.2%). Conclusion: The results highlighted that HSP70 and HSP90 expression responded differently to LPLI in JETL cells; an observation that may pave the way for further investigations in malignant cells PMID:25699163

  7. Reprogramming T cell Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bared, Kalia

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provided a novel technology for the study of development and pharmacology and complement embryonic stem cells (ES) for cell therapy applications. Though iPSC are derived from adult tissue they are comparable to ES cells in their behavior; multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal. This makes iPSC research appealing because they can be studied in great detail and expanded in culture broadly. Fibroblasts were the first cell type reprogrammed to an iPSC using a retrovirus vector, since then alternative cell types including lymphocytes have been used to generate iPSC. Different types of vectors have also been developed to enhance iPSC formation and quality. However, specific T lymphocyte subsets have not been shown to reprogram to a pluripotent state to date. Here, we proposed to derive iPSC from peripheral blood effector and central memory T cells, reasoning that the resultant iPSC will maintain the epigenetic memory of a T lymphocyte, including the T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement. This epigenetic memory will enable the differentiation and expansion of T cell iPSC into professional T cells containing a specific TCR. These could then be used for cell therapy to target specific antigens, as well as to improve culture techniques to expand T cells in vitro. We studied different gene delivery methods to derive iPSC from different types of T lymphocytes. We assessed the viability of viral transduction using flow cytometry to detect green fluorescent marker contained in the viral construct and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc gene expression. Our results demonstrate that the Sendai virus construct is the most feasible platform to reprogram T lymphocytes. We anticipate that this platform will provide an efficient and safe approach to derive iPSC from different T cell subsets, including memory T cells.

  8. Stromal-cell and cytokine-dependent lymphocyte clones which span the pre-B- to B-cell transition.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Medina, K; Hayashi, S; Pietrangeli, C; Namen, A E; Miyake, K; Kincade, P W

    1991-01-01

    Five stromal-cell-dependent lymphocyte clones are described that correspond to late pre-B or early B-cell stages of differentiation. They are useful for determining the molecular requirements for pre-B replication, for studying the stromal cells that supply those factors, and for delineating the final sequence of differentiation events as newly formed lymphocytes prepare to exit the bone marrow. The efficiency of lymphocyte growth at limiting dilution varied substantially on different stromal-cell clones and may reflect functional heterogeneity of stromal cells. Most lymphocyte clones were similar to uncloned lymphocytes from Whitlock-Witte cultures in that they responded only transiently to interleukin-7 (IL-7) and then died, unless maintained on a stromal-cell clone. One unusual lymphocyte clone (2E8) was propagated for more than 1 year in IL-7 alone and was selectively responsive to that cytokine. Most of the lymphocyte clones were not tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. However, one pre-B clone (1A9) grew autonomously in culture when held at high density, responded to conditioned medium from a number of cell lines, and was tumorigenic. Tumors derived from this clone were infiltrated by stromal cells and lymphocytes taken from the tumors' retained characteristics of the original clone. Ly-6 antigens were inducible on 2E8 and 1A9 cells, but the lymphocytes were otherwise arrested in differentiation. The 2E8 cells had rearranged and expressed kappa light-chain genes but displayed them on the surface along with surrogate light chains and mu heavy chains. Thus, expression of authentic light chain need not coincide with termination of surrogate light-chain utilization in newly formed B cells. Several glycoproteins have recently been demonstrated to be associated with surface immunoglobulin (Ig) on mature B-lineage cells and plasma-cell tumors. We now show that one member of this family (approximately 33 kD) was associated with the mu+surrogate light-chain complex on

  9. Chlorambucil plus Rituximab as Front-Line Therapy in Elderly/Unfit Patients Affected by B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Results of a Single-Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Laurenti, Luca; Vannata, Barbara; Innocenti, Idanna; Autore, Francesco; Santini, Francesco; Piccirillo, Nicola; Za, Tommaso; Bellesi, Silvia; Marietti, Sara; Sica, Simona; Efremov, Dimitar G.; Leone, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The current standard first line therapy for fit patients with B-CLL/SLL is based on combination of fludarabine-cyclophosphamide and rituximab. However, elderly patients or patients with comorbidities poorly tolerate purine analogue-based chemotherapy and they are often treated with Chlorambucil (Chl) only. However, complete response (CR) and overall response (OR) rates with Chl are relatively low. We now investigated whether the addition of Rituximab to Chl will improve the efficacy without impairing the tolerability in elderly and unfit patients. We included in our study 27 elderly or unfit patients that had not received prior therapy. All patients were treated with Chl (1mg/Kg per 28-day cycle for 8 cycles) plus Rituximab (375 mg/m2 for the first course and 500 mg/m2 for subsequent cycles until the 6th cycle). We obtained an OR rate of 74%. The most frequent adverse effect was grade 3–4 neutropenia, which occurred in 18.5% of the patients. Infections or grade 3–4 extra-hematological side effects were not recorded. None of the patients required reduction of dose, delay of therapy or hospitalization. Overall, these data suggest that Chl-R is an effective and well tolerated regimen in elderly/unfit patients with CLL. PMID:23667729

  10. Interaction of nanosilver particles with human lymphocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhornik, Alena; Baranova, Ludmila; Volotovski, Igor; Chizhik, Sergey; Drozd, Elizaveta; Sudas, Margarita; Buu Ngo, Quoc; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Huynh, Thi Ha; Hien Dao, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The damaging effects of nanoparticles were hypothesized to be the oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species and initiation of inflammatory reactions. In this context a study on the effects of nanosilver particles on the formation of reactive oxygen species in human lymphocyte culture was carried out. The obtained results showed that fluorescence intensity considerably increased after cells had interacted with nanosilver particles of varying concentrations, indicating the formation of reactive oxygen species and their accumulation in lymphocyte cells. Morphological study of the lymphocyte cells under the effects of nanosilver particles showed that the change in morphology depends on the concentration and size of nanosilver particles: for a size ≤20 nm the lymphocyte cell significantly shrank with pronounced differences in the morphological structure of the cell membrane, but for a size ≥200 nm no change was observed.

  11. [Current Cancer Immunotherapy Using Activated Lymphocytes - Do Lymphocytes Actually Recognize Cancer Cells ?].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Katata, Yousuke; Okawaki, Makoto; Yamamura, Masahiro; Sawaki, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Molecular cloning of interleukin-2(IL-2)has enabled adoptive cell therapy(ACT)to be established by using autologous activated lymphocytes. The low of regenerative medicine will promote the active development of ACT for public use, and ACTs that utilize tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes(TIL), in vitro tumor-sensitized lymphocytes, natural killer T cells, and gammadelta T cells are being evaluated as advanced medical treatments in Japan. In addition, chimeric antigen receptor genemodified T(CAR-T)cells and T cell receptor gene-modified T(TCR-T)cells are available for investigational clinical use. CART and TCR-T cells have been associated with serious adverse events as well as drastic clinical efficacies, indicating the importance of choosing the antigens to be targeted. Presently, it is accurate to state that lymphocytes do recognize cancer cells. Clinical ACT research focusing on TIL and mutated cancer antigens will be initiated for the development of personalized immunotherapy for cancer in the future. PMID:26469157

  12. Electrophoretic cell separation using microspheres. [purification of lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, A.; Sachs, G.

    1980-01-01

    Methods of cell separation based on the electrokinetic properties of the cell membrane offer a degree of discrimination among cell populations which is not available with methods based on cell size or density alone. Studies aimed at extending red cell separations using microspheres to purification of lymphocytes.

  13. Asymmetric Cell Division in T Lymphocyte Fate Diversification.

    PubMed

    Arsenio, Janilyn; Metz, Patrick J; Chang, John T

    2015-11-01

    Immunological protection against microbial pathogens is dependent on robust generation of functionally diverse T lymphocyte subsets. Upon microbial infection, naïve CD4(+) or CD8(+) T lymphocytes can give rise to effector- and memory-fated progeny that together mediate a potent immune response. Recent advances in single-cell immunological and genomic profiling technologies have helped elucidate early and late diversification mechanisms that enable the generation of heterogeneity from single T lymphocytes. We discuss these findings here and argue that one such mechanism, asymmetric cell division, creates an early divergence in T lymphocyte fates by giving rise to daughter cells with a propensity towards the terminally differentiated effector or self-renewing memory lineages, with cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic cues from the microenvironment driving the final maturation steps. PMID:26474675

  14. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  15. Transferrin receptor expression by stimulated cells in mixed lymphocyte culture.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, M; Bacon, P A; Symmons, D P; Walton, K W

    1985-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TRFr) expression by cells in mixed lymphocyte culture increases steadily for the first 5 days, but then reaches a plateau. By the sixth day in culture, about 20% of viable cells express TRFr in two-way mixed lymphocyte reactions. This subpopulation of TRFr-positive cells represents the proliferating population; it is heterogeneous, containing T-cell blasts and smaller cells which are a mixture of T and non-T cells. A small group of non-T cells have phenotypic similarity to natural killer (NK) cells. T cells appear to divide earlier in the course of the response than non-T cells. The biphasic nature of this response and the slower non-T reactivity may be due to a secondary stimulation of non-T cells by factors released from activated T cells (such as interleukin-2). PMID:2982734

  16. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a disease of activated monoclonal B cells

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Rajendra N.; Calissano, Carlo; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    B-cell type chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has long been considered a disease of resting lymphocytes. However cell surface and intracellular phenotypes suggest that most CLL cells are activated cells, although only a small subset progresses beyond the G1 stage of the cell cycle. In addition, traditional teaching says that CLL cells divide rarely, and therefore the buildup of leukemic cells is due to an inherent defect in cell death. However, in vivo labeling of CLL cells indicates a much more active rate of cell birth than originally estimated, suggesting that CLL is a dynamic disease. Here we review the observations that have led to these altered views of the activation state and proliferative capacities of CLL cells and also provide our interpretation of these observations in light of their potential impact on patients. PMID:20620969

  17. Blasted Cell Line Names

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Byers, Lauren A.; Yordy, John S.; Liu, Wenbin; Shen, Li; Baggerly, Keith A.; Giri, Uma; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Ang, K. Kian; Story, Michael D.; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D.; Heymach, John V.; Coombes, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: While trying to integrate multiple data sets collected by different researchers, we noticed that the sample names were frequently entered inconsistently. Most of the variations appeared to involve punctuation, white space, or their absence, at the juncture between alphabetic and numeric portions of the cell line name. Results: Reasoning that the variant names could be described in terms of mutations or deletions of character strings, we implemented a simple version of the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment algorithm and applied it to the cell line names. All correct matches were found by this procedure. Incorrect matches only occured when a cell line was present in one data set but not in the other. The raw match scores tended to be substantially worse for the incorrect matches. Conclusions: A simple application of the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment algorithm provides a useful first pass at matching sample names from different data sets. PMID:21082038

  18. Enhancement of fludarabine sensitivity by all-trans-retinoic acid in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Calotti, Paula X.; Lopez-Guerra, Mónica; Colomer, Dolors; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2012-01-01

    Background A subset of patients with fludarabine-resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia has previously been shown to express elevated intracellular levels of the concentrative high-affinity fludarabine transporter hCNT3, without any detectable related activity. We have recently shown that all-trans-retinoic acid is capable of inducing hCNT3 trafficking to plasma membrane in the MEC1 cell line. We, therefore, evaluated the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on hCNT3 in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells as a suitable mechanism to improve fludarabine-based therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Design and Methods Cells from 23 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients wild-type for P53 were analyzed for ex vivo sensitivity to fludarabine. hCNT3 activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell samples was evaluated by measuring the uptake of [8-3H]-fludarabine. The amounts of transforming growth factor-β1 and hCNT3 messenger RNA were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on hCNT3 subcellular localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy and its effect on fludarabine-induced apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis using annexin V staining. Results Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases showing higher ex vivo basal sensitivity to fludarabine also had a greater basal hCNT3-associated fludarabine uptake capacity compared to the subset of patients showing ex vivo resistance to the drug. hCNT3 transporter activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from the latter patients was either negligible or absent. Treatment of the fludarabine-resistant subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with all-trans-retinoic acid induced increased fludarabine transport via hCNT3 which was associated with a significant increase in fludarabine sensitivity. Conclusions Improvement of ex vivo fludarabine sensitivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is associated with increased hCNT3 activity after all-trans-retinoic acid

  19. Electrostimulation of rat callus cells and human lymphocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Aro, H.; Eerola, E.; Aho, A.J.; Penttinen, R.

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetrical pulsing low voltage current was supplied via electrodes to cultured rat fracture callus cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation of the callus cells and 5-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation of the lymphocytes were determined. The growth pattern of callus cells (estimated by cellular density) did not respond to electrical stimulation. However, the uptake of (/sup 3/H)thymidine was increased at the early phase of cell proliferation and inhibited at later phases of proliferation. The (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake of confluent callus cell cultures did not respond to electrical stimulation. Lymphocytes reacted in a similar way; stimulated cells took up more DNA precursor than control cells at the early phase of stimulation. During cell division, induced by the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and Concanavalin-A, the uptake of DNA precursor by stimulated cells was constantly inhibited. The results suggest that electrical stimuli affect the uptake mechanisms of cell membranes. The duality of the effect seems to be dependent on the cell cycle.

  20. MOLECULAR AND CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LUNG TUMOR CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have measured the levels of amplification of oncogenes and tumor marker genes or other genes of interest in nine human lung tumor cell lines in comparison to normal human bronchial epithelial cells or normal blood lymphocytes to test the hypothesis that aberrant amplification ...

  1. Cyclophosphamide, Alvocidib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With High Risk B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-10

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  2. Melanoma specific Th1 cytotoxic T lymphocyte lines in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    PubMed Central

    Norose, K; Yano, A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: To determine the functional properties and cytokine production profiles of melanoma specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) induced from peripheral blood leucocytes of two patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH). METHODS: Melanoma specific CTL lines were established by long term coculture with a human melanoma cell line (P-36). Cytotoxic activity against P-36 was measured by 51Cr release. The involvement of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I or class II molecules in the cytotoxicity of the CTL lines against P-36 was analysed using anti-HLA class I or anti-HLA class II monoclonal antibody (MAb). Surface molecules of CTL lines were analysed by flow cytometry using MAbs specific for CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25, CD56, HLA-DR, T cell antigen receptor (TCR) alpha beta and TCR gamma delta. Cytokine production and soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) secretion were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. mRNAs of cytokines were analysed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: CTLs showed strong cytotoxic activity against P-36. The CTL activity of the cell lines against P-36 was inhibited by the anti-HLA-DR MAb, whereas the MAb specific for monomorphic determinants of HLA-A, B, and C failed to block lytic activity. Flow cytometry identified the following surface molecules: CD4+, CD8-, CD16-, CD25+, CD56-, HLA-DR+, TCR alpha beta +, and TCR gamma delta-. CTLs constitutively produced a high level of IL-6. IL-6 production and sIL-2R secretion of CTLs were enhanced when CTLs were stimulated with P-36. CTLs also produced high levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2, but not IL-4. mRNAs of IL-2 and IFN-gamma were detected by RT-PCR in the CTLs. CONCLUSIONS: Melanoma specific HLADR restricted T helper 1 (Th1) CTLs may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of VKH. Images PMID:8976730

  3. CLO: The cell line ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO consortium, new cell line cells, upper level alignment with the Cell Ontology (CL) and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigation, and logical extensions. Construction and content Collaboration among the CLO, CL, and OBI has established consensus definitions of cell line-specific terms such as ‘cell line’, ‘cell line cell’, ‘cell line culturing’, and ‘mortal’ vs. ‘immortal cell line cell’. A cell line is a genetically stable cultured cell population that contains individual cell line cells. The hierarchical structure of the CLO is built based on the hierarchy of the in vivo cell types defined in CL and tissue types (from which cell line cells are derived) defined in the UBERON cross-species anatomy ontology. The new hierarchical structure makes it easier to browse, query, and perform automated classification. We have recently added classes representing more than 2,000 cell line cells from the RIKEN BRC Cell Bank to CLO. Overall, the CLO now contains ~38,000 classes of specific cell line cells derived from over 200 in vivo cell types from various organisms. Utility and discussion The CLO has been applied to different biomedical research studies. Example case studies include annotation and analysis of EBI ArrayExpress data, bioassays, and host-vaccine/pathogen interaction. CLO’s utility goes beyond a catalogue of cell line types. The alignment of the CLO with related ontologies combined with the use of ontological reasoners will support sophisticated inferencing to advance translational informatics development. PMID:25852852

  4. B-lymphocyte responses to trinitrophenyl-conjugated Ficoll: requirement for T lymphocytes and Ia-bearing adherent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Letvin, N L; Benacerraf, B; Germain, R N

    1981-01-01

    These studies were done to characterize the cellular requirements for B-lymphocyte responses to the haptenated polysaccharide trinitrophenyl-conjugated Ficoll. By using an in vitro microculture system, it was demonstrated that hapten-specific anti-trinitrophenyl-conjugated Ficoll plaque-forming cell responses by B lymphocytes require Ia-bearing adherent accessory cells and Thy 1+ Lyt 1+2- nylon wool-nonadherent (T) lymphocytes. Such T cells could be primed in vivo with nonderivatized Ficoll to show carrier-specific helper cell function for derivatized Ficoll responses in vitro. The implications of these findings for our understanding of b-lymphocyte triggering by so-called T-independent antigens are discussed. PMID:6975477

  5. Apicobasal polarity controls lymphocyte adhesion to hepatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reglero-Real, Natalia; Alvarez-Varela, Adrián; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Feito, Jorge; Marcos-Ramiro, Beatriz; Fernández-Martín, Laura; Gómez-Lechón, Maria José; Muntané, Jordi; Sandoval, Pilar; Majano, Pedro L; Correas, Isabel; Alonso, Miguel A; Millán, Jaime

    2014-09-25

    Loss of apicobasal polarity is a hallmark of epithelial pathologies. Leukocyte infiltration and crosstalk with dysfunctional epithelial barriers are crucial for the inflammatory response. Here, we show that apicobasal architecture regulates the adhesion between hepatic epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Polarized hepatocytes and epithelium from bile ducts segregate the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) adhesion receptor onto their apical, microvilli-rich membranes, which are less accessible by circulating immune cells. Upon cell depolarization, hepatic ICAM-1 becomes exposed and increases lymphocyte binding. Polarized hepatic cells prevent ICAM-1 exposure to lymphocytes by redirecting basolateral ICAM-1 to apical domains. Loss of ICAM-1 polarity occurs in human inflammatory liver diseases and can be induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We propose that adhesion receptor polarization is a parenchymal immune checkpoint that allows functional epithelium to hamper leukocyte binding. This contributes to the haptotactic guidance of leukocytes toward neighboring damaged or chronically inflamed epithelial cells that expose their adhesion machinery. PMID:25242329

  6. Cell-specific uptake of mantle cell lymphoma-derived exosomes by malignant and non-malignant B-lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Rosenblum, Daniel; Weinstein, Shiri; Bairey, Osnat; Raanani, Pia; Peer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive and incurable mature B cell neoplasm. The current treatments are based on chemotherapeutics and new class of drugs (e.g. Ibrutinib®), which in most cases ends with tumor resistance and relapse. Therefore, further development of novel therapeutic modalities are needed. Exosomes are natural extracellular vesicles, which play an important role in intercellular communication. The specificity of exosome uptake by different target cells remains unknown. In this study, we observed that MCL exosomes are taken up rapidly and preferentially by MCL cells. Only minor fraction of exosomes was internalized into T-cell leukemia and bone marrow stroma cell lines, when these cells were co-cultured with MCL cells. Moreover, MCL patients’ exosomes were taken up by both healthy and patients’ B-lymphocytes with no apparent internalization to T lymphocytes and NK cells. Exosome internalization was not inhibited by specific siRNA against caveolin1 and clathrin but was found to be mediated by cholesterol-dependent pathway. These findings demonstrate natural specificity of exosomes to B-lymphocytes and ultimately might be used for therapeutic intervention in B cells malignancies. PMID:25933830

  7. [Principles of adoptive cell therapy based on "Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes"].

    PubMed

    Martins, Filipe; Orcurto, Angela; Michielin, Olivier; Coukos, George

    2016-05-18

    Adoptive cell therapy consists in the use of T lymphocytes for therapeutic purposes. Up to now, of limited use in clinical practice for logistical reasons, technical progress and substantial level of evidence obtained in the last decade allow its arrival in universitary hospitals. We will principally discuss the administration of expanded tumor infiltrating T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This treatment modality exploits the natural specificity of these cells and aims to potentiate their effectiveness. This personalized immunotherapy detains a potential for expansion to many other advanced tumor types. PMID:27424426

  8. The effect of adherent and phagocytic cells on human lymphocyte PHA responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Potter, M R; Moore, M

    1977-01-01

    The effect of small numbers of adherent and phagocytic cells on the human peripheral blood lymphocyte response to PHA was examined by depleting these cells from lymphocyte preparations. Lymphocyte preparations obtained by centrifugation on Ficoll--Triosil, which contained on average 85% lymphocytes, responded well to PHA. Depletion of cells adhering to nylon fibre, giving a population containing on average 95% lymphocytes, resulted in a considerably reduced response. Depletion of cells that adhered to plastic or ingested iron powder to give populations containing on average 90% lymphocytes, also reduced the PHA response, but to a lesser extent. Reduction in PHA responsiveness correlated with increasing lymphocyte purity. The responsiveness of nylon-column-filtered cells could be restored by adding a small number of cells from a monocyte-rich population. PMID:300303

  9. Umbelliprenin Induces Apoptosis in CLL Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Gholami, Omid; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Zamani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease that requires innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. Many Ferula species, including F. asa-foetida, synthesize terpenyloxy coumarins. One of these coumarins is umbelliprenin, which has been implicated with induction of apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. In this study induction of apoptosis by umbelliprenin on Jurkat T-CLL and Raji B-CLL cell lines was studied. In this regard, cells were incubated with various concentrations of umbelliprenin in-vitro for different times and assayed for apoptosis with annexin V–FITC/PI double staining flowcytometry method. Results showed that umbelliprenin induced apoptosis in leukemic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that CLL cells were more susceptible to umbelliprenin induced cell death than normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs). Moreover, we study the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells by umbelliprenin in the presence of interleukin 4 (IL-4) as an agent that causes resistance to apoptosis in CLL cells, was also student. We showed that IL-4 can not reduce apoptotic effect of umbelliprenin. The preferential toxicity of umbelliprenin for CLL cells, supports the hypothesis that oral administration of umbelliprenin in the form of foods or folk medicines containing this coumarin, might enhance protection against the development of CLL in man with little side effects. In conclusion, umbelliprenin may be an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of CLL, and thus clinical studies with umbelliprenin may be appropriate. PMID:24250490

  10. T lymphocyte-derived TNF and IFN-γ repress HFE expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Alexandre; Godin-Ethier, Jessica; Santos, Manuela M; Lapointe, Réjean

    2015-06-01

    The immune system and tumors are closely intertwined initially upon tumor development. During this period, tumors evolve to promote self-survival through immune escape, including by targeting crucial components involved in the presentation of antigens to the immune system in order to avoid recognition. Accordingly, components involved in MHC I presentation of tumor antigens are often mutated and down-regulated targets in tumors. On the other hand, the immune system has been shown to influence tumors through production of immunosuppressive cytokines, recruitment and polarization of cells favoring or impeding tumor escape or through production of anti-tumor cytokines promoting tumor rejection. We previously discovered that the hemochromatosis protein HFE, a negative regulator of iron absorption, dampens classical MHC I antigen presentation. In this study, we evaluated the impact of activated T lymphocytes purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) on HFE expression in tumor cell lines. We co-cultured tumor cell lines from melanoma, lung, and kidney cancers with anti-CD3-activated PBMC and established that HFE expression is increased in tumor cell lines compared to healthy tissues, whilst being down-regulated significantly upon exposure to activated PBMC. HFE down-regulation was mediated by both CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes, through production of soluble mediators, namely TNF and IFN-γ. These results suggest that the immune system may modulate tumor HFE expression in inflammatory conditions in order to regulate MHC I antigen presentation and promote tumor clearance. PMID:25700349

  11. Transfection of wild-type CFTR into cystic fibrosis lymphocytes restores chloride conductance at G1 of the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, R D; Bubien, J K; Drumm, M L; Zheng, T; Peiper, S C; Collins, F S; Kirk, K L; Frizzell, R A; Rado, T A

    1992-01-01

    We complemented the Cl- conductance defect in cystic fibrosis lymphocytes by transfection with wild-type cDNA for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Stable transfectants were selected and subjected to molecular and functional analyses. We detected expression of endogenous CFTR mRNA in several CF and non-CF lymphoid cell lines by PCR. Expression from cDNA in the transfectants was demonstrated by amplifying vector-specific sequences. Both fluorescence and patch-clamp assays showed that transfectants expressing wild-type CFTR acquired properties previously associated with Cl- conductance (GCl) regulation in non-CF lymphocytes: (i) GCl was elevated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, (ii) cells fixed at G1 increase GCl in response to increased cellular cAMP or Ca2+, (iii) agonist-induced increases in GCl were lost as the cells progressed to the S phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle and agonist dependent regulation of GCl was not observed in CF lymphocytes transfected with CFTR cDNA containing stop codons in all reading frames at exon 6. Our findings indicate that lymphocytes express functional CFTR since wild-type CFTR corrects the defects in Cl- conductance regulation found in CF lymphocytes. Evaluation of the mechanism of this novel, CFTR-mediated regulation of GCl during cell cycling should provide further insights into the function of CFTR. Images PMID:1372253

  12. The Importance of the Nurse Cells and Regulatory Cells in the Control of T Lymphocyte Responses

    PubMed Central

    Reyes García, María Guadalupe; García Tamayo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    T lymphocytes from the immune system are bone marrow-derived cells whose development and activities are carefully supervised by two sets of accessory cells. In the thymus, the immature young T lymphocytes are engulfed by epithelial “nurse cells” and retained in vacuoles, where most of them (95%) are negatively selected and removed when they have an incomplete development or express high affinity autoreactive receptors. The mature T lymphocytes that survive to this selection process leave the thymus and are controlled in the periphery by another subpopulation of accessory cells called “regulatory cells,” which reduce any excessive immune response and the risk of collateral injuries to healthy tissues. By different times and procedures, nurse cells and regulatory cells control both the development and the functions of T lymphocyte subpopulations. Disorders in the T lymphocytes development and migration have been observed in some parasitic diseases, which disrupt the thymic microenvironment of nurse cells. In other cases, parasites stimulate rather than depress the functions of regulatory T cells decreasing T-mediated host damages. This paper is a short review regarding some features of these accessory cells and their main interactions with T immature and mature lymphocytes. The modulatory role that neurotransmitters and hormones play in these interactions is also revised. PMID:23509712

  13. Activation of autoreactive T-lymphocytes by cultured syngeneic glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Radeke, H H; Emmendörffer, A; Uciechowski, P; von der Ohe, J; Schwinzer, B; Resch, K

    1994-03-01

    The capacity of intrinsic, glomerular mesangial cells (MC) to cause an autoreactive response of syngeneic lymphocytes in vitro are presented. Initial experiments demonstrated the MHC class II dependent capacity of MC to present exogenous antigen to sensitized lymph node lymphocytes (LN) and to activate naive, allogeneic LN in the absence of a nominal antigen. However, the most striking finding of the present investigation was that mouse MC (C57BL/6 or DBA/2) augmented a significant activation of naive, syngeneic lymphocytes. The extent of the proliferative lymphocyte response was comparable to that observed after stimulation with allogeneic MC. Moreover, during syngeneic coculture substantial amounts of interferon bioactivity were generated. Equipotent concentrations of rm IFN-gamma were sufficient to induce class II MHC expression of mouse MC. In control experiments the macrophage cell line, IC-21 (C57BL/6), or freshly prepared DBA/2 mouse peritoneal macrophages did not elicit a syngeneic LN response. Using MC, which had not been pretreated, the MC-specific LN stimulation occurred after prolonged periods of coculture. The stimulation index (S.I.) was 9.77 after 144 hours compared with LN controls (S.I. = 1). However, a 48 hour pretreatment of MC with either rm IFN-gamma alone or in combination with rh TNF-alpha and/or the continuous presence of rm IL-1 alpha during coculture periods from 72 to 144 hours substantially enhanced the proliferative LN response. Analysis of non-adherent LN by flow cytometry (FACS) after 96 or 120 hours coculture with MC revealed an increased ratio of Thy1.2+ to B220+ cells with a predominant rise of L3T4+ T-helper cells compared to Lyt2+ cytotoxic T-cells. Furthermore, immune fluorescence microscopy showed that a fraction of Thy1.2+ lymphoblasts adhered to MC. FACS analysis of these adherent LN after detachment demonstrated that in comparison to cocultures with untreated MC, cocultures of LN with IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha pre-treated MC

  14. Defining Molecular Phenotypes of Mesenchymal and hematopoietic Stem Cells derived from Peripheral blood of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia patients for regenerative stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Potdar, PD; Subedi, RP

    2011-01-01

    Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is a clonal myeloid disorder affecting all age groups, characterized by accumulation of immature blast cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood. Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation is a present treatment for cure of ALL patients, which is very expensive, invasive process and may have possibility of transplantation of malignant stem cells to patients. In the present study, we hypothesized to isolate large number of normal Mesenchymal & Hematopoietic stem cells from peripheral blood of ALL patients, which will be further characterized for their normal phenotypes by using specific molecular stem cell markers. This is the first study, which defines the existing phenotypes of isolated MSCs and HSCs from peripheral blood of ALL patients. We have established three cell lines in which two were Mesenchymal stem cells designated as MSCALL and MSCnsALL and one was suspension cell line designated as HSCALL. The HSCALL cell line was developed from the lymphocyte like cells secreted by MSCALL cells. Our study also showed that MSCALL from peripheral blood of ALL patient secreted hematopoietic stem cells in vitro culture. We have characterized all three-cell lines by 14 specific stem cell molecular markers. It was found that both MSC cell lines expressed CD105, CD13, and CD73 with mixed expression of CD34 and CD45 at early passage whereas, HSCALL cell line expressed prominent feature of hematopoietic stem cells such as CD34 and CD45 with mild expression of CD105 and CD13. All three-cell lines expressed LIF, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, IL6, and DAPK. These cells mildly expressed COX2 and did not express BCR-ABL. Overall it was shown that isolated MSCs and HSCs can be use as a model system to study the mechanism of leukemia at stem cell level and their use in stem cell regeneration therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia. PMID:24693170

  15. Metformin inhibits cell cycle progression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Silvia; Ledda, Bernardetta; Tenca, Claudya; Ravera, Silvia; Orengo, Anna Maria; Mazzarello, Andrea Nicola; Pesenti, Elisa; Casciaro, Salvatore; Racchi, Omar; Ghiotto, Fabio; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; DeCensi, Andrea; Fais, Franco

    2015-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was believed to result from clonal accumulation of resting apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. However, it became increasingly clear that CLL cells undergo, during their life, iterative cycles of re-activation and subsequent clonal expansion. Drugs interfering with CLL cell cycle entry would be greatly beneficial in the treatment of this disease. 1, 1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride (metformin), the most widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, inexpensive and well tolerated, has recently received increased attention for its potential antitumor activity. We wondered whether metformin has apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity on leukemic cells derived from CLL patients. Metformin was administered in vitro either to quiescent cells or during CLL cell activation stimuli, provided by classical co-culturing with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. At doses that were totally ineffective on normal lymphocytes, metformin induced apoptosis of quiescent CLL cells and inhibition of cell cycle entry when CLL were stimulated by CD40-CD40L ligation. This cytostatic effect was accompanied by decreased expression of survival- and proliferation-associated proteins, inhibition of signaling pathways involved in CLL disease progression and decreased intracellular glucose available for glycolysis. In drug combination experiments, metformin lowered the apoptotic threshold and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of classical and novel antitumor molecules. Our results indicate that, while CLL cells after stimulation are in the process of building their full survival and cycling armamentarium, the presence of metformin affects this process. PMID:26265439

  16. Metformin inhibits cell cycle progression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Silvia; Ledda, Bernardetta; Tenca, Claudya; Ravera, Silvia; Orengo, Anna Maria; Mazzarello, Andrea Nicola; Pesenti, Elisa; Casciaro, Salvatore; Racchi, Omar; Ghiotto, Fabio; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; DeCensi, Andrea; Fais, Franco

    2015-09-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was believed to result from clonal accumulation of resting apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. However, it became increasingly clear that CLL cells undergo, during their life, iterative cycles of re-activation and subsequent clonal expansion. Drugs interfering with CLL cell cycle entry would be greatly beneficial in the treatment of this disease. 1, 1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride (metformin), the most widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, inexpensive and well tolerated, has recently received increased attention for its potential antitumor activity. We wondered whether metformin has apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity on leukemic cells derived from CLL patients. Metformin was administered in vitro either to quiescent cells or during CLL cell activation stimuli, provided by classical co-culturing with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. At doses that were totally ineffective on normal lymphocytes, metformin induced apoptosis of quiescent CLL cells and inhibition of cell cycle entry when CLL were stimulated by CD40-CD40L ligation. This cytostatic effect was accompanied by decreased expression of survival- and proliferation-associated proteins, inhibition of signaling pathways involved in CLL disease progression and decreased intracellular glucose available for glycolysis. In drug combination experiments, metformin lowered the apoptotic threshold and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of classical and novel antitumor molecules. Our results indicate that, while CLL cells after stimulation are in the process of building their full survival and cycling armamentarium, the presence of metformin affects this process. PMID:26265439

  17. A secreted form of the human lymphocyte cell surface molecule CD8 arises from alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, P.; Kavathas, P. ); Ledbetter, J.A. )

    1989-02-01

    The human lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD8 is encoded by a single gene that gives rise to a 33- to 34-kDa glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface as a dimer and in higher molecular mass forms. The authors demonstrate that the mRNA is alternatively spliced so that an exon encoding a transmembrane domain is deleted. This gives rise to a 30-kDa molecule that is secreted and exists primarily as a monomer. mRNA corresponding to both forms is present in peripheral blood lymphocytes, Con A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, and three CD8{sup +} T-cell lines, with the membrane form being the major species. However, differences in the ratio of mRNA for membrane CD8 and secreted CD8 exist. In addition, the splicing pattern observed differs from the pattern found for the mouse CD8 gene. This mRNA is also alternatively spliced, but an exon encoding a cytoplasmic region is deleted, giving rise to a cell surface molecule that differs in its cytoplasmic tail from the protein encoded by the longer mRNA. Neither protein is secreted. This is one of the first examples of a different splicing pattern between two homologous mouse and human genes giving rise to very different proteins. This represents one mechanism of generating diversity during speciation.

  18. Role of Dendritic Cells in the Induction of Lymphocyte Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Fabiola; Fuentes, Camila; López, Mercedes N.; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; González, Fermín E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to trigger tolerance or immunity is dictated by the context in which an antigen is encountered. A large body of evidence indicates that antigen presentation by steady-state DCs induces peripheral tolerance through mechanisms such as the secretion of soluble factors, the clonal deletion of autoreactive T cells, and feedback control of regulatory T cells. Moreover, recent understandings on the function of DC lineages and the advent of murine models of DC depletion have highlighted the contribution of DCs to lymphocyte tolerance. Importantly, these findings are now being applied to human research in the contexts of autoimmune diseases, allergies, and transplant rejection. Indeed, DC-based immunotherapy research has made important progress in the area of human health, particularly in regards to cancer. A better understanding of several DC-related aspects including the features of DC lineages, milieu composition, specific expression of surface molecules, the control of signaling responses, and the identification of competent stimuli able to trigger and sustain a tolerogenic outcome will contribute to the success of DC-based immunotherapy in the area of lymphocyte tolerance. This review will discuss the latest advances in the biology of DC subtypes related to the induction of regulatory T cells, in addition to presenting current ex vivo protocols for tolerogenic DC production. Particular attention will be given to the molecules and signals relevant for achieving an adequate tolerogenic response for the treatment of human pathologies. PMID:26539197

  19. The role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wiestner, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a malignancy of mature auto-reactive B cells. Genetic and functional studies implicate B-cell receptor signaling as a pivotal pathway in its pathogenesis. Full B-cell receptor activation requires tumor-microenvironment interactions in lymphoid tissues. Spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) δ isoform are essential for B-cell receptor signal transduction but also mediate the effect of other pathways engaged in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in the tissue-microenvironment. Orally bioavailable inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, or PI3Kδ, induce high rates of durable responses. Ibrutinib, a covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and idelalisib, a selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ, have obtained regulatory approval in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are active in patients with high-risk features, achieving superior disease control in difficult-to-treat patients than prior best therapy, making them the preferred agents for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with TP53 aberrations and for patients resistant to chemoimmunotherapy. In randomized trials, both ibrutinib, versus ofatumumab, and idelalisib in combination with rituximab, versus placebo with rituximab improved survival in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Responses to B-cell receptor inhibitors are mostly partial, and within clinical trials treatment is continued until progression or occurrence of intolerable side effects. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are, overall, well tolerated; notable adverse events include increased bruising and incidence of atrial fibrillation on ibrutinib and colitis, pneumonitis and transaminase elevations on idelalisib. Randomized trials investigate the role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in first-line therapy and the benefit of combinations. This review discusses the biological basis for targeted therapy of chronic lymphocytic

  20. The role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wiestner, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a malignancy of mature auto-reactive B cells. Genetic and functional studies implicate B-cell receptor signaling as a pivotal pathway in its pathogenesis. Full B-cell receptor activation requires tumor-microenvironment interactions in lymphoid tissues. Spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) δ isoform are essential for B-cell receptor signal transduction but also mediate the effect of other pathways engaged in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in the tissue-microenvironment. Orally bioavailable inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, or PI3Kδ, induce high rates of durable responses. Ibrutinib, a covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and idelalisib, a selective inhibitor of PI3Kδ, have obtained regulatory approval in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are active in patients with high-risk features, achieving superior disease control in difficult-to-treat patients than prior best therapy, making them the preferred agents for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with TP53 aberrations and for patients resistant to chemoimmunotherapy. In randomized trials, both ibrutinib, versus ofatumumab, and idelalisib in combination with rituximab, versus placebo with rituximab improved survival in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Responses to B-cell receptor inhibitors are mostly partial, and within clinical trials treatment is continued until progression or occurrence of intolerable side effects. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are, overall, well tolerated; notable adverse events include increased bruising and incidence of atrial fibrillation on ibrutinib and colitis, pneumonitis and transaminase elevations on idelalisib. Randomized trials investigate the role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in first-line therapy and the benefit of combinations. This review discusses the biological basis for targeted therapy of chronic lymphocytic

  1. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Primary Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gyan, Emmanuel; Tournilhac, Olivier; Halty, Christelle; Veyrat-Masson, Richard; Akil, Saïda; Berger, Marc; Hérault, Olivier; Callanan, Mary; Bay, Jacques-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an indolent disorder with an increased infectious risk remaining one of the main causes of death. Development of therapies with higher safety profile is thus a challenging issue. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) is an omega-3 fatty acid, a natural compound of normal cells, and has been shown to display antitumor potency in cancer. We evaluated the potential in vitro effect of DHA in primary CLL cells. DHA induces high level of in vitro apoptosis compared to oleic acid in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Estimation of IC50 was only of 4.813 µM, which appears lower than those reported in solid cancers. DHA is highly active on CLL cells in vitro. This observation provides a rationale for further studies aiming to understand its mechanisms of action and its potent in vivo activity. PMID:26734128

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

  3. Modulation of MUC1 mucin as an escape mechanism of breast cancer cells from autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kontani, K; Taguchi, O; Narita, T; Izawa, M; Hiraiwa, N; Zenita, K; Takeuchi, T; Murai, H; Miura, S; Kannagi, R

    2001-01-01

    MUC1 mucin is known to serve as a target molecule in the killing of breast cancer cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). We searched for a possible mechanism allowing tumour cells to escape from autologous CTLs. When the killing of breast cancer cells by autologous lymphocytes was examined in 26 patients with breast cancer, significant tumour cell lysis was observed in 8 patients, whereas virtually no autologous tumour cell lysis was detected in as many as 18 patients. In the patients who showed negligible tumour cell lysis, the autologous tumour cells expressed MUC1-related antigenic epitopes much more weakly than the tumour cells in the patients who exhibited strong cytotoxicity (significant statistically at P< 0.0005–0.0045), suggesting that the unresponsiveness of cancer cells to CTLs observed in these patients was mainly due to loss of MUC1 expression or modulation of its antigenicity. A breast cancer cell line, NZK-1, established from one of the cytotoxicity-negative patients, did not express MUC1 and was resistant to killing by CTLs, while control breast cancer cell lines expressing MUC-1 were readily killed by CTLs. Transfection of NZK-1 cells with MUC1 cDNA induced significant lysis by autologous T-lymphocytes. These results supported the importance of MUC1 mucin in autologous anti-tumour immunity, but suggested that the major escape mechanism of tumour cells from autologous T-lymphocytes is the loss and/or modulation of MUC1 antigenicity on tumour cells, which would limit the effectiveness of possible immunotherapy designed to target the MUC1 mucin. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11336479

  4. The planar cell polarity pathway drives pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia by the regulation of B-lymphocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Kaucká, Markéta; Plevová, Karla; Pavlová, Sárka; Janovská, Pavlína; Mishra, Archana; Verner, Jan; Procházková, Jirina; Krejcí, Pavel; Kotasková, Jana; Ovesná, Petra; Tichy, Boris; Brychtová, Yvona; Doubek, Michael; Kozubík, Alois; Mayer, Jirí; Pospísilová, Sárka; Bryja, Vítezslav

    2013-03-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a conserved pathway that regulates cell migration and polarity in various contexts. Here we show that key PCP pathway components such as Vangl2, Celsr1, Prickle1, FZD3, FZD7, Dvl2, Dvl3, and casein kinase 1 (CK1)-ε are upregulated in B lymphocytes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Elevated levels of PCP proteins accumulate in advanced stages of the disease. Here, we show that PCP pathway is required for the migration and transendothelial invasion of CLL cells and that patients with high expression of PCP genes, FZD3, FZD7, and PRICKLE1, have a less favorable clinical prognosis. Our findings establish that the PCP pathway acts as an important regulator of CLL cell migration and invasion. PCP proteins represent an important class of molecules regulating pathogenic interaction of CLL cells with their microenvironment. PMID:23338609

  5. Lymphocyte dysfunction in cartilage hair hypoplasia. II. Evidence for a cell cycle specific defect in T cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, G. F.; Polmar, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Defects of in vitro B and T lymphocyte function and impaired delayed type hypersen-sitivity reactions, as well as an increased risk of lethal viral infections have been reported in cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH), an autosomal recessive form of short limbed dwarfism. We have previously found an intrinsic proliferative defect that affected several cell types from CHH individuals. In order to further evaluate it we developed continuous T cell lines (CTCL) from CHH and normal individuals. The T cells from cultures of CHH and normal individuals were indistinguishable with respect to cell surface antigens characteristic of fully differentiated T cells, as defined by monoclonal antibody analysis. However, CHH T cells produced significantly less interleukin 2 (IL2) than normal T cells and the growth of CHH CTCL in response to exogenously supplied IL2 was markedly diminished (cell cycle 120-165 hr) compared to normal CTCL (cell cycle 48-60 hr). Furthermore, the exogenous IL2 was not absorbed from growth medium by CHH CTCL at the same rate as normal CTCL. Both production and utilization of IL2 are cell cycle specific events that occur during G1 phase before the onset of DNA synthesis (S phase). Thus, CHH T lymphocytes appear to have a defect related to G1 phase that results in a longer cell cycle for individual cells, and leads to decreased proliferation of the population. We postulate that this G1 phase defect is present in multiple cell types in CHH and that analysis of continuous T cell lines from CHH individuals may permit the identification of this defect. PMID:6984669

  6. FCRL6 distinguishes mature cytotoxic lymphocytes and is upregulated in patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Schreeder, Daniel M.; Pan, Jicun; Li, Fu Jun; Vivier, Eric; Davis, Randall S.

    2009-01-01

    Fc receptor-like 6 (FCRL6), the most recently characterized member of the FCRL family, is a cell surface glycoprotein with tyrosine-based regulatory potential. An extensive survey of human hematopoietic tissues disclosed that FCRL6 expression by NK and T cell subpopulations increases as a function of differentiation and is remarkably restricted to mature lymphocytes with cytotoxic capability. In particular, FCRL6 distinguishes perforin-expressing CD56dim NK cells, Vδ1+ and Vδ2+ γδ T cells, effector and effector memory CD8+ T cells, and rare cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in adult tissues. Analysis of this receptor in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was also performed. FCRL6 was found to mark significantly expanded populations of cytotoxic CD8+ T, CD4+ T, and NK cells in patients with CLL. Despite sequence homology with the known Fc receptors for IgG and IgE, FCRL6 did not bind immunoglobulin. Although FCRL6 can be tyrosine-phosphorylated, its antibody-mediated ligation was unable to influence cellular activation. Collectively these results demonstrate that FCRL6 is a distinct indicator of cytotoxic effector lymphocytes that is upregulated in diseases characterized by chronic immune stimulation. PMID:18991291

  7. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protect Endothelial Cells from Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Induced Lysis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, E F; Sax, T; Hartmann, I; Haffner, S; Holler, E; Holler, B; Huss, R; Günther, C; Parolini, O; Kolch, W; Eissner, G

    2016-09-01

    The integrity of the vasculature plays an important role in the success of allogeneic organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Endothelial cells (EC) have previously been shown to be the target of activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) resulting in extensive cell lysis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells which can be isolated from multiple sites, each demonstrating immunomodulatory capabilities. They are explored herein for their potential to protect EC from CTL-targeted lysis. CD8(+) T cells isolated from human PBMC were stimulated with mitotically inactive cells of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (CDC/EU.HMEC-1, further referred to as HMEC) for 7 days. Target HMEC were cultured in the presence or absence of MSC for 24 h before exposure to activated allogeneic CTL for 4 h. EC were then analysed for cytotoxic lysis by flow cytometry. Culture of HMEC with MSC in the efferent immune phase (24 h before the assay) led to a decrease in HMEC lysis. This lysis was determined to be MHC Class I restricted linked and further analysis suggested that MSC contact is important in abrogation of lysis, as protection is reduced where MSC are separated in transwell experiments. The efficacy of multiple sources of MSC was also confirmed, and the collaborative effect of MSC and the endothelium protective drug defibrotide were determined, with defibrotide enhancing the protection provided by MSC. These results support the use of MSC as an adjuvant cellular therapeutic in transplant medicine, alone or in conjunction with EC protective agents such as defibrotide. PMID:27384426

  8. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects.

  9. Stem cell transplantation for indolent lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, John G; Hosing, Chitra; Maloney, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The indolent lymphomas, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) remain incurable with standard therapy. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT[JHA1]) is feasible and has low treatment related mortality in follicular lymphoma, but there are questions relating to optimal timing of the procedure, conditioning regimen and late effects. Myeloablative allogeneic HSCT is associated with high treatment related morbidity and mortality, few late relapses, but is applicable to only a small number of patients. The major focus of HSCT in these lymphomas has been with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic HSCT, which is applicable to the age distribution of these diseases and which exploit the graft versus lymphoma effect in these diseases. Steps to further decrease the morbidity and mortality of the RIC HSCT and in particular to reduce the incidence of chronic extensive graft versus host disease while maintaining tumor control remain the major focus. Many potential treatments are available for indolent lymphomas and CLL, and appropriate patient selection and the timing of HSCT remain controversial. The use of HSCT must always be weighed against the risk of the underlying disease, particularly in a setting where improvements in treatment are leading to improved outcome. PMID:21195313

  10. Studies on the cytotoxicity of diamond nanoparticles against human cancer cells and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Adach, Kinga; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Gajek, Gabriela; Skolimowski, Janusz; Kontek, Renata; Blaszczyk, Alina

    2016-07-25

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DND) are a widely studied group of carbon nanomaterials. They have the ability to adsorb a variety of biomolecules and drugs onto their surfaces, and additionally their surfaces may be subjected to chemical functionalization by covalent bonds. We present a procedure for the purification and surface oxidation of diamond nanoparticles, which were then tested by spectroscopic analysis such as ATR-FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. We also examined the zeta potential of the tested material. Analysis of the cytotoxic effect of nanodiamonds against normal lymphocytes derived from human peripheral blood, the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) and the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) was performed using MTT colorimetric assay. Evaluation of cell viability was performed after 1-h and 24-h treatment with the tested nanoparticles applied at concentrations ranging from 1 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. We found that the survival of the examined cells was strongly associated with the presence of serum proteins in the growth medium. The incubation of cells with nanodiamonds in the presence of serum did not exert a significant effect on cell survival, while the cell treatment in a serum-free medium resulted in a decrease in cell survival compared to the negative control. The role of purification and functionalization of nanodiamonds on their cytotoxicity was also demonstrated. PMID:27270448

  11. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  12. Cytogenetic response to coffee in Chinese hamster ovary AUXB1 cells and human peripheral lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tucker, J D; Taylor, R T; Christensen, M L; Strout, C L; Hanna, M L

    1989-09-01

    We have investigated the genotoxic effects of three different brands and three types of coffee (freshly brewed regular, instant regular and freshly brewed decaffeinated) in two mammalian systems: the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) AUXB1 cell line and human peripheral lymphocytes. Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and endoreduplicated cells (ERCs) were used as the endpoints. Coffee was prepared according to the manufacturer's suggestions, and after cooling, administered to cultured cells at dilutions ranging up to 11% that of full-strength coffee. Each brand and type of coffee induced significant levels of SCEs and ERCs in AUXB1 cells. SCEs, but not ERCs, were induced in human peripheral lymphocytes. Bisulfite, which complexes with carbonyls and reduces their genotoxicity, significantly diminished the number of SCEs and ERCs found after administration of coffee. Catalase and peroxidase, enzymes that destroy hydrogen peroxide activity, had no significant effect upon the SCE and ERC frequencies in AUXB1 cultures treated with freshly brewed regular coffee. These experiments indicate that different brands and types of coffee have sufficient genotoxic activity to increase SCEs and ERCs at levels only a fraction of those normally consumed. 1,2-Dicarbonyls alone and peroxides alone do not appear to be responsible for the majority of SCEs and ERCs that were observed to be induced by dilute coffee. PMID:2687627

  13. Modeling cancer immunotherapy: Assessing the effects of lymphocytes on cancer cell growth and motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, R. A.; Zapata, Jair; Condat, C. A.; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2013-05-01

    A mesoscopic model is used to describe the effects of lymphocyte activity on a growing tumor. The model yields novel insights into the tumor-immune system interaction. In particular, we found that the presence of a putative chemotactic messenger that helps guide the lymphocytes towards the tumor is not critical to elicit the anti-tumor effects of the immune system, while lymphocytes that block tumor cell migration contribute to limit cancer expansion and thus have a more significant therapeutic impact.

  14. Idelalisib given front-line for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia causes frequent immune-mediated hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lampson, Benjamin L; Kasar, Siddha N; Matos, Tiago R; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Rassenti, Laura; Davids, Matthew S; Fisher, David C; Freedman, Arnold S; Jacobson, Caron A; Armand, Philippe; Abramson, Jeremy S; Arnason, Jon E; Kipps, Thomas J; Fein, Joshua; Fernandes, Stacey; Hanna, John; Ritz, Jerome; Kim, Haesook T; Brown, Jennifer R

    2016-07-14

    Idelalisib is a small-molecule inhibitor of PI3Kδ with demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate idelalisib as front-line therapy, we enrolled 24 subjects in a phase 2 study consisting of 2 months of idelalisib monotherapy followed by 6 months of combination therapy with idelalisib and the anti-CD20 antibody ofatumumab. After a median follow-up period of 14.7 months, hepatotoxicity was found to be a frequent and often severe adverse event. A total of 19 subjects (79%) experienced either grade ≥1 ALT or AST elevation during the study, and 13 subjects (54%) experienced grade ≥3 transaminitis. The median time to development of transaminitis was 28 days, occurring before ofatumumab introduction. Younger age and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain status were significant risk factors for the development of hepatotoxicity. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that this hepatotoxicity was immune mediated. A lymphocytic infiltrate was seen on liver biopsy specimens taken from 2 subjects with transaminitis, and levels of the proinflammatory cytokines CCL-3 and CCL-4 were higher in subjects experiencing hepatotoxicity. All cases of transaminitis resolved either by holding the drug, initiating immunosuppressants, or both, and rates of recurrent toxicity were lower in patients taking steroids when idelalisib was reinitiated. A decrease in peripheral blood regulatory T cells was seen in patients experiencing toxicity on therapy, which is consistent with an immune-mediated mechanism. These results suggest that caution should be taken as drugs within this class are developed for CLL, particularly in younger patients who have not received prior disease-specific therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02135133. PMID:27247136

  15. Fludarabine uptake mechanisms in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Molina-Arcas, Míriam; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Casado, F Javier; Montserrat, Emili; Gil, Joan; Colomer, Dolors; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2003-03-15

    Nucleoside derivatives are currently used in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Although intracellular events involved in the pharmacologic action of these compounds have been extensively studied, the role of plasma membrane transporters in nucleoside-derived drug bioavailability and action in leukemia cells has not been comprehensively addressed. We have monitored the amounts of mRNA for the 5 nucleoside transporter isoforms cloned so far (CNT1, CNT2, CNT3, ENT1, and ENT2) in several human cell types and in normal human leukocytes. We then examined the expression patterns of these plasma membrane proteins in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and correlated them with in vitro fludarabine cytotoxicity. Despite a huge individual variability in the mRNA amounts for every transporter gene expressed in CLL cells (CNT2, CNT3, ENT1, and ENT2), no relationship between mRNA levels and in vitro fludarabine cytotoxicity was observed. Fludarabine accumulation in CLL cells was mostly, if not exclusively, mediated by ENT-type transporters whose biologic activity was clearly correlated with fludarabine cytotoxicity, which reveals a role of ENT-mediated uptake in drug responsiveness in patients with CLL. PMID:12411296

  16. Selective loss of B-cell phenotype in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, S; Mottok, A; Ying, J; Paterson, J C; Cui, Y; Facchetti, F; van Krieken, J H J M; Ponzoni, M; Ozkal, S; Masir, N; Natkunam, Y; Pileri, Sa; Hansmann, M-L; Mason, Dy; Tao, Q; Marafioti, T

    2007-12-01

    The neoplastic Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) are of B-cell origin but they almost always show striking loss of a range of B-cell-associated molecules. In contrast, the neoplastic cells found in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (LPHL) (L&H cells) are traditionally thought of as possessing the full repertoire of features associated with germinal centre B cells (eg BCL-6 expression, 'ongoing' Ig gene mutation). In the present paper, we report an extensive phenotypic analysis of L&H cells which revealed down-regulation of a number of markers associated with the B-cell lineage (eg CD19, CD37) and with the germinal centre maturation stage (eg PAG, LCK). The promoter methylation status of three of these down-regulated genes (CD10, CD19, and LCK) was further studied in microdissected L&H cells, and this revealed that their promoters were unmethylated. In contrast, these genes showed promoter methylation in cell lines derived from CHL. Further investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the deregulation of these molecules in L&H cells may provide new insights into the genetic abnormalities underlying LPHL. PMID:17935142

  17. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14+ mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14+ monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

  18. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana

    2015-02-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14(+) mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14(+) monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

  19. Vinblastine rapidly induces NOXA and acutely sensitizes primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to ABT-737

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Darcy J. P.; Danilov, Alexey V.; Lowrey, Christopher H.; Eastman, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Proteins of the BCL2 family provide a survival mechanism in many human malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The BCL2 inhibitor ABT-263 (navitoclax) is active in clinical trials for lymphoid malignancies, yet resistance is expected based on preclinical models. We recently demonstrated that vinblastine can dramatically sensitize several leukemia cell lines to ABT-737 (the experimental congener of ABT-263). The goal of these experiments was to determine the impact of vinblastine on ABT-737 sensitivity in CLL cells isolated from peripheral blood and to define the underlying mechanism. Freshly isolated CLL cells from 35 patients, as well as normal lymphocytes and platelets, were incubated with various microtubule disrupting agents plus ABT-737 to assess sensitivity to the single agents and the combination. ABT-737 and vinblastine displayed a range of sensitivity as single agents, and vinblastine markedly sensitized all CLL samples to ABT-737 within 6 h. Vinblastine potently induced the pro-apoptotic protein PMAIP1 (NOXA) in both a time- and dose-dependent manner and this was required for the observed apoptosis. Combretastatin A4, which dissociates microtubules by binding a different site, had the same effect confirming that interaction of these agents with microtubules is the initial target. Similarly, vincristine and vinorelbine induced NOXA and enhanced CLL sensitivity to ABT-737. Furthermore, vinblastine plus ABT-737 overcame stroma-mediated resistance to ABT-737 alone. Apoptosis was induced with clinically achievable concentrations, with no additional toxicity to normal lymphocytes or platelets. These results suggest that vinca alkaloids may improve the clinical efficacy of ABT-263 in patients with CLL. PMID:23723123

  20. Poor Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction Stimulatory Capacity of Leukemic B Cells of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients Despite the Presence of Ia Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Halper, James P.; Fu, Shu Man; Gottlieb, Alice B.; Winchester, Robert J.; Kunkel, Henry G.

    1979-01-01

    The human Ia-like antigens, selectively expressed on B lymphocytes, are now recognized to be closely associated with, or identical to, the gene products of the major histocompatibility complex responsible for stimulation in the mixed lymphocyte reaction. The leukemic B lymphocytes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia express these antigens very well. In the present study they were readily detected by several techniques utilizing both allo- and heteroantisera. However, the leukemic B cells from most patients were found to be extremely poor stimulating cells in the mixed lymphocyte reaction. This was particularly apparent when comparisons were made on a B-cell basis with isolated normal B lymphocytes. Leukemic cell death, abnormal kinetics of leukemic cell-mediated stimulation, and serum or cellular suppressor factors do not appear to explain these findings. Studies comparing cells from a leukemic patient with those of her HLA identical sibling and results of mixed lymphocyte reactions between normal and leukemic subjects discordant for D-region-associated Ia antigens ruled out genetic explanations for the differences observed. Experiments with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells depleted of T cells and monocytes exclude the quantitative deficiency of monocytes which is found in the peripheral blood of most leukemic patients as an explanation. The present results with chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells indicate that the mere expression of the Ia-like antigens by cell populations does not render them effective stimulators. The accumulated evidence obtained indicate that abnormalities, particularly of membrane function and metabolism, known to occur in chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes may be involved in the poor stimulatory capacity of the leukemic B cells. PMID:159311

  1. Expression of the somatostatin gene in human astrocytoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Mercure, L; Tannenbaum, G S; Schipper, H M; Phaneuf, D; Wainberg, M A

    1996-01-01

    Somatostatin (somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone; SRIH) has been demonstrated in neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in endocrine cells of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract and can suppress various immune functions including lymphocyte proliferation, immunoglobulin synthesis, and cytokine production. Since astrocytes possess antigen-presenting activity and can secrete a wide array of immunoregulatory and inflammatory cytokines, we studied SRIH gene expression in both astrocyte cell lines and mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from healthy donors. We now report by means of a complementary DNA-based reverse transcription PCR that differential levels of SRIH mRNA were expressed in 9 of 11 human astrocytoma cell lines tested but were undetectable in activated peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes as well as in a variety of human lymphocyte and monocyte cell lines. The synthesis and secretion of SRIH protein by astrocytoma cells that expressed SRIH transcripts were confirmed by specific radioimmunoassay of cell culture fluids. These findings support the notion that SRIH gene expression occurs in human astrocytoma cells but not in mature lymphoid cells of the immune system. PMID:8991628

  2. Involvement of Sialic Acid on Endothelial Cells in Organ-Specific Lymphocyte Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven D.; Singer, Mark S.; Yednock, Ted A.; Stoolman, Lloyd M.

    1985-05-01

    Mouse lymphocytes incubated on cryostat-cut sections of lymphoid organs (lymph nodes and Peyer's patches) specifically adhere to the endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV), the specialized blood vessels to which recirculating lymphocytes attach as they migrate from the blood into the parenchyma of the lymphoid organs. Treatment of sections with sialidase eliminated the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node HEV, had no effect on binding to Peyer's patch HEV, and had an intermediate effect on mesenteric lymph node HEV. These results suggest that sialic acid on endothelial cells may be an organ-specific recognition determinant for lymphocyte attachment.

  3. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  4. Reduced lymphocyte activation in space - Role of cell-substratum interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gmuender, F. K.; Kiess, M.; Lee, J.; Cogoli, A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of substratum adhesiveness on lymphocyte responsiveness was investigated by reducing and blocking cell adhesion with poly-HEMA in a simple on ground system. Cells grown on medium thick and thick poly-HEMA films were rounded in shape and displayed no signs of spreading. By contrast, on tissue culture plastic and very thin poly-HEMA films, they showed clear signs of spreading. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes grown on thick poly-HEMA films was reduced by up to 68 percent of the control (tissue culture plastic). Interferon gamma production was virtually nil when the cells were grown on the least adhesive substratum. These results show that activated lymphocytes need to anchor and spread prior to achieving an optimal proliferation response. It is concluded that decreased lymphocyte adhesion could contribute to the depressed in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness found in the microgravity conditions of space flight.

  5. Reduced lymphocyte activation in space: Role of cell-substratum interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gmuender, Felix K.; Kiess, M.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Lee, J.; Cogoli, Augusto

    1990-01-01

    The effect of substratum adhesiveness on lymphocyte responsiveness was investigated by reducing and blocking cell adhesion with poly-HEMA (poly (2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate)) in a simple on ground system. Cells grown on medium thick and thick poly-HEMA films were rounded in shape and displayed no signs of spreading. By contrast, on tissue culture plastic and very thin poly-HEMA films, they showed clear signs of spreading. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes grown on thick poly-HEMA films was reduced by up to 68 percent of the control (tissue culture plastic). Interferon gamma production was virtually nil when the cells were grown on the least adhesive substratum. These results show that activated lymphocytes need to anchor and spread prior to achieving an optimal proliferation response. It is concluded that decreased lymphocyte adhesion could contribute to the depressed in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness found in the microgravity conditions of space flight.

  6. A structural basis for antigen recognition by the T cell-like lymphocytes of sea lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Lu; Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Xu, Gang; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Tasumi, Satoshi; Kerzic, Melissa C.; Flajnik, Martin F.; Aravind, L.; Pancer, Zeev; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2010-10-28

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates is mediated by leucine-rich repeat proteins called 'variable lymphocyte receptors' (VLRs). Two types of VLR (A and B) are expressed by mutually exclusive lymphocyte populations in lamprey. VLRB lymphocytes resemble the B cells of jawed vertebrates; VLRA lymphocytes are similar to T cells. We determined the structure of a high-affinity VLRA isolated from lamprey immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) in unbound and antigen-bound forms. The VLRA-HEL complex demonstrates that certain VLRAs, like {gamma}{delta} T-cell receptors (TCRs) but unlike {alpha}{beta} TCRs, can recognize antigens directly, without a requirement for processing or antigen-presenting molecules. Thus, these VLRAs feature the nanomolar affinities of antibodies, the direct recognition of unprocessed antigens of both antibodies and {gamma}{delta} TCRs, and the exclusive expression on the lymphocyte surface that is unique to {alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta} TCRs.

  7. Memory B lymphocytes determine repertoire oligoclonality early after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    OMAZIC, B; LUNDKVIST, I; MATTSSON, J; PERMERT, J; NÄSMAN-BJÖRK, I

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if oligoclonality of the Ig repertoire post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is restricted to memory B lymphocytes or if it is a general property among B lymphocytes. As a measure of B lymphocyte repertoire diversity, we have analysed size distribution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified Ig H complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) in naive and memory B lymphocytes isolated from patients before HSCT and at 3, 6 and 12 months after HSCT as well as from healthy controls. We demonstrate a limited variation of the IgH CDR3 repertoire in the memory B lymphocyte population compared to the naive B cell population. This difference was significant at 3 and 6 months post-HSCT. Compared to healthy controls there is a significant restriction of the memory B lymphocyte repertoire at 3 months after HSCT, but not of the naive B lymphocyte repertoire. Twelve months after HSCT, the IgH CDR3 repertoire in both memory and naive B lymphocytes are as diverse as in healthy controls. Thus, our findings suggest a role for memory B cells in the restriction of the oligoclonal B cell repertoire observed early after HSCT, which may be of importance when considering reimmunization of transplanted patients. PMID:12974769

  8. Regulation of natural killer activity of lymphocytes from normal subjects and patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia by interaction between T and non-T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khonina, N.A.; Shubinskii, G.Z.; Lozovoi, V.P.

    1987-08-01

    The authors study the effect of culture of human cells on functional activity of natural killer cells and investigate the possible mechanisms of regulation of natural killer activity by acting on cytodifferentiation of lymphocytes in normal subjects and in patients with the B-cell variant of chromic lymphatic leukemia. To estimate natural killer cell function, a membranotoxic test was carried out, using cells of the transplantable line K-562, labeled with /sup 3/H-uridine as the targets.

  9. HIV-1 Infection and First Line ART Induced Differential Responses in Mitochondria from Blood Lymphocytes and Monocytes: The ANRS EP45 “Aging” Study

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Sophie; Cremer, Jonathan; Roll, Patrice; Faucher, Olivia; Ménard, Amélie; Reynes, Jacques; Dellamonica, Pierre; Naqvi, Alissa; Micallef, Joëlle; Jouve, Elisabeth; Tamalet, Catherine; Solas, Caroline; Pissier, Christel; Arnoux, Isabelle; Nicolino-Brunet, Corine; Espinosa, Léon; Lévy, Nicolas; Kaspi, Elise; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Cau, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background The ANRS EP45 “Aging” study investigates the cellular mechanisms involved in the accelerated aging of HIV-1 infected and treated patients. The data reported focus on mitochondria, organelles known to be involved in cell senescence. Methods 49 HIV-1 infected patients untreated with antiretroviral therapy, together with 49 seronegative age- and sex-matched control subjects and 81 HIV-1 infected and treated patients, were recruited by 3 AIDS centres (Marseille, Montpellier, Nice; France; http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01038999). In more than 88% of treated patients, the viral load was <40 copies/ml and the CD4+ cell count was >500/mm3. ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and ΔΨm (inner membrane potential) were measured by flow cytometry in blood lymphocytes and monocytes (functional parameters). Three mitochondrial network quantitative morphological parameters were computed using confocal microscopy and image analysis. Three PBMC mitochondrial proteins (porin and subunits 2 and 4 of cytochrome C oxidase encoded by mtDNA or nuclear DNA, respectively) were analysed by western blotting. Results Quantitative changes in PBMC mitochondrial proteins were not induced by either HIV-1 infection or ART. Discriminant analysis integrating functional (ROS production and ΔΨm) or morphological (network volume density, fragmentation and branching) parameters revealed HIV-1 infection and ART differential effects according to cell type. First line ART tended to rescue lymphocyte mitochondrial parameters altered by viral infection, but induced slight changes in monocytes. No statistical difference was found between the effects of three ART regimens on mitochondrial parameters. Correlations between functional parameters and viral load confirmed the damaging effects of HIV-1 in lymphocyte mitochondria. Conclusions In patients considered to be clinically stable, mitochondria exhibited functional and morphological modifications in PBMCs resulting from either direct or

  10. Primary B Lymphocytes Infected with Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Can Be Expanded In Vitro and Are Recognized by LANA-Specific CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Samantha M.; Sabbah, Shereen; Brulois, Kevin F.; Jung, Jae U.; Bell, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has tropism for B lymphocytes, in which it establishes latency, and can also cause lymphoproliferative disorders of these cells manifesting as primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). T cell immunity is vital for the control of KSHV infection and disease; however, few models of B lymphocyte infection exist to study immune recognition of such cells. Here, we developed a model of B lymphocyte infection with KSHV in which infected tonsillar B lymphocytes were expanded by providing mitogenic stimuli and then challenged with KSHV-specific CD4+ T cells. The infected cells expressed viral proteins found in PELs, namely, LANA and viral IRF3 (vIRF3), albeit at lower levels, with similar patterns of gene expression for the major latency, viral interleukin 6 (vIL-6), and vIRF3 transcripts. Despite low-level expression of open reading frame 50 (ORF50), transcripts for the immune evasion genes K3 and K5 were detected, with some downregulation of cell surface-expressed CD86 and ICAM. The vast majority of infected lymphocytes expressed IgM heavy chains with Igλ light chains, recapitulating the features seen in infected cells in MCD. We assessed the ability of the infected lymphocytes to be targeted by a panel of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-matched CD4+ T cells and found that LANA-specific T cells restricted to different epitopes recognized these infected cells. Given that at least some KSHV latent antigens are thought to be poor targets for CD8+ T cells, we suggest that CD4+ T cells are potentially important effectors for the in vivo control of KSHV-infected B lymphocytes. IMPORTANCE KSHV establishes a latent reservoir within B lymphocytes, but few models exist to study KSHV-infected B cells other than the transformed PEL cell lines, which have likely accrued mutations during the transformation process. We developed a model of KSHV-infected primary B lymphocytes that

  11. Recognition of Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens on Cultured Human Biliary Epithelial Cells by Alloreactive Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saidman, Susan L.; Duquesnoy, Rene J.; Zeevi, Adriana; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Demetris, A. Jake

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro system to study the interactions between biliary epithelium and lymphocytes using cultured human biliary epithelial cells. No class II antigens were detected by immunoperoxidase staining of the normal biliary epithelial cells, but alloactivated lymphocyte culture supernatants were able to induce class II expression. The activity of the supernatants was blocked with an anti-γ-interferon monoclonal antibody. In addition, recombinant human γ-interferon alone induced the expression of class II antigens and increased the intensity of class I staining of cultured biliary epithelial cells. Biliary epithelial cell–induced proliferation of alloreactive T lymphocytes demonstrated that the major histocompatibility complex molecules carry functional lymphocyte-activating determinants. The recognition of major histocompatibility complex determinants was confirmed by monoclonal antibody–blocking studies and by stimulation of an alloreactive T-cell clone. However, the biliary epithelial cells were much less potent stimulators than arterial endothelial cells tested in the same assay system. PMID:1704868

  12. Sca-1(+) mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit splenic marginal zone B lymphocytes commitment through Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaozhen; Yang, Jialei; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Fan, Hong; An, Ning; Xin, Jiajia; Li, Na; Xu, Jinmei; Yin, Wen; Wu, Zhongliang; Hu, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been characterized as an important component of hematopoietic niche, which are capable of modulating the immune system through interaction with a wide range of immune cells. Marginal zone B cells, one main type of mature B lymphocytes, play a central role in eliciting antibody response against pathogens. However, how MSCs and its subpopulations regulate marginal zone B cells commitment is unknown yet. In this study, we assessed the contribution of Sca-1(+) MSCs on marginal zone B cells commitment. Our results showed that Sca-1(+) MSCs inhibit the commitment of marginal zone B lymphocytes. The inhibition was exerted through lowered Caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, we found marginal zone B lymphocytes in spleen of Caspase-3 knockout mice decreased and Caspase-3 knockout Sca-1(+) MSCs accounted for the MZB lymphocytes decrease. In conclusion, our investigation provided clues about Sca-1(+) MSCs regulation on the commitment of marginal zone B cells through Caspase-3 gene. PMID:26861667

  13. Serotonin Uptake Is Largely Mediated by Platelets versus Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT), a primary target for many antidepressants, is expressed in the brain and also in peripheral blood cells. Although platelet SERT function is well accepted, lymphocyte SERT function has not been definitively characterized. Due to their small size, platelets often are found in peripheral blood mononuclear cell preparations aimed at isolating lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. The presence of different cells makes it difficult to assign SERT expression and function to specific cell types. Here, we use flow cytometry and IDT307, a monoamine transporter substrate that fluoresces after uptake into cells, to investigate SERT function in lymphocyte and platelet populations independently, as well as simultaneously without prior isolation. We find that murine lymphocytes exhibit temperature-dependent IDT307 transport but uptake is independent of SERT. Lack of measurable SERT function in lymphocytes was corroborated by chronoamperometry using serotonin as a substrate. When we examined rhesus and human mixed blood cell populations, we found that platelets, and not lymphocytes, were primary contributors to SERT function. Overall, these findings indicate that lymphocyte SERT function is minimal. Moreover, flow cytometry, in conjunction with the fluorescent transporter substrate IDT307, can be widely applied to investigate SERT in platelets from populations of clinical significance. PMID:23336055

  14. Capacity of different cell types to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor cells in the presence of interleukin 2.

    PubMed

    Dröge, W; Moyers, C; Wehrmaker, A; Schmidt, H; Panknin, S; Männel, D; Falk, W

    1984-06-01

    Plastic-adherent cells enriched for dendritic cells (AC) were found to be among the most potent stimulator cells for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL 2) and a constant second set of allogeneic stimulator cells. Concanavalin A-activated nylon wool-nonadherent spleen cells ( CNWT ), concanavalin A-activated unfractionated spleen cells ( Cspl ), and some variants of the ESb T lymphoma line were equally effective as stimulator cells, however, and provoked a substantial cytotoxic response at concentrations of 10(4) cells per culture or less. In contrast, nonactivated nylon wool-nonadherent spleen cells ( NWT ) or unfractionated spleen cells (Spl) and cells of the P815 mastocytoma, the Meth A fibrosarcoma, and the T cell lymphomas Ly 5178 Eb and ESb did not stimulate cytotoxic responses at these cell concentrations. The strong stimulatory potential of the Cspl preparation was reduced by treatment with anti-Thy-1 antibody plus complement, whereas the stimulatory activity of the AC preparation was resistant to this treatment. All cell types tested expressed class I major histocompatibility antigens. Nonactivated NWT cells, in contrast to the CNWT preparation, showed no detectable staining with anti-I-E or anti-I-A antibodies and also a slightly weaker staining with class I antisera. Experiments with the tumor cell lines revealed, however, that there was no strict correlation between stimulatory potential and density of class I alloantigens or the expression of I-E determinants. Experiments on primary cytotoxic responses in vivo gave similar results. Experiments in cultures with a single set of stimulator cells and I region-compatible responder cells indicated that AC and Cspl or CNWT also have a markedly stronger capacity than NWT to induce IL 2-dependent DNA synthesis. PMID:6233360

  15. Generation of Mouse iNKT Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangming; Tsuji, Moriya; Schneck, Jonathan; Webb, Tonya J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells bridge the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, and manipulating their effector functions can have therapeutic significances in the treatment of autoimmunity, transplant biology, infectious disease and cancer. This important lymphocyte subset regulates the immune system through their potent cytokine production following the recognition of lipid antigen present in the context of the MHC class I-like CD1d molecule, in addition their ability to directly mediate cytotoxicity. Here, we describe a method of expanding mouse invariant NKT (iNKT) cell lines from mononuclear cells isolated from the thymus, spleen, or liver using bone marrow derived dendritic cells. These iNKT cell lines can be used study their co-signaling requirements, cytokine profiles and cytotoxic functions which will greatly enhance our knowledge of iNKT cell biology.

  16. T-cell receptor gamma--delta lymphocytes and Eimeria vermiformis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M E; Hesketh, P; Rothwell, L; Gramzinski, R A

    1996-01-01

    The role of T-cell receptor gamma--delta T lymphocytes in coccidiosis was examined by determining the course of infection with Eimeria vermiformis in BALB/c mice depleted of gamma--delta lymphocytes by treatment with GL3 monoclonal antibody. The replication of the parasite in primary infections was not greatly, or consistently, affected by this treatment, and there was no correlation between the extent of depletion of small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and the number of oocysts produced. The resistance of immunized mice to challenge was not compromised by depletion of intraintestinal epithelial lymphocytes when their depletion was effected at the time of primary infection and/or administration of the challenge inoculum. Thus, T-cell receptor gamma--delta T lymphocytes do not appear to be crucial to the establishment, or the control, of primary infection with E. vermiformis and are not principal mediators of the solid immunity to challenge that this infection induces. PMID:8890252

  17. Controversies in the front-line management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nabhan, Chadi; Shanafelt, Tait D; Kay, Neil E

    2008-05-01

    Once considered a simple homogeneous disease, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is now recognized to be a heterogeneous lymphoid malignancy with patients classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk categories based on traditional and novel prognostic factors. Purine nucleoside analogues have been the standard first-line approach for over a decade. The recognition of synergistic activity between purine analogues, alkylating agents, and monoclonal antibodies has allowed the introduction of many new active combination therapies for treatment of this disease. The paucity of randomized studies determining the efficacy and tolerability of these new regimens, however, has made therapy selection for individual patients complex and cumbersome. At the present time, it remains unclear whether patients with aggressive disease based on molecular features should receive early or alternative treatment strategies. In this review, we summarize the data on combination chemotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy in CLL and propose several key factors that should be taken into consideration when deciding on an initial treatment strategy. The review is intended to discuss and simplify first-line therapy selection for patients with CLL in the era of new prognostic indicators and the better understanding of disease biology. PMID:18191201

  18. A modified host-cell reactivation assay to quantify DNA repair capacity in cryopreserved peripheral lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Pedro; Taron, Miquel; Moran, Teresa; Fernandez, Marco A; Requena, Gerard; Rosell, Rafael

    2011-06-10

    The host-cell reactivation assay (HCRA) is a functional assay that allows the identification of the genes responsible for DNA repair-deficient syndromes, such as Xeroderma pigmentosum, by cross-complementation experiments. It has also been used in molecular epidemiology studies to correlate the low nucleotide excision repair pathway function in peripheral blood lymphocytes with an increased risk of bladder, head and neck, skin and lung cancers. Herein, we present the technical validation of a newly modified HCRA, where nucleofection is used for the transfection of the pmaxGFP plasmid into cryopreserved peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) or lymphoblastoid cell lines. In each sample, 20-24h after transfection, the relative DNA repair capacity (DRC) was quantified by flow cytometry, comparing the transfection efficiency of nucleoporated cells with undamaged plasmid to those transfected with UV-light damaged plasmid in the seven cell lines that were characterized by different DNA repair phenotypes. Dead cells were excluded from the analysis. We observed a high reproducibility of the relative DRC, transfection efficiency and cell viability. The inter-experimental normalization of the flow cytometry resulted in an increased data accuracy and reproducibility. The amount of cells required for each transfection reaction was reduced fourfold, without affecting the final relative DRC. Furthermore, our HCRA demonstrated strong discrimination power in the UV-light dose-response, both in lymphoblastoid cell lines and cryopreserved PBLs. We also observed a strong correlation of the relative DRC data, when samples were measured against two independent batches of both damaged and undamaged plasmid DNA. The relative DRC variable shows a normal distribution when analyzed in the cryopreserved PBLs from a cohort of 35 lung cancer patients and a 5.59-fold variation in the relative DRC is identified among our patients. The mitotic dynamic was discarded as a confounding factor for the

  19. Frequency of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis in relatives of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Franco Alzate, Catalina; Rendón Henao, Javier; Torres Hernández, José Domingo; Jaramillo Arbelaez, Patricia Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is a symptom free condition characterized by the circulation of small clonal population of B lymphocytes in peripheral blood (less than 5x109/L) expressing an immunophenotype similar to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Different studies based on big hospital series have manifested a higher risk in subjects with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis to progress to a chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The behavior of this hematologic entity is unknown therefore its frequency in sporadic chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient relatives was determined. Methods: Transversal descriptive study, 8 color flow cytometry was performed using two of the tubes of the Euro Flow recommended panel, with modifications, for the diagnose of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of B lymphocytes; besides, a fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed. univariate and bivariate analyses of the information were performed. Results: Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis frequency found in 51 analyzed relatives was 2%, it was a female participant, 59 years old, with a total leukocyte count of 7.7x109/L and a B lymphocyte count of 0.124x109/L; from these, 0.04x109/L were clonal cells with restrictions of the kappa light chain. Rearrangements of the IGH gene (14q32) were found. Conclusion: Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis was detected in one relative of a patient with sporadic chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a frequency similar to the one reported in general population. PMID:27546929

  20. Interaction of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes for the therapeutic effect of Dangguiliuhuang decoction to autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Cao, Hui; Ji, Yachun; Pei, Yufeng; Yu, Zhihong; Quan, Yihong; Xiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Dangguiliuhuang decoction (DGLHD) is an effective treatment of autoimmune diabetes. Here, we studied potential anti-diabetic mechanisms of DGLHD in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. In vitro, DGLHD and individual active ingredients enhanced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells, inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation, and suppressed dendritic cells (DCs) function. In vivo, DGLHD significantly inhibited insulitis, delayed the onset and development of diabetes, promoted insulin secretion and sensitivity, and balanced partially normalized Th1 and Th2 cytokines in NOD mice. In addition, DGLHD increased α1-antitrypsin (AAT-1), Bcl-2, and CyclinD1, and decreased Bax levels in pancreas, spleen, thymus, DCs, and a NIT-1 cell line, all consistent with protecting and repairing islet β cell. More detailed studies indicated that DGLHD regulated the maturation and function of DCs, decreased the percentage of merocytic dendritic cells (mcDCs) subset, and increased programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in DCs. DGLHD also impeded T lymphocyte proliferation and promoted regulatory T cells (T(regs)) differentiation in vivo. A JAK2-STAT3-dependent pathway was involved in the suppression by DGLHD of interactions between DCs and T lymphocyte. The experiments implicated five active ingredients in specific anti-diabetic actions of DGLHD. The results demonstrated the reasonable composition of the formula. PMID:26358493

  1. Stereotyped B-cell receptors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Agathangelidis, Andreas; Vardi, Anna; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Stamatopoulos, Kostas

    2014-10-01

    Over the last decade, immunogenetic analysis of B-cell receptor immunoglobulins (BcR IGs) has proved to be a particularly fruitful field in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), not only for understanding disease pathogenesis but also for discriminating clinical subgroups with markedly distinct course and outcome. Of utmost importance was the identification of quasi-identical BcR IGs among unrelated patients with CLL, fittingly coined as "stereotypy," that set the wheels in motion for unraveling the role of antigen(s) in the selection and expansion of the leukemic clones. The categorization of CLL clones into "subsets" according to shared BcR IG structural characteristics provided a compartmentalized view of this otherwise heterogeneous disease, which eventually led to defining strikingly homogeneous groups of patients in terms of: (i) functional properties of the clonal BcR IGs, e.g. BcR reactivity and signaling; (ii) clonal genetic landscape, e.g. genomic aberrations, gene expression/methylation profiles, microRNA signatures; and (iii) clinical course and outcome. The remarkable restriction of the CLL IG gene repertoire, resulting to a great degree from the high impact of BcR IG stereotypy, may also prompt speculations regarding CLL ontogenesis. Overall, the BcR IG molecule justifiably lies at the heart of CLL clinical research, holding the promise of subset-tailored therapies. PMID:24397617

  2. The Aurora A and B kinases are up-regulated in bone marrow-derived chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and represent potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Careta, Francisco; Gobessi, Stefania; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Bojnik, Engin; Morato de Oliveira, Fabio; Mazza Matos, Daniel; Falcão, Roberto P.; Laurenti, Luca; Zago, Marco A.; Efremov, Dimitar G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The malignant B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia receive signals from the bone marrow and lymph node microenvironments which regulate their survival and proliferation. Characterization of these signals and the pathways that propagate them to the interior of the cell is important for the identification of novel potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Design and Methods We compared the gene expression profiles of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells purified from bone marrow and peripheral blood to identify genes that are induced by the bone marrow microenvironment. Two of the differentially expressed genes were further studied in cell culture experiments and in an animal model to determine whether they could represent appropriate therapeutic targets in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Results Functional classification analysis revealed that the majority of differentially expressed genes belong to gene ontology categories related to cell cycle and mitosis. Significantly up-regulated genes in bone marrow-derived tumor cells included important cell cycle regulators, such as Aurora A and B, survivin and CDK6. Down-regulation of Aurora A and B by RNA interference inhibited proliferation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia-derived cell lines and induced low levels of apoptosis. A similar effect was observed with the Aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680 in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells that were induced to proliferate by CpG-oligonucleotides and interleukin-2. Moreover, VX-680 significantly blocked leukemia growth in a mouse model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions Aurora A and B are up-regulated in proliferating chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and represent potential therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:22331265

  3. Genetically Engineered Lymphocytes, Cyclophosphamide, and Aldesleukin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma or Indolent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-04

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  4. Genetic features of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stilgenbauer, S; Lichter, P; Döhner, H

    2000-03-01

    The genetic features of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are currently being reassessed by molecular cytogenetic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Conventional cytogenetic studies by chromosome banding are difficult in CLL mainly because of the low in vitro mitotic activity of the tumor cells, which leads to poor quantity and quality of metaphase spreads. Molecular genetic analyses are limited because candidate genes are known for only a few chromosomal aberrations that are observed in CLL. FISH was found to be a powerful tool for the genetic analysis of CLL as it overcomes both the low mitotic activity of the CLL cells and the lack of suitable candidate genes for analysis. Using FISH, the detection of chromosomal aberrations can be performed at the single cell level in both dividing and non-dividing cells, thus circumventing the need of metaphase preparations from tumor cells. Probes for the detection of trisomies, deletions and translocation breakpoints can be applied to the regions of interest with the growing number of clones available from genome-wide libraries. Using the interphase cytogenetic FISH approach with a disease specific set of probes, chromosome aberrations can be found in more than 80% of CLL cases. The most frequently observed abnormalities are losses of chromosomal material, with deletions in band 13q14 being the most common, followed by deletions in 11q22-q23, deletions in 17p13 and deletions in 6q21. The most common gains of chromosomal material are trisomies 12q, 8q and 3q. Translocation breakpoints, in particular involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus at 14q32, which are frequently observed in other types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, are rare events in CLL. Genes affected by common chromosome aberrations in CLL appear to be p53 in cases with 17p deletion and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is mutated in a subset of cases with 11q22-q23 aberrations. However, for the other frequently

  5. Migration inhibition of peritoneal cells and PHA lymphocyte toxicity in rats during methylcholanthrene carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kalafut, F; Babusíková, O; Klobussická, M; Koníková, E

    1975-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells obtained from rats bearing primary methylcholanthrene-induced tumors were shown to be inhibited in their capillary tube migration capacity as compared to cells from nontreated control litter-mates. The survival of rat peripheral blood lymphocytes harvested from the same individuals were tested simultaneously in short-term cultures with a standard concentration of Phytohemagglutinin. Lymphocytes from tumor-bearing rats survived better than control lymphocytes in 24-hour cultures with Phytohemagglutinin. A correlation was found from a comparison of the results of these two methods. These findings are discussed with regard to the possibility of T cells depletion from peripheral lymphocyte population, together with the enrichment of this population with B cells in tumor-bearing individuals. PMID:1081658

  6. G1/S Cell Cycle Checkpoint Defect in Lymphocytes from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Misun; Kwon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yujin; Kim, Hyeran; Yun, Ji Hea; Kim, Seonwoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective We compared the cell responsiveness of activated lymphocytes to rapamycin, which blocks the G1/S transition, between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls to assess the early phase control defect in cell cycle. Methods Blood samples of 26 patients with AD and 28 normal controls were collected to separate peripheral lymphocytes. We measured the proportion of each cell cycle phase in activated lymphocytes using flow cytometry and evaluated the responsiveness of these lymphocytes to rapamycin. Results The patients with AD were older than the normal controls (AD 74.03±7.90 yr vs. control 68.28±6.21 yr, p=0.004). The proportion of G1 phase cells in the AD group was significantly lower than that in the control group (70.29±6.32% vs. 76.03±9.05%, p=0.01), and the proportion of S phase cells in the AD group was higher than that in control group (12.45±6.09% vs. 6.03±5.11%, p=0.001). Activated lymphocytes in patients with AD were not arrested in the G1 phase and they progressed to the late phase of the cell cycle despite rapamycin treatment, in contrast to those of normal subjects. Conclusion The patients with AD probably have a control defect of early phase cell cycle in peripheral lymphocytes that may be associated with the underlying pathology of neuronal death. PMID:23251208

  7. The SKW 6.4 line of human B lymphocytes specifically binds and responds to vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P P; Sreedharan, S P; Kishiyama, J L; Goetzl, E J

    1993-05-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP1-28) is a neuromediator recognized by high-affinity receptors on human lymphocytes, which inhibits T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, and suppresses immunoglobulin production by mitogen-stimulated mixed mononuclear leucocytes. The direct interactions of VIP1-28 with B cells were studied in the SKW 6.4 line of EBV-transformed human B cells, that express a mean (+/- SD) of 6116 +/- 969 receptors for [125I]VIP1-28 with a mean Kd of 59 nM, that decreases to 12 nM after exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The secretion of IgM by SKW 6.4 B cells stimulated optimally with 100 ng/ml of PMA, but not unstimulated secretion of IgM, was suppressed significantly by 10(-12) M to 10(-9) M VIP1-28 and up to a mean maximum (+/- SD) of 40 +/- 2% by 10(-10) M VIP1-28. VIP1-28 elicited concomitant increases in intracellular cyclic AMP up to a mean maximum of 163% at 10(-10) M VIP1-28. The requirement for specific signal transduction by the occupied VIP receptors to inhibit IgM secretion was demonstrated by the lack of effect of VIP4-28 on both cyclic AMP concentration and IgM secretion, despite the equal affinity of binding of VIP4-28 and VIP1-28. The effects of VIP on immunoglobulin secretion by stimulated mixed mononuclear leucocytes thus may be due in part to a direct action on B cells. PMID:8509142

  8. The SKW 6.4 line of human B lymphocytes specifically binds and responds to vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, P P; Sreedharan, S P; Kishiyama, J L; Goetzl, E J

    1993-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP1-28) is a neuromediator recognized by high-affinity receptors on human lymphocytes, which inhibits T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, and suppresses immunoglobulin production by mitogen-stimulated mixed mononuclear leucocytes. The direct interactions of VIP1-28 with B cells were studied in the SKW 6.4 line of EBV-transformed human B cells, that express a mean (+/- SD) of 6116 +/- 969 receptors for [125I]VIP1-28 with a mean Kd of 59 nM, that decreases to 12 nM after exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The secretion of IgM by SKW 6.4 B cells stimulated optimally with 100 ng/ml of PMA, but not unstimulated secretion of IgM, was suppressed significantly by 10(-12) M to 10(-9) M VIP1-28 and up to a mean maximum (+/- SD) of 40 +/- 2% by 10(-10) M VIP1-28. VIP1-28 elicited concomitant increases in intracellular cyclic AMP up to a mean maximum of 163% at 10(-10) M VIP1-28. The requirement for specific signal transduction by the occupied VIP receptors to inhibit IgM secretion was demonstrated by the lack of effect of VIP4-28 on both cyclic AMP concentration and IgM secretion, despite the equal affinity of binding of VIP4-28 and VIP1-28. The effects of VIP on immunoglobulin secretion by stimulated mixed mononuclear leucocytes thus may be due in part to a direct action on B cells. PMID:8509142

  9. Polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with binucleated lymphocytes (PPBL).

    PubMed

    Troussard, Xavier; Cornet, Edouard; Lesesve, Jean-François; Kourel, Carine; Mossafa, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (PPBL) is a rare and recently described entity. The review of the literature show PPBL is diagnosed predominantly but not exclusively in women, usually smokers. PPBL is recognized by a moderate, chronic and absolute lymphocytosis (>4 × 10(9)/l) in the peripheral blood. In 10% of cases without lymphocytosis, the PPBL diagnosis has to be suggested by peripheral blood examination showing in all cases atypical binucleated lymphocytes. A polyclonal serum IgM is also associated and HLA-DR7 expression is present in most cases. Contrary to B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPD), peripheral B cells are polyclonal with kappa and lambda light-chain expression and no clonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes is usually demonstrated. The detection of an extra isochromosome for the long arm of chromosome 3 +i(3)(q10) has to be considered as a specific marker of PPBL. We performed conventional cytogenetic analysis (CCA) in 111 patients with typical PPBL we followed-up more than 4 years. +i(3q) was detected in 34% (33/98), PCC in 8% (8/98) and both abnormalities in 31% (30/98). CCA showed neither +i(3q) nor PCC in 28% (27/98). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was also performed in 84 cases and +i(3q) was detected in 71% (60/84). When combining both procedures in 84 patients, +i(3q) was detected in 17 patients with negative CCA and was confirmed in 43 patients with positive CCA. CCA and FISH were both negative in 24 cases. Whether patients with PPBL are at increased risk of hematological malignancy remains unclear. After a median follow-up of 4.4 years, most PPBL patients presented a stable clinical and biological course. Six patients died from pulmonary cancer, myocardial infarction, cerebral aneurysm rupture or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Two patients had IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) at the time of PPBL diagnosis and two other patients developed IgM MGUS

  10. Laboratory Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  11. Acetaminophen induces a caspase-dependent and Bcl-XL sensitive apoptosis in human hepatoma cells and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Boulares, A Hamid; Zoltoski, Anna J; Stoica, Bogdan A; Cuvillier, Olivier; Smulson, Mark E

    2002-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug that exhibits toxicity at high doses to the liver and kidneys. This toxicity has been attributed to cytochrome P-450-generated metabolites which covalently modify target proteins. Recently, acetaminophen, in its unmetabolized form, has been shown to affect a variety of cells and tissues, for instance, testicular and lymphoid tissues and lymphocyte cell lines. The effects on cell viability of acetaminophen at a concentration comparable to that achieved in plasma during acetaminophen toxicity have now been examined with a hepatoma cell line SK-Hep1, primary human peripheral blood lymphocytes and human Jurkat T cells. Acetaminophen reduced cell viability in a time-dependent manner. Staining of cells with annexin-V also revealed that acetaminophen induced, after 8 hr of treatment, a loss of the asymmetry of membrane phospholipids, which is an early event associated with apoptosis. Acetaminophen triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, activation of caspase-3, 8, and 9, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and degradation of lamin B1 and DNA. Whereas cleavage of DNA into internucleosomal fragments was apparent in acetaminophen treated SK-Hep1 and primary lymphocytes, DNA was only degraded to 50-kb fragments in treated Jurkat cells. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL prevented these various apoptotic events induced by acetaminophen in Jurkat cells. Caspase-8 activation was a postmictochondrial event and occurred in a Fas-independent manner. These results demonstrate that acetaminophen induces caspases-dependent apoptosis with mitochondria as a primary target. These results also reiterate the potential role of apoptosis in acetaminophen hepatic and extrahepatic toxicity. PMID:12005112

  12. Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Lymphocyte/Monocyte Ratio, and Absolute Lymphocyte Count/Absolute Monocyte Count Prognostic Score in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ching-Liang; Lu, Chieh-Sheng; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chen, Yu-Guang; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), and absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score (ALC/AMC PS) have been described as the most useful prognostic tools for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We retrospectively analyzed 148 Taiwanese patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma under rituximab (R)-CHOP-like regimens from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Tri-Service General Hospital and investigated the utility of these inexpensive tools in our patients. In a univariate analysis, the NLR, LMR, and ALC/AMC PS had significant prognostic value in our DLBCL patients (NLR: 5-year progression-free survival [PFS], P = 0.001; 5-year overall survival [OS], P = 0.007. LMR: PFS, P = 0.003; OS, P = 0.05. ALC/AMC PS: PFS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001). In a separate multivariate analysis, the ALC/AMC PS appeared to interact less with the other clinical factors but retained statistical significance in the survival analysis (PFS, P = 0.023; OS, P = 0.017). The akaike information criterion (AIC) analysis produced scores of 388.773 in the NLR, 387.625 in the LMR, and 372.574 in the ALC/AMC PS. The results suggested that the ALC/AMC PS appears to be more reliable than the NLR and LMR and may provide additional prognostic information when used in conjunction with the International Prognostic Index.

  13. Causes of upregulation of glycolysis in lymphocytes upon stimulation. A comparison with other cell types.

    PubMed

    Stark, Heiko; Fichtner, Maximilian; König, Rainer; Lorkowski, Stefan; Schuster, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In this review, we revisit the metabolic shift from respiration to glycolysis in lymphocytes upon activation, which is known as the Warburg effect in tumour cells. We compare the situation in lymphocytes with those in several other cell types, such as muscle cells, Kupffer cells, microglia cells, astrocytes, stem cells, tumour cells and various unicellular organisms (e.g. yeasts). We critically discuss and compare several explanations put forward in the literature for the observation that proliferating cells adopt this apparently less efficient pathway: hypoxia, poisoning of competitors by end products, higher ATP production rate, higher precursor supply, regulatory effects, and avoiding harmful effects (e.g. by reactive oxygen species). We conclude that in the case of lymphocytes, increased ATP production rate and precursor supply are the main advantages of upregulating glycolysis. PMID:26382968

  14. Reduced lymphocyte activation in space: role of cell-substratum interactions.

    PubMed

    Gmünder, F K; Kiess, M; Sonnenfeld, G; Lee, J; Cogoli, A

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substratum adhesiveness on stimulated lymphocyte blastogenesis by reducing and blocking cell adhesion with poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly-HEMA) in a simple on-ground system. Cells grown on medium-thick and thick poly-HEMA films were rounded in shape and displayed no signs of spreading. By contrast, on tissue culture plastic and very thin poly-HEMA films, they showed clear signs of spreading. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes grown on thick poly-HEMA films was reduced by up to 68% of the control (tissue culture plastic). Interferon-gamma production was near zero when the cells were grown on the least adhesive substratum. On uncoated plastic, activated lymphocytes subjected to high gravity (20g) exhibited an increased proliferation rate (40%) compared with 1g. By contrast, on poly-HEMA, high gravity did not improve lymphocyte responsiveness. These results show that activated lymphocytes need to anchor and spread prior to achieving an optimal proliferation response. We conclude that decreased lymphocyte adhesion could contribute to the depressed in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness found in the microgravity conditions of space flight. PMID:11536989

  15. Cell surface antigens and function of monocytes and a monocyte-like cell line before and after infection with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mann, D L; Gartner, S; LeSane, F; Blattner, W A; Popovic, M

    1990-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) preferentially infects cells that express the CD4 molecule, including monocytes and cells of the monocyte lineage. The monocyte-like cell line U937 and monocytes isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were infected with HIV-1. Cell surface antigen expression was determined in infected and noninfected cells as was the ability to stimulate in mixed lymphocyte reaction. The CD4 antigen decreased in infected cells U937 and PBL monocytes. MHC class II antigens HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP increased in HIV-1 infected U937 cells. In infected PBL-derived monocytes, HLA-DR increased, HLA-DQ decreased, and HLA-DP was unchanged. Infected U937 and PBL monocytes were capable of stimulating allogeneic lymphocytes, thus demonstrating retention of the alloantigen presentation function of HIV-1-infected monocytes. PMID:1967231

  16. Nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity and lymphocyte-depleted variants of Hodgkin's disease are probable dendritic cell malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, I C; Hart, D N; Colls, B M; Nimmo, J C; Willis, D A; Angus, H B

    1989-01-01

    The normal counterpart of the Reed-Sternberg cell and its mononuclear variant, collectively referred to as Hodgkin's cells (HC), remains controversial. The possibility that HC are malignant dendritic cells was tested by using a panel of 38 monoclonal antibodies to phenotype the cells from 16 cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD), excluding lymphocyte-predominant HD, and the Hodgkin's cell line L428. The results were then compared with the known phenotype of human dendritic cells. HC stained strongly for HLA Class I and Class II antigens. The leucocyte common antigen was weakly expressed in most cases. Expression of T and B cell markers was unusual, with the exception of the CD40 antigen which was found on a majority of HC. HC commonly expressed the CD11a, CR4 (CD11c), CD15, CD18 and a number of activation antigens but did not stain with a variety of macrophage-specific antibodies. The antigenic phenotype of L428 and the HC of case material were similar. This immunocytological analysis failed to support a lymphocyte or macrophage origin for HC. Instead the antigenic phenotype of the Reed-Sternberg cell and its mononuclear variant more closely resembles that of dendritic cells than of any other haemopoietic cell normally resident in lymph nodes. PMID:2787713

  17. Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Benitez-Trinidad, A B; Herrera-Moreno, J F; Vázquez-Estrada, G; Verdín-Betancourt, F A; Sordo, M; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Medina-Díaz, I M; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Salazar, A M; Rojas-García, A E

    2015-06-01

    Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 μM) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect. PMID:25746384

  18. Identification of a novel feline large granular lymphoma cell line (S87) as non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic T-cell line and assessment of its genetic instability.

    PubMed

    Rydzewski, Lena; Scheffold, Svenja; Hecht, Werner; Burkhardt, Eberhard; Kerner, Katharina; Klymiuk, Michele C; Deinzer, Renate; Reinacher, Manfred; Henrich, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Feline large granular lymphocyte lymphomas are rare but very aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis. In this study, a cell line from an abdominal effusion of a cat with large granular lymphoma was characterized. Immunophenotype staining was positive for CD3 and CD45R, and negative for CD4, CD8, CD56, CD79α, BLA.36 and NK1. A TCR γ gene rearrangement was detectable by PARR. Neither FeLV antigen nor exogenous FeLV provirus could be detected. A chromosomal instability associated with a centrosome hyperamplification could also be determined. The cell line is able to lyse target cells without antigen presentation or interaction with antigen presenting cells. Therefore, these cells were classified as genetically instable non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic T cells with large granular lymphocyte morphology. PMID:27436441

  19. Human T lymphocyte migration towards the supernatants of human rhinovirus infected airway epithelial cells: influence of exercise and carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Nicolette C; Walker, Gary J; Gleeson, Michael; Wallace, Fiona A; Hewitt, Colin R A

    2009-01-01

    Physical stress induces a marked redistribution of T lymphocytes that may be influenced by carbohydrate (CHO) availability, yet the effect of these on T lymphocyte migration towards infected tissue is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of strenuous exercise and CHO ingestion on subsequent ex vivo lymphocyte migration towards the supernatants of a Human Rhinovirus (HRV)-infected bronchial epithelial cell line. In a randomised, cross-over, double-blind design, 7 trained males ran for 2 h at 60% VO2peak on two occasions with regular ingestion of either a 6.4% w/v glucose and maltodextrin solution (CHO trial) or placebo solution (PLA trial). Plasma glucose concentration was higher on CHO than PLA after exercise (P<0.05). Migration of CD4+ and CD8+ cells and their CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ subpopulations towards supernatants from HRV-infected cells decreased following exercise (main effect for exercise, P<0.01 for CD4+, CD4+CD45RA+ and CD4+CD45RO+; P<0.05 for CD8+, CD8+CD45RA+ and CD8+CD45RO+). Migration of CD4+ cells and CD4+CD45RA+ cells was approximately 35% and approximately 30% higher, respectively, on CHO than PLA at 1 h post-exercise (interaction, P<0.05 for both) and was higher on CHO than PLA for all other subpopulations (P<0.05, main effect for trial). There was little effect of exercise or CHO on migration of these cells towards uninfected (control) cell supernatants or on the proportion of these cells within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell population. The findings of this study suggest that physical stress reduces T cell migration towards HRV-infected cell supernatants and that ingestion of CHO can lessen this effect. PMID:19957874

  20. Thiol antioxidants in combination with vitamin B12 induce apoptotic death of human lymphocytic leukemia cells by destabilization of lysosomes with the involvement of iron ions.

    PubMed

    Solovyeva, M E; Faskhutdinova, A A; Solovyev, V V; Akatov, V S

    2013-02-01

    The extensively used thiol antioxidants (dithiothreitol, glutathione, and N-acetylcysteine) in combination with hydroxycobalamine (vitamin B12) gain toxic activity in relation to human lymphocytic leukemia cell line HL60. Combined treatment with thiol and vitamin B12 was followed by early destabilization of lysosomes and apoptotic death of cells. The cytotoxic effect was abolished by caspase inhibitors. An iron-chelating agent deferoxamine partly prevented cell death, while lysosomal protease inhibitor pepstatin produced no protective effect. PMID:23486578

  1. Comparative susceptibility of peripheral blood leucocytes and related cell lines to killing by T-cell perforin.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J; Morgan, B P

    1994-01-01

    The comparative susceptibility of lymphocyte subsets, monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) to killing by murine perforin was measured using physical separation techniques, cell-surface phenotyping and scatter characteristics to isolate cell types, together with propidium iodide (PI) uptake as a measure of cell death. In the majority of individuals, PMN were more resistant to perforin than other peripheral blood cells including natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ lymphocytes. Among the lymphocytes, CD4+ cells were the most susceptible subset, followed by CD19+, CD8+ and CD56+ lymphocytes respectively. The human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line, HL-60, and the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line, U937, were readily killed by perforin. When HL-60 were differentiated to either macrophage- or neutrophil-like end cells, and U937 differentiated to macrophage-like end cells, there was no difference between differentiated and undifferentiated cells in their relative susceptibility to perforin. The relative resistance of PMN to perforin may be important in protecting them from damage in in vivo situations where both NK cells and neutrophils are localized in the same inflammatory areas. PMID:7835917

  2. Isolation and functional characterization of chicken intestinal intra-epithelial lymphocytes showing natural killer cell activity against tumour target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chai, J Y; Lillehoj, H S

    1988-01-01

    Intestinal intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) of SC or FP chickens were isolated and examined for their natural killer (NK)-cell activity against chicken tumour cell lines, LSCC-RP9 (RP9), LSCC-RP12 (RP12), MDCC-MSB-1 (MSB-1) and MDCC-CU36 (CU36). In general, IEL of satisfactory yield and of good viability were obtained with EDTA treatment of the gut tissues, followed by rapid passages of the resultant cells through nylon-wool columns and centrifugation on two-step Percoll density gradients (45% and 80%). In 4-hr and 16-hr 51Cr-release assays, the NK-cell activity of chicken IEL depended not only upon the type of target cells but also upon the incubation time and the host genetic background. RP9, MSB-1 and CU36 were susceptible to NK lysis by IEL and by spleen cells, while RP12 was resistant to lysis even after a prolonged incubation. In kinetic studies the cytotoxicity was detactable from 2 hr after incubation and progressively increased up to 16 or 18 hr. The IEL of SC chickens revealed significantly higher levels of NK-cell activity against RP9 than FP-strain chickens, whereas their splenic NK-cell activity was not significantly different. Against MSB-1 targets, however, IEL of SC and FP chickens showed similar levels of NK-cell activity while their spleens did not (being higher in FP). When tested in FP chickens, IEL NK-cell activity was inhibited by the addition of unlabelled homologous target cells. In general, NK-cell activity was higher in the jejunum and ileum than in the duodenum and caecum. Efforts to enrich IEL NK-effector cells by discontinuous Percoll gradients were not successful. The results of the present study show that IEL of chicken intestine contain effector cells that can mediate NK-cell activity against chicken tumour cells. PMID:3338816

  3. Myo1g is an active player in maintaining cell stiffness in B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, O; Ovalle-García, E; Ortega-Blake, I; Antillón, A; Chávez-Munguía, B; Patiño-López, G; Fragoso-Soriano, R; Santos-Argumedo, L

    2016-05-01

    B-lymphocytes are migrating cells that specialize in antigen presentation, antibody secretion, and endocytosis; these processes implicate the modulation of plasma membrane elasticity. Cell stiffness is a force generated by the interaction between the actin-cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane, which requires the participation of several proteins. These proteins include class I myosins, which are now considered to play a role in controlling membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. In this study, we identified the motor protein Myosin 1g (Myo1g) as a mediator of this phenomenon. The absence of Myo1g decreased the cell stiffness, affecting cell adhesion, cell spreading, phagocytosis, and endocytosis in B-lymphocytes. The results described here reveal a novel molecular mechanism by which Myo1g mediates and regulates cell stiffness in B-lymphocytes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27106882

  4. Lymphocytes in non-immune inflammation: a specific subclass of lymphoid cells?

    PubMed Central

    Leme, J. G.; Verissimo de Mello, S. B.; Falcao, R. P.; Rocha, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Rats were subjected to various experimental procedures which affected lymphocyte numbers, in an attempt to investigate the participation of individual subpopulations of these cells in the development of acute, non-immune inflammation. Deficient T function, as evidenced in neonatally thymectomized animals, or in 6-week-old animals thymectomized and afterwards exposed to multiple total-body X-ray irradiations, did not interfere with the development of the acute inflammatory responses of the animals to carrageenin. In the former circumstance, the numbers of circulating B lymphocytes, identified by the presence of surface immunoglobulins, were increased. In thymectomized and irradiated rats, the B-lymphocyte subpopulation was reduced. Circumstances causing attenuated inflammatory reactions to carrageenin resulted, first, from lymphocyte depletion by chronic drainage from the thoracic duct and, second, from irradiation of the animals with a single large dose of X-ray, the animals being tested 24 h after irradiation. B lymphocytes in blood remained within the normal range after chronic lymphatic drainage, but a large dose of X-ray markedly reduced their number. In both cases the attenuation of the responses to carrageenin did not seem to be associated with nonspecific hyporeactivity, or with the effect of the treatments on the other blood cells, It is suggested that the development of acute, non-immune inflammation is influenced by lymphoid cells which might constitute a specific subclass of cells, distinct from fully differentiated T and B lymphocytes. PMID:7236499

  5. Adoptive transfer of resistance to acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection with T-lymphocyte-enriched spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, S G

    1980-01-01

    Inbred C57BL/10 mice immunized with live culture forms of Trypanosoma cruzi were resistant to acute infection after challenge with bloodstream forms. Splenic leukocytes or serum from immunized mice were transferred to syngeneic recipients 2 days before of 2 days after challenge. Protection was not observed in recipients of serum, although the serum contained high levels of agglutinating antibody. Unfractionated splenic leukocytes from immunized donors conferred partial protection, and preparations enriched for T lymphocytes were significantly more effective than preparations enriched for B lymphocytes. Recipients of T-lymphocyte-enriched spleen cells had significantly higher survival times and significantly lower parasitemias than did recipients of B-lymphocyte-enriched spleen cells. PMID:6772557

  6. The Association of LINE-1 Hypomethylation with Age and Centromere Positive Micronuclei in Human Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Hee; Woo, Hae Dong; Jang, Yoonhee; Porter, Virginia; Christensen, Sonja; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Chung, Hai Won

    2015-01-01

    Global hypomethylation in white blood cell (WBC) DNA has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for determining cancer risk through genomic instability. However, the amplitude of the changes associated with age and the impacts of environmental factors on DNA methylation are unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of genomic hypomethylation with age, cigarette use, drinking status and the presence of centromere positive micronuclei (MNC+)—a biomarker for age-dependent genomic instability. Genomic hypomethylation of the repetitive element LINE-1 was measured in WBC DNA from 32 healthy male volunteers using the pyrosequencing assay. We also measured MNC+ with the micronucleus-centromere assay using a pan-centromeric probe. Possibly due to the small sample size and resulting low statistical power, smoking and drinking status had no significant effect on LINE-1 hypomethylation or the occurrence of MNC+. Consequently, we did not include them in further analyses. In contrast, LINE-1 hypomethylation and age significantly predicted MNC+; therefore, we examined whether LINE-1 hypomethylation plays a role in MNC+ formation by age, since genomic hypomethylation is associated with genomic instability. However, LINE-1 hypomethylation did not significantly mediate the effect of age on MNC+. Our data indicate that the repetitive element LINE-1 is demethylated with age and increasing MNC+ frequency, but additional studies are needed to fully understand the relation between genomic DNA hypomethylation, age and genomic instability. PMID:26196382

  7. Cytoplasmic and surface membrane phenotypic markers in cells of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Koníková, E; Babusíková, O; Mesárosová, A; Kusenda, J; Glasová, M

    1994-01-01

    Peripheral blood cells of twenty-six patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) were characterized for their surface membrane and cytoplasmic marker profiles using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. According to surface membrane marker analysis three distinct immunophenotypic subgroups of B-CLL were identified: group I (SIg+, MR+, CD5+, B Ag+, T Ag-; 19 cases), group II (SIg+, MR+, CD5+, B Ag+, TAg+; 3 cases), group III (SIg-, MR+, CD5+, B Ag+, T Ag-; 4 cases). Cells from all patients were positive for the CD19 antigen and at least one of other B cell antigens. Cells from all patients expressed also CD5 and HLA-DR antigens and formed mouse rosettes (MR). Great heterogeneity was found in the membrane and cytoplasmic marking by anti-CD22 MoAb. In four of 23 patients tested, CD22 antigen was expressed in the cytoplasm of CLL cells while it was absent on surface membrane of these cells. This finding was discussed from the point of certain cell heterogeneity in the followed B-CLL cases. Cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (CyIg) detection showed to be very important especially in group III of followed B-CLL cases with undetectable surface immunoglobulins (SIg). Cytoplasmic antigens and immunoglobulin determinations are useful in phenotyping every B-CLL patient, as well as in the immunological study of different maturation stages of B lymphocytes. PMID:8208317

  8. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate activated CD56+ γδ T lymphocytes display potent anti-tumor activity towards human squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Alan A.Z.; Maniar, Amudhan; Cummings, Jean-Saville; Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Schulze, Dan H.; Gastman, Brian R.; Pauza, C. David; Strome, Scott E.; Chapoval, Andrei I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The expression of CD56, a natural killer (NK) cell-associated molecule, on αβ T lymphocytes correlates with their increased anti-tumor effector function. CD56 is also expressed on a subset of γδ T cells. However, anti-tumor effector functions of CD56+ γδ T cells are poorly characterized. Experimental design To investigate the potential effector role of CD56+ γδ T cells in tumor killing, we employed isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and IL-2 expanded γδ T cells from PBMC of healthy donors. Results Thirty to 70% of IPP+IL-2 expanded γδ T cells express CD56 on their surface. Interestingly, while both CD56+ and CD56− γδ T cells express comparable levels of receptors involved in the regulation of γδ T cell cytotoxicity (e.g. NKG2D and CD94) only CD56+ γδ T lymphocytes are capable of killing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and other solid tumor cell lines. This effect is likely mediated by the enhanced release of cytolytic granules, since CD56+ γδ T lymphocytes expressed higher levels of CD107a compared to CD56− controls, following exposure to tumor cell lines. Lysis of tumor cell lines is blocked by concanomycin A and a combination of anti-γδTCR + anti-NKG2D mAb, suggesting that the lytic activity of CD56+ γδ T cells involves the perforin-granzyme pathway and is mainly γδTCR/NKGD2 dependent. Importantly, CD56 expressing γδ T lymphocytes are resistant to Fas ligand and chemically induced apoptosis. Conclusions Our data indicate that CD56+ γδ T cells are potent anti-tumor effectors capable of killing SCC and may play an important therapeutic role in patients with head and neck cancer and other malignancies. PMID:18594005

  9. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of boron compounds on leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Canturk, Zerrin; Tunali, Yağmur; Korkmaz, Seval; Gulbaş, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of boric acid and sodium tetraborate on an acute leukemia cell line and healthy human lymphocytes. We evaluated the effects of boric acid and sodium tetraborate on the HL-60 cell line and healthy human lymphocytes by using the methods of MTT, Neutral Red, AO (flow cytometry) and transmission electron microscope. We found that there were dead cells at a concentration of 500 µM boric acid and sodium tetraborate (50 % and 40 %, respectively). An apoptotic effect was found at a concentration of 1,000 µM concentration in normal lymphocytes and HL-60 (acute leukemia cells) cells (2.5 % and 8.8 % respectively). We observed that boric acid at a concentration of 500 µM caused double nucleus and micronucleus formation in both HL-60 cells and lymphocytes. An expansion in mitochondrial dimension and deformation in cristas also appeared. Our findings suggest that boric acid is more effective than sodium tetraborate on the HL-60, and boric acid in particular showed a cytotoxic effect on HL-60 in comparison to healthy lymphocytes and it also affected the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:25159521

  10. Spinal fluid lymphocytes responsive to autologous and allogeneic cells in multiple sclerosis and control individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, G; Kotilinek, L; Schwartz, M; Sternad, M

    1984-01-01

    Spinal fluid lymphocytes from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls were stimulated with either autologous non-T cells or with allogeneic non-T cells followed by stimulation with autologous non-T lymphocytes. Cells responding to these stimuli were cloned and their proliferative responses to autologous and allogeneic MS and normal non-T cells were measured. Large numbers of clones with specific patterns of reaction to both autologous and allogeneic cells were obtained from lymphocytes in MS cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but only occasionally from cells in control CSF. Patterns of responses among clones from a particular CSF were similar and often identical, which suggested that cells in MS CSF were relatively restricted in their specificities. Surface antigen phenotyping of the clones showed them to be predominantly OKT4+, with 13% OKT8+ and 11% OKT4+8+. Peripheral T cells that were stimulated and cultured in parallel with CSF cells were different in that they usually did not give rise to as many clones nor were their patterns of response similar. Many CSF clones were heteroclitic, that is they responded to particular allogeneic cells but not autologous cells. Lymphocytes in MS CSF thus appear to represent a selected population of cells with a high frequency of responsiveness to autologous and allogeneic antigens. Such responses may be evidence for immune regulation within the central nervous system or could represent responses to altered-self antigens. PMID:6237121

  11. Natural killer T cells: innate lymphocytes positioned as a bridge between acute and chronic inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Lisa; Hegde, Subramanya

    2010-01-01

    Natural killer T cells are an innate population of T lymphocytes that recognize antigens derived from host lipids and glycolipids. In this review, we focus on how these unique T cells are positioned to influence both acute and chronic inflammatory processes through their early recruitment to sites of inflammation, interactions with myeloid antigen presenting cells, and recognition of lipids associated with inflammation. PMID:20850561

  12. A critical appraisal of ibrutinib in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, David L; Rule, Simon A

    2015-01-01

    Although chemo-immunotherapy remains at the forefront of first-line treatment for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), small molecules, such as ibrutinib, are beginning to play a significant role, particularly in patients with multiply relapsed or chemotherapy-refractory disease and where toxicity is an overriding concern. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class, oral inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, which functions by irreversible inhibition of the downstream signaling pathway of the B-cell receptor, which normally promotes cell survival and proliferation. Early clinical trials have demonstrated excellent tolerability and a modest side-effect profile even in elderly and multiply pretreated patient cohorts. Although the majority of disease responses tend to be partial, efficacy data have also been encouraging with more than two-thirds of patients with CLL and MCL demonstrating a durable response, even in the high-risk disease setting. Resistance mechanisms are only partially understood and appear to be multifactorial, including the binding site mutation C481S, and escape through other common cell-signaling pathways. This article appraises the currently available data on safety and efficacy from clinical trials of ibrutinib in the management of MCL and CLL, both as a single agent and in combination with other therapies, and considers how this drug is likely to be used in future clinical practice. PMID:26150724

  13. Targeting Stereotyped B Cell Receptors from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients with Synthetic Antigen Surrogates.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Mohosin; Liu, Yun; Qi, Junpeng; Peng, Haiyong; Morimoto, Jumpei; Rader, Christoph; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Kodadek, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease in which a single B-cell clone proliferates relentlessly in peripheral lymphoid organs, bone marrow, and blood. DNA sequencing experiments have shown that about 30% of CLL patients have stereotyped antigen-specific B-cell receptors (BCRs) with a high level of sequence homology in the variable domains of the heavy and light chains. These include many of the most aggressive cases that haveIGHV-unmutated BCRs whose sequences have not diverged significantly from the germ line. This suggests a personalized therapy strategy in which a toxin or immune effector function is delivered selectively to the pathogenic B-cells but not to healthy B-cells. To execute this strategy, serum-stable, drug-like compounds able to target the antigen-binding sites of most or all patients in a stereotyped subset are required. We demonstrate here the feasibility of this approach with the discovery of selective, high affinity ligands for CLL BCRs of the aggressive, stereotyped subset 7P that cross-react with the BCRs of several CLL patients in subset 7p, but not with BCRs from patients outside this subset. PMID:26851280

  14. Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Rainey, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The human adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids are produced from unique cell types located within the three distinct zones of the adrenal cortex. Disruption of adrenal steroid production results in a variety of diseases that can lead to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and androgen excess. The adrenal cortex is also a common site for the development of adenomas, and rarely the site for the development of carcinomas. The adenomas can lead to diseases associated with adrenal steroid excess, while the carcinomas are particularly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In vitro cell culture models provide an important tool to examine molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling both the normal and pathologic function of the adrenal cortex. Herein we discuss the human adrenocortical cell lines and their use as model systems for adrenal studies. PMID:21924324

  15. Cell size variations of large granular lymphocyte leukemia: Implication of a small cell subtype of granular lymphocyte leukemia with STAT3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Nodoka; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Takezawa, Yuka; Ito, Toshiro; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ichikawa, Naoaki; Nishina, Sayaka; Senoo, Noriko; Sakai, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-06-01

    Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGL-L) has been morphologically defined as a group of lymphoproliferative disorders, including T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGL-L), chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK) and aggressive NK cell leukemia. We investigated the morphological features of LGL leukemic cells in 26 LGL-L patients in order to elucidate relationships with current classifications and molecular backgrounds. LGL-L cells were mostly indistinguishable from normal LGL. Patients with STAT3 SH2 domain mutations showed significantly smaller cells compared with patients without STAT3 mutations. Four patients with T-LGL-L showed smaller granular lymphocytes with a median diameter of less than 13μm, which were rarely seen in normal subjects. This small subtype of T-LGL-L was recognized among rather young patients and was associated with D661Y mutations in the STAT3 gene SH2 domain. In addition, all of them showed anemia including two cases with pure red cell aplasia. These results suggest the heterogeneity of T-LGL-L and a specific subtype with small variants of T-LGL-L. PMID:27064362

  16. 'Fluorescent Cell Chip' for immunotoxicity testing: Development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Trzaska, Dominika; Zembek, Patrycja; Olszewski, Maciej; Adamczewska, Violetta; Ulleras, Erik; Dastych, JarosIaw . E-mail: jdastych@cbm.pan.pl

    2005-09-01

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals.

  17. In vitro generated anti-tumor T lymphocytes exhibit distinct subsets mimicking in vivo antigen experienced cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shicheng; Gattinoni, Luca; Liu, Fang; Ji, Yun; Yu, Zhiya; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Morgan, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The T lymphocyte pool can be sub-divided into naïve (Tn), effector memory (Tem), and central memory (Tcm) T cells. In this study, we characterized in vitro short-term cultured anti-tumor human T lymphocytes generated by lentiviral transduction with an anti-tumor antigen TCR vector. Within two weeks of in vitro culture, the cultured T cells showed a Tcm-like phenotype illustrated by a high percentage of CD62L and CD45RO cells. When the cells were sorted into populations that were CD45RO+/CD62L− (Tem), CD45RO+/CD62L+ (Tcm) or CD45ROlow/CD62L+ (Tn) and co-cultured with antigen-matched tumor lines, the magnitude of cytokine release from these populations for IFNγ (TnTcm>Tem) mimicked the types of immune cell responses observed in vivo. In comparing cell-mediated effector function, Tn were found to be deficient (relative to Tcm and Tem) in the ability to form conjugates with tumor cells and subsequent lytic activity. Moreover, analysis of the gene expression profiles of the in vitro cultured and sorted T cell populations also demonstrated patterns consistent with their in vivo counterparts. When Tcm and Tem were tested for the ability to survive in vivo, Tcm displayed significantly increased engraftment and persistence in NOD/SCID/γc−/− mice. In general, a large percentage of in vitro generated anti-tumor T lymphocytes mimic a Tcm-like phenotype (based on phenotype, effector function, and increased persistence in vivo), which suggests that these Tcm-like cultured T cells may be optimal for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:21305379

  18. Generation of chronic myelogenous leukemia-specific T cells in cytokine-modified autologous mixed lymphocyte/tumor cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Müller, L; Provenzani, C; Pawelec, G

    2001-01-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) may be amenable to cell-based adoptive immunotherapy, as suggested by the graft-versus-leukemia effect of bone marrow transplantation and the therapeutic benefit of donor leukocyte infusions. Specific adoptive immunotherapy without bone marrow transplantation might be more effective and less cost-intensive. Professional antigen-presenting cells, the dendritic cells, from patients with CML are derived from the malignant clone and may stimulate antileukemia T-cell responses. Autologous T cells may also be able to recognize tumor antigens on CML cells directly. Here, the authors show that CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to autologous CML cells can be generated in vitro rapidly and effectively by performing modified autologous mixed lymphocyte/tumor cell cultures (MLTC) in serum-free medium in the presence of cytokines known to support dendritic cell differentiation. MLTC-sensitized T cells secreted large amounts of the type 1 cytokine interferon-gamma, as well as interleukin (IL)-2. However, they also secreted a variety of other cytokines, including the type 2-subtype cytokine IL-13 but not the classic type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. Monoclonal populations of CML-specific CD4 cells could be derived from these lines in limited numbers but showed markedly enhanced reactivity. This suggests that CML-specific T cells are relatively rare in these autologous MTLC-derived sensitized populations, but that their isolation and propagation would yield much more potent antitumor effector cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy without the need for bone marrow transplantation. PMID:11759071

  19. M cells and granular mononuclear cells in Peyer's patch domes of mice depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ermak, T. H.; Steger, H. J.; Strober, S.; Owen, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of Peyer's patches that were depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was examined with particular attention to the effects on M cells in the follicle epithelium and on mononuclear cells in follicle domes underlying the epithelium. Five-month-old, specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice were irradiated with 200-250 rad/day, five times a week to a total dose of 3400-4250, and their Peyer's patches were either fixed for electron microscopy or frozen for immunohistochemistry 1-4 days after completion of irradiation. Control mice were examined at the same time intervals. Follicle domes of TLI mice had approximately one fourth the epithelial surface area of domes of control mice. Within the epithelium, lymphoid cells were virtually depleted after TLI, and yet the epithelium contained M cells. In control mice, most M cells were accompanied by lymphoid cells in invaginations of the apical-lateral cell membrane. In TLI mice, most M cells did not have such apical-lateral invaginations and were columnar shaped. Other than lacking lymphocytes, these cells appeared to be mature M cells. Some M cells did have lymphoid cells or granular mononuclear cells below their basal membranes, adjacent to the basal lamina. Below the epithelium, the proportion of granular mononuclear cells was greatly increased following TLI. The retention of M cells and the increase in proportion of granular mononuclear cells in follicle domes are consistent with selective depletion of lymphocytes following TLI. Persistence of M cells without lymphocytic invaginations after TLI suggests that M cells can differentiate in the absence of, or at least in the presence of very few, lymphocytes, and that invagination by lymphocytes is not necessary to maintain mature M cell morphology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2923183

  20. Ibrutinib or Idelalisib in Treating Patients With Persistent or Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma After Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-08

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  1. BST-1, a surface molecule of bone marrow stromal cell lines that facilitates pre-B-cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Kaisho, T; Ishikawa, J; Oritani, K; Inazawa, J; Tomizawa, H; Muraoka, O; Ochi, T; Hirano, T

    1994-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells are essential for B-lymphocyte development. However, how stromal cells regulate B lymphopoiesis is not clear. In this paper, we report the molecular cloning of a stromal cell line-derived glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule, BST-1, that facilitates pre-B-cell growth. The deduced amino acid sequence of BST-1 exhibited 33% identity with CD38. BST-1 was expressed in a wide range of tissues and in umbilical vein endothelial cells, whereas it was scarcely expressed in a variety of hematopoietic cell lines. The gene for BST-1 was assigned to chromosome 14q32.3, where immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes are clustered. BST-1 expression was enhanced in rheumatoid arthritis patient-derived bone marrow stromal cell lines that were previously shown to have an enhanced ability to support the growth of a pre-B-cell line as compared with stromal cell lines derived from healthy donors. Images PMID:8202488

  2. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  3. Cytogenetic analyses of Azadirachtin reveal absence of genotoxicity but marked antiproliferative effects in human lymphocytes and CHO cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mosesso, Pasquale; Bohm, Lothar; Pepe, Gaetano; Fiore, Mario; Carpinelli, Alice; Gäde, Gerd; Nagini, Siddavaram; Ottavianelli, Alessandro; Degrassi, Francesca

    2012-09-18

    In this work we have examined the genotoxic potential of the bioinsecticide Azadirachtin A (AZA) and its influence on cell proliferation on human lymphocytes and Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cells. AZA genotoxicity was assessed by the analysis of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the absence and presence of rat liver S9 metabolism. Primary DNA damage was also investigated by means of the comet assay. The results obtained clearly indicate that AZA is not genotoxic in mammalian cells. On the other hand, AZA proved to interfere with cell cycle progression as shown by modulation of frequencies of first (M1) and second division (M2) metaphases detected by 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling. Accumulation of M1 metaphases were more pronounced in human lymphocytes. In the transformed CHO cell line, however, significant increases of multinucleated interphases and polyploid cells were observed at long treatment time. At higher dose-levels, the incidence of polyploidy was close to 100%. Identification of spindle structure and number of centrosomes by fluorescent immunostaining with α- and γ-tubulin antibodies revealed aberrant mitoses exhibiting multipolar spindles with several centrosomal signals. These findings suggest that AZA can act either through a stabilizing activity of microtubules or by inhibition of Aurora A, since both mechanisms are able to generate genetically unstable polyploid cells with multipolar spindles and multinucleated interphases. PMID:22885097

  4. Distribution of CD4 Lymphocyte Cells Among Apparently Healthy HIV Seropositive and Seronegative Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, Abdulazeez A

    2012-01-01

    Background: CD4 lymphocyte cells are often used as prognostic markers for monitoring the progression of immunosupression such as HIV infection. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the distribution of CD4 lymphocytes among apparently healthy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative and seropositive populations in a Nigerian state. Materials and Methods: A total of 1520 apparently healthy subjects aged 18–64 years, composed of 800 males and 720 females attending some selected health institutions in the state, participated in the study. Ten milliliters of blood was collected from each subject; 5 ml of this was used for HIV antibodies sero-typing while the remaining 5 ml was anticoagulated and used for CD4 lymphocytes level determination. Only samples tested positive both with Capillus and Determine HIV test kits were further differentiated into sero-types with a standard diagnostic HIV test kit. The CD4 lymphocyte levels of all the sample were determined; mean CD4 levels of 205.1±0.09 and 287.4±0.3 cells/μl were recorded among females seropositives and seronagatives respectively. Statistical analysis by the Student t-test showed a significant difference in the mean CD4 lymphocyte count by gender. Results: Findings showed a mean CD4 level of 311.7±1.2 cells/μl among seropositive males while 399.3±0.6 cells/μl was recorded among seronegatives (t=5.86). The study also recorded a CD4 lymphocyte range of 232–464 cells/μl among apparently healthy seronegative population in this locality. Conclusion: The findings showed a significantly higher mean CD4 lymphocyte count among adult male HIV seronegatives (χ2=9.22) and seropositives (χ2=15.07) than their female counterparts. Further research work using the automation technique is suggested to confirm this new range for monitoring HIV subjects on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22454823

  5. Impairment of lymphocyte adhesion to cultured fibroblasts and endothelial cells by [gamma]-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Piela-Smith, T.H.; Aneiro, L.; Nuveen, E.; Korn, J.H. ); Aune, T. )

    1992-01-01

    A critical component of immune responsiveness is the localization of effector cells at sites of inflammatory lesions. Adhesive molecules that may play a role in this process have been described on the surfaces of both lymphocytes and connective tissue cells. Adhesive interactions of T lymphocytes with fibroblasts or endothelial cells can be inhibited by preincubation of the fibroblasts or endothelial cells with antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) or by preincubation of the T cells with antibody to lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 (CD11a/CD18), molecules shown to be important in several other cell-cell adhesion interactions. Here the authors show that [gamma]-irradiation of human T lymphocytes impaired their ability to adhere to both fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This impairment was not associated with a loss of cell viability or of cell surface lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 expression. [gamma]-Irradiation of T cells is known to result in the activation of ADP-ribosyltransferase, an enzyme involved in DNA strand-break repair, causing subsequent depletion of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pools by increasing NAD consumption for poly(ADP-ribose) formation. Preincubation of T cells with either nicotinamide or 3-aminobenzamide, both known inhibitors of ADP-ribosyltransferase, completely reversed the suppressive effects of [gamma]-irradiation on T cell adhesion. The maintenance of adhesion was accompanied by inhibition of irradiation-induced depletion of cellular NAD. These experiments suggest that the impairment of cellular immune function after irradiation in vivo may be caused, in part, by defective T cell emigration and localization at inflammatory sites. 44 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Systemic mastocytosis in association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and plasma cell myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shouying; Rashidi, Hooman H; Le, Dzung T; Kipps, Thomas J; Broome, H Elizabeth; Wang, Huan-You

    2010-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal haematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) is a heterogeous group of mast cell disorders with different clinical, pathologic and underlying molecular characteristics. While myelomonocytic/myeloid neoplasia overwhelmingly predominates the AHNMD component, lymphoproliferative disorders rarely occur as an AHNMD component of SM-AHNMD. Here we report two cases of SM-AHNMD, in which the AHNMD component is chronic lymphocytic leukemia in one case, and concurrent chronic lymphocytic leukemia as well as plasma cell myeloma in another case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SM-AHNMD with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and plasma cell dyscrasia simultaneously. PMID:20490336

  7. An experimental system for determining the influence of microgravity on B lymphocyte activation and cell fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, D. W.; Humphreys, R. C.; Emmons, S. P.; Zimmermann, U.; Gessner, P.; Klinman, N. R.; Neil, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of microgravity on lymphocyte activation is central to the understanding of immunological function in space. Moreover, the adaptation of ground-based technologies to microgravity conditions presents opportunities for biotechnological applications including high efficiency production of antibody forming hybridomas. Because the emerging technology of microgravity hybridoma generation is dependent upon activation and cultivation of B lymphocytes during flight, mitogen-driven B lymphocyte stimulation and culture were adapted that allow for the in vitro generation of large numbers of antibody forming cells suitable for cell fusion over a period of 1-2 weeks. It is believed that this activation and cultivation system can be flown on near-term space flights to test fundamental hypotheses about mammalian cell activation, cell fusion, metabolism, secretion, growth, and bioseparation.

  8. The Spectrum of Kidney Pathology in B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: A 25-Year Multicenter Experience

    PubMed Central

    Poitou-Verkinder, Anne-Laure; Francois, Arnaud; Drieux, Fanny; Lepretre, Stéphane; Legallicier, Bruno; Moulin, Bruno; Godin, Michel; Guerrot, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma are 2 different presentations of the most common B-cell neoplasm in western countries (CLL/SLL). In this disease, kidney involvement is usually silent, and is rarely reported in the literature. This study provides a clinicopathological analysis of all-cause kidney disease in CLL/SLL patients. Methods Fifteen CLL/SLL patients with kidney biopsy were identified retrospectively. Demographic, clinical, pathological and laboratory data were assessed at biopsy, and during follow-up. Results At biopsy 11 patients presented impaired renal function, 7 patients nephrotic syndrome, 6 patients dysproteinemia, and 3 patients cryoglobulinemia. Kidney pathology revealed CLL/SLL-specific monoclonal infiltrate in 10 biopsies, glomerulopathy in 9 biopsies (5 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 2 minimal change disease, 1 glomerulonephritis with organized microtubular monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits, 1 AHL amyloidosis). Five patients presented interstitial granulomas attributed to CLL/SLL. After treatment of the hematological disease, improvement of renal function was observed in 7/11 patients, and remission of nephrotic syndrome in 5/7 patients. During follow-up, aggravation of the kidney disease systematically occurred in the absence of favorable response to hematological treatment. Conclusions A broad spectrum of kidney diseases is associated with CLL/SLL. In this setting, kidney biopsy can provide important information for diagnosis and therapeutic guidance. PMID:25811382

  9. Mycoplasma-dependent activation of normal lymphocytes: induction of a lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity for allogeneic and syngeneic mouse target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, K E; Cole, B C; Ward, J R

    1977-01-01

    Mycoplasma arthritidis, M. hominis, and M. arginini were tested for their ability to induce a cytotoxic response from normal CBA mouse lymphocytes against 51Cr-labeled allogeneic target cells. In most cases, the mycoplasmas alone were not toxic for the target cells. Furthermore, the mycoplasmas did not result in decreased lymphocyte viability but, in fact, contributed to enhanced lymphocyte survival. In the absence of normal CBA lymphocytes, mycoplasmas alone did not induce a significant amount of cell damage in either the allogeneic or the syngeneic target cells. Strains of M. arthritidis and M. hominis, when added to the lymphocyte-target cell mixtures, induced statistically significant increases in 51Cr release from both target cell types at each assay period after 6 h. The release of 51Cr was taken as a measure of cell death. M. arginini induced only low levels of cytotoxicity or none at all. Both arthritogenic and non-arthritogenic strains of M. arthritidis induced the cytotoxic response. The degree of cytotoxicity produced was directly related to the size of the initial inoculum. The presence or absence of serum in the culture medium did not contribute significantly to the cytotoxicity response. PMID:562853

  10. Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

    1980-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

  11. Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia using CIGB-300, a clinical-stage CK2-specific cell-permeable peptide inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Martins, Leila R; Perera, Yasser; Lúcio, Paulo; Silva, Maria G; Perea, Silvio E; Barata, João T

    2014-01-15

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable malignancy, urging for the identification of new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. CLL cells rely on overexpression and hyperactivation of the ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 for their viability in vitro. CIGB-300 is a cell-permeable selective CK2 inhibitor peptide undergoing clinical trials for several cancers. Here, we show that CIGB-300 promotes activation of the tumor suppressor PTEN and abrogates PI3K-mediated downstream signaling in CLL cells. In accordance, CIGB-300 decreases the viability and proliferation of CLL cell lines, promotes apoptosis of primary leukemia cells and displays antitumor efficacy in a xenograft mouse model of human CLL. Our studies provide pre-clinical support for the testing and possible inclusion of CK2 inhibitors in the clinical arsenal against CLL. PMID:24473900

  12. Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia using CIGB-300, a clinical-stage CK2-specifc cell-permeable peptide inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Leila R.; Perera, Yasser; Lúcio, Paulo; Silva, Maria G.; Perea, Silvio E.; Barata, João T.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable malignancy, urging for the identifcation of new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. CLL cells rely on overexpression and hyperactivation of the ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 for their viability in vitro. CIGB-300 is a cell-permeable selective CK2 inhibitor peptide undergoing clinical trials for several cancers. Here, we show that CIGB-300 promotes activation of the tumor suppressor PTEN and abrogates PI3K-mediated downstream signaling in CLL cells. In accordance, CIGB-300 decreases the viability and proliferation of CLL cell lines, promotes apoptosis of primary leukemia cells and displays antitumor efcacy in a xenograft mouse model of human CLL. Our studies provide pre-clinical support for the testing and possible inclusion of CK2 inhibitors in the clinical arsenal against CLL. PMID:24473900

  13. DNA repair and mutagen sensitivity of epithelial cells and lymphocytes in oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    REITER, MAXIMILIAN; BAUMEISTER, PHILIPP; JAISER, SONJA; REISS, ANDREAS; SCHWENK-ZIEGER, SABINA; KLEINSASSER, NORBERT; HARRÉUS, ULRICH

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco-associated nitrosamines are known carcinogens causing DNA damage in epithelial cells of the head and neck. A matched case-control study was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of patients with squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the oropharynx, and controls to tobacco-associated nitrosamines. Quantitative DNA repair was evaluated following a period of 15 and 30 min. Fresh biopsies from 100 male donors of macroscopically healthy oropharyngeal cells and lymphocytes (50 SCC patients and 50 controls) were incubated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) or N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). DNA damage in epithelial cells and lymphocytes was assessed using the comet assay. Following incubation with NDEA, cells underwent a period of DNA repair. All of the nitrosamines caused equivalent genotoxic damage in mucosal cells and lymphocytes of the two groups. Lymphocyte DNA repair capacity in the control group (26.8 and 37.1% after 15 and 30 min) was comparable to the tumor group (23.6 and 40.6%). However, epithelial cell DNA repair capacity of carcinoma patients was significantly reduced to 17.1% (15 min) and 23% (30 min) compared to the DNA repair of the control group (36.2%, 15 min and 46.0%, 30 min). Mutagen sensitivity was comparable in patients and controls. Thus, reduced epithelial cell DNA repair capacity of tumor patients is a possible endogenous risk factor for the development of head and neck squamous cell cancer. PMID:22740863

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell--lymphocyte interactions in normal nonsmokers and smokers. Analysis with a novel system.

    PubMed

    deShazo, R D; Banks, D E; Diem, J E; Nordberg, J A; Baser, Y; Bevier, D; Salvaggio, J E

    1983-05-01

    We investigated the ability of smoker and nonsmoker pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AM) to facilitate lymphocyte proliferative responses in a novel system allowing separation of lymphocyte and AM effects. Bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BLC) were obtained from 7 nonsmokers and 5 older smokers and cultured with purified peripheral blood lymphocytes (PL) and the mitogen phytohemagglutinin. Increasing amounts of BLC were added such that BLC/PL ratios were 1:100, 1:10, 1:2, 1:1 of either autologous or homologous PL. Lymphocyte proliferation was dose-related, increasing with 1:100 and 1:10 BLC/PL ratios, and decreasing to or below initial responses with 1:2 or 1:1 ratios. Depletion of T-lymphocytes from BLC demonstrated that these effects were mediated by AM. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) dose-response curves of nonsmokers obtained using autologous or homologous PL were not different. When BLC from smokers were cultured with autologous PL, lymphocyte proliferative responses were less than those of similar cultures from nonsmokers. However, when similar smoker BLC were cultured with homologous PL from nonsmokers, proliferative responses were not different from those of nonsmokers. Peak proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not different from maximal proliferative responses of PL-BLC cultures at any PHA dose. These data show that human AM provide dose-related help and suppression of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation similar to that reported with peripheral blood macrophages. Smoker AM facilitated mitogen-driven proliferation of homologous PL in a normal fashion, demonstrating the utility of this culture system in distinguishing lymphocyte effects present in autologous cultures. PMID:6601923

  15. [Characterization of lymphocytic infiltrate cells in bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Schaller, J; Niedecken, H W; Biwer, E; Stefan, J A; Kreysel, H W; Haustein, U F

    1990-01-01

    By means of monoclonal antibodies (mab) and alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline-phosphatase (APAAP) technique, the distribution and characteristics of lymphocytic infiltrates were studied in biopsies from 15 patients with bullous pemphigoid (b.P.) and 5 patients with pemphigus vulgaris (P.v.). The biopsies were obtained from freshly developed blisters along with perilesional tissue. The lymphocytic infiltrates in b.P. as well as in P.v. were located in the area of the fresh lesions and consisted almost exclusively of T cells (CD3 positive lymphocytes). In b.P., the discrepancy between a decreased number of CD2 positive lymphocytes (10-20%) and markedly higher number of CD3 staining cells (50-60% of all infiltrate cells) was striking. The characterization of the T cell subpopulations in both dermatoses showed mainly T helper cell infiltrates (CD4), while only up to 10% of T suppressor cells (CD8) were detected. CD45R positive (CD4+/CD45R+: suppression inducing) as well as CD29-positive (CD4+CD29+: cells which provide help for antibody production) T-cell subpopulations were detected in both dermatoses particularly adjacent to blister in up to 10% of the cell infiltrates. Epidermal staining with CD29 mab in b.P. up to the stratum spinosum and in P.v. within intraepidermal blisters was detected. By means of CD19 and CD21 mab B lymphocytes were minimal. Perivascular individual cell staining occurred with CD7 CD16, CD56 and CD57 mab (K/NK cells) in b.P. as well as in P.v. patients. The predominance in T cell infiltrates, particularly T helper cells, suggests the role of cellular immune mechanism in the pathogenesis of these diseases, in b.P. the CD2 antigen (SE receptor) appears to be of particular importance. PMID:2083606

  16. Type 1 Diabetes Therapy Beyond T Cell Targeting: Monocytes, B Cells, and Innate Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wong, F. Susan; Wen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Recent clinical trials, investigating type 1 diabetes (T1D), have focused mainly on newly diagnosed individuals who have developed diabetes. We need to continue our efforts to understand disease processes and to rationally design interventions that will be safe and specific for disease, but at the same time not induce undesirable immunosuppression. T cells are clearly involved in the pathogenesis of T1D, and have been a major focus for both antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific therapy, but thus far no single strategy has emerged as superior. As T1D is a multifactorial disease, in which multiple cell types are involved, some of these pathogenic and regulatory cell pathways may be important to consider. In this review, we examine evidence for whether monocytes, B cells, and innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, may be suitable targets for intervention. PMID:23804267

  17. Improving therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    PubMed

    Fraietta, Joseph A; Schwab, Robert D; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive cell immunotherapy for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has heralded a new era of synthetic biology. The infusion of genetically engineered, autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed against CD19 expressed by normal and malignant B cells represents a novel approach to cancer therapy. The results of recent clinical trials of CAR T cells in relapsed and refractory CLL have demonstrated long-term disease-free remissions, underscoring the power of harnessing and redirecting the immune system against cancer. This review will briefly summarize T-cell therapies in development for CLL disease. We discuss the role of T-cell function and phenotype, T-cell culture optimization, CAR design, and approaches to potentiate the survival and anti-tumor effects of infused lymphocytes. Future efforts will focus on improving the efficacy of CAR T cells for the treatment of CLL and incorporating adoptive cell immunotherapy into standard medical management of CLL. PMID:27040708

  18. Nicotine-mediated signals modulate cell death and survival of T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Oloris, Silvia C.S.; Frazer-Abel, Ashley A.; Jubala, Cristan M.; Fosmire, Susan P.; Helm, Karen M.; Robinson, Sally R.; Korpela, Derek M.; Duckett, Megan M.; Baksh, Shairaz; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2010-02-01

    The capacity of nicotine to affect the behavior of non-neuronal cells through neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has been the subject of considerable recent attention. Previously, we showed that exposure to nicotine activates the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor in lymphocytes and endothelial cells, leading to alterations in cellular growth and vascular endothelial growth factor production. Here, we extend these studies to document effects of nicotine on lymphocyte survival. The data show that nicotine induces paradoxical effects that might alternatively enforce survival or trigger apoptosis, suggesting that depending on timing and context, nicotine might act both as a survival factor or as an inducer of apoptosis in normal or transformed lymphocytes, and possibly other non-neuronal cells. In addition, our results show that, while having overlapping functions, low and high affinity nAChRs also transmit signals that promote distinct outcomes in lymphocytes. The sum of our data suggests that selective modulation of nAChRs might be useful to regulate lymphocyte activation and survival in health and disease.

  19. Diphtheria toxin resistance in human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts in the in vivo somatic cell mutation test

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, D.J.; Wei, L.; Laurie, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used for the enumeration of 6-thioguanine-resistant cells that presumably arise by mutation in vivo. This somatic cell mutation test has been studied in lymphocytes from human populations exposed to known mutagens and/or carcinogens. The sensitivity of the test could be further enhanced by including other gene markers, since there is evidence for locus-specific differences in response to mutagens. Resistance to diphtheria toxin (Dip/sup r/) seemed like a potential marker to incorporate into the test because the mutation acts codominantly, can readily be selected in human diploid fibroblasts and Chinese hamster cells with no evidence for cell density or cross-feeding effects, and can be assayed for in nondividing cells by measuring protein synthesis inhibition. Blood samples were collected from seven individuals, and fresh, cryopreserved, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphocytes were tested for continued DNA synthesis (TH-thymidine, autoradiography) or protein synthesis (TVS-methionine, scintillation counting). Both fresh and cryopreserved lymphocytes, stimulated to divide with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), continued to synthesize DNA in the presence of high doses of diphtheria toxin (DT). Similarly, both dividing (PHA-stimulated) and nondividing fresh lymphocytes carried on significant levels of protein synthesis even 68 hr after exposure to 100 flocculating units (LF)/ml DT. The results suggest that human T and B lymphocytes may not be as sensitive to DT protein synthesis inhibition as human fibroblast and Chinese hamster cells. For this reason, Dip/sup r/ may not be a suitable marker for the somatic cell mutation test.

  20. Overexpression of Cell Cycle Proteins of Peripheral Lymphocytes in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeran; Kwon, Young-Ah; Ahn, Inn Sook; Kim, Sangha; Kim, Seonwoo; Jo, Sangmee Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Biological markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) will help clinicians make objective diagnoses early during the course of dementia. Previous studies have suggested that cell cycle dysregulation begins earlier than the onset of clinical manifestations in AD. Methods We examined the lymphocyte expression of cell cycle proteins in AD patients, dementia controls (DC), and normal controls (NC). One-hundred seventeen subjects (36 AD, 31 DC, and 50 NC) were recruited. The cell cycle proteins CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B, and cyclin D were measured in peripheral lymphocytes. Cell cycle protein expression in the three groups was compared after adjusting for age and sex. Results The levels of cell cycle proteins CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B, and cyclin D were significantly higher in AD patients than in the NC subjects. The DC group manifested intermediate levels of cell cycle proteins compared with the AD patients and the NC subjects. The present study indicates that cell cycle proteins are upregulated in the peripheral lymphocytes of AD patients. Conclusion Cell cycle dysregulation in peripheral lymphocytes may present a promising starting point for identifying peripheral biomarkers of AD. PMID:26766955

  1. Expression profile of Eph receptors and ephrin ligands in healthy human B lymphocytes and chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cells.

    PubMed

    Alonso-C, Luis M; Trinidad, Eva M A; de Garcillan, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Monica; Castellanos, Milagros; Cotillo, Ignacio; Muñoz, Juan J; Zapata, Agustin G

    2009-03-01

    Increasing information relates some Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins (EFN), with the immune system. Herein, we found that normal B-cells from peripheral blood (PB) and lymph nodes (LN) showed a differential expression of certain Eph/EFN members, some of them being modulated upon in vitro stimulation including EFNA1, EFNA4, EphB6 and EphA10. In contrast, PB CLL B-cells showed a more heterogeneous Eph/EFN profile than their normal PB B-cell counterparts, expressing Eph/EFN members frequently found within the LN and activated B-cells, specially EFNA4, EphB6 and EphA10. Two of them, EphB6 and EFNA4 were further related with the clinical course of CLL patients. EphB6 expression correlated with a high content of ZAP-70 mRNA and a poor prognosis. High serum levels of a soluble EFNA4 isoform positively correlated with increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and lymphadenopathy. These findings suggest that Eph/EFN might be relevant in normal B-cell biology and could represent new potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for CLL. PMID:18819711

  2. Oncolytic Activity of a Recombinant Measles Virus, Blind to Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule, Against Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amagai, Yosuke; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Yoneda, Misako; Shoji, Koichiro; Furukawa, Yoichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a distinctive antitumor therapy based on the cancer-cell-specific infectivity and killing activity of viruses, which exert a considerable antitumor effect with only a few treatments. Because colorectal cancer cells often acquire resistance to the molecular-targeted therapies and alternative treatments are called for, in this study, we evaluated the oncolytic activity against colorectal cancer cells of a recombinant measles virus (rMV-SLAMblind), which is blind to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) and infects target cells via nectin-4/poliovirus receptor-related 4 protein. We examined 10 cell lines including 8 cell lines that were resistant to epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR) targeted therapy. rMV-SLAMblind infected and lysed the nectin-4-positive cell lines dependently on nectin-4 expression, in spite of mutation in EGFR cascade. Tumour progression in xenograft models was also abrogated by the virus, and the infection of cancer cells in vivo by the virus was demonstrated with both flow cytometry and a histological analysis. Therefore, rMV-SLAMblind is considered a novel therapeutic agent for colorectal cancers, including those resistant to molecular-targeted therapies. PMID:27090874

  3. Oncolytic Activity of a Recombinant Measles Virus, Blind to Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule, Against Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Yosuke; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Yoneda, Misako; Shoji, Koichiro; Furukawa, Yoichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a distinctive antitumor therapy based on the cancer-cell-specific infectivity and killing activity of viruses, which exert a considerable antitumor effect with only a few treatments. Because colorectal cancer cells often acquire resistance to the molecular-targeted therapies and alternative treatments are called for, in this study, we evaluated the oncolytic activity against colorectal cancer cells of a recombinant measles virus (rMV-SLAMblind), which is blind to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) and infects target cells via nectin-4/poliovirus receptor-related 4 protein. We examined 10 cell lines including 8 cell lines that were resistant to epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR) targeted therapy. rMV-SLAMblind infected and lysed the nectin-4-positive cell lines dependently on nectin-4 expression, in spite of mutation in EGFR cascade. Tumour progression in xenograft models was also abrogated by the virus, and the infection of cancer cells in vivo by the virus was demonstrated with both flow cytometry and a histological analysis. Therefore, rMV-SLAMblind is considered a novel therapeutic agent for colorectal cancers, including those resistant to molecular-targeted therapies. PMID:27090874

  4. Stromal cells differentially regulate neutrophil and lymphocyte recruitment through the endothelium

    PubMed Central

    McGettrick, Helen M; Buckley, Christopher D; Filer, Andrew; Ed Rainger, G; Nash, Gerard B

    2010-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts modify the initial recruitment of leucocytes by endothelial cells (EC), but their effects on subsequent transendothelial migration remain unclear. Here, EC and dermal or synovial fibroblasts were cultured on opposite surfaces of 3-μm pore filters and incorporated in static or flow-based migration assays. Fibroblasts had little effect on tumour necrosis factor-α-induced transendothelial migration of neutrophils, but tended to increase the efficiency of migration away from the endothelium. Surprisingly, similar close contact between EC and fibroblasts strongly reduced lymphocyte migration in static assays, and nearly abolished stable lymphocyte adhesion from flow. Fibroblasts did not alter endothelial surface expression of adhesion molecules or messenger RNA for chemokines. Inhibition of attachment did not occur when EC-fibroblast contact was restricted by using 0·4-μm pore filters, but under these conditions pre-treatment with heparinase partially inhibited adhesion. In the 3-μm pore co-cultures, inhibition of metalloproteinase activity partially recovered lymphocyte adhesion, but addition of CXCL12 (SDF-1α) to the endothelial surface did not. Hence, the ability of EC to present activating chemokines for lymphocytes may have been enzymatically inhibited by direct contact with fibroblasts. To avoid contact, we cultured EC and fibroblasts on separate 3-μm pore filters one above the other. Here, fibroblasts promoted the transendothelial migration of lymphocytes. Fibroblasts generate CXCL12, but blockade of CXCL12 receptor had no effect on lymphocyte migration. While stromal cells can provide signal(s) promoting leucocyte migration away from the sub-endothelial space, direct cell contact (which might occur in damaged tissue) may cause disruption of chemokine signalling, specifically inhibiting lymphocyte rather than neutrophil recruitment. PMID:20518822

  5. The Immunosuppressive Activity of Amniotic Membrane Mesenchymal Stem Cells on T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alikarami, Fatemeh; Yari, Fatemeh; Amirizadeh, Naser; Nikougoftar, Mahin; Jalili, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are isolated from different sources like placenta. The placenta and its membranes like Amniotic Membrane (AM) are readily available and easy to work with. There is only limited knowledge on the immunomodulatory properties of human Amniotic Membrane-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hAM-MSCs). The aim of this study was to survey the suppressive activity of hAM-MSCs on T lymphocytes in vitro. Methods: Human AMs were obtained after caesarean section births from healthy women. After enzymatic digestion, cells were cultured and hAM-MSCs were obtained. In addition, human T lymphocytes were isolated and co-cultured with hAM-MSCs for 72 hr in the presence or absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Subsequently, proliferation of T cells was analyzed using BrdU and subsequently flow cytometry technique. Besides, the production of IL-4 and IFN-γ was examined by ELISA method. Additionally, the expression of activation markers (CD38, HLA-DR) was studied on T lymphocytes by flow cytometry technique. Results: It was revealed that hAM-MSCs could significantly suppress the proliferation of T lymphocytes (p≤0.01) and significantly decrease the production of IFN-γ by T cells (p<0.05). hAM-MSCs also down regulated the expression of activation markers on the surface of T lymphocytes, CD38 and HLA-DR. The difference was significant between the case and control samples (p<0.05). All the comparisons were carried out between the case (Tcell+PHA+hAM-MSCs) and control (Tcell+PHA) groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, hAM-MSCs could inhibit the (mitogen-activated) T cells even in the absence of blood monocytes. Besides, hAM-MSCs-mediated inhibition of T lymphocytes was combined with down regulation of activation markers. PMID:26306147

  6. T Lymphocyte Density and Distribution in Human Colorectal Mucosa, and Inefficiency of Current Cell Isolation Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Preza, Gloria Cuevas; Yang, Otto O.; Elliott, Julie; Anton, Peter A.; Ochoa, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal tissues are critical immune effector sites containing complex populations of leukocytes in a tissue microenvironment that remains incompletely understood. We identify and quantify in human distal colorectal tissue absolute mucosal CD3+ lymphocytes, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, by direct visualization using immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and an automated counting protocol (r2=0.90). Sigmoid and rectal mucosal tissues are both densely packed with T lymphocytes in the mucosal compartment. Both compartments had similar densities of CD3+ T lymphocytes with 37,400 ± 2,801 cells/mm3 and 33,700 ± 4,324 cell/mm3, respectively. Sigmoid mucosa contained 57% CD3+CD4+ and 40% CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes which calculates to 21,300 ± 1,476/mm3 and 15,000 ± 275/mm3 T lymphocytes, respectively. Rectal mucosa had 57% CD3+CD4+ and 42% CD3+CD8+ or 21,577 ± 332, and 17,090 ± 1,206 cells/mm3, respectively. By comparison, sigmoid mucosal biopsies subjected to conventional collagenase digestion, mononuclear cell (MMC) isolation and staining for flow cytometry yielded 4,549 ± 381/mm3 and 2,708 ± 245/mm3 CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. These data suggest only ~20.7% recovery compared to IHC results for these markers. Further studies will determine if this reflects a selective bias in only CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells or can be generalized to all flow-analyzed cells from mucosal tissues for phenotyping and functional testing. PMID:25856343

  7. Mechanisms of tumour cell escape encountered in treating lymphocytic leukaemia with anti-idiotypic antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J.; Abdul-Ahad, A. K.; Hamblin, T. J.; Stevenson, F. K.; Stevenson, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Four patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were treated by one or more infusions of polyclonal antibody specific for the immunoglobulin idiotype expressed on their leukaemic cells. The antibody was in the form of IgG from sheep antiserum. Three of the 4 cases showed a significant fall in blood lymphocyte count. On one occasion most of the residual circulating lymphocytes were apparently dead. However on all occasions the cell counts rebounded to near pre-infusion levels within one week. Viable lymphocytes recovered from the blood after infusion always showed evidence of antigenic modulation: a diminished level of surface idiotype in a patched distribution, with an accompanying refractoriness to lysis by anti-idiotype plus complement. When cultured in vitro blood lymphocytes from three of the four patients revealed an appreciable export of idiotypic Ig. These 3 patients showed plasma levels of idiotypic Ig up to 400 micrograms ml-1, reduced by plasma exchange prior to infusion. The fourth patient had a level of less than 4 micrograms ml-1, and was the only one in whom free antibody could be found in the plasma after infusion. These cases demonstrate two major factors which thwart antibody attack on leukaemic cells--extracellular antigen and antigenic modulation--as well as problems relating to sparseness of surface antigen, recruitment of effectors, and exhaustion of effectors. PMID:6722005

  8. Microfluidics for T- Lymphocyte Cell Separation and Inflammation Monitoring in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbach, Alan E.; Koria, Piyush; Goverman, Jeremy; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Gupta, Amit; Yu, Ming; Fagan, Shawn P.; Irimia, Daniel; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Severe burns result in T-lymphocyte specific immunologic changes. In addition to decreased levels of circulating lymphocytes, changes in cytokine secretion and receptor expression also take place. Our finer understanding of the inflammatory response has led to the development of immune-targeted therapeutics, requiring specialized gene-expression monitoring. The emerging field of bio-micro-electromechanical systems can be used to isolate highly pure T-lymphocytes in a clinically relevant and timely manner for downstream genomic analysis. Blood samples from healthy volunteers and burn-injured patients were introduced into microfluidic devices developed in our laboratory. Utilizing cell-affinity-chromatography for positive selection of T-lymphocytes, the devices served as a platform for RNA extraction and downstream cytokine analysis via quantitative real time PCR. From a 0.5-mL whole blood sample, the microfluidic devices captured highly pure T-lymphocytes from healthy volunteers and burn-injured patients. Cell capture was of sufficient quantity, and extracted RNA was of sufficient quality, for evaluating the gene expression of cytokines: interferon-gamma, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10. Microfluidics is a useful tool in processing blood from burn-injured patients. Though in its very early stages of development, cell-specific information obtained by this platform/technology will likely be an important component of near-patient molecular diagnostics and personalized medicine. PMID:21348958

  9. Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-16

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  10. Histocompatible chicken inbred lines: homogeneities in the major histocompatibility complex antigens of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C inbred lines assessed by hemagglutination, mixed lymphocyte reaction and skin transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Marcos B; Mizutani, Makoto; Fujiwara, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Yamagata, Takahiro; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Namikawa, Takao

    2007-10-01

    Chicken inbred lines of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C have been established by selection of a specific allele at the B blood group locus (MHC B-G region) and other polymorphic loci through pedigree mating. To extend the potential of these inbred lines as experimental animals in Aves, we assessed the antigenic homogeneities of the MHC antigens by three immunological methods. Antigenic variations of red blood cells (RBCs) were surveyed in the inbred lines and a random-bred line (NG) derived from the Nagoya breed by using ten kinds of intact antisera produced in the inbred line of chickens against RBCs of a red junglefowl and hybrids. In the hemagglutination test, no individual variations were found within the inbred line at all, while all the ten antisera detected highly heterogeneous reactions in individuals of the NG. The reciprocal one-way mixed lymphocyte reactions gave constantly higher stimulation responses (P<0.01) between individual pairs from the inbred lines having different B alleles compared to pairs within the inbred line, while lower stimulation was observed between pairs of the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines both having the B(21) allele. In reciprocal skin transplantation, the transplanted skingrafts within the inbred line and between individuals from the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines survived more than 100 days, while all the skingrafts showed signs of rejection within 7 days among the inbred lines having different B alleles. The results obtained by the three practical methods coincidentally indicated that the individuals in the respective four inbred lines were histocompatible, and further, that the GSP and GSN/1 individuals were histocompatible. PMID:18075192

  11. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Malignant Neoplasm; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  12. Fas-mediated apoptosis of melanoma cells and infiltrating lymphocytes in human malignant melanomas.

    PubMed

    Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Katayama, Ichiro; Koji, Takehiko

    2002-04-01

    In a rodent system, melanoma cells expressing Fas ligand (FasL) could kill Fas-positive lymphocytes, suggesting that FasL expression was an essential factor for melanoma cell survival in vivo. These findings led us to investigate apoptosis, and to histochemically analyze involvement of Fas and FasL in the induction of apoptosis, in human malignant melanoma tissues. The percentages of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive melanoma cells and of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive melanoma cells in melanoma tissues (n = 22) were greater than those in melanocytes in uninvolved skin (n = 6) and nevus cells in nevi tissues (n = 9). The infiltrating lymphocytes around melanomas were also TUNEL positive. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of Fas and FasL in melanoma cells and lymphocytes, whereas no Fas or FasL expression was detected in normal skin melanocytes and nevus cells. There was significant correlation between Fas-positive indices and TUNEL indices in melanoma tissues. Moreover, TUNEL-, Fas-, and FasL-positive indices of melanoma cells from patients with Stage 3 melanomas were significantly lower than those with Stage 2 melanomas. The PCNA index of Stage 1 melanoma was significantly lower than that of the other stages, although the difference of PCNA index was insignificant among Stages 2 to 4. Among Stages 1 to 4, there was no difference in the PCNA, TUNEL-, and Fas-positive indices of lymphocytes, although the FasL-positive index of lymphocytes from Stage 3 melanomas was significantly lower than in that from Stage 2. These data reveal that melanoma cells and infiltrating lymphocytes have the potential to induce their own apoptosis regulated by Fas and FasL in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion and that the decline of Fas-mediated apoptosis of melanoma cells, rather than the apoptosis of infiltrating lymphocytes, may affect the prognosis of melanoma patients, possibly through the

  13. Dendritic Cell-Lymphocyte Cross Talk Downregulates Host Restriction Factor SAMHD1 and Stimulates HIV-1 Replication in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Biedma, Marina Elizabeth; Lederle, Alexandre; Peressin, Maryse; Lambotin, Mélanie; Proust, Alizé; Decoville, Thomas; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in dendritic cells (DCs) is restricted by SAMHD1. This factor is counteracted by the viral protein Vpx; Vpx is found in HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from sooty mangabeys (SIVsm) or from macaques (SIVmac) but is absent from HIV-1. We previously observed that HIV-1 replication in immature DCs is stimulated by cocultivation with primary T and B lymphocytes, suggesting that HIV-1 restriction in DCs may be overcome under coculture conditions. Here, we aimed to decipher the mechanism of SAMHD1-mediated restriction in DC-lymphocyte coculture. We found that coculture with lymphocytes downregulated SAMHD1 expression and was associated with increased HIV-1 replication in DCs. Moreover, in infected DC-T lymphocyte cocultures, DCs acquired maturation status and secreted type 1 interferon (alpha interferon [IFN-α]). The blockade of DC-lymphocyte cross talk by anti-ICAM-1 antibody markedly inhibited the stimulation of HIV-1 replication and prevented the downregulation of SAMHD1 expression in cocultured DCs. These results demonstrate that, in contrast to purified DCs, cross talk with lymphocytes downregulates SAMHD1 expression in DCs, triggering HIV-1 replication and an antiviral immune response. Therefore, HIV-1 replication and immune sensing by DCs should be investigated in more physiologically relevant models of DC/lymphocyte coculture. IMPORTANCE SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we demonstrate that, in a coculture model of DCs and lymphocytes mimicking early mucosal HIV-1 infection, stimulation of HIV-1 replication in DCs is associated with downregulation of SAMHD1 expression and activation of innate immune sensing by DCs. We propose that DC-lymphocyte cross talk occurring in vivo modulates host restriction factor SAMHD1, promoting HIV-1 replication in cellular reservoirs and stimulating immune sensing. PMID:24574390

  14. Renal complications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis: the Mayo Clinic experience

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Paolo; Nasr, Samih H.; Leung, Nelson; Hanson, Curtis A.; Chaffee, Kari G.; Schwager, Susan M.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Call, Timothy G.; Parikh, Sameer A.; Ding, Wei; Kay, Neil E.; Shanafelt, Tait D.

    2015-01-01

    While the renal complications of plasma cell dyscrasia have been well-described, most information in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is derived from case reports. This is a retrospective analysis of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis who underwent kidney biopsy for renal insufficiency and/or nephrotic syndrome. Between January 1995 and June 2014, 49 of 4,024 (1.2%) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n=44) or monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (n=5) had a renal biopsy: 34 (69%) for renal insufficiency and 15 (31%) for nephrotic syndrome. The most common findings on biopsy were: membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (n=10, 20%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia interstitial infiltration as primary etiology (n=6, 12%), thrombotic microangiopathy (n=6, 12%), and minimal change disease (n=5, 10%). All five membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide and prednisone-based regimens had recovery of renal function compared to 0/3 patients treated with rituximab with or without steroids. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia infiltration as the primary cause of renal abnormalities was typically observed in relapsed/refractory patients (4/6). Thrombotic microangiopathy primarily occurred as a treatment-related toxicity of pentostatin (4/6 cases), and resolved with drug discontinuation. All cases of minimal change disease resolved with immunosuppressive agents only. Renal biopsy plays an important role in the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis who develop renal failure and/or nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26088927

  15. Renal complications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis: the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Strati, Paolo; Nasr, Samih H; Leung, Nelson; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Schwager, Susan M; Achenbach, Sara J; Call, Timothy G; Parikh, Sameer A; Ding, Wei; Kay, Neil E; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2015-09-01

    While the renal complications of plasma cell dyscrasia have been well-described, most information in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is derived from case reports. This is a retrospective analysis of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis who underwent kidney biopsy for renal insufficiency and/or nephrotic syndrome. Between January 1995 and June 2014, 49 of 4,024 (1.2%) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n=44) or monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (n=5) had a renal biopsy: 34 (69%) for renal insufficiency and 15 (31%) for nephrotic syndrome. The most common findings on biopsy were: membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (n=10, 20%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia interstitial infiltration as primary etiology (n=6, 12%), thrombotic microangiopathy (n=6, 12%), and minimal change disease (n=5, 10%). All five membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide and prednisone-based regimens had recovery of renal function compared to 0/3 patients treated with rituximab with or without steroids. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia infiltration as the primary cause of renal abnormalities was typically observed in relapsed/refractory patients (4/6). Thrombotic microangiopathy primarily occurred as a treatment-related toxicity of pentostatin (4/6 cases), and resolved with drug discontinuation. All cases of minimal change disease resolved with immunosuppressive agents only. Renal biopsy plays an important role in the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis who develop renal failure and/or nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26088927

  16. Design Parameters for Granzyme-Mediated Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Target-Cell Killing and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Woodsworth, Daniel J; Dunsing, Valentin; Coombs, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes are key elements of the immune system that are primarily responsible for targeting cells infected with intracellular pathogens, or cells that have become malignantly transformed. Target cells are killed mainly via lymphocyte exocytosis of specialized lysosomes containing perforin, a pore-forming protein, and granzymes, which are proteases that induce apoptosis. Due to its central role in lymphocyte biology, as well as its implication in a host of pathologies from cancer to autoimmunity, the granzyme-perforin pathway has been the subject of extensive investigation. Nevertheless, the details of exactly how granzyme and perforin cooperate to induce target-cell death remain controversial. To further investigate this system, we developed a biophysical model of the immunological synapse between a cytotoxic lymphocyte and a target cell using a spatial stochastic simulation algorithm. We used this model to calculate the spatiotemporal evolution of granzyme B and perforin from the time of their exocytosis to granzyme internalization by the target cell. We used a metric of granzyme internalization to delineate which biological processes were critical for successful target-cell lysis. We found that the high aspect ratio of the immunological synapse was insufficient in this regard, and that molecular crowding within the synapse is critical to preserve sufficient concentrations of perforin and granzyme for consistent pore formation and granzyme transfer to target cells. However, even when pore formation occurs in our model, a large amount of both granzyme and perforin still escape from the synapse. We argue that a tight seal between the cytotoxic lymphocyte and its target cell is not required to avoid bystander killing. Instead, we propose that the requirement for spatiotemporal colocalization of granzyme and perforin acts as an effective bimolecular filter to ensure target specificity. PMID:26244730

  17. Effect of interleukins on the proliferation and survival of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mainou-Fowler, T; Copplestone, J A; Prentice, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the effects of interleukin (IL) 1, 2, 4, and 5 on the proliferation and survival of peripheral blood B cells from patients with B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and compare them with the effects on normal peripheral blood B cells. METHODS--The proliferation and survival of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) activated B cells from B-CLL (n = 12) and normal peripheral blood (n = 5) were studied in vitro in response to IL-1, IL-2 IL-4, and IL-5. Survival of cells in cultures with or without added interleukins was studied by microscopic examination of cells and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS--Proliferation was observed in both B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells on culture with IL-2 alone and also in some, but not all, B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells with IL-1 and IL-4. However, there was greater variability in B-CLL cell responses than in normal peripheral blood cells. Il-5 did not affect normal peripheral blood cell proliferation but it increased proliferation in two B-CLL cases. Synergistic effects of these cytokines were not detected. IL-4 inhibited normal peripheral blood and B-CLL cell proliferation after the addition of IL-2. Inhibition of B-CLL cell responses to IL-2 was also observed with IL-5 and Il-1. Survival of B-CLL cells in cultures was enhanced with IL-4 not by an increase in proliferation but by reduced apoptosis. No such effect was seen in normal peripheral blood cells. IL-2 had a less noticeable antiapoptotic effect; IL-5 enhanced apoptosis in B-CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS--B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells proliferated equally well in response to IL-2. IL-4 had a much lower effect on B-CLL cell proliferation, but had noticeable antiapoptotic activity. IL-5 enhanced cell death by apoptosis. Images PMID:7629299

  18. Effect of tyrosine hydroxylase overexpression in lymphocytes on the differentiation and function of T helper cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wei; Zuo, Cong; Chen, Xiao; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the overexpression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of catecholamines (CAs), in lymphocytes on the differentiation and function of T helper (Th) cells. A recombinant TH overexpression plasmid (pEGFP-N1-TH) was constructed and transfected into mesenteric lymphocytes using nucleofection technology. These cells were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) for 48 h and then examined for TH expression and CA content, as well as for the percentage of Th1 and Th2 cells, cytokine concentrations and for the levels of signaling molecules. The lymphocytes overexpressing TH also expressed higher mRNA and protein levels of TH, and synthesized more CAs, including norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) than the mock-transfected control cells. TH gene overexpression in the lymphocytes reduced the percentage of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ cells and the ratio of CD4+IFN-γ+/CD4+IL-4+ cells, as well as the percentages of CD4+CD26+ and CD4+CD30+ cells and the ratio of CD4+CD26+/CD4+CD30+ cells. TH overexpression also reduced the secretion of IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from lymphocytes. Moreover, NE inhibited the Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation and decreased both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression in the lymphocytes. Our findings thus indicate that TH gene overexpression promotes the polarization and differentiation of CD4+ cells towards Th2 cells, and this effect is mediated by the cAMP and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27315039

  19. THP-1 cell line: an in vitro cell model for immune modulation approach.

    PubMed

    Chanput, Wasaporn; Mes, Jurriaan J; Wichers, Harry J

    2014-11-01

    THP-1 is a human leukemia monocytic cell line, which has been extensively used to study monocyte/macrophage functions, mechanisms, signaling pathways, and nutrient and drug transport. This cell line has become a common model to estimate modulation of monocyte and macrophage activities. This review attempts to summarize and discuss recent publications related to the THP-1 cell model. An overview on the biological similarities and dissimilarities between the THP-1 cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived-monocytes and macrophages, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the use of THP-1 cell line, is included. The review summarizes different published co-cultivation studies of THP-1 cells with other cell types, for instance, intestinal cells, adipocytes, T-lymphocytes, platelets, and vascular smooth muscle cells, which can be an option to study cell-cell interaction in vitro and can be an approach to better mimic in vivo conditions. Macrophage polarization is a relatively new topic which gains interest for which the THP-1 cell line also may be relevant. Besides that an overview of newly released commercial THP-1 engineered-reporter cells and THP-1 inflammasome test-cells is also given. Evaluation of recent papers leads to the conclusion that the THP-1 cell line has unique characteristics as a model to investigate/estimate immune-modulating effects of compounds in both activated and resting conditions of the cells. Although the THP-1 response can hint to potential responses that might occur ex vivo or in vivo, these should be, however, validated by in vivo studies to draw more definite conclusions. PMID:25130606

  20. Myxoma virus suppresses proliferation of activated T lymphocytes yet permits oncolytic virus transfer to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nancy Y; Wasserfall, Clive H; Meacham, Amy M; Wise, Elizabeth; Chan, Winnie; Wingard, John R; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-06-11

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) can be curative for certain hematologic malignancies, but the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major limitation for wider application. Ideally, strategies to improve allo-HCT would involve suppression of T lymphocytes that drive GVHD while sparing those that mediate graft-versus-malignancy (GVM). Recently, using a xenograft model, we serendipitously discovered that myxoma virus (MYXV) prevented GVHD while permitting GVM. In this study, we show that MYXV binds to resting, primary human T lymphocytes but will only proceed into active virus infection after the T cells receive activation signals. MYXV-infected T lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation after activation with reduced expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2Rα, but did not affect expression of IL-4 and IL-10. MYXV suppressed T-cell proliferation in 2 patterns (full vs partial) depending on the donor. In terms of GVM, we show that MYXV-infected activated human T lymphocytes effectively deliver live oncolytic virus to human multiple myeloma cells, thus augmenting GVM by transfer of active oncolytic virus to residual cancer cells. Given this dual capacity of reducing GVHD plus increasing the antineoplastic effectiveness of GVM, ex vivo virotherapy with MYXV may be a promising clinical adjunct to allo-HCT regimens. PMID:25904246

  1. Myxoma virus suppresses proliferation of activated T lymphocytes yet permits oncolytic virus transfer to cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Meacham, Amy M.; Wise, Elizabeth; Chan, Winnie; Wingard, John R.; McFadden, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) can be curative for certain hematologic malignancies, but the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major limitation for wider application. Ideally, strategies to improve allo-HCT would involve suppression of T lymphocytes that drive GVHD while sparing those that mediate graft-versus-malignancy (GVM). Recently, using a xenograft model, we serendipitously discovered that myxoma virus (MYXV) prevented GVHD while permitting GVM. In this study, we show that MYXV binds to resting, primary human T lymphocytes but will only proceed into active virus infection after the T cells receive activation signals. MYXV-infected T lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation after activation with reduced expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2Rα, but did not affect expression of IL-4 and IL-10. MYXV suppressed T-cell proliferation in 2 patterns (full vs partial) depending on the donor. In terms of GVM, we show that MYXV-infected activated human T lymphocytes effectively deliver live oncolytic virus to human multiple myeloma cells, thus augmenting GVM by transfer of active oncolytic virus to residual cancer cells. Given this dual capacity of reducing GVHD plus increasing the antineoplastic effectiveness of GVM, ex vivo virotherapy with MYXV may be a promising clinical adjunct to allo-HCT regimens. PMID:25904246

  2. T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Anna; Hawkins, Michelle G; Foreman, Oded; Kent, Michael S; Vernau, William; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2011-12-01

    An adult, male double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on results of a complete blood cell count and cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with oral chlorambucil was attempted, but no response was evident after 40 days. The bird was euthanatized, and the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was confirmed on gross and microscopic examination of tissues. Neoplastic lymphocytes were found in the bone marrow, liver, kidney, testes, and blood vessels. Based on CD3-positive immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the chronic lymphocytic leukemia was determined to be of T-cell origin. PMID:22458185

  3. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody VRC01 Prevents HIV-1 Transmission from Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells to CD4 T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lederle, Alexandre; Laumond, Géraldine; Ducloy, Camille; Schmidt, Sylvie; Decoville, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) poorly replicate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but efficiently transfer HIV-1 to adjacent CD4 T lymphocytes. We found that coculture with T lymphocytes downregulates SAMHD1 expression, enhances HIV-1 replication, and increases pDC maturation and alpha interferon (IFN-α) secretion. HIV-1 transfer to T lymphocytes is inhibited by broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 with efficiency similar to that of cell-free infection of T lymphocytes. Interestingly, prevention of HIV-1 transmission by VRC01 retains IFN-α secretion. These results emphasize the multiple functions of VRC01 in protection against HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:24965460

  4. Responses in mantle cell lymphoma cells to SNS-032 depend on the biological context of each cell line.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Chubb, Sherri; Cheng, Tiewei; Hawtin, Rachael E; Gandhi, Varsha; Plunkett, William

    2010-08-15

    SNS-032 is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) 2, 7, and 9 that regulate the cell cycle and transcription. Our studies in indolent primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells showed that SNS-032 inhibited transcription, diminished the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1, and induced apoptosis. The present study focuses on evaluating this compound in four proliferating mantle cell lymphoma lines (Jeko-1, Granta 519, Mino, and SP-53). Consistent with its action against Cdk9 and Cdk7, SNS-032 inhibited the phosphorylation of RNA pol II in all four lines and blocked RNA synthesis. The transcripts and protein levels of short-lived proteins decreased, including cyclin D1 and Mcl-1. Cell growth was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner in all lines. Apoptosis was induced in JeKo-1, Mino, and SP-53 cells without disrupting cell cycle distribution. However, apoptosis was limited in Granta cells; rather, there was a significant reduction of clonogenic survival. Small interfering RNA was used to specifically knock down Mcl-1 and cyclin D1 in JeKo-1 and Granta cells. Knocking down Mcl-1 induced significant apoptosis in Jeko-1 cells but not Granta cells. Reducing cyclin D1, rather than Mcl-1, was associated with loss of clonogenic survival in Granta cells. Thus, these results indicated that mantle cell lymphoma cell lines have distinct mechanisms sustaining their survival, and the mechanism of action of SNS-032 is dependent on the biological context of an individual line. PMID:20663900

  5. Dental pulp stem cells suppress the proliferation of lymphocytes via transforming growth factor-β1.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gang; Niu, Jianyi; Liu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) possess self-renewal capability, multi-lineage differentiation potential, and can generate a dentin-pulp-like tissue in vivo, which is promising for tooth regeneration. To enlarge the cells resource of DPSCs and explore the feasibility of DPSCs-mediated immune therapy, it is prerequisite to investigate the immunological properties of DPSCs and the underlying mechanisms. Human DPSCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured. Then we used lymphocytes proliferation assays, cytokines detection, Transwell cultures, neutralization experiments, and flow cytometry to examine the in vitro immune characteristics of DPSCs. We found that DPSCs failed to stimulate allogeneic T cells proliferation and suppressed T cells proliferation, B cells proliferation, and mixed lymphocyte reaction. In addition, DPSCs could up-regulate IL-10, down-regulate the production of IL-2, IL-17, and IFN-γ, and did not affect the production of IL-6. Monoclonal antibody against transforming growth factor-β1 restored the T cells proliferation inhibited by DPSCs. Moreover, the population of regulatory T cells increased significantly and T-helper 17 cells decreased significantly in peripheral blood mononuclear cells co-cultured with DPSCs. These data confirmed that DPSCs are low immunogenic, could inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes, regulate the production of cytokines in vitro, and the secretion of transforming growth factor-β1 may be involved in this event. PMID:25605036

  6. Granzyme A released upon stimulation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes activates the thrombin receptor on neuronal cells and astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, H S; Bouvier, J; Schaerer, E; Stone, S R; Monard, D; Tschopp, J

    1994-01-01

    Granzymes are a family of serine proteases that are harbored in cytoplasmic granules of activated T lymphocytes and are released upon target cell interaction. Immediate and complete neurite retraction was induced in a mouse neuronal cell line when total extracts of granule proteins were added. This activity was isolated and identified as granzyme A. This protease not only induced neurite retraction at nanomolar concentrations but also reversed the stellation of astrocytes. Both effects were critically dependent on the esterolytic activity of granzyme A. As neurite retraction is known to be induced by thrombin, possible cleavage and activation of the thrombin receptor were investigated. A synthetic peptide spanning the N-terminal thrombin receptor activation sequence was cleaved by granzyme A at the authentic thrombin cleavage site Leu-Asp-Pro-Arg-Ser. Antibodies to the thrombin receptor inhibited both thrombin and granzyme A-mediated neurite retraction. Thus, T-cell-released granzyme A induces cellular responses by activation of the thrombin receptor. As brain-infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes are the effector cells in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, granzyme A released in the brain may contribute to the etiology of autoimmune disorders in the nervous system. Images PMID:8058766

  7. Brucella fractions behave as nonspecific mitogens and polyclonal B-cell activators for human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, J P; Rabesandratana, H; Huguet, M F; Cannat, A; Serre, A

    1985-01-01

    Two lipid-A-free fractions which were extracted from Brucella melitensis and were designated PI and SF stimulated human unsensitized mononuclear cells to proliferate and to secrete immunoglobulins. Both of these effects were observed in cultures of peripheral blood, tonsils, and cord blood lymphocytes. Neither B cells nor T cells alone proliferated in the presence of these fractions, whereas the proliferative response of T cells plus B cells was largely independent of accessory cells. Polyclonal activation was estimated by counting the cells which secreted immunoglobulins of different isotypes into culture supernatants. This phenomenon was strongly T dependent. PMID:3876286

  8. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of patients undergoing therapy for small cell lung cancer and ovarian carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Padjas, Anna; Lesisz, Dominika; Lankoff, Anna; Banasik, Anna; Lisowska, Halina; Bakalarz, Robert; Gozdz, Stanislaw; Wojcik, Andrzej . E-mail: awojcik@pu.kielce.pl

    2005-12-01

    The level of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing chemotherapy has been analyzed incisively 20 years ago. The results showed that the highest level of cytogenetic damage was observed at the end of therapy. In recent years, the doses of anticancer drugs were intensified thanks to the discovery of colony stimulating factors. Therefore, it was interesting to analyze the kinetics of micronuclei formation in lymphocytes of patients undergoing modern chemotherapy. The frequencies of micronuclei were measured in lymphocytes of 6 patients with small cell lung cancer treated with a combination of cisplatin and etoposide and 7 patients with ovarian carcinoma treated with a combination of taxol and cisplatin. 3 patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy. Micronuclei were analyzed in lymphocytes collected before the start of therapy and 1 day before each following cycle of chemotherapy. The micronucleus frequencies were compared with the kinetics of leukocyte counts. The micronucleus frequencies showed an interindividual variability. On average, the frequencies of micronuclei increased during the first half of therapy and declined thereafter, reaching, in some patients with ovarian carcinoma, values below the pre-treatment level. Leukocyte counts decreased strongly at the beginning of therapy with an upward trend at the end. We suggest that the decline of micronuclei was due to repopulation of lymphocytes and acquired drug resistance.

  9. Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase cell proliferation in lymphocytes from young and aged subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Cossarizza, A.; Monti, D.; Bersani, F.; Cantini, M.; Cadossi, R.; Sacchi, A.; Franceschi, C.

    1989-04-28

    The effect of the in vitro exposure to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the proliferation of human lymphocytes from 24 young and 24 old subjects was studied. The exposure to PEMFs during a 3-days culture period or during the first 24 hours was able to increase phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte proliferation in both groups. Such effect was greater in lymphocytes from old people which showed a markedly reduced proliferative capability and, after PEMF exposure, reached values of /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation similar to those of young subjects. The relevance of these data for the understanding and the reversibility of the proliferative defects in cells from aged subjects and for the assessment of risk related to the environmental exposure to PEMFs has to be considered.

  10. Different toxic effects of YTX in tumor K-562 and lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Sánchez, Jon A.; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Yessotoxin (YTX) modulates cellular phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In this regard, opposite effects had been described in the tumor model K-562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes in terms of cell viability, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production and protein expression after YTX treatment. Studies in depth of the pathways activated by YTX in K-562 cell line, have demonstrated the activation of two different cell death types, apoptosis, and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the key role of type 4A PDE (PDE4A) in both pathways activated by YTX was demonstrated. Therefore, taking into account the differences between cellular lines and fresh cells, a study of cell death pathways activated by YTX in a non-tumor cell line with mitotic activity, was performed. The cellular model used was the lymphoblastoid cell line that represents a non-tumor model with normal apoptotic and mitotic machinery. In this context, cell viability and cell proliferation, expression of proteins involved in cell death activated by YTX and mitochondrial mass, were studied after the incubation with the toxin. Opposite to the tumor model, no cell death activation was observed in lymphoblastoid cell line in the presence of YTX. In this sense, variations in apoptosis hallmarks were not detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line after YTX incubation, whereas this type I of programmed cell death was observed in K-562 cells. On the other hand, autophagy cell death was triggered in this cellular line, while other autophagic process is suggested in lymphoblastoid cells. These YTX effects are related to PDE4A in both cellular lines. In addition, while cell death is triggered in K-562 cells after YTX treatment, in lymphoblastoid cells the toxin stops cellular proliferation. These results point to YTX as a specific toxic compound of tumor cells, since in the non-tumor lymphoblastoid cell line, no cell death hallmarks are observed. PMID:26136685

  11. 2-Methoxyestradiol Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis by Inhibiting Lymphocytes Proliferation and T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linxinyu; Yang, Tianshu; Su, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) on experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and the mechanism. Method. C57BL/6 male mice were used to establish the EAU model. 2ME2 was abdominal administrated in D0–D13, D0–D6, and D7–D13 and control group was given vehicle from D0–D13. At D14, pathological severity was scored. Lymphocyte reaction was measured using MTT assay. T cell differentiation in draining lymph nodes and eye-infiltrating cells was tested by flow cytometry. Proinflammatory cytokines production from lymphocytes was determined by ELISA. Result. The disease scores from 2ME2 D0–D13, 2ME2 D0–D6, 2ME2 D7–D13, and vehicle groups were 0.20 ± 0.12, 1.42 ± 0.24, 2.25 ± 0.32, and 2.42 ± 0.24. Cells from all 2ME2 treated groups responded weaker than control (p < 0.05). The inhibitory effect of 2ME2 on lymphocyte proliferation attenuated from 2ME2 D0–D13 to 2ME2 D0–D6 and to 2ME2 D7–D13 groups (p < 0.05). 2ME2 treated mice developed fewer Th1 and Th17 cells both in draining lymph nodes and in eyes than control (p < 0.05). Lymphocytes from 2ME2 group secreted less IFN-γ and IL-17A than those from control (p < 0.05). Conclusion. 2ME2 ameliorated EAU progression and presented a better effect at priming phase. The possible mechanism could be the inhibitory impact on IRBP specific lymphocyte proliferation and Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. PMID:27243036

  12. A measles virus selectively blind to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule shows anti-tumor activity against lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Yoneda, Misako; Amagai, Yosuke; Obayashi, Kunie; Ikeda, Fusako; Shoji, Koichiro; Murakami, Yoshinori; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-09-22

    Lung cancer cells, particularly those of non-small-cell lung cancer, are known to express Nectin-4. We previously generated a recombinant measles virus that uses Nectin-4 as its receptor but cannot bind its original principal receptor, signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). This virus (rMV-SLAMblind) infects and kills breast cancer cells in vitro and in a subcutaneous xenograft model. However, it has yet to be determined whether rMV-SLAMblind is effective against other cancer types and in other tumor models that more closely represent disease. In this study, we analyzed the anti-tumor activity of this virus towards lung cancer cells using a modified variant that encodes green fluorescent protein (rMV-EGFP-SLAMblind). We found that rMV-EGFP-SLAMblind efficiently infected nine, human, lung cancer cell lines, and its infection resulted in reduced cell viability of six cell lines. Administration of the virus into subcutaneous tumors of xenotransplanted mice suppressed tumor growth. In addition, rMV-EGFP-SLAMblind could target scattered tumor masses grown in the lungs of xenotransplanted mice. These results suggest that rMV-SLAMblind is oncolytic for lung cancer and that it represents a promising tool for the treatment of this disease. PMID:26317644

  13. Alteration of lymphocyte phenotype and function in sickle cell anemia: Implications for vaccine responses.

    PubMed

    Balandya, Emmanuel; Reynolds, Teri; Obaro, Stephen; Makani, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have increased susceptibility to infections, secondary to impairment of immune function. Besides the described dysfunction in innate immunity, including impaired opsonization and phagocytosis of bacteria, evidence of dysfunction of T and B lymphocytes in SCA has also been reported. This includes reduction in the proportion of circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, reduction of CD4+ helper: CD8+ suppressor T cell ratio, aberrant activation and dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg ), skewing of CD4+ T cells towards Th2 response and loss of IgM-secreting CD27 + IgM(high) IgD(low) memory B cells. These changes occur on the background of immune activation characterized by predominance of memory CD4+ T cell phenotypes, increased Th17 signaling and elevated levels of C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, which may affect the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines available to prevent infections in SCA. Thus, in order to optimize the use of vaccines in SCA, a thorough understanding of T and B lymphocyte functions and vaccine reactivity among individuals with SCA is needed. Studies should be encouraged of different SCA populations, including sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of SCA is highest. This article summarizes our current understanding of lymphocyte biology in SCA, and highlights areas that warrant future research. Am. J. Hematol. 91:938-946, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27237467

  14. Inhibitors of melanogenesis increase toxicity of cyclophosphamide and lymphocytes against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir

    2009-03-15

    High mortality rate for metastatic melanoma is related to its resistant to the current methods of therapy. Melanogenesis is a metabolic pathway characteristic for normal and malignant melanocytes that can affect the behavior of melanoma cells or its surrounding environment. Human melanoma cells in which production of melanin pigment is dependent on tyrosine levels in medium were used for experiments. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were derived from the buffy coats purchased from Lifeblood Biological Services. Cell pigmentation was evaluated macroscopically, and tyrosinase activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Cell proliferation and viability were measured using lactate dehydrogenase release MTT, [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and DNA content analyses, and gene expression was measured by real time RT-PCR. Pigmented melanoma cells were significantly less sensitive to cyclophosphamide and to killing action of IL-2-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes. The inhibition of melanogenesis by either blocking tyrosinase catalytic site or chelating copper ions sensitized melanoma cells towards cytotoxic action of cyclophosphamide, and amplified immunotoxic activities of IL-2 activated lymphocytes. Exogenous L-DOPA inhibited lymphocyte proliferation producing the cell cycle arrest in G1/0 and dramatically inhibited the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10. Thus, the active melanogenesis could not only impair the cytotoxic action of cyclophosphamid but also has potent immunosuppressive properties. This resistance to a chemotherapeutic agent or immunotoxic activity of lymphocytes could be reverted by the action of tyrosinase inhibitors. Thus, the inhibition of melanogenesis might represent a valid therapeutic target for the management of advanced melanotic melanomas. PMID:19085934

  15. Targeting B-cell receptor signaling kinases in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the promise of entospletinib

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Jeff; Di Paolo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell receptor signaling pathway has emerged as an important therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies. Novel agents have been developed targeting the signaling enzymes spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta. This review discusses the rationale for targeting these enzymes, as well as the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting their role as therapeutic targets, with a particular focus on SYK inhibition with entospletinib. PMID:27247756

  16. Targeting B-cell receptor signaling kinases in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the promise of entospletinib.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Jeff; Di Paolo, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The B-cell receptor signaling pathway has emerged as an important therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies. Novel agents have been developed targeting the signaling enzymes spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta. This review discusses the rationale for targeting these enzymes, as well as the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting their role as therapeutic targets, with a particular focus on SYK inhibition with entospletinib. PMID:27247756

  17. T-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting as primary hypogammaglobulinaemia--evidence of a proliferation of T-suppressor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Thien, S L; Catovsky, D; Oscier, D; Goldman, J M; van der Reijden, H J; Melief, C J; Rümke, H C; Ten Berge, R J; von dem Borne, A E

    1982-01-01

    A 63 year old man with late onset hypogammaglobulinaemia is described. Splenectomy, carried out because of marked splenomegaly and pancytopenia, demonstrated marked T lymphocytic infiltration in the splenic red pulp with prominent germinal centres. A persistent peripheral blood and bone marrow lymphocytosis ensued (10 X 10(9)/l and 40% respectively) and this was consistent with T-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (T-CLL). Over 88% of his blood lymphocytes were E+, OKT3+, OKT8+ and OKT11+; 54% of the T lymphocytes had receptors for IgG (T gamma cells). Functional studies showed that the T lymphocytes of this patient lacked killer and natural killer cell function but they effectively suppressed the differentiation of normal B cells in a PWM stimulated system. It is suggested that the T-CLL in this patient resulted from the proliferation of the T suppressor subset which was responsible for his hypogammaglobulinaemia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6211309

  18. Natural Killer Cells for Immunotherapy – Advantages of the NK-92 Cell Line over Blood NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Klingemann, Hans; Boissel, Laurent; Toneguzzo, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells from a patient’s blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes and are often dysfunctional. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T cells to prevent graft-versus-host reactions. Cytotoxic cell lines have been established from patients with clonal NK-cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. Except for the NK-92 cell line, though, none of the other six known NK cell lines has consistently and reproducibly shown high antitumor cytotoxicity. Only NK-92 cells can easily be genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been infused into patients with advanced cancer with clinical benefit and minimal side effects. PMID:27014270

  19. Limited but durable changes to cellular gene expression in a model of latent adenovirus infection are reflected in childhood leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ornelles, D A; Gooding, L R; Dickherber, M L; Policard, M; Garnett-Benson, C

    2016-07-01

    Mucosal lymphocytes support latent infections of species C adenoviruses. Because infected lymphocytes resist re-infection with adenovirus, we sought to identify changes in cellular gene expression that could inhibit the infectious process. The expression of over 30,000 genes was evaluated by microarray in persistently infected B-and T-lymphocytic cells. BBS9, BNIP3, BTG3, CXADR, SLFN11 and SPARCL1 were the only genes differentially expressed between mock and infected B cells. Most of these genes are associated with oncogenesis or cancer progression. Histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors released the repression of some of these genes. Cellular and viral gene expression was compared among leukemic cell lines following adenovirus infection. Childhood leukemic B-cell lines resist adenovirus infection and also show reduced expression of CXADR and SPARCL. Thus adenovirus induces limited changes to infected B-cell lines that are similar to changes observed in childhood leukemic cell lines. PMID:27085068

  20. Limited but durable changes to cellular gene expression in a model of latent adenovirus infection are reflected in childhood leukemic cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ornelles, D.A.; Gooding, L.R.; Dickherber, M.L.; Policard, M.; Garnett-Benson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal lymphocytes support latent infections of species C adenoviruses. Because infected lymphocytes resist re-infection with adenovirus, we sought to identify changes in cellular gene expression that could inhibit the infectious process. The expression of over 30,000 genes was evaluated by microarray in persistently infected B-and T-lymphocytic cells. BBS9, BNIP3, BTG3, CXADR, SLFN11 and SPARCL1 were the only genes differentially expressed between mock and infected B cells. Most of these genes are associated with oncogenesis or cancer progression. Histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors released the repression of some of these genes. Cellular and viral gene expression was compared among leukemic cell lines following adenovirus infection. Childhood leukemic B-cell lines resist adenovirus infection and also show reduced expression of CXADR and SPARCL. Thus adenovirus induces limited changes to infected B-cell lines that are similar to changes observed in childhood leukemic cell lines. PMID:27085068

  1. Reprogramming of Melanoma Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hidehito; Okita, Keisuke; Fusaki, Noemi; Sabel, Michael S; Chang, Alfred E; Ito, Fumito

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients hold great promise for autologous cell therapies. One of the possible applications of iPSCs is to use them as a cell source for producing autologous lymphocytes for cell-based therapy against cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that express programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) are tumor-reactive T cells, and adoptive cell therapy with autologous TILs has been found to achieve durable complete response in selected patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, we describe the derivation of human iPSCs from melanoma TILs expressing high level of PD-1 by Sendai virus-mediated transduction of the four transcription factors, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. TIL-derived iPSCs display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, have normal karyotype, express stem cell-specific surface antigens and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. A wide variety of T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in TIL-derived iPSCs confirmed the heterogeneity of T cells infiltrating melanomas. The ability to reprogram TILs containing patient-specific tumor-reactive repertoire might allow the generation of patient- and tumor-specific polyclonal T cells for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27057178

  2. Reprogramming of Melanoma Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hidehito; Okita, Keisuke; Fusaki, Noemi; Sabel, Michael S.; Chang, Alfred E.; Ito, Fumito

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients hold great promise for autologous cell therapies. One of the possible applications of iPSCs is to use them as a cell source for producing autologous lymphocytes for cell-based therapy against cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that express programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) are tumor-reactive T cells, and adoptive cell therapy with autologous TILs has been found to achieve durable complete response in selected patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, we describe the derivation of human iPSCs from melanoma TILs expressing high level of PD-1 by Sendai virus-mediated transduction of the four transcription factors, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. TIL-derived iPSCs display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, have normal karyotype, express stem cell-specific surface antigens and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. A wide variety of T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in TIL-derived iPSCs confirmed the heterogeneity of T cells infiltrating melanomas. The ability to reprogram TILs containing patient-specific tumor-reactive repertoire might allow the generation of patient- and tumor-specific polyclonal T cells for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27057178

  3. Ibrutinib (Imbruvica). Relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and mantle cell lymphoma: uncertain impact on survival.

    PubMed

    January

    2016-04-01

    codynamic interactions are also likely in view of its adverse effect profile. There is no consensus on the treatment of patients with refractory or relapsed mantle cell lymphoma, or for patients with relapsed or possibly refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Ibrutinib inhibits an enzyme involved in regulating B lymphocyte activity. It has been authorised in the European Union for these conditions. Clinical evaluation of ibrutinib in mantle cell lymphoma is based on a single non-comparative trial in 111 patients, in which the median overall survival time was 22.5 months. Clinical evaluation of ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is based on two randomised trials. One unblinded trial compared ibrutinib versus ofatumumab and involved 391 patients, most of whom were sufficiently fit to receive anticancer combination therapy. Ibrutinib was more effective than ofatumumab, but the choice of this comparator might not have been appropriate for most of the patients who received it. The other double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involved 578 patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Ibrutinib was added to the bendamustine + rituximab combination. No significant difference in mortality was observed between the two groups. The main adverse effects of ibrutinib were: gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhoea; life-threatening infections and bleeding disorders; and cardiac disorders, including atrial fibrillation. Ibrutinib carries a risk of multiple pharmacokinetic interactions. Pharmacodynamic interactions are also likely in view of its adverse effect profile. PMID:27183765

  4. Novel epitope evoking CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting CD138 antigen could potentially represent a new treatment option for multiple myeloma (MM). This study evaluated the immune function of CD138 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), generated ex vivo using an HLA-A2-specific CD138 epitope against MM cells. A novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide was identified from the full-length protein sequence of the CD138 antigen, which induced CTL specific to primary CD138+ MM cells. The peptide-induced CD138-CTL contained a high percentage of CD8+ activated/memory T cells with a low percentage of CD4+ T cell and naive CD8+ T cell subsets. The CTL displayed HLA-A2-restricted and CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxicity against MM cell lines. In addition, CD138-CTL demonstrated increased degranulation, proliferation and γ–interferon secretion to HLA-A2+/CD138+ myeloma cells, but not HLA-A2−/CD138+ or HLA-A2+/CD138− cells. The immune functional properties of the CD138-CTL were also demonstrated using primary HLA-A2+/CD138+ cells isolated from myeloma patients. In conclusion, a novel immunogenic CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide can induce antigen-specific CTL, which might be useful for the treatment of MM patients with peptide-based vaccine or cellular immunotherapy strategies. PMID:21902685

  5. B lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Tan, Bruce K.; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive humoral immune responses in the airways are mediated by B cells and plasma cells that express highly evolved and specific receptors and produce immunoglobulins of most isotypes. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory diseases caused by excessive exposure to foreign antigens, these same immune cells can cause disease by virtue of overly vigorous responses. This review discusses the generation, differentiation, signaling, activation and recruitment pathways of B cells and plasma cells, with special emphasis on unique characteristics of subsets of these cells functioning within the respiratory system. The primary sensitization events that generate B cells responsible for effector responses throughout the airways usually occur in the upper airways, in tonsils and adenoid structures that make up Waldeyer’s Ring. Upon secondary exposure to antigen in the airways, antigen-processing dendritic cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes that drain the upper and lower airways and further B cell expansion takes place at those sites. Antigen exposure in the upper or lower airways can also drive expansion of B lineage cells in the airway mucosal tissue and lead to the formation of inducible lymphoid follicles or aggregates that can mediate local immunity or disease. PMID:23540615

  6. B-lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E; Tan, Bruce K; Schleimer, Robert P

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive humoral immune responses in the airways are mediated by B cells and plasma cells that express highly evolved and specific receptors and produce immunoglobulins of most isotypes. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory diseases caused by excessive exposure to foreign antigens, these same immune cells can cause disease by virtue of overly vigorous responses. This review discusses the generation, differentiation, signaling, activation, and recruitment pathways of B cells and plasma cells, with special emphasis on unique characteristics of subsets of these cells functioning within the respiratory system. The primary sensitization events that generate B cells responsible for effector responses throughout the airways usually occur in the upper airways, tonsils, and adenoid structures that make up the Waldeyer ring. On secondary exposure to antigen in the airways, antigen-processing dendritic cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes, that drain the upper and lower airways, and further B-cell expansion takes place at those sites. Antigen exposure in the upper or lower airways can also drive expansion of B-lineage cells in the airway mucosal tissue and lead to the formation of inducible lymphoid follicles or aggregates that can mediate local immunity or disease. PMID:23540615

  7. CCR6 mediates dendritic cell localization, lymphocyte homeostasis, and immune responses in mucosal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cook, D N; Prosser, D M; Forster, R; Zhang, J; Kuklin, N A; Abbondanzo, S J; Niu, X D; Chen, S C; Manfra, D J; Wiekowski, M T; Sullivan, L M; Smith, S R; Greenberg, H B; Narula, S K; Lipp, M; Lira, S A

    2000-05-01

    Chemokine-directed migration of leukocyte subsets may contribute to the qualitative differences between systemic and mucosal immunity. Here, we demonstrate that in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR6, dendritic cells expressing CD11c and CD11b are absent from the subepithelial dome of Peyer's patches. These mice also have an impaired humoral immune response to orally administered antigen and to the enteropathic virus rotavirus. In addition, CCR6(-/-) mice have a 2-fold to 15-fold increase in cells of select T lymphocyte populations within the mucosa, including CD4+ and CD8+ alphabeta-TCR T cells. By contrast, systemic immune responses to subcutaneous antigens in CCR6(-/-) mice are normal. These findings demonstrate that CCR6 is a mucosa-specific regulator of humoral immunity and lymphocyte homeostasis in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:10843382

  8. In vitro antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by dendritic cells transduced with DeltaNp73alpha recombinant adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yijie; He, Yong; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S; Fan, Shizhi; Jiang, Yaoguang

    2007-11-01

    DeltaNp73alpha, the N-terminal truncated form of p73alpha is a candidate tumor antigen because of its selective expression in many human cancers and lack of expression in normal tissues. Therefore, we investigated the effects of dendritic cells infected with adenoviral DeltaNp73alpha (DNp73alpha) on breaking immune tolerance and induction of immunity against DNp73alpha-expressing (A549 lung cancer, K-562 leukemia) and non-expressing (MCF-7 breast cancer) cell lines. Immature dendritic cells generated in the presence of interleukin-4 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor from a human umbilical cord blood were transduced with a recombinant adenoviral (Ad) vector encoding full-length human DNp73alpha cDNA (Ad-DNp73alpha) or a control vector Ad-EGFP, using the centrifugal force method. Induction of DNp73alpha-specific CTL response was evaluated by a cytotoxic assay against the three human tumor cell lines with different DNp73alpha expression levels. The viability and activation status of transduced dendritic cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The dendrocyte/Ad-DNp73alpha-activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes showed significantly higher cytotoxicity against the cell lines A549/DNp73alpha, K-562 that expressed DNp73alpha than the DNp73alpha-null MCF-7 cells. The DCs/Ad-DNp73alpha showed higher survival rates than the DCs/Ad-EGFP or untransduced DCs, presumably due to the inhibition of cell death. These findings, with potential applications for immunotherapy, demonstrate that dendrocytes transduced with Ad-DNp73alpha can induce specific and sustained T cell responses against tumors expressing this variant p53-related gene. PMID:17914557

  9. Generation of reactive oxygen species and radiation response in lymphocytes and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Bhavani; Kumar, S Santosh; Sainis, K B

    2003-10-01

    Several types of lymphoid and myeloid tumor cells are known to be relatively resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis compared to normal lymphocytes. The intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species was measured in irradiated spleen cells from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and murine tumor cells (EL-4 and P388) by flow cytometry using dichlorodihydrofluoresceindiacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123 as fluorescent probes. The amount of reactive oxygen species generated per cell was low in the tumor cells compared to spleen cells exposed to 1 to 10 Gy of gamma radiation. This could be due to the higher total antioxidant levels in tumor cells compared to normal cells. Further, the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytoplasmic Ca2+ content were appreciable in lymphocytes even at a dose of 1 Gy. In EL-4 cells, no such changes were observed at any of the doses used. About 65% of spleen cells underwent apoptosis 24 h after 1 Gy irradiation. However, under the same conditions, EL-4 and P388 cells failed to undergo apoptosis, but they accumulated in G2/M phase. Thus the intrinsic radioresistance of tumor cells may be due to a decreased generation of reactive oxygen species after irradiation and down-regulation of the subsequent events leading to apoptosis. PMID:12968927

  10. Are Microglial Cells the Regulators of Lymphocyte Responses in the CNS?

    PubMed Central

    Almolda, Beatriz; González, Berta; Castellano, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The infiltration of immune cells in the central nervous system is a common hallmark in different neuroinflammatory conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that resident glial cells can establish a cross-talk with infiltrated immune cells, including T-cells, regulating their recruitment, activation and function within the CNS. Although the healthy CNS has been thought to be devoid of professional dendritic cells (DCs), numerous studies have reported the presence of a population of DCs in specific locations such as the meninges, choroid plexuses and the perivascular space. Moreover, the infiltration of DC precursors during neuroinflammatory situations has been proposed, suggesting a putative role of these cells in the regulation of lymphocyte activity within the CNS. On the other hand, under specific circumstances, microglial cells are able to acquire a phenotype of DC expressing a wide range of molecules that equip these cells with all the necessary machinery for communication with T-cells. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the expression of molecules involved in the cross-talk with T-cells in both microglial cells and DCs and discuss the potential contribution of each of these cell populations on the control of lymphocyte function within the CNS. PMID:26635525

  11. Monoclonal origin of B lymphocyte colony-forming cells in spleen colonies formed by multipotential hemopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lala, PK; Johnson, GR

    1978-01-01

    Spleen colonies produced by transplanting lethally irradiated mice with either 12 day fetal liver or adult bone marrow cells were found to contain B- lymphocyte colony-forming cells (BL-CFC) . The proportion of BL-CFC positive spleen colonies did not increase substantially between 8 and 14 days after transplantation, the range being 18-45 percent. However, the absolute number of BL-CFC per spleen colony varied considerably (between 1 and 10,318), although the majority of colonies contained less than 200 BL-CFC. Irrespective of the time after transplantation, smaller spleen colonies were found to have a higher frequency of BL-CFC than larger spleen colonies. To determine the possible clonal origin of BL-CFC from spleen colony- forming unit (CFU-S), CBA mice were injected with equal numbers of CBA and CBA T(6)/T(6) fetal liver or adult bone marrow cells. Analysis of 7-15-day spleen colonies demonstrated that 90 percent were either exclusively T(6) positive or T(6) negative and approximately equal numbers ofboth colony types were observed. B-lymphocyte colonies were grown and successfully karyotyped from 19 spleen colonies. When compared with the original spleen colony karyotype the B-lymphocyte colony cells karyotype was identical in all 19 cases. In 3 of the 19 colonies analyzed a mixture of T(6) positive and T(6) negative karyotypes was present and identical proportions of the karyotypes were present in the pooled B-lymphocyte colony cells and spleen colony cells. The data indicate that the B-lymphocyte colony-forming cells detected in spleen colonies are genuine members of the hemopoietic clone derived from the initiating hemopoietic stem cell (CFU-S). PMID:309918

  12. Early lymphocyte recovery after intensive timed sequential chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia: peripheral oligoclonal expansion of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanakry, Christopher G.; Gocke, Christopher D.; Thoburn, Christopher; Kos, Ferdynand; Meyer, Christian; Briel, Janet; Luznik, Leo; Smith, B. Douglas; Levitsky, Hyam; Karp, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    Few published studies characterize early lymphocyte recovery after intensive chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte recovery mirrors ontogeny, we characterized early lymphocyte recovery in 20 consecutive patients undergoing induction timed sequential chemotherapy for newly diagnosed AML. Recovering T lymphocytes were predominantly CD4+ and included a greatly expanded population of CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. Recovering CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells were phenotypically activated regulatory T cells and showed suppressive activity on cytokine production in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Despite an initial burst of thymopoiesis, most recovering regulatory T cells were peripherally derived. Furthermore, regulatory T cells showed marked oligoclonal skewing, suggesting that their peripheral expansion was antigen-driven. Overall, lymphocyte recovery after chemotherapy differs from ontogeny, specifically identifying a peripherally expanded oligoclonal population of activated regulatory T lymphocytes. These differences suggest a stereotyped immunologic recovery shared by patients with newly diagnosed AML after induction timed sequential chemotherapy. Further insight into this oligoclonal regulatory T-cell population will be fundamental toward developing effective immunomodulatory techniques to improve survival for patients with AML. PMID:20935254

  13. Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells

    PubMed Central

    Mach, François; Sauty, Alain; Iarossi, Albert S.; Sukhova, Galina K.; Neote, Kuldeep; Libby, Peter; Luster, Andrew D.

    1999-01-01

    Activated T lymphocytes accumulate early in atheroma formation and persist at sites of lesion growth and rupture, suggesting that they may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, atherosclerotic lesions contain the Th1-type cytokine IFN-γ, a potentiator of atherosclerosis. The present study demonstrates the differential expression of the 3 IFN-γ–inducible CXC chemokines — IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-γ (Mig), and IFN-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC) — by atheroma-associated cells, as well as the expression of their receptor, CXCR3, by all T lymphocytes within human atherosclerotic lesions in situ. Atheroma-associated endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and macrophages (MØ) all expressed IP-10, whereas Mig and I-TAC were mainly expressed in ECs and MØ, as detected by double immunofluorescence staining. ECs of microvessels within lesions also expressed abundant I-TAC. In vitro experiments supported these results and showed that IL-1β, TNF-α, and CD40 ligand potentiated IP-10 expression from IFN-γ–stimulated ECs. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) treatment decreased IFN-γ induction of IP-10. Our findings suggest that the differential expression of IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC by atheroma-associated cells plays a role in the recruitment and retention of activated T lymphocytes observed within vascular wall lesions during atherogenesis. PMID:10525042

  14. Glioma Stemlike Cells Enhance the Killing of Glioma Differentiated Cells by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Riccadonna, Cristina; Walker, Paul R; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is maintained by a subpopulation of glioma cells with self-renewal properties that are able to recapitulate the entire tumor even after surgical resection or chemo-radiotherapy. This typifies the vast heterogeneity of this tumor with the two extremes represented on one end by the glioma stemlike cells (GSC) and on the other by the glioma differentiated cells (GDC). Interestingly, GSC are more sensitive to immune effector cells than the GDC counterpart. However, how GSC impact on the killing on the GDC and vice versa is not clear. Using a newly developed cytotoxicity assay allowing to simultaneously monitor cytotoxic lymphocytes-mediated killing of GSC and GDC, we found that although GSC were always better killed and that their presence enhanced the killing of GDC. In contrast, an excess of GDC had a mild protective effect on the killing of GSC, depending on the CTL type. Overall, our results suggest that during combination therapy, immunotherapy would be the most effective after prior treatment with conventional therapies. PMID:27073883

  15. Glioma Stemlike Cells Enhance the Killing of Glioma Differentiated Cells by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Riccadonna, Cristina; Walker, Paul R.; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is maintained by a subpopulation of glioma cells with self-renewal properties that are able to recapitulate the entire tumor even after surgical resection or chemo-radiotherapy. This typifies the vast heterogeneity of this tumor with the two extremes represented on one end by the glioma stemlike cells (GSC) and on the other by the glioma differentiated cells (GDC). Interestingly, GSC are more sensitive to immune effector cells than the GDC counterpart. However, how GSC impact on the killing on the GDC and vice versa is not clear. Using a newly developed cytotoxicity assay allowing to simultaneously monitor cytotoxic lymphocytes-mediated killing of GSC and GDC, we found that although GSC were always better killed and that their presence enhanced the killing of GDC. In contrast, an excess of GDC had a mild protective effect on the killing of GSC, depending on the CTL type. Overall, our results suggest that during combination therapy, immunotherapy would be the most effective after prior treatment with conventional therapies. PMID:27073883

  16. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  17. Cytomegalovirus infection associated with clonal proliferation of T-cell large granular lymphocytes: causal or casual?

    PubMed

    Wong, K F; Yip, S F; So, C C; Lau, G T C; Yeung, Y M

    2003-04-01

    Clonal proliferation of T-cell large granular lymphocytes (LGL) is an indolent disorder characterized by splenomegaly, lymphocytosis and frequent manifestations of immune disturbances. The LGL are CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(+) CD56(-). The clonality of the tumor cell population is often only demonstrable by T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement study because chromosomal abnormality is distinctly rare. We describe a case of T-cell LGL leukemia that presented initially as cytomegalovirus infection. The leukemic LGL are shown to be clonal by both TCR gene rearrangement and chromosomal studies. They persist after subsidence of the cytomegalovirus infection. PMID:12660039

  18. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia induces an exhausted T cell phenotype in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Franz J; Zaborsky, Nadja; Catakovic, Kemal; Rebhandl, Stefan; Huemer, Michael; Egle, Alexander; Hartmann, Tanja N; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

    2015-08-01

    Although chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy, earlier studies have indicated a role of T cells in tumour growth and disease progression. In particular, the functional silencing of antigen-experienced T cells, called T cell exhaustion, has become implicated in immune evasion in CLL. In this study, we tested whether T cell exhaustion is recapitulated in the TCL1(tg) mouse model for CLL. We show that T cells express high levels of the inhibitory exhaustion markers programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also termed PD-1) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), whereas CLL cells express high levels of CD274 (also termed PD-ligand 1). In addition, the fraction of exhausted T cells increases with CLL progression. Finally, we demonstrate that exhausted T cells are reinvigorated towards CLL cytotoxicity by inhibition of PDCD1/CD274 interaction in vivo. These results suggest that T cell exhaustion contributes to CLL pathogenesis and that interference with PDCD1/CD274 signalling holds high potential for therapeutic approaches. PMID:25940792

  19. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia induces an exhausted T cell phenotype in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Franz J; Zaborsky, Nadja; Catakovic, Kemal; Rebhandl, Stefan; Huemer, Michael; Egle, Alexander; Hartmann, Tanja N; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Although chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy, earlier studies have indicated a role of T cells in tumour growth and disease progression. In particular, the functional silencing of antigen-experienced T cells, called T cell exhaustion, has become implicated in immune evasion in CLL. In this study, we tested whether T cell exhaustion is recapitulated in the TCL1tg mouse model for CLL. We show that T cells express high levels of the inhibitory exhaustion markers programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also termed PD-1) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), whereas CLL cells express high levels of CD274 (also termed PD-ligand 1). In addition, the fraction of exhausted T cells increases with CLL progression. Finally, we demonstrate that exhausted T cells are reinvigorated towards CLL cytotoxicity by inhibition of PDCD1/CD274 interaction in vivo. These results suggest that T cell exhaustion contributes to CLL pathogenesis and that interference with PDCD1/CD274 signalling holds high potential for therapeutic approaches. PMID:25940792

  20. Efficacy of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitors with diverse isoform selectivity profiles for inhibiting the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Göckeritz, Elisa; Kerwien, Susan; Baumann, Michael; Wigger, Marion; Vondey, Verena; Neumann, Lars; Landwehr, Thomas; Wendtner, Clemens M; Klein, Christian; Liu, Ningshu; Hallek, Michael; Frenzel, Lukas P; Krause, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatiylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated signaling holds great promise for treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Therefore we assessed three structurally related PI3K inhibitors targeting the PI3K-δ isoform for their ability to inhibit the survival of freshly isolated CLL cells. The purely PI3K-δ-selective inhibitor idelalisib was compared to copanlisib (BAY 80-6946) and duvelisib (IPI-145), with isoform target profiles that additionally include PI3K-α or PI3K-γ, respectively. The concentrations leading to half-maximal reduction of the survival of CLL cells were more than ten-fold lower for copanlisib than for idelalisib and duvelisib. At concentrations reflecting the biological availability of the different inhibitors, high levels of apoptotic response among CLL samples were attained more consistently with copanlisib than with idelalisib. Copanlisib selectively reduced the survival of CLL cells compared to T cells and to B cells from healthy donors. In addition copanlisib and duvelisib impaired the migration of CLL cells towards CXCL12 to a greater extent than equimolar idelalisib. Similarly copanlisib and duvelisib reduced the survival of CLL cells in co-cultures with the bone marrow stroma cell line HS-5 more strongly than idelalisib. Survival inhibition by copanlisib and idelalisib was enhanced by the monoclonal CD20 antibodies rituximab and obinutuzumab (GA101), while antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by alemtuzumab and peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not substantially impaired by both PI3K inhibitors for the CLL-derived JVM-3 cell line as target cells. Taken together, targeting the α- and δ- p110 isoforms with copanlisib may be a useful strategy for the treatment of CLL and warrants further clinical investigation. PMID:25912635

  1. AMD3100 disrupts the cross-talk between chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and a mesenchymal stromal or nurse-like cell-based microenvironment: pre-clinical evidence for its association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatments

    PubMed Central

    Stamatopoulos, Basile; Meuleman, Nathalie; De Bruyn, Cécile; Pieters, Karlien; Mineur, Philippe; Le Roy, Christine; Saint-Georges, Stéphane; Varin-Blank, Nadine; Cymbalista, Florence; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background Interactions with the microenvironment, such as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and nurse-like cells, protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis. This protection is partially mediated by the chemokine SDF-1α (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 (CD184) present on the chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell surface. Design and Methods Here, we investigated the ability of AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, to sensitize chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to chemotherapy in a chronic lymphocytic leukemia/mesenchymal stromal cell based or nurse-like cell based microenvironment co-culture model. Results AMD3100 decreased CXCR4 expression signal (n=15, P=0.0078) and inhibited actin polymerization/migration in response to SDF-1α (n=8, P<0.01) and pseudoemperipolesis (n=10, P=0.0010), suggesting that AMD3100 interferes with chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell trafficking. AMD3100 did not have a direct effect on apoptosis when chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells were cultured alone (n=10, P=0.8812). However, when they were cultured with SDF-1α, mesenchymal stromal cells or nurse-like cells (protecting them from apoptosis, P<0.001), chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell pre-treatment with AMD3100 significantly inhibited these protective effects (n=8, P<0.01) and decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins MCL-1 and FLIP. Furthermore, combining AMD3100 with various drugs (fludarabine, cladribine, valproïc acid, bortezomib, flavopiridol, methylprednisolone) in our mesenchymal stromal cell co-culture model enhanced drug-induced apoptosis (n=8, P<0.05) indicating that AMD3100 could mobilize chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells away from their protective microenvironment, making them more accessible to conventional therapies. Conclusions Taken together, these data demonstrate that interfering with the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis by using AMD3100 inhibited chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell trafficking and microenvironment

  2. In vitro modeling of the interaction between human epithelial cells and lymphocytes upon influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Ilyushina, Natalia A; Wright, Peter F

    2016-09-01

    Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to humans because of their ability to cross species barriers and adapt to new hosts. Data from murine studies, along with limited human data, suggest that CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that recognize conserved epitopes of structural influenza proteins are the main mediators of influenza virus clearance. Additionally, the fact that many CTLs recognize epitopes shared between different influenza strains offers the potential for broad cross-strain immunity. However, the mechanisms of cellular immunity against influenza viruses are poorly defined in humans, where the CTL response has been hard to measure and interpret. We developed a novel CTL assay that utilizes fully differentiated nasal human epithelial cells taken from volunteers as permissive targets for autologous peripheral blood-derived influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This in vitro system of human lymphocyte-epithelial cell co-cultures can be considered as the closest approximation to events in vivo and can be employed for studying the interactions between the pathogen and human host. Modeling of the natural interaction process between the primary cell type that supports the productive replication of influenza and immune cells may allow us to put in perspective CTLs as a correlate of immunity to influenza in humans. PMID:27102577

  3. Mechanism of lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis: functional cytolytic T cells lacking perforin and granzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Berke, G; Rosen, D; Ronen, D

    1993-01-01

    Involvement of the lytic protein perforin (c. 65,000 MW) and of granule proteases (granzymes) in cell lysis induced by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) has been suggested, but is still controversial. For example, in vivo-primed peritoneal exudate CTL (PEL) have been found to express perforin and granzyme activity in amounts comparable to those found in non-lytic lymphocytes, although PEL are the most potent of all CTL. Exploiting several cloned CTL hybridomas developed in this laboratory and newly available molecular probes for detecting perforin, granzymes, protein and mRNA, we now directly demonstrate killer T lymphocytes which kill effectively and specifically, but are free from perforin, lytic granules and granzymes, all three of which have been postulated to be involved in lymphocyte-mediated killing. The CTL hybridomas are completely devoid of perforin and granzymes prior to, during, and after activation by antigen, mitogen or interleukin-2 (IL-2). The induction of lytic granules, perforin, and granzymes in the in vivo-primed PEL, but not in the cloned CTL hybridomas, upon cultivation in IL-2, further suggests the involvement of these constituents in antigen/lymphokine-induced CTL activation and differentiation rather than directly in their cytocidal activity. Together, these findings support a perforin- and granzyme-independent CTL lytic mechanism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8436395

  4. Lymphocyte reactivity in normal and malignant cell proliferation against a phylogenetically conserved antigen in fetal extracts.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, G; Schlott, B; Gryschek, G; Albrecht, S; Reinhöfer, J; Matthes, E; von Broen, B

    1984-04-01

    Lymphocyte reactivity to 3-M KCl extracts from fetuses of different species of origin was shown by the macrophage electrophoretic mobility (MEMB) and/or the leukocyte migration inhibition tests in tumor-bearing mice and humans. In chemical carcinogenesis, reactivity was detectable before tumors developed. Six weeks after sc injection of 1,000 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene [(BP) CAS: 50-32-8] into XVII/Bln mice, the MEMB test became positive. The latent period was 15 weeks after 1.0 micrograms BP, indicating a dose-response relationship of the phenomenon. Painting of mouse skin with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene [(DMBA) CAS: 57-97-6], croton oil (CAS: 8001-28-3), or benzene (CAS: 71-43-2) had the same sensitizing effect as BP. In contrast to the strong carcinogens BP and DMBA that caused lymphocyte reactivity to persist until tumors developed, benzene and the promoter croton oil induced only a transient effect. Termination of treatment abolished reactivity within 12 weeks. Lymphocyte reactivity to fetal extract in normal cell proliferation was evident from the fact that two-thirds-hepatectomized rats and BCG-treated mice became MEMB-positive. In hepatectomized rats the effect was reversible according to the completion of liver regeneration. Lymphocytes from tumor-bearing mice reacted with mouse and human fetal extract as well as with extracts from different developmental stages of frogs and fish. Fetal extracts were assumed to contain a phylogenetically conserved antigen. PMID:6584664

  5. Cytosine arabinoside potentiates the apoptotic effect of bendamustine on several B- and T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Castegnaro, Silvia; Visco, Carlo; Chieregato, Katia; Bernardi, Martina; Albiero, Elena; Zanon, Cristina; Madeo, Domenico; Rodeghiero, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Bendamustine and cytosine arabinoside (ara-c) are commonly used cytotoxic agents with unique mechanisms of action. We have previously reported a striking additive cytotoxic effect of the consecutive combination of bendamustine and ara-c in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell lines. In the present study, cell lines of follicular lymphoma (DOHH-2), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma (EHEB), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (SU-DHL-4), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (JURKAT and KARPAS-299) and MCL (JEKO-1 and GRANTA-519) were exposed to the two single drugs or the drugs combined, given simultaneously and consecutively. Peripheral blood chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B-cells from five patients were also analyzed. Apoptosis, cell proliferation/metabolic activity and mitochondrial damage were evaluated. The combination index (CI) was used to assess synergy between the drugs. Bendamustine exhibited a relevant cytotoxic effect that was dose- and time-dependent, except for SU-DHL-4 and T-cell lymphoma cells. The addition of ara-c after bendamustine significantly potentiated the single-drug cytotoxic effect of bendamustine on all cell lines, including 17p - CLL B-cells, JURKAT and SU-DHL-4, the latter presenting the highest synergism (CI < 0.01). Bendamustine and ara-c are highly synergistic on T- and B-cell lymphoma cells and cell lines, similar to MCL, overcoming resistance to the single agents. PMID:22530665

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma cell sensitivity to Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocyte-mediated killing is increased by zoledronate

    PubMed Central

    SUGAI, SHIORI; YOSHIKAWA, TOSHIAKI; IWAMA, TATSUAKI; TSUCHIYA, NOBUHIRO; UEDA, NORIHIRO; FUJINAMI, NORIHIRO; SHIMOMURA, MANAMI; ZHANG, RONG; KANEKO, SHIN; UEMURA, YASUSHI; NAKATSURA, TETSUYA

    2016-01-01

    The limited efficacy of vaccines in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), due to the low frequency of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), indicates the importance of innate immune surveillance, which assists acquired immunity by directly recognizing and eliminating HCC. Innate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted antitumor activity and are activated by phosphoantigens, which are upregulated in cancer cells by the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronate (Zol). A better understanding of HCC susceptibility to Zol and downstream γδ T cell-mediated killing is essential to optimize γδ T cell-mediated immunotherapy. This study systematically examined the interactions between γδ T cells and Zol-treated HCC cell lines (HepG2, HLE, HLF, HuH-1, JHH5, JHH7, and Li-7) in vitro. All HCC cell lines expressed the DNAX accessory molecule-1 ligands, poliovirus receptor, and Nectin-2, and γδ T cell-mediated killing of these cells was significantly enhanced by Zol. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of these ligands did not affect the susceptibility to γδ T cell lysis. This killing activity was partly inhibited by mevastatin, an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway, and markedly reduced by a monoclonal antibody to γ- and δ-chain T cell receptor, indicating that this is crucial for Zol-induced HCC killing. In addition, Zol-treated HCC cell lines triggered γδ T cell proliferation and induced production of Th1 and Th2, but not Th17, cytokines. The Zol concentration that enhanced HCC cell susceptibility to γδ T cell killing was lower than that required to directly inhibit HCC proliferation. Thus, γδ T cells may be important effector cells in the presence of Zol, especially where there are insufficient number of cancer antigen-specific CTLs to eliminate HCC. Our in vitro data support the proposal that Zol-treatment, combined with adaptive γδ T cell immunotherapy, may provide a feasible and effective approach for

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma cell sensitivity to Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocyte-mediated killing is increased by zoledronate.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Shiori; Yoshikawa, Toshiaki; Iwama, Tatsuaki; Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Ueda, Norihiro; Fujinami, Norihiro; Shimomura, Manami; Zhang, Rong; Kaneko, Shin; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    The limited efficacy of vaccines in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), due to the low frequency of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), indicates the importance of innate immune surveillance, which assists acquired immunity by directly recognizing and eliminating HCC. Innate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted antitumor activity and are activated by phosphoantigens, which are upregulated in cancer cells by the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronate (Zol). A better understanding of HCC susceptibility to Zol and downstream γδ T cell-mediated killing is essential to optimize γδ T cell-mediated immunotherapy. This study systematically examined the interactions between γδ T cells and Zol-treated HCC cell lines (HepG2, HLE, HLF, HuH-1, JHH5, JHH7, and Li-7) in vitro. All HCC cell lines expressed the DNAX accessory molecule-1 ligands, poliovirus receptor, and Nectin-2, and γδ T cell-mediated killing of these cells was significantly enhanced by Zol. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of these ligands did not affect the susceptibility to γδ T cell lysis. This killing activity was partly inhibited by mevastatin, an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway, and markedly reduced by a monoclonal antibody to γ- and δ-chain T cell receptor, indicating that this is crucial for Zol-induced HCC killing. In addition, Zol-treated HCC cell lines triggered γδ T cell proliferation and induced production of Th1 and Th2, but not Th17, cytokines. The Zol concentration that enhanced HCC cell susceptibility to γδ T cell killing was lower than that required to directly inhibit HCC proliferation. Thus, γδ T cells may be important effector cells in the presence of Zol, especially where there are insufficient number of cancer antigen-specific CTLs to eliminate HCC. Our in vitro data support the proposal that Zol-treatment, combined with adaptive γδ T cell immunotherapy, may provide a feasible and effective

  8. Herpesvirus ateles and herpesvirus saimiri transform marmoset T cells into continuously proliferating cell lines that can mediate natural killer cell-like cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D R; Jondal, M

    1981-01-01

    Herpesvirus ateles (HVA) and herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) have the capacity to transform cotton-topped marmoset T lymphocytes into continuously proliferating cell lines that retain some functions associated with cell-mediated immunity. In the present paper, we demonstrate that HVA/HVS-transformed T cell lines are cytotoxic in a short-term 51Cr release assay and that this killing resembles killing by marmoset natural killer (NK) cells. The relationship between NK cells and HVA/HVS-transformed killer cell lines is discussed in view of present knowledge of the origin and function of the NK system. It is suggested that the described cytotoxic cell lines may be useful for further defining cellular cytotoxicity with regard to cell surface recognition, regulatory events, and lytic mechanisms. PMID:6273869

  9. Single injection of CD8+ T lymphocytes derived from hematopoietic stem cells - Mathematical and numerical insights.

    PubMed

    Korpusik, Adam; Kolev, Mikhail

    2016-06-01

    Recently, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) based therapy is being discussed as a possible treatment for HIV infection. The main advantage of this approach is that it limits the immune impairing effect of infection by introducing an independent influx of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In this paper, we present a mathematical approach to predict the dynamics of HSC based therapy. We use a modification of a basic mathematical model for virus induced impairment of help to study how virus - immune system dynamics can be influenced by a single injection of CD8+ T lymphocytes derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Our mathematical and numerical results indicate that a single, large enough dose of genetically derived CTL may lead to restoration of the cellular immune response and result in long-term control of infection. PMID:27095371

  10. Intraclonal Cell Expansion and Selection Driven by B Cell Receptor in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Fabris, Sonia; Neri, Antonino; Fabbi, Marina; Quintana, Giovanni; Quarta, Giovanni; Ghiotto, Fabio; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2011-01-01

    The mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) genes utilized by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) clones defines two disease subgroups. Patients with unmutated IGHV have a more aggressive disease and a worse outcome than patients with cells having somatic IGHV gene mutations. Moreover, up to 30% of the unmutated CLL clones exhibit very similar or identical B cell receptors (BcR), often encoded by the same IG genes. These “stereotyped” BcRs have been classified into defined subsets. The presence of an IGHV gene somatic mutation and the utilization of a skewed gene repertoire compared with normal B cells together with the expression of stereotyped receptors by unmutated CLL clones may indicate stimulation/selection by antigenic epitopes. This antigenic stimulation may occur prior to or during neoplastic transformation, but it is unknown whether this stimulation/selection continues after leukemogenesis has ceased. In this study, we focused on seven CLL cases with stereotyped BcR Subset #8 found among a cohort of 700 patients; in six, the cells expressed IgG and utilized IGHV4-39 and IGKV1-39/IGKV1D-39 genes, as reported for Subset #8 BcR. One case exhibited special features, including expression of IgM or IgG by different subclones consequent to an isotype switch, allelic inclusion at the IGH locus in the IgM-expressing cells and a particular pattern of cytogenetic lesions. Collectively, the data indicate a process of antigenic stimulation/selection of the fully transformed CLL cells leading to the expansion of the Subset #8 IgG-bearing subclone. PMID:21541442

  11. The Impact of ATRA on Shaping Human Myeloid Cell Responses to Epithelial Cell-Derived Stimuli and on T-Lymphocyte Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Gogolak, Péter; Blottière, Hervé M.; Rajnavölgyi, Éva

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A plays an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but its interplay with chemokines has not been explored so far. Using an in vitro model system we studied the effects of human colonic epithelial cells (Caco2, HT-29, and HCT116) derived inflammatory stimuli on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Unstimulated Caco2 and HT-29 cells secreted CCL19, CCL21, and CCL22 chemokines, which could attract dendritic cells and macrophages and induced CCR7 receptor up-regulation by retinoic-acid resulting in dendritic cell migration. The chemokines Mk, CXCL16, and CXCL7 were secreted by all the 3 cell lines tested, and upon stimulation by IL-1β or TNF-α this effect was inhibited by ATRA but had no impact on CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL20 secretion in response to IL-1β. In the presence of ATRA the supernatants of these cells induced CD103 expression on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and when conditioned by ATRA and cocultured with CD4+ T-lymphocytes they reduced the proportion of Th17 T-cells. However, in the macrophage-T-cell cocultures the number of these effector T-cells was increased. Thus cytokine-activated colonic epithelial cells trigger the secretion of distinct combinations of chemokines depending on the proinflammatory stimulus and are controlled by retinoic acid, which also governs dendritic cell and macrophage responses. PMID:25944986

  12. Standards for Cell Line Authentication and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth D.; Plant, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    Different genomic technologies have been applied to cell line authentication, but only one method (short tandem repeat [STR] profiling) has been the subject of a comprehensive and definitive standard (ASN-0002). Here we discuss the power of this document and why standards such as this are so critical for establishing the consensus technical criteria and practices that can enable progress in the fields of research that use cell lines. We also examine other methods that could be used for authentication and discuss how a combination of methods could be used in a holistic fashion to assess various critical aspects of the quality of cell lines. PMID:27300367

  13. CCL25/CCR9 Signal Promotes Migration and Invasion in Hepatocellular and Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziqi; Sun, Tong; Chen, Yuxi; Gong, Shu; Sun, Xiye; Zou, Fangdong; Peng, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is one of the most lethal diseases worldwide, and metastasis is the most common cause of patients' deaths. Identification and inhibition of markers involved in metastasis process in cancer cells are promising works to block metastasis and improve prognoses of patients. Chemokines are a superfamily of small, chemotactic cytokines, whose functions are based on interaction with corresponding receptors. It has been found that one of the functions of chemokines is to regulate migration and invasion abilities of lymphocytes, as well as cancer cells. Chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) regulates trafficking of lymphocytes and cancer cell lines when interacting with its exclusive ligand chemokine 25 (CCL25). However, the mechanisms of CCL25/CCR9 signal that regulates metastasis of cancer cells are not completely known yet. In this study, we stimulated or inhibited CCL25/CCR9 signal in breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and hepatocellular cancer cell lines (HepG2 and HUH7), and found that CCL25/CCR9 signal resulted in different promotion of migration and invasion in different cell lines. These phenomena could be explained by selective regulation of several markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our findings suggested that CCL25/CCR9 signal may provide cancer cells with chemotactic abilities through influencing several EMT markers. PMID:27008282

  14. Effect of cell-derived growth factors and cytokines on the clonal outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells and established lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ifversen, P; Zhang, X M; Ohlin, M; Zeuthen, J; Borrebaeck, C A

    1993-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a potent inducer of polyclonal B lymphocyte proliferation and is widely used as a tool for the establishment of B cell lines producing human monoclonal antibodies. However, because of low transformability, low clonability, and the inherent instability of EBV-infected B cells, valuable antibody-producing B cells are often lost during this procedure. We have here examined various cell-derived cytokines for their ability to enhance both the cellular outgrowth of newly infected B cells and the clonability of infected B cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Our results show that the murine thymoma cell line EL-4 is superior to peripheral blood mononuclear cells in both cellular outgrowth and cloning experiments, whereas monocyte-derived factors and monocyte cell lines were less capable than peripheral blood mononuclear cells in enhancing cellular outgrowth and cloning. Furthermore, the human T cell hybridoma cell line MP6 that secretes a B cell growth and differentiation factor, recently identified as an isoform of thioredoxin, is also capable of stimulating EBV-infected B cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Co-cultivation of EBV-infected B cells with MP6 cells significantly enhanced the cloning efficiency at the 1 cell/well level. The present results also suggest that one potential role of the MP6-derived thioredoxin could be the up regulation of IL-6 receptor expression in EBV-infected B cells. PMID:8395232

  15. Variant antigenic peptide promotes cytotoxic T lymphocyte adhesion to target cells without cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shotton, David M.; Attaran, Amir

    1998-01-01

    Timelapse video microscopy has been used to record the motility and dynamic interactions between an H-2Db-restricted murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone (F5) and Db-transfected L929 mouse fibroblasts (LDb) presenting normal or variant antigenic peptides from human influenza nucleoprotein. F5 cells will kill LDb target cells presenting specific antigen (peptide NP68: ASNENMDAM) after “browsing” their surfaces for between 8 min and many hours. Cell death is characterized by abrupt cellular rounding followed by zeiosis (vigorous “boiling” of the cytoplasm and blebbing of the plasma membrane) for 10–20 min, with subsequent cessation of all activity. Departure of cytotoxic T lymphocytes from unkilled target cells is rare, whereas serial killing is sometimes observed. In the absence of antigenic peptide, cytotoxic T lymphocytes browse target cells for much shorter periods, and readily leave to encounter other targets, while never causing target cell death. Two variant antigenic peptides, differing in nonamer position 7 or 8, also act as antigens, albeit with lower efficiency. A third variant peptide NP34 (ASNENMETM), which differs from NP68 in both positions and yet still binds Db, does not stimulate F5 cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, timelapse video analysis shows that NP34 leads to a significant modification of cell behavior, by up-regulating F5–LDb adhesive interactions. These data extend recent studies showing that partial agonists may elicit a subset of the T cell responses associated with full antigen stimulation, by demonstrating that TCR interaction with variant peptide antigens can trigger target cell adhesion and surface exploration without activating the signaling pathway that results in cytotoxicity. PMID:9861010

  16. Nonspecific suppressor T cells cause decreased mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity in bone marrow transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, M.; Ueda, M.; Nakao, S.; Kondo, K.; Odaka, K.; Shiobara, S.; Matsue, K.; Mori, T.; Matsuda, T.

    1986-07-15

    Decreased reactivity in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was observed in patients within 1 yr after allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Suppressor activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from transplant patients was studied by adding these cells as modulator cells to a bidirectional MLC with cells from normal individuals. PBMC from transplant patients markedly suppressed MLC reactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppressor activity was present in cells forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. Treatment of modulator cells with monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens (OKT8, OKIa1) and complement completely abolished suppression of MLC. Suppressor activity was unaffected by 30 Gy irradiation. Suppressor activity declined gradually after transplantation and was inversely correlated with MLC reactivity of each patient at a significant level (p less than 0.01). These observations suggest that OKT8+ Ia+ radioresistant suppressor T cells play a role in the development of decreased MLC reactivity observed during the early post-transplant period.

  17. Pentostatin and Lymphocyte Infusion in Preventing Graft Rejection in Patients Who Have Undergone Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-29

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Graft Versus Host Disease; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  18. Synergy Between Intraepithelial Lymphocytes and Lamina Propria T Cells Drives Intestinal Inflammation During Infection

    PubMed Central

    Egan, C. E.; Maurer, K. J.; Cohen, S. B.; Mack, M.; Simpson, K. W.; Denkers, E. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Oral infection of C57BL/6 mice with Toxoplasma gondii triggers severe necrosis in the ileum within 7–10 days of infection. Lesion development is mediated by Th-1 cytokines, CD4+ T cells, and sub-epithelial bacterial translocation. As such, these features share similarity to Crohn’s disease. Recently, we uncovered a role for intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in mediating pathology after Toxoplasma infection. We show here that αβ and not γδ T cell IELs mediate intestinal damage. By adoptive transfer of mucosal T cells into naive Rag1−/− mice, we demonstrate that IEL do not function alone to cause inflammatory lesions, but act with CD4+ T lymphocytes from the lamina propria. Furthermore, recipient mice pretreated with broad-spectrum antibiotics to eliminate intestinal flora resisted intestinal disease after transfer of IEL and lamina propria lymphocytes. Our data provide valuable new insight into mechanisms of intestinal inflammation, findings that have important implications for understanding human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21796113

  19. Fibroblasts from different sites may promote or inhibit recruitment of flowing lymphocytes by endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    McGettrick, Helen M; Smith, Emily; Filer, Andrew; Kissane, Stephen; Salmon, Michael; Buckley, Christopher D; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B

    2009-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stromal fibroblasts modulate the ability of endothelial cells (EC) to recruit lymphocytes in a site-specific manner. PBL were perfused over HUVEC that had been cultured with fibroblasts isolated from the inflamed synovium or the skin of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, or from normal synovium, with or without exposure to the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha+IFN-gamma. Fibroblasts from inflamed synovium, but no others, caused unstimulated HUVEC to bind flowing lymphocytes. This adhesion was supported by alpha(4)beta(1)-VCAM-1 interaction and stabilised by activation of PBL through CXCR4-CXCL12. Antibody neutralisation of IL-6 during co-culture effectively abolished the ability of EC to bind lymphocytes. Cytokine-stimulated EC supported high levels of lymphocyte adhesion, through the presentation of VCAM-1, E-selectin and chemokine(s) acting through CXCR3. Interestingly, co-culture with dermal fibroblasts caused a marked reduction in cytokine-induced adhesion, while synovial fibroblasts had variable effects depending on their source. In the dermal co-cultures, neutralisation of IL-6 or TGF-beta caused partial recovery of cytokine-induced lymphocyte adhesion; this was complete when both were neutralised. Exogenous IL-6 was also found to inhibit response to TNF-alpha+IFN-gamma. Normal stromal fibroblasts appear to regulate the cytokine-sensitivity of vascular endothelium, while fibroblasts associated with chronic inflammation bypass this and develop a directly inflammatory phenotype. Actions of IL-6 might be pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory, depending on the local milieu. PMID:19130557

  20. Virus-lymphocyte interaction: T cells of the helper subset are infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus during persistent infection in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, R; King, C C; Oldstone, M B

    1987-01-01

    The lifelong persistence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in neonatally or congenitally infected mice is accompanied by a suppression of virus-specific T-cell responses. In this study, we identified the subset of T cells infected with LCMV during persistent infection in vivo. Using specific monoclonal antibodies to separate the different lymphocyte cell populations and employing both an infectious center assay and immunofluorescence to detect the virus, we found that infection is confined primarily to T cells of the helper subset (L3T4+ Lyt2-), with minimal involvement of cytotoxic T cells (Lyt2+ L3T4-) and mature B cells. About 0.54 to 1.1% of L3T4+ T cells were producing the virus, as determined by the infectious center assay. In contrast, 9.1 to 12.2% of these L3T4+ T cells contained viral antigen, as shown by immunofluorescence studies. This finding suggested that, at any given time, a substantial number of infected T cells were not producing infectious virus. This infection of T helper cells may be involved in the suppression of LCMV-specific T-cell responses observed in persistently infected mice. Images PMID:2952807

  1. The effect of stem cell from human exfoliated deciduous teeth on T lymphocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Razieh; Adib, Minoo; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Sadeghi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), a specific type of adult tissue stem cell; have the immunosuppressive effects that make them valuable targets for regenerative medicine and treatment of many human illnesses. Hence, MSC have been the subject of numerous studies. The classical source of MSC is adult bone marrow (BM). Due to many shortcomings of harvesting MSC from BM, finding the alternative sources for MSC is an urgent. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are relative new MSC populations that fulfill these criteria but their potential immunosuppressive effect has not been studied enough yet. Thus, in this work the effect of SHED on the proliferation of in vitro activated T lymphocytes were explored. Materials and Methods: In this study, both mitogen and alloantigen activated T cells were cultured in the presence of different numbers of SHED. In some co-cultures, activated T cells were in direct contact to MSCs and in other co-cultures; they were separated from SHED by a permeable membrane. In all co-cultures, the proliferation of T cells was measured by ELISA Bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay. Results: In general, our results showed that SHED significantly suppress the proliferation of activated T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the suppression was slightly stronger when MSCs were in physical contact to activated T cells. Conclusion: This study showed that SHED likewise other MSC populations can suppress the activation of T lymphocytes, which can be used instead of BM derived MSCs in many investigational and clinical applications. PMID:25337532

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of fluorescent lymphocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Jean; Maire, Eric; Jacquey, Serge; Schultz, Guy; Jung, Georges

    1995-01-01

    The complete process, image acquisition, deblurring, 3D reconstruction and analysis has been tested on 160 normal T lymphoid cells marked with monoclonal antibodies CD4-CD8. The images are acquired from a conventional optical microscope illuminated by a mercury vapor lamp. A set of 16 serial image cuts is first grabbed by a high sensitivity Silicon Intensified Target (SIT) camera fitted on the microscope. The 2D image cuts are then deblurred using an original deconvolution method developed in the laboratory. The 3D reconstruction is processed slice by slice using a variant of the 2D Delaunay triangulation. To get a correct triangulation in the case of our specific application the following stringent requirements must be met. First, we exclude the possibility of joining two contours if we meet an empty cut between them, and secondly we must avoid branching points and finally, we state that reconstructed shapes may not have holes. The 3D reconstruction highlights some qualitative characteristics of the cells. So we can show that the fluorescent spots are either scattered on the membrane surface and present a regular radial arrangement or on the contrary are confined in a restricted area. Accordingly we propose to introduce a spatial coefficient in order to characterize such a volume distribution. In a further development we plan to obtain discriminant descriptors of the immunological status of hematopoietic cells.

  3. Broad T-Cell Receptor Repertoire in T-Lymphocytes Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Lai, Yi-Shin; Lamb, Lawrence S.; Townes, Tim M.

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have enormous potential for the treatment of inherited and acquired disorders. Recently, antigen-specific T lymphocytes derived from hiPSCs have been reported. However, T lymphocyte populations with broad T cell receptor (TCR) diversity have not been generated. We report that hiPSCs derived from skin biopsy are capable of producing T lymphocyte populations with a broad TCR repertoire. In vitro T cell differentiation follows a similar developmental program as observed in vivo, indicated by sequential expression of CD7, intracellular CD3 and surface CD3. The γδ TCR locus is rearranged first and is followed by rearrangement of the αβ locus. Both γδ and αβ T cells display a diverse TCR repertoire. Upon activation, the cells express CD25, CD69, cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2) and cytolytic proteins (Perforin and Granzyme-B). These results suggest that most, if not all, mechanisms required to generate functional T cells with a broad TCR repertoire are intact in our in vitro differentiation protocol. These data provide a foundation for production of patient-specific T cells for the treatment of acquired or inherited immune disorders and for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24828440

  4. Target-Cell Contact Activates a Highly Selective Capacitative Calcium Entry Pathway in Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zweifach, Adam

    2000-01-01

    Calcium influx is critical for T cell activation. Evidence has been presented that T cell receptor–stimulated calcium influx in helper T lymphocytes occurs via channels activated as a consequence of depletion of intracellular calcium stores, a mechanism known as capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE). However, two key questions have not been addressed. First, the mechanism of calcium influx in cytotoxic T cells has not been examined. While the T cell receptor–mediated early signals in helper and cytotoxic T cells are similar, the physiology of the cells is strikingly different, raising the possibility that the mechanism of calcium influx is also different. Second, contact of T cells with antigen-presenting cells or targets involves a host of intercellular interactions in addition to those between antigen–MHC and the T cell receptor. The possibility that calcium influx pathways in addition to those activated via the T cell receptor may be activated by contact with relevant cells has not been addressed. We have used imaging techniques to show that target-cell–stimulated calcium influx in CTLs occurs primarily through CCE. We investigated the permeability of the CTL influx pathway for divalent cations, and compared it to the permeability of CCE in Jurkat human leukemic T cells. CCE in CTLs shows a similar ability to discriminate between calcium, barium, and strontium as CCE in Jurkat human leukemic T lymphocytes, where CCE is likely to mediated by Ca2+ release–activated Ca2+ current (CRAC) channels, suggesting that CRAC channels also underlie CCE in CTLs. These results are the first determination of the mechanism of calcium influx in cytotoxic T cells and the first demonstration that cell contact–mediated calcium signals in T cells occur via depletion-activated channels. PMID:10662784

  5. Suppression of hamster lymphocyte reactivity to simian virus 40 tumor surface antigens by spleen cells from pregnant hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Weppner, W.A.; Adkinson, L.R.; Coggin, J.H.Jr

    1980-09-01

    SV40-transformed tumor cells in hamsters have been found to have cell surface antigens cross-reactive with antigens temporally expressed on fetal tissues. Using a lymphocyte transformation assay, spleen cells from pregnant hamsters were found to be incapable of responding to preparations of either hamster fetal tissue or SV40-transformed cells. However, a suppressor component can be demonstrated in spleen cell populations of both primi-and multiparous hamsters during pregnancy that is capable of reducing the response of lymphocytes sensitized against SV40 tumor-associated antigens. The degree of suppression is proportional to the ratio of responder cells to spleen cells from pregnant animals. These results suggest there is a subpopulation of spleen cells involved in immunoregulation during pregnancy that has the ability to suppress the reactivity of lymphocytes sensitized against SV40-associated oncofetal antigens.

  6. Cell surface Glut1 levels distinguish human CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte subsets with distinct effector functions

    PubMed Central

    Cretenet, Gaspard; Clerc, Isabelle; Matias, Maria; Loisel, Severine; Craveiro, Marco; Oburoglu, Leal; Kinet, Sandrina; Mongellaz, Cédric; Dardalhon, Valérie; Taylor, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte activation requires the generation of sufficient energy to support new biosynthetic demands. Following T cell receptor (TCR) engagement, these requirements are met by an increased glycolysis, due, at least in part, to induction of the Glut1 glucose transporter. As Glut1 is upregulated on tumor cells in response to hypoxia, we assessed whether surface Glut1 levels regulate the antigen responsiveness of human T lymphocytes in both hypoxic and atmospheric oxygen conditions. Notably, Glut1 upregulation in response to TCR stimulation was significantly higher in T lymphocytes activated under hypoxic as compared to atmospheric oxygen conditions. Furthermore, TCR-stimulated human T lymphocytes sorted on the basis of Glut1-Lo and Glut1-Hi profiles maintained distinct characteristics, irrespective of the oxygen tension. While T cells activated in hypoxia divided less than those activated in atmospheric oxygen, Glut1-Hi lymphocytes exhibited increased effector phenotype acquisition, augmented proliferation, and an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio in both oxygen conditions. Moreover, Glut1-Hi T lymphocytes exhibited a significantly enhanced ability to produce IFN-γ and this secretion potential was completely dependent on continued glycolysis. Thus, Glut1 surface levels identify human T lymphocytes with distinct effector functions in both hypoxic and atmospheric oxygen tensions. PMID:27067254

  7. Cell-host, LINE and environment

    PubMed Central

    Del Re, Brunella; Giorgi, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Long interspersed nuclear elements -1 (LINEs, L1s) are retroelements occupying almost 17% of the human genome. L1 retrotransposition can cause deleterious effects on the host-cell and it is generally inhibited by suppressive mechanisms, but it can occur in some specific cells during early development as well as in some tumor cells and in the presence of several environmental factors. In a recent publication we reported that extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field can affect L1 retrotransposition in neuroblastoma cells. In this commentary we discuss the interaction between environment and L1 activity in the light of the new emerging paradigm of host-LINE relationship. PMID:23734298

  8. Immune T lymphocyte to tumor cell adhesion. Magnesium sufficient, calcium insufficient

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The prelytic adhesion of immune cytolytic thymus-derived lymphocytes to specific antigen-bearing ascites tumor target cells has been studied. A new assay was used in which adhesions are permitted to form for 2.5 min; the cells are then dispersed to prevent further adhesion, and the predispersion adhesions are quantitated by subsequent 51Cr release from the tumor cells as a result of cytolytic activity of the adhering lymphocytes. There were the following new findings: (a) magnesium is sufficient to support optimal adhesion formation even when EGTA is added to remove contaminating traces of calcium; (b) calcium supports no adhesion formation when traces of contaminating magnesium are removed by pretreating the medium with a chelating ion exchange resin; (c) calcium synergizes with suboptimal magnesium, increasing the apparent adhesion-supporting potency of magnesium 20-fold in the presence of 50 microM calcium; (d) in the presence of optimal magnesium (2--4 mM), calcium has not effect on the properties of the adhesion by any of six criteria; and (e) manganese supports adhesion better than magnesium, and strontium is ineffective. A survey of previous literature indicates that these results are remarkably similar to the predominant pattern for nonimmunologic cell adhesion (e.g., fibroblasts) involving cells from a variety of tissues in late embryonic and adult avians and mammals. This suggests that a "magnesium sufficient, calcium insufficient" mechanism may be found among the latter types of cell adhesions when appropriately examined. Moreover, it seems that the present lymphocyte-tumor cell adhesion, although evoked by specific receptor-antigen recognition, relies predominantly on mechanisms common to nonimmunologic intercellular adhesion processes. PMID:6766945

  9. Extracellular HMGB1 promotes differentiation of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jia, Li; Clear, Andrew; Liu, Feng-Ting; Matthews, Janet; Uddin, Nadiha; McCarthy, Aine; Hoxha, Elena; Durance, Catherine; Iqbal, Sameena; Gribben, John G

    2014-03-13

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease of an accumulation of mature B cells that are highly dependent on the microenvironment for maintenance and expansion. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms whereby CLL cells create their favorable microenvironment for survival. High-mobility group protein B-1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved nuclear protein that can be actively secreted by innate immune cells and passively released by injured or dying cells. We found significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the plasma of CLL patients compared with healthy controls, and HMGB1 concentration is associated with absolute lymphocyte count. We therefore sought to determine potential roles of HMGB1 in modulating the CLL microenvironment. CLL cells passively released HMGB1, and the timing and concentrations of HMGB1 in the medium were associated with differentiation of nurse-like cells (NLCs). Higher CD68 expression in CLL lymph nodes, one of the markers for NLCs, was associated with shorter overall survival of CLL patients. HMGB1-mediated NLC differentiation involved internalization of both receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9). Differentiation of NLCs can be prevented by blocking the HMGB1-RAGE-TLR9 pathway. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that CLL cells might modulate their microenvironment by releasing HMGB1. PMID:24464016

  10. Different forms of human vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) in blood vessels in vivo and in cultured endothelial cells: implications for lymphocyte-endothelial cell adhesion models.

    PubMed

    Salmi, M; Jalkanen, S

    1995-10-01

    Vascular endothelium plays a pivotal role in controlling leukocyte extravasation from the blood into the tissues. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a novel endothelial cell molecule which mediates lymphocyte binding to the vascular lining (Salmi, M., and Jalkanen, S., Science 1992. 257:1407). In this study, we analyzed endothelial cell type-specific differences of VAP-1. In vivo, VAP-1 is a 90/170-kDa molecule which is mainly expressed on the lumenal surface and in cytoplasmic granules of peripheral lymph node-type postcapillary venules (high endothelial venules, HEV). In tonsil HEV, VAP-1 is modified with abundant sialic acids. VAP-1 is also detectable in the cytoplasm of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in an endothelial cell hybrid EaHy-926, although both cell types lack detectable surface VAP-1. Cultured endothelial cells do not express MECA-79-defined peripheral lymph node addressins either. VAP-1 was not translocated onto the endothelial cell surface after stimulation with multiple cytokines, mitogens or secretagogues which induced expression of other known endothelial adhesion molecules. Biochemical analyses revealed that VAP-1 is a approximately 180-kDa protein in these endothelial cell types. Digestions with neuraminidase, O-glycanase and N-glycanase, as well as treatment of cells with tunicamycin and benzyl-N-acetylgalactosaminide, did not alter the molecular mass of VAP-1 in EaHy-926. Pulse-chase experiments showed that VAP-1 is directly synthesized as a 180-kDa molecule without any detectable precursors. Thus, in cultured endothelial cells, VAP-1 is a 180-kDa protein which is devoid of post-translational modifications, and in particular, lacks the sialic acids crucial for the function of VAP-1 in tonsil vessels. Notably, the endothelial cell types commonly used as a model in studying lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions lack surface expression of VAP-1 and peripheral node addressins, and hence are inherently of limited use in

  11. Diazoxide attenuates autoimmune encephalomyelitis and modulates lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell functionality.

    PubMed

    Virgili, N; Mancera, P; Chanvillard, C; Wegner, A; Wappenhans, B; Rodríguez, M J; Infante-Duarte, C; Espinosa-Parrilla, J F; Pugliese, M

    2014-09-01

    Activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels is postulated as an effective mechanism to confer cardio and neuroprotection, especially in situations associated to oxidative stress. Pharmacological activation of these channels inhibits glia-mediated neuroinflammation. In this way, diazoxide, an old-known mitochondrial KATP channel opener, has been proposed as an effective and safe treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases, demonstrating efficacy in different animal models, including the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for Multiple Sclerosis. Although neuroprotection and modulation of glial reactivity could alone explain the positive effects of diazoxide administration in EAE mice, little is known of its effects on the immune system and the autoimmune reaction that triggers the EAE pathology. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of diazoxide in autoimmune key processes related with EAE, such as antigen presentation and lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Results show that, although diazoxide treatment inhibited in vitro and ex-vivo lymphocyte proliferation from whole splenocytes it had no effect in isolated CD4(+) T cells. In any case, treatment had no impact in lymphocyte activation. Diazoxide can also slightly decrease CD83, CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II expression in cultured dendritic cells, demonstrating a possible role in modulating antigen presentation. Taken together, our results indicate that diazoxide treatment attenuates autoimmune encephalomyelitis pathology without immunosuppressive effect. PMID:24939091

  12. T lymphocyte lines and clones selected against synthetic myelin basic protein 82-102 peptide from Japanese multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Inobe, J; Yamamura, T; Kunishita, T; Tabira, T

    1993-07-01

    As has been indicated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the application of synthetic peptides for the selection of T cell lines may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We report here on T cell lines/clones generated from peripheral blood of MS patients against an immunodominant myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 82-102. This study demonstrates that the selection of T cell lines against the MBP peptide is much more efficient than against whole MBP in generating a large panel of T cell lines/clones, and therefore provides a powerful strategy for studying autoimmune T cell repertoire in individual subjects. The peptide-selected lines and clones recognized MBP 82-102, shorter peptides MBP 89-101, 89-100 and guinea pig whole MBP mainly in the context of HLA-DR, but did not cross-recognize virus-derived peptides homologous to MBP 82-102. Seven out of ten clones were found to recognize MBP 82-102 in the absence of autologous antigen presenting cells (APC), and in three of the seven clones, specificity for MBP 82-102 could be demonstrated only in the absence of APC because of their strong reactivity against autologous APC. Two-color flow cytometry revealed that the clones were heterogeneous with regard to expression of CD4 and CD8 molecules. Overall, the clones selected by the peptide were rather heterogeneous in phenotype and function compared with those selected by whole MBP. PMID:7689597

  13. A rapid and sensitive fluorometric microassay for determining cell mediated cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Krasagakes, S; Garbe, C; Kossman, P; Orfanos, C E

    1992-11-25

    In order to measure cell mediated cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines in vitro more rapidly and conveniently, a fluorometric microassay was developed and results were compared with those obtained by the 51Cr release assay. The fluorometric method is based on the hydrolysis of the fluorochrome 4-methylumbelliferyl heptanoate (MUH) by intracellular esterases of viable cells. Melanoma cell monolayers were incubated with lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells for 4 h at various effector: target (E:T) cell ratios (E:T = 16, 8, 4, 2:1). Thereafter surviving adherent melanoma cells were stained with MUH for 30 min and fluorescence was measured directly in a 96 well plate reader. For the calculation of LAK cell cytotoxicity fluorescence values were corrected for the number of nonspecifically detached tumor cells during the washes and the number of nonspecifically adherent LAK cells. Using identical target and effector cell preparations both assays showed a nearly proportional increase of percentage cytotoxicity with rising numbers of lymphocytes. Compared with the 51Cr release assay, however, higher cytotoxicity values were obtained with the fluorometric MUH microassay: 57% with MUH versus 26% with 51Cr and 39% versus 14% for cell lines StML-11 and SKMel-28, respectively (E:T ratio = 16:1). The higher cytotoxicity rates obtained with the fluorometric MUH microassay were not due to the additional 30 min staining with MUH or due to nonspecific hydrolysis of MUH by extracellular esterases released from damaged cells, as could be shown by a series of experiments. In conclusion, a simple and rapid fluorometric microassay has been developed showing reliable reproducibility and a higher sensitivity compared with the 51Cr release assay for the determination of cellular cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines, avoiding hazardous radioactive labels. PMID:1431156

  14. Surface expression of functional T cell receptor chains formed by interlocus recombination on human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Davodeau, F; Peyrat, M A; Gaschet, J; Hallet, M M; Triebel, F; Vié, H; Kabelitz, D; Bonneville, M

    1994-11-01

    Structural diversity of lymphocyte antigen receptors (the immunoglobulin [Ig] of B cells and the alpha/beta or gamma/delta T cell receptor [TCR] of T cells) is generated through somatic rearrangements of V, D, and J gene segments. Classically, these recombination events involve gene segments from the same Ig or TCR locus. However, occurrence of "trans" rearrangements between distinct loci has also been described, although in no instances was the surface expression of the corresponding protein under normal physiological conditions demonstrated. Here we show that hybrid TCR genes generated by trans rearrangement between V gamma and (D) J beta elements are translated into functional antigen receptor chains, paired with TCR alpha chains. Like classical alpha/beta T cells, cells expressing these hybrid TCR chains express either CD4 or CD8 coreceptors and are frequently alloreactive. These results have several implications in terms of T cell repertoire selection and relationships between TCR structure and specificity. First, they suggest that TCR alloreactivity is determined by the repertoire selection processes operating during lymphocyte development rather than by structural features specific to V alpha V beta regions. Second, they suggest the existence of close structural relationships between gamma/delta and alpha/beta TCR and more particularly, between V gamma and V beta regions. Finally, since a significant fraction of PBL (at least 1/10(4)) expressed hybrid TCR chains on their surface, these observations indicate that trans rearrangements significantly contribute to the combinatorial diversification of the peripheral immune repertoire. PMID:7964454

  15. Dissecting eukaryotic cells by coherent phase microscopy: quantitative analysis of quiescent and activated T lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Kretushev, Alexander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatiana V.; Shtil, Alexander A.

    2012-07-01

    We present a concept for quantitative characterization of a functional state of an individual eukaryotic cell based on interference imaging. The informative parameters of the phase images of quiescent and mitogen-activated T lymphocytes included the phase thickness, phase volume, the area, and the size of organelles. These parameters were obtained without a special hypothesis about cell structure. Combinations of these parameters generated a ``phase portrait'' of the cell. A simplified spherical multilayer optic model of a T lymphocyte was used to calculate the refractivity profile, to identify structural elements of the image with the organelles, and to interpret the parameters of the phase portrait. The values of phase image parameters underwent characteristic changes in the course of mitogenic stimulation of T cells; thereby, the functional state of individual cells can be described using these parameters. Because the values of the components of the phase portrait are measured in absolute units, it is possible to compare the parameters of images obtained with different interference microscopes. Thus, the analysis of phase portraits provides a new and perspective approach for quantitative, real-time analysis of subcellular structure and physiologic state of an individual cell.

  16. DEXAMETHASONE DIFFERENTIALLY DOWN-REGULATES L-SELECTIN (CD62L) EXPRESSION BY BOVINE LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS IN VIVO AND DEPLETES THE INTESTINAL MUCOSA OF INTRAEPITHELIAL GAMMA DELTA CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hallmark of immune modulation by dexamethasone (DEX) is the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation. DEX also alters the expression of adhesion molecules on bovine lymphocytes. Although intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) mainly are non-proliferating cells, we hypothesized that DEX treatment of ca...

  17. Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in the tumor microenviroment: A review of the in vitro and clinical trials to date.

    PubMed

    Crassini, Kyle; Mulligan, Stephen P; Best, O Giles

    2015-08-16

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the western world. Despite significant advances in therapy over the last decade CLL remains incurable. Current front-line therapy often consists of chemoimmunotherapy-based regimens, most commonly the fludarabine, cyclophosphamide plus rituximab combination, but rates of relapse and refractory disease are high among these patients. Several key signaling pathways are now known to mediate the survival and proliferation of CLL cells in vivo, the most notable of which are the pathways mediated by the B-cell receptor (BCR) and cytokine receptors. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the underlying biology of the CLL-cell and the roles of the tumour microenvironment has provided the rationale for trials of a range of novel, more targeted therapeutic agents. In particular, clinical trials of ibrutinib and idelalisib, which target the Brutons tyrosine kinase and the delta isoform of phosphoinositol-3 kinase components of the BCR signaling pathway respectively, have shown extremely promising results. Here we review the current literature on the key signaling pathways and interactions of CLL cells that mediate the survival and proliferation of the leukemic cells. For each we describe the results of the recent clinical trials and in vitro studies of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:26301230

  18. Targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in the tumor microenviroment: A review of the in vitro and clinical trials to date

    PubMed Central

    Crassini, Kyle; Mulligan, Stephen P; Best, O Giles

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the western world. Despite significant advances in therapy over the last decade CLL remains incurable. Current front-line therapy often consists of chemoimmunotherapy-based regimens, most commonly the fludarabine, cyclophosphamide plus rituximab combination, but rates of relapse and refractory disease are high among these patients. Several key signaling pathways are now known to mediate the survival and proliferation of CLL cells in vivo, the most notable of which are the pathways mediated by the B-cell receptor (BCR) and cytokine receptors. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the underlying biology of the CLL-cell and the roles of the tumour microenvironment has provided the rationale for trials of a range of novel, more targeted therapeutic agents. In particular, clinical trials of ibrutinib and idelalisib, which target the Brutons tyrosine kinase and the delta isoform of phosphoinositol-3 kinase components of the BCR signaling pathway respectively, have shown extremely promising results. Here we review the current literature on the key signaling pathways and interactions of CLL cells that mediate the survival and proliferation of the leukemic cells. For each we describe the results of the recent clinical trials and in vitro studies of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:26301230

  19. Difference in Membrane Repair Capacity Between Cancer Cell Lines and a Normal Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K; Novak, Ivana; McNeil, Paul L; Gehl, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Electroporation-based treatments and other therapies that permeabilize the plasma membrane have been shown to be more devastating to malignant cells than to normal cells. In this study, we asked if a difference in repair capacity could explain this observed difference in sensitivity. Membrane repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique, providing a sensitive index of repair capacity. The normal primary cell line of all tested cell lines exhibited the slowest rate of dye entry after laser disruption and lowest level of dye uptake. Significantly, more rapid dye uptake and a higher total level of dye uptake occurred in six of the seven tested cancer cell lines (p < 0.05) as well as the immortalized cell line (p < 0.001). This difference in sensitivity was also observed when a viability assay was performed one day after plasma membrane permeabilization by electroporation. Viability in the primary normal cell line (98 % viable cells) was higher than in the three tested cancer cell lines (81-88 % viable cells). These data suggest more effective membrane repair in normal, primary cells and supplement previous explanations why electroporation-based therapies and other therapies permeabilizing the plasma membrane are more effective on malignant cells compared to normal cells in cancer treatment. PMID:27312328

  20. Relation between clinical mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood and their spatial label free scattering patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Li

    2016-07-01

    A single living cell's light scattering pattern (LSP) in the horizontal plane, which has been denoted as the cell's "2D fingerprint," may provide a powerful label-free detection tool in clinical applications. We have recently studied the LSP in spatial scattering planes, denoted as the cell's "3D fingerprint," for mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood. The effects of membrane size, morphology, and the existence of the nucleus on the spatial LSP are discussed. In order to distinguish clinical label-free mature and immature lymphocytes, the special features of the spatial LSP are studied by statistical method in both the spatial and frequency domains. Spatial LSP provides rich information on the cell's morphology and contents, which can distinguish mature from immature lymphocyte cells and hence ultimately it may be a useful label-free technique for clinical leukemia diagnosis.

  1. Relation between clinical mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood and their spatial label free scattering patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Li

    2016-07-01

    A single living cell's light scattering pattern (LSP) in the horizontal plane, which has been denoted as the cell's "2D fingerprint," may provide a powerful label-free detection tool in clinical applications. We have recently studied the LSP in spatial scattering planes, denoted as the cell's "3D fingerprint," for mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood. The effects of membrane size, morphology, and the existence of the nucleus on the spatial LSP are discussed. In order to distinguish clinical label-free mature and immature lymphocytes, the special features of the spatial LSP are studied by statistical method in both the spatial and frequency domains. Spatial LSP provides rich information on the cell's morphology and contents, which can distinguish mature from immature lymphocyte cells and hence ultimately it may be a useful label-free technique for clinical leukemia diagnosis. PMID:27475572

  2. Serglycin determines secretory granule repertoire and regulates natural killer cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Vivien R; Brennan, Amelia J; Ellis, Sarah; Danne, Jill; Thia, Kevin; Jenkins, Misty R; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Pejler, Gunnar; Johnstone, Ricky W; Andrews, Daniel M; Trapani, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    The anionic proteoglycan serglycin is a major constituent of secretory granules in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)/natural killer (NK) cells, and is proposed to promote the safe storage of the mostly cationic granule toxins, granzymes and perforin. Despite the extensive defects of mast cell function reported in serglycin gene-disrupted mice, no comprehensive study of physiologically relevant CTL/NK cell populations has been reported. We show that the cytotoxicity of serglycin-deficient CTL and NK cells is severely compromised but can be partly compensated in both cell types when they become activated. Reduced intracellular granzyme B levels were noted, particularly in CD27(+) CD11b(+) mature NK cells, whereas serglycin(-/-) TCR-transgenic (OTI) CD8 T cells also had reduced perforin stores. Culture supernatants from serglycin(-/-) OTI T cells and interleukin-2-activated NK contained increased granzyme B, linking reduced storage with heightened export. By contrast, granzyme A was not significantly reduced in cells lacking serglycin, indicating differentially regulated trafficking and/or storage for the two granzymes. A quantitative analysis of different granule classes by transmission electronmicroscopy showed a selective loss of dense-core granules in serglycin(-/-) CD8(+) CTLs, although other granule types were maintained quantitatively. The findings of the present study show that serglycin plays a critical role in the maturation of dense-core cytotoxic granules in cytotoxic lymphocytes and the trafficking and storage of perforin and granzyme B, whereas granzyme A is unaffected. The skewed retention of cytotoxic effector molecules markedly reduces CTL/NK cell cytotoxicity, although this is partly compensated for as a result of activating the cells by physiological means. PMID:26756195

  3. Manufacture of tumor- and virus-specific T lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Rivière, I

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and genetically engineered T lymphocytes expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or conventional alpha/beta T-cell receptors (TCRs), collectively termed adoptive cell therapy (ACT), is an emerging novel strategy to treat cancer patients. Application of ACT has been constrained by the ability to isolate and expand functional tumor-reactive T cells. The transition of ACT from a promising experimental regimen to an established standard of care treatment relies largely on the establishment of safe, efficient, robust and cost-effective cell manufacturing protocols. The manufacture of cellular products under current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) has a critical role in the process. Herein, we review current manufacturing methods for the large-scale production of clinical-grade TILs, virus-specific and genetically modified CAR or TCR transduced T cells in the context of phase I/II clinical trials as well as the regulatory pathway to get these complex personalized cellular products to the clinic. PMID:25721207

  4. Growth hormone protects human lymphocytes from irradiation-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Lempereur, Laurence; Brambilla, Daria; Maria Scoto, Giovanna; D'Alcamo, Maria; Goffin, Vincent; Crosta, Lucia; Palmucci, Tullio; Rampello, Liborio; Bernardini, Renato; Cantarella, Giuseppina

    2003-01-01

    Undesired effects of cancer radiotherapy mainly affect the hematopoietic system. Growth hormone (GH) participates in both hematopoiesis and modulation of the immune response. We report both r-hGH cell death prevention and restoration of secretory capacities of irradiated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in vitro. r-hGH induced cell survival and increased proliferation of irradiated cells. Western blot analysis indicated that these effects of GH were paralleled by increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. r-hGH restored mitogen-stimulated release of IL-2 by PBL. Preincubation of irradiated lymphocytes with the growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonists B2036 and G120 K abrogated r-hGH-dependent IL-2 release. These results demonstrate that r-hGH protects irradiated PBL from death in a specific, receptor-mediated manner. Such effect of r-hGH on PBL involves activation of the antiapoptotic gene bcl-2 and prevention of cell death, associated with preserved functional cell capacity. Finally, potential use of GH as an immunopotentiating agent could be envisioned during radiation therapy of cancer. PMID:12721095

  5. Manufacture of tumor- and virus-specific T lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Rivière, I

    2015-03-01

    Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and genetically engineered T lymphocytes expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or conventional alpha/beta T-cell receptors (TCRs), collectively termed adoptive cell therapy (ACT), is an emerging novel strategy to treat cancer patients. Application of ACT has been constrained by the ability to isolate and expand functional tumor-reactive T cells. The transition of ACT from a promising experimental regimen to an established standard of care treatment relies largely on the establishment of safe, efficient, robust and cost-effective cell manufacturing protocols. The manufacture of cellular products under current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) has a critical role in the process. Herein, we review current manufacturing methods for the large-scale production of clinical-grade TILs, virus-specific and genetically modified CAR or TCR transduced T cells in the context of phase I/II clinical trials as well as the regulatory pathway to get these complex personalized cellular products to the clinic. PMID:25721207

  6. Establishment and characterization of a highly immunogenic human renal carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Prattichizzo, Clelia; Gigante, Margherita; Pontrelli, Paola; Stella, Alessandro; Rocchetti, Maria Teresa; Gigante, Maddalena; Maiorano, Eugenio; Herr, Wolfgang; Battaglia, Michele; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ranieri, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer, and accounts for ~3% of all adult malignancies. RCC has proven refractory to conventional treatment modalities but appears to be the only histological form that shows any consistent response to immunotherapeutic approaches. The development of a clinically effective vaccine remains a major strategic target for devising active specific immunotherapy in RCC. We aimed to identify a highly immunogenic antigenic format for immunotherapeutic approaches, so as to boost immune responses in RCC patients. We established and cloned an immunogenic cell line, RCC85#21 named Elthem, which was derived from a non-aggressive and non-metastatic clear cell carcinoma. The cell line characterization was performed by genomics (real-time PCR, genome instability), proteomics (two dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry) and immunological analysis (mixed lymphocytes tumor cell cultures). Real-time PCR confirmed the RCC85#21 cell expression of tumor antigens and cytokine genes. No difference in microsatellite instability (MSI) in RCC85#21 cell line was found as compared to control, loss of heterozygosity was observed in the RCC85#21 clone, but not in the renal cancer cell lines from which it was generated. The image analysis of RCC85#21 by two-dimensional gels showed 700±26 spots and 119 spots were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. RCC85#21 promoted a significant RCC-specific T cells activation by exhibiting a cytotoxic phenotype after mixed lymphocyte and tumor cell cultures. CD8+ T cells isolated from RCC patients displayed an elevated reactivity against RCC85#21 and efficiently lysed the RCC85#21 clone. The RCC85#21 immunogenic cell line will be suitable for immune stimulation. The identification of novel tumor associated antigens will allow the evaluation of the immune response in vitro and, subsequently, in vivo paving the way for new immunotherapeutic strategies in the RCC setting. PMID:27278998

  7. Establishment and characterization of a highly immunogenic human renal carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Prattichizzo, Clelia; Gigante, Margherita; Pontrelli, Paola; Stella, Alessandro; Rocchetti, Maria Teresa; Gigante, Maddalena; Maiorano, Eugenio; Herr, Wolfgang; Battaglia, Michele; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ranieri, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer, and accounts for ~3% of all adult malignancies. RCC has proven refractory to conventional treatment modalities but appears to be the only histological form that shows any consistent response to immunotherapeutic approaches. The development of a clinically effective vaccine remains a major strategic target for devising active specific immunotherapy in RCC. We aimed to identify a highly immunogenic antigenic format for immunotherapeutic approaches, so as to boost immune responses in RCC patients. We established and cloned an immunogenic cell line, RCC85#21 named Elthem, which was derived from a non-aggressive and non-metastatic clear cell carcinoma. The cell line characterization was performed by genomics (real-time PCR, genome instability), proteomics (two dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectro-metry) and immunological analysis (mixed lymphocytes tumor cell cultures). Real-time PCR confirmed the RCC85#21 cell expression of tumor antigens and cytokine genes. No difference in microsatellite instability (MSI) in RCC85#21 cell line was found as compared to control, loss of heterozygosity was observed in the RCC85#21 clone, but not in the renal cancer cell lines from which it was generated. The image analysis of RCC85#21 by two-dimensional gels showed 700±26 spots and 119 spots were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. RCC85#21 promoted a significant RCC-specific T cells activation by exhibiting a cytotoxic phenotype after mixed lymphocyte and tumor cell cultures. CD8+ T cells isolated from RCC patients displayed an elevated reactivity against RCC85#21 and efficiently lysed the RCC85#21 clone. The RCC85#21 immunogenic cell line will be suitable for immune stimulation. The identification of novel tumor associated antigens will allow the evaluation of the immune response in vitro and, subsequently, in vivo paving the way for new immunotherapeutic strategies in the RCC setting. PMID:27278998

  8. Marginal zone B cells: virtues of innatelike antibody-producing lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Andrea; Cols, Montserrat; Puga, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Protective responses to microorganisms involve the nonspecific but rapid defence mechanisms of the innate immune system, followed by the specific but slow defence mechanisms of the adaptive immune system. Located as sentinels at the interface between the circulation and lymphoid tissue, splenic marginal zone B cells rapidly respond to blood-borne antigens by adopting ‘crossover’ defensive strategies that blur the conventional boundaries of innate and adaptive immunity. This Review discusses how marginal zone B cells function as innate-like lymphocytes that mount rapid antibody responses to both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antigens. These responses require the integration of activation signals from germline-encoded and somatically recombined receptors for microorganisms with helper signals from effector cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:23348416

  9. T cells recognizing leukemic CD34+ progenitor cells mediate the antileukemic effect of donor lymphocyte infusions for relapsed chronic myeloid leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Willem M.; Rijnbeek, Marion; van Bergen, Cornelis A. M.; Fibbe, Willem E.; Willemze, Roel; Falkenburg, J. H. Frederik

    1998-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) is an effective treatment for relapsed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. To identify the effector and target cell populations responsible for the elimination of the leukemic cells in vivo we developed an assay to measure the frequency of T lymphocyte precursor cells capable of suppressing leukemic progenitor cells. Target cells in this assay were CML cells that were cultured in the presence of stem cell factor, interleukin 3, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and erythropoietin. [3H]thymidine incorporation at day 7 represented the proliferation of the progeny of the CD34+ CML progenitor cells, and not of the more mature CD34− CML cells. Effector cells were mononuclear cells, which were used in a limiting dilution analysis to measure the frequencies of CML progenitor cell-inhibitory lymphocyte precursors (PCILp) in peripheral blood of seven patients before and after DLI for relapsed CML. In the six patients who entered complete remission, a 5- to 100-fold increase of PCILp was found during the clinical response. In the patient with resistant relapse the frequency of PCILp was <10 per ml before and after DLI. Leukemia-reactive helper T lymphocyte precursor frequencies remained unchanged after DLI. A significant increase in cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequency against more mature leukemic cells was found in only two responding patients. These results indicate that T cells specifically directed against CD34+ CML progenitor cells mediate the antileukemic effect of DLI. PMID:9707616

  10. Higher infused lymphocyte dose predicts higher lymphocyte recovery, which in turn, predicts superior overall survival following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hiwase, Devendra K; Hiwase, Smita; Bailey, Michael; Bollard, Geraldine; Schwarer, Anthony P

    2008-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard of care for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) younger than 70 years. However, despite this aggressive therapy most patients will still die of progressive disease. Recent reports have suggested that lymphocyte recovery is an important predictor of relapse or progressive disease in a number of hematologic malignancies including MM. We have conducted retrospective analysis of factors that could predict overall (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in patients with MM who had ASCT. One hundred nineteen patients with multiple myeloma underwent ASCT. The median OS and PFS were 64 and 32 months, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 following ASCT (ALC-30), international staging system (ISS) stage at diagnosis, and age at diagnosis significantly influenced OS and PFS following ASCT. OS (96 versus 48 months, P = .04) and PFS (43 versus 29 months, P = .03) following ASCT were higher in patients with ALC-30 >or=1.0 x 10(9)/L compared to patients ALC-30 <1.0 x 10(9)/L. Higher ALC-60, ALC-100, ALC-180, and ALC-365 did not predict superior OS and PFS. Patients with early-stage disease had significantly higher OS (ISS stages I, II, and III: 96, 53, and 29 months, respectively; P = .0023) and PFS (ISS stages I, II, and III: 55.5, 31, and 12 months, respectively; P = .027) compared to patients with advanced-stage disease at diagnosis. On univariate analysis, the type of initial chemotherapy (melphalan, VAD, PCAB), lymphocyte count on day of leukapheresis, and the lymphocyte dose infused (LY-DO) significantly influenced lymphocyte recovery following ASCT. Patients who received higher lymphocyte dose (LY-DO) >or=0.2 x 10(9)/kg had higher median ALC-15 (0.25 versus 0.19 x 10(9)/L; P = .3), ALC-30 (1.20 versus 0.99 x 10(9)/L; P = .08), ALC-60 (1.90 versus 1.01 x 10(9)/L; P = .013), ALC-100 (1.58 versus 1.03 x 10

  11. Synthesis of a novel cytokine and its gene (LD78) expressions in hematopoietic fresh tumor cells and cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamura, Y; Hattori, T; Obaru, K; Sakai, K; Asou, N; Takatsuki, K; Ohmoto, Y; Nomiyama, H; Shimada, K

    1989-01-01

    The gene coding for the protein LD78 was isolated from stimulated human tonsillar lymphocytes by differential hybridization. The gene product consisted of 92 amino acids with characteristics of cytokines. LD78 gene transcripts were detected in eight of eight fresh samples of cells from patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) by Northern blot analysis. ANLL cells with monocytic features gave the strongest bands. RNA transcripts were found in two of three samples of cells from patients with adult T cell leukemia (ATL), eight of nine samples from patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) of B cell lineage, and one of the three samples from patients with T cell ALL. KG-1, HL-60, HUT 102, MT-2, and MJ cell lines expressed the LD78 gene constitutively. The LD78 protein was detected in culture supernatants and cell lysates of HUT 102, MT-2, MJ, and fresh ATL cells by Western blot analysis. This protein was not found in culture supernatants or cell lysates of monocytic leukemia cells and HL-60 cells, although LD78 transcripts were found in those cells. The discrepancy between gene and protein expression might be explained by the stability of the mRNA. Thus, the protein may be involved in the neoplastic transformation of hematopoietic cells. Images PMID:2687328

  12. Lysosomotropic agents selectively target chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells due to altered sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dielschneider, R F; Eisenstat, H; Mi, S; Curtis, J M; Xiao, W; Johnston, J B; Gibson, S B

    2016-06-01

    Lysosome membrane permeabilization (LMP) mediates cell death in a variety of cancer cells. However, little is known about lysosomes and LMP in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Owing to drug resistance and toxicity in CLL patients, better treatment strategies are required. Our results show that CLL cells were sensitive to the lysosomotropic agent siramesine. Furthermore, this drug was more effective in CLL cells, regardless of prognostic factors, compared with normal B cells. Siramesine caused LMP, lipid peroxidation and transcription factor EB nuclear translocation followed by mitochondrial membrane potential loss and reactive oxygen species release. Siramesine-induced cell death was blocked by lipid antioxidants, but not by soluble antioxidants or protease inhibitors. To determine whether CLL cells had altered lysosomes, we investigated sphingolipid metabolism as the lysosome is a hub for lipid metabolism. We found that CLL cells had more lysosomes, increased sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 1 (SPP1) expression, and increased levels of sphingosine compared with normal B cells. Raising sphingosine levels increased LMP and cell death in CLL cells, but not in normal B cells. Together, these results show that excess sphingosine in CLL cells could contribute to their sensitivity toward LMP. Thus, targeting the lysosome could be a novel therapeutic strategy in CLL. PMID:26859075

  13. Dequalinium induces apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from human chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pajuelo, Lucia; Calviño, Eva; Diez, Jose Carlos; Boyano-Adánez, Maria Del Carmen; Gil, Juana; Sancho, Pilar

    2011-12-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is an abnormal neoplasic proliferation of B cells, which accumulate mainly in the bone marrow and blood preventing both B cells development in the lymph nodes and the ability to fight against infection. The antitumor agents used in chemotherapy are aimed at inducing malignant cell death, thus limiting the growth and spreading of these cells. However, the lack of specificity for tumor cells exhibited by these agents causes undesirable side effects that have led to the investigation of new therapeutic strategies designed to specifically target malignant cells and thus trigger selective cell destruction. Dequalinium (DQA) is an antitumoral agent that selectively accumulates in the mitochondria and has been shown to display anticancer activity in cells from different malignancies. In the present study, the DQA-induced cytotoxicity in B-CLL cells was analyzed by measuring cell viability and cell death, either by necrosis or apoptosis. Our results support the importance of DQA as a selective and potential antileukemic drug with a higher cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from B-CLL patients than in those from healthy donors and encourage the performance of further studies in combination with other agents. PMID:20524037

  14. Longitudinal multiparameter assay of lymphocyte interactions from onset by microfluidic cell pairing and culture.

    PubMed

    Dura, Burak; Servos, Mariah M; Barry, Rachel M; Ploegh, Hidde L; Dougan, Stephanie K; Voldman, Joel

    2016-06-28

    Resolving how the early signaling events initiated by cell-cell interactions are transduced into diverse functional outcomes necessitates correlated measurements at various stages. Typical approaches that rely on bulk cocultures and population-wide correlations, however, only reveal these relationships broadly at the population level, not within each individual cell. Here, we present a microfluidics-based cell-cell interaction assay that enables longitudinal investigation of lymphocyte interactions at the single-cell level through microfluidic cell pairing, on-chip culture, and multiparameter assays, and allows recovery of desired cell pairs by micromanipulation for off-chip culture and analyses. Well-defined initiation of interactions enables probing cellular responses from the very onset, permitting single-cell correlation analyses between early signaling dynamics and later-stage functional outcomes within same cells. We demonstrate the utility of this microfluidic assay with natural killer cells interacting with tumor cells, and our findings suggest a possible role for the strength of early calcium signaling in selective coordination of subsequent cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma production. Collectively, our experiments demonstrate that this new approach is well-suited for resolving the relationships between complex immune responses within each individual cell. PMID:27303033

  15. Immune phenotype and some enzyme patterns in phorbol ester-induced chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Babusíková, O; Mesárosová, A; Kusenda, J; Koníková, E; Klobusická, M; Hrivnáková, A

    1995-01-01

    Leukemic cells from 10 patients with B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) were isolated and cultured in the presence of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) at a concentration of 8 x 10(-7) mol for 72 hours. Cells were analyzed before cultivation and after 72 h of cultivation with and without TPA for changes in surface membrane (Sm) and cytoplasmic (cyt) markers expression, presence of receptor for mouse rosette forming cells (MRFC) and some enzyme profiles. All B-CLL cases studied showed typical B-cell phenotype. TPA treatment induced hairy cell leukemia (HCL) characteristics, given by the membrane CD22 and CD25 expression and TRAP positivity in the majority of the cases tested. Cells had hairy cell-like morphology with more intensive cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (CIg) fluorescence staining, absent receptor for MRFC and increased activity of purine nucleosidephosphorylase. In common these changes indicate that TPA can induce hairy cell characteristics on B-CLL cells in vitro suggesting the more mature differentiation stage of HCL compared with CLL. Furthermore, we originally demonstrated that the CD22, present in the cell membrane after TPA, could be detected in the majority of unaffected B-CLL cells in their cytoplasm. From the technical point of view some intracellular CD markers and Igs of B-CLL cells in viable cells in suspension assayed by flow cytometry are described in this study. PMID:8552199

  16. Obatoclax, Fludarabine, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  17. Splenic B cell lymphoma with circulating villous lymphocytes: differential diagnosis of B cell leukaemias with large spleens.

    PubMed Central

    Melo, J V; Hegde, U; Parreira, A; Thompson, I; Lampert, I A; Catovsky, D

    1987-01-01

    The clinical, haematological, morphological and histological features of a series of 22 patients presenting with splenic lymphoma with circulating villous lymphocytes were assessed and compared with those of patients with other forms of chronic B cell leukaemia in an attempt to differentiate this condition from hairy cell leukaemia, prolymphocytic leukaemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, with which this condition has many features in common. The disease was twice as common in men than in women, with a mean (SD) age at diagnosis of 72 (9) years, and the most consistent presenting feature was massive enlargement of the spleen, which showed white and red pulp disease with a plasmacytic component. Small monoclonal bands were found in 60% of cases. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:3497180

  18. Skewed T cell receptor repertoire of Vδ1+ γδ T lymphocytes after human allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the potential role for Epstein–Barr virus-infected B cells in clonal restriction

    PubMed Central

    Fujishima, N; Hirokawa, M; Fujishima, M; Yamashita, J; Saitoh, H; Ichikawa, Y; Horiuchi, T; Kawabata, Y; Sawada, K-I

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of Vδ1+ γδ T lymphocytes has been described in various infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and malaria. However, the antigen specificity and functions of the human Vδ1+ T cells remain obscure. We sought to explore the biological role for this T cell subset by investigating the reconstitution of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of Vδ1+ γδ T lymphocytes after human allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We observed skewed TCR repertoires of the Vδ1+ T cells in 27 of 44 post-transplant patients. Only one patient developed EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the present patient cohort. The -WGI- amino acid motif was observed in CDR3 of clonally expanded Vδ1+ T cells in half the patients. A skew was also detected in certain healthy donors, and the Vδ1+ T cell clone derived from the donor mature T cell pool persisted in the recipient's blood even 10 years after transplant. This T cell clone expanded in vitro against stimulation with autologous EBV–lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), and the Vδ1+ T cell line expanded in vitro from the same patient showed cytotoxicity against autologous EBV–LCL. EBV-infected cells could also induce in vitro oligoclonal expansions of autologous Vδ1+ T cells from healthy EBV-seropositive individuals. These results suggest that human Vδ1+ T cells have a TCR repertoire against EBV-infected B cells and may play a role in protecting recipients of allogeneic HSCT from EBV-associated disease. PMID:17425654

  19. Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce T Lymphocyte Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest by Expression of Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuying; Xu, Zhuo; Bai, Jinping; Yang, Shuyuan; Zhao, Shuli; Zhang, Yingjie; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that human mesenchymal stem cells are able to inhibit T lymphocyte activation; however, the discrepancy among different sources of MSCs is not well documented. In this study, we have compared the MSCs from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AT), placenta (PL), and umbilical cord (UC) to determine which one displayed the most efficient immunosuppressive effects on phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation. Among them we found that hUC-MSC has the strongest effects on inhibiting T cell proliferation and is chosen to do the further study. We observed that T lymphocyte spontaneously released abundant IFN-γ. And IFN-γ secreted by T lymphocyte could induce the expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in hUC-MSCs. IDO was previously reported to induce T lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in S phase. When cocultured with hUC-MSCs, T lymphocyte expression of caspase 3 was significantly increased, while Bcl2 and CDK4 mRNA expression decreased dramatically. Addition of 1-methyl tryptophan (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, restored T lymphocyte proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and induced resumption of the cell cycle. In addition, the changes in caspase 3, CDK4, and Bcl2 expression were reversed by 1-MT. These findings demonstrate that hUC-MSCs induce T lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by expressing abundant IDO and provide an explanation for some of the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. PMID:27418932

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit lymphocyte proliferation by mitogens and alloantigens by different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmusson, Ida . E-mail: Ida.Rasmusson@labmed.ki.se; Ringden, Olle; Sundberg, Berit; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2005-04-15

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immuno-modulatory properties. They inhibit T-cell proliferation to mitogens and alloantigens in vitro and prolong skin graft survival in vivo. We found that MSCs inhibited the proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), suggesting that MSCs exert an inhibitory effect downstream of the receptor level. We analyzed cytokine profiles of PBLs co-cultured with MSCs. MSCs increased interleukin (IL)-2 and soluble IL-2 receptor in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLCs), while IL-2 and IL-2R decreased in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBL cultures. MSCs inhibited IL-2 induced proliferation, without absorbing IL-2. IL-10 levels increased in MLCs co-cultured with 10% MSCs, while the levels were not affected in PHA cultures. In MLCs inhibited by MSCs, antibodies against IL-10 further suppressed proliferation but had no effect in PHA cultures. Addition of indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin-synthesis, restored part of the inhibition by MSCs in PHA cultures. However, indomethacin did not affect MSC-induced inhibition in MLCs. To conclude, our data indicate that MSC-induced suppression is a complex mechanism affecting IL-2 and IL-10 signaling and may function differently, depending on T-cell stimuli. Prostaglandins are important in the inhibition by MSCs when the T cells were activated by PHA, but not alloantigens.

  1. Refractory lining for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  2. ATR inhibition induces synthetic lethality and overcomes chemoresistance in TP53- or ATM-defective chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Marwan; Davies, Nicholas; Agathanggelou, Angelo; Smith, Edward; Oldreive, Ceri; Petermann, Eva; Stewart, Grant; Brown, Jeff; Lau, Alan; Pratt, Guy; Parry, Helen; Taylor, Malcolm; Moss, Paul; Hillmen, Peter; Stankovic, Tatjana

    2016-02-01

    TP53 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) defects are associated with genomic instability, clonal evolution, and chemoresistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Currently, therapies capable of providing durable remissions in relapsed/refractory TP53- or ATM-defective CLL are lacking. Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) mediates response to replication stress, the absence of which leads to collapse of stalled replication forks into chromatid fragments that require resolution through the ATM/p53 pathway. Here, using AZD6738, a novel ATR kinase inhibitor, we investigated ATR inhibition as a synthetically lethal strategy to target CLL cells with TP53 or ATM defects. Irrespective of TP53 or ATM status, induction of CLL cell proliferation upregulated ATR protein, which then became activated in response to replication stress. In TP53- or ATM-defective CLL cells, inhibition of ATR signaling by AZD6738 led to an accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage, which was carried through into mitosis because of defective cell cycle checkpoints, resulting in cell death by mitotic catastrophe. Consequently, AZD6738 was selectively cytotoxic to both TP53- and ATM-defective CLL cell lines and primary cells. This was confirmed in vivo using primary xenograft models of TP53- or ATM-defective CLL, where treatment with AZD6738 resulted in decreased tumor load and reduction in the proportion of CLL cells with such defects. Moreover, AZD6738 sensitized TP53- or ATM-defective primary CLL cells to chemotherapy and ibrutinib. Our findings suggest that ATR is a promising therapeutic target for TP53- or ATM-defective CLL that warrants clinical investigation. PMID:26563132

  3. Blister fluid T lymphocytes during toxic epidermal necrolysis are functional cytotoxic cells which express human natural killer (NK) inhibitory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Le Cleach, L; Delaire, S; Boumsell, L; Bagot, M; Bourgault-Villada, I; Bensussan, A; Roujeau, J C

    2000-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life-threatening adverse drug reaction characterized by a massive destruction of the epidermis. Immunohistological studies of skin biopsies of TEN showed infiltrates of predominantly CD8+ T lymphocytes even though other authors reported a prominent involvement of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. The aim of this study was to characterize phenotypically and functionally the cells present in the cutaneous blister fluid of four patients with TEN. We first determined that lymphocytes were predominant in blister fluid obtained early, while monocytes/macrophages later became the most important population. We then showed that this lymphocyte population, mainly CD3+CD8+, corresponded to a peculiar cell subset as they expressed cutaneous leucocyte antigen, killer inhibitory receptors KIR/KAR and failed to express CD28 molecule. Functionally, we determined that blister T lymphocytes had a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)- and NK-like cytotoxicity. The role of this cytotoxic lymphocyte population present at the site of lesions during TEN remains to be understood. PMID:10606987

  4. L-selectin-mediated lymphocyte-cancer cell interactions under low fluid shear conditions.

    PubMed

    Resto, Vicente A; Burdick, Monica M; Dagia, Nilesh M; McCammon, Susan D; Fennewald, Susan M; Sackstein, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Cell migration in blood flow is mediated by engagement of specialized adhesion molecules that function under hemodynamic shear conditions, and many of the effectors of these adhesive interactions, such as the selectins and their ligands, are well defined. However, in contrast, our knowledge of the adhesion molecules operant under lymphatic flow conditions is incomplete. Among human malignancies, head and neck squamous cell cancer displays a marked predilection for locoregional lymph node metastasis. Based on this distinct tropism, we hypothesized that these cells express adhesion molecules that promote their binding to lymphoid tissue under lymphatic fluid shear stress. Accordingly, we investigated adhesive interactions between these and other cancer cells and the principal resident cells of lymphoid organs, lymphocytes. Parallel plate flow chamber studies under defined shear conditions, together with biochemical analyses, showed that human head and neck squamous cell cancer cells express heretofore unrecognized L-selectin ligand(s) that mediate binding to lymphocyte L-selectin at conspicuously low shear stress levels of 0.07-0.08 dynes/cm(2), consistent with lymphatic flow. The binding of head and neck squamous cancer cells to L-selectin displays canonical biochemical features, such as requirements for sialylation, sulfation, and N-glycosylation, but displays a novel operational shear threshold differing from all other L-selectin ligands, including those expressed on colon cancer and leukemic cells (e.g. HCELL). These data define a novel class of L-selectin ligands and expand the scope of function for L-selectin within circulatory systems to now include a novel activity within shear stresses characteristic of lymphatic flow. PMID:18385135

  5. Metabolic maintenance of cell asymmetry following division in activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Verbist, Katherine C; Guy, Cliff S; Milasta, Sandra; Liedmann, Swantje; Kamiński, Marcin M; Wang, Ruoning; Green, Douglas R

    2016-04-21

    Asymmetric cell division, the partitioning of cellular components in response to polarizing cues during mitosis, has roles in differentiation and development. It is important for the self-renewal of fertilized zygotes in Caenorhabditis elegans and neuroblasts in Drosophila, and in the development of mammalian nervous and digestive systems. T lymphocytes, upon activation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), can undergo asymmetric cell division, wherein the daughter cell proximal to the APC is more likely to differentiate into an effector-like T cell and the distal daughter is more likely to differentiate into a memory-like T cell. Upon activation and before cell division, expression of the transcription factor c-Myc drives metabolic reprogramming, necessary for the subsequent proliferative burst. Here we find that during the first division of an activated T cell in mice, c-Myc can sort asymmetrically. Asymmetric distribution of amino acid transporters, amino acid content, and activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is correlated with c-Myc expression, and both amino acids and mTORC1 activity sustain the differences in c-Myc expression in one daughter cell compared to the other. Asymmetric c-Myc levels in daughter T cells affect proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and these effects are altered by experimental manipulation of mTORC1 activity or c-Myc expression. Therefore, metabolic signalling pathways cooperate with transcription programs to maintain differential cell fates following asymmetric T-cell division. PMID:27064903

  6. Stimulation of HIV-1 Replication in Immature Dendritic Cells in Contact with Primary CD4 T or B Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Vincent; Xu, Ke; Peressin, Maryse; Lederle, Alexandre; Biedma, Marina Elizabeth; Delaporte, Maryse; Decoville, Thomas; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Géraldine; Aubertin, Anne-Marie; Moog, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is the major route of HIV-1 infection worldwide. Dendritic cells (DCs) from the mucosal layers are considered to be the initial targets of HIV-1 and probably play a crucial role in HIV-1 transmission. We investigated the role of cell-to-cell contact between HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and various lymphocyte subsets in the stimulation of HIV-1 replication. We found that HIV-1 replication and production in DCs were substantially enhanced by the coculture of DCs with primary CD4 T or nonpermissive B lymphocytes but not with primary activated CD8 T lymphocytes or human transformed CD4 T lymphocytes. Most of the new virions released by cocultures of HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and primary B lymphocytes expressed the DC-specific marker CD1a and were infectious for both immature DCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cocultured DCs thus produced large numbers of infectious viral particles under these experimental conditions. The soluble factors present in the supernatants of the cocultures were not sufficient to enhance HIV-1 replication in DCs, for which cell-to-cell contact was required. The neutralizing monoclonal antibody IgG1b12 and polyclonal anti-HIV-1 sera efficiently blocked HIV-1 transfer to CD4 T lymphocytes but did not prevent the increase in viral replication in DCs. Neutralizing antibodies thus proved to be more efficient at blocking HIV-1 transfer than previously thought. Our findings show that HIV-1 exploits DC-lymphocyte cross talk to upregulate replication within the DC reservoir. We provide evidence for a novel mechanism that may facilitate HIV-1 replication and transmission. This mechanism may favor HIV-1 pathogenesis, immune evasion, and persistence. PMID:20147388

  7. Genotoxicity of di-butyl-phthalate and di-iso-butyl-phthalate in human lymphocytes and mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Kleinsasser, N H; Wallner, B C; Kastenbauer, E R; Weissacher, H; Harréus, U A

    2001-01-01

    The genotoxicity of phthalates, widely used plasticizers, has been shown previously for di-butyl-phthalate (DBP) and di-iso-butyl-phthalate (DBP) in human mucosal cells of the upper aerodigestive tract in a previous study using the Comet assay. Furthermore, higher genotoxic sensitivities of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of either the larynx or the oropharynx compared to non-tumor patients were described. Other authors have demonstrated DNA damage by a different phthalate in human lymphocytes. It was the aim of the present study to determine whether there is a correlation between the genotoxic sensitivities to DBP and its isomer DiBP in either mucosal cells or lymphocytes. The single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was applied to detect DNA strand breaks in human epithelial cells of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=132 specimens). Human mucosa was harvested from the oropharynx in non-tumor patients and patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx. Laryngeal mucosa of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas was harvested as well. Peripheral lymphocytes (n=49 specimens) were separated from peripheral blood. Xenobiotics investigated were DBP, DiBP, and N'methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as positive control, respectively. For statistical analysis, the SPSS correlation analysis according to Pearson and the Wilcoxon test were performed. Genotoxicity was found for DBP and DiBP in epithelial cells and lymphocytes (P<0.001). MNNG caused severe DNA damage. In analyzing DBP and DiBP results, genotoxic impacts in mucosal cells showed an intermediate correlation (r=0.570). Correlation in lymphocytes was the same (r=0.570). Phthalates have been investigated as a potential health hazard for a variety of reasons, including possible xenoestrogenic impact, peroxisome proliferation, and membrane destabilization. The present investigation suggests a correlated DNA-damaging impact of DBP and DiBP in human mucosal cells and in

  8. Durable Remission of Renal Cell Carcinoma in Conjuncture with Graft versus Host Disease following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation and Donor Lymphocyte Infusion: Rule or Exception?

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Cornelis A. M.; Verdegaal, Elisabeth M. E.; Honders, M. Wilhelmina; Hoogstraten, Conny; Steijn-van Tol, A. Q. M. Jeanne; de Quartel, Linda; de Jong, Joan; Meyering, Maaike; Falkenburg, J. H. Frederik; Griffioen, Marieke; Osanto, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) can be applied as immunotherapeutic intervention to treat malignant diseases. Here, we describe a patient with progressive metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who was treated with T cell depleted non-myeloablative alloSCT and DLI resulting in disease regression accompanied by extensive graft versus host disease (GVHD). We characterized the specificity of this immune response, and detected a dominant T cell population recognizing a novel minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA) designated LB-FUCA2-1V. T cells specific for LB-FUCA2-1V were shown to recognize RCC cell lines, supporting a dominant role in the graft versus tumor (GVT) reaction. However, coinciding with the gradual disappearance of chronic GVHD, the anti-tumor effect declined and 3 years after alloSCT the metastases became progressive again. To re-initiate the GVT reaction, escalating doses of DLI were given, but no immune response could be induced and the patient died of progressive disease 8.5 years after alloSCT. Gene expression studies illustrated that only a minimal number of genes shared expression between RCC and professional antigen presenting cells but were not expressed by non-malignant healthy tissues, indicating that in patients suffering from RCC, GVT reactivity after alloSCT may be unavoidably linked to GVHD. PMID:24454818

  9. Rapid alterations of cell cycle control proteins in human T lymphocytes in microgravity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In our study we aimed to identify rapidly reacting gravity-responsive mechanisms in mammalian cells in order to understand if and how altered gravity is translated into a cellular response. In a combination of experiments using "functional weightlessness" provided by 2D-clinostats and real microgravity provided by several parabolic flight campaigns and compared to in-flight-1g-controls, we identified rapid gravity-responsive reactions inside the cell cycle regulatory machinery of human T lymphocytes. In response to 2D clinorotation, we detected an enhanced expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 protein within minutes, less cdc25C protein expression and enhanced Ser147-phosphorylation of cyclinB1 after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Additionally, during 2D clinorotation, Tyr-15-phosphorylation occurred later and was shorter than in the 1 g controls. In CD3/CD28-stimulated primary human T cells, mRNA expression of the cell cycle arrest protein p21 increased 4.1-fold after 20s real microgravity in primary CD4+ T cells and 2.9-fold in Jurkat T cells, compared to 1 g in-flight controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor curcumin was able to abrogate microgravity-induced p21 mRNA expression, whereas expression was enhanced by a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Therefore, we suppose that cell cycle progression in human T lymphocytes requires Earth gravity and that the disturbed expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins could contribute to the breakdown of the human immune system in space. PMID:22273506

  10. Responses of intraepithelial lymphocytes to T-cell mitogens: a comparison between murine and porcine responses.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A D; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1986-01-01

    Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were isolated from the small intestine of pigs. They showed a strong blastogenic response to the T-cell mitogens phytohaemagglutinin A (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM); in contrast, mouse IEL responded weakly to these mitogens. The response of pig IEL was age-dependent, reaching adult levels by 9 weeks of age. Early weaning of pigs delayed the onset of this response. The effects of inflammatory mediators on the response of mouse IEL were also examined. PMID:3488265

  11. Moesin Interacts with the Cytoplasmic Region of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3 and Is Redistributed to the Uropod of T Lymphocytes during Cell Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Serrador, Juan M.; Alonso-Lebrero, José L.; Pozo, Miguel A. del; Furthmayr, Heinz; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard; Calvo, Javier; Lozano, Francisco; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    During activation, T lymphocytes become motile cells, switching from a spherical to a polarized shape. Chemokines and other chemotactic cytokines induce lymphocyte polarization with the formation of a uropod in the rear pole, where the adhesion receptors intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), ICAM-3, and CD44 redistribute. We have investigated membrane–cytoskeleton interactions that play a key role in the redistribution of adhesion receptors to the uropod. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the ERM proteins radixin and moesin localized to the uropod of human T lymphoblasts treated with the chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed, and secreted), a polarization-inducing agent; radixin colocalized with arrays of myosin II at the neck of the uropods, whereas moesin decorated the most distal part of the uropod and colocalized with ICAM-1, ICAM-3, and CD44 molecules. Two other cytoskeletal proteins, β-actin and α-tubulin, clustered at the cell leading edge and uropod, respectively, of polarized lymphocytes. Biochemical analysis showed that moesin coimmunoprecipitates with ICAM-3 in T lymphoblasts stimulated with either RANTES or the polarization- inducing anti–ICAM-3 HP2/19 mAb, as well as in the constitutively polarized T cell line HSB-2. In addition, moesin is associated with CD44, but not with ICAM-1, in polarized T lymphocytes. A correlation between the degree of moesin–ICAM-3 interaction and cell polarization was found as determined by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis done in parallel. The moesin–ICAM-3 interaction was specifically mediated by the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-3 as revealed by precipitation of moesin with a GST fusion protein containing the ICAM-3 cytoplasmic tail from metabolically labeled Jurkat T cell lysates. The interaction of moesin with ICAM-3 was greatly diminished when RANTES-stimulated T lymphoblasts were pretreated with the myosin-disrupting drug butanedione monoxime, which

  12. Sorafenib induces cell death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by translational downregulation of Mcl-1.

    PubMed

    Huber, S; Oelsner, M; Decker, T; zum Büschenfelde, C Meyer; Wagner, M; Lutzny, G; Kuhnt, T; Schmidt, B; Oostendorp, R A J; Peschel, C; Ringshausen, I

    2011-05-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has a high prevalence in western countries and remains incurable to date. Here, we provide evidence that the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib induces apoptosis in primary CLL cells. This strong pro-apoptotic effect is not restricted to any subgroup of patients, based on Binet stage and the expression of ZAP70 or CD38. Mechanistically, sorafenib-induced cell death is preceded by a rapid downregulation of Mcl-1 through the inhibition of protein translation. Subsequently, the cell intrinsic apoptotic pathway is activated, indicated by destabilization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3 and -9. In contrast to sorafenib, the monoclonal vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF)-antibody bevacizumab failed to induce apoptosis in CLL cells, suggesting that sorafenib induces cell death irrespectively of VEGF signalling. Notably, although sorafenib inhibits phosphorylation of the Scr-kinase Lck, knock-down of Lck did not induce apoptosis in CLL cells. Of note, the pro-apoptotic effect of sorafenib is not restricted to cell-cycle arrested cells, but is also maintained in proliferating CLL cells. In addition, we provide evidence that sorafenib can overcome drug resistance in CLL cells protected by microenvironmental signals from stromal cells. Conclusively, sorafenib is highly active in CLL and may compose a new therapeutic option for patients who relapse after immunochemotherapy. PMID:21293487

  13. Good syndrome presenting with CD8+ T-Cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Caperton, Caroline; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gupta, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Good Syndrome is an adult-onset combined immunodeficiency defined by hypogammaglobulinemia, low or absent number of B cells, T cell deficiency and thymic tumor. We have characterized CD8+ T cells from a patient with Good syndrome that presented with CD8+T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGL). Characterization of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells revealed that majority of CD8+ T cells were terminally differentiated effector memory phenotype (TEMRA; CD8+CCR7-CD45RA+), and were PD-1high (CD279), ICOSlow (CD278), and granzymehigh. Almost all CD8+ T cells were IFN-γ+. CD8 Treg (CD8+CD183+CCR7+CD45RA-) were decreased. TEMRA phenotype along with CD279high, demonstrates that these are exhausted CD8+ T cells. This phenotype along with CD278low may also explain severe T cell functional deficiency in our patient. In the present patient, T-LGL appears to be a clonal expansion of CD279+granzyme+IFN-γ+CD8+TEMRA cells. To best of our knowledge this is the first case of CD8+T-cell LGL leukemia associated with Good syndrome. PMID:26429871

  14. Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against ovarian cancer-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Weng, Desheng; Song, Baizheng; Durfee, John; Sugiyama, Valerie; Wu, Zhengrong; Koido, Shigeo; Calderwood, Stuart K; Gong, Jianlin

    2011-10-15

    The majority of patients with stage III/IV ovarian carcinoma that respond initially to standard therapies ultimately undergo relapse due to the survival of small populations of cells with tumor-initiating potential. These ovarian cancer (OVCA)-initiating cells (OCIC) are sometimes called cancer stem cells (CSC) because they express stem cell markers, and can survive conventional therapies such as chemotherapy, which usually target rapidly replicating tumor cells, and give rise to recurrent tumors that are more chemo-resistant and more aggressive. Thus, it would be desirable to develop a therapy that could selectively target OCIC and be used to complement the conventional therapies. In this study, we isolated a subset of OVCA cells with a CD44(+) phenotype in samples from patients with OVCA that possess CSC properties including the formation of spheroids in culture, self-renewal and the ability to be engrafted in immune-compromised mice. We next explored the use of immunotherapy using fusions of dendritic cells and OCIC to specifically target the OCIC subpopulations. Fusion cells (FCs) prepared in this way activated T cells to express elevated levels of IFN-γ with enhanced killing of CD44(+) OVCA cells. We envision a combined approach where conventional therapies such as chemotherapy kill the bulk of tumor cells, whereas OCIC-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes target the resistant OCIC fraction. A combined therapy such as this may represent a promising approach for the treatment of OVCA. PMID:21154809

  15. Macrophage-mediated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell survival is independent of APRIL signaling

    PubMed Central

    van Attekum, MHA; Terpstra, S; Reinen, E; Kater, AP; Eldering, E

    2016-01-01

    Survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells is mainly driven by interactions within the lymph node (LN) microenvironment with bystander cells such as T cells or cells from the monocytic lineage. Although the survival effect by T cells is largely governed by the TNFR ligand family member CD40L, the exact mechanism of monocyte-derived cell-induced survival is not known. An important role has been attributed to the TNFR ligand, a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), although the exact mechanism remained unclear. Since we detected that APRIL was expressed by CD68+ cells in CLL LN, we addressed its relevance in various aspects of CLL biology, using a novel APRIL overexpressing co-culture system, recombinant APRIL, and APRIL reporter cells. Unexpectedly, we found, that in these various systems, APRIL had no effect on survival of CLL cells, and activation of NF-κB was not enhanced on APRIL stimulation. Moreover, APRIL stity mulation did not affect CLL proliferation, neither as single stimulus nor in combination with known CLL proliferation stimuli. Furthermore, the survival effect conveyed by macrophages to CLL cells was not affected by transmembrane activator and CAML interactor-Fc, an APRIL decoy receptor. We conclude that the direct role ascribed to APRIL in CLL cell survival might be overestimated due to application of supraphysiological levels of recombinant APRIL. PMID:27551513

  16. Cell electrophoretic characterization of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations enriched by rosette formation, from normal individuals and CLL patients.

    PubMed

    Rychly, J; Babusíková, O; Koníková, E; Anders, O

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects and patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) were isolated and their subpopulations enriched through formation of spontaneous rosettes with sheep or mouse red blood cells, respectively. Electrophoretic measurements were performed in unseparated as well as in fractionated cell populations. Normal blood lymphocytes showed two clearly distinguishable populations of different electrophoretic mobilities. After separation by SRBC rosette formation the rosette-forming cells could be identified as high mobility cells. CLL lymphocytes showed in most cases an unimodally distributed cytopherogram, the mean electrophoretic mobility being intermediate between the low and high mobility cells of control persons. After separation through mouse erythrocytes rosette formation these cells contained two cell fractions differing in their electrophoretic mobility: a fraction of slower mouse rosette-forming cells and a fraction of the non-MRFC which contained mainly cells of higher mobility that could be identified as enriched T cells. These both fractions showed unimodal distributions. This study shows that CLL lymphocyte subpopulations can be further characterized by surface charge density. PMID:6700796

  17. Exogenous Interleukin-2 Administration Corrects the Cell Cycle Perturbation of Lymphocytes from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Paiardini, Mirko; Galati, Domenico; Cervasi, Barbara; Cannavo, Giuseppe; Galluzzi, Luca; Montroni, Maria; Guetard, Denise; Magnani, Mauro; Piedimonte, Giuseppe; Silvestri, Guido

    2001-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced immunodeficiency is characterized by progressive loss of CD4+ T cells associated with functional abnormalities of the surviving lymphocytes. Increased susceptibility to apoptosis and loss of proper cell cycle control can be observed in lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals and may contribute to the lymphocyte dysfunction of AIDS patients. To better understand the relation between T-cell activation, apoptosis, and cell cycle perturbation, we studied the effect of exogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2) administration on the intracellular turnover of phase-dependent proteins. Circulating T cells from HIV-infected patients display a marked discrepancy between a metabolic profile typical of G0 and a pattern of expression of phase-dependent proteins that indicates a more-advanced position within the cell cycle. This discrepancy is enhanced by in vitro activation with ConA and ultimately results in a marked increase of apoptotic events. Conversely, treatment of lymphocytes with IL-2 alone restores the phase-specific pattern of expression of cell cycle-dependent proteins and is associated with low levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, exogenous IL-2 administration normalizes the overall intracellular protein turnover, as measured by protein synthesis, half-life of newly synthesised proteins, and total protein ubiquitination, thus providing a possible explanation for the effect of IL-2 on the intracellular kinetics of cell cycle-dependent proteins. The beneficial effect of IL-2 administration is consistent with the possibility of defective IL-2 function in vivo, which is confirmed by the observation that lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients show abnormal endogenous IL-2 paracrine/autocrine function upon in vitro mitogen stimulation. Overall these results confirm that perturbation of cell cycle control contributes to HIV-related lymphocyte dysfunction and, by showing that IL-2 administration can revert this perturbation, suggest a new

  18. The Pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D. A. G.

    1966-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was examined in a series of 88 cases observed during a 15-year period. In untreated cases the trend of the absolute lymphocyte counts followed two main patterns. In the type I trend, the counts rose throughout the observation period; in the type II trend, the tendency to rise ceased and the counts stabilized above and below a mean value, the stationary trend being maintained for months or years. The type II trend was associated with relatively benign disease. The development of lymphocytosis was correlated with the progression of lymphadenopathy. It is suggested that lymphocytosis may result from the physiological process of recirculation and that the accumulation of lymphocytes may result from the proliferation of a single slightly abnormal cell-line. The abnormal cells might survive an unusually long time because they are unable to respond to stimuli which cause normal lymphocytes to transform. PMID:4952384

  19. Activated Murine B Lymphocytes and Dendritic Cells Produce a Novel CC Chemokine which Acts Selectively on Activated T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaniel, Christoph; Pardali, Evangelia; Sallusto, Federica; Speletas, Mattheos; Ruedl, Christiane; Shimizu, Takeyuki; Seidl, Thomas; Andersson, Jan; Melchers, Fritz; Rolink, Antonius G.; Sideras, Paschalis

    1998-01-01

    Genes were isolated using the suppression subtractive hybridization method by stimulation of pro/pre B cells with anti-CD40 and interleukin (IL)-4 to mature Sμ-Sε–switched cells. One of the strongly upregulated genes encodes a novel murine CC chemokine we have named ABCD-1. The ABCD-1 gene has three exons separated by 1.2- and 2.7-kb introns. It gives rise to a 2.2-kb transcript containing an open reading frame of 276 nucleotides. Two polyadenylation sites are used, giving rise to cDNAs with either 1550 or 1850 bp of 3′ untranslated regions. The open reading frame encodes a 24 amino acid–long leader peptide and a 68 amino acid–long mature protein with a predicted molecular mass of 7.8 kD. ABCD-1 mRNA is found in highest quantities in activated splenic B lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Little chemokine mRNA is present in lung, in unstimulated splenic cells, in thymocytes, and in lymph node cells. No ABCD-1 mRNA is detected in bone marrow, liver, kidney, or brain, in peritoneal exudate cells as well as in the majority of all unstimulated B lineage cells tested. It is also undetectable in Concanavalin A–activated/IL-2–restimulated splenic T cells, and in bone marrow–derived IL-2–induced natural killer cells and IL-3–activated macrophages. Recombinant ABCD-1 revealed a concentration-dependent and specific migration of activated splenic T lymphoblasts in chemotaxis assays. FACS® analyses of migrated cells showed no preferential difference in migration of CD4+ versus CD8+ T cell blasts. Murine as well as human T cells responded to ABCD-1. Freshly isolated cells from bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and lymph node, IL-2–activated NK cells, and LPS-stimulated splenic cells, all did not show any chemotactic response. Thus, ABCD-1 is the first chemokine produced in large amounts by activated B cells and acting selectively on activated T lymphocytes. Therefore, ABCD-1 is expected to play an important role in the collaboration of dendritic cells and B

  20. Effects of teicoplanin on cell number of cultured cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kashkolinejad-Koohi, Tahere; Saadat, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic with a wide variation in human serum half-life. It is also a valuable alternative of vancomycin. There is however no study on its effect on cultured cells. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of teicoplanin on cultured cell lines CHO, Jurkat E6.1 and MCF-7. The cultured cells were exposed to teicoplanin at final concentrations of 0–11000 μg/ml for 24 hours. To determine cell viability, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was performed. At low concentrations of teicoplanin the numbers of cultured cells (due to cell proliferation) were increased in the three cell lines examined. The maximum cell proliferation rates were observed at concentrations of 1000, 400, and 200 μg/ml of teicoplanin for CHO, MCF-7 and Jurkat cell lines, respectively. Cell toxicity was observed at final concentrations over 2000, 6000, and 400 μg/ml of teicoplanin for CHO, MCF-7 and Jurkat cell lines, respectively. A dose-dependent manner of cell toxicity was observed. Our present findings indicated that teicoplanin at clinically used concentrations induced cell proliferation. It should therefore be used cautiously, particularly in children, pregnant women and patients with cancer.

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Inducible DNA Cross-Linking Agents and Their Effect on Cancer Cells and Normal Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reducing host toxicity is one of the main challenges of cancer chemotherapy. Many tumor cells contain high levels of ROS that make them distinctively different from normal cells. We report a series of ROS-activated aromatic nitrogen mustards that selectively kill chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) over normal lymphocytes. These agents showed powerful DNA cross-linking abilities when coupled with H2O2, one of the most common ROS in cancer cells, whereas little DNA cross-linking was detected without H2O2. Consistent with chemistry observation, in vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that these agents induced 40–80% apoptosis in primary leukemic lymphocytes isolated from CLL patients but less than 25% cell death to normal lymphocytes from healthy donors. The IC50 for the most potent compound (2) was ∼5 μM in CLL cells, while the IC50 was not achieved in normal lymphocytes. Collectively, these data provide utility and selectivity of these agents that will inspire further and effective applications. PMID:24801734

  2. In vitro generation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte response using dendritic cell immunotherapy in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Ye-Teng; Zhang, Qing-Min; Kou, Quan-Chun; Tang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) is one of the breakthrough strategies used in the treatment of cancer. However, DC-based immunotherapies for osteosarcoma are limited. In the present study, preclinical studies of a C3H osteosarcoma mouse model (produced by subcutaneous injection of LM8 murine osteosarcoma cells) validated the concept that LM8 cell lysate-pulsed bone marrow-derived DCs may evoke a more potent immune response compared with DCs that have been matured using polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response was established using two groups of C3H mice (n=9) with osteosarcoma; the treatment group consisted of LM8 cell lysate-pulsed DCs and the control group consisted of DCs matured using poly I:C. Each group was immunized with doses of 1×106 cells twice per week for 3 weeks. No difference in the expression of cluster of differentiation markers was identified in the two groups. DCs pulsed with LM8 cell lysate were associated with the increased induction of CTL activity. Serum interferon-γ levels were increased in mice that received DCs pulsed with LM8 cell lysate compared with that in the poly I:C-matured DC group (P<0.041). Serum interleukin-4 was decreased in the treatment group vs. the control group (P<0.033). A mixed lymphocyte reaction assay confirmed that LM8-DC immunotherapy may evoke a significant antigen-specific immune response in a mouse model. The present study reveals promising data on efficacy of a DC-based immunotherapy in the treatment of osteosarcoma; however, further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:27446401

  3. Interaction of periodate-oxidized target cells and cytolytic T lymphocytes: a model system of "polyclonal MHC recognition".

    PubMed

    Keren, Z; Berke, G

    1986-09-01

    In oxidation-dependent cytotoxicity (ODCC), cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) non-specifically recognize, bind to and lyse oxidized target cells (O-TC) but the precise mechanism whereby CTL react with O-TC is far from clear (Berke, G., Immunol. Rev. 1983. 72:5). Here we present evidence that CTL/O-TC interactions are blocked by aldehyde-reactive reagents such as hydroxylamine, adipic acid dihydrazide and thiocarbohydrazide and that preformed CTL/O-TC conjugates dissociate upon reduction with NaBH4, suggesting that active aldehyde groups of O-TC rather than intercellular Schiff bases are involved in the recognition and lysis of O-TC by CTL in ODCC. The aldehydes are bound to trypsin-sensitive, non-H-2 glycoproteins that appear to be different and unique in the three different target cell lines so far examined (EL4, L1210, R1.1). In view of these and previous findings we would like to suggest that in ODCC, active aldehydes react with adjacent major histocompatibility complex and perhaps other cell-surface molecules to create a multitude of modified conformations, responsible for the "polyclonal" (nonspecific) MHC recognition and lysis of O-TC by CTL, as well as for an altered pattern of H-2 antibody binding to O-TC. PMID:3019706

  4. High Mitochondrial DNA Stability in B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, María; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Martín-Guerrero, Idoia; Ardanaz, Maite; Vega, Ana; Carracedo, Ángel; García-Orad, África; Salas, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) leads to progressive accumulation of lymphocytes in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic tissues. Previous findings have suggested that the mtDNA could play an important role in CLL. Methodology/Principal Findings The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region was analyzed in lymphocyte cell DNA extracts and compared with their granulocyte counterpart extract of 146 patients suffering from B-Cell CLL; B-CLL (all recruited from the Basque country). Major efforts were undertaken to rule out methodological artefacts that would render a high false positive rate for mtDNA instabilities and thus lead to erroneous interpretation of sequence instabilities. Only twenty instabilities were finally confirmed, most of them affecting the homopolymeric stretch located in the second hypervariable segment (HVS-II) around position 310, which is well known to constitute an extreme mutational hotspot of length polymorphism, as these mutations are frequently observed in the general human population. A critical revision of the findings in previous studies indicates a lack of proper methodological standards, which eventually led to an overinterpretation of the role of the mtDNA in CLL tumorigenesis. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that mtDNA instability is not the primary causal factor in B-CLL. A secondary role of mtDNA mutations cannot be fully ruled out under the hypothesis that the progressive accumulation of mtDNA instabilities could finally contribute to the tumoral process. Recommendations are given that would help to minimize erroneous interpretation of sequencing results in mtDNA studies in tumorigenesis. PMID:19924307

  5. Feasibility of Telomerase-Specific Adoptive T-cell Therapy for B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Solid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Sara; Bobisse, Sara; Moxley, Kelly; Lamolinara, Alessia; De Sanctis, Francesco; Boschi, Federico; Sbarbati, Andrea; Fracasso, Giulio; Ferrarini, Giovanna; Hendriks, Rudi W; Cavallini, Chiara; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Sartoris, Silvia; Iezzi, Manuela; Nishimura, Michael I; Bronte, Vincenzo; Ugel, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Telomerase (TERT) is overexpressed in 80% to 90% of primary tumors and contributes to sustaining the transformed phenotype. The identification of several TERT epitopes in tumor cells has elevated the status of TERT as a potential universal target for selective and broad adoptive immunotherapy. TERT-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been detected in the peripheral blood of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients, but display low functional avidity, which limits their clinical utility in adoptive cell transfer approaches. To overcome this key obstacle hindering effective immunotherapy, we isolated an HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) with high avidity for human TERT from vaccinated HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Using several relevant humanized mouse models, we demonstrate that TCR-transduced T cells were able to control human B-CLL progression in vivo and limited tumor growth in several human, solid transplantable cancers. TERT-based adoptive immunotherapy selectively eliminated tumor cells, failed to trigger a self-MHC-restricted fratricide of T cells, and was associated with toxicity against mature granulocytes, but not toward human hematopoietic progenitors in humanized immune reconstituted mice. These data support the feasibility of TERT-based adoptive immunotherapy in clinical oncology, highlighting, for the first time, the possibility of utilizing a high-avidity TCR specific for human TERT. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2540-51. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197263

  6. γδ T Cells Protect the Liver and Lungs of Mice from Autoimmunity Induced by Scurfy Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ujiie, Hideyuki; Shevach, Ethan M

    2016-02-15

    γδ T cells have been shown to have immunoregulatory functions in several experimental autoimmune models. A mutation of the Foxp3 gene leads to the absence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and a fatal systemic autoimmune disease in scurfy mice. Transfer of scurfy lymphocytes to RAG deficient (RAG(-/-)) recipients reproduces the inflammatory phenotype of the scurfy donor, including hepatitis and pneumonitis. In this study, we show that TCRα(-/-) recipients, which lack αβ T cells but have γδ T cells and B cells, are significantly protected from the hepatitis and pneumonitis, but not the dermatitis, induced by adoptive transfer of scurfy lymphocytes. Cotransfer of γδ T cells, but not B cells, prevented hepatitis and pneumonitis in RAG(-/-) recipients of scurfy lymphocytes. γδ T cells in the TCRα(-/-) recipients of scurfy cells markedly expanded and expressed a highly activated (CD62L(lo)CD44(hi)) phenotype. The activated γδ T cells expressed high levels of CD39 and NKG2D on their cell surface. A high frequency of scurfy T cells in TCRα(-/-) recipients produced IL-10, suggesting that γδ T cells may enhance suppressor cytokine production from scurfy T cells in TCRα(-/-) recipients. This study indicates that γδ T cells may contribute to the maintenance of immunological homeostasis by suppressing autoreactive T cells in liver and lung. PMID:26773142

  7. FOXP3 expression in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    TAKENAKA, MIKI; SEKI, NAOKO; TOH, UHI; HATTORI, SATOSHI; KAWAHARA, AKIHIKO; YAMAGUCHI, TOMOHIKO; KOURA, KEIKO; TAKAHASHI, RYUJI; OTSUKA, HIROKO; TAKAHASHI, HIROKI; IWAKUMA, NOBUTAKA; NAKAGAWA, SHINO; FUJII, TERUHIKO; SASADA, TETSURO; YAMAGUCHI, RIN; YANO, HIROHISA; SHIROUZU, KAZUO; KAGE, MASAYOSHI

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) transcription factor is highly expressed in tumor cells as well as in regulatory T cells (Tregs). It plays a tumor-enhancing role in Tregs and suppresses carcinogenesis as a potent repressor of several oncogenes. The clinical prognostic value of FOXP3 expression has not yet been elucidated. In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the prognostic significance of FOXP3 expression in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer patients. Of the 100 tumor specimens obtained from primary invasive breast carcinoma, 63 and 57% were evaluated as FOXP3+ tumor cells and as being highly infiltrated by FOXP3+ lymphocytes, respectively. Although FOXP3 expression in tumor cells was of no prognostic significance, FOXP3+ lymphocytes were significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) (n=98, log-rank test P=0.008). FOXP3 exhibited a heterogeneous subcellular localization in tumor cells (cytoplasm, 31%; nucleus, 26%; both, 6%) and, although cytoplasmic FOXP3 was associated with poor OS (P= 0.058), nuclear FOXP3 demonstrated a significant association with improved OS (P=0.016). Furthermore, when patients were grouped according to their expression of tumor cytoplasmic FOXP3 and lymphocyte FOXP3, there were notable differences in the Kaplan-Meier curves for OS (P<0.001), with a high infiltration of FOXP3+ lymphocytes accompanied by a cytoplasmic FOXP3+ tumor being the most detrimental phenotype. These findings indicated that FOXP3 expression in lymphocytes as well as in tumor cells may be a prognostic marker for breast cancer. FOXP3 in tumor cells may have distinct biological activities and prognostic values according to its localization, which may help establish appropriate cancer treatments. PMID:24649219

  8. Soluble HLA class I antigen secretion by normal lymphocytes: relationship with cell activation and effect of interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Brieva, J A; Villar, L M; Leoro, G; Alvarez-Cermeño, J C; Roldán, E; Gonzalez-Porqué, P

    1990-01-01

    HLA class I antigens are thought to be integral membrane proteins. However, soluble forms of these molecules have been detected. Our laboratory has recently shown that the predominant form of these soluble proteins present in human serum, spleen tissue and culture supernatant of activated lymphocytes exhibits molecular weight and structure similar to classical HLA class I antigens, but lacks HLA A or B polymorphic determinants. In the present study, the secretion of such soluble proteins by lymphocytes has been further explored. Phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated normal lymphocytes secrete considerable quantities of soluble HLA (sHLA) class I proteins. This secretion seems to be a general property of lymphocytes, since activation of T as well as B cells by appropriate mitogens equally induce sHLA I secretion. Lymphocytes require RNA and protein synthesis, but not DNA synthesis, for the secretion to occur. Kinetic studies reveal that maximal sHLA I secretion precedes the peak of DNA synthesis by 24 h. In vitro stimulation with antigens or alloantigens also provokes sHLA I secretion. Moreover, this phenomenon has also been detected for in vivo-activated lymphocytes, as enhanced spontaneous sHLA I secretion was observed in cultures of low-density blastic B and T cells, and of blood lymphocytes obtained from normal subjects who had received a booster immunization 5 days earlier. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increases the expression of membrane-bound class I antigens but does not induce any sHLA I secretion, suggesting that both molecules are under different regulatory mechanisms. Our results indicate that human lymphocytes, upon stimulation, actively secrete considerable amounts of a soluble form of these biologically relevant proteins. PMID:2122936

  9. A developmental switch in lymphocyte homing receptor and endothelial vascular addressin expression regulates lymphocyte homing and permits CD4+ CD3- cells to colonize lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Mebius, R E; Streeter, P R; Michie, S; Butcher, E C; Weissman, I L

    1996-01-01

    IN adult mice, the dominant adhesion molecules involved in homing to lymph nodes are L-selectin homing receptors on lymphocytes and the peripheral lymph node addressins on specialized high endothelial venules. Here we show that, from fetal life through the first 24 hr of life, the dominant adhesion molecules are the mucosal addressin MAdCAM-1 on lymph node high endothelial venules and its counterreceptor, the Peyer's patch homing receptor, integrin alpha 4 beta 7 on circulating cells. Before birth, 40-70% of peripheral blood leukocytes are L-selectin-positive, while only 1-2% expresses alpha 4 beta 7. However, the fetal lymph nodes preferentially attract alpha 4 beta 7-expressing cells, and this can be blocked by fetal administration of anti-MAdCAM-1 antibodies. During fetal and early neonatal life, when only MAdCAM-1 is expressed on high endothelial venules, an unusual subset of CD4 + CD3- cells, exclusively expressing alpha 4 beta 7 as homing receptors, enters the lymph nodes. Beginning 24 hr after birth a developmental switch occurs, and the peripheral node addressins are upregulated on high endothelial venules in peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes. This switch in addressin expression facilitates tissue-selective lymphocyte migration and mediates a sequential entry of different cell populations into the lymph nodes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8855301

  10. Cell penetrating peptides as a therapeutic strategy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Arrouss, Issam; Decaudin, Didier; Choquet, Sylvain; Azar, Nabih; Parizot, Christophe; Zini, Jean M; Nemati, Fariba; Rebollo, Angelita

    2015-01-01

    PP2A is a serine/threonine phosphatase critical to a number of physiological and developmental processes. In this manuscript, we show that a peptide, specifically blocking the caspase- 9/PP2A interaction, DPT-C9h, induces apoptosis in primary tumour B cells isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or bone marrow of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, but not on B cells obtained from healthy donors (HD). Moreover, in both CLL patients and HD, DPT-C9h does not induce apoptosis on T- and NKcells and monocytes. Our results strongly suggest that DPT-C9h peptide has tumour specificity and that caspase-9/PP2Ac interaction constitutes a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment in CLL patients. PMID:25687226

  11. Natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF) augments natural killer cell and antibody-dependent tumoricidal response against colon carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, M D; Sigal, R K; Williams, N N; Daly, J M

    1991-04-01

    The therapy of colorectal cancer may be improved by biologic response modifiers that enhance natural killer (NK) cell and antibody-dependent tumoricidal mechanisms. This study examined the effect of a recently discovered cytokine purified from the supernatant of an Ebstein-Barr virus-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell line (RPMI-8866), natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF), on NK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured for 24 hr in the presence or absence of NKSF (3.6 pM) or interleukin-2 (1 nM). The cultured lymphocytes were analyzed for lytic potential toward chromium-51-labeled colon carcinoma targets SW 1116, 498 LI, and WC 1. ADCC was measured by incubating chromium-51-labeled SW 1116 or WC 1 targets with the monoclonal antibody CO17-1A, an IgG2a antibody reactive with gastrointestinal cancer-associated cell antigen, or control mouse IgG prior to testing NKSF-treated or control PBL effectors in a 6-hr cytotoxicity assay. NKSF significantly enhanced NK cytolysis of colon carcinoma and NK-resistant lymphoma cell lines, and on a molar basis was approximately 300 times more potent than interleukin-2 in generating NK cytotoxicity. Furthermore, NKSF significantly augmented lymphocyte-mediated ADCC against colon carcinoma targets, and the combination of NKSF with the antibody CO17-1A had an additive effect on lymphocyte tumoricidial capacity. Thus, NKSF may have a potential role in the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:1673486

  12. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression in solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Collart, F.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Mirkin, B.L.; Huberman, E.

    1992-07-10

    IMP dehydrogenase, a regulatory enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, may play a role in cell proliferation and malignancy. To assess this possibility, we examined IMP dehydrogenase expression in a series of human solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines in comparison with their normal counterparts. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression was observed in brain tumors relative to normal brain tissue and in sarcoma cells relative to normal fibroblasts. Similarly, in several B- and T-lymphoid leukemia cell lines, elevated levels of IMP dehydrogenase mRNA and cellular enzyme were observed in comparison with the levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results are consistent with an association between increased IMP dehydrogenase expression and either enhanced cell proliferation or malignant transformation.

  13. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research. PMID:12631387

  14. TRANSFECTION OF INSECT CELL LINES USING POLYETHYLENIMINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect cell lines have been widely used in recombinant baculovirus expression systems and transient gene expression studies. Critical to these applications have been the transfection of foreign DNA. This has been widely done using labor intensive and cytotoxic liposome-based transfection reagents....

  15. Manipulation of regulatory T cells and antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-based tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Shirin; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chakraborty, Nitya G

    2015-01-01

    The most potent killing machinery in our immune system is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). Since the possibility for self-destruction by these cells is high, many regulatory activities exist to prevent autoimmune destruction by these cells. A tumour (cancer) grows from the cells of the body and is tolerated by the body's immune system. Yet, it has been possible to generate tumour-associated antigen (TAA) -specific CTL that are also self-antigen specific in vivo, to achieve a degree of therapeutic efficacy. Tumour-associated antigen-specific T-cell tolerance through pathways of self-tolerance generation represents a significant challenge to successful immunotherapy. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells, referred to as T regulatory (Treg) cells, are selected in the thymus as controllers of the anti-self repertoire. These cells are referred to as natural T regulatory (nTreg) cells. According to the new consensus (Nature Immunology 2013; 14:307–308) these cells are to be termed as (tTreg). There is another class of CD4+ Treg cells also involved in regulatory function in the periphery, also phenotypically CD4+ CD25±, classified as induced Treg (iTreg) cells. These cells are to be termed as peripherally induced Treg (pTreg) cells. In vitro-induced Treg cells with suppressor function should be termed as iTreg. These different Treg cells differ in their requirements for activation and in their mode of action. The current challenges are to determine the degree of specificity of these Treg cells in recognizing the same TAA as the CTL population and to circumvent their regulatory constraints so as to achieve robust CTL responses against cancer. PMID:25243729

  16. A Novel Natural Product, KL-21, Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adan Gökbulut, Aysun; Yaşar, Mustafa; Baran, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of KL-21, a novel plant product (produced by Naturin Natural Products, İzmir, Turkey), on 232B4 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and to determine the cytotoxic effects on healthy BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of KL-21 was determined by MTT cell proliferation assay. Changes in caspase-3 enzyme activity were measured using the caspase-3 colorimetric assay. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were determined using the JC-1 dye-based method. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was performed to measure the apoptotic cell population. Effects of KL-21 on cell cycle profiles of CLL cells were investigated by flow cytometry. Results: We detected time- and concentration-dependent increases in the cytotoxic effect of KL-21 on 232B4 CLL cells. However, we also showed that, especially at higher concentrations, KL-21 was less cytotoxic towards BEAS-2B healthy cells than towards CLL cells. Annexin-V/PI double staining results showed that the apoptotic cell population increased in 232B4 cells. Increasing concentrations of KL-21 increased caspase-3 enzyme activity and induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. KL-21 administration resulted in small increases in the percentage of the cells in the G0/G1 phase while it decreased the S phase cell population up to 1 mg/mL. At the highest concentration, most of the cells accumulated in the G0/G1 phase. Conclusion: KL-21 has a growth-inhibitory effect on 232B4 CLL cells. KL-21 causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1. PMID:26316479

  17. Network signatures of cellular immortalization in human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Sung-Mi; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jeon, Jae-Pil

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We identified network signatures of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles. •More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCLs. •MicroRNA target genes in LCLs are involved in apoptosis and immune-related functions. •This approach is useful to find functional miRNA targets in specific cell conditions. -- Abstract: Human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) has been used as an in vitro cell model in genetic and pharmacogenomic studies, as well as a good model for studying gene expression regulatory machinery using integrated genomic analyses. In this study, we aimed to identify biological networks of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles of microRNAs and their target genes in LCLs. We first selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and microRNAs (DEmiRs) between early passage LCLs (eLCLs) and terminally differentiated late passage LCLs (tLCLs). The in silico and correlation analysis of these DEGs and DEmiRs revealed that 1098 DEG–DEmiR pairs were found to be positively (n = 591 pairs) or negatively (n = 507 pairs) correlated with each other. More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCL immortalizations. The target DEGs of DEmiRs were enriched for cellular functions associated with apoptosis, immune response, cell death, JAK–STAT cascade and lymphocyte activation while non-miRNA target DEGs were over-represented for basic cell metabolisms. The target DEGs correlated negatively with miR-548a-3p and miR-219-5p were significantly associated with protein kinase cascade, and the lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. In addition, the miR-106a and miR-424 clusters located in the X chromosome were enriched in DEmiR–mRNA pairs for LCL immortalization. In this study, the integrated transcriptomic analysis of LCLs could identify functional networks of biologically active microRNAs and their target genes involved in LCL immortalization.

  18. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O.; Brockhoff, G.; Reck, A.; Zeitler, K.; Hautmann, M.; Reichert, T.E.; Schmalz, G.; Morsczeck, C.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  19. Differential expression and function of CD27 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells expressing ZAP-70.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Sandrine T; Hou, Sen; Pauls, Samantha D; Johnston, James B; Gibson, Spencer B; Marshall, Aaron J

    2015-07-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a malignancy driven by abberant B cell signaling and survival. Leukemic B cells accumulate in the peripheral blood and the lymphoid organs where contact with stromal cells and T cells provide critical survival signals. Clinical severity of CLL is associated with several prognostic markers including expression of the kinase ZAP-70. ZAP-70 expression enhances signaling via the B cell antigen receptor and is associated with increased cell adhesion and migration capacity. Here we report that ZAP-70-positive CLL patients display significantly higher expression of the TNF superfamily receptor and memory marker CD27 than do ZAP-70 negative patients. CD27 expression by CLL was acutely elevated upon BCR cross-linking, or upon ectopic expression of ZAP-70. CD27 expression correlated with functional capacity to adhere to stromal cells and antibody blockade of CD27 impaired CLL binding to stroma. These results provide the first evidence for differential expression of CD27 among CLL prognostic groups, suggest a role for ZAP-70 dependent signaling in CD27 induction and implicate CD27 in cell-cell interactions with the lymphoid tissue microenvironment. PMID:26002513

  20. Shaped beam scattering from a single lymphocyte cell by generalized Lorenz-Mie theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia Jie; Han, Lu; Han, Yi Ping; Gouesbet, Gerard; Wu, Xuecheng; Wu, Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the measurement capabilities of laser-based diagnostic instruments for cells, an eccentric stratified dielectric sphere model illuminated by an arbitrary shaped beam is applied to the modeling of light scattering by a single nucleated cell within the framework of the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). A particular attention is paid to the study of scattering properties of a lymphocyte cell from an arbitrary incident Gaussian beam. Numerical results concerning the influence of shaped beam parameters (beam waist radius, incident angle, location of beam center) as well as of cellular parameters (ratio of nucleus size to cell size, location of the nucleus within the cell) on the scattering properties are presented and discussed, with comparisons to the scattering behaviors from a concentric stratified sphere model. The results reveal that the forward scattering intensities are mainly determined by the cell size regardless of the nucleus/cell ratio, while sideward scattering signals are sensitive to the change of cell internal structure. As the beam waist radius varies, the scattering patterns in the present cases are similar to each other, although the absolute intensities are different. Additionally, location of the nucleus within the cell, incident angle of the beam as well as location of the beam waist center play significant effects on the light scattering intensity distributions.

  1. PI3K Signaling in Normal B Cells and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    PubMed Central

    Okkenhaug, Klaus; Burger, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    B cells provide immunity to extracellular pathogens by secreting a diverse repertoire of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for exposed antigens. The B cell receptor (BCR) is a transmembrane antibody, which facilitates the clonal selection of B cells producing secreted antibodies of the same specificity. The diverse antibody repertoire is generated by V(D)J recombination of heavy and light chain genes, whereas affinity maturation is mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated mutagenesis. These processes, which are essential for the generation of adaptive humoral immunity, also render B cells susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and point mutations that in some cases lead to cancer. In this chapter, we will review the central role of PI3Ks in mediating signals from the B cell receptor that not only facilitate the development of functional B cell repertoire, but also support the growth and survival of neoplastic B cells, focusing on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. Perhaps because of the central role played by PI3K in BCR signaling, B cell leukemia and lymphomas are the first diseases for which a PI3K inhibitor has been approved for clinical use. PMID:26350103

  2. The white blood cell line: changes induced in mice by hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Orna; Ishay, Jacob S.

    The effect of hypergravity on the white blood cell (WBC) line of mice was investigated by use of horizontal centrifuge. Several sets of experiments were performed, in which the parameters measured were the WBC and differential cell count in the peripheral blood. In another experiment, lymphocyte counts from the spleen, lymph nodes, and the thymus were measured. The needed samples were taken from the mice during a stay of 7-40 days under a hypergravity of 1.6G. The test groups that were placed on the arms of the centrifuge (1.6G) were compared with stationary control groups (1G) and a rotating control group located at the center of the centrifuge (1G). Such a comparison revealed the test animals to be deficient on all counts, to wit, showing a decrease in total number of WBC's, a decrease in lymphocyte number in the peripheral blood and a decrease in the number of lymphocyte in the spleen and thymus. The decrease of lymphocytes in peripheral blood was characterized by two different slopes - an early and temporary decrease at the first days of the experiment evident in both test and rotating control groups followed by a temporary increase, and a later persistent decrease, evident only in the test group, while in the rotating control lymphocyte counts reverted to normal. There were no significant differences in monocyte or neutrophil counts, except for a temporary increase in the number of neutrophils which peaked on the seventh day. In order to evaluate the effect of hypergravity on restoration of hematopoiesis following hematopoietic suppression, 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU) was administered i.v. to both the experimental and control mice. Suppression of bone marrow was observed in all groups injected with 5-FU, but while there was later an increase in cell counts in the control groups, there was no such increase in the test group subjected to hypergravity.

  3. Activation and proliferation of lymphocytes and other mammalian cells in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.

    1997-01-01

    The experimental findings reviewed in this chapter support the following conclusions: Proliferation. Human T-lymphocytes, associated with monocytes as accessory cells, show dramatic changes in the centrifuge, in the clinostat and in space. In free-floating cells the mitogenic response is depressed by 90% in microgravity, whereas in cells attached to a substratum activation is enhanced by 100% compared to 1-G ground and inflight controls. The duration of phase G1 of the mitotic cycle of HeLa cells is reduced in hypergravity, resulting in an increased proliferation rate. Other systems like Friend cells and WI38 human embryonic lung cells do not show significant changes. Genetic expression and signal transduction. T-lymphocytes and monocytes show important changes in the expression of cytokines like interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor. The data from space experiments in Spacelab, Space Shuttle mid-deck, and Biokosmos have helped to clarify certain aspects of the mechanism of T-cell activation. Epidermoid A431 cells show changes in the genetic expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun in the clinostat and in sounding rockets. Membrane function, in particular the binding of ligates as first messengers of a signal, is not changed in most of the cell systems in microgravity. Morphology and Mortility. Free cells, lymphocytes in particular, are able to move and form aggregates in microgravity, indicating that cell-cell contacts and cell communications do take place in microgravity. Dramatic morphological and ultrastructural changes are not detected in cells cultured in microgravity. Important experiments with single mammalian cells, including immune cells, were carried out recently in three Spacelab flights, (SL-J, D-2, and IML-2 in 1992, 1993, and 1994, respectively). The results of the D-2 mission have been published in ref. 75; those of the IML-2 mission in ref. 76. Finally, many cell biology experiments in space have suffered

  4. A human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R T; Woods, L K; Moore, G E; McGavran, L; Quinn, L A; Semple, T U

    1981-06-01

    A continuous cell line, COLO 346, was established from a liver metastasis in a patient with adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. COLO 346 grew as an adherent monolayer of pleomorphic epithelioid cells. COLO 346 cells produced esterone, but no estradiol, progesterone, or cortisol. No adrenocorticotropic hormones, beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, carcinoembryonic antigen, or alpha-fetoprotein production by the cells was detected. Cell doubling time was 36 h. Seven allelic isozymes were assayed. COLO 346 had a chromosome mode of 74 at 21 months postestablishment with 6 marker chromosomes present in 100% of the cells analyzed. COLO 346 has been in continuous culture for over 2 yr and is available to other investigators for their studies. PMID:7262900

  5. T-CELL LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA IN A FALLOW DEER (DAMA DAMA).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Stockinger, Brian G; Garner, Michael M; Bradway, Daniel S; Hollinger, Charlotte; Kiupel, Matti

    2015-09-01

    A 17-yr-old female fallow deer presented with ataxia, inappetence, decreased fecal output, and decreased mentation. A complete blood count demonstrated leukocytosis (24.1×10(3)/μl, n=1.16-7.38×10(3)/μl), characterized by lymphocytosis (22.89×10(3)/μl, n=0.18-3.65×10(3)/μl), anemia (packed cell volume 20%, n=29.0-55.8%), decreased red blood cell count (4.1×10(3)/μl, n=6.86-14.72×10(3)/μl), and decreased hemoglobin (7.5 g/dl, n=9.4-19.2 g/dl). Numerous mature, well-differentiated lymphocytes were noted on the blood film. Despite treatment and clinical improvement, the decision was made to euthanize the deer. Histopathology identified a monomorphic population of CD3 positive, CD79a negative small lymphocytes replacing most of the hematopoietic tissue in the bone marrow without evidence of tissue invasion. Results of viral screening were negative. PMID:26352964

  6. Characterization of structurally defined epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies produced by chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Till; Woelfle, Manuela; Yancopoulos, Sophia; Catera, Rosa; Li, Wentian; Hatzi, Katerina; Moreno, Carol; Torres, Marcela; Paul, Santanu; Dohner, Hartmut; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Kaufman, Matthew S.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Allen, Steven L.; Rai, Kanti R.; Chu, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information about the structure of surface membrane immunoglobulin (smIg) on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, little is known about epitopes reacting with their binding sites. Probing phage-displayed peptide libraries, we identified and characterized mimetopes for Igs of 4 patients with IGHV mutated CLL (M-CLL) and 4 with IGHV unmutated CLL (U-CLL). Six of these mAbs were representatives of stereotyped B-cell receptors characteristic of CLL. We found that mimetic epitopes for U- and M-CLL Igs differed significantly. M-CLL–derived peptides exhibited better amino acid motifs, were more similar to each other, aligned more easily, and formed tighter clusters than U-CLL–derived peptides. Mono-, oligo-, and polyreactivity of peptides correlated with structural changes within antigen-binding sites of selecting M-CLL mAbs. Although M-CLL–isolated peptides and certain U-CLL mAbs bound more effectively to the selecting mAb, others were not as specific, reacting with M-CLL and U-CLL mAbs; these data suggest that in vivo structurally diverse epitopes could bind smIgs of distinct CLL clones, thereby altering survival and growth. Finally, an M-CLL–derived peptide inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, binding of its homologous mAb to human B lymphocytes; therefore peptides that inhibit or alter the consequences of antigen-smIg interactions may represent therapeutic modalities in CLL. PMID:19690339

  7. Antiproliferative efficacy of Tabernaemontana divaricata against HEP2 cell line and Vero cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Selvakumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laryngeal cancer may also be called cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma. Conventional plants are a precious source of novel anticancer agents and are still in performance better role in health concern. The study was intended to estimation of the anticancer activity of the chloroformic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata on the human epidermoid larynx carcinoma cell line (Hep 2). Materials and Method: The aerial parts (leaves, stem, and flowers) of T. divaricata were tested for its inhibitory effect in 96 microplate formats against Hep 2 cell line. The anticancer activity of samples on Hep 2 and Vero was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and various enzymatic parameters like catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, and superoxide anion scavenging activity. Viable cells were determined by the absorbance at 540 nm. Measurements were performed, and the concentration required for a 50% inhibition of viability (IC50) was determined graphically. The effect of the samples on the proliferation of Hep 2 and Vero cells was expressed as the % cell viability. Results: The extract on Hep 2 cell line up to 7.8 μg/ml and that IC50 value on Hep 2 cell line was 112 μg whereas 94 μg for Vero cell line. Hence, T. divaricata has lesser significant action on Vero cell line. Conclusion: Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer. Our results clearly indicate the anticancer property of the medicinal plant T. divaricata against the human laryngeal carcinoma cell lines (Hep 2 cell line). PMID:26109773

  8. Cannibalism of live lymphocytes by human metastatic but not primary melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lugini, Luana; Matarrese, Paola; Tinari, Antonella; Lozupone, Francesco; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Gentile, Massimo; Luciani, Francesca; Parmiani, Giorgio; Rivoltini, Licia; Malorni, Walter; Fais, Stefano

    2006-04-01

    The phenomenon of cell cannibalism, which generally refers to the engulfment of cells within other cells, was described in malignant tumors, but its biological significance is still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence, the in vivo relevance, and the underlying mechanisms of cannibalism in human melanoma. As first evidence, we observed that tumor cannibalism was clearly detectable in vivo in metastatic lesions of melanoma and often involved T cells, which could be found in a degraded state within tumor cells. Then, in vitro experiments confirmed that cannibalism of T cells was a property of metastatic melanoma cells but not of primary melanoma cells. In particular, morphologic analyses, including time-lapse cinematography and electron microscopy, revealed a sequence of events, in which metastatic melanoma cells were able to engulf and digest live autologous melanoma-specific CD8(+) T cells. Importantly, this cannibalistic activity significantly increased metastatic melanoma cell survival, particularly under starvation condition, supporting the evidence that tumor cells may use the eating of live lymphocytes as a way to "feed" in condition of low nutrient supply. The mechanism underlying cannibalism involved a complex framework, including lysosomal protease cathepsin B activity, caveolae formation, and ezrin cytoskeleton integrity and function. In conclusion, our study shows that human metastatic melanoma cells may eat live T cells, which are instead programmed to kill them, suggesting a novel mechanism of tumor immune escape. Moreover, our data suggest that cannibalism may represent a sort of "feeding" activity aimed at sustaining survival and progression of malignant tumor cells in an unfavorable microenvironment. PMID:16585188

  9. T lymphocyte expression of complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21): a role in adhesive cell-cell interactions and dysregulation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed

    Levy, E; Ambrus, J; Kahl, L; Molina, H; Tung, K; Holers, V M

    1992-11-01

    Complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21), the receptor for both the C3d,g portion of human complement component C3 and the Epstein-Barr virus, has been recently described on peripheral T cells. By using dual stain flow cytometric analysis, we have also observed that a peripheral T lymphocyte subpopulation of normal healthy donors bears CR2 in a range varying from 1.1 to 23.2% (mean 12.6%) of total CD3+ cells. T lymphocytes from nine patients with inactive SLE expressed CR2 in a similar range. Three patients with active SLE were also studied. One of them, having neuropathy and glomerulonephritis, displayed an expansion of the CR2 T cell subpopulation which reached as much as 89% of total CD3+ cells. To examine potential functional roles of T cell CR2, cells from a Jurkat-derived CR2 expressing T cell line were found to bind in vitro to human CR2-, complement-coated K562 cell targets in a CR2- and complement-dependent fashion. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that CR2 might act to increase adherence of T cells to nucleated target cells bearing C3d,g, a function which may be relevant to cytotoxicity or other T cell activities requiring cell-cell interaction. PMID:1424280

  10. Characterization of swine testicular cell line as immature porcine Sertoli cell line.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changping; Song, Huibin; Guan, Kaifeng; Zhou, Jiawei; Xia, Xuanyan; Li, Fenge

    2016-04-01

    Swine testicular (ST) cell line is isolated from swine fetal testes and has been widely used in biomedical research fields related to pig virus infection. However, the potential benefit and utilization of ST cells in boar reproductive studies has not been fully explored. As swine fetal testes mainly contain multiple types of cells such as Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, gonocytes, and peritubular myoid cells, it is necessary to clarify the cell type of ST cell line. In this study, we identified ST cell line was a collection of Sertoli cells by analyzing the unique morphological characteristic with satellite karyosomes and determining the protein expression of two markers (androgen-binding protein, ABP; Fas ligand, FASL) of Sertoli cells. Then ST cells were further confirmed to be immature Sertoli cells by examining the expression of three markers (anti-Mullerian hormone, AMH; keratin 18, KRT18; follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, FSHR). In conclusion, ST cells are a collection of immature Sertoli cells which can be good experimental materials for the researches involved in Sertoli cell functions and maturation, or even in boar reproductions. PMID:26744029

  11. Rat dendritic cells function as accessory cells and control the production of a soluble factor required for mitogenic responses of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Klinkert, W E; LaBadie, J H; O'Brien, J P; Beyer, C F; Bowers, W E

    1980-01-01

    Transformation of T lymphocytes, induced by treatment with periodate or with neuraminidase plus galactose oxidase, requires the participation of accessory cells. Procedures were developed for the fractionation of rat lymph node cells, by which most of the lymphocytes can be recovered as a major population of cells that do not respond to mitogenic stimulation unless accessory cells from a separated minor population are added. Further purification led to a 1000-fold overall increase in accessory activity per cell, with a 50-70% yield. The purest preparations were virtually free of macrophages and contained more than 90% typical dendritic cells. Maximum responses occurred at a ratio of only one dendritic cell per 200 periodate-treated lymphocytes. This evidence thus indicates strongly that in rats, dendritic cells--not macrophages--function as accessory cells. Further, the number of dendritic cells in a preparation governed the magnitude of the mitogenic response and was limiting in the case of unfractionated lymph node cells. In addition, when oxidized with periodate or with neuraminidase plus galactose oxidase, the dendritic cell served as a very potent indirect stimulator of untreated responder lymphocytes. Both functions of the dendritic cell appeared to lack species specificity, since mouse dendritic cells were very active when tested with rat responder lymphocytes. A soluble factor (accessory cell-replacing factor), produced by cultures of lymph node or spleen cells subjected to oxidative mitogenesis, enabled otherwise unresponsive mitogen-treated lymphocytes to respond. Dendritic cells were required for the production of this factor but may not be solely responsible for its production. Images PMID:6968911

  12. CD57 in human natural killer cells and T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kared, Hassen; Martelli, Serena; Ng, Tze Pin; Pender, Sylvia L F; Larbi, Anis

    2016-04-01

    The CD57 antigen (alternatively HNK-1, LEU-7, or L2) is routinely used to identify terminally differentiated 'senescent' cells with reduced proliferative capacity and altered functional properties. In this article, we review current understanding of the attributes of CD57-expressing T-cells and NK cells in both health and disease and discuss how this marker can inform researchers about their likely functions in human blood and tissues in vivo. While CD57 expression on human lymphocytes indicates an inability to proliferate, these cells also display high cytotoxic potential, and CD57(pos) NK cells exhibit both memory-like features and potent effector functions. Accordingly, frequencies of CD57-expressing cells in blood and tissues have been correlated with clinical prognosis in chronic infections or various cancers and with human aging. Functional modulation of senescent CD57(pos) T-cells and mature CD57(pos) NK cells may therefore represent innovative strategies for protection against human immunological aging and/or various chronic diseases. PMID:26850637

  13. At High Levels, Constitutively Activated STAT3 Induces Apoptosis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Rozovski, Uri; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Ji Yuan; Grgurevic, Srdana; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Martinez, Matthew; Verstovsek, Srdan; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-05-15

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the increment in PBLs is slower than the expected increment calculated from the cells' proliferation rate, suggesting that cellular proliferation and apoptosis are concurrent. Exploring this phenomenon, we found overexpression of caspase-3, higher cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase levels (p < 0.007), and a higher apoptosis rate in cells from patients with high counts compared with cells from patients with low counts. Although we previously found that STAT3 protects CLL cells from apoptosis, STAT3 levels were significantly higher in cells from patients with high counts than in cells from patients with low counts. Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 did not protect the cells. Rather, it upregulated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. Remarkably, putative STAT3 binding sites were identified in the caspase-3 promoter, and a luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an EMSA revealed that STAT3 activated caspase-3 However, caspase-3 levels increased only when STAT3 levels were sufficiently high. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and EMSA, we found that STAT3 binds with low affinity to the caspase-3 promoter, suggesting that at high levels, STAT3 activates proapoptotic mechanisms and induces apoptosis in CLL cells. PMID:27076684

  14. Peptide microarrays for the profiling of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity using minimum numbers of cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Antje; Bagû, Ana-Cristina; André, Thomas; Roth, Günter; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Gückel, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    The identification of epitopes that elicit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity is a prerequisite for the development of cancer-specific immunotherapies. However, especially the parallel characterization of several epitopes is limited by the availability of T cells. Microarrays have enabled an unprecedented miniaturization and parallelization in biological assays. Here, we developed peptide microarrays for the detection of CTL activity. MHC class I-binding peptide epitopes were pipetted onto polymer-coated glass slides. Target cells, loaded with the cell-impermeant dye calcein, were incubated on these arrays, followed by incubation with antigen-expanded CTLs. Cytotoxic activity was detected by release of calcein and detachment of target cells. With only 200,000 cells per microarray, CTLs could be detected at a frequency of 0.5% corresponding to 1,000 antigen-specific T cells. Target cells and CTLs only settled on peptide spots enabling a clear separation of individual epitopes. Even though no physical boundaries were present between the individual spots, peptide loading only occurred locally and cytolytic activity was confined to the spots carrying the specific epitope. The peptide microarrays provide a robust platform that implements the whole process from antigen presentation to the detection of CTL activity in a miniaturized format. The method surpasses all established methods in the minimum numbers of cells required. With antigen uptake occurring on the microarray, further applications are foreseen in the testing of antigen precursors that require uptake and processing prior to presentation. PMID:20512327

  15. [Levels of immunoglobulin and subpopulations of T lymphocytes and NK cells in men occupationally exposed to microwave radiation in frequencies of 6-12 GHz].

    PubMed

    Dmoch, A; Moszczyński, P

    1998-01-01

    Immunoglobulin concentrations and T-lymphocyte subsets in workers of TV re-transmission and satellite communication centres were assessed. An increase in IgG and IgA concentrations, an increased count of lymphocytes and T8 lymphocytes, an decreased count of NK cells and a lower value of T-helper/T-suppressor ratio were found. Neither disorders in immunoglobulin concentrations nor in the count of T8 and NK cells had any clinical implications. PMID:9587910

  16. Expression of CysLTR1 and 2 in Maturating Lymphocytes of Hyperplasic Tonsils Compared to Peripheral Cells in Children.

    PubMed

    Paulucci, Bruno Peres; Pereira, Juliana; Picciarelli, Patricia; Levy, Debora; di Francesco, Renata Cantisani

    2016-06-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotriene receptors 1 and 2 (CysLTR1 and 2) are related to allergic inflammatory responses. Recent studies demonstrated their role in lymphocyte division and maturation in the bone marrow. Few data are available about CysLTRs function in lymphocyte maturation in tonsils. The objectives of this study are to compare CysLTRs expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes with expression in maturating lymphocytes of hyperplasic tonsil and to check the influence of respiratory allergies in this process. Leukocytes of peripheral blood (PL) and hyperplasic tonsils of children were immunostained for CysLTR1, CysLTR2, CD3 (T cells), and CD19 (B cells) and read in flow cytometer. Lymphocyte of tonsils were divided in differentiating small cells (SC) and mitotic large cells (LC); percentage of B and T cells expressing CysLTRs was determined, and comparison was done using ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Data were analyzed as a whole and categorizing patients according the presence of allergies. Sixty children were enrolled in this study. There was a large expression of CysLTR1 and 2 in CD3+ LC, and such expression decreased progressively in SC and PL. In B cells, the highest expression of CysLTR1 and 2 was found in PL while SC showed the lowest and LC showed the intermediate expression. This pattern kept unchanged in groups of allergic and non-allergic individuals. CysLTRs seem to be involved in lymphocyte maturation that occurs in tonsils, without influence of allergies. New studies aiming the clinic treatment of tonsil hyperplasia must be targeted to the development of drugs capable of blocking both CysLTR1 and 2. PMID:27115897

  17. Desialylation of T lymphocytes overcomes the monocyte dependency of pokeweed mitogen-induced T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Gallart, T; Angel de la Fuente, M; Josep Barceló, J; Alberola-Ila, J; Lozano, F

    1997-01-01

    Activation of T lymphocytes by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) is strictly monocyte (Mo)-dependent and results in T-cell mitogenesis and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion, coupled with an inability to utilize IL-2 due to an impaired expression of functional IL-2 receptor (IL-2R). Such IL-2R impairment could arise in PWM-activated T cells themselves or, alternatively, be the result of Mo-derived influences, as it is known that PWM binds Mo strongly and does not or poorly binds lymphocytes, and Mo becomes rapidly destroyed in PWM-stimulated cultures of blood mononuclear cells or T cells plus Mo. The present study investigated these possibilities. The results show for the first time that desialylation of T lymphocytes strongly increases their PWM-binding capacity and, in addition, overcomes the Mo requirement for PWM to induce T-cell mitogenesis and IL-2 secretion. Such secreted IL-2 levels were even higher that those found in cultures of Mo-dependent PWM-activated T lymphocytes but similarly to the latter, PWM-activated desialylated purified T lymphocytes exhibited negligible high-affinity IL-2 binding capacity and an inability to utilize the IL-2 they produced. These effects were not due to desialylation itself, as indicated by data obtained with peanut agglutinin, a lectin that becomes strongly reactive with desialylated T lymphocytes. The data clearly indicate the existence of PWM-related events capable of impairing the expression of functional IL-2R without affecting IL-2 secretion, and indicate that such events are due to mechanisms arising at the level of PWM-activated T cells themselves. Images Figure 3 PMID:9038713

  18. Local production of the chemokines CCL5 and CXCL10 attracts CD8+ T lymphocytes into esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Yu; Wang, Liping; Chen, Xinfeng; Wang, Dan; Cao, Ling; Zhao, Song; Li, Bing; Kalinski, Pawel; Thorne, Stephen H.; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a very common malignant tumor with poor prognosis in China. Chemokines secreted by tumors are pivotal for the accumulation of CD8+ T lymphocytes within malignant lesions in several types of cancers, but the exact mechanism underlying CD8+ T lymphocyte homing is still unknown in ESCC. In this study, we revealed that, compared with marginal tissues, the expression of both chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) was upregulated in ESCC tissues. CCL5 expression was positively associated with the overall survival of patients. Meanwhile, RT-PCR data showed that the expression of CCL5 and CXCL10 was positively correlated with the local expressions of the CD8+ T lymphocyte markers (CD8 and Granzyme B) in tumor tissues. Correspondingly, CD8+ T lymphocytes were more frequently CCR5- and CXCR3-positive in tumor than in peripheral blood. Transwell analysis showed both CCL5 and CXCL10 were important for the chemotactic movement of CD8+ T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that CCL5 and CXCL10 serve as the key chemokines to recruit CD8+ T lymphocytes into ESCC tissue and may play a role in patient survival. PMID:26317795

  19. Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma, or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Plasma Cell Leukemia; Progression of Multiple Myeloma or Plasma Cell Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  20. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Metabolic and Lipidomic Sample Preparation Workflow for Suspension-Cultured Mammalian Cells using Jurkat T lymphocyte Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Candice Z.; Yost, Richard A.; Chen, Jing; Mathews, Clayton E.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolism as it pertains to an organism or biological system. Lipidomics, a subset discipline of metabolomics, encompasses the study of cellular lipid functions: including pathways, networks, and interactions. The abundance of metabolites and lipids, along with their contribution to health and disease, makes metabolomics a valuable tool for biomarker research. Disease biomarker identification requires a reproducible, sensitive, and accurate analytical platform. Although transcriptomic and proteomic areas have well-established protocols for sample preparation and data processing, the metabolomics field is still developing comparable standardized conventions. Furthermore, of the few comparative LC-MS metabolomic studies that have been applied to mammalian cell cultures, most are targeted to adherent cell lines. The purpose of this work was to optimize a sample preparation workflow for the cellular metabolomic analysis of suspension-cultured mammalian cells using commercially available Jurkat T lymphocytes as a model system. The current investigation evaluated commonly used sample preparation techniques for reproducibility, accuracy, and applicability to untargeted biomarker discovery. Results show ammoniated cell rinsing solutions to be an effective means to remove extracellular components present in the media without causing ion suppression or affecting the integrity of the cellular membrane. Additionally, a novel workflow was designed to allow for the combined analysis of metabolites and lipids from mammalian suspension cells from a single cell pellet. The Folch lipid extraction protocol was coupled to an 80% MeOH metabolite isolation to ensure high extraction efficiency for phospholipids and triacylglycerides. While the workflow was tailored to cells in suspension, it could also be applied to adherent cell lines. PMID:26401069

  1. Alemtuzumab induces caspase-independent cell death in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through a lipid raft-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mone, A P; Cheney, C; Banks, A L; Tridandapani, S; Mehter, N; Guster, S; Lin, T; Eisenbeis, C F; Young, D C; Byrd, J C

    2006-02-01

    Alemtuzumab is a humanized IgG1 kappa antibody directed against CD52, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol linked cell-membrane protein of unknown function. Herein, we demonstrate that alemtuzumab promotes rapid death of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells in vitro, in a complement and accessory cell free system. Using minimal detergent solubilization of CLL membranes, we found that CD52 colocalizes with ganglioside GM-1, a marker of membrane rafts. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that upon crosslinking CD52 with alemtuzumab+anti-Fc IgG, large patches, and in many cases caps, enriched in CD52 and GM-1 formed upon the CLL cell plasma membrane. Depletion of membrane cholesterol or inhibition of actin polymerization significantly diminished the formation of alemtuzumab-induced caps and reduced alemtuzumab-mediated CLL cell death. We compared alemtuzumab-induced direct cytotoxicity, effector cell-mediated toxicity and complement-mediated cytotoxicity of CLL cells to normal T cells. The direct cytotoxicity and observed capping was significantly greater for CLL cells as compared to normal T cells. Cell-mediated and complement-mediated cytotoxicity did not significantly differ between the two cell types. In summary, our data support the hypothesis that alemtuzumab can initiate CLL cell death by crosslinking CD52-enriched lipid rafts. Furthermore, the differential direct cytotoxic effect suggests that CD52 directed antibodies could possibly be engineered to more specifically target CLL cells. PMID:16341049

  2. Human endometriosis is associated with plasma cells and overexpression of B lymphocyte stimulator

    PubMed Central

    Hever, Aniko; Roth, Richard B.; Hevezi, Peter; Marin, Maria E.; Acosta, Jose A.; Acosta, Hector; Rojas, Jose; Herrera, Rosa; Grigoriadis, Dimitri; White, Evan; Conlon, Paul J.; Maki, Richard A.; Zlotnik, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Endometriosis affects 10–20% of women of reproductive age and is associated with pelvic pain and infertility, and its pathogenesis is not well understood. We used genomewide transcriptional profiling to characterize endometriosis and found that it exhibits a gene expression signature consistent with an underlying autoimmune mechanism. Endometriosis lesions are characterized by the presence of abundant plasma cells, many of which produce IgM, and macrophages that produce BLyS/BAFF/TNFSF13B, a member of the TNF superfamily implicated in other autoimmune diseases. B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein was found elevated in the serum of endometriosis patients. These observations suggest a model for the pathology of endometriosis where BLyS-responsive plasma cells interact with retrograde menstrual tissues to give rise to endometriosis lesions. PMID:17640886

  3. Comparison of histamine release from human blood monocytes, lymphocytes, adenoidal and skin mast cells.

    PubMed

    Schmutzler, W; Bolsmann, K; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, G

    1995-01-01

    Monocytes and lymphocytes from human blood contain 0.043 +/- 0.007 and 0.053 +/- 0.014 pg histamine/cell, respectively, which can be released by a number of stimulants (A 23187, C5a, substance P, specific allergen). The release process takes 60-120 min to reach its end point, in contrast to tissue mast cells which complete the release within 1-3 min. Both, ketotifen (10(-7) - 10(-5) M) and disodium cromoglycate (10(-5) - 10(-3) M) inhibited histamine release dose dependently up to 40-45%, which might be particularly relevant during the later stages of acute allergic or pseudoallergic reactions. PMID:7542070

  4. Human spleen contains different subsets of dendritic cells and regulatory T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez-Lopera, M M; Correa, L A; García, L F

    2008-01-01

    Most knowledge about dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells in humans has been gathered from circulating cells but little is known about their frequency and distribution in lymphoid organs. This report shows the frequency, phenotype and location of DCs and regulatory T cells in deceased organ donors' spleens. As determined by flow cytometry, conventional/myeloid DCs (cDCs) CD11chighHLA-DR+CD123−/low were 2·3 ± 0·9% and LIN- HLA-DR+CD11chigh 2·1 ± 0·3% of total spleen cells. Mature CD11chighHLA-DR+CD83+ were 1·5 ± 0·8% and 1·0 ± 1·6% immature CD11chighHLA-DR+CD83- cDC. There were 0·3 ± 0·3% plasmacytoid DCs (pDC) CD11c−/lowHLA-DR+CD123high and 0·3 ± 0·1% LIN-HLA-DR+CD123high. Cells expressing cDCs markers, BDCA-1 and BDCA-3, and pDCs markers BDCA-2 and BDCA-4 were observed in higher frequencies than DCs with other phenotypes evaluated. CD11c+, CD123+ and CD83+ cells were located in subcapsular zone, T cells areas and B-cell follicles. CD4+CD25high Tregs were 0·2 ± 0·2% and CD8+CD28- comprised 11·5 ± 8·1% of spleen lymphocytes. FOXP3+ cells were found in T- and B-cell areas. The improvement in cell separation, manipulation and expansion techniques, will facilitate the manipulation of donor spleen cells as a part of protocols for induction and maintenance of allograft tolerance or treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:18727627

  5. In vitro Stimulation of NK Cells and Lymphocytes Using an Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of Ophiocordyceps as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild Ophiocordyceps, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 on natural killer cells and B and T lymphocytes. CBG-CS-2 stimulated splenocyte proliferation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression in the mouse splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro CBG-CS-2 treatment enhanced the killing activity of the NK-92MI natural killer cell line. These results indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from Ophiocordyceps exhibits immune-modulating activity, as was observed in vivo and this suggests its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:27162531

  6. In vitro Stimulation of NK Cells and Lymphocytes Using an Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2016-04-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of Ophiocordyceps as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild Ophiocordyceps, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 on natural killer cells and B and T lymphocytes. CBG-CS-2 stimulated splenocyte proliferation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression in the mouse splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro CBG-CS-2 treatment enhanced the killing activity of the NK-92MI natural killer cell line. These results indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from Ophiocordyceps exhibits immune-modulating activity, as was observed in vivo and this suggests its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:27162531

  7. Regulation of the herpesvirus saimiri oncogene stpC, similar to that of T-cell activation genes, in growth-transformed human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fickenscher, H; Biesinger, B; Knappe, A; Wittmann, S; Fleckenstein, B

    1996-01-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri strain C488, a T-cell tumor virus of New World primates, transforms human T lymphocytes to stable interleukin-2-dependent growth without need for further stimulation by antigen or mitogen. The transformed cell lines show the phenotype of activated mature T cells and retain many essential features of the primary parental cells, e.g., antigen specificity. In contrast to transformed New World monkey T cells, the human lines do not support lytic growth of the virus, even after chemical stimulation. Here we show that many viral genes remain silent during episomal persistence. However, the viral oncogene stpC is predominantly transcribed and translated to a stable cytoplasmic protein of 20 kDa that is heterogeneously expressed in individual cells. This 1.7-kb mRNA is bicistronic, encoding also Tip, a viral protein interacting with the T-cell-specific tyrosine kinase Lck. stpC/tip transcripts are heavily induced upon stimulation by mitogen or phorbol ester. Block of protein synthesis does not abolish transcription: treatment with cycloheximide greatly induces stpC/tip mRNA levels. Thus, this gene complex is regulated similarly to early T-cell activation genes. Constitutive and induced expression engage different transcription start sites. The T-cell regulation of the viral genes stpC and tip may contribute to the T-cell tropism of growth transformation by herpesvirus saimiri. PMID:8709223

  8. HIF-1α regulates the interaction of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Roberta; Coltella, Nadia; Belloni, Daniela; Ponente, Manfredi; ten Hacken, Elisa; Scielzo, Cristina; Scarfò, Lydia; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Brambilla, Paola; Lenti, Elisa; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Brendolan, Andrea; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Ferrarini, Marina; Ghia, Paolo; Tonon, Giovanni; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) regulate a wide array of adaptive responses to hypoxia and are often activated in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies due to intratumoral hypoxia and emerging new layers of regulation. We found that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), HIF-1α is a novel regulator of the interaction of CLL cells with protective leukemia microenvironments and, in turn, is regulated by this interaction in a positive feedback loop that promotes leukemia survival and propagation. Through unbiased microarray analysis, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α regulates the expression of important chemokine receptors and cell adhesion molecules that control the interaction of leukemic cells with bone marrow and spleen microenvironments. Inactivation of HIF-1α impairs chemotaxis and cell adhesion to stroma, reduces bone marrow and spleen colonization in xenograft and allograft CLL mouse models, and prolongs survival in mice. Of interest, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α is transcriptionally regulated after coculture with stromal cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α messenger RNA levels vary significantly within CLL patients and correlate with the expression of HIF-1α target genes, including CXCR4, thus further emphasizing the relevance of HIF-1α expression to CLL pathogenesis. PMID:26825709

  9. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridomas that mediate specific tumor-cell lysis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Y; Berke, G; Eshhar, Z

    1981-01-01

    Cytotoxic hybridomas were generated by polyethylene glycol-induced fusion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and BW5147 lymphoma cells. The CTL populations used for fusion were obtained from BALB/c (H-2d) mice primed with leukemia EL4 of C57BL/6 (H-2b) and restimulated either in vivo or in vitro. To circumvent possible CTL-mediated nonspecific lysis of BW5147 cells during fusion, the CTL were transiently inactivated by trypsin prior to fusion. Four cytolytically active hybridomas were obtained, cloned, and subcloned. Hybrid clones lysed all H-2b leukemic target cells tested but not lipopolysaccharide- or concavanalin A-stimulated C57BL/6 lymphoblasts or non-H2b target tumor cells. The mechanism of hybridoma-mediated killing of target cells in vitro appears to be similar to that of parental CTL, although some differences have been observed. The hybridomas appear to possess neither natural killing nor antibody-dependent cytolytic activity. Clones of hybrids propagated in culture for over 6 months without the addition of known external stimulus (i.e., independent of cell growth factor and antigen) exhibit specific lytic activity against H-2b tumor cells. Such autonomous hybridomas will provide a tool for studying the mechanism of CTL-mediated lysis and the nature of the CTL receptors. PMID:6972538

  10. Sensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to small targeted therapeutic molecules: An in vitro comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sylvan, Sandra Eketorp; Skribek, Henriette; Norin, Stefan; Muhari, Orsolya; Österborg, Anders; Szekely, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    New drugs targeting important cellular signaling pathways are currently being developed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is therefore of interest to analyze their in vitro killing capacity in manufacturer-independent, comparative experiments. We here report on the sensitivity of CLL cells to a panel of emerging targeted therapeutics using high-throughput screening based on an automated fluorescence digital scanning system. Fresh CLL cells from 42 patients with indolent or progressive CLL were cultured for 72 hours on microtiter plates in a unique primary cell culture medium. Antitumor effects of 31 small therapeutic molecules (and, as controls, 29 cytostatic agents) at equimolar concentration were compared in a fluorescence survival assay. In vitro sensitivity to each drug exhibited considerable interpatient variability. The highest mean direct killing was observed for one survivin inhibitor (YM-155), two bcl-2 inhibitors (ABT-199, ABT-737), and one selective CDK inhibitor (dinaciclib). Their killing capacity was, in contrast to most cytostatic agents, similarly high in refractory versus untreated CLL patients and was significantly higher on cells with the 17p deletion/TP53 mutation than on cells with other cytogenetic abnormalities (p = 0.02). Sensitivity of bone marrow and lymph node cells was highly correlated with that of blood cells. Even though direct killing may not be the only therapeutic effector function in vivo, results from this head-to-head comparison may help to identify drugs of particular interest for intensified clinical development. PMID:26325331

  11. Immunoresistant human glioma cell clones selected with alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, German G.; Hickey, Michelle J.; Tritz, Richard; Kruse, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We previously reported the cellular, functional and cytogenetic characterization of immunoresistant (IR) 13-06-IR29 and 13-06-IR30 human glioma cell clones isolated after immunoselection with alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (aCTL). Relative to the 13-06-MG parental cells, both clones resisted aCTL lysis at multiple effector to target ratios; the resistant phenotype was maintained for 13-41 cell doublings after cloning and when selective pressure was removed; cross-resistance to other inducers of apoptosis/cell death was also observed (Gomez et al, 2006; Gomez and Kruse, 2007). In this study we further characterize the IR clones for factors that may contribute to the resistance. Data obtained by in-vitro quantitative morphologic and 7-amino actinomycin D flow cytometric assays revealed reduced apoptotic cell death when IR clones were coincubated with aCTL, relative to the parental cells. Since changes in apoptosis were observed, we examined the expression patterns of apoptosis-related genes in several extracts of parental cells and IR clones using pathway-specific cDNA microarray analysis. In general, the apoptotic factors were downregulated in the IR clones. From three separate extracts analyzed separately on microarrays, three factors, ATM, caspases 3 and 8, were statistically downregulated in both IR clones. Immunoblotting of the proteins confirmed the findings. Therefore, a possible mechanism for immunoresistance in gliomas may be achieved by the downregulation of one or more genes in the apoptotic pathway. PMID:19066635

  12. HIF-1α regulates the interaction of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Roberta; Coltella, Nadia; Belloni, Daniela; Ponente, Manfredi; Ten Hacken, Elisa; Scielzo, Cristina; Scarfò, Lydia; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Brambilla, Paola; Lenti, Elisa; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Brendolan, Andrea; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Ferrarini, Marina; Ghia, Paolo; Tonon, Giovanni; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Bernardi, Rosa

    2016-04-21

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) regulate a wide array of adaptive responses to hypoxia and are often activated in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies due to intratumoral hypoxia and emerging new layers of regulation. We found that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), HIF-1α is a novel regulator of the interaction of CLL cells with protective leukemia microenvironments and, in turn, is regulated by this interaction in a positive feedback loop that promotes leukemia survival and propagation. Through unbiased microarray analysis, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α regulates the expression of important chemokine receptors and cell adhesion molecules that control the interaction of leukemic cells with bone marrow and spleen microenvironments. Inactivation of HIF-1α impairs chemotaxis and cell adhesion to stroma, reduces bone marrow and spleen colonization in xenograft and allograft CLL mouse models, and prolongs survival in mice. Of interest, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α is transcriptionally regulated after coculture with stromal cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α messenger RNA levels vary significantly within CLL patients and correlate with the expression of HIF-1α target genes, including CXCR4, thus further emphasizing the relevance of HIF-1α expression to CLL pathogenesis. PMID:26825709

  13. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell depletion improves the graft-versus-tumor effect of donor lymphocytes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Maury, Sébastien; Lemoine, François M; Hicheri, Yosr; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Badoual, Cécile; Cheraï, Mustapha; Beaumont, Jean-Louis; Azar, Nabih; Dhedin, Nathalie; Sirvent, Anne; Buzyn, Agnès; Rubio, Marie-Thérèse; Vigouroux, Stéphane; Montagne, Olivier; Bories, Dominique; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Cordonnier, Catherine; Klatzmann, David; Cohen, José L

    2010-07-21

    Donor T cells play a pivotal role in the graft-versus-tumor effect after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Regulatory T cells (T(reg)s) may reduce alloreactivity, the major component of the graft-versus-tumor effect. In the setting of donor lymphocyte infusion after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we postulated that T(reg) depletion could improve alloreactivity and likewise the graft-versus-tumor effect of donor T cells. The safety and efficacy of T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion was studied in 17 adult patients with malignancy relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. All but one had previously failed to respond to at least one standard donor lymphocyte infusion, and none had experienced graft-versus-host disease. Two of the 17 patients developed graft-versus-host disease after their first T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion and experienced a long-term remission of their malignancy. Four of the 15 patients who did not respond after a first T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion received a second T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion combined with lymphodepleting chemotherapy aimed to also eliminate recipient T(reg)s. All four developed acute-like graft-versus-host disease that was associated with a partial or complete and durable remission. In the whole cohort, graft-versus-host disease induction through T(reg) depletion was associated with improved survival. These results suggest that T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion is a safe, feasible approach that induces graft-versus-host or graft-versus-tumor effects in alloreactivity-resistant patients. In patients not responding to this approach, the combination of chemotherapy-induced lymphodepletion of the recipient synergizes with the effect of T(reg)-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion. These findings offer a rational therapeutic approach for cancer cellular immunotherapy. PMID:20650872

  14. Membrane microdomain sphingolipids are required for anti-CD20-induced death of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammadi, Mariam; Youinou, Pierre; Tempescul, Adrian; Tobón, Gabriel; Berthou, Christian; Bordron, Anne; Pers, Jacques-Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia remains incurable, despite the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy as an available means of treatment. The resistance of certain patients to this monoclonal antibody prompted us to set up in vitro studies of another CD20-specific monoclonal antibody, B1 (later termed tositumomab). We hypothesized that the membrane lipid organization of leukemic B cells might be instrumental in the cells’ sensitivity to the B1 monoclonal antibody. Design and Methods B lymphocytes from 36 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 13 patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were investigated for B1-triggered cell death. Membrane components, such as sphingomyelin and ganglioside M1, were investigated by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, together with the Csk-binding protein. Results Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients segregated into two groups: B cells from one group were sensitive to B1, whereas those from the second group were not. Further results ascribed the resistance of these latter cases to a defective recruitment of Csk-binding protein, resulting in a lack of sphingomyelin and ganglioside M1 at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of their malignant B cells. Sphingolipids were indeed retained in the cytoplasm, because of lowered activity of P-glycoprotein. Supporting this mechanism, rifampicin, an inducer of P-glycoprotein, improved the activity of this transmembrane efflux pump, normalized the quantity of sphingomyelin within the membrane, and thereby restored the efficacy of the B1 monoclonal antibody in the formerly B1-resistant cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions The lipid organization of membranes of B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia differs from one patient to another. In practice, given the relevance of the membrane lipid distribution to the efficacy of biotherapies, this observation is of potential importance. PMID:22058197

  15. Relationship of the CD5 B cell to human tonsillar lymphocytes that express autoantibody-associated cross-reactive idiotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Kipps, T J; Duffy, S F

    1991-01-01

    We examined human tonsillar B cells for expression of autoantibody heavy-chain or kappa light-chain cross-reactive idiotypes (CRIs), respectively defined by murine MAbs G6 or 17.109. We find 17.109 or G6 each specifically binds a subpopulation of B cells, respectively reacting with 3.8 +/- 3% (mean +/- SD) or 2.0 +/- 1.2% of all tonsillar lymphocytes. Cells reactive with both 17.109 and G6 comprise only 0.4 +/- 0.3% of tonsillar lymphocytes. Although each tested specimen had 17.109-positive cells, 2 of 19 tonsils (11%) did not have any G6-reactive cells. We find that CRI-positive cells and CD5 B cells both co-express slgD but fail to bind peanut agglutinin or MAbs specific for CD10, indicating that both cell types reside in the mantle zones of secondary B cell follicles. However, less than half of the B cells bearing one or both of these CRIs express detectable levels of CD5. Nevertheless, we find that G6-reactive lymphocytes constitute a multiclonal population of cells that express homologous heavy chain variable region genes, each rearranged to one of several distinct and apparently nonmutated D and JH gene segments. Collectively, these studies indicate that expression of nondiversified autoantibody-encoding variable region genes may not be an exclusive property of B cells that bear detectable levels of the CD5 surface antigen. PMID:1710233

  16. Effects of copaene, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, on human lymphocytes cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Türkez, Hasan; Celik, Kübra; Toğar, Başak

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the cytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and antioxidant/oxidant activity of copaene (COP), a plant-derived tricyclic sesquiterpene, on human lymphocyte cultures (n = 5) was investigated. COP was added into culture tubes at various concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/L). While the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used for viability and cytotoxic evaluations, the micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays were used for genetic evaluations. Moreover, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status analysis were used for biochemical evaluations. According to LDH and MTT assays COP significantly reduced cell proliferation at high concentrations (200 and 400 mg/L). In addition, there was no significant increase (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with COP as compared to controls. We have also concluded that concentrations of COP of 50 and 100 mg/L increased TAC level when compared to the controls. In conclusion, in this study it has been reported for the first time that copaene is not genotoxic and it increases the antioxidant capacity in human lymphocyte cultures. PMID:24287609

  17. A human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Johzaki, H; Iwasaki, H; Nishida, T; Isayama, T; Kikuchi, M

    1989-12-01

    A cell strain (FU-GBC-1) was established from cancerous ascites of a 68-year-old male patient with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. By light and electron microscopy, the cultured cells showed the morphologic features of adenocarcinoma characterized by gland-like structures, intracellular microcystic spaces, and mucous production. Immunoperoxidase stains showed that FU-GBC-1 cells expressed several epithelial tumor antigens including CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The cell strain has been in continuous culture up to passage 44 for 1 1/2 years, with the population doubling time of 120 hours. The cytogenetic analysis by a G-band technique showed a constant loss of chromosome Y in FU-GBC-1 cells. The modal chromosome number at passage 12 was 82 with a range of 77 to 85. Flow cytometry with an ethidium bromide technique additionally confirmed aneuploid DNA content (4C) in the cultured cells at passage 12 and 35. Inoculation of FU-GBC-1 cells into the dermis of BALB/c nude mice produced transplantable adenocarcinoma identical to the original tumor. Because no continuous cell lines of the well-differentiated type of gallbladder adenocarcinoma have been reported in the literature currently, the newly established cell strain we report may yield a useful system for studying the morphologic and biologic characteristics of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. PMID:2680052

  18. An in vitro study of liposomal curcumin: stability, toxicity and biological activity in human lymphocytes and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B-cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changguo; Johnston, Thomas D; Jeon, Hoonbae; Gedaly, Roberto; McHugh, Patrick P; Burke, Thomas G; Ranjan, Dinesh

    2009-01-21

    Curcumin is a multi-functional and pharmacologically safe natural agent. Used as a food additive for centuries, it also has anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and anti-tumor properties. We previously found that it is a potent inhibitor of cyclosporin A (CsA)-resistant T-cell co-stimulation pathway. It inhibits mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, NFkappaB activation and IL-2 signaling. In spite of its safety and efficacy, the in vivo bioavailability of curcumin is poor, and this may be a major obstacle to its utility as a therapeutic agent. Liposomes are known to be excellent carriers for drug delivery. In this in vitro study, we report the effects of different liposome formulations on curcumin stability in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), human blood, plasma and culture medium RPMI-1640+10% FBS (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C). Liposomal curcumin had higher stability than free curcumin in PBS. Liposomal and free curcumin had similar stability in human blood, plasma and RPMI-1640+10% FBS. We looked at the toxicity of non-drug-containing liposomes on (3)H-thymidine incorporation by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated human lymphocytes, splenocytes and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B-cell lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). We found that dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) were toxic to the tested cells. However, addition of cholesterol to the lipids at DMPC:DMPG:cholesterol=7:1:8 (molar ratio) almost completely eliminated the lipid toxicity to these cells. Liposomal curcumin had similar or even stronger inhibitory effects on Con A-stimulated human lymphocyte, splenocyte and LCL proliferation. We conclude that liposomal curcumin may be useful for intravenous administration to improve the bioavailability and efficacy, facilitating in vivo studies that could ultimately lead to clinical application of curcumin. PMID:18840516

  19. Early stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a chance for cure?

    PubMed Central

    Dreger, P.; von Neuhoff, N.; Kuse, R.; Sonnen, R.; Glass, B.; Uharek, L.; Schoch, R.; Löffler, H.; Schmitz, N.

    1998-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cannot be cured by conventional therapy. To improve the prognosis of patients with CLL, we have designed a sequential treatment strategy that comprises intensive chemotherapy for mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) and induction of minimal disease, followed by high-dose radiochemotherapy with stem cell reinfusion and post-transplant molecular monitoring by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the complementary determining region III (CDRIII) gene. In a prospective study, we have evaluated this protocol in 18 patients with CLL, also including early stages of the disease. The median age was 49 (29-61) years; Binet stages were A, six; B, nine; and C, three. Adverse prognostic factors [high lymphocyte count and/or diffuse bone marrow (BM) infiltration] were present in 16 out of 18 patients. All patients showed a clone-specific molecular marker as demonstrated by PCR amplification of CDRIII rearrangements. For stem cell mobilization and reduction of tumour load, one to two cycles of Dexa-BEAM chemotherapy were administered, resulting in minimal disease (circulating lymphoma cells <1 x 10(9) l(-1); BM infiltration <20%; lymphomas <2 cm) in 16 out of 18 patients, including four patients who already had minimal disease before Dexa-BEAM. Stem cell harvesting was successful in 14 patients. All grafts [three BM, 11 peripheral blood (PB)] were purged from leukaemic cells using immunomagnetic methods. Thirteen patients having achieved minimal disease were reinfused with purged autologous stem cells (ASC) after preparation with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide. Engraftment was delayed in patients receiving BM (n = 3) but prompt [neutrophils >0.5 x 10(9) l(-1) after 10 (9-13) days, platelets >20 x 10(9) l(-1) after 11 (9-214) days] in patients restored with PBPCs (n = 10). Procedure-related deaths did not occur. Although the results of CDRIII PCR suggest persistence or recurrence of the

  20. Akt inhibition enhances expansion of potent tumor-specific lymphocytes with memory cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Joseph G; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Clever, David; Gros, Alena; Eil, Robert L; Tran, Eric; Hanada, Ken-Ichi; Yu, Zhiya; Palmer, Douglas C; Kerkar, Sid P; Michalek, Ryan D; Upham, Trevor; Leonardi, Anthony; Acquavella, Nicolas; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Gattinoni, Luca; Muranski, Pawel; Sundrud, Mark S; Klebanoff, Christopher A; Rosenberg, Steven A; Fearon, Douglas T; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2015-01-15

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) results in complete regression of advanced cancer in some patients, but the efficacy of this potentially curative therapy may be limited by poor persistence of TIL after adoptive transfer. Pharmacologic inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase Akt has recently been shown to promote immunologic memory in virus-specific murine models, but whether this approach enhances features of memory (e.g., long-term persistence) in TIL that are characteristically exhausted and senescent is not established. Here, we show that pharmacologic inhibition of Akt enables expansion of TIL with the transcriptional, metabolic, and functional properties characteristic of memory T cells. Consequently, Akt inhibition results in enhanced persistence of TIL after adoptive transfer into an immunodeficient animal model and augments antitumor immunity of CD8 T cells in a mouse model of cell-based immunotherapy. Pharmacologic inhibition of Akt represents a novel immunometabolomic approach to enhance the persistence of antitumor T cells and improve the efficacy of cell-based immunotherapy for metastatic cancer. PMID:25432172

  1. Interphase cytogenetics of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia by FISH-technique

    SciTech Connect

    Peddanna, N.; Gogineni, S.K.; Rosenthal, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL] accounts for about 30% of all lymphoproliferative disorders. In over 95% of these cases, the leukemia is caused by B-cells, rarely T-cells. Fifty percent of B-CLL have chromosomal aberrations and of such cases, one-third have trisomy 12. Malignant B-cells have a very low mitotic index and those metaphases that can be analyzed usually represent the normal T-cell population. Retrospectively, we decided to identify the additional chromosome 12 (trisomy 12) directly at interphase by the FISH-technique using centrometric 12 specific alphoid probe (Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD). Preparations were made from 9 patients with B-CLL. All cultures except one failed to produce metaphases for conventional karyotyping. Eighty percent of the cells have two dots (normal cells) over the interphase nuclei while the remaining 20% have three dots (trisomy 12). The clinical implication of trisomy 12 in the pathogenesis of CLL including age, staging and duration of disease, differentials and immunological markers are correlated with interphase cytogenetic data. The loss and/or gain of specific chromosomes in human neoplasia is common and rapid evaluation of such cases should be considered as a routine approach.

  2. Local isotropic phase symmetry measure for detection of beta cells and lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuse, Manohar; Wang, Yi-Fang; Kalasannavar, Vinay; Khan, Michael; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes can be associated with a reduction in functional β cell mass, which must be restored if the disease is to be cured or progress is to be arrested. To study the cell count, it is also necessary to determine the number of nuclei within the insulin stained area. It can take a single experimentalist several months to complete a single study of this kind, results of which may still be quite subjective. In this paper, we propose a framework based on a novel measure of local symmetry for detection of cells. The local isotropic phase symmetry measure (LIPSyM) is designed to give high values at or near the cell centers. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm for detection of two types of specific cells in histology images, cells in mouse pancreatic sections and lymphocytes in human breast tissue. Experimental results for these two problems show that our algorithm performs better than human experts for the former problem, and outperforms the best reported results for the latter. PMID:22811958

  3. Measles Virus Entry Through the Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Governs Efficacy of Mantle Cell Lymphoma Radiovirotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Miest, Tanner S; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We developed here a vaccine-identical measles virus (MV) as an oncolytic agent against mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is difficult to cure but radiosensitive. We armed the virus with the sodium-iodide symporter, which concentrates iodide within infected cells enabling noninvasive imaging and combination radiovirotherapy. Through high-resolution in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we visualized the spread of infections in primary and metastatic tumors for over 2 weeks after therapy, documenting homogeneous virus seeding and spread restricted to perfused tissue. Infection of metastases was more rapid and intense than primary tumors, achieving isotope uptake within about threefold the efficiency of the thyroid. Virotherapy combined with systemic 131I resulted in more rapid disease regression than either therapy alone. In addition to ubiquitous CD46, vaccine MV retains cell entry through its immune cell-specific receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM). We asked whether both receptors could sustain effective oncolysis of MCL. Strikingly, only SLAM-dependent entry sustained efficient viral spread, tumor regression, and prolonged survival. These observations shift the focus of future clinical trials to SLAM-expressing hematologic malignancies and suggest that oncolytic vectors may depend on tissue-specific receptors for both cell entry and activation of responses assisting their replication. PMID:23913184

  4. Efficient and reproducible generation of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes for renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, V; Griffiths, R; Hawkins, R E; Gilham, D E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is showing great promise in the treatment of patients with advanced malignant melanoma. However, the translation of TIL therapy to non-melanoma tumours such as renal cell carcinoma has been less successful with a major constraint being the inability to reproducibly generate TILs from primary and metastatic tumour tissue. Methods: Primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma biopsies were subjected to differential tumour disaggregation methods and procedures that stimulate the specific expansion of TILs tested to determine which reliably generated TIL maintained antitumour specificity. Results: Enzymatic or combined enzymatic/mechanical disaggregation resulted in equivalent numbers of TILs being liberated from renal cell carcinoma biopsies. Following mitogenic activation of the isolated TILs with anti-CD3/anti-CD28-coated paramagnetic beads, successful TIL expansion was achieved in 90% of initiated cultures. The frequency of T-cell recognition of autologous tumours was enhanced when tumours were disaggregated using the GentleMACS enzymatic/mechanical system. Conclusion: TILs can be consistently produced from renal cell carcinoma biopsies maintaining autologous tumour recognition after expansion in vitro. While the method of disaggregation has little impact on the success of TIL growth, methods that preserve the cell surface architecture facilitate TIL recognition of an autologous tumour, which is important in terms of characterising the functionality of the expanded TIL population. PMID:25867267

  5. L-selectin controls trafficking of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in lymph node high endothelial venules in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lafouresse, Fanny; Bellard, Elisabeth; Laurent, Camille; Moussion, Christine; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Ysebaert, Loïc; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2015-09-10

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. Lymph nodes (LNs) are sites of malignant proliferation and LN enlargement is associated with poor prognosis in the clinics. The LN microenvironment is believed to favor disease progression by promoting CLL cell growth and drug resistance. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating trafficking of CLL cells to LNs is thus urgently needed. Here, we studied the first step of CLL cell migration to LNs, their interaction with high endothelial venules (HEVs), specialized blood vessels for lymphocyte extravasation in lymphoid organs. We observed that the density of HEV blood vessels was increased in CLL LNs and that CD20(+) CLL cells accumulated within HEV pockets, suggesting intense trafficking. We used intravital imaging to visualize the behavior of human CLL cells within the mouse LN microcirculation, and discovered that CLL cells bind to HEVs in vivo via a multistep adhesion cascade, which involves rolling, sticking, and crawling of the leukemic cells on the endothelium. Functional analyses revealed that the lymphocyte homing receptor L-selectin (CD62L) is the key factor controlling the binding of CLL cells to HEV walls in vivo. Interestingly, L-selectin expression was decreased on CLL cells from patients treated with idelalisib, a phosphoinositide-3-kinase δ inhibitor recently approved for CLL therapy. Interference with L-selectin-mediated trafficking in HEVs could represent a novel strategy to block dissemination of CLL cells to LNs and increase the efficacy of conventional therapy. PMID:26162407

  6. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... key statistics about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... leukemias). The rest of this document focuses on acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults. For information on ALL in ...

  7. The use of cationic nanogels to deliver proteins to myeloma cells and primary T lymphocytes that poorly express heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kozo; Tsuchiya, Yumiko; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Ayame, Hirohito; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Tsubata, Takeshi

    2011-09-01

    Fusion proteins containing protein transduction domain (PTD) are widely used for intracellular delivery of exogenous proteins. PTD-mediated delivery requires expression of heparan sulfate on the surface of the target cells. However, some of metastatic tumor cells and primary lymphocytes poorly express heparan sulfate. Here we demonstrate that proteins complexed with nanosize hydrogels formed by cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulans (cCHP) are efficiently delivered to myeloma cells and primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes probably by induction of macropinocytosis, although these cells are resistant to PTD-mediated protein delivery as a consequence of poor heparan sulfate expression. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL delivered by cCHP nanogels efficiently blocked apoptosis of these cells, establishing functional regulation of cells by proteins delivered by cCHP nanogels. Thus, cCHP nanogel is a useful tool to deliver proteins for development of new cancer therapy and immune regulation. PMID:21605901

  8. T lymphocytes bearing the gamma delta T cell receptor are susceptible to steroid-induced programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Bistoni, O; Travetti, A; Migliorati, G; Moraca, R; Nicoletti, I; Riccardi, C; Paoletti, F P; Vaccaro, R

    1995-05-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids suppress immune responses have not yet been clearly defined. In steroid-sensitive pathological conditions, an increase in gamma delta T cells can occur in certain untreated systemic autoimmune disorders and seems to be a peristent feature in most cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our previously published data demonstrated that immunosuppressive therapy normalized this expanded SLE T cell subset in parallel with clinical remission of the symptoms. To establish how corticosteroid treatment determines the disappearance of peripheral blood gamma delta T lymphocytes, circulating alpha beta and gamma delta T lymphocytes from seven SLE subjects with active disease and seven healthy individuals were cultured in the presence or absence of 10(-7) M Dexamethasone (DEX). Cell suspensions were then analysed for DNA fragmentation, characteristic of apoptotic cell death, by a new cytofluorimetric method. Conventional agarose-gel electrophoresis on the same T cell populations was carried out for comparison. Regular follow-ups for 6 months revealed in vivo steroid treatment determined a dramatic fall in SLE blood gamma delta T cells, and in vitro experiments seem to indicate that DEX-triggered apoptotic signals are confined to the double negative (CD4-CD8-) gamma delta T cell subpopulation which disappears after in vivo immunosuppressive therapy. Clinical and pathological remission of some autoimmune diseases is often obtained by corticosteroids. Our results offer new insights on the mechanisms through these hormones exert their potent inhibitory activities on immune system cells postulated to play a role in the generation of autoimmune responses. PMID:7725070

  9. No defect in G1/S cell cycle arrest in irradiated Li-Fraumeni lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, K. J.; Heighway, J.; Birch, J. M.; Norton, J. D.; Scott, D.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation response of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalised lymphoblastoid cell lines derive from Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and LFS-like individuals was investigated. Cells from all LFS and LFS-like cases showed an accumulation of p53 protein following 137Cs gamma-irradiation, which was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G1/S border. This response was indistinguishable from that seen in cells derived from normal individuals, and occurred in cases with missense mutations in the TP53 gene at codons 175, 180, 220 and 248 and also in two LFS-like individuals with no TP53 mutation. Previous studies using lymphocytes and fibroblasts from LFS individuals have demonstrated abnormal radiation responses in these cells. This suggest cell type specificity in the contribution of a mutant p53 protein to phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8795570

  10. Raman spectrum reveals the cell cycle arrest of Triptolide-induced leukemic T-lymphocytes apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daosen; Feng, Yanyan; Zhang, Qinnan; Su, Xin; Lu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Shengde; Zhong, Liyun

    2015-04-01

    Triptolide (TPL), a traditional Chinese medicine extract, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. Though some research results have implicated that Triptolide (TPL) can be utilized in the treatment of leukemia, it remains controversial about the mechanism of TPL-induced leukemic T-lymphocytes apoptosis. In this study, combining Raman spectroscopic data, principal component analysis (PCA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, both the biochemical changes and morphological changes during TPL-induced cell apoptosis were presented. In contrast, the corresponding data during Daunorubicin (DNR)-induced cell apoptosis was also exhibited. The obtained results showed that Raman spectral changes during TPL-induced cell apoptosis were greatly different from DNR-induced cell apoptosis in the early stage of apoptosis but revealed the high similarity in the late stage of apoptosis. Moreover, above Raman spectral changes were respectively consistent with the morphological changes of different stages during TPL-induced apoptosis or DNR-induced apoptosis, including membrane shrinkage and blebbing, chromatin condensation and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Importantly, it was found that Raman spectral changes with TPL-induced apoptosis or DNR-induced apoptosis were respectively related with the cell cycle G1 phase arrest or G1 and S phase arrest.

  11. A high rate of telomeric sister chromatid exchange occurs in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B-cells.

    PubMed

    Medves, Sandrine; Auchter, Morgan; Chambeau, Laetitia; Gazzo, Sophie; Poncet, Delphine; Grangier, Blandine; Verney, Aurélie; Moussay, Etienne; Ammerlaan, Wim; Brisou, Gabriel; Morjani, Hamid; Géli, Vincent; Palissot, Valérie; Berchem, Guy; Salles, Gilles; Wenner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Cancer cells protect their telomere ends from erosion through reactivation of telomerase or by using the Alternative Lengthening of Telomere (ALT) mechanism that depends on homologous recombination. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) B cells are characterized by almost no telomerase activity, shelterin deregulation and telomere fusions. To characterize telomeric maintenance mechanisms in B-CLL patients, we measured their telomere length, telomerase expression and the main hallmarks of the ALT activity i.e. C-circle concentration, an extra-chromosomal telomere repeat (ECTR), and the level of telomeric sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE) rate. Patients showed relative homogenous telomere length although almost no TERT transcript and nearly no C-circle were evidenced. Nevertheless, compared with normal B cells, B-CLL cells showed an increase in T-SCE rate that was correlated with a strong down-regulation of the topoisomerase III alpha (TOP3A) expression, involved in the dissolution of Holliday Junctions (HJ), together with an increased expression of SLX1A, SLX4, MUS81 and GEN1, involved in the resolution of HJ. Altogether, our results suggest that the telomere maintenance mechanism of B-CLL cells do not preferentially use telomerase or ALT. Rather, the rupture of the dissolvasome/resolvasome balance may increase telomere shuffling that could homogenize telomere length, slowing telomere erosion in this disease. PMID:26970083

  12. Natural Killer-like B Cells Prime Innate Lymphocytes against Microbial Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Xia, Pengyan; Chen, Yi; Huang, Guanling; Xiong, Zhen; Liu, Jing; Li, Chong; Ye, Buqing; Du, Ying; Fan, Zusen

    2016-07-19

    Natural killer (NK) cells and non-cytotoxic interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing group I innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s) produce large amounts of IFN-γ and cause activation of innate and adaptive immunity. However, how NKs and ILC1s are primed during infection remains elusive. Here we have shown that a lymphocyte subpopulation natural killer-like B (NKB) cells existed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). NKBs had unique features that differed from T and B cells, and produced interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-12 at an early phase of infection. NKB cells played a critical role in eradication of microbial infection via secretion of IL-18 and IL-12. Moreover, IL-18 deficiency abrogated the antibacterial effect of NKBs. Upon bacterial challenge, NKB precursors (NKBPs) rapidly differentiated to NKBs that activated NKs and ILC1s against microbial infection. Our findings suggest that NKBs might be exploited to develop effective therapies for treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:27421702

  13. Development of a dendritic cell vaccine encoding multiple cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes targeting hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Futao; Chen, Lin; Ma, Li; Wang, Yu; He, Yu; Ma, Zhiyuan; Liu, Haili; Guo, Yonghong; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Zhiqiang; Hao, Chunqiu; Jia, Zhansheng

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine encoding hepatitis C virus (HCV) multiple cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes that can stimulate T cell responses in vitro, and can be used for immunization in vivo. DCs were infected with recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses (Ads) expressing 2 HCV sequences fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and FLAG tags. One sequence (sequence 1) contained the HCV CTL epitopes, NS4B 1793-1801 and P7 774-782, as well as the HCV Th epitope, NS3 1248-1261. A second sequence (sequence 2) was the positive epitope control which contained HCV core 35-44, core 132-140 and NS3 1248-1261. The efficiency of infection was detected by flow cytometry and the expression of HCV epitopes in the DCs was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Ad infection significantly enhanced DC maturation and interleukin (IL)-12p70 production, resulting in T cell proliferation and increased interferon-γ secretion. The CTLs stimulated by Ad-infected DCs specifically killed Huh7.5 human hepatoma cells. The recombinant Ad-expressing multiple CTL HCV epitopes effectively infected the DCs in vitro and promoted T cell antiviral immune responses, thereby laying the foundation for the development of anti-HCV DC vaccines. PMID:23934073

  14. Features of target cell lysis by class I and class II MHC restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Maimone, M.M.; Morrison, L.A.; Braciale, V.L.; Braciale, T.J.

    1986-12-01

    The lytic activity of influenza virus-specific muvine cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that are restricted by either H-2K/D (class I) or H-2I (class II) major histocompatibility (MHC) locus products was compared on an influenza virus-infected target cell expressing both K/D and I locus products. With the use of two in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity, conventional /sup 51/Cr release, and detergent-releasable radiolabeled DNA (as a measure of nuclear disintegration in the early post-lethal hit period), the authors found no difference between class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL in the kinetics of target cell destruction. In addition, class II MHC-restricted antiviral CTL failed to show any lysis of radiolabeled bystander cells. Killing of labeled specific targets by these class II MHC-restricted CTL was also efficiently inhibited by unlabeled specific competitor cells in a cold target inhibition assay. In sum, these data suggest that class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL mediate target cell destruction by an essentially similar direct mechanism.

  15. Impaired Lymphocytes Development and Xenotransplantation of Gastrointestinal Tumor Cells in Prkdc-Null SCID Zebrafish Model.

    PubMed

    Jung, In Hye; Chung, Yong-Yoon; Jung, Dawoon E; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Do Hee; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Park, Seung Woo

    2016-08-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice have widely been used as hosts for human tumor cell xenograft study. This animal model, however, is labor intensive. As zebrafish is largely emerging as a promising model system for studying human diseases including cancer, developing efficient immunocompromised strains for tumor xenograft study are also demanded in zebrafish. Here, we have created the Prkdc-null SCID zebrafish model which provides the stable immune-deficient background required for xenotransplantation of tumor cell. In this study, the two transcription activator-like effector nucleases that specifically target the exon3 of the zebrafish Prkdc gene were used to induce a frame shift mutation, causing a complete knockout of the gene function. The SCID zebrafish showed susceptibility to spontaneous infection, a well-known phenotype found in the SCID mutation. Further characterization revealed that the SCID zebrafish contained no functional T and B lymphocytes which reflected the phenotypes identified in the mice SCID model. Intraperitoneal injection of human cancer cells into the adult SCID zebrafish clearly showed tumor cell growth forming into a solid mass. Our present data show the suitability of using the SCID zebrafish strain for xenotransplantation experiments, and in vivo monitoring of the tumor cell growth in the zebrafish demonstrates use of the animal model as a new platform of tumor xenograft study. PMID:27566103

  16. The effects of ILLLI on peripheral blood T lymphocytes subpopulation & NK cells in psoriasis treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Nie, Fan

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To research the effects of Intravascular low level laser irradiation (ILLLI) on the immulogic function of cells in treatment of psoriasis. Method: 49 patients suffered from psoriasis were treated by Intravascular low level laser irradiation (laser output power: 4-5mw, 1 hour per day, a course of treatment is 10 days). We checked the function of T lymphocyte subgroup and NK cell in peripheral blood between pre and post treatment. Results: 1.The mean value of CD3+ in post treatment is higher. P<0.05. Significant difference is showed between pre and post treatment 2. The mean value of CD4+ in post treatment dropped slightly while the mean value of CD4/CD8, NK cell in post treatment increased little, nearly approach the mean value of natural person. 3.The mean value of CD4+,CD8+,NK cell which is under 30% increased the percent obviously after the treatment; The mean value of CD4+,CD8+ u higher than 30% obviously drop the percent, P#0.05 and <0.01. Related statistical analysis showed significant and much significant difference between pre and post treatment. Conclusions: The low level laser irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis has bidirectional ajustive effect which can balance the immulogic function of cell.

  17. c-Myc is a universal amplifier of expressed genes in lymphocytes and embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Zuqin; Hu, Gangqing; Wei, Gang; Cui, Kairong; Yamane, Arito; Resch, Wolfgang; Wang, Ruoning; Green, Douglas R.; Tessarollo, Lino; Casellas, Rafael; Zhao, Keji; Levens, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary The c-Myc HLH-bZIP protein has been implicated in physiological or pathological growth, proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism and differentiation at the cellular, tissue or organismal levels via regulation of numerous target genes. No principle yet unifies Myc action due partly to an incomplete inventory and functional accounting of Myc’s targets. To observe Myc target expression and function in a system where Myc is temporally and physiologically regulated, the transcriptomes and the genome-wide distributions of Myc, RNA polymerase II and chromatin modifications were compared during lymphocyte activation and in ES cells as well. A remarkably simple rule emerged from this quantitative analysis: Myc is not an on-off specifier of gene activity, but is a non-linear amplifier of expression, acting universally at active genes, except for immediate early genes that are strongly induced before Myc. This rule of Myc action explains the vast majority of Myc biology observed in literature. PMID:23021216

  18. Infection frequency of dendritic cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes in spleens of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, D; Autran, B; Cheynier, R; Wain-Hobson, S; Clauvel, J P; Oksenhendler, E; Debré, P; Hosmalin, A

    1995-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen-presenting leukocytes that are responsible for the activation of naive as well as memory T lymphocytes. If infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), DC may transfer virus to CD4+ lymphocytes. However, the question of whether DC are infected in vivo is controversial. As HIV infection is more active in secondary lymphoid organs than in blood, infection of splenic DC isolated from HIV-seropositive patients was investigated. Splenic DC were first enriched and characterized by flow cytometry from HIV- donors. After direct isolation, they were negative for monocyte and T- and B-lymphocyte markers, negative for CD1a, but positive for major histocompatibility complex class II and CD4. After in vitro maturation, major histocompatibility complex class II expression increased, while CD4 expression was lost. Extensive purification from the spleens of seven HIV+ patients was performed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The frequency of cells harboring HIV DNA in purified populations was quantified by limiting-dilution PCR. Directly isolated DC (average, 1/3,000; range, 1/720 to 1/18,000) were in each patient 10 to 100 times less infected than CD4+ T lymphocytes (average, 1/52; range, 1/17 to 1/190). On average, 1/1,450 (1/320 to 1/6,100) unseparated mononuclear splenocytes (containing 5% CD4+ lymphocytes) harbored HIV DNA. In conclusion, in these HIV+ patient spleens, DC seem to be infected, but HIV-DNA positive CD4+ T lymphocytes accounted for the vast majority of infected mononuclear splenocytes. PMID:7609039

  19. Roles of the mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, NCLX, in B lymphocyte chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongju; Takeuchi, Ayako; Hikida, Masaki; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte chemotaxis plays important roles in immunological reactions, although the mechanism of its regulation is still unclear. We found that the cytosolic Na+-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux transporter, NCLX, regulates B lymphocyte chemotaxis. Inhibiting or silencing NCLX in A20 and DT40 B lymphocytes markedly increased random migration and suppressed the chemotactic response to CXCL12. In contrast to control cells, cytosolic Ca2+ was higher and was not increased further by CXCL12 in NCLX-knockdown A20 B lymphocytes. Chelating intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA-AM disturbed CXCL12-induced chemotaxis, suggesting that modulation of cytosolic Ca2+ via NCLX, and thereby Rac1 activation and F-actin polymerization, is essential for B lymphocyte motility and chemotaxis. Mitochondrial polarization, which is necessary for directional movement, was unaltered in NCLX-knockdown cells, although CXCL12 application failed to induce enhancement of mitochondrial polarization, in contrast to control cells. Mouse spleen B lymphocytes were similar to the cell lines, in that pharmacological inhibition of NCLX by CGP-37157 diminished CXCL12-induced chemotaxis. Unexpectedly, spleen T lymphocyte chemotaxis was unaffected by CGP-37157 treatment, indicating that NCLX-mediated regulation of chemotaxis is B lymphocyte-specific, and mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ dynamics are more important in B lymphocytes than in T lymphocytes. We conclude that NCLX is pivotal for B lymphocyte motility and chemotaxis. PMID:27328625

  20. Evidence that intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes are activated cytotoxic T cells in celiac disease but not in giardiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, G.; Vogelsang, H.; Stolte, M.; Muthenthaler, S.; Kummer, A. J.; Radaszkiewicz, T.

    1996-01-01

    To further define intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in celiac disease (CD) and giardiasis, IELs were probed for the presence of cytolytic granules containing granzyme B (GrB) and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen (TIA)-1. The expression of TIA-1, GrB, CD3 (T-cell-receptor-associated complex), and Leu-7 (subset of natural killer cells) was studied by a sensitive three-step immunoperoxidase technique. Stained IELs were determined quantitatively, and results were expressed as number of stained IELs per 100 epithelial cells (ECs). The relative content in labeled lamina propria lymphocytes was determined and expressed as the percentage of all lamina propria cells counted. When compared with controls, CD3+ and GrB+ IELs were significantly increased (P < 0.0004) in CD paralleled by an increase in TIA-1+ IELs (P < 0.0004). In CD, the highest numbers of IELs containing GrB were found in subjects with a flat mucosa (median, 38 IELs/100 ECs, P < 0.0004), followed by cases with shortened and blunted villi (median, 8 IELs/100 ECs, P < 0.0004) and, finally, CD patients with an intact villous architecture (median, 0.5 IELs/100 ECs, P < 0.02). Except for cases with giardiasis, Leu-7+ IELs were virtually absent in all groups as were GrB+ IELs in the controls and in subjects with giardiasis. In the lamina propria of CD subjects, GrB+ lymphocytes were also significantly increased (P < 0.001), whereas controls and cases with giardiasis were essentially free of GrB+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The percentage of CD3+ lamina propria lymphocytes was nearly equal in all groups. In humans and mice, extensive studies revealed a GrB expression to be absolutely restricted to activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. TIA-1, on the other hand, is considered a marker of resting T lymphocytes possessing cytolytic potential. We therefore conclude that IELs are cytotoxic T cells that are in a resting state in the normal small bowel and in giardiasis. In CD, they become

  1. Characterization of warm-reactive IgG anti-lymphocyte antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Relative specificity for mitogen-activated T cells and their soluble products.

    PubMed

    Litvin, D A; Cohen, P L; Winfield, J B

    1983-01-01

    In addition to previously described cold-reactive IgM anti-lymphocyte antibodies maximally cytotoxic for resting cells at 15 degrees C, sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were found to contain a new type of antibody preferentially reactive at physiologic temperatures with mitogen-activated lymphocytes. This antibody lacked specificity for unstimulated lymphocytes, and was shown to be of the IgG class both by indirect immunofluorescence and in immunochemical experiments. Certain SLE sera also contained IgG antibodies with the capacity to develop plaques with mitogen-activated T lymphocyte preparations used in a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, indicating reactivity with products released by activated cells. The elimination of the ability of SLE sera to develop plaques after absorption with viable mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes, but not with resting cells, suggested that these antibodies were directed toward activation "neoantigen(s)" shed from the cell surface membrane. Surface membrane phenotype analyses performed by using a variety of monoclonal antibody reagents indicated that the plaque-forming cells (PFC) detected with SLE sera were activated T lymphocytes not restricted to single OKT4+, OKT8+, or Ia antigen+ subpopulations. Essentially all PFC expressed transferrin receptors. The present data raise the possibility that certain of the interesting effects of anti-lymphocyte antibodies on immunologic function in SLE may be mediated by interactions of these new type(s) of antibodies with activated lymphocytes or their products, rather than through blocking or depletion effects on resting precursor cells. PMID:6600174

  2. An altered repertoire of T cell receptor V gene expression by rheumatoid synovial fluid T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, C; Marguerie, C; So, A K

    1992-12-01

    The pattern of T cell receptor V gene expression by lymphocytes from rheumatoid synovial fluid and paired peripheral blood samples was compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had varying durations of disease (from 2 to 20 years) were studied. In all patients there was evidence of a different pattern of V gene expression between the two compartments. Significantly increased expression of at least one V alpha or V beta gene family by synovial fluid T cells was observed in all the patients studied. Three different V alpha (V alpha 10, 15 and 18) and three V beta (V beta 4, 5 and 13) families were commonly elevated. Sequencing of synovial V beta transcripts demonstrated that the basis of increased expression of selected V gene families in the synovial fluid was due to the presence of dominant clonotypes within those families, which constituted up to 53% of the sequences isolated from one particular synovial V gene family. There were considerable differences in the NDJ sequences found in synovial and peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) transcripts of the same V beta gene family. These data suggest that the TCR repertoire in the two compartments differs, and that antigen-driven expansion of particular synovial T cell populations is a component of rheumatoid synovitis, and is present in all stages of the disease. PMID:1458680

  3. Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Fails to Fully Regenerate the B-Lymphocyte Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ghosn, Eliver Eid Bou; Waters, Jeffrey; Phillips, Megan; Yamamoto, Ryo; Long, Brian R.; Yang, Yang; Gerstein, Rachel; Stoddart, Cheryl A.; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Herzenberg, Leonore A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary B cells are key components of cellular and humoral immunity and, like all lymphocytes, are thought to originate and renew from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, our recent single-HSC transfer studies demonstrate that adult bone marrow HSCs do not regenerate B-1a, a subset of tissue B cells required for protection against pneumonia, influenza, and other infections. Since B-1a are regenerated by transfers of fetal liver, the question arises as to whether B-1a derive from fetal, but not adult, HSCs. Here we show that, similar to adult HSCs, fetal HSCs selectively fail to regenerate B-1a. We also show that, in humanized mice, human fetal liver regenerates tissue B cells that are phenotypically similar to murine B-1a, raising the question of whether human HSC transplantation, the mainstay of such models, is sufficient to regenerate human B-1a. Thus, our studies overtly challenge the current paradigm that HSCs give rise to all components of the immune system. PMID:26724903

  4. Monoclonal antibodies against ROR1 induce apoptosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    PubMed

    Daneshmanesh, A H; Hojjat-Farsangi, M; Khan, A S; Jeddi-Tehrani, M; Akhondi, M M; Bayat, A A; Ghods, R; Mahmoudi, A-R; Hadavi, R; Österborg, A; Shokri, F; Rabbani, H; Mellstedt, H

    2012-06-01

    ROR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) recently identified to be overexpressed at the gene and protein levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against RTKs have been successfully applied for therapy of solid tumors. We generated five MAbs against the Ig (n = 1), cysteine-rich (CRD) (n = 2) and kringle (KNG) (n = 2) domains, respectively, of the extracellular part of ROR1. All CLL patients (n = 20) expressed ROR1 on the surface of the leukemic cells. A significantly higher frequency of ROR1 expression was found in patients with progressive versus non-progressive disease, and in those with unmutated versus mutated IgVH genes. All five MAbs alone induced apoptosis in the absence of complement or added effector cells (Annexin-V and MTT, as well as cleavage of poly-(ADP ribose)-polymerase, caspase-8 and caspase-9) of CLL cells but not of normal B cells. Most effective were MAbs against CRD and KNG, significantly superior to rituximab (P < 0.005). Cross-linking of anti-ROR1 MAbs using the F(ab')(2) fragments of anti-Fc antibodies significantly augmented apoptosis. Two of the MAbs induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) similar to that of rituximab and one anti-ROR1 MAb (KNG) (IgG1) showed killing activity by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The identified ROR1 epitopes may provide a basis for generating human ROR1 MAbs for therapy. PMID:22289919

  5. Wnt-10b secreted from lymphocytes promotes differentiation of skin epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-04-21

    Wnt-10b was originally isolated from lymphoid tissue and is known to be involved in a wide range of biological actions, while recently it was found to be expressed early in the development of hair follicles. However, few studies have been conducted concerning the role of Wnt-10b with the differentiation of skin epithelial cells. To evaluate its role in epithelial differentiation, we purified Wnt-10b from the supernatant of a concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocyte culture using an affinity column and investigated its effects on the differentiation of adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC). MPSEC cultured with Wnt-10b showed morphological changes from cuboidal to spindle-shaped with inhibited proliferation, and also obtained characteristics of the hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle, represented by red-colored Ayoub Shklar staining, and reactions to AE-13 and AE-15 as seen with immunocytology. Further, RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of mRNA for keratin 1, keratin 2, loricrin, mHa5, and mHb5, in association with a decreased expression of the basal cell marker keratin 5, in Wnt-10b-treated MPSEC. In addition, involvement of the canonical Wnt signal pathway was demonstrated by a TCF reporter (pTOPFLASH) assay. These results suggest that Wnt-10b promotes the differentiation of MPSEC and may play an important role in hair follicle development by promoting differentiation of epithelial cells.

  6. Rapid induction of apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by the microtubule disrupting agent BNC105.

    PubMed

    Bates, Darcy; Feris, Edmond J; Danilov, Alexey V; Eastman, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Microtubule targeting agents, such as vinblastine, are usually thought to arrest cells in mitosis and subsequently induce apoptosis. However, they can also cause rapid induction of apoptosis in a cell-cycle phase independent manner. BNC105 is a novel vascular and microtubule disrupting drug that also induces apoptosis rapidly but with markedly increased potency compared to vinca alkaloids and combretastatin A4. BNC105 binds to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin resulting in activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphorylation of ATF2, and induction of ATF3 and Noxa leading to acute apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Apoptosis induced by BNC105 is dependent upon both JNK activation and Noxa induction. Normal leukocytes and one CLL sample also exhibited JNK activation but not Noxa induction and were resistant to BNC105. This study emphasizes the importance of Noxa and JNK for induction of apoptosis in CLL cells by microtubule targeting drugs, and highlights the potential of BNC105 as a potent therapeutic to treat haematopoietic malignancies. PMID:26891146

  7. Loss of prolyl hydroxylase-2 in myeloid cells and T-lymphocytes impairs tumor development.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Soulafa; Kalucka, Joanna; Singh, Rashim Pal; Franke, Kristin; Muschter, Antje; Langer, Anika; Jakob, Christiane; Gassmann, Max; Baretton, Gustavo B; Wielockx, Ben

    2014-02-15

    The tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role during cancer development and progression. The balance between suppressive and cytotoxic responses of the tumor immune microenvironment has been shown to have a direct effect on the final outcome in various human and experimental tumors. Recently, we demonstrated that the oxygen sensor HIF-prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD2) plays a detrimental role in tumor cells, stimulating systemic growth and metastasis in mice. In our current study, we show that the conditional ablation of PHD2 in the hematopoietic system also leads to reduced tumor volume, intriguingly generated by an imbalance between enhanced cell death and improved proliferation of tumor cells. This effect seems to rely on the overall downregulation of protumoral as well as antitumoral cytokines. Using different genetic approaches, we were able to confine this complex phenotype to the crosstalk of PHD2-deficient myeloid cells and T-lymphocytes. Taken together, our findings reveal a multifaceted role for PHD2 in several hematopoietic lineages during tumor development and might have important implications for the development of tumor therapies in the future. PMID:23913502

  8. Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

  9. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and overall survival in all sites of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rachidi, Saleh; Wallace, Kristin; Wrangle, John M.; Day, Terry A.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Li, Zihai

    2015-01-01

    Background Current prognostic criteria are insufficient in predicting outcomes in head and neck cancers, necessitating new, readily available biomarkers Methods Pretreatment neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and their ratio (NLR) were retrospectively investigated for correlation with overall survival while controlling for demographic and clinical confounders. Results Patients in the highest tertile of neutrophil counts and those in the lowest tertile of lymphocytes experienced shorter survival than the rest of the population. Patients in the highest tertile of the NLR were at a higher risk compared to those in the lowest tertile after multivariate analysis (HR=2.39, p=0.0001). Additionally, NLR was lower in patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) positive tumors compared to HPV negative ones and predicted survival in both tumor types. Conclusions Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts are strong biomarkers with opposing prognostic significance and the NLR is a robust predictor of overall survival in oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:26040762

  10. Exosomes released by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce the transition of stromal cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Paggetti, Jerome; Haderk, Franziska; Seiffert, Martina; Janji, Bassam; Distler, Ute; Ammerlaan, Wim; Kim, Yeoun Jin; Adam, Julien; Lichter, Peter; Solary, Eric; Berchem, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes derived from solid tumor cells are involved in immune suppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, but the role of leukemia-derived exosomes has been less investigated. The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is stringently associated with a tumor-supportive microenvironment and a dysfunctional immune system. Here, we explore the role of CLL-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells create this favorable surrounding. We show that CLL-derived exosomes are actively incorporated by endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo and in vivo and that the transfer of exosomal protein and microRNA induces an inflammatory phenotype in the target cells, which resembles the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). As a result, stromal cells show enhanced proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Exosome uptake by endothelial cells increased angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, and coinjection of CLL-derived exosomes and CLL cells promoted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we detected α-smooth actin–positive stromal cells in lymph nodes of CLL patients. These findings demonstrate that CLL-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating several functions of surrounding stromal cells that acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts. PMID:26100252

  11. Monoclonal antibody fluorescence for routine lymphocyte subpopulation analysis with the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire haematology analyser.

    PubMed

    Molero, T; Lemes, A; DE LA Iglesia, S; Scott, C S

    2007-12-01

    Using previously described procedures, this study quantified T-cell, T-cell subset, B-cell and NK-cell populations with the CD-Sapphire haematology analyser in a series of patients with mild to moderate lymphocytosis. Lymphocyte counts ranged from 6.0 to 14.9 x 10(9)/l, with 86/97 being <10.0 x 10(9)/l. Immunophenotyping (CD3/CD19/HLA-DR, CD4/CD8 and CD16/CD56 combinations) was performed using EDTA-anticoagulated blood, automated CD-Sapphire analysis and subsequent software processing. Of 35 samples from younger (<12 years) patients, 22 (63%) had nonspecific lymphocyte changes, 4 (11%) showed specific increases in nonreactive T-Helper or T-Suppressor cells, and five showed a reactive T-cell lymphocytosis. The remaining four were classified as 'Transient/Persistent NK-associated (NKa) Expansion' (n = 3) and specific B-cell lymphocytosis (n = 1). For older patients (n = 59), 15 (25%) had an increase (>1.5 x 10(9)/l) in B-cells, and seven investigated for surface immunoglobulin expression were all found to be clonal. The remaining samples were categorized as 'Transient/Persistent NK-associated (NKa) Expansion' (13/59), Reactive Lymphocytosis (5/59), 'Reactive Lymphocytosis or Transient/Persistent NKa Expansion' (8/59), specific T-Helper cell (n = 8) or T-Suppressor cell (n = 3) lymphocytosis, and 'Lymphocytosis of Undetermined Significance' (n = 7). This study has demonstrated the feasibility of applying limited immunophenotyping protocols to the investigation of patients with abnormal lymphocyte counts in routine haematology. By using commercially purchased liquid monoclonal reagents to determine lymphocyte subpopulation profiles, haematology laboratories can provide more definitive information of potential clinical importance. PMID:17988300

  12. Differential expression of T cell antigens in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: a quantitative analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Ginaldi, L; Farahat, N; Matutes, E; De Martinis, M; Morilla, R; Catovsky, D

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To obtain reference values of the level of expression of T cell antigens on normal lymphocyte subsets in order to disclose differences which could reflect their function or maturation stages, or both. METHODS: Peripheral blood from 15 healthy donors was processed by flow cytometry with triple colour analysis. For each sample phycoerythrin (PE) conjugated CD2, CD4, CD5, CD8, and CD56 monoclonal antibodies were combined with Cy5-R-phycoerythrin (TC) conjugated CD3 and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated CD7; CD2- and CD7-PE were also combined with CD3-TC and CD4-FITC. Standard microbeads with different capacities to bind mouse immunoglobulins were used to convert the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values of the lymphocyte subsets identified by multiparametric flow cytometry into the number of antigen molecules per cell, measured as antibody binding capacity (ABC). RESULTS: CD4+ (helper/inducer) T cells exhibit a higher CD3 antigen expression compared with CD8+ (suppressor/ cytotoxic) T lymphocytes. Within the CD4+ T cells, the CD4+CD7- subset expressed a lower level of CD3 compared with CD4+CD7+ and CD8+CD7+ cells, and higher CD2 and CD5 expression than the main CD3+CD7+ subset. Major differences in antigen expression were also detected between CD3+ T cells and CD3-CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells: NK cells exhibited higher levels of CD7 and CD56 and lower levels of CD2 and CD5 than T cells. Significantly lower CD5 expression was also detected in the small CD5+ B lymphocyte subset compared with T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative flow cytometry with triple colour analysis may be used to detect antigen modulations in disease states and to increase the accuracy of diagnosis by comparison with findings in normal counterparts. Images PMID:8813949

  13. Effects of strong magnetic fields on cell growth and radiation response of human T-lymphocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Norimura, T; Imada, H; Kunugita, N; Yoshida, N; Nikaido, M

    1993-06-01

    Experiments were undertaken in order to verify whether or not a strong magnetic field would have any biological effects on the cell growth, viability and radiation response of mammalian cells. Magnetic field exposures were conducted using a superconducting magnet with freshly-isolated human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes maintained at their normal growing temperature of 37 degrees C. The static magnetic fields with intensities up to 6.3-tesla (T) exerted little influence on the cell growth and viability of actively-growing T-lymphocytes under normal cell-culture conditions. On the other hand, the T cells exposed to the magnetic fields (4 T-6.3 T) during PHA stimulation were inhibited in their cell growth when compared to controls. The effects of the magnetic fields with intensities up to 2 T on cell growth properties, however, were minimal in this system. Also, the radiosensitivity of T-lymphocytes previously exposed to the strong magnetic fields was more sensitive than that of control cells. These results suggest that exposure to a static magnetic field of 4 T or stronger might lead to physiological and growth abnormalities at the cellular level. PMID:8316709

  14. Targeting the apoptotic pathway with BCL-2 inhibitors sensitizes primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to vesicular stomatitis virus-induced oncolysis.

    PubMed

    Tumilasci, Vanessa Fonseca; Olière, Stephanie; Nguyên, Thi Lien-Ahn; Shamy, April; Bell, John; Hiscott, John

    2008-09-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by clonal accumulation of CD5(+) CD19(+) B lymphocytes that are arrested in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle and fail to undergo apoptosis because of overexpression of the antiapoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) protein. Oncolytic viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), have emerged as potential anticancer agents that selectively target and kill malignant cells via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Although primary CLL cells are largely resistant to VSV oncolysis, we postulated that targeting the apoptotic pathway via inhibition of BCL-2 may sensitize CLL cells to VSV oncolysis. In the present study, we examined the capacity of EM20-25--a small-molecule antagonist of the BCL-2 protein--to overcome CLL resistance to VSV oncolysis. We demonstrate a synergistic effect of the two agents in primary ex vivo CLL cells (combination index of 0.5; P < 0.0001). In a direct comparison of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers with primary CLL, the two agents combined showed a therapeutic index of 19-fold; furthermore, the combination of VSV and EM20-25 increased apoptotic cell death in Karpas-422 and Granta-519 B-lymphoma cell lines (P < 0.005) via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, EM20-25 blocked the ability of the BCL-2 protein to dimerize with proapoptotic BAX protein, thus sensitizing CLL to VSV oncolytic stress. Together, these data indicate that the use of BCL-2 inhibitors may improve VSV oncolysis in treatment-resistant hematological malignancies, such as CLL, with characterized defects in the apoptotic response. PMID:18579592

  15. Genetically Engineered Lymphocyte Therapy in Treating Patients With B-Cell Leukemia or Lymphoma That is Resistant or Refractory to Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-31

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  16. Induction of Ca2+-driven apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by peptide-mediated disruption of Bcl-2–IP3 receptor interaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Fei; Harr, Michael W.; Bultynck, Geert; Monaco, Giovanni; Parys, Jan B.; De Smedt, Humbert; Rong, Yi-Ping; Molitoris, Jason K.; Lam, Minh; Ryder, Christopher; Matsuyama, Shigemi

    2011-01-01

    Bcl-2 contributes to the pathophysiology and therapeutic resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Therefore, developing inhibitors of this protein based on a thorough understanding of its mechanism of action is an active and promising area of inquiry. One approach centers on agents (eg, ABT-737) that compete with proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family for binding in the hydrophobic groove formed by the BH1-BH3 domains of Bcl-2. Another region of Bcl-2, the BH4 domain, also contributes to the antiapoptotic activity of Bcl-2 by binding to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) Ca2+ channel, inhibiting IP3-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. We report that a novel synthetic peptide, modeled after the Bcl-2–interacting site on the IP3R, binds to the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 and functions as a competitive inhibitor of the Bcl-2–IP3R interaction. By disrupting the Bcl-2–IP3R interaction, this peptide induces an IP3R-dependent Ca2+ elevation in lymphoma and leukemia cell lines and in primary CLL cells. The Ca2+ elevation evoked by this peptide induces apoptosis in CLL cells, but not in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting the involvement of the Bcl-2–IP3R interaction in the molecular mechanism of CLL and indicating the potential merit of targeting this interaction therapeutically. PMID:21193695

  17. Adoptive immunotherapy with MUC1-mRNA transfected dendritic cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes plus gemcitabine for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported the clinical efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with mucin 1 (MUC1) peptide and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We also reported that gemcitabine (GEM) enhances anti-tumor immunity by suppressing regulatory T cells. Therefore, in the present study, we performed combination therapy with AIT and GEM for patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer. Patients and methods Forty-two patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer were treated. DCs were generated by culture with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4 and then exposed to tumor necrosis factor-α. Mature DCs were transfected with MUC1-mRNA by electroporation (MUC1-DCs). MUC1-CTLs were induced by co-culture with YPK-1, a human pancreatic cancer cell line, and then with interleukin-2. Patients were treated with GEM, while MUC1-DCs were intradermally injected, and MUC1-CTLs were intravenously administered. Results Median survival time (MST) was 13.9 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 51.1%. Of 42 patients, one patient had complete response (2.4%), three patients had partial response (7.1%) and 22 patients had stable disease (52.4%). The disease control ratio was 61.9%. The MST and 1-year survival rate of 35 patients who received more than 1 × 107 MUC1-DCs per injection was 16.1 months and 60.3%, respectively. Liver metastasis occurred in only 5 patients among 35 patients without liver metastasis before treatment. There were no severe toxicities associated with AIT. Conclusion AIT with MUC1-DCs and MUC1-CTLs plus GEM may be a feasible and effective treatment for pancreatic cancer. PMID:24947606

  18. Endothelin-1 Promotes Survival and Chemoresistance in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells through ETA Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Silvia; Castelli, Ilaria; Valenti, Vanessa; Rossi, Davide; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Zucchini, Patrizia; Potenza, Leonardo; Vallisa, Daniele; Gattei, Valter; Poeta, Giovanni Del; Forconi, Francesco; Gaidano, Gianluca; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Marasca, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The endothelin axis, comprising endothelins (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) and their receptors (ETAR and ETBR), has emerged as relevant player in tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we investigated the involvement of ET-1/ETAR axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). CLL cells expressed higher levels of ET-1 and ETA receptor as compared to normal B cells. ET-1 peptide stimulated phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, improved survival and promoted proliferation of leukemic cells throughout ETAR triggering. Moreover, the blockade of ETAR by the selective antagonist BQ-123 inhibited the survival advantage acquired by CLL cells in contact with endothelial layers. We also found that blocking ETAR via BQ-123 interferes with ERK phosphorylation and CLL pro-survival effect mediated by B-cell receptor (BCR) activation. The pro-apoptotic effect of phosphoinositide-3-kinase δ inhibitor idelalisib and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059 was decreased by the addition of ET-1 peptide. Then, ET-1 also reduced the cytotoxic effect of fludarabine on CLL cells cultured alone or co-cultured on endothelial layers. ETAR blockade by BQ-123 inhibited the ET-1-mediated protection against drug-induced apoptosis. Lastly, higher plasma levels of big ET-1 were detected in patients (n = 151) with unfavourable prognostic factors and shorter time to first treatment. In conclusion, our data describe for the first time a role of ET-1/ETAR signaling in CLL pathobiology. ET-1 mediates survival, drug-resistance, and growth signals in CLL cells that can be blocked by ETAR inhibition. PMID:24901342

  19. High prevalence of side population in human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G.; Fiegl, Heidi; Wolf, Barbara; Huber, Julia; Klocker, Helmut; Gastl, Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are essential platforms for performing cancer research on human cells. We here demonstrate that, across tumor entities, human cancer cell lines harbor minority populations of putative stem-like cells, molecularly defined by dye extrusion resulting in the side population phenotype. These findings establish a heterogeneous nature of human cancer cell lines and argue for their stem cell origin. This should be considered when interpreting research involving these model systems. PMID:27226981

  20. Unraveling the Equine Lymphocyte Proteome: Differential Septin 7 Expression Associates with Immune Cells in Equine Recurrent Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Degroote, Roxane L.; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Amann, Barbara; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a spontaneous, lymphocyte-driven autoimmune disease. It affects horses worldwide and presents with painful remitting-relapsing inflammatory attacks of inner eye structures eventually leading to blindness. Since lymphocytes are the key players in equine recurrent uveitis, we were interested in potential changes of their protein repertoire which may be involved in disease pathogenesis. To create a reference for differential proteome analysis, we first unraveled the equine lymphocyte proteome by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently identified 352 protein spots. Next, we compared lymphocytes from ERU cases and healthy horses with a two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis approach. With this technique, we identified seven differentially expressed proteins between conditions. One of the significantly lower expressed candidates, septin 7, plays a role in regulation of cell shape, motility and migration. Further analyses revealed T cells as the main cell type with decreased septin 7 abundance in equine recurrent uveitis. These findings point to a possible pathogenetic role of septin 7 in this sight-threatening disease. PMID:24614191

  1. Fas Receptor Expression in Germinal-Center B Cells Is Essential for T and B Lymphocyte Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zhenyue; Duncan, Gordon S.; Seagal, Jane; Su, Yu-Wen; Hong, Claire; Haight, Jillian; Chen, Nien-Jung; Elia, Andrew; Wakeham, Andrew; Li, Wanda Y.; Liepa, Jennifer; Wood, Geoffrey A.; Casola, Stefano; Rajewsky, Klaus; Mak, Tak W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Fas is highly expressed in activated and germinal center (GC) B cells but can potentially be inactivated by misguided somatic hypermutation. We employed conditional Fas-deficient mice to investigate the physiological functions of Fas in various B cell subsets. B cell-specific Fas-deficient mice developed fatal lymphoproliferation due to activation of B cells and T cells. Ablation of Fas specifically in GC B cells reproduced the phenotype, indicating that the lymphoproliferation initiates in the GC environment. B cell-specific Fas-deficient mice also showed an accumulation of IgG1+ memory B cells expressing high amounts of CD80 and the expansion of CD28-expressing CD4+ Th cells. Blocking T cell-B cell interaction and GC formation completely prevented the fatal lymphoproliferation. Thus, Fas-mediated selection of GC B cells and the resulting memory B cell compartment is essential for maintaining the homeostasis of both T and B lymphocytes. PMID:18835195

  2. Heterogeneous expansion of CD4+ tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in clear cell renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Jia, Qingzhu; Deng, Tianxing; Song, Bo; Li, Longkun

    2015-02-27

    Aberrant expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) mediates the effective mounting of adaptive immunity in human solid tumors. The foundations of this tumor-host interaction strongly depend on specific recognition via TAA-cognate-receptors in T-cell repertoires. Previous studies focused on the phenotypic and functional properties of CD4+/CD8+ tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs), but the detailed composition of T-cell repertoires of these fundamental subsets remains largely unknown. This study recruited 10 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients and obtained samples from various tissues, including tumors, adjacent healthy renal tissue and peripheral blood. We utilized deep sequencing of T-cell receptor beta chains (TCRB), which serve as a unique identifier for each T clonotype, to characterize the CD4+/CD8+ TIL repertoire in ccRCC patients, assess the diversity and clonality of infiltrated T-cells in distinct tissues from patients and depict the clonal expansion events that occur in anti-tumor immune responses. We found that the CD4+ TIL repertoire exhibited signatures of heterogeneous T-cell expansion, which were characterized by divergent TRBV/J usage and an enrichment of expanded dominant clones. Taken together, our findings provide additional evidence of CD4+ T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. The identification of the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process may provide novel avenues for targeted immunotherapeutic interventions. PMID:25637538

  3. 2-Phenylacetylenesulfonamide (PAS) induces p53-independent apoptotic killing of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    PubMed

    Steele, Andrew J; Prentice, Archibald G; Hoffbrand, A Victor; Yogashangary, Birunthini C; Hart, Stephen M; Lowdell, Mark W; Samuel, Edward R; North, Janet M; Nacheva, Elisabeth P; Chanalaris, Anastasios; Kottaridis, Panagiotis; Cwynarski, Kate; Wickremasinghe, R Gitendra

    2009-08-01

    We studied the actions of 2-phenylacetylenesulfonamide (PAS) on B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. PAS (5-20 microM) initiated apoptosis within 24 hours, with maximal death at 48 hours asassessed by morphology, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 activation, and annexin V staining. PAS treatment induced Bax proapoptotic conformational change, Bax movement from the cytosol to the mitochondria, and cytochrome c release, indicating that PAS induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. PAS induced approximately 3-fold up-regulation of proapoptotic Noxa protein and mRNA levels. In addition, Noxa was found unexpectedly to be bound to Bcl-2 in PAS-treated cells. PAS treatment of CLL cells failed to up-regulate p53, suggesting that PAS induced apoptosis independently of p53. Furthermore, PAS induced apoptosis in CLL isolates with p53 gene deletion in more than 97% of cells. Normal B lymphocytes were as sensitive to PAS-induced Noxa up-regulation and apoptosis as were CLL cells. However, both T lymphocytes and bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells were relatively resistant to PAS. Our data suggest that PAS may represent a novel class of drug that induces apoptosis in CLL cells independently of p53 status by a mechanism involving Noxa up-regulation. PMID:19515722

  4. Clinical Significance of Preoperative Neutrophil – to - Lymphocyte Ratio in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Otunctemur, Alper; Dursun, Murat; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Ozer, Kutan; Horsanali, Ozan; Ozbek, Emin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: We investigated the prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio on tumor stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade in renal cell carcinoma. Methods: The records of 432 patients with RCC who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy between 2005 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified as group lower tumor stage(T1 + T2) and higher(T3 + T4). As like tumor stage, Fuhrman nuclear grade were classified lower (G1+G2) and higher(G3+G4) too. The best NLR cut off value was 3.01. Two sample t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test used for the continuous variables and a chi-square test or Fisher's exact test used for the categorical variables. Results: Among the 432 total patients analyzed in our study, there were 275 males (63.7%) and 157 females (36.3%). Mean laboratory values were CRP 2.73 ± 1.93 mg/dL (normal less than 0.3), neutrophil count 4,23 ± 1.46/μL, lymphocyte count 1,61 ± 0,61/μL and NLR 2.64 ± 1.24. According to our data, statistically pretreatment NLR significantly correlated with CRP (p<0.0001). And tumor patologic stage (p=0.08), tumor histologic grade (p<0.001) was significantly associated with NLR. Discussion: We compared the relationship of preoperative NLR and NC parameters with RCC tumor stage and grade. And NLR were found to have statistically significant higher T stage and grade at RCC. Further studies with more patients are needed to confirm our study. PMID:27564277

  5. Human autoimmunity after lymphocyte depletion is caused by homeostatic T-cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Joanne L.; Thompson, Sara A. J.; Loh, Priscilla; Davies, Jessica L.; Tuohy, Orla C.; Curry, Allison J.; Azzopardi, Laura; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Fahey, Michael T.; Compston, Alastair; Coles, Alasdair J.

    2013-01-01

    The association between lymphopenia and autoimmunity is recognized, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been studied systematically in humans. People with multiple sclerosis treated with the lymphocyte-depleting monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab offer a unique opportunity to study this phenomenon; one in three people develops clinical autoimmunity, and one in three people develops asymptomatic autoantibodies after treatment. Here, we show that T-cell recovery after alemtuzumab is driven by homeostatic proliferation, leading to the generation of chronically activated (CD28−CD57+), highly proliferative (Ki67+), oligoclonal, memory-like CD4 and CD8 T cells (CCR7−CD45RA− or CCR7−CD45RA+) capable of producing proinflammatory cytokines. Individuals who develop autoimmunity after treatment are no more lymphopenic than their nonautoimmune counterparts, but they show reduced thymopoiesis and generate a more restricted T-cell repertoire. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that homeostatic proliferation drives lymphopenia-associated autoimmunity in humans. PMID:24282306

  6. Activation of macrophages and lymphocytes by methylglyoxal against tumor cells in the host.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Nivedita; Pal, Aparajita; Patra, Subrata; Haldar, Arun Kumar; Roy, Syamal; Ray, Manju

    2008-11-01

    Methylglyoxal is a normal metabolite and has the potential to affect a wide variety of cellular processes. In particular, it can act selectively against malignant cells. The study described herein was to investigate whether methylglyoxal can enhance the non-specific immunity of the host against tumor cells. Methylglyoxal increased the number of macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of both normal and tumor-bearing mice. It also elevated the phagocytic capacity of macrophages in both these groups of animals. This activation of macrophages was brought about by increased production of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates (ROIs) and Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates (RNIs). The possible mechanism for the production of ROIs and RNIs can be attributed to stimulation of the respiratory burst enzyme NADPH oxidase and iNOS, respectively. IFN-gamma, which is a regulatory molecule of iNOS pathway also showed an elevated level by methylglyoxal. TNF-alpha, which is an important cytokine for oxygen independent killing by macrophage also increased by methylglyoxal in both tumor-bearing and non tumor-bearing animals. Methylglyoxal also played a role in the proliferation and cytotoxicity of splenic lymphocytes. In short, it can be concluded that methylglyoxal profoundly stimulates the immune system against tumor cells. PMID:18617020

  7. Isolation of neoantigen-specific T cells from tumor and peripheral lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Cyrille J.; Gartner, Jared J.; Horovitz-Fried, Miryam; Shamalov, Katerina; Trebska-McGowan, Kasia; Bliskovsky, Valery V.; Parkhurst, Maria R.; Ankri, Chen; Prickett, Todd. D.; Crystal, Jessica S.; Li, Yong F.; El-Gamil, Mona; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Robbins, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) that mediate complete regression of metastatic melanoma have been shown to recognize mutated epitopes expressed by autologous tumors. Here, in an attempt to develop a strategy for facilitating the isolation, expansion, and study of mutated antigen–specific T cells, we performed whole-exome sequencing on matched tumor and normal DNA isolated from 8 patients with metastatic melanoma. Candidate mutated epitopes were identified using a peptide-MHC–binding algorithm, and these epitopes were synthesized and used to generate panels of MHC tetramers that were evaluated for binding to tumor digests and cultured TILs used for the treatment of patients. This strategy resulted in the identification of 9 mutated epitopes from 5 of the 8 patients tested. Cells reactive with 8 of the 9 epitopes could be isolated from autologous peripheral blood, where they were detected at frequencies that were estimated to range between 0.4% and 0.002%. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first demonstration of the successful isolation of mutation-reactive T cells from patients’ peripheral blood prior to immune therapy, potentially providing the basis for designing personalized immunotherapies to treat patients with advanced cancer. PMID:26389673

  8. Immune Checkpoint Blockade to Improve Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for Adoptive Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kodumudi, Krithika N.; Siegel, Jessica; Weber, Amy M.; Scott, Ellen; Sarnaik, Amod A.; Pilon-Thomas, Shari

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has been associated with improved survival in cancer patients. Within the tumor microenvironment, regulatory cells and expression of co-inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules can lead to the inactivation of TIL. Hence, there is a need to develop strategies that disrupt these negative regulators to achieve robust anti-tumor immune responses. We evaluated the blockade of immune checkpoints and their effect on T cell infiltration and function. We examined the ability of TIL to induce tumor-specific immune responses in vitro and in vivo. TIL isolated from tumor bearing mice were tumor-specific and expressed co-inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules. Administration of monoclonal antibodies against immune checkpoints led to a significant delay in tumor growth. However, anti-PD-L1 antibody treated mice had a significant increase in T cell infiltration and IFN-γ production compared to other groups. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded TIL from tumors of anti-PD-L1 antibody treated mice led to a significant delay in tumor growth. Blockade of co-inhibitory immune checkpoints could be an effective strategy to improve TIL infiltration and function. PMID:27050669

  9. Heightened BTK-dependent cell proliferation in unmutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia confers increased sensitivity to ibrutinib

    PubMed Central

    Galanina, Natalie; Nabhan, Chadi; Smith, Sonali M.; Coleman, Morton; Wang, Y. Lynn

    2016-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), patients with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene (UM-CLL) have worse outcomes than mutated CLL (M-CLL) following chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy. However, in the era of BCR-targeted therapies, the adverse prognostic impact of unmutated IGHV seems to be diminishing, and there are clinical datasets showing unexpected improved responses in UM-CLL. We investigated the biological differences of BTK activity between these subgroups and further compared the impact of ibrutinib on molecular and cellular behaviors. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that phosphorylated active BTK is significantly higher in UM-CLL. Moreover, UM-CLL, compared to M-CLL, displayed a much higher proliferative capacity that was correlated with higher phospho-BTK and greater sensitivity to ibrutinib. In addition, BTK depletion with siRNA led to a more prominent reduction in the proliferation of UM-CLL, suggesting that elevated BTK activity is responsible for increased cell proliferation. Further, cell signaling activity by multiple measurements was consistently higher in UM-CLL accompanied by a higher sensitivity to ibrutinib. These studies link UM-CLL to elevated BCR signaling, heightened BTK-dependent cell proliferation and increased sensitivity to ibrutinib. The prognostic significance of IGHV mutation should be reevaluated in the era of new therapies targeting BCR signaling. PMID:26717038

  10. AID induces intraclonal diversity and genomic damage in CD86+ chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Michael; Rebhandl, Stefan; Zaborsky, Nadja; Gassner, Franz J; Hainzl, Stefan; Weiss, Lukas; Hebenstreit, Daniel; Greil, Richard; Geisberger, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the Ig genes by directly deaminating cytosines to uracils. As AID causes a substantial amount of off-target mutations, its activity has been associated with lymphomagenesis and clonal evolution of B-cell malignancies. Although it has been shown that AID is expressed in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a clear analysis of in vivo AID activity in this B-cell malignancy remained elusive. In this study performed on primary human CLL samples, we report that, despite the presence of a dominant VDJ heavy chain region, a substantial intraclonal diversity was observed at VDJ as well as at IgM switch regions (Sμ), showing ongoing AID activity in vivo during disease progression. This AID-mediated heterogeneity was higher in CLL subclones expressing CD86, which we identified as the proliferative CLL fraction. Finally, CD86 expression correlated with shortened time to first treatment and increased γ-H2AX focus formation. Our data demonstrate that AID is active in CLL in vivo and thus, AID likely contributes to clonal evolution of CLL. PMID:25179679

  11. Artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing AFP158-166 peptide and interleukin-15 activate AFP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Longhao; Guo, Hao; Jiang, Ruoyu; Lu, Li; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Zhixiang; He, Xianghui

    2016-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are potent generators of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for adoptive immunotherapy; however, generation of APCs is cumbersome, expensive, and subject to the tumor microenvironment. Artificial APCs (aAPCs) have been developed as a cost-effective alternative to APCs. We developed a cellular aAPC that efficiently generated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-specific CTLs. We genetically modified the human B cell lymphoma cell line BJAB with a lentiviral vector to establish an aAPC called BA15. The expression of AFP158-166-HLA-A*02:01 complex, CD80, CD86, and interleukin (IL)-15 in BA15 cells was assessed. The efficiency of BA15 at generating AFP-specific CTLs and the specific cytotoxicity of CTLs against AFP+ cells were also determined. BA15 cells expressed high levels of AFP158-166 peptide, HLA-A2, CD80, CD86, and IL-15. BA15 cells also exhibited higher efficiency in generating AFP-specific CTLs than did dendritic cells. These CTLs had greater cytotoxicity against AFP+ hepatocellular carcinoma cells than did CTLs obtained from dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo. Our novel aAPC system could provide a robust platform for the generation of functional AFP-specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27007051

  12. Artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing AFP158-166 peptide and interleukin-15 activate AFP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Longhao; Guo, Hao; Jiang, Ruoyu; Lu, Li; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Zhixiang; He, Xianghui

    2016-04-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are potent generators of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for adoptive immunotherapy; however, generation of APCs is cumbersome, expensive, and subject to the tumor microenvironment. Artificial APCs (aAPCs) have been developed as a cost-effective alternative to APCs. We developed a cellular aAPC that efficiently generated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-specific CTLs. We genetically modified the human B cell lymphoma cell line BJAB with a lentiviral vector to establish an aAPC called BA15. The expression of AFP158-166-HLA-A*02:01 complex, CD80, CD86, and interleukin (IL)-15 in BA15 cells was assessed. The efficiency of BA15 at generating AFP-specific CTLs and the specific cytotoxicity of CTLs against AFP+ cells were also determined. BA15 cells expressed high levels of AFP158-166 peptide, HLA-A2, CD80, CD86, and IL-15. BA15 cells also exhibited higher efficiency in generating AFP-specific CTLs than did dendritic cells. These CTLs had greater cytotoxicity against AFP+ hepatocellular carcinoma cells than did CTLs obtained from dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo. Our novel aAPC system could provide a robust platform for the generation of functional AFP-specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27007051

  13. Permanently Blocked Stem Cells Derived from Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sajithlal, Gangadharan B.; Rothermund, Kristi; Zhang, Fang; Dabbs, David J.; Latimer, Jean J.; Grant, Stephen G.; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be resistant to standard chemotherapeutic drugs and the inimical conditions of the tumor microenvironment. Obtaining CSCs in sufficient quantities and maintaining their undifferentiated state have been major hurdles to their further characterization and to the identification of new pharmaceuticals that preferentially target these cells. We describe here the tagging of CSC-like populations from four human breast cancer cell lines with green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the Oct3/4 stem cell-specific promoter. As expected, GFP was expressed by the CSC-enriched populations. An unanticipated result, however, was that these cells remained blocked in a CSC-like state and tended to be resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs as well as acidotic and hypoxic conditions. These CSC-like cells possessed several other in vitro attributes of CSCs and were able to reproducibly generate tumors in immuno-compromised mice from as few as 100 cells. Moreover, the tumors derived from these cells were comprised almost exclusively of pure CSCs. The ability of the Oct3/4 promoter to block CSC differentiation underscores its potential general utility for obtaining highly purified CSC populations, although the mechanism by which it does so remains undefined and subject to further study. Nonetheless, such stable cell lines should be extremely valuable tools for studying basic questions pertaining to CSC biology and for the initial identification of novel CSC-specific chemotherapeutic agents, which can then be verified in primary CSCs. PMID:20506227

  14. Antigen Presenting Cells and Stromal Cells Trigger Human Natural Killer Lymphocytes to Autoreactivity: Evidence for the Involvement of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors (NCR) and NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2006-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) lymphocytes should not damage autologous cells due to the engagement of inhibitory receptor superfamily (IRS) members by HLA-I. Nevertheless, NK cells kill self cells expressing low levels or lacking HLA-I, as it may occur during viral infections (missing-self hypothesis). Herein, we show that human NK cells can be activated upon binding with self antigen presenting cells or stromal cells despite the expression of HLA-I. Indeed, NK cells can kill and produce pro-inflammatory and regulating cytokines as IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL10 during interaction with autologous dendritic cells or bone marrow stromal cells or skin fibroblasts. The killing of antigen presenting and stromal cells is dependent on LFA1/ICAM1 interaction. Further, the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) NKp30 and NKp46 are responsible for the delivery of lethal hit to DC, whereas NKG2D activating receptor, the ligand of the MHC-related molecule MIC-A and the UL16 binding protein, is involved in stromal cell killing. These findings indicate that different activating receptors are involved in cell to self cell interaction. Finally, NK cells can revert the veto effect of stromal cells on mixed lymphocyte reaction further supporting the idea that NK cells may alter the interaction between T lymphocytes and microenvironment leading to autoreactivity. PMID:17162374

  15. Enhanced renewal of regulatory T cells in relation to CD4(+) conventional T lymphocytes in the peripheral compartment.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jeane de Souza; Canto, Fábio Barrozo do; Nunes, Caroline Fraga Cabral Gomes; Vianna, Pedro Henrique Oliveira; Paiva, Luciana de Souza; Nóbrega, Alberto; Bellio, Maria; Fucs, Rita

    2016-02-01

    CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are necessary for the maintenance of self-tolerance and T-cell homeostasis. This population is kept at stable frequencies in secondary lymphoid organs for the majority of the lifetime, despite permanent thymic emigration or in the face of thymic involution. Continuous competition is expected to occur between recently thymus-emigrated and resident Treg cells (either natural or post-thymically induced). In the present work, we analysed the renewal dynamics of Treg cells compared with CD4(+) Foxp3- conventional T cells (Tconv), using protocols of single or successive T-cell transfers into syngeneic euthymic or lymphopenic (nu/nu or RAG2(-/-)) mice, respectively. Our results show a higher turnover for Treg cells in the peripheral compartment, compared with Tconv cells, when B cell-sufficient euthymic or nude hosts are studied. This increased renewal within the Treg pool, shown by the greater replacement of resident Treg cells by donor counterparts, correlates with augmented rates of proliferation and is not modified following temporary environmental perturbations induced by inflammatory state or microbiota alterations. Notably, the preferential substitution of Treg lymphocytes was not observed in RAG2(-/-) hosts. We showed that limited B-cell replenishment in the RAG2(-/-) hosts decisively contributed to the altered peripheral T-cell homeostasis. Accordingly, weekly transfers of B cells to RAG2(-/-) hosts rescued the preferential substitution of Treg lymphocytes. Our study discloses a new aspect of T-cell homeostasis that depends on the presence of B lymphocytes to regulate the relative incorporation of recently arrived Treg and Tconv cells in the peripheral compartment. PMID:26572097

  16. Lenalidomide With or Without Rituximab in Treating Patients With Progressive or Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Prolymphocytic Leukemia, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-03

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  17. Reduced signal transduction through glucocorticoid receptor in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A J; Jacquemin, M G; Brooks, L; Shanahan, F; Brimmell, M; Rowe, M; Farrell, P J

    1994-03-01

    Signal transduction through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was shown to be significantly reduced in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive group I Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cell lines compared to human B-lymphocytes immortalized by EBV (LCLs). On the basis of hormone binding assays, nuclear DNA binding activity, and transactivation assays the response was reduced 5- to 10-fold. Direct sequence analysis of the expressed glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in two BL cell lines indicated that the phenotype did not result from mutation of the GR gene. By preparing a high-titer polyclonal antiserum against the t-1 region of the human GR, we further showed that the deficient GR response in BLs is largely reflected in reduced GR steady-state protein levels in BL cells compared to LCLs. However, the level of GR mRNA varies less between the BL cell lines and the LCLs. The Cp promoter of EBV which normally drives expression of the EBNA gene family in EBV-immortalized LCLs contains a functional glucocorticoid response element. Transfection of GR expression constructs to group I BL cells converted the GR response to approximately LCL levels both with respect to hormone binding and glucocorticoid-dependent transcription of a glucocorticoid-dependent promoter. A modest activation of EBNA-2 expression was seen in some such cell lines, suggesting that the lower GR response contributes to the down-regulation of EBNA expression observed in BL. PMID:8122366

  18. Quantitative profiling of housekeeping and Epstein-Barr virus gene transcription in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines using an oligonucleotide microarray

    PubMed Central

    Bernasconi, Michele; Berger, Christoph; Sigrist, Jürg A; Bonanomi, Athos; Sobek, Jens; Niggli, Felix K; Nadal, David

    2006-01-01

    Background The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with lymphoid malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), and can transform human B cells in vitro. EBV-harboring cell lines are widely used to investigate lymphocyte transformation and oncogenesis. Qualitative EBV gene expression has been extensively described, but knowledge of quantitative transcription is lacking. We hypothesized that transcription levels of EBNA1, the gene essential for EBV persistence within an infected cell, are similar in BL cell lines. Results To compare quantitative gene transcription in the BL cell lines Namalwa, Raji, Akata, Jijoye, and P3HR1, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray chip, including 17 housekeeping genes, six latent EBV genes (EBNA1, EBNA2, EBNA3A, EBNA3C, LMP1, LMP2), and four lytic EBV genes (BZLF1, BXLF2, BKRF2, BZLF2), and used the cell line B95.8 as a reference for EBV gene transcription. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were used to validate microarray results. We found that transcription levels of housekeeping genes differed considerably among BL cell lines. Using a selection of housekeeping genes with similar quantitative transcription in the tested cell lines to normalize EBV gene transcription data, we showed that transcription levels of EBNA1 were quite similar in very different BL cell lines, in contrast to transcription levels of other EBV genes. As demonstrated with Akata cells, the chip allowed us to accurately measure EBV gene transcription changes triggered by treatment interventions. Conclusion Our results suggest uniform EBNA1 transcription levels in BL and that microarray profiling can reveal novel insights on quantitative EBV gene transcription and its impact on lymphocyte biology. PMID:16756670

  19. Sat-Nav for T cells: Role of PI3K isoforms and lipid phosphatases in migration of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Stephen G; Westwick, John; Harris, Stephanie

    2011-07-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling has been placed at the heart of conserved biochemical mechanisms that facilitate cell migration of leukocytes in response to a range of chemoattractant stimuli. This review assesses the evidence for and against PI3K-dependent mechanisms of T lymphocyte migration and whether pharmacological targeting of PI3K isoforms is likely to offer potential benefit for T cell mediated pathologies. PMID:21333676

  20. Immunoregulatory effects on T lymphocytes by human mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and placenta.

    PubMed

    Mareschi, Katia; Castiglia, Sara; Sanavio, Fiorella; Rustichelli, Deborah; Muraro, Michela; Defedele, Davide; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Fagioli, Franca

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising tool in cell therapies because of their multipotent, bystander, and immunomodulatory properties. Although bone marrow represents the main source of MSCs, there remains a need to identify a stem cell source that is safe and easily accessible and yields large numbers of cells without provoking debates over ethics. In this study, MSCs isolated from amniotic fluid and placenta were compared with bone marrow MSCs. Their immunomodulatory properties were studied in total activated T cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA-PBMCs). In particular, an in vitro co-culture system was established to study: (i) the effect on T-lymphocyte proliferation; (ii) the presence of T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg); (iii) the immunophenotype of various T subsets (Th1 and Th2 naïve, memory, effector lymphocytes); (iv) cytokine release and master gene expression to verify Th1, Th2, and Th17 polarization; and (v) IDO production. Under all co-culture conditions with PHA-PBMCs and MSCs (independently of tissue origin), data revealed: (i) T proliferation inhibition; (ii) increase in naïve T and decrease in memory T cells; (iii) increase in T regulatory lymphocytes; (iv) strong Th2 polarization associated with increased interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 levels, Th1 inhibition (significant decreases in interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12) and Th17 induction (production of high concentrations of interleukins-6 and -17); (v) indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase mRNA induction in MSCs co-cultured with PHA-PBMCs. AF-MSCs had a more potent immunomodulatory effect on T cells than BM-MSCs, only slightly higher than that of placenta MSCs. This study indicates that MSCs isolated from fetal tissues may be considered a good alternative to BM-MSCs for clinical applications. PMID:26577566

  1. EXAFS studies of prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Lekki, J.; Kisiel, A.; Steininger, R.; Goettlicher, J.

    2013-04-01

    Sulphur plays a vital role in every human organism. It is known, that sulphur-bearing compounds, such as for example cysteine and glutathione, play critical roles in development and progression of many diseases. Any alteration in sulphur's biochemistry could become a precursor of serious pathological conditions. One of such condition is prostate cancer, the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the western world and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The purpose of presented studies was to examine what changes occur in the nearest chemical environment of sulphur in prostate cancer cell lines in comparison to healthy cells. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used, followed by theoretical calculations. The results of preliminary analysis is presented.

  2. A Well-Controlled Experimental System to Study Interactions of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes with Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Natalie J; Soneson, Charlotte; Barras, David; Baumgaertner, Petra; Rimoldi, Donata; Delorenzi, Mauro; Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Speiser, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    While T cell-based immunotherapies are steadily improving, there are still many patients who progress, despite T cell-infiltrated tumors. Emerging evidence suggests that T cells themselves may provoke immune escape of cancer cel