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1

Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia. PMID:15362842

Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

2004-04-01

2

Lynx Special Section Assessment of Canada Lynx Research and Conservation  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The ecology of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and their main prey, snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus hare. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) populations and those of their main prey, snowshoe hares (LepusLynx Special Section Assessment of Canada Lynx Research and Conservation Needs in the Southern

3

Oral papillomatosis in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

We observed 11 cases of oral papillomatosis among 48 free-ranging Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) that had been shipped to Colorado for translocation purposes. Lesions were 1-3 mm, multifocal, nonpigmented sessile masses and occurred on the ventral lingual surface. Adverse clinical signs were not observed. Six of the 11 cases resolved and the remainder appeared to be self-limiting when affected animals were examined lynx while in captivity. Histopathologic lesions included marked hyperplasia of the mucosal epithelium causing thickening of the stratum spinosum and corneum. Ballooning degeneration of epithelial cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed. Papilloma virus was found on negative contrast electron microscopy. Papillomatosis was seen in lynx from three geographically distant sources (British Columbia, five of 21 individuals; Quebec, five of 17; Yukon, one of four) suggesting the causative virus may be widespread among North American lynx populations. PMID:17984270

Wolfe, Lisa L; Spraker, Terry R

2007-10-01

4

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Habitat and Conservation Priority Areas for Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx)  

E-print Network

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Habitat and Conservation Priority Areas for Lynx canadensis canadensis (Canada Lynx) Acknowledgements Thanks to Chris Iverson (Assistant Director, Watershed, Fish areas for Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx) Abstract The dependence of Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx

5

The federal listing of lynx (Lynx lynx) as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act  

E-print Network

including bobcats (Lynx rufus; Litvaitis and Harrison 1989,Koehler and Hornocker 1991) and ocelotsThe federal listing of lynx (Lynx lynx) as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act (Federal studies require capturing and handling lynx in ways that minimize both animal stress and the risk

6

Survival rates and causes of mortality in Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) in multi-use landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes of mortality were described for 245 radio-marked Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in five different Scandinavian study areas. Furthermore, the survival rates and the population growth rates were estimated for three of the study areas where 202 lynx were followed for a total of 314 radio-years. The main causes of mortality in adult Eurasian lynx in all our study areas

Henrik Andrén; John D. C. Linnell; Olof Liberg; Reidar Andersen; Anna Danell; Jens Karlsson; John Odden; P aû l F. Moa; Per Ahlqvist; Tor Kvam; Robert Franzén; Peter Segerström

2006-01-01

7

Oral Papillomatosis in Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 11 cases of oral papillomatosis among 48 free-ranging Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) that had been shipped to Colorado for translocation purposes. Lesions were 1-3 mm, multifocal, nonpigmented ses- sile masses and occurred on the ventral lingual surface. Adverse clinical signs were not ob- served. Six of the 11 cases resolved and the remainder appeared to be self-limiting when

Lisa L. Wolfe; Terry R. Spraker

2007-01-01

8

Endoparasites of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland.  

PubMed

We sampled 339 fecal samples, 296 intestines, and 82 lungs from 371 lynx hunted during the 2010-2011 season in Finland. The fecal samples were analyzed for endoparasites by a quantitative flotation method, and helminths from intestines were studied morphologically, while lungs were investigated for pulmonary parasites. From fecal samples, eggs and oocysts of at least 6 different endoparasite species were identified, with a mean of 1.5 (range 0-4) parasite species per host. In the intestines, at least 4 different helminth species were found, with the mean of 2.0 (range 1-4) species per infected host. The prevalence of eggs in feces and the prevalence of worms in intestines were 71% and 93% for Toxocara cati , 29% and 68% for Taenia spp., and 5% and 2% for Diphyllobothrium sp., respectively. Only eggs were detected for Capillaria sp. (46%) and Uncinaria sp. (0.6%) nematodes, and only adults were detected for Mesocestoides sp. cestodes (0.3%). Significant positive correlations were evident between the number of T. cati (r = 0.664; P = 0.01) and Diphyllobothrium sp. (r = 0.645; P = 0.01) eggs per gram of feces and adult worms detected in intestine. In addition to the metazoan parasites, protozoan Isospora sp. oocysts were also found (0.6%). Pulmonary samples were all negative for parasites. These data demonstrate that lynx commonly harbor various endoparasites, some of which are zoonotic. PMID:23016871

Deksne, Gunita; Laakkonen, Juha; Näreaho, Anu; Jokelainen, Pikka; Holmala, Katja; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

2013-04-01

9

An evaluation of structured snow-track surveys to monitor Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counts of tracks that passively accumulate on a suitable substrate are commonly used to derive indices of large carnivore abundance. In this study we evaluate the suitability of a similar survey using multiple 3-km long transect-lines to detect changes in population size for Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in central Norway. We used GIS methods to simulate the crossing of transect

John D. C. Linnell; Peder Fiske; John Odden; Henrik Brøseth; Ivar Herfindal; Reidar Andersen

2007-01-01

10

A Snow-tracking Protocol Used to Delineate Local Lynx, Lynx canadensis, Distributions  

E-print Network

A Snow-tracking Protocol Used to Delineate Local Lynx, Lynx canadensis, Distributions JOHN R local lynx, Lynx canadensis, distributions. Canadian Field-Naturalist 118(4): 583-589. Determining Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) distribution is an important management need, especially at the southern

11

The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) was listed as a threatened species under the Endan-  

E-print Network

The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) was listed as a threatened species under the Endan- gered Species record for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, in Labrador. Canadian Field Naturalist 107:367­368. KOEHLER, G RECORD FOR CANADA LYNX, LYNX CANADENSIS, IN WESTERN MONTANA Jay A. Kolbe1,2 and John R. Squires1 Key

12

Lynx Special Section Hierarchical Den Selection of Canada Lynx in Western  

E-print Network

(Lynx canadensis; hereafter lynx) at multiple ecological scales based on 57 dens from 19 females located Canada lynx, den selection, ecological scale, habitat selection, Lynx canadensis, mature forests, MontanaLynx Special Section Hierarchical Den Selection of Canada Lynx in Western Montana JOHN R. SQUIRES,1

13

Landscape location affects genetic variation of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a population's location on the landscape on genetic variation has been of interest to population genetics for more than half a century. However, most studies do not consider broadscale biogeography when interpreting genetic data. In this study, we propose an operational definition of a peripheral population, and then explore whether peripheral populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

M. K. S CHWARTZ; L. S. M ILLS; Y. O RTEGA; L. F. R UGGIERO; F. W. A LLENDORF

2003-01-01

14

Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Québec, Canada.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in trapped lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Québec, Canada. Forty-seven of 106 (44%) lynx and 4 of 10 (40%) bobcats had positive titers for T. gondii (> or = 25) by means of the modified agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol and formalin-fixed tachyzoites. Seroprevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in adult lynx than in juvenile lynx. The presence of antibodies to T. gondii in lynx and bobcats suggests that this organism is widespread in the wild and that exposure to wild felids and game animals from Québec may represent a potential source of infection for humans. PMID:11695397

Labelle, P; Dubey, J P; Mikaelian, I; Blanchette, N; Lafond, R; St-Onge, S; Martineau, D

2001-10-01

15

Winter Prey Selection of Canada Lynx in  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles that diet and prey abundance play in habitat selection of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the contiguous United States is poorly understood. From 1998-2002, we back-tracked radiocollared lynx (6 F, 9 M) for a distance of 582 km and we located 86 kills in northwestern Montana, USA. Lynx preyed on 7 species that included blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus),

16

Canada Lynx-bobcat (Lynx canadensis 3 L. rufus) Hybrids at the Southern Periphery of Lynx range in Maine, Minnesota and New Brunswick  

E-print Network

Canada Lynx-bobcat (Lynx canadensis 3 L. rufus) Hybrids at the Southern Periphery of Lynx range (Lynx canadensis) and bobcat (L. rufus) was recently documented in the United States, but little of Canada lynx (L. canadensis). Morphologically, Canada lynx are differentiated from bobcats by their longer

17

New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +\\/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +\\/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for

David A. Hetherington; Tom C. Lord; Roger M. Jacobi

2006-01-01

18

New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

2006-01-01

19

Landscape location affects genetic variation of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

The effect of a population's location on the landscape on genetic variation has been of interest to population genetics for more than half a century. However, most studies do not consider broadscale biogeography when interpreting genetic data. In this study, we propose an operational definition of a peripheral population, and then explore whether peripheral populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have less genetic variation than core populations at nine microsatellite loci. We show that peripheral populations of lynx have fewer mean numbers of alleles per population and lower expected heterozygosity. This is surprising, given the lynx's capacity to move long distances, but can be explained by the fact that peripheral populations often have smaller population sizes, limited opportunities for genetic exchange and may be disproportionately affected by ebbs and flows of species' geographical range. PMID:12803633

Schwartz, M K; Mills, L S; Ortega, Y; Ruggiero, L F; Allendorf, F W

2003-07-01

20

Pyloric trichobezoar in a Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

An adult female Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) was presented with a 3-wk history of anorexia and lethargy. Initial examination and diagnostics did not provide a diagnosis. The lynx continued to demonstrate vague clinical signs, including anorexia and an abnormal gait. During follow-up immobilizations 2 wk later, a barium gastrointestinal study revealed a pyloric obstruction. Abdominal exploratory surgery was elected, and a gastrotomy and an enterotomy of the proximal duodenum were performed to remove the pyloric obstruction. The obstruction was determined to be a trichobezoar. Fleas, a likely cause of hair ingestion through grooming, were noted during surgical preparation. The lynx made a full recovery from surgery. Reoccurrence of the trichobezoar was prevented after surgery with the use of monthly flea control and three times a week hairball laxative. PMID:24450081

Kottwitz, Jack; Munsterman, Amelia S

2013-12-01

21

Research Article Winter Prey Selection of Canada Lynx in  

E-print Network

abundance play in habitat selection of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the contiguous United States.2193/2005-445 KEY WORDS alternative prey, Canada lynx, food habits, Lepus americanus, Lynx canadensis, Montana, snowshoe hare. Northern populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) exhibit both numeric (Elton

22

Plague as a Mortality Factor in Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) Reintroduced to Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a species recovery pro- gram, 129 Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) originating from British Columbia, the Yukon, Manitoba, and Quebec, Canada, and Alaska, USA, were reintroduced to southwestern Col- orado, USA, from 1999 to 2003. Of 52 lynx mortalities documented by October 2003, six lynx, including a female and her 5-mo-old kitten, had evidence of Yersinia pestis infection

Margaret A. Wild; Tanya M. Shenk; Terry R. Spraker; Fort Collins

2006-01-01

23

Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC. PMID:22515208

Sindi?i?, Magda; Gomer?i?, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

2012-06-01

24

Differentiation and levels of genetic variation in northern European lynx (Lynx lynx) populations revealed by microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European lynx (Lynx lynx) has experienced significant decline in population numbers over large parts of its former distribution area in central and northern Europe. In Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway), the species has been subject to intense hunting and in the early 20th century the population size may have been as low as about 100 animals. During the rest of

Linda Hellborg; Christopher W. Walker; Eli Knispel Rueness; John E. Stacy; Ilpo Kojola; Harri Valdmann; Carles Vil; Barbara Zimmermann; Kjetill S. Jakobsen; Hans Ellegren

2002-01-01

25

Differentiation and levels of genetic variation in northern European lynx ( Lynx lynx ) populations revealed by microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European lynx (Lynx lynx) hasexperienced significant decline in populationnumbers over large parts of its formerdistribution area in central and northernEurope. In Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway), thespecies has been subject to intense hunting and inthe early 20th century the population size mayhave been as low as about 100 animals. Duringthe rest of the century there have beenalternating periods of restricted

Linda Hellborg; Christopher W. Walker; Eli Knispel Rueness; John E. Stacy; Ilpo Kojola; Harri Valdmann; Carles Vilà; Barbara Zimmermann; Kjetill S. Jakobsen; Hans Ellegren

2002-01-01

26

Adult-onset hypothyroidism in a lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

A 19-yr-old female lynx (Lynx canadensis) presented for an acute onset of anorexia and reluctance to move. Physical examination, radiography, hematology, and serum biochemistry revealed evidence of renal failure, presumptive uremic gastritis, chronic intervertebral disk disease at T13-L1, and markedly low serum levels of total thyroxine (1.54 nmol/L) and total triixodothyronine (0.55 nmol/L). Twenty-five hours after its original presentation, the lynx exhibited horizontal nystagmus, which has been suggested as a clinical sign associated with hypothyroidism in domestic dogs. The lynx was euthanatized because of poor prognosis, and medical management concerns related to its chronic renal failure. Necropsy examination substantiated that the lynx had true hypothyroidism with 60-90% of the thyroid gland replaced with adipose tissue. Although feline adult-onset hypothyroidism may have low incidence, it should still be considered as a cause of nonspecific signs of disease in cats, as well as signs suggestive of hypothyroidism. Routine monitoring of baseline exotic felid thyroid levels throughout life would help to identify normal values and diagnose a potential disease that has obscure clinical signs. PMID:14582793

Greer, Leah L; Troutman, Mitchell; McCracken, Malcolm D; Ramsay, Edward C

2003-09-01

27

Ecology of Canada Lynx in Southern Boreal  

E-print Network

and compare our findings to information presented in Chapter 9 on lynx in the taiga. Throughout North America alternative prey are also important in the taiga during lows in the snowshoe hare cycle. In addition, limited forests. Lynx dispersal movements are similar to those reported from the taiga. However, only lynx

28

Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus.  

PubMed

Specimens of 12 helminth species were collected from carcasses of eight Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827), a carnivore endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These species included: Brachylaima sp. (12.5%) (Trematoda); Taenia pisiformis (12.5%), T. polyacantha (25%), T. taeniaeformis (25%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (37.5%) (Cestoda); Eucoleus aerophilus (12.5%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (12.5%), Toxocara cati (37.5%), Toxascaris leonina (62.5%), Vigisospirura potekhina potekhina (12.5%), Mastophorus muris (12.5%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (12.5%) (Nematoda). The helminth fauna in Iberian lynx is compared with that of L. canadensis and L. rufus in America, and for L. lynx in Eurasia. The potential relationships between the parasitological data and some geographical, historical and dietary factors are discussed. PMID:9765373

Torres, J; Garciá-Perea, R; Gisbert, J; Feliu, C

1998-09-01

29

RESEARCH ARTICLE Dispersal promotes high gene flow among Canada lynx  

E-print Network

structure of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have been surprisingly equivocal, despite a large amount dynamics and ecology of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have long garnered the attention of populationRESEARCH ARTICLE Dispersal promotes high gene flow among Canada lynx populations across mainland

Row, Jeffrey R.

30

RESEARCH ARTICLE Dispersal promotes high gene flow among Canada lynx  

E-print Network

studies addressing the population structure of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have been surprisingly fluctuations, the population dynamics and ecology of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have long garneredRESEARCH ARTICLE Dispersal promotes high gene flow among Canada lynx populations across mainland

31

Research Note Circadian Activity Patterns of Canada Lynx in Western  

E-print Network

activity, Canada lynx, circadian activity, Lepus americanus, Lynx canadensis, snowshoe hares. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed lynx (Lynx canadensis) as Threatened under the United StatesResearch Note Circadian Activity Patterns of Canada Lynx in Western Montana JAY A. KOLBE,1 Montana

32

RESEARCH ARTICLE Functional connectivity of lynx at their southern range  

E-print Network

lynx Á Lynx canadensis Á Circuit theory Á Occupancy Á Functional connectivity Á Habitat IntroductionRESEARCH ARTICLE Functional connectivity of lynx at their southern range periphery in Ontario, we modeled occurrence of Canada lynx (Lynx canaden- sis) in relation to landscape characteristics

33

Occurrence of Thelazia callipaeda and Toxocara cati in an imported European lynx (Lynx lynx) in Japan.  

PubMed

A necropsy was performed on an adult European lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), held in captivity until its death, to determine level of parasitism. Examination of the eyes revealed the oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda, in the conjunctival sac and the third eyelid of both eyes. The species was confirmed by location and morphology. Intact worms were fixed, mounted, and identified. Examination of the alimentary tract revealed the common ascaroid nematode, Toxocara cati. Species was confirmed by the arrow-like anterior end. One hundred and forty-one adult worms were collected. The presence of these nematodes indicated the importance of eliminating the contact of zoo animals with Amiota spp. vectors and to prevent contamination with the infective T. cati eggs. PMID:23082531

El-Dakhly, Khaled; Abo El-Hadid, Shawky; Shimizu, Hirofumi; El-Nahass, Shaymaa; Murai, Atsuko; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

2012-09-01

34

Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pal; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-01-01

35

Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2014-01-01

36

Exposure to disease agents in the endangered Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid species in the world. Lynx populations have decreased dramatically in size and distribution\\u000a in the last four decades, thus becoming increasingly vulnerable to catastrophic events such as epizooties. From 1989 to 2000,\\u000a serum samples were obtained from 48 free-ranging lynx captured in the Doñana National Park (DNP, n?=?31) and mountains

Melody E. Roelke; Warren E. Johnson; Javier Millán; Francisco Palomares; Eloy Revilla; Alejandro Rodríguez; Javier Calzada; Pablo Ferreras; Luis León-Vizcaíno; Miguel Delibes; Stephen J. O’Brien

2008-01-01

37

Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) - Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam  

PubMed Central

Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

2014-01-01

38

Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2011-01-01

39

Serologic Survey for Viral and Bacterial Infections in Western Populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis )i n western North America was conducted. Sam- ples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, fe- line calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pes- tis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of sam- ples was tested for

Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

2002-01-01

40

Sarcocystis neurona-like encephalitis in a Canada lynx (Felis lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

A 13-yr-old female Canada lynx (Felis lynx canadensis) died after a short clinical illness, and necropsy revealed multifocal, nonsuppurative encephalitis with protozoal schizonts present in cerebral vascular endothelial cells. The schizonts stained immunohistochemically with antiserum to Sarcocystis neurona. This is the first report of Sarcocystis encephalitis in the Canada lynx. PMID:11237148

Forest, T W; Abou-Madi, N; Summers, B A; Tornquist, S J; Cooper, B J

2000-09-01

41

Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx ( Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP) expression in captive and wild female Canada lynx. Our results

Kerry V. Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Jennifer H. Vashon; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

2010-01-01

42

Plague as a mortality factor in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced to Colorado.  

PubMed

As part of a species recovery program, 129 Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) originating from British Columbia, the Yukon, Manitoba, and Quebec, Canada, and Alaska, USA, were reintroduced to southwestern Colorado, USA, from 1999 to 2003. Of 52 lynx mortalities documented by October 2003, six lynx, including a female and her 5-mo-old kitten, had evidence of Yersinia pestis infection as determined by fluorescent antibody test and/or culture. Postmortem findings in these lynx were characterized by pneumonia, ranging from acute suppurative pneumonia, to multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, to fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Histopathologic examination of lung revealed multiple areas of inflammation and consolidation, areas of edema and hemorrhage, and bacteria surrounded by extensive inflammation. Spleens had severe lymphoid depletion and hypocellular red pulp. Lymphadenomegaly was observed in only one plague-affected lynx. We hypothesize that these Canada lynx were exposed to Y. pestis by infected prey, and these are the first reports of plague in this species. PMID:17092896

Wild, Margaret A; Shenk, Tanya M; Spraker, Terry R

2006-07-01

43

Canada lynx Lynx canadensis habitat and forest succession in northern Maine, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contiguous United States population of Canada lynx Lynx canadensis was listed as threatened in 2000. The long-term viability of lynx populations at the southern edge of their geographic range has been hypothesized to be dependent on old growth forests; however, lynx are a specialist predator on snowshoe hare Lepus americanus, a species associated with early-successional forests. To quantify the effects of succession and forest management on landscape-scale (100 km2) patterns of habitat occupancy by lynx, we compared landscape attributes in northern Maine, USA, where lynx had been detected on snow track surveys to landscape attributes where surveys had been conducted, but lynx tracks had not been detected. Models were constructed a priori and compared using logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), which quantitatively balances data fit and parsimony. In the models with the lowest (i.e. best) AIC, lynx were more likely to occur in landscapes with much regenerating forest, and less likely to occur in landscapes with much recent clearcut, partial harvest and forested wetland. Lynx were not associated positively or negatively with mature coniferous forest. A probabilistic map of the model indicated a patchy distribution of lynx habitat in northern Maine. According to an additional survey of the study area for lynx tracks during the winter of 2003, the model correctly classified 63.5% of the lynx occurrences and absences. Lynx were more closely associated with young forests than mature forests; however, old-growth forests were functionally absent from the landscape. Lynx habitat could be reduced in northern Maine, given recent trends in forest management practices. Harvest strategies have shifted from clearcutting to partial harvesting. If this trend continues, future landscapes will shift away from extensive regenerating forests and toward landscapes dominated by pole-sized and larger stands. Because Maine presently supports the only verified populations of this federally threatened species in the eastern United States, changes in forest management practices could affect recovery efforts throughout that region.

Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Jakubas, W.J.; McCollough, M.A.

2004-01-01

44

Bregmatic Bones in North American Lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous bregmatic fontanolle bones were present in 279 of 1790 skulls of Lynx rufus examined, but with no apparent correlation with age, sex, or place of origin of the specimens. Examination of 472 skulls of Lynx canadensis disclosed only one possessing bregmatic bones.

Richard H. Manville

1959-01-01

45

Bregmatic bones in North American lynx.  

PubMed

Anomalous bregmatic fontanelle bones were present in 279 of 1790 skulls of Lynx rufus examined, but with no apparent correlation with age, sex, or place of origin of the specimens. Examination of 472 skulls of Lynx canadensis disclosed only one possessing bregmatic bones. PMID:14420785

MANVILLE, R H

1959-11-01

46

Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian ( Lynx lynx), the Iberian ( L. pardinus), the Canada lynx ( L. canadensis) and the bobcat ( L. rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal

M. Dehnhard; K. Fanson; A. Frank; S. V. Naidenko; A. Vargas; K. Jewgenow

2010-01-01

47

Efficacy of lures and hair snares to detect lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource managers lack an inexpensive and quantifiable method to detect lynx presence across large landscapes. We tested efficacy of a protocol based on hair snagging to detect presence of lynx (Lynx canadensis). We tested 2 key elements of the protocol: 1) a hair­ snaring device and 2) commercial lures used to attract and elicit rubbing behavior in lynx. The commercial

Kevin S. McKelvey; John R. Squires; Leonard F. Ruggiero

48

Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP) expression in captive and wild female Canada lynx. Our results indicate that Canada lynx have persistent corpora lutea, which underlie their uncharacteristic fP profiles compared to other felids. Thus, fP are not useful for diagnosing pregnancy in Canada lynx. We also found that Canada lynx are capable of ovulating spontaneously. Captive females had higher concentrations of fE and fP than wild females. Both populations exhibit a seasonal increase in ovarian activity (as measured by fE) between February and April. Finally, there was evidence of ovarian suppression when females were housed together. PMID:20850438

Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Vashon, Jennifer H; Squires, John R; Lucas, Jeffrey R

2010-12-01

49

Modeling the reintroduction of lynx to the southern portion of Todd D. Steury*, Dennis L. Murray1  

E-print Network

populations of lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to determine prey densities; Lynx canadensis; Population modelling; Prey density; Reintroduction; Release protocols; Snowshoe hare 1 State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA. #12;The Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, oc

Steury, Todd D.

50

Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. PMID:25066418

Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

2014-09-15

51

Canine distemper virus-associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) of eastern Canada.  

PubMed

Between 1993 and 1999, encephalitis caused by morbillivirus was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and histology in six lynx (Lynx canadensis) and one bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the eastern Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Five of the six cases in lynx occurred within an 11-mo period in 1996-97. A second bobcat with encephalitis caused by unidentified protozoa and a nematode larva also had immunohistochemical evidence of neurologic infection by morbillivirus. The virus was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing in four of five animals from which frozen tissue samples were available, and it was isolated in cell culture from one of them. To our knowledge, this is the first report of disease caused by CDV in free-living felids in North America. PMID:19617471

Daoust, Pierre-Yves; McBurney, Scott R; Godson, Dale L; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

2009-07-01

52

DOES RECREATIONAL HUNTING OF LYNX REDUCE DEPREDATION LOSSES OF DOMESTIC SHEEP?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are responsible for significant depredation on domestic lambs in Norway. Recre- ational hunting of lynx is widely used to limit lynx population growth and to attempt to remove problem individ- uals. We analysed the relationship between annual changes in lamb losses and lynx hunting on 2 scales. On the county scale, lamb losses were related to

IVAR HERFINDAL; JOHN D. C. LINNELL; PÅL F. MOA; JOHN ODDEN; LARS B. AUSTMO; REIDAR ANDERSEN; Cypher

2005-01-01

53

Comparative Ecology of Lynx in North America  

E-print Network

the contiguous United States diverge from the well-studied areas of the taiga. We caution against uncritical have much greater knowledge of lynx ecology in the taiga (Chapters 6, 9) than in southern boreal

54

Population regulation in snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx: Asymmetric food web configurations between hare and lynx  

PubMed Central

The snowshoe hare and the Canadian lynx in the boreal forests of North America show 9- to 11-year density cycles. These are generally assumed to be linked to each other because lynx are specialist predators on hares. Based on time series data for hare and lynx, we show that the dominant dimensional structure of the hare series appears to be three whereas that of the lynx is two. The three-dimensional structure of the hare time series is hypothesized to be due to a three-trophic level model in which the hare may be seen as simultaneously regulated from below and above. The plant species in the hare diet appear compensatory to one another, and the predator species may, likewise, be seen as an internally compensatory guild. The lynx time series are, in contrast, consistent with a model of donor control in which their populations are regulated from below by prey availability. Thus our analysis suggests that the classic view of a symmetric hare–lynx interaction is too simplistic. Specifically, we argue that the classic food chain structure is inappropriate: the hare is influenced by many predators other than the lynx, and the lynx is primarily influenced by the snowshoe hare. PMID:9144205

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Falck, Wilhelm; Bj?rnstad, Ottar N.; Krebs, Charles J.

1997-01-01

55

Patterns of testicular activity in captive and wild Canada lynx ( Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada lynx are listed as a threatened species in the contiguous US. Understanding the reproductive characteristics (i.e., mating system, behavior, physiology) of a species is useful for ensuring effective in situ and ex situ management plans. The goal of this study was to describe patterns of androgen expression in both captive and wild male Canada lynx using fecal hormone metabolite

Kerry V. Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Walter J. Jakubas; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

2010-01-01

56

A PROGRAMMATIC AGREEMENT TO MIMINIZE HIGHWAY PROJECT IMPACTS ON CANADA LYNX (LYNX CANADENSIS) IN COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple highway projects which may affect lynx are proposed throughout the State of Colorado. Because these projects are federally funded, they must comply with the requirements of the ESA. The process for determining if and how a project will impact lynx will be similar for all projects. Therefore, a programmatic agreement between CDOT, FHWA and USFWS, outlining a standard methodology

Sarah A. Barnum

57

Hierarchical Den Selection of Canada Lynx in Western Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We studied den selection of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis; hereafter lynx) at multiple ecological scales based on 57 dens from 19 females located in western Montana, USA, between 1999 and 2006. We considered 3 spatial scales in this analysis, including den site (11-m- radius circle surrounding dens), den area (100-m-radius circle), and den environ (1-km radius surrounding dens). Lynx

John R. Squires; Nicholas J. Decesare; Jay A. Kolbe; Leonard F. Ruggiero

2008-01-01

58

Winter Prey Selection of Canada Lynx in Northwestern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The roles that diet and prey abundance,play in habitat selection of Canada,lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the contiguous,United States is poorly understood. From 1998–2002, we back-tracked radiocollared lynx (6 F, 9 M) for a distance of 582 km and we located 86 kills in northwestern Montana, USA. Lynx preyed on 7 species that included blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), spruce grouse

JOHN R. SQUIRES; LEONARD F. RUGGIERO

2007-01-01

59

HEMATOLOGIC AND SERUM CHEMISTRY VALUES OF CAPTIVE CANADIAN LYNX  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present baseline values for 12 hematologic and 17 serum chemistry parameters collected from 22 captive lynx (Felis lynx canadensis) in December 1992, at Ronan, Montana (USA). There were no significant differences in hematologic parameters between yearlings and adults or between sexes. Lynx originally captured in the wild had significantly higher mean (±SE) counts of neutrophils (7.7 ± 0.37 x

John L. Weaver; Mark R. Johnson

60

Patterns of postnatal development in skulls of lynxes, genus Lynx (Mammalia: Carnivora).  

PubMed

Studies on ossification patterns and other ontogenetic events associated with postnatal cranial growth of wild felids are scarce. An analysis of developmental processes undergone by several cranial structures (presphenoidal and sphenooccipital synchondroses, temporal and sagittal crests, and deciduous and permanent teeth) during postnatal growth has been conducted on a sample of 336 specimens belonging to the four Recent species of lynxes (Lynx pardinus, Lynx lynx, Lynx rufus, and Lynx canadensis). Age has been estimated based on tooth replacement, skull size, and by counting the annual lines of cementum growth. Comparison of the results obtained for each of the four species reveal (1) a single pattern for both tooth replacement and ossification of the sphenooccipital synchondrosis, (2) two ossification patterns for the presphenoidal synchondrosis, (3) a common pattern for development of temporal ridges and sagittal crest showing different degrees of morphological expression, and (4) evidence suggesting the involvement of a heterochronic process, neoteny, in the morphological differentiation of several populations and species of the genus Lynx. These data also support the hypothesis that processes involved in the replacement of carnassials are based on functional requirements. PMID:8765807

Garcia-Perea, R

1996-09-01

61

Sir --As director of the laboratory that analysed the samples for the National Lynx  

E-print Network

Sir -- As director of the laboratory that analysed the samples for the National Lynx Survey to the damaging yet unsubstantiated conclusions in your Opinion article "Lynch mob turns on lynx researchers"1 and News article "Fur flies over lynx survey's suspect samples"2 about sampling for Canada lynx (Lynx

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

62

The Effect of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements Within Lynx Home Ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are sympatric throughout much of the lynx's southern range. Researchers and managers have suggested that the presence of compacted snowmobile trails may allow coyotes to access lynx habitat from which they were previously excluded by deep, unconsolidated snow. This could then allow coyotes to more effectively compete with lynx for snowshoe hares

JAY A. KOLBE; JOHN R. SQUIRES; DANIEL H. PLETSCHER; LEONARD F. RUGGIERO

2007-01-01

63

Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of samples was tested for feline immunodeficiency virus; all were negative. For all other pathogens, evidence for exposure was found in at least one location. Serologic evidence for FPV was found in all six areas but was more common in southern populations. Also, more males than females showed evidence of exposure to FPV. Overall, prevalences were low and did not exceed 8% for any of the pathogens tested. This suggests that free-ranging lynx rarely encounter common feline pathogens. PMID:12528455

Biek, Roman; Zarnke, Randall L; Gillin, Colin; Wild, Margaret; Squires, John R; Poss, Mary

2002-10-01

64

Spatiotemporal dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western Québec, Canada.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, one of the more common zoonotic parasites in the world, can cause serious illness in humans and other animals worldwide. Felids are the only known host that can shed T. gondii oocysts, which are essential to the perpetuation of the parasite. In much of boreal Canada, the Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) is the only wild felid host that could contribute to environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. We estimated the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in Canadian lynx from western Québec and compared our results with earlier findings in the same region 12 yr earlier. We investigated factors associated with seroconversion, including age, sex, geographic location, and possible co-occurrence with domestic cats (Felis catus), and we assessed the proportion of lynx shedding T. gondii oocysts. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 84 lynx harvested by trappers in the eastern part of the study area during winter 2009-2010. Sera were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer 1:50) and fecal samples for parasite eggs by fecal flotation. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in sera of 14% of 84 lynx. Numerous helminth ova and coccidian oocysts were found in feces, whereas T. gondii-like oocysts were not detected. Antibody prevalence increased with age class (odds ratio [OR]=4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.57-11.99, P<0.01). Antibody prevalence (14%) in our study was significantly lower than in 84 lynx (36%) trapped in the western part of the study area during winter 1997-1998 (OR=0.18, 95% CI=0.08-0.44, P<0.001). Our results suggest there may be significant spatiotemporal dynamics of T. gondii infection in lynx in Canada, and we review possible abiotic and biotic ecologic factors supporting these findings. PMID:23307370

Simon, Audrey; Bigras Poulin, Michel; Rousseau, Alain N; Dubey, Jitender P; Ogden, Nicholas H

2013-01-01

65

Early development and growth in captive-born Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Knowledge on the growth and early development patterns of endangered species can become a useful conservation tool because it may allow detecting anomalous growth in newborns, both in captivity breeding and in the wild. We studied the growth and early development of 40 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) cubs belonging to 21 litters born in captivity between 2005 and 2012 at "El Acebuche" Iberian Lynx Breeding Centre. This is the first study on growth in this critically endangered species. The Iberian lynx cubs were not fully developed at birth. During the first 3 weeks of life, cubs underwent many of the physical changes that allowed them to improve their interaction with the environment, such as the opening of eye and auditory channels, teeth eruptions, and the ability to walk. When the cubs were 1 month old, they were ready to leave the den and develop new behaviors such as the exploration of their environment, play, or hunt. Three different models had been fitted to the body mass growth of the Iberian lynx. The von Bertalanffy curve provided the best fit. The asymptotic adult mass was the only parameter that differed between males and females (males being 8% larger), due to the higher growth rate of males. The adult weight of hand-reared cubs (i.e., those abandoned at born) did not differ from that of cubs reared by their mothers. Both growth and development showed differences from other lynx species. Zoo Biol. 33:381-387, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25081419

Yerga, Javier; Calzada, Javier; Manteca, Xavier; Vargas, Astrid; Rivas, Antonio

2014-09-01

66

Lynx: a database and knowledge extraction engine for integrative medicine  

PubMed Central

We have developed Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu)—a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine, supporting annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Its underlying knowledge base (LynxKB) integrates various classes of information from >35 public databases and private collections, as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators. Lynx provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization to assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, whereas its service-oriented architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces. PMID:24270788

Sulakhe, Dinanath; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Xie, Bingqing; Feng, Bo; Taylor, Andrew; Wang, Sheng; Berrocal, Eduardo; Dave, Utpal; Xu, Jinbo; Bornigen, Daniela; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

2014-01-01

67

Lynx: a database and knowledge extraction engine for integrative medicine.  

PubMed

We have developed Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu)--a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine, supporting annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Its underlying knowledge base (LynxKB) integrates various classes of information from >35 public databases and private collections, as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators. Lynx provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization to assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, whereas its service-oriented architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces. PMID:24270788

Sulakhe, Dinanath; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Xie, Bingqing; Feng, Bo; Taylor, Andrew; Wang, Sheng; Berrocal, Eduardo; Dave, Utpal; Xu, Jinbo; Börnigen, Daniela; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

2014-01-01

68

Coprological study on helminth fauna in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest in eastern Poland.  

PubMed

One hundred fecal samples were collected during research on Eurasian lynx ecology and food habits in the Polish part of the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest (BPF) from 2001 to 2006. Seventy-three percent of samples contained eggs or larvae of helminths. A total of 10 species of helminths was identified, including 3 Cestoda (Diphyllobothrium latum, Spirometra janickii, and unidentified species of Taeniidae), 1 Trematoda (Alaria alata), and 6 Nematoda (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Eucoleus aerophilus, Metastrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., and Toxocara cati). Alaria alata has not been reported previously in lynx. A statistical comparison of the 2 techniques used to isolate eggs, i.e., flotation and sedimentation, indicates that sedimentation was more effective. PMID:18576790

Szczesna, J; Popio?ek, M; Schmidt, K; Kowalczyk, R

2008-08-01

69

Comparative patterns of adrenal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

Stress and animal well-being are often assessed using concentrations of glucocorticoids (GCs), a product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, GC concentrations can also be modulated by predictable events, such as changes in season or life history stage. Understanding normative patterns of adrenal activity is critical for making valid conclusions about changes in GC concentrations. In this study, we validated an assay for monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) in Canada lynx. We then used this technique to assess patterns of adrenal activity in Canada lynx across several contexts. Our results show that captive lynx have higher FGM concentrations than wild lynx, which may be related to differences in stress levels, metabolic rate, diet, or body condition. We also found that FGM concentrations are correlated with reproductive status in females, but not in males. For males, seasonal increases in FGM expression coincide with the onset of the breeding season, whereas in females, FGM increase toward the end of the breeding season. This information provides a valuable foundation for making inferences about normative versus stress-induced changes in adrenal activity in Canada lynx. PMID:21717144

Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Lucas, Jeffrey R

2012-01-01

70

Fatal clostridium septicum myonecrosis in a captive canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

A 1-yr-old female Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) presented for sudden onset of rapidly progressive bilateral pelvic limb paralysis. The lynx was chemically immobilized to perform a physical examination but expired shortly thereafter. On postmortem radiographs, there were myriad small irregular, round-to-spherical gas densities within the skeletal muscle of the right thigh and epaxial musculature. At gross necropsy, the muscles of the right thigh, right lateral abdominal wall, and epaxial region were emphysematous and necrohemorrhagic, with subcutaneous and muscular crepitant swelling. Multiple skin puncture wounds, consistent with bites, were present over the affected tissues. Clostridium septicum was isolated in pure anaerobic culture from the musculature of the right hind limb. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute, severe necrohemorrhagic and gangrenous myositis and cellulitis. Gram stains demonstrated large gram-positive bacilli with subterminal spores. This is the first known documented case of C. septicum myonecrosis in a nondomestic felid. PMID:25314833

Izer, Jenelle M; Wilson, Ronald P; Cooper, Timothy K

2014-09-01

71

Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.  

PubMed

The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global warming in hare-lynx system. PMID:23846828

Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

2013-11-01

72

Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague.  

PubMed

As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log(10) reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29-59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000-08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats. PMID:22102659

Wolfe, Lisa L; Shenk, Tanya M; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E

2011-10-01

73

GEOGRAPHICGRADIENTS IN DIET AFFECT POPULATION DYNAMICS OF CANADA LYNX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical gradients in the stability of cyclic populations of herbivores and their predators may relate to the degree of specialization of predators. However, such changes are usually associated with transition from specialist to generalist predator species, rather than from geographical variation in dietary breadth of specialist predators. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations undergo cyclic fluctuations

James D. Roth; John D. Marshall; Dennis L. Murray; David M. Nickerson; Todd D. Steury

2007-01-01

74

Geographical gradients in diet affect population dynamics of Canada lynx.  

PubMed

Geographical gradients in the stability of cyclic populations of herbivores and their predators may relate to the degree of specialization of predators. However, such changes are usually associated with transition from specialist to generalist predator species, rather than from geographical variation in dietary breadth of specialist predators. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations undergo cyclic fluctuations in northern parts of their range, but cycles are either greatly attenuated or lost altogether in the southern boreal forest where prey diversity is higher. We tested the influence of prey specialization on population cycles by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in lynx and their prey, estimating the contribution of hares to lynx diet across their range, and correlating this degree of specialization to the strength of their population cycles. Hares dominated the lynx diet across their range, but specialization on hares decreased in southern and western populations. The degree of specialization correlated with cyclic signal strength indicated by spectral analysis of lynx harvest data, but overall variability of lynx harvest (the standard deviation of natural-log-transformed harvest numbers) did not change significantly with dietary specialization. Thus, as alternative prey became more important in the lynx diet, the fluctuations became decoupled from a regular cycle but did not become less variable. Our results support the hypothesis that alternative prey decrease population cycle regularity but emphasize that such changes may be driven by dietary shifts among dominant specialist predators rather than exclusively through changes in the predator community. PMID:18051641

Roth, James D; Marshall, John D; Murray, Dennis L; Nickerson, David M; Steury, Todd D

2007-11-01

75

Snow conditions may create an invisible barrier for lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) abundance are geographically structured according to the influence of large-scale climatic regimes. Here we demonstrate that this structuring matches zones of differential snow conditions, in particular surface hardness, as determined by the frequency of winter warm spells. Through a modified functional response curve, we show that various features of the snow may influence

Nils C. Stenseth; Amir Shabbar; Kung-Sik Chan; Stan Boutin; Eli Knispel Rueness; Dorothee Ehrich; James W. Hurrell; Ole Chr. Lingjærde; Kjetill S. Jakobsen

2004-01-01

76

50,000 years of genetic uniformity in the critically endangered Iberian lynx  

E-print Network

, (L. canadensis) and the Eurasian lynx (L. lynx). All major felid lineages were established within50,000 years of genetic uniformity in the critically endangered Iberian lynx RICARDO RODRI´GUEZ,*1 lynx, including lack of mitochondrial control region variation, is thought to result from historical

77

Hematologic and serum chemistry values of captive Canadian lynx.  

PubMed

We present baseline values for 12 hematologic and 17 serum chemistry parameters collected from 22 captive lynx (Felis lynx canadensis) in December 1992, at Ronan, Montana (USA). There were no significant differences in hematologic parameters between yearlings and adults or between sexes. Lynx originally captured in the wild had significantly higher mean (+/- SE) counts of neutrophils (7.7 +/- 0.37 x 10(3) versus 7.2 +/- 0.35 x 10(3)) and lower counts of lymphocytes (1.1 +/- 0.05 x 10(3) versus 1.6 +/- 0.08 x 10(3)) compared to lynx born and raised in captivity. Yearling lynx had significantly higher values for alkaline phosphatase than adults (51.0 +/- 6.0 IU/l versus 17.5 +/- 0.8 IU/l. PMID:8583639

Weaver, J L; Johnson, M R

1995-04-01

78

Habitat Fragmentation and the Persistence of Lynx Populations in Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern counties of Washington state, USA; however, current distribution and status of lynx in Washington is poorly understood. During winters 2002-2004 we snow-tracked lynx for 155 km within a 211-km2 area in northern Washington, to develop a model of lynx-habitat relationships that we could use to assess their potential distribution and status in the

GARY M. KOEHLER; BENJAMIN T. MALETZKE; Large Carnivore; JEFF A. VON KIENAST; KEITH B. AUBRY; ROBERT B. WIELGUS; ROBERT H. NANEY

79

Snow conditions may create an invisible barrier for lynx.  

PubMed

The dynamics of Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) abundance are geographically structured according to the influence of large-scale climatic regimes. Here we demonstrate that this structuring matches zones of differential snow conditions, in particular surface hardness, as determined by the frequency of winter warm spells. Through a modified functional response curve, we show that various features of the snow may influence lynx interaction with its main prey species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). This study highlights the importance of snow, and exemplifies how large-scale climatic fluctuations can mechanistically influence population biological patterns. PMID:15249676

Stenseth, Nils Chr; Shabbar, Amir; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Ehrich, Dorothee; Hurrell, James W; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

2004-07-20

80

Snow conditions may create an invisible barrier for lynx  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) abundance are geographically structured according to the influence of large-scale climatic regimes. Here we demonstrate that this structuring matches zones of differential snow conditions, in particular surface hardness, as determined by the frequency of winter warm spells. Through a modified functional response curve, we show that various features of the snow may influence lynx interaction with its main prey species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). This study highlights the importance of snow, and exemplifies how large-scale climatic fluctuations can mechanistically influence population biological patterns. PMID:15249676

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Shabbar, Amir; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Ehrich, Dorothee; Hurrell, James W.; Lingjærde, Ole Chr.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

2004-01-01

81

Hematology, serum chemistry, and body mass of free-ranging and captive Canada lynx in Minnesota.  

PubMed

Baseline blood chemistry data could be particularly valuable if reference values from free-ranging populations of rare or endangered species are not available. The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the conterminous United States, even though the species is managed as a furbearer in Alaska and in most provinces of Canada. Body mass, blood chemistry, and hematologic data for free-ranging lynx were collected from 2003 to 2007 and for captive lynx from 1984 to 2007. Up to 2 yr of age, captive lynx were consistently heavier than free-ranging lynx. Body mass of adult free-ranging lynx was similar to body mass of captive adult lynx. Some differences in blood chemistry between free-ranging and captive lynx were statistically significant, but most measured values were within reference ranges for domestic cats. Free-ranging lynx had higher concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen than did captive lynx, and these were outside the reference value ranges for domestic cats. Alkaline phosphatase and phosphorus were higher in juveniles (<12 mo when captured) as compared to adults. Free-ranging lynx maintained body mass between serial captures. Hematologic values, blood chemistry values, and body mass of free-ranging Canada lynx provide support for the hypothesis that Canada lynx in Minnesota, at the southern edge of their range, are in normal physical condition. PMID:20090014

Moen, Ron; Rasmussen, James M; Burdett, Christopher L; Pelican, Katharine M

2010-01-01

82

Transversus abdominis plane block for exploratory laparotomy in a Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an innovative regional anesthetic technique using local anesthetic that is gaining popularity in the analgesic management of human patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Needle placement in the TAP block is within the facial plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles and involves the abdominal and thoracic nerves. Successful blockade generally involves spinal nerves T10-L1 and may induce sensory blockade as far cranially as T7, thus producing analgesia for abdominal surgery. Human studies suggest that this regional anesthetic technique may provide postoperative analgesia of the abdominal wall for up to 48 hr. Because of the extent and duration of sensory blockade, this novel technique with bupivacaine was used on a Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis), possibly providing 8-10 hr ofintra- and postoperative analgesia concurrent to exploratory laparotomy for removal of a gastric foreign body. PMID:20597230

Schroeder, Carrie A; Schroeder, Kristopher M; Johnson, Rebecca A

2010-06-01

83

Patterns of testicular activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

Canada lynx are listed as a threatened species in the contiguous US. Understanding the reproductive characteristics (i.e., mating system, behavior, physiology) of a species is useful for ensuring effective in situ and ex situ management plans. The goal of this study was to describe patterns of androgen expression in both captive and wild male Canada lynx using fecal hormone metabolite analysis. Among captive lynx, juvenile and castrated males had lower concentrations of fecal androgens (fA) than intact males, thereby demonstrating that the assay detects biologically meaningful differences in testicular activity. We found that captive males in general had much higher fA levels than wild males. All males showed strong seasonal variation in fA concentrations, with significantly higher levels being expressed during the breeding season (February and March) than during the non-breeding season. Among captive males, variation in seasonal fA levels did not correlate with latitude. Finally, males housed with intact cage-mates (either male or female) had significantly higher fA levels than males housed alone or with a neutered cage-mate. PMID:20828574

Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Jakubas, Walter J; Squires, John R; Lucas, Jeffrey R

2010-12-01

84

Lynx management in Latvia: population control or sport hunting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the harvesting manner of lynx population in Latvia. Samples from hunting bags compose the main material used for analysis. From 1998 to 2005 a total of 178 lynxes were in- vestigated for sex, absolute age, female fertility, and fecundity. The sample consisted of 33.7% juve- niles, 12.4% yearlings and 53.9% adults. The sex ratio did not deviate

ALDA PUPILA; GUNA BAGRADE

85

Enhancement in Motor Learning through Genetic Manipulation of the Lynx1 Gene  

PubMed Central

The cholinergic system is a neuromodulatory neurotransmitter system involved in a variety of brain processes, including learning and memory, attention, and motor processes, among others. The influence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the cholinergic system are moderated by lynx proteins, which are GPI-anchored membrane proteins forming tight associations with nicotinic receptors. Previous studies indicate lynx1 inhibits nicotinic receptor function and limits neuronal plasticity. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of lynx1 on nicotinic receptor function, through the generation of lynx mouse models, expressing a soluble version of lynx and comparing results to the full length overexpression. Using rotarod as a test for motor learning, we found that expressing a secreted variant of lynx leads to motor learning enhancements whereas overexpression of full-length lynx had no effect. Further, adult lynx1KO mice demonstrated comparable motor learning enhancements as the soluble transgenic lines, whereas previously, aged lynx1KO mice showed performance augmentation only with nicotine treatment. From this we conclude the motor learning is more sensitive to loss of lynx function, and that the GPI anchor plays a role in the normal function of the lynx protein. In addition, our data suggests that the lynx gene plays a modulatory role in the brain during aging, and that a soluble version of lynx has potential as a tool for adjusting cholinergic-dependent plasticity and learning mechanisms in the brain. PMID:23139735

Miwa, Julie M.; Walz, Andreas

2012-01-01

86

Lynx web services for annotations and systems analysis of multi-gene disorders  

PubMed Central

Lynx is a web-based integrated systems biology platform that supports annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Lynx has integrated multiple classes of biomedical data (genomic, proteomic, pathways, phenotypic, toxicogenomic, contextual and others) from various public databases as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators (LynxKB). Lynx provides tools for gene list enrichment analysis using multiple functional annotations and network-based gene prioritization. Lynx provides access to the integrated database and the analytical tools via REST based Web Services (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu/webservices.html). This comprises data retrieval services for specific functional annotations, services to search across the complete LynxKB (powered by Lucene), and services to access the analytical tools built within the Lynx platform. PMID:24948611

Sulakhe, Dinanath; Taylor, Andrew; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Feng, Bo; Xie, Bingqing; Bornigen, Daniela; Dave, Utpal J.; Foster, Ian T.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

2014-01-01

87

Spatial interactions between grey wolves and Eurasian lynx in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various species of large predators are reported to influence each other through interference or exploitation competition that\\u000a may affect demography and survival of the subordinate species. We analyzed spatial relationships between grey wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF, eastern Poland) to determine how they partitioned the space. The wolves (n = 8) and lynx (n = 14)

Krzysztof Schmidt; W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Henryk Okarma; Rafa? Kowalczyk

2009-01-01

88

Habitat Conditions Associated With Lynx Hunting Behavior During Winter in Northern Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectively managing habitat for threatened populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) requires knowledge of habitat conditions that provide for the ecological needs of lynx. We snow-tracked lynx to identify habitat conditions associated with hunting behavior and predation during winters of 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 in the northern Cascade Range in Washington state, USA. We recorded number and success of predation attempts,

BENJAMIN T. MALETZKE; GARY M. KOEHLER; ROBERT B. WIELGUS; KEITH B. AUBRY; MARC A. EVANS

89

Modeling the reintroduction of lynx to the southern portion of its range  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modeled populations of lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to determine prey densities required for persistence of lynx translocated to the southern portion of the species' range. The models suggested that a density of 1.1–1.8 hares\\/h is required for lynx persistence; these densities are higher than those reported for most hare populations across the USA. We found

Todd D. Steury; Dennis L. Murray

2004-01-01

90

The influence of snow on lynx and coyote movements: does morphology affect behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied sympatric lynx (Lynx canadensis) and coyotes (Canis latrans) to assess how morphological disadvantages to locomotion over snow affected movement patterns. Both species are of similar size and mass, but the feet of lynx are much larger, and coyotes were found to have 4.1–8.8 times the foot-load (ratio of body mass to foot area) of lynx. This resulted in

Dennis L. Murray; Stan Boutin

1991-01-01

91

Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian (Lynx lynx), the Iberian (L. pardinus), the Canada lynx (L. canadensis) and the bobcat (L. rufus).  

PubMed

With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal samples collected before, during, and after pregnancy from individual females of each lynx species. Gestagens and estrogens revealed three similar classes of immunoreactive faecal metabolites: (1) polar metabolites which were enzyme-hydrolysable and thus may be designated as conjugates, (2) non-hydrolysable polar metabolites, and (3) non-polar metabolites or free steroids. For both hormones, strong similarities in the HPLC immunograms across species suggests that steroid metabolism is relatively conserved among Lynx species. Gestagens were primarily excreted as polar conjugates or unknown metabolites, whereas estrogen metabolism revealed a huge proportion (approximately 50%) consisting of 17beta-estradiol and estrone. These results are consistent with patterns of steroid metabolism in other felid species. Only two minor species-specific patterns emerged. In bobcats, we observed an exceptionally high proportion of gestagen conjugates, and in Iberian lynx, there was an exceptionally high proportion of estrone. The comparison of HPLC immunograms within individuals revealed that intra-individual variations in steroid metabolite composition are considerably high. However, changes in metabolite composition did not correlate with specific reproductive stages; rather, they seemed to occur at random. We assume that these differences may reflect changes in liver metabolism and/or qualitative and quantitative variations in gut bacteria composition, resulting in differences in faecal metabolite composition. PMID:20346945

Dehnhard, M; Fanson, K; Frank, A; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Jewgenow, K

2010-06-01

92

Using Scent-Marking Stations to Collect Hair Samples to Monitor Eurasian Lynx Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive sampling of mammalian hairs for surveying their populations and for providing density estimations is widely applicable in wildlife ecology and management. However, the efficiency of the method may differ depending on the species or local circumstances. We modified a method of hair trapping from free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to collect DNA samples to work in a low-density population.

KRZYSZTOF SCHMIDT; RAFA? KOWALCZYK

2006-01-01

93

TREE vol. 14, no. 11 November 1999 0169-5347/99/$ see front matter 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0169-5347(99)01717-6 417 The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis),  

E-print Network

. All rights reserved. PII: S0169-5347(99)01717-6 417 The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis), with its distant regions are synchronized. Elton's work on the lynx, together with studies of similar oscillations of the cycles. Al- though the period of oscillations in lynx numbers shows little variability about its mean

Lloyd, Alun

94

Combining resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for Canada lynx at their southern range periphery  

E-print Network

Lynx canadensis is a federally threatened bor- eal species that may require connectivity with northern of anthropogenic disturbance (Channell and Lomolino, 2000; Schaefer, 2003). Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), listedCombining resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for Canada lynx

Hebblewhite, Mark

95

Ecological factors influencing the spatial pattern of Canada lynx relative to its southern range edge in Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the spatial pattern of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis Kerr, 1792) relative to its southern range edge at the boreal plains - prairie ecotone in Alberta, Canada. Relative to the original distribution of boreal forest in our study area, lynx range seems to have contracted up to 22%. In 100 km2 sampling areas, lynx occupancy rate increased 1.93 times

Erin M. Bayne; Stan Boutin; Richard A. Moses

2008-01-01

96

From patterns to processes: Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle  

PubMed Central

Across the boreal forest of North America, lynx populations undergo 10-year cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 to the present demonstrates that these fluctuations are generated by nonlinear processes with regulatory delays. Trophic interactions between lynx and hares cause delayed density-dependent regulation of lynx population growth. The nonlinearity, in contrast, appears to arise from phase dependencies in hunting success by lynx through the cycle. Using a combined approach of empirical, statistical, and mathematical modeling, we highlight how shifts in trophic interactions between the lynx and the hare generate the nonlinear process primarily by shifting functional response curves during the increase and the decrease phases. PMID:9860985

Stenseth, Nils C.; Falck, Wilhelm; Chan, Kung-Sik; Bj?rnstad, Ottar N.; O'Donoghue, Mark; Tong, Howell; Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan; Krebs, Charles J.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.

1998-01-01

97

DNA reveals high dispersal synchronizing the population dynamics of Canada lynx.  

PubMed

Population dynamics of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have been of interest to ecologists for nearly sixty years. Two competing hypotheses concerning lynx population dynamics and large-scale spatial synchrony are currently debated. The first suggests that dispersal is substantial among lynx populations, and the second proposes that lynx at the periphery of their range exist in small, isolated patches that maintain cycle synchrony via correlation with extrinsic environmental factors. Resolving the nature of lynx population dynamics and dispersal is important both to ecological theory and to the conservation of threatened lynx populations: the lack of knowledge about connectivity between populations at the southern periphery of the lynx's geographic range delayed their legal listing in the United States. We test these competing hypotheses using microsatellite DNA markers and lynx samples from 17 collection sites in the core and periphery of the lynx's geographic range. Here we show high gene flow despite separation by distances greater than 3,100 km, supporting the dispersal hypothesis. We therefore suggest that management actions in the contiguous United States should focus on maintaining connectivity with the core of the lynx's geographic range. PMID:11823858

Schwartz, Michael K; Mills, L Scott; McKelvey, Kevin S; Ruggiero, Leonard F; Allendorf, Fred W

2002-01-31

98

Statewide modeling of bobcat, Lynx rufus, habitat in Illinois, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used sighting location and remotely sensed habitat data, multivariate statistical techniques, and a geographic information system to model bobcat (Lynx rufus) habitat in Illinois, thereby providing state wildlife managers with information to review the listing of bobcats as a state-threatened species and contribute to the development of a statewide management plan. We used canonical discriminant function analysis to model

Alan Woolf; Clayton K. Nielsen; Theodore Weber; Tara J. Gibbs-Kieninger

2002-01-01

99

Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired. PMID:3586212

Dubey, J P; Quinn, W J; Weinandy, D

1987-04-01

100

Predicting favorable habitat for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bobcats (Lynx rufus), once common in the prairie-woodland mosaic of the Midwest, were largely extirpated from the Corn Belt region by 1900. In the 1990's, sightings of bobcats in Iowa began to increase, and they are now abundant in southern Iowa. With the dramatic expansion of rowcrop agriculture resulting in loss of habitat, wildlife managers do not know whether bobcats

Stephanie Ann Linde

2010-01-01

101

Fatal Neonatal Toxoplasmosis in a Bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently con- genitally acquired.

J. P. Dube; W. J. Quinn; D. Weinandy

102

Identification of volatile components of bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine reduces scent-marking activity of woodchucks (Marmota monax) and feeding activity of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and deer (Odocoileus virginianus, O. hemionus). In order to identify the semiochemicals responsible for these behavior modifications, a dichloromethane extract of the bobcat urine was analyzed by GC-MS. Among the known compounds identified in the extract are phenol, indole, dimethyl sulfone,

M. J. I. Mattina; J. J. Pignatello; R. K. Swihart

1991-01-01

103

Stress and reproductive physiology in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis): Implications for in-situ and ex-situ conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species reintroductions are a valuable conservation tool, but such efforts often fail, and we have a poor understanding of why. Understanding the role of stress physiology in reintroductions may be critical for enhancing their success rates. The goal of my dissertation was to validate a technique for monitoring stress and reproductive physiology in Canada lynx, and apply this technique to

Kerry V. Petterson Fanson

2009-01-01

104

Population cycles and changes in body size of the lynx in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lynx Lynx canadensis is a common predator in the boreal forests of North America. Its population fluctuates during a 9- to 11-year cycle in synchrony\\u000a with the population size of its main prey, the snowshoe hare Lepus americanus. Using adult museum specimens, we studied changes in skull (and hence body) size of the lynx in Alaska during the second

Yoram Yom-Tov; Shlomith Yom-Tov; Dusty MacDonald; Elad Yom-Tov

2007-01-01

105

Interlinking hare and lynx dynamics using a century’s worth of annual data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic fur trade records on Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) have rarely been analysed in direct conjunction with data on its principal prey, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). Comparable long-term data for hare exist only for a region south of Hudson Bay. We fitted a bivariate log-linear time-series\\u000a model to this hare and lynx data to disentangle the within- and

Jon Olav Vik; Christian N. Brinch; Stan Boutin; Nils Christian Stenseth

2008-01-01

106

DEFINING SPACE USE AND MOVEMENTS OF CANADA LYNX WITH GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM TELEMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space use and movements of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are difficult to study with very-high-frequency radiocollars. We deployed global positioning system (GPS) collars on 11 lynx in Minnesota to study their seasonal space-use patterns. We estimated home ranges with minimum-convex-polygon and fixed-kernel methods and estimated core areas with area\\/probability curves. Fixed-kernel home ranges of males (range ¼ 29-522 km2) were

Christopher L. Burdett; Ron A. Moen; Gerald J. Niemi; L. David Mech

2007-01-01

107

Genetic structure of the Eurasian lynx population in north-eastern Poland and the Baltic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the genotypes of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from three populations in the westernmost part of the species main range. One population was situated at the distribution\\u000a edge (NE Poland) and the two other (Latvia and Estonia) were located within the main, contiguous range of the species. The\\u000a aim was to determine if the genetic composition varied among these

Krzysztof Schmidt; Rafa? Kowalczyk; Janis Ozolins; Peep Männil; Joerns Fickel

2009-01-01

108

Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

Hoving, C. L.; Harrison, D. J.; Krohn, W. B.; Joseph, R. A.; O'Brien, M.

2005-01-01

109

Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

1993-01-01

110

Lynx maritime radar in USN experiment Trident Warrior 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. (GA-ASI) participated in the joint naval experiment Trident Warrior 2011 at Combat Direction Systems Activity (CDSA), Dam Neck, Va., in July 2011. The goal was to introduce the Lynx® Multi-Mode Radar's new Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) mode and display a viable Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) full kill chain solution for the naval environment. GA-ASI presented a manned platform, a Beechcraft Super King Air 200 modified with an operators console, Lynx Multi-mode Radar, FLIR Star SAFIRE 380-HD EO/IR camera system, and an L-3 TCDL (aircraft data link system) as a surrogate for the Predator® B/ MQ-9 UAS.

Dunkel, R.; Link, Z.; Verge, T.; Laue, J.

2012-06-01

111

Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania ABSTRACT.--Diet of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States is poorly known. Age, sex and time decrease the bobcat's ability to travel and hunt effectively. INTRODUCTION The diet of the bobcat (Lynx

McCay, Timothy S.

112

Pleistocene and ecological effects on continental-scale genetic differentiation in the bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

E-print Network

of genetic structure. Keywords: bobcat, landscape genetics, Lynx rufus, phylogeography, Pleistocene, suturePleistocene and ecological effects on continental-scale genetic differentiation in the bobcat (Lynx rufus) DAWN M. REDING,* ANNE M. BRONIKOWSKI,* WARREN E. JOHNSON and WILLIAM R. CLARK* *Department

Bronikowski, Anne

113

Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

E-print Network

in the bobcat (Lynx rufus) N. Gan~a´n a , R. Gonza´lez a , A. Sestelo b , J.J. Garde c , I. Sa´nchez d , J; Fertilization; Spermatozoa; Testosterone 1. Introduction Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are found mainly in the United

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

114

Lynx1 supports neuronal health in the mouse dorsal striatum during aging: an ultrastructural investigation.  

PubMed

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been shown to participate in neuroprotection in the aging brain. Lynx protein modulators dampen the activity of the cholinergic system through direct interaction with nicotinic receptors. Although lynx1 null mutant mice exhibit augmented learning and plasticity, they also exhibit macroscopic vacuolation in the dorsal striatum as they age, detectable at the optical microscope level. Despite the relevance of the lynx1 gene to brain function, little is known about the cellular ultrastructure of these age-related changes. In this study, we assessed degeneration in the dorsal striatum in 1-, 3-, 7-, and 13-month-old mice, using optical and transmission electron microscopy. We observed a loss of nerve fibers, a breakdown in nerve fiber bundles, and a loss of neuronal nuclei in the 13-month-old lynx1 null striatum. At higher magnification, these nerve fibers displayed intracellular vacuoles and disordered myelin sheaths. Few or none of these morphological alterations were present in younger lynx1 null mutant mice or in heterozygous lynx1 null mutant mice at any age. These data indicate that neuronal health can be maintained by titrating lynx1 dosage and that the lynx1 gene may participate in a trade-off between neuroprotection and augmented learning. PMID:25027556

Kobayashi, Atsuko; Parker, Rell L; Wright, Ashley P; Brahem, Hajer; Ku, Pauline; Oliver, Katherine M; Walz, Andreas; Lester, Henry A; Miwa, Julie M

2014-07-01

115

Prevalence of infection and 18S rRNA gene sequences of Cytauxzoon species in Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Spain.  

PubMed

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid in the world. Only about 160 individuals remain in 2 separate metapopulations in Southern Spain (Sierra Morena and Doñana). We obtained blood samples of 20 lynxes captured from 2004 to 2006, and determined the prevalence of infection and genetic diversity of Cytauxzoon spp. using 18S rRNA PCR and sequence analysis. Prevalence of infection was 15% (3 of 20). Cytauxzoon sp. was only detected in Sierra Morena. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the sequences reported in the present study and those characterized in different domestic and wild felids and ticks from North and South America, Asia and Europe. Three different Cytauxzoon sp. sequences were obtained. They were closely related to that obtained from a Spanish cat, but diverged in up to 1.0% with respect to the only previously reported sequence from an Iberian lynx. Conversely, the latter sequence clustered together with C. manul sequences obtained from Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul) in Mongolia. Our analysis yields a separate cluster of C. felis sequences from cats, wild felids and ticks in the United States and Brazil. These results suggest that at least 2 different Cytauxzoon spp. may be present in Iberian lynx. The apparent absence in one of the areas, together with the possibility of fatal cytauxzoonosis in lynxes makes necessary disease risks to be taken into account in management conservation strategies, such as translocations and re-introductions. PMID:17326847

Millán, J; Naranjo, V; Rodríguez, A; de la Lastra, J M Pérez; Mangold, A J; de la Fuente, J

2007-07-01

116

Surgical plating of a fractured radius and ulna in a wild Canada lynx.  

PubMed

A free-ranging, adult male Canada-lynx (Lynx canadensis) experienced a closed, complete, non-comminuted transverse fracture of the left radius and ulna when captured in a leg snare. A dynamic compression plate (DCP) attached to the anterior surface of the radius was used to stabilize the fracture. Radiographs 44 days post-surgery indicated advanced primary bone healing. The lynx was released 46 days post-surgery near the site of capture. Radiotelemetry indicated long-term survival and movements similar to other males monitored during the same period. PMID:9577786

Poole, K G; Elkin, B T; Pisz, T; Elkin, K E; Robertson, D; Sabourin, M L

1998-04-01

117

Age, sex, reproduction, and spatial organization of lynxes colonizing northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1972 through 1978, lynxes (Felis lynx) emigrating from Canada were studied in northeastern Minnesota. Fourteen individuals were radio-tracked, 8 wefe ear-tagged, and 49 carcasses were examined. Sex ratios of the samples were equal during the first years of the study, but females predominated later. At least half of the radiotagged lynxes were killed by humans; no natural mortality was detected. Home range sizes ranged from 51 to 122 km2 for females and 145 to 243 km2 for males, up to 10 times the sizes of those reported by other workers. Ranges of females tended to overlap. Males and females appeared to be segregated in the population.

Mech, L.D.

1980-01-01

118

Modelling the Canada lynx and snowshoe hare population cycle: the role of specialist predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models of the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) population cycles in the boreal forest have largely focused on the interaction between a single specialist predator and\\u000a its prey. Here, we consider the role that other hare predators play in shaping the cycles, using a predator–prey model for\\u000a up to three separate specialist predators. We consider

Rebecca Tyson; Sheena Haines; Karen E. Hodges

2010-01-01

119

Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat.  

PubMed

Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species' ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics. PMID:24174116

Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

2013-12-22

120

NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1.  

PubMed

Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake ?-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which considerably complicates in vitro studies. We report for the first time the NMR spatial structure for the water-soluble domain of human LYNX1 lacking a GPI anchor (ws-LYNX1) and its concentration-dependent activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). At 5-30 ?M, ws-LYNX1 competed with (125)I-?-bungarotoxin for binding to the acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) and to Torpedo nAChR. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing ?7 nAChRs to 1 ?M ws-LYNX1 enhanced the response to acetylcholine, but no effect was detected on ?4?2 and ?3?2 nAChRs. Increasing ws-LYNX1 concentration to 10 ?M caused a modest inhibition of these three nAChR subtypes. A common feature for ws-LYNX1 and LYNX1 is a decrease of nAChR sensitivity to high concentrations of acetylcholine. NMR and functional analysis both demonstrate that ws-LYNX1 is an appropriate model to shed light on the mechanism of LYNX1 action. Computer modeling, based on ws-LYNX1 NMR structure and AChBP x-ray structure, revealed a possible mode of ws-LYNX1 binding. PMID:21252236

Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Mineev, Konstantin S; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Kasheverov, Igor E; Filkin, Sergey Yu; Krivolapova, Alexandra P; Janickova, Helena; Dolezal, Vladimir; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Arseniev, Alexander S; Bertrand, Daniel; Tsetlin, Victor I; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

2011-03-25

121

Factors affecting hare?lynx dynamics in the classic time series of the Hudson Bay Company, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 10 yr hare-lynx (Lepus ameri- canus-Lynx canadensis) cycles in boreal forest of North America have been well known for >100 yr, but the underlying mechanism is still not fully un- derstood. Prey-predator interactions are generally thought to be the major causative factor for the cycle. The effect of climate on the hare-lynx cycle has been largely ignored. By using

Zhibin Zhang; Yi Tao; Zhenqing Li

2007-01-01

122

Fatal cytauxzoonosis in a free-ranging bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

In September 2000, a free-ranging bobcat (Lynx rufus) cub was presented to the Kansas State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Manhattan, Kansas, USA) in a moribund state with signs of severe anemia and respiratory difficulty. The cub was euthanized. Gross necropsy findings included multifocal atelectasis, splenomegaly, and pericardial effusion. Microscopic examination revealed subacute pulmonary thrombosis, mild vasculitis in the brain, and large schizont-filled macrophages within blood vessels of all tissues examined. The organisms were typical of the developmental stages of Cytauxzoon felis. Cytauxzoonosis is considered to be a persistent, subclinical infection in the bobcat; however, this cub had lesions consistent with those seen in fatal infections in domestic cats. This case of fatal C. felis infection indicates that some free-ranging bobcats may die of cytauxzoonosis. PMID:12238380

Nietfeld, Jerome C; Pollock, Christal

2002-07-01

123

Identification of volatile components of bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine.  

PubMed

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine reduces scent-marking activity of woodchucks (Marmota monax) and feeding activity of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and deer (Odocoileus virginianus, O. hemionus). In order to identify the semiochemicals responsible for these behavior modifications, a dichloromethane extract of the bobcat urine was analyzed by GC-MS. Among the known compounds identified in the extract are phenol, indole, dimethyl sulfone, and 3-mercapto-3-methylbutanol. Compounds for which spectroscopic data are presented for the first time include one sulfide, two disulfides, and two trisulfides. The sulfur compounds are derived from an amino acid,S-(l,1-dimethyl-3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine ("felinine"), which was identified several years ago in the urine of the domestic cat (Felis domesticus). PMID:24258737

Mattina, M J; Pignatello, J J; Swihart, R K

1991-02-01

124

Embryo transfer and embryonic capsules in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Bobcats (Lynx rufus) (n=22) were used to test a surgical embryo transfer protocol for wild felines. Five blastocysts were collected 8-14 days post-initial copulation (PIC). Translucent capsule-like structures were recovered at 12 days PIC and are the first report of such a structure in a felid. Endometrial fibrosis was observed in one cat but, in general, post-surgical fibrosis of the uterus did not seem to impede ova or embryo transport. One embryo underwent cryopreservation and this embryo plus two other transferrable embryos were placed in recipient cats during the course of the study. No pregnancies were maintained; but one non-cryopreserved embryo was detected by ultrasound examination at 2 weeks post-transfer. This study provides valuable groundwork for future studies and warrants optimism for continued research in this area. PMID:12047248

Miller, D L; Waldhalm, S J; Leopold, B D; Estill, C

2002-04-01

125

Different cryopreservation requirements in foetal versus adult skin cells from an endangered mammal, the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Cryobanking somatic foetal cells acquire much relevance in endangered species for biodiversity conservation purposes. Such cells could be later used to reintroduce the lost genes into the breeding pool, by inducing pluripotency and/or nuclear transfer if necessary. Since requirements for preserving foetal cells are not always the same as for adult ones, we evaluated the cryosensitivity of foetal skin cells in comparison with adult ones from the critically endangered Iberian lynx. Responses to cryoinjury were analyzed in both thawed cell types by means of cell viability and functionality (by analyzing their membrane integrity, metabolic activity, glycosaminoglycan content and proliferative activity). Freezing media included the permeating cryoprotectant Me2SO, either alone or along with the non-permeating cryoprotectant sucrose at 0.1 or 0.2M. When Me2SO was the only cryoprotectant, survival rate fell in thawed foetal cells to 54±4% (against 89±6% for thawed adult ones) and both proliferative and metabolic activities remained significantly lower than values for thawed adult cells. However, the combination of sucrose (both 0.1 as 0.2) and Me2SO in foetal cells significantly increased their survival rates (to 71±4% and 73±5%, respectively), proliferative activities (partially at day 7 and completely at day 14 after thawing) and metabolic activities. Our findings clearly show a difference between foetal and adult cells concerning their cryopreservation sensitivity and requirements, as well as their recovery time after thawing. These results are of relevance for the cryopreservation of foetal and adult cells from the Iberian lynx and could be also useful for other mammals. PMID:24530371

León-Quinto, Trinidad; Simón, Miguel A; Cadenas, Rafael; Martínez, Africa; Serna, Arturo

2014-04-01

126

Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

2013-01-01

127

Habitat Loss, Not Fragmentation, Drives Occurrence Patterns of Canada Lynx at the Southern Range Periphery  

PubMed Central

Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The ‘threshold hypothesis’ predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the ‘flexibility hypothesis’ predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the ‘threshold hypothesis’ and ‘flexibility hypothesis’. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the ‘flexibility hypothesis’. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat alteration. PMID:25401737

Hornseth, Megan L.; Walpole, Aaron A.; Walton, Lyle R.; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Murray, Dennis L.

2014-01-01

128

Defining space use and movements of Canada lynx with global positioning system telemetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Space use and movements of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are difficult to study with very-high-frequency radiocollars. We deployed global positioning system (GPS) collars on 11 lynx in Minnesota to study their seasonal space-use patterns. We estimated home ranges with minimum-convex-polygon and fixed-kernel methods and estimated core areas with area/probability curves. Fixed-kernel home ranges of males (range = 29-522 km2) were significantly larger than those of females (range = 5-95 km2) annually and during the denning season. Some male lynx increased movements during March, the month most influenced by breeding activity. Lynx core areas were predicted by the 60% fixed-kernel isopleth in most seasons. The mean core-area size of males (range = 6-190 km2) was significantly larger than that of females (range = 1-19 km2) annually and during denning. Most female lynx were reproductive animals with reduced movements, whereas males often ranged widely between Minnesota and Ontario. Sensitivity analyses examining the effect of location frequency on home-range size suggest that the home-range sizes of breeding females are less sensitive to sample size than those of males. Longer periods between locations decreased home-range and core-area overlap relative to the home range estimated from daily locations. GPS collars improve our understanding of space use and movements by lynx by increasing the spatial extent and temporal frequency of monitoring and allowing home ranges to be estimated over short periods that are relevant to life-history characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

Burdett, C. L.; Moen, R. A.; Niemi, G. J.; Mech, L. D.

2007-01-01

129

Predators choose prey over prey habitats: evidence from a lynx-hare system.  

PubMed

Resource selection is grounded in the understanding that animals select resources based on fitness requirements. Despite uncertainty in how mechanisms relate to the landscape, resource selection studies often assume, but rarely demonstrate, a relationship between modeled variables and fitness mechanisms. Using Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) as a model system, we assess whether prey habitat is a viable surrogate for encounters between predators and prey. We simultaneously collected winter track data for lynx and hare in two study areas. We used information criteria to determine whether selection by lynx is best characterized by a hare resource selection probability function (RSPF) or by the amount of hare resource use. Results show that lynx selection is better explained by the amount of hare use (SIC = -21.9; Schwarz's Information Criterion) than by hare RSPF (SIC = -16.71), and that hare RSPF cannot be assumed to reveal the amount of resource use, a primary mechanism of predator selection. Our study reveals an obvious but important distinction between selection and use that is applicable to all resource selection studies. We recommend that resource selection studies be coupled with mechanistic data (e.g., metrics of diet, forage, fitness, or abundance) when investigating mechanisms of resource selection. PMID:21774407

Keim, Jonah L; DeWitt, Philip D; Lele, Subhash R

2011-06-01

130

Population cycles and changes in body size of the lynx in Alaska.  

PubMed

The lynx Lynx canadensis is a common predator in the boreal forests of North America. Its population fluctuates during a 9- to 11-year cycle in synchrony with the population size of its main prey, the snowshoe hare Lepus americanus. Using adult museum specimens, we studied changes in skull (and hence body) size of the lynx in Alaska during the second half of the 20th century. The population cycle in Alaska averaged 9 years, similar to that reported in the neighbouring Yukon. Using harvest data of lynx as an estimate of population size, we found that skull size was negatively related to population size. This relationship was strongest not for the population density in the year of death (X), but for year X-3, a carry-over effect from the first year (or years) of life, indicating that conditions during the fast-growth years are determining body size. We suggest that the density-dependent effect is probably due to changes in food supply, either resulting from the adverse effects of competition or a possible diminished availability of food. Two skull parameters decreased significantly during the second half of the 20th century. We do not know the cause for the year effect and suggest that it might be due to a long-term change in the availability of prey. Canine size did not change during the study period, probably an indication that snowshoe hares maintained their status as the main prey of the lynx throughout the study period. PMID:17277929

Yom-Tov, Yoram; Yom-Tov, Shlomith; MacDonald, Dusty; Yom-Tov, Elad

2007-05-01

131

Adapted conservation measures are required to save the Iberian lynx in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) has suffered severe population declines in the twentieth century and is now on the brink of extinction. Climate change could further threaten the survival of the species, but its forecast effects are being neglected in recovery plans. Quantitative estimates of extinction risk under climate change have so far mostly relied on inferences from correlative projections of species' habitat shifts. Here we use ecological niche models coupled to metapopulation simulations with source-sink dynamics to directly investigate the combined effects of climate change, prey availability and management intervention on the persistence of the Iberian lynx. Our approach is unique in that it explicitly models dynamic bi-trophic species interactions in a climate change setting. We show that anticipated climate change will rapidly and severely decrease lynx abundance and probably lead to its extinction in the wild within 50 years, even with strong global efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In stark contrast, we also show that a carefully planned reintroduction programme, accounting for the effects of climate change, prey abundance and habitat connectivity, could avert extinction of the lynx this century. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, why considering prey availability, climate change and their interaction in models is important when designing policies to prevent future biodiversity loss.

Fordham, D. A.; Akçakaya, H. R.; Brook, B. W.; Rodríguez, A.; Alves, P. C.; Civantos, E.; Triviño, M.; Watts, M. J.; Araújo, M. B.

2013-10-01

132

Neuron, Vol. 23, 105114, May, 1999, Copyright 1999 by Cell Press lynx1, an Endogenous Toxin-like Modulator  

E-print Network

). An evolutionary relationship has been proposedins. Primary sequence and gene structure analyses between this class of neurotoxin and the mammalianreveal an evolutionary relationship between lynx1 and Ly-6 genes based of the immune system. A direct evolutionary relationship between lynx1 and the Ly-6/The correct function

Sali, Andrej

133

Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. PMID:24080086

Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

2013-12-01

134

Space Use, Movements and Habitat Selection of Adult Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Central Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors influence bobcat (Lynx rufus) space use, movements and habitat selection, including prey distribution and density, season, breeding behaviors and intraspecific relationships. Knowledge of ranging behaviors and habitat selection is required to understand population dynamics and ecology of bobcats within temperate ecosystems. We radio-monitored 58 adult bobcats from 1989-1997 in central Mississippi. Males maintained larger home ranges and core

MICHAEL J. CHAMBERLAIN; BRUCE D. LEOPOLD; L. MIKE CONNER

2003-01-01

135

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Breeding in Captivity: The Importance of Environmental Enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental enrichment is an improvement in the biological functioning of nonhuman animals in captivity resulting from modifications to their environment; however, specifying appropriate and practical measures of enrichment is problematic. This study analyzes the behavior of 4 bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Jerez Zoo before and after the application of a global program of environmental enrichment that included (a) changes

María I. Mollá; Miguel A. Quevedo; Francisca Castro

2011-01-01

136

Annual Dynamics of Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Home Range and Core Use Areas in Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the annual dynamics of bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range and core use areas by radiotracking 23 female and 6 male bobcats from 10 January 1989 to 31 January 1998 in Mississippi. We quantified space use by measuring changes in the dispersion and central tendency of bobcat locations (i.e., radiotelemetry locations) between annual home range and core use areas.

Bruce W. Plowman; L. Mike Conner; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold; Loren W. Burger

2006-01-01

137

ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE LA ALIMENTACIÓN DEL GATO MONTÉS (LYNX RUFUS) EN DOS DIFERENTES AMBIENTES DE MÉXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding habits of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in two different localities of Mexico were studied by the analysis of 197 and 922 scats. Lagomorphs, and rodents were the more important prey items in both places. At El Plomito, state of Sonora, we found 18 different prey species, and the most important were Sylvilagus audubonii (35.5%), Lepus sp. (31.5%), Neotoma albigula

Marcelo ARANDA; Octavio ROSAS; Francisco I. Madero

2002-01-01

138

Missing Lynx and Trophic Cascades in Food Webs: A Reply to Ripple et al.  

E-print Network

a hypothesis that the recovery of gray wolves (Canis lupus) may positively affect the viability of threatened competition with coyotes (C. latrans). Second, recovering wolf populations may benefit lynx through reduced National Park. Ripple et al. (2011) proposed a hypothesis that the recovery of gray wolves (Canis lupus

Hebblewhite, Mark

139

Faecal genetic analysis to determine the presence and distribution of elusive carnivores: design and feasibility for the Iberian lynx.  

PubMed

Noninvasive methods using genetic markers have been suggested as ways to overcome difficulties associated with documenting the presence of elusive species. We present and assess a novel, reliable and effective molecular genetic technique for the unequivocal genetic identification of faeces from the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). From mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and D-loop region sequences, we designed four species-specific primers (for products 130-161 bp long) that were considered to be likely to amplify degraded DNA. We compared two DNA extraction methods, various DNA amplification conditions and the robustness and specificity of the primer pairs with 87 lynx samples from 5 potentially different lynx populations and with 328 samples of other carnivore species. The utility of the identification technique was tested with faeces of different ages, with faeces from controlled field experiments, and with faeces collected from locales with possible lynx populations from throughout the state of Andalusia, Spain (8052 km2). Faecal mtDNA extraction was more efficient using PBS wash of the faeces instead of a faeces homogenate. Our assay increased from 92.6 to 99% efficiency with a second amplification and a reduction in template concentration to overcome polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibition. Our assay never produced false positives, and correctly identified all lynx faeces. Of 252 faeces samples of unknown species collected throughout Andalusia, 26.6% (from three different areas) were classified as Iberian lynx, 1.4% showed evidence of PCR inhibition and 1.2% were of uncertain origin. This method has proven to be a reliable technique that can be incorporated into large-scale surveys of Iberian lynx populations and exemplifies an approach that can easily be extended to other species. PMID:12296958

Palomares, F; Godoy, J A; Piriz, A; O'Brien, S J

2002-10-01

140

Lynx1 Shifts ?4?2 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Stoichiometry by Affecting Assembly in the Endoplasmic Reticulum.  

PubMed

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored neurotoxin-like receptor binding proteins, such as lynx modulators, are topologically positioned to exert pharmacological effects by binding to the extracellular portion of nAChRs. These actions are generally thought to proceed when both lynx and the nAChRs are on the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that lynx1 also exerts effects on ?4?2 nAChRs within the endoplasmic reticulum. Lynx1 affects assembly of nascent ?4 and ?2 subunits and alters the stoichiometry of the receptor population that reaches the plasma membrane. Additionally, these data suggest that lynx1 shifts nAChR stoichiometry to low sensitivity (?4)3(?2)2 pentamers primarily through this interaction in the endoplasmic reticulum, rather than solely via direct modulation of activity on the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, these data represent the first test of the hypothesis that a lynx family member, or indeed any glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, could act within the cell to alter assembly of a multisubunit protein. PMID:25193667

Nichols, Weston A; Henderson, Brandon J; Yu, Caroline; Parker, Rell L; Richards, Christopher I; Lester, Henry A; Miwa, Julie M

2014-11-01

141

Experimental transmission of Cytauxzoon felis from bobcats (Lynx rufus) to domestic cats (Felis domesticus).  

PubMed

Freshly collected blood and/or spleen homogenate from an experimentally infected Florida bobcat (Lynx rufus floridanus), which had died of feline cytauxzoonosis, was inoculated into domestic cats. All inoculated cats had clinical signs of feline cytauxzoonosis and died within 2 weeks after they were inoculated. Similar material collected from an eastern bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus) carrying an experimentally infected Cytauxzoon felis parasitemia was inoculated into domestic cats. All inoculated cats developed a parasitemia, but none developed clinical signs of disease and none died of the disease. Cats subinoculated with parasitemic cat blood also developed parasitemias and they too did not develop clinical signs of infection nor died. After carrying the blood phase of Cytauxzoon felis for various periods, the domestic cats were then challenge exposed with proven lethal Cytauxzoon inoculum of domestic cat origin. All cats died of cytauxzoonosis. PMID:6807145

Kier, A B; Wagner, J E; Morehouse, L G

1982-01-01

142

Performance and rotor loads measurements of the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a series of flight tests on the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades. The test objectives were to explore the flight envelope and to measure the performance and structural loads of the Lynx main-rotor system. The tests were conducted as part of the British Experimental Rotor Program (BERP) under a contract with the Ministry of Defense in England. Data were acquired for steady-level flights at five weight coefficients. Some flight conditions were tested at beyond the retreating-blade stall boundary, which was defined by a predetermined limit on the pitchlink vibratory load. In addition to documenting the flight conditions and data, this report describes the aircraft, particularly the rotor system, in detail.

Lau, Benton H.; Louie, Alexander W.; Griffiths, Nicholas; Sotiriou, Costantinos P.

1993-01-01

143

Responses of a transplanted troop of Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata ) to bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of encounters between a transplanted troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) and one or more bobcats (Lynx rufus) is described. One incident of predation was observed and four additional cases assumed. Reactions of identified individuals\\u000a and groups of monkeys as well as general troop reactions are noted. The effects of breeding season behavior, troop size, differences\\u000a in mother

Harold Gouzoules; Linda M. Fedigan; Larry Fedigan

1975-01-01

144

Characterization of regionally associated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific FIVs. However, recent studies have detected an FIV strain infecting both bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in California and Florida. To further investigate this observation, we evaluated FIV from bobcats in Florida (n=25) and Colorado (n=80) between 2008 and 2011. Partial viral sequences from five Florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from Florida panthers. We did not detect FIV in Colorado bobcats. PMID:23778629

Lagana, Danielle M; Lee, Justin S; Lewis, Jesse S; Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Sweanor, Linda L; McBride, Roy; McBride, Caleb; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

2013-07-01

145

Isometric scaling in home-range size of male and female bobcats ( Lynx rufus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

For solitary carnivores a polygynous mating system should lead to predictable patterns in space-use dynamics. Females should be most influenced by resource distribution and abundance, whereas polygynous males should be strongly influenced by female spatial dynamics. We gathered mean annual home-range-size estimates for male and female bobcats (Lynx rufus (Schreber, 1777)) from previous studies to address variation in home-range size

Adam W. Ferguson; Nathan A. Currit; Floyd W. Weckerly

2009-01-01

146

Quantifying home range habitat requirements for bobcats ( Lynx rufus) in Vermont, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate how home range and habitat use analysis can inform landscape-scale conservation planning for the bobcat, Lynx rufus, in Vermont USA. From 2005 to 2008, we outfitted fourteen bobcats with GPS collars that collected spatially explicit locations from individuals every 4h for 3–4months. Kernel home range techniques were used to estimate home range size and boundaries, and to quantify

Therese M. Donovan; Mark Freeman; Hanem Abouelezz; Kimberly Royar; Alan Howard; Ruth Mickey

147

The subtle role of climate change on population genetic structure in Canada lynx.  

PubMed

Anthropogenically driven climatic change is expected to reshape global patterns of species distribution and abundance. Given recent links between genetic variation and environmental patterns, climate change may similarly impact genetic population structure, but we lack information on the spatial and mechanistic underpinnings of genetic-climate associations. Here, we show that current genetic variability of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is strongly correlated with a winter climate gradient (i.e. increasing snow depth and winter precipitation from west-to-east) across the Pacific-North American (PNO) to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climatic systems. This relationship was stronger than isolation by distance and not explained by landscape variables or changes in abundance. Thus, these patterns suggest that individuals restricted dispersal across the climate boundary, likely in the absence of changes in habitat quality. We propose habitat imprinting on snow conditions as one possible explanation for this unusual phenomenon. Coupling historical climate data with future projections, we also found increasingly diverging snow conditions between the two climate systems. Based on genetic simulations using projected climate data (2041-2070), we predicted that this divergence could lead to a threefold increase in genetic differentiation, potentially leading to isolated east-west populations of lynx in North America. Our results imply that subtle genetic structure can be governed by current climate and that substantive genetic differentiation and related ecological divergence may arise from changing climate patterns. PMID:24415466

Row, Jeffrey R; Wilson, Paul J; Gomez, Celine; Koen, Erin L; Bowman, Jeff; Thornton, Daniel; Murray, Dennis L

2014-07-01

148

Interacting Effects of Climate Change, Landscape Conversion, and Harvest on Carnivore Populations at the Range Margin: Marten and Lynx in the Northern Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple biocli- matic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis )i n southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential

CARLOS CARROLL

2007-01-01

149

Lynx body size in Norway is related to its main prey (Roe deer) density, climate, and latitude.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of various factors on body size variation of the Eurasian lynx in Norway, using data from 374 lynx collected between 1960 and 1976 and whose locality of capture, year of birth, sex, and age were known. Body size of lynx in Norway was mainly affected by sex and age. Female skull size (and by implication body size) was also positively affected by the availability of its main prey (roe deer) and by latitude, and negatively by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Male size was not affected by any of the environmental factors examined. We interpret the effects of NAO and latitude on body size through their effect on the local climate and particularly snow conditions. We suggest that females are more sensitive to environmental factors than males. PMID:21404822

Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kvam, Tor; Wiig, Øystein

2011-02-01

150

Water-soluble LYNX1 Residues Important for Interaction with Muscle-type and/or Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors*  

PubMed Central

Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618–10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the ?7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of ?1 glycine receptor (?7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at ?7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its “non-classical” binding sites on ?7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for ?-bungarotoxin and similar snake ?-neurotoxins also targeting ?7 nAChR. This distinction may underlie their different actions, i.e. nAChRs modulation versus irreversible inhibition, for these two types of three-finger proteins. PMID:23585571

Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Buldakova, Svetlana L.; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Filkin, Sergey Y.; Kudryavtsev, Denis S.; Ojomoko, Lucy O.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Bregestovski, Piotr D.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

2013-01-01

151

Genetics at the verge of extinction: insights from the Iberian lynx.  

PubMed

Population viability might become compromised by the loss of genetic diversity and the accumulation of inbreeding resulting from population decline and fragmentation. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) provides a paradigmatic example of a species at the verge of extinction, and because of the well-documented and different demographic histories of the two remaining populations (Doñana and Andújar), it provides the opportunity to evaluate the performance of analytical methods commonly applied to recently declined populations. We used mitochondrial sequences and 36 microsatellite markers to evaluate the current genetic status of the species and to assess the genetic signatures of its past history. Mitochondrial diversity was extremely low with only two haplotypes, alternatively fixed in each population. Both remnant populations have low levels of genetic diversity at microsatellite markers, particularly the population from Doñana, and genetic differentiation between the two populations is high. Bayesian coalescent-based methods suggest an earlier decline starting hundreds of years ago, while heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests did not provide conclusive and consistent evidence for recent bottlenecks. Also, a model of gene flow received overwhelming support over a model of pure drift. Results that are in conflict with the known recent demography of the species call for caution in the use of these methods, especially when no information on previous demographic history is available. Overall, our results suggest that current genetic patterns in the Iberian lynx are mainly the result of its recent decline and fragmentation and alerts on possible genetic risks for its persistence. Conservation strategies should explicitly consider this threat and incorporate an integrated genetic management of wild, captive and re-introduced populations, including genetic restoration through translocations. PMID:24128177

Casas-Marce, M; Soriano, L; López-Bao, J V; Godoy, J A

2013-11-01

152

Fast rockfall hazard assessment along a road section using the new LYNX Mobile Mapper Lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an active remote sensing technique providing high resolution point clouds of the topography. The high resolution digital elevations models (HRDEM) derived of these point clouds are an important tool for the stability analysis of slopes. The LYNX Mobile Mapper is a new TLS generation developed by Optech. Its particularity is to be mounted on a vehicle and providing a 360° high density point cloud at 200-khz measurement rate in a very short acquisition time. It is composed of two sensors improving the resolution and reducing the laser shadowing. The spatial resolution is better than 10 cm at 10 m range and at a velocity of 50 km/h and the reflectivity of the signal is around 20% at a distance of 200 m. The Lidar is also equipped with a DGPS and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which gives real time position and georeferences directly the point cloud. Thanks to its ability to provide a continuous data set from an extended area along a road, this TLS system is useful for rockfall hazard assessment. In addition, this new scanner decrease considerably the time spent in the field and the postprocessing is reduced thanks to resultant georeferenced data. Nevertheless, its application is limited to an area close to the road. The LYNX has been tested near Pontarlier (France) along roads sections affected by rockfall. Regarding to the tectonic context, the studied area is located in the Folded Jura mainly composed of limestone. The result is a very detailed point cloud with a point spacing of 4 cm. The LYNX presents detailed topography on which a structural analysis has been carried out using COLTOP-3D. It allows obtaining a full structural description along the road. In addition, kinematic tests coupled with probabilistic analysis give a susceptibility map of the road cut or natural cliffs above the road. Comparisons with field survey confirm the Lidar approach.

Dario, Carrea; Celine, Longchamp; Michel, Jaboyedoff; Marc, Choffet; Marc-Henri, Derron; Clement, Michoud; Andrea, Pedrazzini; Dario, Conforti; Michael, Leslar; William, Tompkinson

2010-05-01

153

Supporting QoS for LHC controls applications using ATM and LynxOS  

E-print Network

Efficient and reliable operation of the LHC will require a real time control system and deterministic data communication over a distance of several kilometers. We have chosen to investigate the combination of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) technology with a real time operating system (LynxOS) for this purpose. Of particular interest is the support of QoS (Quality of Service) at the application level. Experimental results from a scaled down prototype control system based on standard off-the-shelf components will be given.

Wijnands, Thijs; Bland, A

2000-01-01

154

Expression of the Ly-6 family proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H in the rat brain is compartmentalized, cell-type specific, and developmentally regulated.  

PubMed

The Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, which affects diverse processes in the immune system, has attracted renewed attention due to the ability of some Ly-6 proteins to bind to and modulate the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, there is a scarcity of knowledge regarding the distribution and developmental regulation of these proteins in the brain. We use protein cross-linking and synaptosomal fractions to demonstrate that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H are membrane-bound proteins in the brain, which are present on the cell surface and localize to synaptic compartments. We further estimate the amount of Lynx1 in the rat cortex using known amounts of a heterologously expressed soluble Lynx1 variant (ws-Lynx1) to be approximately 8.6 ng/?g total protein, which is in line with the concentrations of ws-Lynx1 required to affect nAChR function. In addition, we demonstrate that Lynx1 and Ly6H are expressed in cultured neurons, but not cultured micro- or astroglial cultures. In addition, Lynx1, but not Ly6H was detected in the CSF. Finally, we show that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1, Lynx2, Ly6H, and PSCA, display distinct expression patterns during postnatal development in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus at the mRNA and protein level, and that this is paralleled to some degree by the expression of the nAChR subunits ?2, ?4, ?7 and ?2. Our results demonstrate a developmental pattern, localization, and concentration of Ly-6 proteins in the brain, which support a role for these proteins in the modulation of signaling at synaptic membranes. PMID:23860910

Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Cinar, Betül; Jensen, Majbrit Myrup; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Tsetlin, Victor; Klein, Anders Bue; Mikkelsen, Jens D

2014-11-01

155

Lynx multi-mode SAR in support of NATO Unified Vision 2012 trial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2012, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Reconnaissance Systems Group participated in the NATO Unified Vision 2012 (UV12) Joint ISR (JISR) Trial at Orland Main Air Station in Brekstad, Norway. GA-ASI supplied a modified King Air 200 as a Predator B/MQ-9 Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) surrogate outfitted with a Lynx Block 30 Multi-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI), a FLIR Star SAFIRE 3800HD Electro-optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor, and a L-3 Tactical Common Data Link. This airborne platform was combined with GA-ASI's new System for Tactical Archival, Retrieval, and Exploitation (STARE) for full integration into the NATO ISR exploitation community. UV12 was an event sponsored by the NATO Joint Capability Group on Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) to focus on the interoperability of national ISR assets and improving JISR concept of operations. The Predator B RPA surrogate flew alongside multiple NATO ISR assets in nine missions that showcased the platform's all-weather ISR capabilities focusing on the Lynx SAR/GMTI and Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) modes. The inclusion of the STARE technology allowed GA-ASI's radar and Full Motion Video (FMV) data to be seamlessly processed and passed to joint networks where the data was fused with other NATO ISR products, resulting in a full battlefield reconnaissance picture.

Dunkel, R.; Verge, T.; Linnehan, R.; Doerry, A.

2013-05-01

156

Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor ), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus

Samuel P. Franklin; Jennifer L. Troyer; Julie A. TerWee; Lisa M. Lyren; Roland W. Kays; Seth P. D. Riley; Walter M. Boyce; Kevin R. Crooks; Sue Vandewoude

157

Distribution and prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats ( Lynx rufus), the natural reservoir, and other wild felids in thirteen states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan parasite of wild and domestic felids, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic and some exotic felids in the United States. The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is the natural reservoir for this parasite, but other felids such as Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryii) and domestic cats may maintain long-term parasitemias and serve as reservoirs. Experimentally, two

Barbara C. Shock; Staci M. Murphy; Laura L. Patton; Philip M. Shock; Colleen Olfenbuttel; Jeff Beringer; Suzanne Prange; Daniel M. Grove; Matt Peek; Joseph W. Butfiloski; Daymond W. Hughes; J. Mitchell Lockhart; Sarah N. Bevins; Sue VandeWoude; Kevin R. Crooks; Victor F. Nettles; Holly M. Brown; David S. Peterson; Michael J. Yabsley

2011-01-01

158

Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats ( Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) infections in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from a region where C. felis is recognized in domestic cats, North Carolina (NC), and a region where C. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, Pennsylvania (PA). Samples from NC (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats.

Adam J. Birkenheuer; Henry S. Marr; Camille Warren; Anne E. Acton; Eric M. Mucker; Jan G. Humphreys; Melissa D. Tucker

2008-01-01

159

Behavioural response of a trophic specialist, the Iberian lynx, to supplementary food: Patterns of food use and implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prey scarcity compromises population survival, especially for specialist predators. Supplementary feeding is a management tool that can be applied to reverse the decline of food-limited populations. We analyse how a population of Iberian lynx, a threatened food specialist, initially reacted to, and subsequently used, supplementary food. Twenty-seven feeding stations (FS) with domestic rabbits were placed in the Doñana Biological Reserve,

José V. López-Bao; Alejandro Rodríguez; Francisco Palomares

2008-01-01

160

Gene Sets for Utilization of Primary and Secondary Nutrition Supplies in the Distal Gut of Endangered Iberian Lynx  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads) related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of ‘presumptive’ aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding ‘active’ lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(amino)lipids, glyco(amino)glycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases) in genes encoding ?-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of ?-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of ?-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although ?-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80–100% wild rabbits) but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely suggests a tighter, more coordinated and complex evolutionary and nutritional ecology scenario of carnivore gut microbial communities than has been previously assumed. PMID:23251564

Alcaide, Maria; Messina, Enzo; Richter, Michael; Bargiela, Rafael; Peplies, Jorg; Huws, Sharon A.; Newbold, Charles J.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Simon, Miguel A.; Lopez, Guillermo; Yakimov, Michail M.; Ferrer, Manuel

2012-01-01

161

Reconsidering the Specialist-Generalist Paradigm in Niche Breadth Dynamics: Resource Gradient Selection by Canada Lynx and Bobcat  

PubMed Central

The long-standing view in ecology is that disparity in overall resource selection is the basis for identifying niche breadth patterns, with species having narrow selection being classified “specialists” and those with broader selection being “generalists”. The standard model of niche breadth characterizes generalists and specialists as having comparable levels of overall total resource exploitation, with specialists exploiting resources at a higher level of performance over a narrower range of conditions. This view has gone largely unchallenged. An alternate model predicts total resource use being lower for the specialized species with both peaking at a comparable level of performance over a particular resource gradient. To reconcile the niche breadth paradigm we contrasted both models by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species’ niche, we determined that Canada lynx demonstrated higher total performance over a restricted set of variables, specifically those related to snow and altitude, while bobcat had higher total performance across most variables. Unlike predictions generated by the standard model, bobcat level of exploitation was not compromised by the trade-off with peak performance, and Canada lynx were not restricted to exploiting a narrower range of conditions. Instead, the emergent pattern was that specialist species have a higher total resource utilization and peak performance value within a smaller number of resources or environmental axes than generalists. Our results also indicate that relative differences in niche breadth are strongly dependent on the variable under consideration, implying that the appropriate model describing niche breadth dynamics between specialists and generalists may be more complex than either the traditional heuristic or our modified version. Our results demonstrate a need to re-evaluate traditional, but largely untested, assumptions regarding resource utilization in species with broad and narrow niches. PMID:23236508

Peers, Michael J. L.; Thornton, Daniel H.; Murray, Dennis L.

2012-01-01

162

Reconsidering the specialist-generalist paradigm in niche breadth dynamics: resource gradient selection by Canada lynx and bobcat.  

PubMed

The long-standing view in ecology is that disparity in overall resource selection is the basis for identifying niche breadth patterns, with species having narrow selection being classified "specialists" and those with broader selection being "generalists". The standard model of niche breadth characterizes generalists and specialists as having comparable levels of overall total resource exploitation, with specialists exploiting resources at a higher level of performance over a narrower range of conditions. This view has gone largely unchallenged. An alternate model predicts total resource use being lower for the specialized species with both peaking at a comparable level of performance over a particular resource gradient. To reconcile the niche breadth paradigm we contrasted both models by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species' niche, we determined that Canada lynx demonstrated higher total performance over a restricted set of variables, specifically those related to snow and altitude, while bobcat had higher total performance across most variables. Unlike predictions generated by the standard model, bobcat level of exploitation was not compromised by the trade-off with peak performance, and Canada lynx were not restricted to exploiting a narrower range of conditions. Instead, the emergent pattern was that specialist species have a higher total resource utilization and peak performance value within a smaller number of resources or environmental axes than generalists. Our results also indicate that relative differences in niche breadth are strongly dependent on the variable under consideration, implying that the appropriate model describing niche breadth dynamics between specialists and generalists may be more complex than either the traditional heuristic or our modified version. Our results demonstrate a need to re-evaluate traditional, but largely untested, assumptions regarding resource utilization in species with broad and narrow niches. PMID:23236508

Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

2012-01-01

163

The effect of climatic forcing on population synchrony and genetic structuring of the Canadian lynx  

PubMed Central

The abundance of Canadian lynx follows 10-year density fluctuations across the Canadian subcontinent. These cyclic fluctuations have earlier been shown to be geographically structured into three climatic regions: the Atlantic, Continental, and Pacific zones. Recent genetic evidence revealed an essentially similar spatial structuring. Introducing a new population model, the “climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns” model, we link the observed ecological and evolutionary patterns. Specifically, we demonstrate that there is greater phase synchrony within climatic zones than between them and show that external climatic forcing may act as a synchronizer. We simulated genetic drift by using data on population dynamics generated by the climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns model, and we demonstrate that the observed genetic structuring can be seen as an emerging property of the spatiotemporal ecological dynamics. PMID:15067131

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Ehrich, Dorothee; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr.; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; O'Donoghue, Mark; Robinson, David A.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

2004-01-01

164

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) breeding in captivity: the importance of environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment is an improvement in the biological functioning of nonhuman animals in captivity resulting from modifications to their environment; however, specifying appropriate and practical measures of enrichment is problematic. This study analyzes the behavior of 4 bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Jerez Zoo before and after the application of a global program of environmental enrichment that included (a) changes in the size and complexity of their installations, (b) the introduction of new objects into compounds, (c) changes in diet, and (d) modifications in the grouping of animals. A factorial correspondence analysis showed a highly significant relationship among individual animals, behavior, and experimental design. Behaviors such as locomotion, repeated pacing, vigilance, and grooming more often occurred before enrichment, whereas exploratory and food behaviors were more often associated with the enrichment phase. After the implementation of the enrichment program, the bobcats bred successfully for the first time since their arrival in the zoo. PMID:21442505

Mollá, María I; Quevedo, Miguel A; Castro, Francisca

2011-01-01

165

Diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

An 18-yr-old male bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with chronic moderate weight loss and acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. Hypercalcemia and azotemia were present on the serum chemistry panel. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hyperechoic renal cortices, but no evidence of neoplasia. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were mildly elevated, intact parathyroid hormone was severely elevated, and parathormone-related protein was undetected, suggesting primary hyperparathyroidism with possible renal dysfunction. Azotemia lessened in severity following diuresis, but hypercalcemia persisted; thus primary hyperparathyroidism was considered the most probable differential diagnosis. A second ultrasound including the cervical region revealed a solitary intraparenchymal left thyroid nodule. The nodule was surgically excised; histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Although primary hyperparathyroidism was suspected, diagnosis was not achieved from serum chemistry values alone. This case emphasizes the importance of diagnostic imaging and histopathology in the investigation of persistently abnormal laboratory values. PMID:22950324

Goodnight, Andrea L; Gottfried, Sharon D; Emanuelson, Karen

2011-09-01

166

Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.  

PubMed

Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging. PMID:22236440

Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

2012-05-01

167

Real time UNIX in embedded control -- A case study within context of LynxOS  

SciTech Connect

Intelligent communication controllers for a layered protocol profile are a typical example of an embedded control application, where the classical approach for the software development is based on a proprietary real-time operating system kernel under which the individual layers are implemented as tasks. Based on the exemplary implementation of a derivative of MAP 3.0, an unusual and innovative approach is presented, where the protocol software is implemented under the UNIX-compatible real-time operating system LynxOS. The overall design of the embedded control application is presented under a more general view and economical implications as well as aspects of the development environment and performance are discussed.

Kleines, H.; Zwoll, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

1996-02-01

168

Comparative VME Performance Tests for MEN A20 Intel-L865 and RIO-3 PPC-LynxOS platforms  

E-print Network

This benchmark note presents test results from reading values over VME using different methods and different sizes of data registers, running on two different platforms Intel-L865 and PPC-LynxOS. We find that the PowerPC is a factor 3 faster in accessing an array of contiguous VME memory locations. Block transfer and DMA read accesses are also tested and compared with conventional single access reads.

Andersen, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

2009-01-01

169

Climate, season, and social status modulate the functional response of an efficient stalking predator: the Eurasian lynx.  

PubMed

1. Predation plays a major role in shaping the structure and dynamics of ecological communities, and the functional response of a predator is of crucial importance to the dynamics of any predator-prey system by linking the trophic levels. For large mammals, there is a dearth of field studies documenting functional responses, and observations at low prey density are particularly scarce. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding about how variables such as season, social status and climate modulate the functional response curves. 2. We analysed kill rate data collected over a 10-year period based on radio-marked lynx (Lynx lynx) mainly preying on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) along a steep prey density gradient in south-eastern Norway. 3. The asymptotic kill rate was reached at a very low prey density for both solitary individuals and family groups (i.e. females with their dependent kittens), indicative of an efficient predator. This highlights the importance of understanding the interplay between predator and prey at low prey densities. 4. A purely prey-dependent functional response was a poor descriptor of the data, as the curve was strongly modulated by season and differences between lynx of different social status. In addition, there was a clear effect of abiotic climatic factors (indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation) on observed kill rates in the more snow-rich portion of our study area. 5. Our analysis suggests that simple functional response curves might be poor descriptors of predator consumption rates in complex natural system, and that auxiliary factors are likely to induce complexity into any predator-prey systems that would not be captured by simple deterministic approaches. PMID:19486380

Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Andersen, Reidar

2009-07-01

170

Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid. PMID:22099537

Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

2012-02-01

171

Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories.

Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

2014-01-01

172

Study of Galaxies in the Lynx--Cancer Void. IV. Photometric Properties  

E-print Network

We present the results of a photometric study of 85 objects from the updated sample of galaxies residing in the nearby Lynx--Cancer void. We perform our photometry on u, g, r, and i-band images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We determine model-independent galaxy parameters such as the integrated magnitudes and colors, effective radii and the corresponding surface brightness values, optical radii and Holmberg radii. We analyze the radial surface brightness profiles to determine the central brightness values and scale lengths of the model discs. We analyze the colors of the outer parts of the galaxies and compare them with model evolutionary tracks computed using the PEGASE2 software package. This allowed us to estimate the time T_SF elapsed since the onset of star formation, which turned out to be on the order of the cosmological time T_0 for the overwhelming majority of the galaxies studied. However, for 13 galaxies of the sample the time T_SF does not exceed T_0/2 ~ 7 Gyr, and for 7 of them T_SF -13.2. We...

Perepelitsyna, Yu A; Kniazev, A Yu

2014-01-01

173

Stellar populations in the Lynx Super Cluster at redshift 1.26  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to continue our investigation of stellar populations in rich galaxy clusters at z>1.2 by obtaining deep optical spectroscopy of 25 member galaxies in the cluster Lynx E (z=1.26). This proposal is part of our larger project aimed at constraining models for galaxy evolution in dense environments from observations of stellar populations in rich z=1.2-2 galaxy clusters. The main objective is to establish the star formation (SF) history over this epoch during which large changes in SF rates and galaxy structure are expected to take place in cluster galaxies. The proposed observations will reach S/N=20 for galaxies 2 mag fainter than the brightest cluster galaxy. The spectra will be used to determine SF rates, ages and metallicities as well as measure the velocity dispersions. Combining the spectroscopy with available HST/ACS imaging, we will test models for evolution of the Fundamental Plane and of galaxy size. The analysis will also utilize data from the Gemini/HST Cluster Galaxy Project, which covers rich clusters at z=0.2-1.0. The E2V DD CCDs in GMOS make possible this unprecedented probe of distant cluster galaxies, as no prior stellar population studies based on high S/N spectra exist for clusters at z>1.

Jorgensen, Inger; Bergmann, Marcel; Chiboucas, Kristin; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Schiavon, Richardo

2013-08-01

174

Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the northern Appalachians.  

PubMed

Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple bioclimatic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential impact of these threats on semi-isolated populations at the range margin. Decreased snowfall may affect marten and lynx through decreased prey vulnerability and decreased competitive advantage over sympatric carnivores. I used a spatially explicit population model to assess potential effects of predicted changes in snowfall by 2055 on regional marten and lynx populations. The models' habitat rankings were derived from previous static models that correlated regional distribution with snowfall and vegetation data. Trapping scenarios were parameterized as a 10% proportional decrease in survival, and logging scenarios were parameterized as a 10% decrease in the extent of older coniferous or mixed forest. Both species showed stronger declines in the simulations due to climate change than to overexploitation or logging. Marten populations declined 40% because of climate change, 16% because of logging, and 30% because of trapping. Lynx populations declined 59% because of climate change, 36% because of trapping, and 20% in scenarios evaluating the effects of population cycles. Climate change interacted with logging in its effects on the marten and with trapping in its effects on the lynx, increasing overall vulnerability. For both species larger lowland populations were vulnerable to climate change, which suggests that contraction may occur in the core of their current regional range as well as among smaller peripheral populations. Despite their greater data requirements compared with bioclimatic models, mesoscale spatial viability models are important tools for generating more biologically realistic hypotheses regarding biotic response to climate change. PMID:17650258

Carroll, Carlos

2007-08-01

175

A comparison of two field chemical immobilization techniques for bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Anesthetic protocols that allow quick induction, short processing time, and rapid reversal are necessary for researchers performing minimally invasive procedures (including morphometric measurements or attachment of radiocollars). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of medetomidine and butorphanol as a substitute for xylazine in ketamine-based field immobilization protocols for bobcats (Lynx rufus) to reduce recovery and total field times. During 2008 and 2009, 11 bobcats were immobilized with an intramuscular combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg)-xylazine (0.75 mg/kg) (KX) or ketamine (4 mg/kg)-medetomidine (40 mcg/kg)-butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg) (KMB). Time to initial sedation, recumbency, and full anesthesia were recorded postinjection. Time to head up, sternal, standing, full recovery, and total processing times were recorded post-reversal. Throughout anesthesia, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and noninvasive hemoglobin-oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded at 5-min intervals. The KX combination had a median time to full anesthesia of 10 min, a median recovery time of 46 min, and a median total processing time of 83 min. Alternatively, the KMB combination had a median time to full anesthesia of 21 min, a median recovery time of 18 min, and a median total processing time of 64 min. The KX protocol produced a median HR of 129 beats/min, RR of 25 breaths/min, RT of 38.3 degrees C, and SpO2 of 93%. The KMB protocol produced a median HR of 97 beats/min, RR of 33 breaths/min, RT of 38.4 degrees C, and SpO2 of 92%. Though both protocols provided safe and reliable sedation, the benefits of using medetomidine and butorphanol to lower ketamine doses and decrease processing time for brief nonsurgical sedation of bobcats in the field are presented. PMID:22204051

Rockhill, Aimee P; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Powell, Roger A; DePerno, Christopher S

2011-12-01

176

Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.  

PubMed

Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3998960

Tiekotter, K L

1985-04-01

177

Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape.  

PubMed

Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches because of avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses on bobcats and their directly transmitted viral pathogen, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), to investigate the effects of urbanization on bobcat movement. We predicted that urban development, including major freeways, would limit bobcat movement and result in genetically structured host and pathogen populations. We analysed molecular markers from 106 bobcats and 19 FIV isolates from seropositive animals in urban southern California. Our findings indicate that reduced gene flow between two primary habitat patches has resulted in genetically distinct bobcat subpopulations separated by urban development including a major highway. However, the distribution of genetic diversity among FIV isolates determined through phylogenetic analyses indicates that pathogen genotypes are less spatially structured-exhibiting a more even distribution between habitat fragments. We conclude that the types of movement and contact sufficient for disease transmission occur with enough frequency to preclude structuring among the viral population, but that the bobcat population is structured owing to low levels of effective bobcat migration resulting in gene flow. We illustrate the utility in using multiple molecular markers that differentially detect movement and gene flow between subpopulations when assessing connectivity. PMID:22335296

Lee, Justin S; Ruell, Emily W; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alonso, Robert S; Troyer, Jennifer L; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

2012-04-01

178

Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.  

PubMed

Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure. PMID:24741092

Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

2014-07-01

179

Presence of Echinococcus oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863) Lühe, 1910 in Lynx rufus texensis Allen, 1895 from San Fernando, Tamaulipas State, in north-east Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bobcat was found recently killed on “Highway 101” near the town of San Fernando, Tamanlipas State, Mexico (100 km south of Brownsville, TX, U.S.A.). The cat (Lynx rufus texensis) was parasitized by several species of meassodes and trematodes, but mainly by a cestode, Echinococcus oligarthrus. The diagnostic characterintics of this cestode are described and illnstrated. E. oligarthrus has not

Narciso Salinas-López; Fernando Jiménz-Guzm?; Alejandro Cruz-Reyes

1996-01-01

180

Quantifying home range habitat requirements for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Vermont, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We demonstrate how home range and habitat use analysis can inform landscape-scale conservation planning for the bobcat, Lynx rufus, in Vermont USA. From 2005 to 2008, we outfitted fourteen bobcats with GPS collars that collected spatially explicit locations from individuals every 4. h for 3-4. months. Kernel home range techniques were used to estimate home range size and boundaries, and to quantify the utilization distribution (UD), which is a spatially explicit, topographic mapping of how different areas within the home range are used. We then used GIS methods to quantify both biotic (e.g. habitat types, stream density) and abiotic (e.g. slope) resources within each bobcat's home range. Across bobcats, upper 20th UD percentiles (core areas) had 18% less agriculture, 42% less development, 26% more bobcat habitat (shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types), and 33% lower road density than lower UD percentiles (UD valleys). For each bobcat, we used Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate and compare 24 alternative Resource Utilization Functions (hypotheses) that could explain the topology of the individual's UD. A model-averaged population-level Resource Utilization Function suggested positive responses to shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types within 1. km of a location, and negative responses to roads and mixed forest cover types within 1. km of a location. Applying this model-averaged function to each pixel in the study area revealed habitat suitability for bobcats across the entire study area, with suitability scores ranging between -1.69 and 1.44, where higher values were assumed to represent higher quality habitat. The southern Champlain Valley, which contained ample wetland and shrub habitat, was a concentrated area of highly suitable habitat, while areas at higher elevation areas were less suitable. Female bobcat home ranges, on average, had an average habitat suitability score of near 0, indicating that home ranges consisted of both beneficial and detrimental habitat types. We discuss the application of habitat suitability mapping and home range requirements for bobcat conservation and landscape scale management. ?? 2011.

Donovan, T.M.; Freeman, M.; Abouelezz, H.; Royar, K.; Howard, A.; Mickey, R.

2011-01-01

181

Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described. PMID:15188962

2004-01-01

182

Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described. PMID:15188962

Hamir, Amir N; Stasko, Judi; Rupprecht, Charles E

2004-04-01

183

Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide ap adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Kays, R.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Boyce, W.M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

2007-01-01

184

Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).  

PubMed

Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide an adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. PMID:17984266

Franklin, Samuel P; Troyer, Jennifer L; Terwee, Julie A; Lyren, Lisa M; Kays, Roland W; Riley, Seth P D; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

2007-10-01

185

Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats.  

PubMed

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) infections in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from a region where C. felis is recognized in domestic cats, North Carolina (NC), and a region where C. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, Pennsylvania (PA). Samples from NC (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats. Samples from PA (n=70) were collected post-mortem onto Nobuto blood collecting strips by the PA Game Commission. Each sample was tested using a C. felis specific PCR assay as well as a PCR assay targeting host DNA to rule out the presence of PCR inhibitors. Three samples were excluded due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Thirty-three percent (10/30) of the samples from NC and 7% (5/69) of the samples from PA tested positive for the presence of C. felis. The proportion of C. felis positive bobcats from NC was significantly different than that from PA (P<0.005). Despite the lower prevalence of C. felis infections in bobcats from PA this finding is unique and indicates the potential for C. felis infections in domestic cats in the northeastern USA if the appropriate tick vectors are present. Veterinary practitioners in PA should be on alert for cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. Further studies about the epidemiology and transmission of C. felis infections among both domestic cats and bobcats are needed. PMID:18295403

Birkenheuer, Adam J; Marr, Henry S; Warren, Camille; Acton, Anne E; Mucker, Eric M; Humphreys, Jan G; Tucker, Melissa D

2008-05-01

186

Presence of Echinococcus oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863) Lühe, 1910 in Lynx rufus texensis Allen, 1895 from San Fernando, Tamaulipas state, in north-east Mexico.  

PubMed

A bobcat was found recently killed on "Highway 101" near the town of San Fernando, Tamaulipas State, Mexico (100 km south of Brownsville, TX, U.S.A.). The cat (Lynx rufus texensis) was parasitized by several species of nematodes and trematodes, but mainly by a cestode, Echinococcus oligarthrus. The diagnostic characteristics of this cestode are described and illustrated. E. oligarthrus has not been reported previously in North America. This is the first time that the strobilar stage has been recovered from a "bobcat". A potential public health problem may be raised by the presence of this cestode in Mexico. PMID:8894772

Salinas-López, N; Jiménez-Guzmán, F; Cruz-Reyes, A

1996-07-01

187

Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.  

PubMed

The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence. PMID:21270003

Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

2011-01-01

188

Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange.  

PubMed

Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats ( Lynx rufus ) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002-2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations. PMID:23957865

Serieys, Laurel E K; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Poppenga, Robert H; Clifford, Deana L; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P D

2013-12-01

189

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx rufus) in North America, Central America and South America were screened for B. henselae antibodies. The overall prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was respectively 19.4% in pumas and 23.1% in bobcats, with regional variations. In the USA, pumas from the southwestern states were more likely to be seropositive for B. henselae (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55, 5.11) than pumas from the Northwest and Mountain states. Similarly, adults were more likely to be B. henselae seropositive than juveniles and kittens (PR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.93). Adult pumas were more likely to have higher B. henselae antibody titers than juveniles and kittens (p = 0.026). B. henselae antibody prevalence was 22.4% (19/85) in bobcats from the USA and 33.3% (2/6) in the Mexican bobcats. In the USA, antibody prevalence varied depending on the geographical origin of the bobcats. In California, the highest prevalence was in bobcats from the coastal range (37.5%). These results suggest a potential role of wild felids in the epidemiological cycle of Bartonella henselae or closely related Bartonella species. PMID:15099499

Chomel, Bruno B; Kikuchi, Yoko; Martenson, Janice S; Roelke-Parker, Melodie E; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Janet E; Laudre, John; Murphy, Kerry; Swift, Pamela K; Kramer, Vicki L; O'brien, Stephen J

2004-01-01

190

Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002–2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations.

Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Clifford, Deana L.; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P.D.

2013-01-01

191

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American free-ranging or captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a major zoonotic agent infecting a wide range of mammals, including wild felids. Like domestic cats, wild felids are involved in the complete infective cycle of T. gondii, as they can host in their gastrointestinal tract sexually mature parasites and shed infective oocysts in their feces. In order to evaluate the importance of this wildlife reservoir, 438 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1999 from 438 pumas (Felis concolor) and from 58 bobcats (Lynx rufus) from North America, Central America and South America were screened for antibodies to T. gondii. The overall prevalence of T. gondii antibodies was 22.4% in pumas and 51.7% in bobcats, with regional variations. Adults were more likely to be seropositive than juveniles and kittens (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.61; confidence interval (CI) = 1.15, 4.04). In the US, pumas from the southwestern states (Arizona, California and New Mexico) were more likely to be seropositive for T. gondii ( PR = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.32-5.18 ) than pumas from the northwestern and mountain states (Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Wyoming). Male pumas from the US were more likely to be seropositive than females (PR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.11-3.92), whereas female pumas from Mexico, Central America and South America were more likely to be seropositive than female pumas from Canada and the US (PR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.09-5.69). Captive pumas were also more likely to be seropositive (21.7%, 29/92) for T. gondii than free-ranging animals (19.9%, 69/346) (PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.17). PMID:15019138

Kikuchi, Yoko; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Martenson, Janice S; Swift, Pamela K; O'Brien, Stephen J

2004-02-26

192

Distribution and prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats (Lynx rufus), the natural reservoir, and other wild felids in thirteen states.  

PubMed

Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan parasite of wild and domestic felids, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic and some exotic felids in the United States. The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is the natural reservoir for this parasite, but other felids such as Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryii) and domestic cats may maintain long-term parasitemias and serve as reservoirs. Experimentally, two tick species, Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum, have demonstrated the ability to transmit C. felis. These two tick species have overlapping distributions throughout much of the southeastern United States. The objective of the current study was to determine the distribution and prevalence of C. felis in free-ranging bobcat populations from 13 states including California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and West Virginia. These states were selected because of differential vector presence; D. variabilis is present in each of these states except for the region of Colorado sampled and A. americanum is currently known to be present only in a subset of these states. Blood or spleen samples from 696 bobcats were tested for C. felis infection by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay which targeted the first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1). Significantly higher prevalences of C. felis were detected from Missouri (79%, n=39), North Carolina (63%, n=8), Oklahoma (60%, n=20), South Carolina (57%, n=7), Kentucky (55%, n=74), Florida (44%, n=45), and Kansas (27%, n=41) compared with Georgia (9%, n=159), North Dakota (2.4%, n=124), Ohio (0%, n=19), West Virginia (0%, n=37), California (0%, n=26), and Colorado (0%, n=67). In addition to bobcats, seven cougars (Puma concolor) from Georgia, Louisiana, and North Dakota and one serval (Leptailurus serval) from Louisiana were tested for C. felis. Only one cougar from Louisiana was PCR positive, which represents the first report of an infected cougar outside of the Florida panther population. These data also indicate that C. felis is present in North Dakota where infection has not been reported in domestic cats. Based on a nonparametric analysis, prevalence rates were significantly higher in states where there are established populations of A. americanum, which supports recent data on the experimental transmission of C. felis by A. americanum and the fact that domestic cat clinical cases are temporally associated with A. americanum activity. Collectively, these data confirm that bobcats are a common reservoir for C. felis and that A. americanum is likely an epidemiologically important vector. PMID:21071149

Shock, Barbara C; Murphy, Staci M; Patton, Laura L; Shock, Philip M; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Prange, Suzanne; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Bevins, Sarah N; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R; Nettles, Victor F; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

2011-02-10

193

Characterization of the Commercially-Available Fluorescent Chloroquine-BODIPY Conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a Marker for Chloroquine Resistance and Uptake in a 96-Well Plate Assay  

PubMed Central

Chloroquine was a cheap, extremely effective drug against Plasmodium falciparum until resistance arose. One approach to reversing resistance is the inhibition of chloroquine efflux from its site of action, the parasite digestive vacuole. Chloroquine accumulation studies have traditionally relied on radiolabelled chloroquine, which poses several challenges. There is a need for development of a safe and biologically relevant substitute. We report here a commercially-available green fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a proxy for chloroquine accumulation. This compound localized to the digestive vacuole of the parasite as observed under confocal microscopy, and inhibited growth of chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 more extensively than in the resistant strains 7G8 and K1. Microplate reader measurements indicated suppression of LynxTag-CQGREEN efflux after pretreatment of parasites with known reversal agents. Microsomes carrying either sensitive- or resistant-type PfCRT were assayed for uptake; resistant-type PfCRT exhibited increased accumulation of LynxTag-CQGREEN, which was suppressed by pretreatment with known chemosensitizers. Eight laboratory strains and twelve clinical isolates were sequenced for PfCRT and Pgh1 haplotypes previously reported to contribute to drug resistance, and pfmdr1 copy number and chloroquine IC50s were determined. These data were compared with LynxTag-CQGREEN uptake/fluorescence by multiple linear regression to identify genetic correlates of uptake. Uptake of the compound correlated with the logIC50 of chloroquine and, more weakly, a mutation in Pgh1, F1226Y. PMID:25343249

Chan, Kitti W. K.; Choy, Kit-Ying; Renia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce; Lear, Martin J.; Nosten, Francois H.; Tan, Kevin S. W.; Chow, Larry M. C.

2014-01-01

194

Development and validation of a fecal PCR assay for Notoedres cati and application to notoedric mange cases in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Northern California, USA.  

PubMed

Notoedric mange in felids is a devastating disease caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to the mite Notoedres cati. The burrowing of the mite causes intense pruritis resulting in self-mutilation, secondary bacterial infection, and often death of affected felids if left untreated. Our understanding of how notoedric mange is maintained in felid populations, and the true geographic extent of infestations, has been hampered because wild felids are elusive and, thus, traditional diagnostic methods are difficult to implement. To create a noninvasive diagnostic test, we developed and validated a novel PCR assay to detect N. cati DNA in fecal samples of bobcats (Lynx rufus) and used this assay to investigate a recent outbreak of mange in northern California, United States. Although the fecal PCR assay was 100% specific and could detect as few as 1.9 mites/200 ?g of feces, it had a moderate sensitivity of 52.6%, potentially due to intermittent shedding of mites in feces or fecal PCR inhibitors. In a field investigation, 12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.23) of fecal samples (n=65) collected from Rancho San Antonia County Park and Open Space Preserve in Santa Clara County, California were PCR-positive for N. cati. When this estimate was adjusted for test sensitivity, the corrected proportion for fecal samples containing N. cati was 23% (95% CI: 0.14, 0.36), suggesting widespread mange in this area. This novel PCR assay will be an important tool to assess the distribution and spread of notoedric mange in bobcats and could be validated to test other wild felids such as mountain lions (Puma concolor). The assay could also be used to detect notoedric mange in domestic cats (Felis catus), particularly feral cats, which may also suffer from mange and could represent an important contributor to mange in periurban bobcat populations. PMID:23568905

Stephenson, Nicole; Clifford, Deana; Worth, S Joy; Serieys, Laurel E K; Foley, Janet

2013-04-01

195

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry combined with automated MetaboLynx analysis approach to screen the bioactive components and their metabolites in Wen-Xin-Formula.  

PubMed

Wen-Xin-Formula (WXF), a famous traditional prescription, has been widely used to treat myocardial ischemia syndrome for thousands of years. However, the constituents absorbed into blood after oral administration of WXF remain unknown. Here, an integrative ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) combined with the MetaboLynx approach was established to investigate the absorbed constituents in rats after oral administration of WXF. A hyphenated electrospray ionization and quadrupole-time-of-flight analyzer was used for the determination of accurate mass of the molecule and fragment ions. With this rapid and automated analysis method, a total of 32 peaks were tentatively characterized in vivo based on MS and MS/MS data and comparison with available databasess, 26 of which were parent components and six metabolites. These components mainly were ginsenosides, paeoniflorin, galloyl glucose, berberis alkaloids, phenolic, phenolic glycosides and unsaturated fatty acids, glucuronide products of original berberis alkaloids. The present study demonstrates that integrative UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS technique and MetaboLynx data processing method were successfully applied for the rapid discovery of potentially bioactive components and metabolites from WXF, and proved that the established method could help to explore the effective substances for further research into WXF. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24853889

Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Fang-Mei; Wang, Qin-Qin; Zhang, He; Song, Yan-Hua; Zhou, Ying; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang-Li; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

2014-12-01

196

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z = 1.3. I. THE LYNX SUPERCLUSTER: CLUSTER AND GROUPS AT z = 1.3. MORPHOLOGY AND COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION  

SciTech Connect

We confirm the detection of three groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, through spectroscopic follow-up and X-ray imaging, and we give estimates for their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies compared to the two central clusters, RX J0849+4452 and RX J0848+4453. Using spectroscopic follow-up and multi-wavelength photometric redshifts, we select 89 galaxies in the clusters, of which 41 are spectroscopically confirmed, and 74 galaxies in the groups, of which 25 are spectroscopically confirmed. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30%-40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g., based on Sersic index). In luminosity-selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of bulge-dominated galaxies with a diffuse component that we visually identified as a disk and which we classified as bulge-dominated spirals, e.g., Sas. The ETG fractions never rise above Almost-Equal-To 50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in other massive clusters at z Almost-Equal-To 1. In the groups, ETG fractions never exceed Almost-Equal-To 25%. However, overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions (ETG plus Sas) are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z {approx} 1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as spirals might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star formation seems to have been quenched before experiencing a morphological transformation. Because their fraction is smaller at lower redshifts, they might be the spiral population that evolves into ETGs. For mass-selected samples of galaxies with masses M > 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun} within {Sigma} > 500 Mpc{sup -2}, the ETG and overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions show no significant evolution with respect to local clusters, suggesting that morphological transformations might occur at lower masses and densities. The ETG mass-size relation shows evolution toward smaller sizes at higher redshift in both clusters and groups, while the late-type mass-size relation matches that observed locally. When compared to the clusters, the group ETG red sequence shows lower zero points (at {approx}2{sigma}) and larger scatters, both expected to be an indication of a younger galaxy population. However, we show that any allowed difference between the age in groups and clusters would be small when compared to the differences in age in galaxies of different masses.

Mei, Simona; Raichoor, Anand; Huertas-Company, Marc [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 5 Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Adam Stanford, S.; Rettura, Alessandro; Jee, Myungkook J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, Brad P.; Illingworth, Garth D. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85478 Garching (Germany); Ford, Holland C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosati, Piero [European South Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Tanaka, Masayuki; Koyama, Yusei [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Shankar, Francesco [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Carrasco, Eleazar R. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Demarco, Ricardo [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Eisenhardt, Peter [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

2012-08-01

197

Lynx Conservation in an Ecosystem Management  

E-print Network

Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 800 E. Beckwith, Missoula, MT 59801 Keith B. Aubry, USDA Forest Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 800 E. Beckwith, Missoula, MT 59801 Gary M. Koehler-scale analysis, on science-based man- agement, on adaptive management, on interagency cooperation

198

Comparative patterns of adrenal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx ( Lynx canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress and animal well-being are often assessed using concentrations of glucocorticoids (GCs), a product of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal\\u000a axis. However, GC concentrations can also be modulated by predictable events, such as changes in season or life history stage.\\u000a Understanding normative patterns of adrenal activity is critical for making valid conclusions about changes in GC concentrations.\\u000a In this study, we validated an

Kerry V. FansonNadja; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Jeffrey R. Lucas

199

Galemys 19 (n especial): 3-15, 2007 ISSN: 1137-8700  

E-print Network

IBÃ?RICO (Lynx pardinus), LINCE BOREAL (L. lynx) Y LINCE ROJO (L. rufus) PARA EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UN and cells from Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynx (L. lynx) and bobcats (L. rufus) to establish natural conditions. This is the case of the Iberian lynx, the most endangered felid in the world. Despite

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

200

Inferring species distributions in the absence of occurrence records: An example considering wolverine ( Gulo gulo) and Canada lynx ( Lynx canadensis) in New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about geographic distributions is required for species conservation and management. Ultimately, this information is derived from records of occurrence. However, the reliability and availability of occurrence records are variable. A conceptual framework for evaluating the reliability of occurrence records is provided. Only records associated with physical evidence, especially a museum voucher specimen, are considered verified. However, errors in species

Jennifer K. Frey

2006-01-01

201

Economic Impacts of Designating Critical Habitat Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: Case Study of the Canada Lynx (Lynx Canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of species and their habitats yields economic benefits to society. The principal U.S. species conservation law, the Endangered Species Act (ESA), requires the designation of critical habitat for ESA-listed species. The ESA provides room for economic analysis to enter conservation decisions by stipulating that the decision to designate a particular area take into account the resulting economic impact. Unfortunately,

Timm Kroeger; Frank Casey

2006-01-01

202

The Effect of Illumination and Time of Day on Movements of Bobcats (Lynx rufus)  

PubMed Central

Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 - <50%, 50 - <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness. PMID:23861963

Rockhill, Aimee P.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Powell, Roger A.

2013-01-01

203

Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat ( Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited information on bobcat ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation and fertilizing ability. Bobcats were electroejaculated under general anesthesia in November (autumn) and April (spring), and endocrine and sperm traits were characterized. Testosterone (mean±SEM: 0.90±0.15 ng\\/mL) was not different between sampling times, but cortisol (average: 13.95±1.73?g\\/dL) was significantly higher in April. Average number of spermatozoa was 10.0±3.4×106 sperm\\/ejaculate, with

N. Gañán; R. González; A. Sestelo; J. J. Garde; I. Sánchez; J. M. Aguilar; M. Gomendio; E. R. S. Roldan

2009-01-01

204

The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 - <50%, 50 - <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness. PMID:23861963

Rockhill, Aimee P; DePerno, Christopher S; Powell, Roger A

2013-01-01

205

Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

There is limited information on bobcat ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation and fertilizing ability. Bobcats were electroejaculated under general anesthesia in November (autumn) and April (spring), and endocrine and sperm traits were characterized. Testosterone (mean+/-SEM: 0.90+/-0.15 ng/mL) was not different between sampling times, but cortisol (average: 13.95+/-1.73 microg/dL) was significantly higher in April. Average number of spermatozoa was 10.0+/-3.4 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate, with values being significantly higher in April. Sperm motility (average 55.7+/-5.8% motile sperm) was not different between sampling times. The proportion of normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate (average: 14.7+/-2.1%) was significantly higher in April, but the percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes (average: 43.7+/-3.8%) was significantly higher in autumn. Spermatozoa were cryopreserved in a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST) or Biladyl, both containing 20% egg yolk and 4% glycerol. Diluted sperm were loaded into straws, refrigerated using a programmable thermoblock with a dry chamber, frozen in nitrogen vapors, thawed, and incubated in F-10 medium with 5% fetal bovine serum for up to 3h. After cryopreservation in TEST, there were about 50% motile sperm upon thawing, and survival was high during incubation post-thaw. Cryopreservation in Biladyl led to similar results, but motility decreased substantially during incubation post-thaw. Bobcat spermatozoa fertilized domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro. Fertilization rates were higher for sperm collected in April and cryopreserved in TEST (46%) than for those cryopreserved using Biladyl (<3%). Fertilized oocytes cleaved in culture, and some (27%) reached the morula stage. This study has allowed us to gain further baseline information on bobcat reproduction, explore sperm cryopreservation conditions, and show that fertilizing capacity can be tested using in vitro-matured cat oocytes. These results will be important for future conservation efforts. PMID:19410285

Gañán, N; González, R; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Sánchez, I; Aguilar, J M; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S

2009-08-01

206

Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the Pennsylvania bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus).  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2002 bobcat blood samples were collected, in association with the Pennsylvania Game Commission, during the recently reactivated bobcat hunting and trapping season. Sex, age, and county/township data were recorded for each animal. Blood was tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test. In the 2-yr study, 131 bobcat samples were collected in 14 Pennsylvania counties and 109 (83%) of these had antibodies to T. gondii (titer>or=25). A two-way Chi-Square test (95% confidence interval) yielded no significance differences in antibody prevalence between males (83%) and females (88%) or adults (83%) and juveniles (77%). All 14 counties had at least one bobcat with antibodies to T. gondii. PMID:16699165

Mucker, Eric M; Dubey, J P; Lovallo, Matthew J; Humphreys, Jan G

2006-01-01

207

Interactions between Eurasian lynx and wolverines in the reindeer husbandry area.  

E-print Network

??In conservation and management, carnivore species are often treated as isolated units, even though interspecific interactions can have important implications for the behaviour, demography and… (more)

Mattisson, Jenny

2011-01-01

208

Pleistocene and ecological effects on continental-scale genetic differentiation in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

The potential for widespread, mobile species to exhibit genetic structure without clear geographic barriers is a topic of growing interest. Yet the patterns and mechanisms of structure--particularly over broad spatial scales--remain largely unexplored for these species. Bobcats occur across North America and possess many characteristics expected to promote gene flow. To test whether historical, topographic or ecological factors have influenced genetic differentiation in this species, we analysed 1 kb mtDNA sequence and 15 microsatellite loci from over 1700 samples collected across its range. The primary signature in both marker types involved a longitudinal cline with a sharp transition, or suture zone, occurring along the Great Plains. Thus, the data distinguished bobcats in the eastern USA from those in the western half, with no obvious physical barrier to gene flow. Demographic analyses supported a scenario of expansion from separate Pleistocene refugia, with the Great Plains representing a zone of secondary contact. Substructure within the two main lineages likely reflected founder effects, ecological factors, anthropogenic/topographic effects or a combination of these forces. Two prominent topographic features, the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, were not supported as significant genetic barriers. Ecological regions and environmental correlates explained a small but significant proportion of genetic variation. Overall, results implicate historical processes as the primary cause of broad-scale genetic differentiation, but contemporary forces seem to also play a role in promoting and maintaining structure. Despite the bobcat's mobility and broad niche, large-scale landscape changes have contributed to significant and complex patterns of genetic structure. PMID:22548482

Reding, Dawn M; Bronikowski, Anne M; Johnson, Warren E; Clark, William R

2012-06-01

209

Original Article Using Population Genetics for Management of  

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are recognized as distinct subspecies, with Lynx rufus fasciatus west and Lynx rufus pallescens east, Lynx rufus, Oregon, population genetics, subspecies, trapping. The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is the most international regulation of listed Lynx species. This CITES classification requires state wildlife agencies

Clark, William R.

210

.. ConservationGenetics1: 285-288,2000. ~, @2001KluwerAcademicPublishers.Printedin theNetherlands. 285  

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October 2000; accepted 1 November 2000 Key words: felids, hair snags,lynx, Lynx canadensis the distribution primers L16007 and Hl6498 (Kocher et al. 1989; of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) across the UNetherlands. 285 Technical note Identifying lynx and other North American felids based on MtDNA analysis L. Scott

Mills, L. Scott

211

80 THE CANADIAN FIELD-NATURALIST Vol. 128 Introduction  

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- mals, such as Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis). The only published report, Minn). Collars Multiple Crossings of a Large Glacial River by Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) DASHIELL of a Canada Lynx cross- ing an open river describes an individual that swam across a 3.2 km wide section

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

212

Introduction Many studies of herbivore and predator dynamics have estimated  

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and Sibly 2002).A different form of numerical response of lynx (Lynx canadensis) to snowshoe hares (Lepus described a relationship between lynx density and hare density, not between lynx r and hare density. It is the latter approach that is investigated here. Predators such as lynx and prey such as snowshoe hares

Krebs, Charles J.

213

Conservation Genetics 1: 285288, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

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30 October 2000; accepted 1 November 2000 Key words: felids, hair snags, lynx, Lynx canadensis the distribution of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) across the U.S. using hair snags, we have developed a protocol in the Netherlands. 285 Technical note Identifying lynx and other North American felids based on MtDNA analysis L

214

PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARKRECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY  

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and are the primary prey base of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), a carnivore recently listed as threatened prey of several forest carni- vores, especially Canada lynx. Lynx are considered sensitive species as a threatened species in the contiguous United States (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2000); management of lynx

215

Author's personal copy Combining resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for  

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States, Canada lynx Lynx canadensis is a federally threatened bor- eal species that may require of anthropogenic disturbance (Channell and Lomolino, 2000; Schaefer, 2003). Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), listed for Canada lynx at their southern range periphery John R. Squires a, , Nicholas J. DeCesare b , Lucretia E

216

Reconsidering the Specialist-Generalist Paradigm in Niche Breadth Dynamics: Resource Gradient Selection by  

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by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus Selection by Canada Lynx and Bobcat Michael J. L. Peers1 *, Daniel H. Thornton1,2 , Dennis L. Murray1 1. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species' niche, we determined that Canada lynx

217

Ecology, 88(11), 2007, pp. 27362743 2007 by the Ecological Society of America  

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. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations undergo cyclic in the predator community. Key words: alternative prey; Canada lynx; Lepus americanus; Lynx canadensis; population GRADIENTS IN DIET AFFECT POPULATION DYNAMICS OF CANADA LYNX JAMES D. ROTH,1,6 JOHN D. MARSHALL,2 DENNIS L

218

Research Note Precommercial Thinning Reduces Snowshoe Hare  

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including the United States federally threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), can be abundant in young, experiment, forest management, Lynx canadensis, lynx foraging habitat, Montana, precommercial thinning.?2 forests of western Montana, USA, where there is a persistent population of Canada lynx. Post

Mills, L. Scott

219

, 20132495, published 30 October 20132802013Proc. R. Soc. B Michael J. L. Peers, Daniel H. Thornton and Dennis L. Murray  

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, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions and Dennis L. Murray displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat Evidence for large-scale effects of competition. 2013 Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat

220

Research Article The Effect of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements  

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Research Station, Box 8089, Missoula, MT 59807, USA ABSTRACT Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Canada lynx (Lynx and lynx. (JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 71(5):1409­1418; 2007) DOI: 10.2193/2005-682 KEY WORDS Canis latrans, competition, coyote, lynx, Lynx canadensis, recreation, snow compaction, snowmobile, snowshoe

221

Management and Conservation Article Space Use and Habitat Selection by Bobcats in the  

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, IA 50049, USA ABSTRACT Historically, bobcats (Lynx rufus) were found throughout the Corn Belt region range, Iowa, landscape, Lynx rufus. Historically, bobcats (Lynx rufus) were widespread in the prairie

Clark, William R.

222

Predicting potential habitat and population size for reintroduction of the Far Eastern leopards in the Russian Far East  

E-print Network

(Lynx canadensis) to Colorado (Devineau et al., 2010) and the Swiss Alps (L. lynx)(Breitenmoser, 1998 successful populations where significant dispersal barriers or human persecution still exist, such as Lynx

Hebblewhite, Mark

223

Anatomy of a population cycle: the role of density dependence and demographic variability on numerical  

E-print Network

and species-specific (Canada lynx: Lynx canadensis; small rodents: Microtus, Lemmus and Clethrionomys spp models, reductions in reproductive potential in both the lynx and small rodent systems led to notably

Row, Jeffrey R.

224

Rodent foraging is affected by indirect, but not by direct, cues of predation risk  

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predators (bobcats, Lynx rufus, and red foxes, Vulpes vulpes), recently introduced predators (coyotes, Canis mice, Peromyscus polionotus, was reduced in experimental patches where bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine

Orrock, John

225

Patterns and processes of spatial genetic structure in a mobile and continuously distributed species, the bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population structure, the term used to describe the reproductive and demographic cohesiveness of con-specific individuals, is a fundamental concept in ecology and evolution. Despite the importance, patterns and processes of population structure are poorly understood, particularly for highly mobile species with broad distributions. For these organisms, the ability to disperse across large distances and occupy diverse habitats should promote gene

Dawn Marie Reding

2011-01-01

226

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American free-ranging or captive pumas ( Felis concolor) and bobcats ( Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is a major zoonotic agent infecting a wide range of mammals, including wild felids. Like domestic cats, wild felids are involved in the complete infective cycle of T. gondii, as they can host in their gastrointestinal tract sexually mature parasites and shed infective oocysts in their feces. In order to evaluate the importance of this wildlife reservoir, 438

Yoko Kikuchi; Bruno B Chomel; Rickie W Kasten; Janice S Martenson; Pamela K Swift; Stephen J O’Brien

2004-01-01

227

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas ( Felis concolor ) and bobcats ( Lynx rufus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas

Bruno B. Chomel; Yoko Kikuchi; Janice S. Martenson; Melodie E. Roelke-Parker; Chao-Chin Chang; Rickie W. Kasten; Janet E. Foley; John Laudre; Kerry Murphy; Pamela K. Swift; Vicki L. Kramer

2004-01-01

228

DNA Analysis of Hair and Scat Collected Along Snow Tracks to Document the Presence of Canada Lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow tracking is often used to inventory carnivore communities, but species identification using this method can produce ambiguous and misleading results. DNA can be extracted from hair and scat samples collected from tracks made in snow. Using DNA analysis could allow positive track identification across a broad range of snow conditions, thus increasing survey accuracy and efficiency. We investigated the

KEVIN S. McKELVEY; JEFFREY VON KIENAST; KEITH B. AUBRY; GARY M. KOEHLER; BENJAMIN T. MALETZKE; JOHN R. SQUIRES; EDWARD L. LINDQUIST; STEVE LOCH; MICHAEL K. SCHWARTZ

2006-01-01

229

Climate, season, and social status modulate the functional response of an efficient stalking predator: the Eurasian lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Predation plays a major role in shaping the structure and dynamics of ecological communities, and the functional response of a predator is of crucial importance to the dynamics of any predator- prey system by linking the trophic levels. For large mammals, there is a dearth of field studies documenting functional responses, and observations at low prey density are

Erlend B. Nilsen; John D. C. Linnell; John Odden; Reidar Andersen

2009-01-01

230

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 95, pp. 1543015435, December 1998  

E-print Network

in fur returns of the Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) have influenced ecological theory profoundly (1 to processes: Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle (statistical modeling nonlinearity America, lynx populations undergo 10-year cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 to the present

Krebs, Charles J.

231

Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and C H U A N Y A N * , N I L S C H R . S T E N S E T H , C H A R L E S J . K R E B S and ZHIBIN ZHANG*  

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of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal: asymmetric predation, global warming, Lepus americanus, Lynx canadensis, North Atlantic OscillationLinking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx C H U A N Y A N * , N I L S C H R

Krebs, Charles J.

232

Indices of population size are commonly used in ecological studies because obtaining actual abun-  

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, Krebs et al. 2001). With the listing of the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) as threatened in the United States and recent lynx reintroductions to Colorado, wildlife managers are under pressure to estimate snowshoe hare densities over large areas because hares are the primary food source for lynx (Kloor 1999

Krebs, Charles J.

233

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.  

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, 24 West Chewuch, Winthrop, WA 98862, USA ABSTRACT Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research. Habitat Fragmentation and the Persistence of Lynx and permissions requests should be directed to the individual publisher as copyright holder. #12;Lynx Special

Dever, Jennifer A.

234

SPECIES PROFILE New Hampshire Wildlife Action Plan A-261  

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[lynx (Lynx canadensis)]. In recent decades, bobcat populations in New Hampshire have declined pre (Lynx rufus) occupy wooded habitats that provide cover and allow for stalking or ambush (Anderson modeled with GIS using two approaches, empirical and mechanistic or process oriented. Bobcat Lynx rufus

New Hampshire, University of

235

Synchrony in the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle in northwestern North America, 19702012  

E-print Network

and fur returns of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis Kerr, 1792) in the boreal forest regions of Alaska, Yukon­2012. Broad-scale synchrony in lynx fur returns was strong from 1970 to about 1995 but then seemed to break into Alaska. A traveling wave of these cycles is clearly seen in the lynx fur returns from western Canada

Krebs, Charles J.

236

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 94, pp. 51475152, May 1997  

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(Lynx canadensis Kerr, 1792) are well known (1­4). These 9- to 11-year fluctuations are commonly in snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx: Asymmetric food web configurations between hare and lynx (statistical Kingdom, March 3, 1997 (received for review May 30, 1996) ABSTRACT The snowshoe hare and the Canadian lynx

Krebs, Charles J.

237

The Steiner Multigraph Problem: Wildlife Corridor Design for Multiple Species  

E-print Network

canadensis) (see Figure 1) are classi- fied as species of concern, with the lynx federally listed for wolverines and lynx in western Montana, showing that though the problem is computationally hard, heuristics, Majka, and Spencer 2008). In Montana, both the wolverine (Gulo gulo) and the Canada lynx (Lynx

238

exclusion was assessed by t tests, treating each year as a separate comparison. The survival on control trees  

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is suggested. Periodic population fluctuations of the Can- ada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have greatly in- fluenced Dynamic Structure of Canada Lynx Populations Within Three Climatic Regions Nils Chr. Stenseth,1,2 * Kung of Canada, lynx populations undergo regular density cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 onward

Krebs, Charles J.

239

Molecular Ecology Notes (2005) 5, 6061 doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2004.00831.x 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

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with the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis; Johnson & O'Brien 1997), which is our primary species of interest. In all samples, lynx, noninvasive, scat, sex identification Received 05 August 2004; revision accepted 23 and Zfy) for domestic cat (Felis silvestris; GenBank acces- sion AF253014, AF252989), bobcat (Lynx rufus

240

Ilntmduction to Detection and Survey Methods William I. Zielinski' and Thomas E. Kucera2  

E-print Network

(Lynx canadensis), and wolverine (Gulo gulo) (henceforth collectively referred to as MFLW), are no less that we address in this manual, the American marten (Martes americana), fisher (Martes pennanti), lynx.S. Department of Interior. The lynx is a C2 species in nine states and either SE or ST in two states. The fisher

Standiford, Richard B.

241

Short communicationWildl. Biol. 18: 215-224 (2012) DOI: 10.2981/10-105  

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.wildlifebiology.com Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters, Lynx canadensis, monitoring, snow-track surveys John R. Squires & Lucretia E. Olson, U.S. Forest

242

In the early 1800s, Canadian fur traders began to notice dramatic fluctuations in snowshoe hare (Lepus ameri-  

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(Lepus ameri- canus) and Canadian lynx populations (Lynx canadensis) (Winterhalder 1980). Almost 100 Company to document an interrelated rise and fall in hare and lynx populations (Elton and Nicholson 1942 in regulating these populations and their interactions (Krebs et al. 2001). The case of the lynx and the hare

Kelly, Maggi

243

196 Northwest Science, Vol. 79, Nos. 2&3, 2005 John R. Squires1  

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:jsquires@fs.fed.us Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the contiguous U. S. reside in small, widely distributed patches and Fish Department, 260 Buena Vista, Lander, Wyoming 82520 Movements of a Male Canada Lynx Crossing the Greater Yellowstone Area, Including Highways Abstract From 1999­2001, a male Canada lynx engaged in yearly

244

Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest.  

PubMed

A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases. PMID:24521984

Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

2014-01-01

245

Bovine Tuberculosis in Do?ana Biosphere Reserve: The Role of Wild Ungulates as Disease Reservoirs in the Last Iberian Lynx Strongholds  

PubMed Central

Doñana National Park (DNP) in southern Spain is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve where commercial hunting and wildlife artificial feeding do not take place and traditional cattle husbandry still exists. Herein, we hypothesized that Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence in wild ungulates will depend on host ecology and that variation in prevalence will reflect variation in the interaction between hosts and environmental risk factors. Cattle bTB reactor rates increased in DNP despite compulsory testing and culling of infected animals. In this study, 124 European wild boar, 95 red deer, and 97 fallow deer were sampled from April 2006 to April 2007 and analyzed for M. bovis infection. Modelling and GIS were used to identify risk factors and intra and inter-species relationships. Infection with M. bovis was confirmed in 65 (52.4%) wild boar, 26 (27.4%) red deer and 18 (18.5%) fallow deer. In the absence of cattle, wild boar M. bovis prevalence reached 92.3% in the northern third of DNP. Wild boar showed more than twice prevalence than that in deer (p<0.001). Modelling revealed that M. bovis prevalence decreased from North to South in wild boar (p<0.001) and red deer (p<0.01), whereas no spatial pattern was evidenced for fallow deer. Infection risk in wild boar was dependent on wild boar M. bovis prevalence in the buffer area containing interacting individuals (p<0.01). The prevalence recorded in this study is among the highest reported in wildlife. Remarkably, this high prevalence occurs in the absence of wildlife artificial feeding, suggesting that a feeding ban alone would have a limited effect on wildlife M. bovis prevalence. In DNP, M. bovis transmission may occur predominantly at the intra-species level due to ecological, behavioural and epidemiological factors. The results of this study allow inferring conclusions on epidemiological bTB risk factors in Mediterranean habitats that are not managed for hunting purposes. Our results support the need to consider wildlife species for the control of bTB in cattle and strongly suggest that bTB may affect animal welfare and conservation. PMID:18648665

Gortazar, Christian; Torres, Maria Jose; Vicente, Joaquin; Acevedo, Pelayo; Reglero, Manuel; de la Fuente, Jose; Negro, Juan Jose; Aznar-Martin, Javier

2008-01-01

246

PROC. S. D. ACAD. SCL, VOL. 60 (1981) HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1  

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bobcat (Lynx rufus) carcasses were obtained from fur dealers in South Dakota and examined for parasitic%). The acanthocephalan Oncicola canis occurred in 1 of 51 (2%) bob- cats. INTRODUCTION The bobcat (Lynx rufus

247

PRIMATES,16(3): 335-349, September 1975 335 SHORT COMMUNICATION  

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of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) to Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Predation HAROLD GOUZOULES, University or more bobcats (Lynx rufus) is described. One incident of pre- dation was observed and four additional

Fedigan, Linda M.

248

http://www.jstor.org Capturing Beavers in Box Traps  

E-print Network

, Kamler et al. 2002), lynx (Lynx canadensis) (Mowat et al. 1994, Kolbe et al. 2003), and raccoons (Procyon species such as beavers (Castor canadensis). Beavers typi- cally are live-captured with snares (Mc

DeStefano, Stephen

249

Research Note Summer Habitat Use by Snowshoe Hare and Mountain  

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Rocky Mountains are particularly important because of a current effort to reintroduce Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), which is a specialized predator of snowshoe hare (Hodges 1999a,b, Colorado Division of Wildlife

250

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.  

E-print Network

simultaneously collected telemetry data on sympatric coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus). Gray foxes coyotes (Canis latrans) y gatos monteses (Lynx rufus) simp´atricos. Los zorros grises fueron

Schweik, Charles M.

251

Journal of Animal Ecology 2005  

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demonstrated on population dynamics of soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) in the north sea (Coulson et al. 2001), red predator­prey dynamics in lynx (Lynx canadensis L.) ­ snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus L.) cycles (Stenseth

Hebblewhite, Mark

252

Habitat Relations Habitat Modeling Used to Predict Relative  

E-print Network

(Lynx rufus) from bowhunters with remotely-sensed data to build models that describe habitat Information Systems (GIS), habitat model, Iowa, Lynx rufus, relative abundance. In the last few decades). Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are the most broadly distributed felid in North America and populations

Clark, William R.

253

233Vet. Res. 35 (2004) 233241 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2004  

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) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) Bruno B. CHOMELa*, Yoko KIKUCHIa, Janice S. MARTENSONb, Melodie E. ROELKE. Bartonella henselae / bobcat / Felis concolor / Lynx rufus / puma * Corresponding author: bbchomel (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx

Boyer, Edmond

254

Research Article Landscape Analysis of Bobcat Habitat in the Northern  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Controversy over bobcat (Lynx rufus) management in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan (NLP, core area, habitat model, landscape, Lynx rufus, Michigan, Penrose distance, radiotelemetry, scent and monitor populations of furbearer species, including bobcats (Lynx rufus; Earle 2001, Rolley et al. 2001

Gehring, Thomas M.

255

Large Carnivore Management in a MultiLevel Institutional Setting: Problems and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the large carnivore policies in Finland, Norway and Sweden (Fennoscandia) is to establish sustainable management of the four large (mammal) carnivores; bear ( ursus arctos ), wolf ( canis lupus ), lynx ( lynx lynx ) wolverine ( gulo gulo ) but also the golden eagle ( aquila chrysaetos ). Since this is clearly in conflict with

Camilla Sandström; Jani Pellikka

256

Estimating cost functions for the four large carnivores in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swedish carnivore policy goal for the four large carnivores – wolverine (Gulo gulo), wolf (Canis lupus), brown bear (Ursus arctos) and lynx (Lynx lynx) – is to ensure a minimum viable population on a long-term basis. To reach this goal the policy restricts population regulation activities, like hunting (prohibited for wolverine and wolf and restricted for brown bear and

Göran Bostedt; Pontus Grahn

2008-01-01

257

Overview of Forest Carnivore Survey Efforts in the Bitterroot Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance of forested habitats through natural or man-made causes is thought to adversely affect medium-sized carnivores such as the American marten (Martes americana), fisher (Martes pennanti), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and lynx (Lynx lynx). In order to recognize these impacts it is necessary to be able to accurately detect the presence of these species in both natural and disturbed habitats. This

Kerry R. Foresman

258

Estimating snowshoe hare population density from pellet plots: a further evaluation  

E-print Network

method raises the question of its spatial and temporal generality. The listing of the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) as a threatened species in the United States has stimulated much research on snowshoe hares as potential prey of lynx in the western states (Ruggiero et al. 2000), and pellet plots may become

Krebs, Charles J.

259

Wildlife Report Roger L. Di Silvestro  

E-print Network

. Although similar to the bobcat ( E rufus),the lynx can be distin- guished by its longer legs, larger feet-6044 ISBN 0-12-041000-1 PRINTEDINTllE UNITEDSTATES OF AMERICA #12;The Lynx Stephen DeStefano I1ni\\~ersir!oi I(:.r!io SPECIES DESCRIPTION AND NATURAL HISTORY The lynx (Felis lj~ns)is a predator of the Northern

DeStefano, Stephen

260

The cost of maturing early in a solitary carnivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central to the theory of life history evolution is the existence of trade-offs between different traits, such as the trade-off\\u000a between early maturity and an extended period of body growth. Based on analysis of the reproductive tracts of harvested Eurasian\\u000a lynx (Lynx lynx) females in Norway, we find that females that mature early are generally heavier than those that postpone

Erlend B. Nilsen; Henrik Brøseth; John Odden; John D. C. Linnell

2010-01-01

261

Predator-prey oscillations, synchronization and pattern formation in ecological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological systems and their component biological populations exhibit a broad spectrum of non-equilibrium dynamics ranging from characteristic natural cy-cles to more complex chaotic oscillations [1]. Perhaps the most spectacular example of this dynamic is Ecology's well known hare-lynx cycle. Despite unpredictable population fluctuations from one cycle to the next in the snow-shoe hare (Lepus americanus) and the Canadian lynx (Lynx

Bernd Blasius; Ralf Tonjes

262

1 "The beauty of the scene presented by the land upon all sides is very impressing; yet at  

E-print Network

rock from the Lynx Pond Formation displaying ignimbritic textures, demonstrating subaerial extrusion stains. This formation has yielded a graptolite fauna representing a Pleurograptus linearis zone age

Kidd, William S. F.

263

Presentation to the ISRP on Flathead and Kootenai  

E-print Network

, or habitat for terrestrial threatened and endangered species, including gray wolf, grizzly bear, lynx, riparian ecologists, and water quality specialists have participated. Flathead: CSKT, MFWP, MTDEQ, ACOE

264

A sample of mJy radio sources at 1.4 GHz in the Lynx and Hercules fields - II. Cosmic evolution of the space density of FR I radio sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the cosmic evolution of the space density of Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR I) radio sources is investigated out to z ~ 1, in order to understand the origin of the differences between these and the more powerful FR IIs. High-resolution radio images are presented of the best high-redshift FR I candidate galaxies, drawn from two fields of the Leiden-Berkeley Deep Survey, and previously defined by Rigby, Snellen & Best in Paper 1. Together with lower resolution radio observations (both previously published in Paper 1 and, for a subset of sources, also presented here) these are used to morphologically classify the sample. Sources which are clearly resolved are classified by morphology alone, whereas barely or unresolved sources were classified using a combination of morphology and flux density loss in the higher resolution data, indicative of resolved-out extended emission. The space densities of the FR Is are then calculated as a function of redshift, and compared to both measurements of the local value and the behaviour of the more powerful FR IIs. The space density of FR I radio sources with luminosities (at 1.4 GHz) > 1025 WHz-1 is enhanced by a factor of 5-9 by z ~ 1, implying moderately strong evolution of this population; this enhancement is in good agreement with models of FR II evolution at the same luminosity. There are also indications that the evolution is luminosity dependent, with the lower powered sources evolving less strongly.

Rigby, E. E.; Best, P. N.; Snellen, I. A. G.

2008-03-01

265

Carnivores as Focal Species for Conservation Planning in the Rocky Mountain Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability analysis of well-selected focal species can complement ecosystem- level conservation planning by revealing thresholds in habitat area and landscape connec- tivity. Mammalian carnivores are good candidates for focal species because their distri- butional patterns often strongly reflect regional-scale population processes. We incorporated focal species analysis of four carnivore species, fisher (Martes pennanti), lynx (Lynx can- adensis), wolverine (Gulo gulo),

Carlos Carroll; Reed F. Noss; Paul C. Paquet

2001-01-01

266

Bovine Tuberculosis in a Free Ranging Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Donana National Park (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1997 and 1998, a survey of Iberian carnivores was conducted to study the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in the Donana National Park and surrounding areas in southwestern Spain. Post-mortem examina- tions were done on seven red foxes (Vulpes vul- pes), two Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ich- neumon), one weasel (Mustela nivalis), two genets (Genetta genetta), one Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus),

P. Martin-Atance; F. Palomares; M. Gonzalez-Candela; E. Revilla; M. J. Cubero; J. Calzada

267

Life Tracks Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are descriptions of and information about various endangered species in Wisconsin. They include: the timber wolf (Canis lupus lycaon); Forester's tern (Sterna forsteri); the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis); Higgins' eye pearly mussel (Lampsilis higginsii); the piping plover (Charadrius melodus); the osprey (Pandion haliaetus); the…

Brynildson, Inga

268

PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARK-RECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) undergo remarkable cycles and are the primary prey base of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), a carnivore recently listed as threatened in the contiguous United States. Efforts to evalu- ate hare densities using pellets have traditionally been based on regression equations developed in the Yukon, Canada. In western Montana, we evaluated whether or not local regression equations

L. SCOTT MILLS; KAREN E. HODGES

269

JENNIFER A. FELTNER jafeltner@gmail.com 617-308-2175  

E-print Network

concolor), black bears (Ursus americanus) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) · Identified species from camera trap bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) using radio telemetry; recorded observations, monitored health of lambs corridors for Peninsular desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) and mountain lions using camera

Lewison, Rebecca

270

Hunting behaviour of a sympatric felid and canid in relation to vegetative cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivore foraging behaviour is suited for hunting in specific vegetative cover types and therefore is largely stereotypical within taxonomic families. Felids typically employ dense cover to stalk or ambush prey, whereas canids do not make use of vegetation when hunting. Sympatric lynx, Lynx canadensis, and coyotes, Canis latrans, were tracked in snow for three winters and hunting behaviour in relation

Dennis L. Murray; Stan Boutin; Mark O'Donoghue; Vilis O. Nams

1995-01-01

271

Camera Trap Success Among Carnivores and Prey Animals in Tazewell County, Virginia  

E-print Network

, including: Ursus americanus (black bear), Lynx rufus (bobcat), Canis latrans (coyote), Vulpes vulpes (red-sized mammalian and terrestrial avian species known to occur at our study site. Specifically, we targeted Ursus americanus (black bear), Lynx rufus (bobcat), Canis latrans (c

Vance, James A.

272

In vitro cloning of complex mixtures of DNA on microbeads: Physical separation of differentially expressed cDNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Lynx Therapeutics, Inc., 25861 Industrial Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94545; and BASF-LYNX Bioscience, Im Neuenheimer Feld 515, Heidelberg 69120, Germany Contributed by Sydney Brenner, December 14, 1999 We describe a method for cloning nucleic acid molecules onto the surfaces of 5-mum microbeads rather than in biological hosts. A unique tag sequence is attached to each molecule, and the tagged library

Sydney Brenner; Steven R. Williams; Eric H. Vermaas; Thorsten Storck; Keith Moon; Christie McCollum; Jen-I. Mao; Shujun Luo; James J. Kirchner; Sam Eletr; Robert B. Dubridge; Timothy Burcham; Glenn Albrecht

2000-01-01

273

UnitedStates Department of  

E-print Network

#12;UnitedStates Department of American Marten, Fisher, Lynx, and Wolverine: Survey Methods. 1995.American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine: survey methods for their detection. Gen. Tech. Rep for their use to monitor population change. Retrieval Terms: furbearers, forest carnivores, survey methods

Standiford, Richard B.

274

First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).  

PubMed

Infections with feline hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have been documented in domestic cats and free-ranging feline species with high prevalences in Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynxes (Lynx lynx), European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African lions (Panthera leo) in Tanzania and domestic cats in South Africa. The prevalence of hemoplasmas has not yet been investigated in free-ranging felids in southern Africa. In this study we screened 73 blood samples from 61 cheetahs in central Namibia for the presence of hemoplasmas using quantitative real-time PCR. One of the cheetahs tested PCR-positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and RNAse P genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the Mycoplasma haemofelis/haemocanis group. This is the first molecular evidence of a hemoplasma infection in a free-ranging cheetah. PMID:23123173

Krengel, Annika; Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Wachter, Bettina; Willi, Barbara; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2013-03-23

275

Enhancing species distribution modeling by characterizing predator-prey interactions.  

PubMed

Niche theory is a well-established concept integrating a diverse array of environmental variables and multispecies interactions used to describe species geographic distribution. It is now customary to employ species distribution models (SDMs) that use environmental variables in conjunction with species location information to characterize species' niches and map their geographic ranges. The challenge remains, however, to account for the biotic interactions of species with other community members on which they depend. We show here how to connect species spatial distribution and their dependence with other species by modeling spatially explicit predator-prey interactions, which we call a trophic interaction distribution model (TIDM). To develop the principles, we capitalized on data from Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced into Colorado. Spatial location information for lynx obtained from telemetry was used in conjunction with environmental data to construct an SDM. The spatial locations of lynx-snowshoe hare encounters obtained from snow-tracking in conjunction with environmental data were used to construct a TIDM. The environmental conditions associated with lynx locations and lynx-hare encounters identified through both SDM and TIDM revealed an initial transient phase in habitat use that settled into a steady state. Nevertheless, despite the potential for the SDM to broadly encompass all lynx hunting and nonhunting spatial locations, the spatial extents of the SDM and TIDM differed; about 40% of important lynx-snowshoe hare locations identified in the TIDM were not identified in the lynx-only SDM. Our results encourage greater effort to quantify spatial locations of trophic interactions among species in a community and the associated environmental conditions when attempting to construct models aimed at projecting current and future species geographic distributions. PMID:24640545

Trainor, Anne M; Schmitz, Oswald J; Ivan, Jacob S; Shenk, Tanya M

2014-01-01

276

Comparison of properties of digital spectrometer systems.  

PubMed

We have tested two digital spectrometer systems, the DSP 9660 and Lynx(®) modules, connected to a HPGe detector. Lynx(®) is a fully integrated 32K channel signal analyzer based on digital signal processing techniques, which offers advanced digital stabilization. The model DSP 9660 digitalizes the signal directly at a very high sampling rate. The evaluated properties were integral nonlinearity, differential linearity, channel profiles, resolution and throughput. We found that the DSP system has slightly inferior resolution and throughput in comparison with the Lynx(®) system. PMID:24342559

Mazanova, Monika; Dryak, Pavel; Kovar, Petr; Auerbach, Pavel

2014-05-01

277

Comparison of two techniques that determine habitat selection by bobcats and a discussion of habitats within overlapping and non-overlapping areas.  

E-print Network

??Radio-telemetry is an expensive and time-consuming technique for collecting wildlife habitat data. Therefore, we compared bobcat (Lynx rufus) habitat selection as determined from radio-telemetry locations… (more)

Keenan, Jason A.

2007-01-01

278

77 FR 35481 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2012-13 and 2013-14 Subsistence...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposal with modification to close the hunting season for fox in Unit 7. This action was based on conservation concerns...growth annuli. Furbearer means a beaver, coyote, arctic fox, red fox, lynx, marten, mink, weasel, muskrat, river...

2012-06-13

279

Ecology, 91(10), 2010, pp. 29832994 2010 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

is unclear. The 10-year snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle is intimately linked to fluctuating predation-ranging mammal; Lepus americanus; low phase; Lynx canadensis; maternal effects; maternal programming; nongenetic

Childress, Michael J.

280

78 FR 53002 - Notice of Proposed Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) requested a waiver of the Federal Transit Administration...This utility relocation will be performed in connection with the CATS LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an...

2013-08-27

281

Natural Resources Conservation Fall 2008 Seminar Series  

E-print Network

, University of Massachusetts October 31 Canada Lynx in Maine John Organ, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Hermaphrodites in Your Backyard: The Landscape Ecology of Amphibian Intersex David Skelly, Yale University

Schweik, Charles M.

282

Natural Resources Conservation Fall 2008 Seminar Series  

E-print Network

Colin Polsky, Clark University October 24 TBA October 31 Canada Lynx in Maine John Organ, U.S. Fish, University of Massachusetts November 28 Thanksgiving break December 5 Hermaphrodites in Your Backyard

Schweik, Charles M.

283

PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARK–RECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Snowshoe,hares (Lepus americanus) undergo remarkable,cycles and are the primary,prey base of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), a carnivore recently listed as threatened in the contiguous United States. Efforts to evalu- ate hare densities using pellets have traditionally been based on regression equations developed in the Yukon, Canada. In western Montana, we evaluated whether or not local regression equations performed better

L. SCOTT MILLS; PAUL C. GRIFFIN; KAREN E. HODGES; KEVIN McKELVEY; LEN RUGGIERO; TODD ULIZIO

2005-01-01

284

UV-B-induced plant stress as a possible cause of ten-year hare cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation has been assumed to be a necessary factor in the ten-year population cycle of the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) and Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis). The UV-B-induced plant stress hypothesis, in contrast, predicts that hare performance, especially reproduction, is negatively related to sunspot numbers, because production of UV-B-protective phenolics in food plants in periods of low sunspot activity, when the

Vidar Selås

2006-01-01

285

A national assessment of reptile and amphibian regulation and case study of nongame trade in Texas  

E-print Network

was the bobcat (Lynx rufus) pelt harvest which is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Bluett, Tewes, and Thompson 1989). Most of the other available literature is narrative with few quantifiable data... was the bobcat (Lynx rufus) pelt harvest which is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Bluett, Tewes, and Thompson 1989). Most of the other available literature is narrative with few quantifiable data...

Jester, Stephen Lawrence

2012-06-07

286

Nesting ecology of Rio Grande wild turkeys in the Edwards Plateau of Texas  

E-print Network

Wild Turkey nests in the Edwards Plateau, Texas, 2006?2007 (n = number of nests with photographed predation events). Species 2006 (n = 7 nests) 2007 (n = 11 nests) Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) 0 1 Bobcat (Lynx rufus) 0 1... Wild Turkey nests in the Edwards Plateau, Texas, 2006?2007 (n = number of nests with photographed predation events). Species 2006 (n = 7 nests) 2007 (n = 11 nests) Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) 0 1 Bobcat (Lynx rufus) 0 1...

Dreibelbis, Justin Zachary

2009-05-15

287

Population Dynamics of Plain Chachalacas in the Lower Rio Grande Valley  

E-print Network

of radio harness. Mammalian predation (43%, n = 6) and unknown (43%, n = 6) deaths accounted for the majority of mortality observed. The remainder of observed mortality included avian predators (14%, n = 2). In most instances, bobcats (Lynx rufus... of radio harness. Mammalian predation (43%, n = 6) and unknown (43%, n = 6) deaths accounted for the majority of mortality observed. The remainder of observed mortality included avian predators (14%, n = 2). In most instances, bobcats (Lynx rufus...

Gandaria, Adan G.

2011-02-22

288

Ranges, movements, and spatial distribution of radio-tagged Rio Grande wild turkeys in the Edwards Plateau of Texas  

E-print Network

and Stringer 1975). Predator abundance for both regions was analyzed by Willsey (2003), and concentrated on bobcats (Lynx rufus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) as predators of both nests and all age classes of turkeys (Glazener... and Stringer 1975). Predator abundance for both regions was analyzed by Willsey (2003), and concentrated on bobcats (Lynx rufus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) as predators of both nests and all age classes of turkeys (Glazener...

Schaap, Jody Neal

2006-08-16

289

Native predators reduce harvest of reindeer by Sámi pastoralists.  

PubMed

Contemporary efforts to protect biological diversity recognize the importance of sustaining traditional human livelihoods, particularly uses of the land that are compatible with intact landscapes and ecologically complete food webs. However, these efforts often confront conflicting goals. For example, conserving native predators may harm pastoralist economies because predators consume domestic livestock that sustain people. This potential conflict must be reconciled by policy, but such reconciliation requires a firm understanding of the effects of predators on the prey used by people. We used a long-term, large-scale database and Bayesian models to estimate the impacts of lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and brown bear (Ursus arctos) on harvest of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by Sami pastoralists in Sweden. The average annual harvest of reindeer averaged 25% of the population (95% credible interval = 19, 31). Annual harvest declined by 96.6 (31, 155) reindeer for each lynx family group (the surveyed segment of the lynx population) in a management unit and by 94.3 (20, 160) for each wolverine reproduction (the surveyed segment of the wolverine population). We failed to detect effects of predation by brown bear. The mechanism for effects of predation on harvest was reduced population growth rate. The rate of increase of reindeer populations declined with increasing abundance of lynx and wolverine. The density of reindeer, latitude, and weather indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation also influenced reindeer population growth rate. We conclude that there is a biological basis for compensating the Sámi reindeer herders for predation on reindeer. PMID:22908719

Hobbs, N Thompson; Andrén, Henrik; Persson, Jens; Aronsson, Malin; Chapron, Guillaume

2012-07-01

290

The Influence of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements during Winter in High-Elevation Landscapes  

PubMed Central

Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote movements within an area containing lynx and designated lynx habitat. PMID:24367565

Gese, Eric M.; Dowd, Jennifer L. B.; Aubry, Lise M.

2013-01-01

291

The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.  

PubMed

Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote movements within an area containing lynx and designated lynx habitat. PMID:24367565

Gese, Eric M; Dowd, Jennifer L B; Aubry, Lise M

2013-01-01

292

In situ analysis of carbon isotopes in North American diamonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamonds from three North American kimberlite occurrences were investigated with cathodoluminescence (CL) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine their growth history and carbon isotope composition. Diamonds analyzed include fourteen from Lynx (Quebec), twelve from Kelsey Lake (Colorado) and eleven from A154 South (Diavik mine, Northwest Territories). Growth histories for the diamonds vary from simple to highly complex based on their CL images and depending on the individual stone. Deformation laminae are evident in CL images of the Lynx diamonds that typically are brownish in color. Two to five points per diamond were analyzed by SIMS for carbon isotope composition. Sample heterogeneity is minimal in terms of ?13C (vs. PDB) values. Points within single diamond had a maximum range of approximately 1 ‰. The results for the A154 South (-6.4 to -3 ‰) and Kelsey Lake (-11.2 to -2.6 ‰) stones were in accordance with earlier reported values. The Lynx kimberlite stones have anomalously high ratios and range from -3.5 to +0.2 ‰ (average: -1.4 ‰). No previous carbon isotope analyses on diamonds from Lynx or any other eastern Superior craton occurrence have been published. The diamonds possess carbon isotope ratios higher than those for the only other reported analyses of Superior craton diamonds at Wawa, Ontario (-5.5 to -1.1 ‰). In global terms, the only published analyses of diamonds that consistently contain even higher values are those from New South Wales (Australia). However, these diamonds are alluvial and contain eclogitic and/or exotic mineral inclusions. The Lynx diamonds are entirely peridotitic and from a primary deposit. The unusually low (i.e. >-5‰) ?13C values of the Lynx (and Wawa) diamonds may indicate a different carbon reservoir for the Superior craton mantle as compared to other cratons.

van Rythoven, A. D.; Hauri, E. H.; Wang, J.; McCandless, T.; Shirey, S. B.; Schulze, D. J.

2010-12-01

293

Alternatives to Robinson and Redford's method of assessing overharvest from incomplete demographic data  

E-print Network

) Lynx rufus 1 10 1.40 0.64 0.60 0.63 2.40 1.28 1.51 1.89 1.53 1.50 -- f 1.46 Crowe (1975) Mirounga angustirostris 5 14 2.40 0...). f Fecundities are not age specific, hence ? PA = ? COM . Fecundities are from Millar and Zammuto (1983) except for Ochotona princeps and Lynx rufus. 23 Slade et al. -- Simplified calculations of growth rates Table 3. Estimated rates...

Slade, Norman A.; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Alexander, Helen M.

1998-02-01

294

Bovine tuberculosis in a free ranging red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Doñana National Park (Spain).  

PubMed

During 1997 and 1998, a survey of Iberian carnivores was conducted to study the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in the Doñana National Park and surrounding areas in southwestern Spain. Post-mortem examinations were done on seven red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), one weasel (Mustela nivalis), two genets (Genetta genetta), one Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one Eurasian badger (Meles meles), and two polecats (Mustela putorius). Lesions suggestive of bovine tuberculosis were not detected but, in culture, Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from the retropharyngeal lymph nodes of one adult male red fox. This is the first report of M. bovis infection in red fox in Spain. PMID:16107680

Martín-Atance, P; Palomares, F; González-Candela, M; Revilla, E; Cubero, M J; Calzada, J; León-Vizcaíno, L

2005-04-01

295

Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.  

PubMed

The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals. PMID:22037661

Bilandži?, Nina; Dež?ek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Doki?, Maja; Simi?, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

2012-01-01

296

Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.  

PubMed Central

Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog. PMID:3196978

Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

1988-01-01

297

EXPOSURE TO FELINE AND CANINE PATHOGENS IN BOBCATS AND GRAY FOXES IN URBAN AND RURAL ZONES OF A NATIONAL PARK IN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of bobcats (Lynx rufus) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus )t o a range of common canine and feline pathogens was assessed in urban and rural zones of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, a National Park in the San Francisco Bay Area, (California, USA) from 1992 to 1995. Testing included serology for canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine adenovirus,

Seth P. D. Riley; Janet Foley; Bruno Chomel

298

Small Pleistocene felines of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the currently available fossil record of small felines in North America. Felis amnicola Gillette is shown by statistical methods to be conspecific with F. wiedii and is proposed as a subspecies F. wiedii amnicola. Pre-Wisconsinan specimens of Lynx rufus are brought together as L. rufus calcaratus. The occurrence of F. yagouaroundi in post-Hemphillian deposits of North America

Lars Werdelin

1985-01-01

299

Evidence of a Limited Schizogonous Cycle for cytauxzoon fells in Bobcats Following Exposure to Infected Ticks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizogonous tissue stages of Cy- tauxzoon felis (Apicomplexa: Theileridae) were not observed by microscopic evaluation of impression smears of liver, spleen, lung and lymph nodes in 10 bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Oklahoma with naturally occurring piroplasm infections. Schizogonous stages were observed in similar tissues from experimentally-infected bobcats at 1 1 days postexposure to infected Der- macentor variabilis, but not at

Edmour F. Blouin; A. Alan Kocan; Katherine M. Kocan; Jakie Hair

300

The Effectiveness of Individual Identification of Bobcats using Automatically Triggered Cameras in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the research of bobcat (Lynx rufus) populations a better understanding of their range in lower Michigan can be found. The use of automatically triggered cameras is an effective way to obtain bobcat range and status information. Automatically triggered cameras allow for population studies to be executed without having to trap any animals.

Karen Ickes; Paul Keenlance

2009-01-01

301

Environmental influences on the sexual dimorphism in body size of western bobcats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual size dimorphism might be influenced by environmental constraints on sexual selection or by intraspecific competition between males and females. We studied bobcats (Lynx rufus) in collections of museum specimens from western North America to examine these hypotheses. Structural body size was estimated from several measurements of the skull, ln-transformed and indexed through principal components analysis. Sexual dimorphism in body

F. Stephen Dobson; John D. Wigginton

1996-01-01

302

Habitat Use of Bobcats at Two Spatial Scales in Southwestern Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat needs of wildlife are important for science-based wildlife manage- ment. Further, these needs may differ based upon the ecosystem in which the species lives. Bobcat habitat use within the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forest ecosystem has received little attention. Therefore, we monitored 21 bobcats (Lynx rufus) (8 M, 13 F) during 2001-2002 in southwestern Georgia to determine habitat use

Ivy A. Godbois; Joseph W. Jones; L. Mike Conner; Robert J. Warren

2003-01-01

303

Last updated: 10/29/10 TODD D. STEURY  

E-print Network

of delayed dispersal in the cooperatively breeding red wolf (Canis rufus). Behavioral Ecology. McCoy, J.C., S wolf (Canis rufus). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. Available in print on breeding duck populations (1955-2005). Ecology 91:571- 581. 2008 Murray, D.L., and T.D. Steury. Lynx

Steury, Todd D.

304

Rabies antibody prevalence and virus tissue tropism in wild carnivores in Virginia.  

PubMed

Carnivores trapped in a rabies control program in Virginia were examined for rabies virus and serum neutralizing antibody. Local antibody prevalence ranged from 0% to 29% in gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Rabies virus was pantropic in naturally infected gray foxes and a bobcat (Lynx rufus). PMID:739588

Carey, A B; McLean, R G

1978-10-01

305

Impact of Natural and Artificial Barriers to Dispersal on the Population Structure of Bobcats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated population structure and genetic diversity for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Michigan, USA, which are distributed throughout the upper peninsula (UP) and the northern half of the lower peninsula (LP) of Michigan. Specifically, we assessed the influence of natural and artificial barriers to dispersal on the genetic population structure of the bobcat across Michigan, as well as in each

DEVIN G. MILLIONS; BRADLEY J. SWANSON

2007-01-01

306

A Multivariate Habitat Model for Female Bobcats: A GIS Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a Geographical Information System (GIS) based habitat model for female bobcats (Lynx rufus) and subjected the model to internal-validation, cross- validation, and validation using independent data. The model predicted probability of an area being used by female bobcats increased (P <0.001) as slope and distance to ma- ture pine stands increased. Probability of an area being used by

L. Mike Conner; Bruce D. Leopold

307

Bobcat Home Range Size Relative to Habitat Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range is generally considered to be a function of habitat quality, but there have been few published studies that explicitly address this idea. We used empirically developed bobcat habitat models to predict habitat quality within bobcat home ranges on 2 study areas in central Mississippi. We then assessed the relationship between home range size and habitat

L. Mike Conner; Joseph W. Jones; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold

2001-01-01

308

Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes  

PubMed Central

We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans. PMID:22718941

Scorza, Andrea V.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R.

2012-01-01

309

Spatial Organization of Adult Bobcats in a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Ecosystem in Southwestern Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lynx rufus (bobcat) home-range sizes have been studied throughout the Southeast, but study duration is generally î 2 years and number of bobcats sampled is often < 20. There have been even fewer studies dealing with spatial interactions of bobcats, and fewer still within a Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem. Because both bobcat home-range sizes and the degree that space

Jessica C. Cochrane; Jordona D. Kirby; Ivy G. Jones; L. Mike Conner; Robert J. Warren

2006-01-01

310

Bobcat Spatial Distribution and Habitat Use Relative to  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding interactions among bobcats (Lynx rufus) may lend insight into less understood life history traits of the bobcat and improve management of the species. Moreover, data from manipulative experiments pertaining to bobcat ecology are largely absent from the scientific literature. Therefore, we investigated bobcat spatial organization and habitat use after an experimental population reduction on an 11,735-ha study site in

GREGORY S. LYNCH; Joseph W. Jones; JORDONA D. KIRBY; ROBERT J. WARREN; Daniel B. Warnell

311

Bobcat Diet on an Area Managed for Northern Bobwhite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified bobcat (Lynx rufus) diet on a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) dominated area managed for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), hereafter quail. We sorted prey items to species when possible, but for analysis we categorized them into 1 of 5 classes: rodent, bird, deer, rabbit, and other species. Bobcat diet did not dif- fer seasonally (X2 = 17.82, P =

Ivy A. Godbois; Joseph W. Jones; L. Mike Conner; Robert J. Warren

2003-01-01

312

An Application of Manel's Model: Detecting Bobcat Poaching in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The illegal harvest of natural resources (i.e., poaching) has the potential to threaten the persistence of many plant and animal species. In Michigan bobcats (Lynx rufus) are distributed throughout the Upper Peninsula (UP) and the northern half of the Lower Peninsula (LP) and are a biologically and economically important species. The popularity of bobcat hunting and trapping in Michigan, along

DEVIN G. MILLIONS; BRADLEY J. SWANSON

2006-01-01

313

The rise and fall of bobcat populations in New Hampshire: Relevance of historical harvests to understanding current patterns of abundance and distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvest records reveal that populations of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in New Hampshire have undergone substantial changes during the past 200 years. In the 1800s, a nearly continuous bounty program resulted in annual harvests that averaged ?30 bobcats. Harvests increased in 1915, and fluctuated from 100 to 400 bobcats during the 1920s through the 1950s. In 1959, harvests peaked at 421

J. A. Litvaitis; J. P. Tash; C. L. Stevens

2006-01-01

314

Modelling habitat overlap among sympatric mesocarnivores in southern Illinois, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few researchers have developed large-scale habitat models for sympatric carnivore species. We created habitat models for red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in southern Illinois, USA, using the Penrose distance statistic, remotely sensed landscape data, and sighting location data within a GIS. Our objectives were to quantify and spatially model potential habitat differences among species.

Patrick T. McDonald; Clayton K. Nielsen; Tonny J. Oyana; Wanxiao Sun

2008-01-01

315

Zoonotic parasites of bobcats around human landscapes.  

PubMed

We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans. PMID:22718941

Carver, Scott; Scorza, Andrea V; Bevins, Sarah N; Riley, Seth P D; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R

2012-09-01

316

Home range and diet of bobcats in eastern Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the status of the bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation has stemmed concomitantly from a desire to learn more of the habits of this animal and to monitor the effects of anthropogenic activities on these habits. We have begun a long-term program to acquire data on home ranges, population density, habitat usage,

J. T. Kitchings; J. D. Story

1979-01-01

317

RABIES ANTIBODY PREVALENCE AND VIRUS TISSUE TROPISM IN WILD CARNIVORES IN VIRGINIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivores trapped in a rabies control program in Virginia were examined for rabies virus and serum neutralizing antibody. Local antibody prevalence ranged from 0% to 29% in gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Rabies virus was pantropic in naturally infected gray foxes and a bobcat (Lynx rufus).

ANDREW B. CAREYPVirginia; ROBERT G. MC LEAN

318

A sex difference in the behavioural response of nesting mountain bluebirds ( Sialia currucoides ) to a mounted predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passerine nests can benefit parental fitness, but defense against predators may be costly. Although this paradigm is well\\u000a studied, no studies have been conducted on mountain bluebirds (Sialia currucoides). We observed the response of 17 bluebird pairs with nestlings to a mounted bobcat (Lynx rufus) and two controls. Bluebird pairs clearly differentiated the mounted predator and males moved closer to

K. W. Gibson; A. Moehrenschlager

2008-01-01

319

HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the trapping season of 1977-78 and 1978-79, 51 bobcat (Lynx rufus) carcasses were obtained from fur dealers in South Dakota and examined for parasitic helminths. Diaphragm, tongue, and masseter muscle samples from 153 bobcats were examined for trichinosis. Nematodes located included Toxascaris leonina in 46 of 51 (90%), Toxocara mystax in 2 of 51 (4%). Physaloptera prae­ putialis in

Elizabeth C. Schitoskey

320

A simple, inexpensive video camera setup for the study of avian nest activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-lapse video photography has become a valuable tool for collecting data on avian nest activity and depredation; however, commercially available systems are expensive (.USA $4000\\/unit). We designed an inexpensive system to identify causes of nest failure of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) and assessed its utility at Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia. We successfully identified raccoon (Procyon lotor), bobcat (Lynx rufus),

John B. Sabine; J. Michael Meyers; Sara H. Schweitzer

321

Female sticklebacks transfer information via eggs: effects of maternal experience  

E-print Network

exposed to predation risk by lynx exhibited increased concentrations of glucocorticoids, and produced of their offspring [5]. In mammals, including humans, stressors during pregnancy can influ- ence the development,13]. There is a strong positive relationship between maternal glucocorticoids and egg glucocorticoid concentrations

Suski, Cory David

322

In situ analysis of carbon isotopes in North American diamonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamonds from three North American kimberlite occurrences were investigated with cathodoluminescence (CL) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine their growth history and carbon isotope composition. Diamonds analyzed include fourteen from Lynx (Quebec), twelve from Kelsey Lake (Colorado) and eleven from A154 South (Diavik mine, Northwest Territories). Growth histories for the diamonds vary from simple to highly complex based

A. D. van Rythoven; E. H. Hauri; J. Wang; T. McCandless; S. B. Shirey; D. J. Schulze

2010-01-01

323

Middle Snake Draft Assessment 245 May 2004 4 References  

E-print Network

Mountain Mule Deer Habitat to Timber Management in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Pages 11 of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States. Volume II. The National Vegetation. McKelvey, and J. R. Squires. Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States. University Press

324

Appendix C -1 Appendix C: Focal Wildlife Species  

E-print Network

Dryocopus pileatus Pygmy nuthatch Sitta pygmaea Redhead Aythya americana Ring-billed gull Larus delawarensis kestrel Falco sparverius American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos American wigeon Anas americana American marten Martes americana Bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis Black bear Ursus americanus Bobcat Lynx

325

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 52, NO. 6, JUNE 2014 3063 Reduction of Vibration-Induced Artifacts in  

E-print Network

-clutter ratios is analyzed using simulations. Experimental re- sults using the Lynx SAR system show a substantial (SAR) signals. This causes ar- tifacts, or ghost targets, which appear near vibrating targets in re- constructed SAR images. Recently, a vibration estimation method based on the discrete fractional Fourier

Hayat, Majeed M.

326

36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other weapon to take or assist in taking any species of bear, caribou, Sitka black-tailed deer, elk, coyote, arctic and red fox, mountain goat, moose, Dall sheep, lynx, bison, musk ox, wolf and wolverine until after 3 a.m. on the day...

2010-07-01

327

JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, July 2010, p. 73127324 Vol. 84, No. 14 0022-538X/10/$12.00 doi:10.1128/JVI.00209-10  

E-print Network

(FIV) of the domestic cat, we tested the A3 proteins present in big cats (puma, lion, tiger, and lynx is inhibited by A3s of rhesus macaques, African green monkeys (AGM), pigs, mouse, cats, and horses (4, 19, 25

Levin, Judith G.

328

Forest Grouse and Ptarmigan KATHY MARTIN, CATHY DOYLE, SUSAN HANNON, & FRITZ MUELLER  

E-print Network

of grouse. Two species, spruce grouse (Falcipennis canadensis) and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), inhabit-ranging predators (goshawk, golden eagle, harrier, coyote, lynx, fox, wolverine, wolf) hunt in both forest chick) for F canadensis populations ranges from 40% to 81% in southern Canada and the northern United

Krebs, Charles J.

329

Liberty for All? Contested spaces of women's basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Women's National Basketball Association is a professional women's basketball league that is notable for constructing a heteronormative ‘family friendly’ self-image while maintaining a sizable following of lesbian fans. This article examines this apparent contradiction through two case studies: a kiss-in protest by a group of New York WNBA fans, Lesbians for Liberty, and experiences by Minnesota Lynx lesbian fans

Tiffany K. Muller

2007-01-01

330

Tracking Cats: Problems with Placing Feline Carnivores O, dD Isoscapes  

E-print Network

(Puma concolor) with precipitation-based assignment isoscapes to test the feasibility of isotopic geo/Findings: We used coupled dDh and d18 Oh measurements from the North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma analyzed. Bobcat and puma lacked a significant correlation between H/O isotopes in hair and local waters

Schöne, Bernd R.

331

TRICHINELLA MURRELLI IN SCAVENGING MAMMALS FROM SOUTH-CENTRAL WISCONSIN, USA  

E-print Network

(Canis latrans), and seven Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) collected in Dane and Iowa Counties into Wisconsin, USA. Key words: Canis latrans, carnivores, Mephitis mephitis, Procyon lotor, Trichinella lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), gray wolves (Canis lupus), dogs, foxes, skunks, bobcats (Lynx rufus

Mladenoff, David

332

Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated

J. D. Story; W. J. Galbraith; J. T. Kitchings

1982-01-01

333

Electric conversion vehicle air-conditioning project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines an air conditioning system for an electric vehicle. A 1985 Ford Lynx is the subject car. The design conditions are Orlando's 1% mean dry and wet bulb temperatures. The cooling load temperature difference method is used to calculate the heat gain using August data at 28° north latitude. To reduce the required power for the compressor, the

Paul T. Worthington; Karel Minnaar; Chuck Arnold

1995-01-01

334

Measuring OS Support for Real-time CORBA ORBs  

E-print Network

and evaluates the suitability of real- time operating systems, VxWorks and LynxOS, and general- purpose operating systems with real-time extensions, Windows NT, Solaris, and Linux, for real-time ORB middleware-Oriented Systems, Operating System QoS Support, Real-time CORBA Object Request Bro- ker 1 Introduction There has

Schmidt, Douglas C.

335

POPULATION TRENDS IN FURBEARERS IN NEBRASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population trends are documented from 1941 to 1997 for the 12 species of furbearing mammals harvested in Nebraska. Populations of red fox (Vulpes vulpes, raccoon (Procyon lotor), beaver (Castor canadensis), coyote (Canis lupus), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) have increased during this period. Populations of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), mink (Mustela vison), eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius), long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), and

L. M. Landholt; Hugh H. Genoways

2000-01-01

336

Disturbance Ecology of North American Boreal  

E-print Network

forest (taiga, western United States, and eastern United States) where lynx are found, resulting forest zone, called the taiga, into the #12;Chapter 3--Agee 40 subalpine forests of the western United.Ihavechosenheretorefertotheborealforestasanyforestwith boreal features. This includes not only the taiga, but forests to the south such as the higher elevation

337

A Juvenile Sichuan Golden Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Predated by a Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Qinling Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that hawks, panthers, jackals, lynxes and wolves may prey on Sichuan golden monkeys in the wild [1, 2], but all these assumptions were based on observations of dead monkeys eaten by predators, and no direct attack of a living individual has been witnessed. During our field study on the behavioural ecology of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in

Shuyi Zhang; Baoping Ren; Baoguo Li

1999-01-01

338

78 FR 59429 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...lynx and hares from broadly achieving densities similar to those of the northern boreal...States to support hares at the landscape densities and distributions necessary to support...are dependent on landscapes with high-density snowshoe hare populations for...

2013-09-26

339

Current Biology Vol 20 No 14 while the rest just watch. Communal  

E-print Network

in western India. African lions once ranged from the Atlas Mountains to the Cape of Good Hope, but both, tigers, bobcats and lynx -- are also infanticidal, yet they are all solitary. The true hallmark of lion quality territory is essential for successful Lions Craig Packer What are lions? The largest cats

Weiblen, George D

340

DNA Identification of Mountain Lions Involved in Livestock Predation and Public Safety Incidents and Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using three case studies, we demonstrated the utility of techniques to analyze DNA from trace samples collected at sites of livestock predation and public safety incidents. Genetic analysis was used to determine species, individual identity, and relatedness between individuals. We documented the presence and individual identities of a mountain lion (Puma concolor) and a bobcat (Lynx rufus) from swab samples

H. B. Ernest; W. M. Boyce

341

Habitat differentiation within the large-carnivore community of Norway's multiple-use landscapes  

PubMed Central

The re-establishment of large carnivores in Norway has led to increased conflicts and the adoption of regional zoning for these predators. When planning the future distribution of large carnivores, it is important to consider details of their potential habitat tolerances and strength of inter-specific differentiation. We studied differentiation in habitat and kill sites within the large-carnivore community of south-eastern Norway. We compared habitat selection of the brown bear Ursus arctos L., Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx L., wolf Canis lupus L. and wolverine Gulo gulo L., based on radio-tracking data. Differences in kill site locations were explored using locations of documented predator-killed sheep Ovis aries L. We modelled each species’ selection for, and differentiation in, habitat and kill sites on a landscape scale using resource selection functions and multinomial logistic regression. Based on projected probability of occurrence maps, we estimated continuous patches of habitat within the study area. Although bears, lynx, wolves and wolverines had overlapping distributions, we found a clear differentiation for all four species in both habitat and kill sites. The presence of bears, wolves and lynx was generally associated with rugged, forested areas at lower elevations, whereas wolverines selected rugged terrain at higher elevations. Some degree of sympatry was possible in over 40% of the study area, although only 1·5% could hold all four large carnivores together. Synthesis and applications. A geographically differentiated management policy has been adopted in Norway, aimed at conserving viable populations of large carnivores while minimizing the potential for conflicts. Sympatry of all four carnivores will be most successful if regional zones are established of adequate size spanning an elevational gradient. High prey densities, low carnivore densities, low dietary overlap and scavenging opportunities have most probably led to reduced competitive exclusion. Although regional sympatry enhances the conservation of an intact guild of large carnivores, it may well increase conflict levels and resistance to carnivore conservation locally. PMID:19330031

May, Roel; van Dijk, Jiska; Wabakken, Petter; Swenson, Jon E; Linnell, John DC; Zimmermann, Barbara; Odden, John; Pedersen, Hans C; Andersen, Reidar; Landa, Arild

2008-01-01

342

Prey switching as a means of enhancing persistence in predators at the trailing southern edge.  

PubMed

Understanding the effects of climate change on species' persistence is a major research interest; however, most studies have focused on responses at the northern or expanding range edge. There is a pressing need to explain how species can persist at their southern range when changing biotic interactions will influence species occurrence. For predators, variation in distribution of primary prey owing to climate change will lead to mismatched distribution and local extinction, unless their diet is altered to more extensively include alternate prey. We assessed whether addition of prey information in climate projections restricted projected habitat of a specialist predator, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), and if switching from their primary prey (snowshoe hare; Lepus americanus) to an alternate prey (red squirrel; Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) mitigates range restriction along the southern range edge. Our models projected distributions of each species to 2050 and 2080 to then refine predictions for southern lynx on the basis of varying combinations of prey availability. We found that models that incorporated information on prey substantially reduced the total predicted southern range of lynx in both 2050 and 2080. However, models that emphasized red squirrel as the primary species had 7-24% lower southern range loss than the corresponding snowshoe hare model. These results illustrate that (i) persistence at the southern range may require species to exploit higher portions of alternate food; (ii) selection may act on marginal populations to accommodate phenotypic changes that will allow increased use of alternate resources; and (iii) climate projections based solely on abiotic data can underestimate the severity of future range restriction. In the case of Canada lynx, our results indicate that the southern range likely will be characterized by locally varying levels of mismatch with prey such that the extent of range recession or local adaptation may appear as a geographical mosaic. PMID:24353147

Peers, Michael J L; Wehtje, Morgan; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

2014-04-01

343

When species' ranges meet: assessing differences in habitat selection between sympatric large carnivores.  

PubMed

Differentiation in habitat selection among sympatric species may depend on niche partitioning, species interactions, selection mechanisms and scales considered. In a mountainous area in Sweden, we explored hierarchical habitat selection in Global Positioning System-collared individuals of two sympatric large carnivore species; an obligate predator, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a generalist predator and scavenger, the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Although the species' fundamental niches differ widely, their ranges overlap in this area where they share a prey base and main cause of mortality. Both lynx and wolverines selected for steep and rugged terrain in mountainous birch forest and in heaths independent of scale and available habitats. However, the selection of lynx for their preferred habitats was stronger when they were forming home ranges and they selected the same habitats within their home ranges independent of home range composition. Wolverines displayed a greater variability when selecting home ranges and habitat selection also varied with home range composition. Both species selected for habitats that promote survival through limited encounters with humans, but which also are rich in prey, and selection for these habitats was accordingly stronger in winter when human activity was high and prey density was low. We suggest that the observed differences between the species result primarily from different foraging strategies, but may also depend on differences in ranging and resting behaviour, home range size, and relative density of each species. Our results support the prediction that sympatric carnivores with otherwise diverging niches can select for the same resources when sharing main sources of food and mortality. PMID:23242426

Rauset, Geir Rune; Mattisson, Jenny; Andrén, Henrik; Chapron, Guillaume; Persson, Jens

2013-07-01

344

Interspecies transmission of Cytauxzoon felis.  

PubMed

The causative agent of feline cytauxzoonosis was experimentally inoculated into 4 species of domestic farm animals, 9 species of laboratory animals, and 17 wildlife species. The inoculum consisted of freshly collected or deep-frozen blood and/or tissue homogenates from domestic cats euthanatized in extremis with experimentally transmitted feline cytauxzoonosis. A bobcat, Lynx rufus floridanus (Florida bobcat), developed cytauxzoonosis typical of the disease observed in domestic cats and died of the disease 2 weeks after inoculation. A persistent parasitemia, but no overt signs of illness, developed in another bobcat, Lynx rufus rufus (eastern bobcat). The sheep developed a low persistent parasitemia, but no clinical signs of illness. There was no clear evidence of cytauxzoonosis demonstrated by necropsy or histopathologic or blood smear examinations in all other species. Additionally, freshly collected blood and/or tissue homogenates from animals of various species, except bobcats, failed to produce evidence of cytauxzoonosis when subinoculated into domestic cats. PMID:6807139

Kier, A B; Wightman, S R; Wagner, J E

1982-01-01

345

Predator-prey systems depend on a prey refuge.  

PubMed

Models of near-exclusive predator-prey systems such as that of the Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare have included factors such as a second prey species, a Holling Type II predator response and climatic or seasonal effects to reproduce sub-sets of six signature patterns in the empirical data. We present an agent-based model which does not require the factors or constraints of previous models to reproduce all six patterns in persistent populations. Our parsimonious model represents a generalised predator and prey species with a small prey refuge. The lack of the constraints of previous models, considered to be important for those models, casts doubt on the current hypothesised mechanisms of exclusive predator-prey systems. The implication for management of the lynx, a protected species, is that maintenance of an heterogeneous environment offering natural refuge areas for the hare is the most important factor for the conservation of this species. PMID:25058806

Chivers, W J; Gladstone, W; Herbert, R D; Fuller, M M

2014-11-01

346

Effects of a highway and mitigation projects on bobcats in Southern Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roads are a common landscape feature that may negatively impact wildlife. These impacts may be reduced by altering roads and their right-of-ways. We studied impacts of a 4-lane divided highway on bobcats (Lynx rufus) in southern Texas. From June 1997 to May 1999, 25 bobcats were found dead on the 32.2 km section of highway we studied. Mortalities were more

A. T Cain; V. R Tuovila; D. G Hewitt; M. E Tewes

2003-01-01

347

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATOR REMOVAL AND WHITE-TAILED DEER NET PRODUCTIVITY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the impact of predation on productivity of white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Texas by removing predators from one area and compar- ing the results to a control area. A total of 188 coyotes (Canis latrans) and 120 bobcats (Lynx rufus) were removed during predator removal efforts on the approximately 5,400-acre (2,186-ha) experimental

SAMUEL L. BEASOM

348

Estimating Bobcat Abundance Using Automatically Triggered Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ineffective survey methods of carnivores limit the ability of managers and researchers to make sound research conclusions and management recommendations. Because bobcats (Lynx rufus) are individually identifiable due to their unique coat patterns, it may be possible to obtain density estimates using capture-recapture models. We photo-trapped bobcats on the 3,156-ha Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge in southern Texas from September 2000

RICHARD D. HEILBRUN; NOVA J. SILVY; MARKUS J. PETERSON; MICHAEL E. TEWES

2006-01-01

349

Effectiveness of Scat Detection Dogs for Detecting Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the detection and accuracy rates of detection dogs trained to locate scats from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus). During the summers of 2003-2004, 5 detection teams located 1,565 scats (747 putative black bear, 665 putative fisher, and 153 putative bobcat) at 168 survey sites throughout Vermont, USA. Of 347 scats genetically

Carnivores ROBERT A. LONG; THERESE M. DONOVAN; PAULA MACKAY; WILLIAM J. ZIELINSKI; JEFFREY S. BUZAS

350

Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges\\u000a to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods—scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares—to\\u000a collect detection–nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) throughout the rugged Vermont landscape. We analyzed these data using occupancy

Robert A. LongTherese; Therese M. Donovan; Paula MacKay; William J. Zielinski; Jeffrey S. Buzas

2011-01-01

351

Effectiveness of Scat Detection Dogs for Detecting Forest Carnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We assessed the detection and accuracy rates of detection dogs trained to locate scats from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus). During the summers of 2003–2004, 5 detection teams located 1,565 scats (747 putative black bear, 665 putative fisher, and 153 putative bobcat) at 168 survey sites throughout Vermont, USA. Of 347 scats

ROBERT A. LONG; THERESE M. DONOVAN; PAULA MACKAY; WILLIAM J. ZIELINSKI; JEFFREY S. BUZAS

2007-01-01

352

Excystation of Isospora arctopitheci Rodhain, 1933 with notes on a similar process in Isospora bigemina (Stiles, 1891) Lühe, 1906  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The in vitro excystation process of sporozoites of Isospora arctopitheci Rodhain, 1933 from the titi marmoset Saguinus geoffroyi and of Isospora bigemina (Stiles, 1891) Lühe, 1906 from the bobcat, Lynx rufus is presented. Sporocysts of both species lack a Stieda body and when exposed to a trypsin-sodium taurocholate (pH 7.4) excysting fluid the walls of both collapse in a

Donald W. Duszynski; Clarence A. Speer

1976-01-01

353

SPACE-USE PATTERNS OF BOBCATS RELATIVE TO SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF NORTHERN BOBWHITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In the southeastern United States, supplemental feeding of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) is a common,management,practice. To determine,whether,bobcats (Lynx rufus) are attracted to supplemental,food provided to northern bobwhites and whether this food affects bobcat home-range size, we radiomarked bobcats and assessed space use relative to supplemental feeding. Wefound,little evidence to suggest that bobcat home-range,sizes were affected by the supplemental food,

IVY A. GODBOIS; L. MIKE CONNER; ROBERT J. WARREN; Gehrt

2004-01-01

354

Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (Lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (Felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (Martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (Gulo gulo), 4 mink (Mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor). Sarcocystis muris and Toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions. PMID:6816776

Dubey, J P

1982-12-01

355

PREDATOR URINES AS CHEMICAL BARRIERS TO WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed whether bobcat (Lynx rufus) or coyote (Canis latrans) urine could reduce white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of established feeding areas or trails. A four-week experiment evaluating deer use of eight feeding stations, four each with coyote or bobcat urine was conducted at a 2,200 ha fenced facility in northern Ohio with high deer densities (38\\/km2). At this

Jerrold L. Belant; Thomas W. Seamans; Laura A. Tyson

1998-01-01

356

Food habits and space use of gray foxes in relation to sympatric coyotes and bobcats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: To investigate interspecific relationships between,gray foxes ( Urocyon,cinereoargenteus) and sympatric,coy- otes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), we quantified occurrence of food items in carnivore scats and used rela- tive abundances,of scats on transects to assess space use. Dietary-overlap indices between,the two canid species were high during summer and fall (x = 0.89) when fruits were prevalent in scats

Jennifer C. C. Neale; Benjamin N. Sacks

2001-01-01

357

Leptospirosis in wild and domestic carnivores in natural areas in Andalusia, Spain.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Carnivores are at the top of the feeding chain, thus being exposed to pathogens through their preys. From June 2004 to April 2007, we analyzed for evidences of contact with 14 serovars of Leptospira interrogans Sensu Lato serum (analyzed by indirect Microscopic Agglutination Test) and urine or kidney samples (analyzed by microscopic observation, immunostaining and culture) collected from 201 wild and domestic carnivores, including 26 free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 33 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 25 common genets (Genetta genetta), two Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and one Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), and 53 free-roaming cats and 28 rural dogs in protected areas in Andalusia (southern Spain). Twenty-three percent of the animals presented evidences of contact, being the prevalence similar among wild (23.5%) and domestic species (22.2%). Contact with Lesptospira was detected in all the species but the otter. Prevalence was: lynx (11% by bacteriological detection, 32% by serology), fox (0%, 47%), mongoose (5%, 20%), genet (0%, 12%), badger (0%, 50%), cat (20%, 14%), dog (only serology: 36%). Serovar Icterohemorragiae accounted for 2/3 of the cases. Serovar Canicola was detected in half of the positive dogs and one lynx. Other serovars detected were Ballum, Sejroë, and Australis. No macroscopic lesions were observed in necropsied animals that showed evidence of contact with the agent, although histopathologic lesions (chiefly chronic interstitial nephritis) were observed in 7 out of the 11 microscopically analyzed individuals. Thus, L. interrogans may cause previously unrecorded disease in wild carnivores in Spain. Wild and free-roaming carnivores may not act as reservoir of L. interrogans but as a dead-end hosts, though the dog may act as reservoir of serovar Canicola. Carnivores are apparently good sentinels for the epidemiological monitorization of leptospirosis. PMID:18973450

Millán, Javier; Candela, Mónica G; López-Bao, José Vicente; Pereira, Marian; Jiménez, María Angeles; León-Vizcaíno, Luis

2009-10-01

358

Efficacy of spider and ant predators on the cotton fleahopper [ Hemiptera: Miridae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of predators of immature cotton fleahoppers,Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), was calculated using field and laboratory cage confinement tests for consumption rate. The predators tested were\\u000a the striped lynx spider,Oxyopes salticus Hentz; the black and white jumping spider,Phidippus audax (Hentz); the celer crab spider,Misumenops celer Hentz; and the red imported fire ant,Solenopsis invicta Buren. The spider predators were evaluated in

R. G. Breene; W. L. Sterling; M. Nyffeler

1990-01-01

359

Comparing the effect of different spine and leg designs for a small, bounding quadruped robot  

E-print Network

a lower cost of transport for a moderately lower spine stiffness. (2) The leg design influences the cost.224 m (SV1) 0.226 m (SV2) 0.225 m (SV3) RC servo motor Kondo KRS2350 ICS (9x) Control board RoBoard RB a parametrized, fully connected CPG-network with forward kinematic implementation [1] running on board. Lynx

Thévenaz, Jacques

360

Assessing dam implementation impact on threatened carnivores: the case of Alqueva in SE Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large dam construction in water deficient areas is a management decision often controversial. Besides providing water storage,\\u000a economical benefits, and a source of renewable energy, the construction and flooding caused by large dams cause disruptions\\u000a in natural systems. We monitored the pre- and post-Alqueva dam impacts on the threatened carnivore species (polecat, otter,\\u000a wildcat and Iberian lynx) populations in SE

Maria J. Santos; Nuno M. Pedroso; Joaquim P. Ferreira; Hugo M. Matos; Teresa Sales-Luís; Íris Pereira; Carla Baltazar; Clara Grilo; Ana T. Cândido; Inês Sousa; Margarida Santos-Reis

2008-01-01

361

Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.  

PubMed

Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens. PMID:9732040

Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D

1998-06-01

362

Patch size effects on plant species decline in an experimentally fragmented landscape  

E-print Network

cannabi- September 2009 2581FRAGMENTATION AND PLANT SPECIES DECLINES num, Solidago canadensis, Melilotus spp., Helianthus annuus, Aster praealtus) increased between the initial survey (1985) and 1995, but then showed substantial declines in 2000. For three... range of the Iberian Lynx. Ecography 25:314–328. Schoener, T. W. In press. The MacArthuer-Wilson equilibrium model: a chronicle of theoretical modification and real-world evaluation. In J. Losos and R. Ricklefs, editors. Island bio- geography at 40...

Collins, Cathy Diane; Holt, Robert D.; Foster, Brian L.

2009-09-01

363

Open source real-time operating systems for plasma control at FTU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, every tokamak has a plasma control system to monitor and drive discharge parameters like position, density, current, and shape. Several different solutions have been adopted to cope with the real-time constraints, ranging from the shared memory to the transputers technologies. At present, a VME\\/PPC604r embedded controller running a LynxOS operating system is used on Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) for

C. Centioli; F. Iannone; G. Mazza; M. Panella; L. Pangione; V. Vitale; L. Zaccarian

2004-01-01

364

Real-time operating system timing jitter and its impact on motor control  

Microsoft Academic Search

General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all OS services. Examples include ETS, LynxOS, QNX, Windows CE and VxWorks. RTOS

Frederick M. Proctor; William P. Shackleford

2001-01-01

365

Real-time Operating System Timing Jitter and its Impact on Motor Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all OS services. Examples 1 include ETS, LynxOS, QNX, Windows CE and VxWorks.

Frederick M. Proctor; William P. Shackleford

366

Operation Experiences and Development of the Control System in the SRRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control system of the SRRC is a two-level system. Console level computers consist of workstations and PCs. The device levels consist of VME based embedded systems. PC based system are also used for some device level applications. The console level operating system is VMS. DEC UNIX and WindowsNT will come soon. Devices level supports pSOS+, LynxOS, and WindowsNT. Most

Jenny Chen; C. H. Kuo; K. T. Hsu; K. K. Lin; C. J. Wang; C. S. Chen; K. T. Pan; K. H. Hu; C. C. Kuo; R. Sah

367

Species visitation at free-choice quail feeders in west Texas  

E-print Network

-tailed deer, eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) and ground squirrels (Spermophilus sp.) comprised 12.0 and 8.6% of visitations, respectively. Apparently false events accounted for 5.9 and 8.7% between TV and TM cameras, respectively. 21... novemcinctus) Uncommon Uncommon Badger (Taxidea taxus) Rare Rare Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Rare Rare Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) Abundant Abundant Coyote (Canis latrans) Rare Absent Domestic cat (Felis domesticus...

Henson, Kelly Diane

2006-08-16

368

Supplement 23, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla  

E-print Network

- lation to population density, includes data on seasonal and sex differences Sylvilagus floridanus: Virginia Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus) T?llum, D.; and Berger, R. S., 1977, J. Med. Entom., v. 13 (6), 701-705 Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, 2... wild hosts, adult ticks colonized in labora- tory with guinea pigs as hosts, life cycle studies, measurements of larvae and nymphs Didelphis virginiana Taxidea taxus Tayassu tajacu Canis latrans Procyon lotor Lynx rufus Sylvilagus floridanus...

Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

1982-01-01

369

Supplement 21, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda And Miscellaneous Phyla  

E-print Network

Amblyomma sp. Rao, T. R.; et al., 1973 a cattle: Western Himalayas Amblyomma albolimbatum Neumann Roberts, F. H. S., 1970 a key , description Demansia nuchalis: Australia Amblyomma americanum Andrews, G. L., 1970 a Sylvilagus floridanus... and Rickettsia not isolated from ticks Lynx rufus; Sylvilagus floridanus; Urocyon cinereo- argenteus; Didelphis virginiana; Procyon lotor; Meph- itis mephitis; Odocoileus virginianus; Marmota monax; Dama dama: all from Land between the Lakes Microtus...

Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

1978-01-01

370

Porting of EPICS to Real Time UNIX, and usage ported EPICS for FEL automation  

E-print Network

This article describes concepts and mechanisms used in porting of EPICS (Experimental Physical and Industrial Control System) codes to platform of operating system UNIX. Without destruction of EPICS architecture, new features of EPICS provides the support for real time operating system LynxOS/x86 and equipment produced by INP (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics). Application of ported EPICS reduces the cost of software and hardware is used for automation of FEL (Free Electron Laser) complex.

T. V. Salikova

2001-11-08

371

Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting.  

PubMed

Chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. Painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. However, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-Canidae species. Here, we extended cross-species painting with dog probes to seven more species representing six carnivore families: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the stone marten (Martes foina), the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Javan mongoose (Hepestes javanicas), the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The numbers and positions of intra-chromosomal rearrangements were found to differ among these carnivore species. A comparative map between human and stone marten, and a map among the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), stone marten and human were also established to facilitate outgroup comparison and to integrate comparative maps between stone marten and other carnivores with such maps between human and other species. These comparative maps give further insight into genome evolution and karyotype phylogenetic relationships among carnivores, and will facilitate the transfer of gene mapping data from human, domestic dog and cat to other species. PMID:22086079

Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Wang, D; Tanomtong, A; Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

2012-01-01

372

Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. Painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. However, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-Canidae species. Here, we extended cross-species painting with dog probes to seven more species representing six carnivore families: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the stone marten (Martes foina), the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Javan mongoose (Hepestes javanicas), the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The numbers and positions of intra-chromosomal rearrangements were found to differ among these carnivore species. A comparative map between human and stone marten, and a map among the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), stone marten and human were also established to facilitate outgroup comparison and to integrate comparative maps between stone marten and other carnivores with such maps between human and other species. These comparative maps give further insight into genome evolution and karyotype phylogenetic relationships among carnivores, and will facilitate the transfer of gene mapping data from human, domestic dog and cat to other species. PMID:22086079

Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Wang, D; Tanomtong, A; Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

2012-01-01

373

Antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in Canada.  

PubMed

Antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [CAV-2], feline herpesvirus [FHV], phocine herpesvirus [PHV-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [DMV], phocine distemper virus [PDV], parainfluenza virus type 3 [PI3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [DRV], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, Borrelia burgdorferi and Toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals, including cougars (Fellis concolor), lynxes (Fellis lynx), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), fishers (Martes pennanti), wolverines (Gulo gulo), wolves (Canis lupus), black bears (Ursus americanus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), which had been collected at several locations in Canada between 1984 and 2001. Antibodies to a number of viruses were detected in species in which these infections have not been reported before, for example, antibodies to CAV-2 in walruses, to PDV in black bears, grizzly bears, polar bears, lynxes and wolves, to DMV in grizzly bears, polar bears, walruses and wolves, to PI3 in black bears and fishers, and to DRV in belugas and walruses. PMID:15338705

Philippa, J D W; Leighton, F A; Daoust, P Y; Nielsen, O; Pagliarulo, M; Schwantje, H; Shury, T; Van Herwijnen, R; Martina, B E E; Kuiken, T; Van de Bildt, M W G; Osterhaus, A D M E

2004-07-31

374

Responses of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) to predator chemicals.  

PubMed

Free-ranging beaver (Castor canadensis) in two different beaver populations in New York State were exposed to predator chemicals to test feeding inhibition. Solvent extracts of feces were applied to stem sections of aspen, the preferred food tree of beavers, permitting smelling and tasting the samples. Predator odors were from wolf (Canis lupus), coyote (Canis latrans), dog (Canis familiaris), black bear (Ursus americanus), river otter (Lutra canadensis), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and African lion (Panthera leo). The experiment was repeated. The predator odors reduced feeding compared to untreated or solvent-treated controls. One population consumed 17.0% of the samples with predator odor and 27.0% of the controls in summer, and 48.4% and 60.0%, respectively, in autumn. The other population accepted 3.15% of the predator odor samples and 11.05% of the controls in summer. Coyote, lynx, and river otter odors had the strongest effects. Diesel oil and bitter-tasting neem extract had weaker effects. Predator odors are promising as feeding repellents for beaver. PMID:24234632

Engelhart, A; Müller-Schwarze, D

1995-09-01

375

A Fall fur-hunt from Maine to New Brunswick, Canada: The 1858 journal of Manly Hardy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecologists, conservationists, and others increasingly ask questions that require a reliable understanding of natural conditions in the past. For example, when the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to list the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) under the Federal Endangered Species Act, there was a need to know the historical status of this species in the northeastern US. The natural history writings of Manly Hardy, a successful, nineteenth-century businessman and respected amateur naturalist from Brewer, ME, proved useful in assessing the lynx's historical status. Because of the wide array of potential uses of Hardy's writings, the objective of this paper is to make biologists and other scholars aware of Hardy, especially his 15 surviving journals, 1852-1899. Hardy left the most extensive published record of any of the naturalists who wrote about wildlife in Maine from the late 1800s through the early 1900s. His articles and essays covered a wide range of subjects about a variety of bird and mammal species. A recently published biographical sketch of Hardy contains an annotated bibliography of his publications along with the republication of 14 of his mammalian works. In contrast, this article contains an example of his unpublished journal writing with significant wildlife observations.

Krohn, W.B.

2005-01-01

376

The Atsa Suborbital Observatory: An Observatory for a Commercial Suborbital Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of astronomical observations made above Earth's atmosphere have long been understood: free access to spectral regions inaccessible from Earth (e.g., UV) or affected by the atmosphere's content (e.g., IR). Most robotic, space-based telescopes maintain large angular separation between the Sun and an observational target in order to avoid accidental damage to instruments from the Sun. For most astronomical targets, this possibility is easily avoided by waiting until objects are visible away from the Sun. For the Solar System objects inside Earth's orbit, this is never the case. Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. Commercial suborbital spacecraft are largely expected to go to ~100 km altitude above Earth, providing a limited amount of time for astronomical observations. The unique scientific advantage to these observations is the ability to point close to the Sun: if a suborbital spacecraft accidentally turns too close to the Sun and fries an instrument, it is easy to land the spacecraft and repair the hardware for the next flight. Objects uniquely observed during the short observing window include inner-Earth asteroids, Mercury, Venus, and Sun-grazing comets. Both open-FOV and target-specific observations are possible. Despite many space probes to the inner Solar System, scientific questions remain. These include inner-Earth asteroid size and bulk density informing Solar System evolution studies and efforts to develop methods of mitigation against imminent impactors to Earth; chemistry and dynamics of Venus' atmosphere addressing physical phenomena such as greenhouse effect, atmospheric super-rotation and global resurfacing on Venus. With the Atsa Suborbital Observatory, we combine the strengths of both ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with both in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. Rapid turnaround will depend only on flight frequency. Data are stored on-board for retrieval when the spacecraft lands. We provide robust instrumentation that can survive suborbital spaceflight, assessment of the feasibility of the requested observations, rigorous scripting of the telescope operation, integration of the telescope plus instrument in a provider spacecraft, and periodic preventive maintenance for the telescope and instrument suite. XCOR Aerospace's Lynx III spacecraft is the best candidate vehicle to host a suborbital astronomical observatory. Unlike other similar vehicles, the Lynx will operate with only 1 or 2 people onboard (the pilot and an operator), allowing for each mission to be totally dedicated to the observation (no tourists will be bumping about; no other experiments will affect spacecraft pointing). A stable platform, the Lynx can point to an accuracy of ± 0.5o. Fine pointing is done by the telescope system. Best of all, the Lynx has a dorsal pod that opens directly to space. For astronomical observations, the best window is NO window. Currently, we plan to deploy a 20" diameter telescope in the Lynx III dorsal pod. XCOR Aerospace has the goal of eventually maintaining a Lynx flight frequency capability of 4 times/day. As with any observatory, Atsa will be available for observations by the community at large.

Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.

2012-12-01

377

Suborbital Research and Education Missions with Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV) will provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space. In the case of XCOR's Lynx, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a unique mission on a customized flight trajectory. This new manned, reusable commercial platform will allow for repeated observations with a single instrument, but without the need to refurbish the vehicle between flights. In addition, the short turn-around means a researcher can do multiple observations, measurements, or targets. The vehicle is designed for multi-mission primary and secondary payload capabilities, including: in-cockpit experiments and instrumentation testing, externally mounted experiments, upper atmospheric sampling, and microsatellite launch. This vehicle takes off horizontally from a runway and will go into a powered ascent attaining Mach 2.9 maximum airspeed. After about three minutes and at approximately 58 km (190,000 ft) the engines are shutdown and the RLV then coasts upwards. The low gravity period (at or below 0.001go) begins soon after at 3.35 minutes and the microgravity period (at or below 10-6go) starts at 4.25 minutes. At approximately four and half minutes the vehicle reaches apogee of 100 km (328, 000 ft). After reentry and a Max-G force pullout of 4 g, the Lynx touches down on the takeoff runway after approximately 30 minutes.Typical Lynx Mark II flight profile

Rodway, K.; Nelson, A.; Voigt, J.

2012-12-01

378

Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals. PMID:16387445

Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

2006-03-31

379

Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.  

PubMed

Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs. PMID:15526881

Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

2004-09-01

380

Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya.  

PubMed

The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species. PMID:17318699

Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer

2007-04-01

381

Implementation uncertainty when using recreational hunting to manage carnivores.  

PubMed

1. Wildlife managers often rely on resource users, such as recreational or commercial hunters, to achieve management goals. The use of hunters to control wildlife populations is especially common for predators and ungulates, but managers cannot assume that hunters will always fill annual quotas set by the authorities. It has been advocated that resource management models should account for uncertainty in how harvest rules are realized, requiring that this implementation uncertainty be estimated.2. We used a survival analysis framework and long-term harvest data from large carnivore management systems in three countries (Estonia, Latvia and Norway) involving four species (brown bear, grey wolf, Eurasian lynx and wolverine) to estimate the performance of hunters with respect to harvest goals set by managers.3. Variation in hunter quota-filling performance was substantial, ranging from 40% for wolverine in Norway to nearly 100% for lynx in Latvia. Seasonal and regional variation was also high within country-species pairs. We detected a positive relationship between the instantaneous potential to fill a quota slot and the relative availability of the target species for both wolverine and lynx in Norway.4. Survivor curves and hazards - with survival time measured as the time from the start of a season until a quota slot is filled - can indicate the extent to which managers can influence harvest through adjustments of season duration and quota limits.5.Synthesis and applications. We investigated seven systems where authorities use recreational hunting to manage large carnivore populations. The variation and magnitude of deviation from harvest goals was substantial, underlining the need to incorporate implementation uncertainty into resource management models and decisions-making. We illustrate how survival analysis can be used by managers to estimate the performance of resource users with respect to achieving harvest goals set by managers. The findings in this study come at an opportune time given the growing popularity of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models in fisheries and a push towards incorporating MSE into terrestrial harvest management. PMID:23197878

Bischof, Richard; Nilsen, Erlend B; Brøseth, Henrik; Männil, Peep; Ozoli?š, Ja?nis; Linnell, John D C; Bode, Michael

2012-08-01

382

Implementation uncertainty when using recreational hunting to manage carnivores  

PubMed Central

1. Wildlife managers often rely on resource users, such as recreational or commercial hunters, to achieve management goals. The use of hunters to control wildlife populations is especially common for predators and ungulates, but managers cannot assume that hunters will always fill annual quotas set by the authorities. It has been advocated that resource management models should account for uncertainty in how harvest rules are realized, requiring that this implementation uncertainty be estimated. 2. We used a survival analysis framework and long-term harvest data from large carnivore management systems in three countries (Estonia, Latvia and Norway) involving four species (brown bear, grey wolf, Eurasian lynx and wolverine) to estimate the performance of hunters with respect to harvest goals set by managers. 3. Variation in hunter quota-filling performance was substantial, ranging from 40% for wolverine in Norway to nearly 100% for lynx in Latvia. Seasonal and regional variation was also high within country–species pairs. We detected a positive relationship between the instantaneous potential to fill a quota slot and the relative availability of the target species for both wolverine and lynx in Norway. 4. Survivor curves and hazards – with survival time measured as the time from the start of a season until a quota slot is filled – can indicate the extent to which managers can influence harvest through adjustments of season duration and quota limits. 5. Synthesis and applications. We investigated seven systems where authorities use recreational hunting to manage large carnivore populations. The variation and magnitude of deviation from harvest goals was substantial, underlining the need to incorporate implementation uncertainty into resource management models and decisions-making. We illustrate how survival analysis can be used by managers to estimate the performance of resource users with respect to achieving harvest goals set by managers. The findings in this study come at an opportune time given the growing popularity of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models in fisheries and a push towards incorporating MSE into terrestrial harvest management. PMID:23197878

Bischof, Richard; Nilsen, Erlend B; Br?seth, Henrik; Mannil, Peep; Ozolins, Jaanis; Linnell, John D C; Bode, Michael

2012-01-01

383

Appearance of the first cemental annulation of permanent incisor teeth of the domestic cat (Felis catus)  

E-print Network

Common Marmoset 5 ecies Alces alces Odocoileus hemiomus dd t liens ~i Curvus ~e1a hus Ursus americanus ~se hales h h f Canis latrans Ovis aries ~nti le Odocoileus hemionus Ovis dalli Lynx rufus ~Vul es fulva ~nil t d e lands Ovss... 36 ( 1): 46-55, 197Z . 17. Crowe 0 M: The pr esence of annuli in bobcat tooth cementum layers. J Wildl ~M mt 36(4):1330-1332, 1972. 18. Monson R A, Stone W 8, Parks E: Aging red foxes (~Yui es fulva) by counting the annular cementum rings...

Choi, In-Back

2012-06-07

384

Evidence of a limited schizogonous cycle for Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats following exposure to infected ticks.  

PubMed

Schizogonous tissue stages of Cytauxzoon felis (Apicomplexa: Theileridae) were not observed by microscopic evaluation of impression smears of liver, spleen, lung and lymph nodes in 10 bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Oklahoma with naturally occurring piroplasm infections. Schizogonous stages were observed in similar tissues from experimentally-infected bobcats at 11 days postexposure to infected Dermacentor variabilis, but not at 30 days following tick feeding. The schizogonous cycle of this parasite appears to be short, although the bobcat appears to be a long-term carrier. PMID:3114505

Blouin, E F; Kocan, A A; Kocan, K M; Hair, J

1987-07-01

385

Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated that food preferences for bobcats in eastern Tennessee are similar to those in other southeastern states where the habitat is similar to the Oak Ridge area and somewhat different from those with significantly different habitat.

Story, J.D.; Galbraith, W.J.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-01-01

386

Toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther California.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in Norther Ccalifornia. The highest prevalence was among bobcats (Lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. Other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (Procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (Canis latrans). Two gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. Oone badger with an indirect hemagglutination antibody titer of 1:8192 was found to harbor T. gondii in its brain tissues. PMID:1142562

Riemann, H P; Howarth, J A; Ruppanner, R; Franti, C E; BEHYMER, D E

1975-04-01

387

First Student Project at the University of Tennessee at Martin Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Tennessee at Martin has recently completed the construction and setup of an observatory. The dome houses a 16" Meade telescope with SBIG STL-11000M CCD. For its first project, observations of the Delta Scuti type variable SZ Lynx were taken in March and analyzed using MiraPRO. A simple ephemeris calculation was done, and compared to previous results. This project was done under the University Scholars program, a four year scholarship program which includes a faculty-mentored research project.

Crews, Lionel J.; Turner, K.; Wesner, P.

2011-05-01

388

Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

Sowizral, Henry A.

1990-01-01

389

Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

2006-01-01

390

Instrumental facilities of the 6 m telescope as of October 1994.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Echelle-spectrometer of moderate resolution (ZEBRA). 2. Echelle-spectrometer for the red wavelength range (LYNX). 3. Hydrogen-line magnetometer-spectropolarimeter. 4. Magnetometer with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. 5. Spectrophotometric system in the Nasmyth-1 focus. 6. Multichannel analyser of intensity variations - MANIA. 7. CCD camera for direct imaging. 8. Fast long-slit spectrograph (FS). 9. Multi-object fibre spectrograph (MOFS) - MEDUZA. 10. Multi-pupil field spectrograph (MPFS). 11. Digital speckle interferometer. 12. Polarimeter "MINIPOL".

Galazutdinov, G. A.; Klochkova, V. G.; Shtol', V. G.; Najdenov, I. D.; Neizvestnyj, S. I.; Plokhotnichenko, V. L.; Kopylov, A. I.; Burenkov, A. I.; Vlasyuk, V. V.; Afanas'ev, V. L.; Maximov, A. F.; Bychkov, V. D.

391

Access to the Internet and Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently revised, this page from the Blindness Resource Center is an annotated directory of Websites dealing with issues of Internet access for the blind. The categories include accessible Web design, LYNX Web browser use, Net Tamer, access resources, Unix access, Java access, Windows access, and other blindness links. The sites presented are sharply-focused and provide specific information and instructions for the blind and support staff on software designed to improve access, as well as detailed advice to Webmasters on creating sites that are accessible. The Website is sponsored and maintained by the New York Institute for Special Education.

392

Analysis of the regulatory region of the heat-shock gene rpoH of Escherichia coli strains isolated from non-human hosts 1 The DNA sequences of the regulatory region of gene rpoH of Escherichia coli strains isolated from non-human hosts have been deposited in the DNA databank of GenBank (USA). Sequences from strains isolated from eagle, rice rat, jaguar, lynx, manatee, dolphin, koala, possum, equidna, platypus, penguin, seal, and whale, have been given the accession Nos. AF382227, AF382228, AF382229, AF382230, AF382231, AF382232, AF382233, AF382234, AF382235, AF382236, AF382237, AF382238 and AF382239, respectively. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory region of the gene for ?32, rpoH, of Escherichia coli strains isolated from non-human hosts and different geographic regions, was sequenced and compared with that of E. coli K12. The main nucleotide changes observed are localized to the right inverted octamer motif of the CytR box. The effect of these changes was evaluated using transcriptional fusions. The results

Gloria Sol??s-Guzmán; Jesús Ram??rez-Santos; Valeria Souza; M. Carmen Gómez-Eichelmann

2001-01-01

393

Independent variation of retinal S and M cone photoreceptor topographies: A survey of four families of mammals.  

PubMed

In mammals, cone photoreceptor subtypes are thought to establish topographies that reflect the species-relevant properties of the visual environment. Middle- to long-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones are the dominant population and in most species they form an area centralis at the visual axis. Short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cone topographies do not always match this pattern. We here correlate the interrelationship of S and M cone topographies in representatives of several mammalian orders with different visual ecology, including man, cheetah, cat, Eurasian lynx, African lion, wild hog, roe deer, and red deer. Retinas were labeled with opsin antisera and S and M cone distributions as well as S/M cone ratios were mapped. We find that species inhabiting open environments show M cone horizontal streaks (cheetah, pig, deer). Species living in structured habitats (tiger, lynx, red deer) have increased S cone densities along the retinal margin. In species with active vision (cheetah, bear, tiger, man), S cone distributions are more likely to follow the centripetal M cone gradients. Small species show a ventral bias of peak S cone density which either matches the peak of M cone density in a temporal area centralis (diurnal sciurid rodents, tree shrews) or not (cat, manul, roe deer). Thus, in addition to habitat structure, physical size and specific lifestyle patterns (e.g. food acquisition) appear to underlie the independent variations of M and S cone topographies. PMID:16961976

Ahnelt, Peter Kurt; Schubert, Christian; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Schiviz, Alexandra; Anger, Elisabeth

2006-01-01

394

Serologic survey of trichinellosis in wild mammals kept in a Mexico City Zoo.  

PubMed

A serologic survey of Trichinella infection was carried out to determine the prevalence of this parasitosis among wild mammals kept in captivity at the Chapultepec Zoo. This was prompted by the necropsy finding of a heavy Trichinella infection in a Canadian polar bear (Ursus maritimus) that had been kept at the Zoo for more than 11 years. The parasites recovered were identified as T. nativa (T2). A serologic study based on ELISA and Western blot analysis was performed in serum samples from two polar bears (U. maritimus), six wolves (Canis lupus); nine foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus); seven coyotes (Canis latrans); nine jaguars (Panthera onca); ten lions (Panthera leo); 11 tigers (Panthera tigris); six panthers (Panthera pardus); eight leopards (Panthera pardus); two lynxes (Lynx rufus); five pumas (Felis concolor); one yagouaroundi (Felis yagouaroundi); and one ocelot (Felis pardalis). In these assays, 25% and 27% of the samples studied were positive using total muscle larva extract from T. nativa (T2) or T. spiralis (T1), respectively. When T. spiralis (T1) excretory/secretory products or surface/stichosomal antigens were used, 15 and 13% positivity was obtained respectively. The reactivity rates obtained among the different groups varied from 11 to 83%, wolves having the highest infection rate. Western blot analysis of positive ELISA sera showed an antigenic recognition pattern characteristic of animals infected with Trichinella. PMID:9017871

Yépez-Mulia, L; Arriaga, C; Peña, M A; Gual, F; Ortega-Pierres, G

1996-12-31

395

A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.  

PubMed

Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool. PMID:24484483

Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

2014-04-01

396

Ilntmduction to Detection and Survey Methods  

E-print Network

he integrity of an ecosystem may be measured by the health of its vertebrate carnivore populations. Carnivores influence the structure and reflect the vigor of trophic levels on which they depend, and are sensitive to the abundance and behavior of the human populations with which they coexist (Eisenberg 1989). Concern for the conservation of mammalian carnivores in the western United States has centered on two large species, the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos). The public is well acquainted with the plight of these species; a wealth of popular literature on their natural history and a long tradition of folk knowledge have built a foundation of awareness. In contrast, the four species that we address in this manual, the American marten (Martes americana), fisher (Martes pennanti), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and wolverine (Gulo gulo) (henceforth collectively referred to as MFLW), are no less important constituents of their biological communities than the wolf or grizzly bear, but much less familiar. Fortunately, MFLW have begun to emerge from the shadows of public and scientific awareness (Kucera and Zielinski 1995). In the past 7 years in the Pacific Southwest

William I. Zielinski; Thomas E. Kucera

397

Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : I. Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus).  

PubMed

The effectiveness of predator odors (fecal, urine, and anal scent gland) in suppressing feeding damage by snowshoe hares was investigated in pen bioassays at the University of British Columbia Research Forest, Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. A total of 28 bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on hare consumption of willow browse and coniferous seedlings. Lynx and bobcat feces, weasel anal gland secretion, and lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, fox, and wolverine urines resulted in the most effective suppression of hare feeding damage. Novel odors of domestic dog urine and 2-methylbutyric acid did not reduce feeding. A field bioassay with lodgepole pine seedlings and weasel scent provided significant results comparable to the pen bioassays. The short-term (up to seven days) effectiveness of these treatments was more likely due to evaporative loss of the active repellent components of a given odor than habituation of hares to the stimulus. Predator odors as repellents have a biological basis compared with the anthropomorphic origins of commercial repellents. When encapsulated in weather-proof controlled-release devices, these odors could provide long-term protection for forestry plantations and agricultural crops which experience hare/rabbit feeding damage. PMID:24310275

Sullivan, T P; Nordstrom, L O; Sullivan, D S

1985-07-01

398

Polymorphism of CAG repeats in androgen receptor of carnivores.  

PubMed

Androgen effect is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). The polymorphism of CAG triplet repeat (polyCAG), in the N-terminal transactivation domain of the AR protein, has been involved either in endocrine or neurological disorders in human. We obtained partial sequence of AR exon 1 in 10 carnivore species. In most carnivore species, polyglutamine length polymorphism presented in all three CAG repeat regions of AR, in contrast, only CAG-I site polymorphism presented in primate species, and CAG-I and CAG-III sites polymorphism presented in Canidae. Therefore, studies focusing on disease-associated polymorphism of poly(CAG) in carnivore species AR should investigate all three CAG repeats sites, and should not only consider CAG-I sites as the human disease studies. The trinucleotide repeat length in carnivore AR exon 1 had undergone from expansions to contractions during carnivores evolution, unlike a linear increase in primate species. Furthermore, the polymorphisms of the triplet-repeats in the same tissue (somatic mosaicism) were demonstrated in Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx, Clouded leopard, Chinese tiger, Black leopard and Leopard AR. And, the abnormal stop codon was found in the exon 1 of three carnivore species AR (Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx and Black leopard). It seemed to have a high frequency presence of tissue-specific somatic in carnivores AR genes. Thus the in vivo mechanism leading to such highly variable phenotypes of the described mutations, and their impact on these animals, are worthwhile to be further elucidated. PMID:21643744

Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiuyue; Wang, Xiaofang; Zeng, Bo; Jia, Xiaodong; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong

2012-03-01

399

RXJ0848.6+4453: The Evolution of Galaxy Sizes and Stellar Populations in a z=1.27 Cluster  

E-print Network

RXJ0848.6+4453 (Lynx W) at redshift 1.27 is part of the Lynx Supercluster of galaxies. Our analysis of stellar populations and star formation history in the cluster covers 24 members and is based on deep optical spectroscopy from Gemini North and imaging data from HST. Focusing on the 13 bulge-dominated galaxies for which we can determine central velocity dispersions, we find that these show a smaller evolution of sizes and velocity dispersions than reported for field galaxies and galaxies in poorer clusters. The galaxies in RXJ0848.6+4453 populate the Fundamental Plane similar to that found for lower redshift clusters with a zero point offset corresponding to an epoch of last star formation at z_form= 1.95+-0.2. The spectra of the galaxies in RXJ0848.6+4453 are dominated by young stellar populations at all galaxy masses and in many cases show emission indicating low level on-going star formation. The average age of the young stellar populations (estimated from H-zeta) is consistent with a major star formatio...

Jorgensen, Inger; Toft, Sune; Bergmann, Marcel; Zirm, Andrew; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Grutzbauch, Ruth

2014-01-01

400

Evaluation of candidate rain gages for upgrading precipitation measurement tools for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1977 to investigate atmospheric deposition and its effects on the environment. Since its establishment, precipitation records have been obtained at all NADP sites using a gage developed approximately 50 years ago-the Belfort 5-780 mechanical rain gage. In 1998 and 1999, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate four recently developed, technologically advanced rain gages as possible replacement candidates for the mechanical gage currently (2002) in use by the NADP. The gage types evaluated were the Belfort 3200, Geonor T-200, ETI Noah II, and the OTT PLUVIO. The Belfort 5-780 was included in the study to compare the performance of the rain gage currently (2002) used by NADP to the performance of the more recently developed gages. As a reference gage, the NovaLynx Model 260-2510 National Weather Service type stick gage also was included in the study. Two individual gages of each type were included in the study to evaluate precision between gages of the same type. A two-phase evaluation was completed. Phase I consisted of indoor bench tests with known amounts of simulated rainfall applied in 20 individual tests. Phase II consisted of outdoor testing by collecting precipitation during a 26-week period near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The ETI Noah II, OTT PLUVIO, and NovaLynx stick gages consistently recorded depths more commensurate with the amounts of applied simulated rainfall in Phase I testing than the Geonor T-200, Belfort 5-780, and Belfort 3200 gages. Gages where both the median difference between the measured and applied simulated rainfall and the interquartile range of all of their measured minus applied simulated rainfall differences were small (less than or equal to 0.01 inch) were judged to have performed very well in Phase I testing. The median and interquartile-range values were 0.01 inch or less for each of the ETI Noah II gages, OTT PLUVIO gages, and NovaLynx stick gages. The performance of the Geonor T-200 and Belfort 3200 gages was affected by technical problems during Phase I testing. As part of the evaluation of Phase II results, the average weekly precipitation totals obtained from the Belfort 5-780 gages and from each of the gages under consideration as possible replacements for the Belfort 5-780 gage were all compared with the average precipitation weekly totals obtained from two NovaLynx stick gages. The median absolute differences between a particular gage model and the NovaLynx stick reference gage for the 26 weeks of outdoor testing ranged from 0.04 inch for the ETI Noah II and OTT PLUVIO gages to 0.06 inch for the Geonor T-200. The total absolute difference between a particular gage type and the reference gage ranged from 1.23 inches for the Belfort 5-780 to 1.83 inches for the Geonor T-200 gages. Because the Belfort 3200 gages were inoperable for most of the Phase II testing, it is not meaningful to include the results from that gage type in a calculation of median or total absolute differences. The OTT PLUVIO proved to be the most reliable gage in Phase I and II testing, operating trouble free over the duration of the study.

Gordon, John D.

2003-01-01

401

Predicting the potential demographic impact of predators on their prey: a comparative analysis of two carnivore-ungulate systems in Scandinavia  

PubMed Central

1. Understanding the role of predation in shaping the dynamics of animal communities is a fundamental issue in ecological research. Nevertheless, the complex nature of predator–prey interactions often prevents researchers from modelling them explicitly. 2. By using periodic Leslie–Usher matrices and a simulation approach together with parameters obtained from long-term field projects, we reconstructed the underlying mechanisms of predator–prey demographic interactions and compared the dynamics of the roe deer–red fox–Eurasian lynx–human harvest system with those of the moose–brown bear–gray wolf–human harvest system in the boreal forest ecosystem of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula. 3. The functional relationship of both roe deer and moose ? to changes in predation rates from the four predators was remarkably different. Lynx had the strongest impact among the four predators, whereas predation rates by wolves, red foxes, or brown bears generated minor variations in prey population ?. Elasticity values of lynx, wolf, fox and bear predation rates were ?0·157, ?0·056, ?0·031 and ?0·006, respectively, but varied with both predator and prey densities. 4. Differences in predation impact were only partially related to differences in kill or predation rates, but were rather a result of different distribution of predation events among prey age classes. Therefore, the age composition of killed individuals emerged as the main underlying factor determining the overall per capita impact of predation. 5. Our results confirm the complex nature of predator–prey interactions in large terrestrial mammals, by showing that different carnivores preying on the same prey species can exert a dramatically different demographic impact, even in the same ecological context, as a direct consequence of their predation patterns. Similar applications of this analytical framework in other geographical and ecological contexts are needed, but a more general evaluation of the subject is also required, aimed to assess, on a broader systematic and ecological range, what specific traits of a carnivore are most related to its potential impact on prey species. PMID:22077484

Gervasi, Vincenzo; Nilsen, Erlend B; Sand, Hakan; Panzacchi, Manuela; Rauset, Geir R; Pedersen, Hans C; Kindberg, Jonas; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Odden, John; Liberg, Olof; Swenson, Jon E; Linnell, John D C

2012-01-01

402

Predicting the potential demographic impact of predators on their prey: a comparative analysis of two carnivore-ungulate systems in Scandinavia.  

PubMed

1. Understanding the role of predation in shaping the dynamics of animal communities is a fundamental issue in ecological research. Nevertheless, the complex nature of predator-prey interactions often prevents researchers from modelling them explicitly. 2. By using periodic Leslie-Usher matrices and a simulation approach together with parameters obtained from long-term field projects, we reconstructed the underlying mechanisms of predator-prey demographic interactions and compared the dynamics of the roe deer-red fox-Eurasian lynx-human harvest system with those of the moose-brown bear-gray wolf-human harvest system in the boreal forest ecosystem of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula. 3. The functional relationship of both roe deer and moose ? to changes in predation rates from the four predators was remarkably different. Lynx had the strongest impact among the four predators, whereas predation rates by wolves, red foxes, or brown bears generated minor variations in prey population ?. Elasticity values of lynx, wolf, fox and bear predation rates were -0·157, -0·056, -0·031 and -0·006, respectively, but varied with both predator and prey densities. 4. Differences in predation impact were only partially related to differences in kill or predation rates, but were rather a result of different distribution of predation events among prey age classes. Therefore, the age composition of killed individuals emerged as the main underlying factor determining the overall per capita impact of predation. 5. Our results confirm the complex nature of predator-prey interactions in large terrestrial mammals, by showing that different carnivores preying on the same prey species can exert a dramatically different demographic impact, even in the same ecological context, as a direct consequence of their predation patterns. Similar applications of this analytical framework in other geographical and ecological contexts are needed, but a more general evaluation of the subject is also required, aimed to assess, on a broader systematic and ecological range, what specific traits of a carnivore are most related to its potential impact on prey species. PMID:22077484

Gervasi, Vincenzo; Nilsen, Erlend B; Sand, Håkan; Panzacchi, Manuela; Rauset, Geir R; Pedersen, Hans C; Kindberg, Jonas; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Odden, John; Liberg, Olof; Swenson, Jon E; Linnell, John D C

2012-03-01

403

A biological framework for evaluating whether a species is threatened or endangered in a significant portion of its range.  

PubMed

Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), a species can be listed if it is at risk "in all or a significant portion of its range," but the ESA provides no guidance on how to interpret this key phrase. We propose a simple test to determine whether the areas of a species' range in which it is currently at risk amount to a significant portion: If the species were to become extirpated from these areas, at that point would the entire species be at risk? If so, then these areas represent a significant portion of the species' range. By establishing the species itself as the point of reference for determining significance, this test directs attention to biological risk factors and avoids difficulties inherent in subjective evaluations of importance to humans. For broadly distributed species this framework could provide ESA protection due to cumulative risks before the entire species met the criteria to be considered threatened or endangered. This framework also allows a somewhat broader concept of range to include major components of diversity necessary for long-term persistence. The concept of a historical template (i.e., conditions under which the species was known to be viable) is important in providing a fixed reference point for evaluating viability. Empirical examples illustrate how these concepts have been applied in recent ESA listing determinations. Most ESA-listed units of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can be divided into multiple strata that differ in terms of ecology, geology, or life-history traits of the component populations. The goal of ESA recovery planning is to restore viable populations in enough strata that the listed unit as a whole is no longer threatened or endangered in all or a significant portion of its range. In a recent review of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Puget Sound, current status (some populations increasing and others declining) was evaluated in the context of the historical template, and it was concluded that current patterns of distribution and abundance do not depart substantially from what would be expected at any point in time under natural conditions in a large metapopulation. The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) is ESA listed in the contiguous United States, where it occurs in four geographic areas. Populations in one region, the Northern Rockies/Cascades, have always been the most important for long-term persistence of the species in the United States. Because the other regions never contained more than limited amounts of good-quality lynx habitat, those areas are not considered to represent a significant portion of the species' range. PMID:17650247

Waples, Robin S; Adams, Peter B; Bohnsack, James; Taylor, Barbara L

2007-08-01

404

Application of faecal metabonomics on an experimental model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis by ultra performance liquid chromatography/high-sensitivity mass spectrometry with MS(E) data collection technique.  

PubMed

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a major challenge for the public healthcare problem. A novel UPLC Q-TOF/MS method with MS(E) data collection mode was developed as a very effective biochemical analytical tool for precise identification of important biomarkers in the adenine-induced CRF rats. Nine endogenous metabolites were identified by using metabonomic method combined with multivariate data analysis, the accurate mass, isotopic pattern, MS(E) fragments information and MassLynx i-FIT algorithm. The identified metabolites indicated the perturbations of bile acid and phospholipid metabolism are related to CRF rats. This work shows that metabonomics method is a valuable tool in CRF mechanism study. PMID:23020077

Zhao, Ying-Yong; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng; Bai, Xu; Lin, Rui-Chao

2012-12-01

405

A simple, inexpensive video camera setup for the study of avian nest activity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Time-lapse video photography has become a valuable tool for collecting data on avian nest activity and depredation; however, commercially available systems are expensive (>USA $4000/unit). We designed an inexpensive system to identify causes of nest failure of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) and assessed its utility at Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia. We successfully identified raccoon (Procyon lotor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) predation on oystercatcher nests. Other detected causes of nest failure included tidal overwash, horse trampling, abandonment, and human destruction. System failure rates were comparable with commercially available units. Our system's efficacy and low cost (<$800) provided useful data for the management and conservation of the American Oystercatcher.

Sabine, J.B.; Meyers, J.M.; Schweitzer, S.H.

2005-01-01

406

Increasing Frequency of Feline Cytauxzoonosis Cases Diagnosed in Western Kentucky From 2001–2011  

PubMed Central

Feline cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease in domestic cats caused by the tick-borne pathogen, Cytauxzoon felis. The primary reservoir host for this protozoan parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). In this retrospective study, we have examined the positive cases of feline cytauxzoonosis identified at Murray State University’s Breathitt Veterinary Center, a regional diagnostic facility located in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, between January 2001 and December 2011. Center records reveal that there has been an increase in the rate of diagnosis of domestic feline infection with C. felis over that 10-year span with the majority of cases (75%) occurring between 2006–2011. The infection was diagnosed from March through October and showed a single peak in May, corresponding well with the questing period for the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, a known vector of C. felis. PMID:24035030

Miller, Jean; Davis, Cheryl D.

2013-01-01

407

Administration of diminazene aceturate or imidocarb dipropionate for treatment of cytauxzoonosis in cats.  

PubMed

Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are the reservoir hosts for Cytauxzoon felis, the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis. Cytauxzoonosis is a highly fatal tickborne blood protozoal disease of domestic and exotic cats. Treatment of clinically affected cats has generally been unrewarding. In our report, 6 of 7 cats had signs of illness and laboratory findings indicative of cytauxzoonosis and were successfully treated with 2 i.m. injections of diminazene aceturate or imidocarb dipropionate (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb] of body weight, each). One cat died after the first injection of diminazene. Additional treatment with isotonic fluids i.v. and heparin s.c. were used as supportive care for dehydration and disseminated intravascular coagulation that were detected by laboratory testing between diminazene or imidocarb treatments. Atropine was effective in recovery and preventing adverse reactions associated with imidocarb treatment of 1 cat. PMID:10461632

Greene, C E; Latimer, K; Hopper, E; Shoeffler, G; Lower, K; Cullens, F

1999-08-15

408

Excystation of Isospora arctopitheci Rodhain, 1933 with notes on a similiar process in Isospora begemina (Stiles, 1891) Lühe, 1906.  

PubMed

The in vitro excystation process of sporozoites of Isospora arctophitheci Rodhain, 1933 from the titi marmoset Saguinus geoffroyi and of Isospora bigemina (Stiles, 1891) Lühe, 1906 from the bobcat, Lynx rufus is presented. Sporocysts of both species lack a Stieda body and when exposed to a trypsin-sodium taurocholate (pH 7.4) excysting fluid the walls of both collapse in a similar fashion, along apparently predetermined lines. Similarities and differences on excystation between. I. arctopitheci, I. bigemina, and other Isospora, Eimeria, and Sarcocytis species are summarized. Such studies show that 2 distinct patterns of sporozoite excystation have been described to date, and both appear to be related to the structure of the sporocyst. PMID:1258522

Duszynski, D W; Speer, C A

1976-02-01

409

Increasing frequency of feline cytauxzoonosis cases diagnosed in western Kentucky from 2001 to 2011.  

PubMed

Feline cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease in domestic cats caused by the tick-borne pathogen, Cytauxzoon felis. The primary reservoir host for this protozoan parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). In this retrospective study, we have examined the positive cases of feline cytauxzoonosis identified at Murray State University's Breathitt Veterinary Center, a regional diagnostic facility located in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, between January 2001 and December 2011. Center records reveal that there has been an increase in the rate of diagnosis of domestic feline infection with C. felis over that 10-year span with the majority of cases (75%) occurring between 2006 and 2011. The infection was diagnosed from March through October and showed a single peak in May, corresponding well with the questing period for the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, a known vector of C. felis. PMID:24035030

Miller, Jean; Davis, Cheryl D

2013-11-15

410

Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.  

PubMed

A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442

Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James

2006-12-01

411

Characterisation of proanthocyanidins from Schisandra chinensis seed coats by UPLC-QTOF/MS.  

PubMed

In this article, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed to detect the chemical structures of proanthocyanidins (PAs) from seed coats of Schisandra chinensis. The cleavage pathways of the compounds were revealed. The structures of S. chinensis PAs, including two monomers, two B-type procyanidin dimers, three B-type procyanidin trimers, one mixed trimer and one B-type procyanidin tetramer, were confirmed. These nine compounds were detected in seed coats for the first time. The structures were identified by comparing their maximum absorption wavelengths, HPLC retention times and ESI-MS with those of authentic standards, or tentatively identified by MS/MS determination along with MetaboLynx(TM) software. PMID:25154470

Yan, Ting; Hu, Gao-Sheng; Wang, An-Hua; Hong, Yu; Jia, Jing-Ming

2014-11-01

412

Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico. PMID:11695403

Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

2001-10-01

413

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in wildlife populations within a watershed landscape in southeastern New York State.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in wildlife in the New York City (NYC) Watershed in southeastern New York State. A total of 6227 fecal samples were collected and evaluated from 5892 mammals (38 species), 263 birds (14 species), 2 reptiles (2 species), 8 amphibians (4 species), and 62 fish (15 species). Cryptosporidium was detected in 30 species. Of the species found positive for Cryptosporidium, 16 represented new records for this parasite-Alosa pseudoharengus, Larus delawarensis, Blarina brevicauda, Sorex cinereus, Parascalops breweri, Myotis lucifugus, Peromyscus maniculatus, Microtus pennsylvanicus, Clethrionomys gapperi, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, Marmota monax, Erethizon dorsatum, Canis latrans, Mustela erminea, Mustela vison, and Lynx rufus. Factors such as age, sex, season, and land use were evaluated to determine if there was any association with infection by this parasite. Animals were more likely to be positive for Cryptosporidium during spring and in agricultural land use. PMID:17466459

Ziegler, Peter E; Wade, Susan E; Schaaf, Stephanie L; Stern, David A; Nadareski, Christopher A; Mohammed, Hussni O

2007-06-20

414

Sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas.  

PubMed

There are no published reports of domestic or sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. The aim of the present survey was to determine the presence of Trichinella species in selected representative species of potential wildlife reservoirs in southern Texas. In 1998-99, tongues of 211 wild mammals were collected in southern Texas: 154 coyotes (Canis latrans), three bobcats (Lynx rufus), 32 racoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), four ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and five wild boars (Sus scrofa). Presence of Trichinella sp. larvae was investigated by artificial digestion and larvae of positive samples were identified at the species level by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nine (5.8%) coyotes had trichinellosis; in the muscles of seven of these coyotes, the larvae were identified as Trichinella murrelli. This is the first report of sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. PMID:11484391

Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Mancini Barbieri, F; Amati, M; Casulli, A; Pozio, E

2001-06-01

415

Effects of ingested atmospheric turbulence on measured tail rotor acoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. Turbulence ingestion noise is found to be the dominant noise mechanism at locations near the rotor axis. At these locations, the sound radiated by the hovering rotor increases with both increasing atmospheric wind speed and ingested rms turbulent velocity.

Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Mosher, Marianne; Hagen, Martin J.; George, Albert R.

1992-01-01

416

Increased flexibility for modeling telemetry and nest-survival data using the multistate framework  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although telemetry is one of the most common tools used in the study of wildlife, advances in the analysis of telemetry data have lagged compared to progress in the development of telemetry devices. We demonstrate how standard known-fate telemetry and related nest-survival data analysis models are special cases of the more general multistate framework. We present a short theoretical development, and 2 case examples regarding the American black duck and the mallard. We also present a more complex lynx data analysis. Although not necessary in all situations, the multistate framework provides additional flexibility to analyze telemetry data, which may help analysts and biologists better deal with the vagaries of real-world data collection.

Devineau, Olivier; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F., Jr.; Shenk, Tanya M.; White, Gary C.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

2014-01-01

417

Diamon2- Improved Monitoring of CERN’s Accelerator Controls Infrastructure  

E-print Network

Monitoring of heterogeneous systems in large organizations like CERN is always challenging. CERN's accelerators infrastructure includes large number of equipment (servers, consoles, FECs, PLCs), some still running legacy software like LynxOS 4 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 on older hardware with very limited resources. DIAMON2 is based on CERN Common Monitoring platform. Using Java industry standards, notably Spring, Ehcache and the Java Message Service, together with a small footprint C++ -based monitoring agent for real time systems and wide variety of additional data acquisition components (SNMP, JMS, JMX etc.), DIAMON2 targets CERN’s environment, providing easily extensible, dynamically reconfigurable, reliable and scalable monitoring solution. This article explains the evolution of the CERN diagnostics and monitoring environment until DIAMON2, describes the overall system’s architecture, main components and their functionality as well as the first operational experiences with the new system, observed...

Buczak, W; Ehm, F; Jurcso, P; Mitev, M

2014-01-01

418

Experimental and numerical study of the British Experimental Rotor Programme blade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind-tunnel tests on the British Experimental Rotor Programme (BERP) tip are described, and the results are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results. The test model was molded using the Lynx-BERP blade tooling to provide a semispan, cantilever wing comprising the outboard 30 percent of the rotor blade. The tests included both surface-pressure measurements and flow visualization to obtain detailed information of the flow over the BERP tip for a range of angles of attack. It was observed that, outboard of the notch, favorable pressure gradients exist which ensure attached flow, and that the tip vortex also remains stable to large angles of attack. On the rotor, these features yield a very gradual break in control loads when the retreating-blade limit is eventually reached. Computational and experimental results were generally found to be in good agreement.

Brocklehurst, Alan; Duque, Earl P. N.

1990-01-01

419

Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from Alabama, USA.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife is of interest to understand the transmission of this parasite in the environment. In the present study, we genetically characterized five T. gondii isolates from different wild animals including two isolates from a bobcat (Lynx rufus), one from a red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus), one from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and one from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Genotyping of these samples using 11 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) revealed two types, including type I (ToxoDB#10) and type 12 (ToxoDB#5). This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii strains in wildlife from Alabama and from a red-shouldered hawk. PMID:23160892

Yu, Li; Shen, Jilong; Su, Chunlei; Sundermann, Christine A

2013-03-01

420

Measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects on tail rotor acoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of atmospheric turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. In contradiction to current theories, increasing rotor inflow and rotor thrust were found to increase turbulence ingestion noise. This is the final report of Task 13A--Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise, of the NASA/United Kingdom Defense Research Agency cooperative Aeronautics Research Program.

Hagen, Martin J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Signor, David B.; Mosher, Marianne

1994-01-01

421

Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical modeling of insensitive explosives in thermal environments  

SciTech Connect

The ability to predict the response of a weapon system that contains insensitive explosives to elevated temperatures is important in understanding its safety characteristics. To model such a system at elevated temperatures in a finite element computer code requires a variety of capabilities. These modeling capabilities include thermal diffusion and convection to transport the heat to the explosives in the weapon system, temperature based chemical reaction modeling of the decomposition of the explosive materials, and mechanical modeling of both the metal casing and the unreacted and decomposed explosive. The Chemical TOPAZ code has been developed to model coupled thermal/chemical problems where we do not need to model the mass motion. We have also developed the LYNX2D code, based on PALM2D and Chemical TOPAZ, which is an implicit, two-dimensional coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical finite element model computer code. Some representative examples are shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Nichols, A.L. III [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94550 (United States)

1996-05-01

422

VME Based Daq in the Experiments at Acculinna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VME based data acquisition system for the first time was fully tested in the recent experiment [1] with the 3H(8He,p)10He reaction on the ACCULINNA fragment separator [2]. This DAQ allowed us to combine in the same experiment several types of detectors: multiwire proportional chambers, silicon detectors, CsI detectors and stilbene detectors. The DAQ system includes a RIO-3 processor connected with CAMAC crate via GTB resources, TRIVA-5 master trigger, standard VME units ADC, TDC, QDC (about 250 parameters in total) and various software (Multi Branch System - MBS version 5.0, based on CERN ROOT Go4 version 4.4.3 and real time OS LynxOS version 3.3.1). The new DAQ is faster and more flexible than the old system based on CAMAC and provides possibility to use in the future new VME modules (for instance digitizers).

Slepnev, R. S.; Bezbakh, A. A.; Chudoba, V.; Daniel, A. V.; Golovkov, M. S.; Fomichev, A. S.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Krupko, S. A.; Kaminski, G.; Mentel, M.; Pluci?ski, P.; Sidorchuk, S. I.

2013-06-01

423

Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane as an indicator of post-release survival  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predation by bobcats (Lynx rufus) is the major cause of mortality in captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) released into the wild to establish a nonmigratory flock in Florida. This study investigated whether rearing methods (parent-rearing, hand-rearing, or hand-rearing with exercise) of cranes, and behaviors observed in birds either before or shortly after release in the wild, are associated with survival after release. Rearing methods did not affect survival first year post-release, which was 55 ? 8% in 2 yr (1999 and 2000). Logistic regression revealed, however, that foraging bouts (+), walking bouts (-), and body weight (-) before release, and nonvigilant bouts (-) after release were significantly associated with survival. These results suggest that post-release survival of whooping cranes might be increased by rearing techniques that promote foraging.

Kreger, M. D.; Hatfield, J. S.; Estevez, I.; Gee, G.F.; Clugston, D.A.

2006-01-01

424

Modelling Landscape-Level Numerical Responses of Predators to Prey: The Case of Cats and Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Predator-prey systems can extend over large geographical areas but empirical modelling of predator-prey dynamics has been largely limited to localised scales. This is due partly to difficulties in estimating predator and prey abundances over large areas. Collection of data at suitably large scales has been a major problem in previous studies of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and their predators. This applies in Western Europe, where conserving rabbits and predators such as Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is important, and in other parts of the world where rabbits are an invasive species supporting populations of introduced, and sometimes native, predators. In pastoral regions of New Zealand, rabbits are the primary prey of feral cats (Felis catus) that threaten native fauna. We estimate the seasonal numerical response of cats to fluctuations in rabbit numbers in grassland–shrubland habitat across the Otago and Mackenzie regions of the South Island of New Zealand. We use spotlight counts over 1645 km of transects to estimate rabbit and cat abundances with a novel modelling approach that accounts simultaneously for environmental stochasticity, density dependence and varying detection probability. Our model suggests that cat abundance is related consistently to rabbit abundance in spring and summer, possibly through increased rabbit numbers improving the fecundity and juvenile survival of cats. Maintaining rabbits at low abundance should therefore suppress cat numbers, relieving predation pressure on native prey. Our approach provided estimates of the abundance of cats and rabbits over a large geographical area. This was made possible by repeated sampling within each season, which allows estimation of detection probabilities. A similar approach could be applied to predator-prey systems elsewhere, and could be adapted to any method of direct observation in which there is no double-counting of individuals. Reliable estimates of numerical responses are essential for managing both invasive and threatened predators and prey. PMID:24039978

Cruz, Jennyffer; Glen, Alistair S.; Pech, Roger P.

2013-01-01

425

Sinks without borders: Snowshoe hare dynamics in a complex landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A full understanding of population dynamics of wide-ranging animals should account for the effects that movement and habitat use have on individual contributions to population growth or decline. Quantifying the per-capita, habitat-specific contribution to population growth can clarify the value of different patch types, and help to differentiate population sources from population sinks. Snowshoe hares, Lepus americanus, routinely use various habitat types in the landscapes they inhabit in the contiguous US, where managing forests for high snowshoe hare density is a priority for conservation of Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis. We estimated density and demographic rates via mark-recapture live trapping and radio-telemetry within four forest stand structure (FSS) types at three study areas within heterogeneous managed forests in western Montana. We found support for known fate survival models with time-varying individual covariates representing the proportion of locations in each of the FSS types, with survival rates decreasing as use of open young and open mature FSS types increased. The per-capita contribution to overall population growth increased with use of the dense mature or dense young FSS types and decreased with use of the open young or open mature FSS types, and relatively high levels of immigration appear to be necessary to sustain hares in the open FSS types. Our results support a conceptual model for snowshoe hares in the southern range in which sink habitats (open areas) prevent the buildup of high hare densities. More broadly, we use this system to develop a novel approach to quantify demographic sources and sinks for animals making routine movements through complex fragmented landscapes. ?? 2009 Oikos.

Griffin, P.C.; Scott, Mills L.

2009-01-01

426

Assessing dam implementation impact on threatened carnivores: the case of Alqueva in SE Portugal.  

PubMed

Large dam construction in water deficient areas is a management decision often controversial. Besides providing water storage, economical benefits, and a source of renewable energy, the construction and flooding caused by large dams cause disruptions in natural systems. We monitored the pre- and post-Alqueva dam impacts on the threatened carnivore species (polecat, otter, wildcat and Iberian lynx) populations in SE Portugal, and assessed which factors mostly contribute to post-dam distribution. Major short term impacts of large dams are: (1) increase in accessibility and human presence; (2) movement of heavy machinery and dam-workers; (3) deforestation with habitat loss and fragmentation; (4) change from lotic to lentic system; (5) lower prey availability and harsher capture; and (6) changes in land use adjacent to the reservoir. Thus, the response to those impacts can be predicted as a decline of polecat, wildcat and lynx distribution ranges, and a recovery of the otter from the severe short term impacts. Our results corroborate this hypothesis for all the species, especially during deforestation/early flooding. Otter's distribution range increased in the phase of greater impact, with a subsequent decrease with flooding. Our results suggest carnivores used "escape" areas with favourable habitat and prey conditions, however, the areas with higher probability of species presence decreased by two fold showing a drastic range reduction. To ensure populations' survival of these charismatic threatened carnivore populations of Mediterranean landscapes of south-east Portugal, we propose continuing the monitoring program and the development of a conservation program for the subsisting areas of optimal and suboptimal habitats. PMID:17932778

Santos, Maria J; Pedroso, Nuno M; Ferreira, Joaquim P; Matos, Hugo M; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Pereira, Iris; Baltazar, Carla; Grilo, Clara; Cândido, Ana T; Sousa, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida

2008-07-01

427

Novel Gammaherpesviruses in North American Domestic Cats, Bobcats, and Pumas: Identification, Prevalence, and Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) are a diverse and rapidly expanding group of viruses associated with a variety of disease conditions in humans and animals. To identify felid GHVs, we screened domestic cat (Felis catus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and puma (Puma concolor) blood cell DNA samples from California, Colorado, and Florida using a degenerate pan-GHV PCR. Additional pan-GHV and long-distance PCRs were used to sequence a contiguous 3.4-kb region of each putative virus species, including partial glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. We identified three novel GHVs, each present predominantly in one felid species: Felis catus GHV 1 (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats, Lynx rufus GHV 1 (LruGHV1) in bobcats, and Puma concolor GHV 1 (PcoGHV1) in pumas. To estimate infection prevalence, we developed real-time quantitative PCR assays for each virus and screened additional DNA samples from all three species (n = 282). FcaGHV1 was detected in 16% of domestic cats across all study sites. LruGHV1 was detected in 47% of bobcats and 13% of pumas across all study sites, suggesting relatively common interspecific transmission. PcoGHV1 was detected in 6% of pumas, all from a specific region of Southern California. The risk of infection for each host varied with geographic location. Age was a positive risk factor for bobcat LruGHV1 infection, and age and being male were risk factors for domestic cat FcaGHV1 infection. Further characterization of these viruses may have significant health implications for domestic cats and may aid studies of free-ranging felid ecology. IMPORTANCE Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) establish lifelong infection in many animal species and can cause cancer and other diseases in humans and animals. In this study, we identified the DNA sequences of three GHVs present in the blood of domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions, cougars, and panthers). We found that these viruses were closely related to, but distinct from, other known GHVs of animals and represent the first GHVs identified to be native to these feline species. We developed techniques to rapidly and specifically detect the DNA of these viruses in feline blood and found that the domestic cat and bobcat viruses were widespread across the United States. In contrast, puma virus was found only in a specific region of Southern California. Surprisingly, the bobcat virus was also detected in some pumas, suggesting relatively common virus transmission between these species. Adult domestic cats and bobcats were at greater risk for infection than juveniles. Male domestic cats were at greater risk for infection than females. This study identifies three new viruses that are widespread in three feline species, indicates risk factors for infection that may relate to the route of infection, and demonstrates cross-species transmission between bobcats and pumas. These newly identified viruses may have important effects on feline health and ecology. PMID:24453374

Beatty, Julia A.; Stutzman-Rodriguez, Kathryn R.; Carver, Scott; Lozano, Caitlin C.; Lee, Justin S.; Lappin, Michael R.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Serieys, Laurel E. K.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Boyce, Walter M.; Vickers, T. Winston; McBride, Roy; Crooks, Kevin R.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; VandeWoude, Sue

2014-01-01

428

Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased markedly in LB- and TBE-endemic areas in South (Götaland) and Central Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that I. ricinus has expanded its range in North Sweden and has become distinctly more abundant in Central and South Sweden during the last three decades. However, in the northern mountain region I. ricinus is still absent. The increased abundance of the tick can be explained by two main factors: First, the high availability of large numbers of important tick maintenance hosts, i.e., cervids, particularly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during the last three decades. Second, a warmer climate with milder winters and a prolonged growing season that permits greater survival and proliferation over a larger geographical area of both the tick itself and deer. High reproductive potential of roe deer, high tick infestation rate and the tendency of roe deer to disperse great distances may explain the range expansion of I. ricinus and particularly the appearance of new TBEV foci far away from old TBEV-endemic localities. The geographical presence of LB in Sweden corresponds to the distribution of I. ricinus. Thus, LB is now an emerging disease risk in many parts of North Sweden. Unless countermeasures are undertaken to keep the deer populations, particularly C. capreolus and Dama dama, at the relatively low levels that prevailed before the late 1970s - especially in and around urban areas where human population density is high - by e.g. reduced hunting of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and lynx (Lynx lynx), the incidences of human LB and TBE are expected to continue to be high or even to increase in Sweden in coming decades. PMID:22233771

2012-01-01

429

RX J0848.6+4453: The Evolution of Galaxy Sizes and Stellar Populations in a z = 1.27 Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RX J0848.6+4453 (Lynx W) at redshift 1.27 is part of the Lynx Supercluster of galaxies. We present an analysis of the stellar populations and star formation history for a sample of 24 members of the cluster. Our study is based on deep optical spectroscopy obtained with Gemini North combined with imaging data from Hubble Space Telescope. Focusing on the 13 bulge-dominated galaxies for which we can determine central velocity dispersions, we find that these show a smaller evolution with redshift of sizes and velocity dispersions than reported for field galaxies and galaxies in poorer clusters. Our data show that the galaxies in RX J0848.6+4453 populate the fundamental plane (FP) similar to that found for lower-redshift clusters. The zero-point offset for the FP is smaller than expected if the cluster's galaxies are to evolve passively through the location of the FP we established in our previous work for z = 0.8-0.9 cluster galaxies and then to the present-day FP. The FP zero point for RX J0848.6+4453 corresponds to an epoch of last star formation at z_form= 1.95+0.22-0.15. Further, we find that the spectra of the galaxies in RX J0848.6+4453 are dominated by young stellar populations at all galaxy masses and in many cases show emission indicating low-level ongoing star formation. The average age of the young stellar populations as estimated from the strength of the high-order Balmer line H? is consistent with a major star formation episode 1-2 Gyr prior, which in turn agrees with z form = 1.95. These galaxies dominated by young stellar populations are distributed throughout the cluster. We speculate that low-level star formation has not yet been fully quenched in the center of this cluster, possibly because the cluster is significantly poorer than other clusters previously studied at similar redshifts, which appear to have very little ongoing star formation in their centers. The mixture in RX J0848.6+4453 of passive galaxies with young stellar populations and massive galaxies still experiencing some star formation appears similar to the galaxy populations recently identified in two z ? 2 clusters.

Jørgensen, Inger; Chiboucas, Kristin; Toft, Sune; Bergmann, Marcel; Zirm, Andrew; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Grützbauch, Ruth

2014-12-01

430

Intelligent switches of integrated lightwave circuits with core telecommunication functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a brief overview of a promising switching technology based on Silica on Silicon thermo-optic integrated circuits. This is basically a 2D solid-state optical device capable of non-blocking switching operation. Except of its excellent performance (insertion loss<5dB, switching time<2ms...), the switch enables additional important build-in functionalities. It enables single-to- single channel switching and single-to-multiple channel multicasting/broadcasting. In addition, it has the capability of channel weighting and variable output power control (attenuation), for instance, to equalize signal levels and compensate for unbalanced different optical input powers, or to equalize unbalanced EDFA gain curve. We examine the market segments appropriate for the switch size and technology, followed by a discussion of the basic features of the technology. The discussion is focused on important requirements from the switch and the technology (e.g., insertion loss, power consumption, channel isolation, extinction ratio, switching time, and heat dissipation). The mechanical design is also considered. It must take into account integration of optical fiber, optical planar wafer, analog electronics and digital microprocessor controls, embedded software, and heating power dissipation. The Lynx Photon.8x8 switch is compared to competing technologies, in terms of typical market performance requirements.

Izhaky, Nahum; Duer, Reuven; Berns, Neil; Tal, Eran; Vinikman, Shirly; Schoenwald, Jeffrey S.; Shani, Yosi

2001-05-01

431

Automatic modelling of building façade objects via primitive shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach to recognize individual façade objects and to reconstruct such objects in 3D using MLS point clouds. Core of the approach is a primitive shape based algorithm, which introduces building primitives, to identify the façade objects separately from other irrelevant objects and then to model the correct topology. The primitive shape is identified against defined different primitive shapes by using the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. The advantage of this process is that it offers an ability not only to model correct geometric shapes but also to remove occlusion effects from the final model. To evaluate the validity of the proposed approach, experiments have been conducted using two types of street scene point clouds captured by Optech Lynx Mobile Mapper System and Z+F laser scanner. Results of the experiments show that the completeness, correctness, and quality of the reconstructed building façade objects are well over 90 %, proving the proposed method is a promising solution for modelling 3D façade objects with different geometric shapes.

Hetti Arachchige, N.; Perera, S.

2014-08-01

432

An improved ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry method for determining ingredients of herbal Fructus corni in blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background: Fructus Corni (FC), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), derived from the dry ripe sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc (Cornaceae), has been widely prescribed to treat disease in China for centuries. It has attracted increasingly much attention as one of the most popular and valuable herbal medicine in clinic. However, the systematic analysis of the chemical constituents of FC is difficult to determine and remain unclear. Materials and Methods: In this work, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS) with automated data analysis (MetaboLynx™) in negative ion mode were established to characterize the chemical constituents of FC and simultaneously identify components in blood after oral administration of FC, respectively. The analysis was performed on a Waters UPLC™ HSS T3 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 ?m) using gradient elution system. MS/MS fragmentation behaviors were proposed for aiding the structural identification of the components. Results: With optimized conditions, a total of 34 peaks were obtained from FC, 23 of which were tentatively characterized by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data and retrieving the reference literatures. Of note, the 25 compounds were identified after oral administration of FC, which might be the potential active components in vivo. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the potential of UPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS approach for the rapid and reliable characterization of the metabolites of natural products.

Xue, Changsong; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Han, Ying; Zou, Di; Wang, Yuying; Wu, Xiuhong; Wang, Xijun

2014-01-01

433

Diversity Array Technology Markers: Genetic Diversity Analyses and Linkage Map Construction in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)  

PubMed Central

We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines ‘Lynx-037DH’ and ‘Monty-028DH’. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N.; Aslam, M.N.; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A.; Kilian, A.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Schondelmaier, Joerg

2012-01-01

434

Cytauxzoonosis in cats: eight cases (1985-1992).  

PubMed

Cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly and highly fatal disease in cats that is caused by the protozoan Cytauxzoon felis, which may be transmitted by Ixodid ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) from parasitemic bobcats (Lynx rufus). During an 8-year period, cytauxzoonosis was diagnosed in 8 cats, 7 cats within 14 months. Risk factors for these cats were warm weather, access to a wooded environment, and exposure to ticks. The most consistent clinical signs were acute lethargy, anorexia, decreased response to external stimuli (depression), icterus, dehydration, and capillary refill time > 2 seconds. Pertinent clinicopathologic findings were normocytic normochromic anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia; high serum concentrations of total bilirubin and glucose, low serum concentrations of albumin and potassium, high serum alanine transaminase activity; and, bilirubinuria. Confirmation of cytauxzoonosis was made by cytologic or histologic identification of the C felis organism. Splenic, lymph node, and bone marrow aspirates can provide an antemortem diagnosis when the number of parasitized erythrocytes is low on blood smears. Supportive treatment of 6 cats was temporarily palliative in some, but all 8 cats either died (3) or were euthanatized (5) when they became moribund. Survival time from observed onset of illness to death was < 5 days. Necropsy of 4 cats revealed predominately pulmonary involvement with venous congestion. Histologic examination revealed venous occlusion by parasitized mononuclear phagocytes in all tissue specimens, but only minimal inflammatory infiltrates. PMID:7961073

Hoover, J P; Walker, D B; Hedges, J D

1994-08-01

435

Cytauxzoonosis in bobcats.  

PubMed

Blood from 4 wild-trapped bobcats (Lynx rufus rufus) with naturally occurring infection by an intraerythrocytic piroplasm morphologically indistinguishable from the piroplasm form of Cytauxzoon felis was inoculated parenterally into domestic cats. None of the bobcats had signs of disease at the time of capture or subsequently, but all remained parasitemic. Erythroparasitemia developed in all 4 of the domestic cats inoculated with parasitemic bobcat blood. One of the domestic cats later died and had gross and histologic lesions characteristic of those reported in naturally occurring and experimentally induced fatal cytauxzoonosis of domestic cats. The other 3 cats remained parasitemic but otherwise appeared healthy. One of these cats was subsequently inoculated with virulent Cytauxzoon of domestic cat origin and it died within 14 days. Two of the bobcats, including the one whose blood induced fatal cytauxzoonosis in the domestic cat, were similarly inoculated but remained without apparent ill effects. Schizogenous tissue forms of Cytauxzoon organisms were not found in tissues from any of the 4 bobcats or in tissues from the 2 parasitemic domestic cats that were not inoculated with the virulent organism. The results demonstrated that the bobcat is a natural host for the organism that causes fatal cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats and provides presumptive evidence that the naturally occurring bobcat piroplasm may be the intraerythrocytic form of C felis. PMID:6417088

Glenn, B L; Kocan, A A; Blouin, E F

1983-12-01

436

Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.  

PubMed

In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

2003-07-01

437

Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas.  

PubMed

With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. PMID:17670835

Franklin, S P; Troyer, J L; Terwee, J A; Lyren, L M; Boyce, W M; Riley, S P D; Roelke, M E; Crooks, K R; Vandewoude, S

2007-10-01

438

Immunohistochemical study of rabies virus within the central nervous system of domestic and wildlife species.  

PubMed

Immunohistochemistry using a commercial polyclonal antibody for lyssavirus was applied to 39 archival cases of rabies. Paraffin blocks from 13 different species were available, including 3 dogs, 4 cats, 1 pig, 6 cattle, 4 horses, 1 llama, 7 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 7 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 bat (Myotis species), 1 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 1 bobcat (Lynx rufus), 2 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 1 red fox (Vulpes vulpes). All cases had previously been diagnosed as rabies using histopathology and/or fluorescent antibody testing. The immunohistochemistry technique successfully detected lyssavirus antigen in all cases. In species for which 3 or more samples were available, distributional trends were seen in 4 main brain regions: brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and cerebrum. The best site for rabies virus detection in dogs and cats was the hippocampus. For cattle, viral antigen was most prominent in the brainstem, followed by the cerebellum. In horses, the cervical spinal cord and adjacent brainstem were the optimal sites for detecting rabies virus antigen. In raccoons and skunks, positive labeling was widely dispersed, so selection might be less important for these wildlife reservoir species. Immunohistochemistry should prove useful in enhancing the accuracy of rabies diagnosis through informed selection of brain sampling sites when composite sampling is not feasible. This immunohistochemical technique could provide reliable virus detection in formalin-fixed tissues in any potentially infected species. PMID:20484176

Stein, L T; Rech, R R; Harrison, L; Brown, C C

2010-07-01

439

Postmortem evaluation of reintroduced migratory whooping cranes in eastern North America.  

PubMed

Reintroduction of endangered Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in eastern North America has successfully established a migratory population between Wisconsin and Florida. Eighty birds (47 males, 33 females) were released between 2001 and 2006, and all birds were tracked following release with satellite and/or VHF monitoring devices. By the end of 2006, 17 deaths (12 males, five females) were recorded from this population. Postmortem findings and field data were evaluated for each bird to determine the cause of death. Causes included predation (n=8, 47%), trauma (n=2, 12%), and degenerative disease (n=1, 6%); the cause of death was undetermined for 35% (n=6) of the birds. Based on physical evidence, the primary predator of the birds was the bobcat (Lynx rufus). Limited roosting habitat availability or bird behavior were likely prime factors in the occurrence of predation. Traumatic injuries and mortality were caused by gunshot, electrical utility lines, and an unknown source. The lone case of degenerative disease was due to chronic exertional myopathy associated with translocation. Available postmortem testing did not indicate the presence of infectious disease in this limited sample. PMID:19204333

Cole, Gretchen A; Thomas, Nancy J; Spalding, Marilyn; Stroud, Richard; Urbanek, Richard P; Hartup, Barry K

2009-01-01

440

Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in Florida.  

PubMed

Blood samples were collected for serum separation from 114 species of wild animals (25 species of mammals, 82 species of birds, and 7 species of reptiles) in Florida. Each of the 3,471 samples was tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, using the indirect hemagglutination test. The highest prevalences of T gondii antibodies were 19% in armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), 18% in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13% in black rats (Rattus rattus), and 11% in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in male than in female raccoons (P less than 0.05) and in adult than in nonadult raccoons and opossums (P less than 0.005). A high proportion of seropositive animals was found in three other mammalian species: 4 of 4 black bears (Ursus americanus), 2 of 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 2 of 8 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) tested. Antibodies were found in 8 of the 1,279 avian serums; they were not found in any of the 13 reptilian serums tested. There were no significant geographic variations in antibody prevalence in any species. PMID:521384

Burridge, M J; Bigler, W J; Forrester, D J; Hennemann, J M

1979-11-01

441

Rabies in skunks from Mexico.  

PubMed

An enzootic focus of rabies in skunks in Mexico is described. Fifty three wild animals including two badgers (Taxidea taxus), 32 bats (various species), one bobcat (Lynx rufus), two coatis (Nasua narica) three foxes (Urocyon cineroargenteus), one raccoon (Procyon lotor) and 12 skunks (see below) were tested for rabies by direct immunofluorescence assay from 1991 to 1997 in the central part of San Luis Potosi State, Mexico. Rabies occurrence was 21% of all tested mammals, with 19% in skunks and only 2% in other wild species (one bobcat). Skunks represented 23% of all mammals tested and had a rabies prevalence of 83%. Only 10 individuals were identified: three hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus) and seven spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius). All were involved in human attacks; the spotted skunk attacks were inside bedrooms while people were sleeping, and the hog-nosed skunk attacks occurred outdoors. Skunk cases of rabies represented 40% of all rabies cases in 1997, and 100% of cases registered for wild animals in San Luis Potosi state. This situation constitutes an important public health problem and requires further epidemiological research to make the human population aware of the problem and to establish measures to limit further human attacks by rabid skunks. PMID:10479094

Aranda, M; López-de Buen, L

1999-07-01

442

Cell disruption using a different methodology for proteomics analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi strains.  

PubMed

We have developed a cell disruption method to produce a protein extract using Trypanosoma cruzi cells based on a straightforward hypoosmotic lysis protocol. The procedure consists of three steps: incubation of the cells in a hypoosmotic lysis buffer, sonication in a water bath, and centrifugation. The final protein extract was designated TcS12. The stages of cell disruption at different incubation times were monitored by differential interference contrast microscopy. After 30min of incubation in lysis buffer at 4°C, the T. cruzi epimastigote forms changed from slender to round-shaped parasites. Nevertheless, cell disruption took place following sonication of the sample for 30min. The efficiency of the methodology was also validated by flow cytometry, which resulted in 72% of propidium iodide (PI)-labeled cells. To estimate the protein extraction yield and the differential protein expression, the proteomics profile of four T. cruzi strains (CL-Brener, Dm28c, Y, and 4167) were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) on a SYNAPT HDMS system using the label-free MS(E) approach. ProteinLynx Global Server (version 2.5) with Expression(E) analysis identified a total of 1153 proteins and revealed 428 differentially expressed proteins among the strains. Gene ontology analysis showed that not only cytosolic proteins but also nuclear and organellar ones were present in the extract. PMID:24291641

Silva Galdino, Tainah; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Britto, Constança; Samudio, Franklyn; Brandão, Adeilton; Kalume, Dário Eluan

2014-03-01

443

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.  

PubMed

Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species. PMID:24063119

Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

2013-09-01

444

Rail Track Detection and Modelling in Mobile Laser Scanner Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for detecting and modelling rails in mobile laser scanner data. The detection is based on the properties of the rail tracks and contact wires such as relative height, linearity and relative position with respect to other objects. Points classified as rail track are used in a 3D modelling algorithm. The modelling is done by first fitting a parametric model of a rail piece to the points along each track, and estimating the position and orientation parameters of each piece model. For each position and orientation parameter a smooth low-order Fourier curve is interpolated. Using all interpolated parameters a mesh model of the rail is reconstructed. The method is explained using two areas from a dataset acquired by a LYNX mobile mapping system in a mountainous area. Residuals between railway laser points and 3D models are in the range of 2 cm. It is concluded that a curve fitting algorithm is essential to reliably and accurately model the rail tracks by using the knowledge that railways are following a continuous and smooth path.

Oude Elberink, S.; Khoshelham, K.; Arastounia, M.; Diaz Benito, D.

2013-10-01

445

Biotic Population Dynamics: Creative Biotic Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present empirical studies and computer models of population dynamics that demonstrate creative features and we speculate that these creative processes may underline evolution. Changes in population size of lynx, muskrat, beaver, salmon, and fox display diversification, episodic changes in pattern, novelty, and evidence for nonrandom causation. These features of creativity characterize bios, and rule out random, periodic, chaotic, and random walk patterns. Biotic patterns are also demonstrated in time series generated with multi-agent predator-prey simulations. These results indicate that evolutionary processes are continually operating. In contrast to standard evolutionary theory (random variation, competition for scarce resources, selection by survival of the fittest, and directionless, meaningless evolution), we propose that biological evolution is a creative development from simple to complex in which (1) causal actions generate biological variation; (2) bipolar feedback (synergy and antagonism, abundance and scarcity) generates information (diversification, novelty and complexity); (3) connections (of molecules, genes, species) construct systems in which simple processes have priority for survival but complex processes acquire supremacy.

Sabelli, Hector; Kovacevic, Lazar

446

Frequent Transmission of Immunodeficiency Viruses among Bobcats and Pumas?  

PubMed Central

With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. PMID:17670835

Franklin, S. P.; Troyer, J. L.; Terwee, J. A.; Lyren, L. M.; Boyce, W. M.; Riley, S. P. D.; Roelke, M. E.; Crooks, K. R.; VandeWoude, S.

2007-01-01

447

The response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic factors influence a variety of ecological processes determining patterns of species density and distribution in a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems. We review the effects of the NAO on processes and patterns of terrestrial ecosystems, including both plants and animals. In plants, the NAO index correlates with date of first flowering, tree ring growth and with quality of agricultural crops (wheat and wine grapes). Also, breeding dates are earlier after high NAO index winters for amphibians and birds in Europe. Population dynamical consequences of the NAO have also been reported for birds, and the differential impact of the NAO on two similar species may prevent competitive exclusion. Different effects of the NAO on large herbivore populations have been reported for different regions, depending on limiting factors and the correlation with local weather parameters. The NAO synchronizes population dynamics of lynx and some other carnivore populations in the eastern U.S. Most effects are on an ecological time scale; the evolutionary consequences of long term trends in the NAO are poorly documented. Important for predator and prey dynamics is (1) the disruption of phenology (the match-mismatch hypothesis), (2) that there may be delayed effects (cohort-effects), and (3) that effects of the NAO may interact with other factors such as density. We discuss the challenges related to nonlinearity, of using different climate indices, and how we can progress using these pattern-oriented NAO studies at coarse scales to conduct better process-oriented small-scale experiments.

Mysterud, Alte; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Ottersen, Geir; Langvatn, Rolf

448

Multiworld Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Multiworld" is a multimedia multilingual magazine, published bi-monthly via the World Wide Web. It is devoted to articles describing the world we live in by publishing the experiences of contributors relating to nature, wildlife, culture, people, traveling, and art (including music, painting, photography, and computer art). It focuses on objectivity and strives for stories that will appeal to and interest our readers. Multiworld carries both English and Chinese articles an full-color digitized photos, graphics, and sound to illustrate the magazine articles. The magazine can be viewed by readers with standard web browsers, such as Netscape, Mosaic, Lynx, etc., with or without special software for viewing GB, HZ, and Big5 encoded Chinese text. It is hoped the magazine will help build bridges between readers of the world, particularly in furthering our appreciation of the beauty of nature, increasing our interest in different cultures, and helping us better understand people of various societies. The inaugural issue of Multiworld was published on Thursday, June 15, 1995. It is free and open to all.

1995-01-01

449

Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

2012-01-01

450

XRD, LPF and FTIR investigation of Mn-Bi alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High purity MnBi low temperature phase has been prepared and analyzed using X- ray diffraction, Lorentz-Polarization Factor and Fourier transforms infrared measurement. After synthesis of samples structural characterization has done on samples by X-ray diffraction, which shows that after making the bulk sample is in no single phase MnBi has been prepared by sintering Mn and Bi powder. The X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out using Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer. The X-rays were produced using a sealed tube and the wavelength of x-ray was 0.154nm (Cu K-alpha).and x-rays were detected using a fast counting detector based on Silicon strip technology (Bruker LynxEye detector). By Lorentz- Polarization Factor is affecting the relative intensity of diffraction lines on a powder form. The infrared absorption spectra of the alloys and intermetallic compound were measured at room temperature, in the wave number range 4000 to 400 cm−1 by a computerized spectrometer type Jasco FTIR-300 (JAPAN) using the KBr pellet technique. And by FTIR which shows absorption peaks of MnBi alloys.

Mishra, Ashutosh; Patil, Harsha; Jain, Garima

2014-09-01

451

Isotopic investigation of niche partitioning among native carnivores and the non-native coyote (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

We employed stable carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotopes within a hypothetico-deductive framework to explore potential resource partitioning among terrestrial mammalian carnivores. Isotope values were acquired using guard hair samples from bobcat (Lynx rufus), coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Adirondack Park, NY, USA. Enrichment along the ?(13)C axis was expected to reflect the use of human sources of food (reflecting a corn subsidy), and by extension tolerance for human-modified environments, whereas enrichment along the ?(15)N axis was expected to reflect a higher level of carnivory (i.e. amount of animal-based protein in the diet) - two mechanisms by which these now sympatric species may achieve a dynamic coexistence. Although bobcats were the only obligate carnivore, all four species shared a similar ?(15)N space. In contrast, bobcat had a lower and distinct ?(13)C signature compared to foxes, consistent with the a priori expectation of bobcats being the species least tolerant of human activities. Isotope signatures for coyotes, which colonized the region in the 1920s, overlapped all three native carnivores, bobcats the least, gray fox the most, indicating their potential competitive influence on this suite of native carnivores. PMID:24666214

Warsen, Scott A; Frair, Jacqueline L; Teece, Mark A

2014-01-01

452

Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

Erb, Peter L; McShea, William J; Guralnick, Robert P

2012-01-01

453

Rodent foraging is affected by indirect, but not by direct, cues of predation risk.  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral Ecology Vol. 15 No. 3: 433 - 437 We used foraging trays to determine whether old field mice, Peromyscus polionotus , altered foraging in response to direct cues of predation risk (urine of native and nonnative predators) and indirect cues of predation risk (foraging microhabitat, precipitation, and moon illumination). The proportion of seeds remaining in each tray (a measure of the giving-up density [GUD]) was used to measure risk perceived by mice. Mice did not alter their GUD when presented with cues of native predators (bobcats, Lynx r ufus , and red foxes, Vulpes vulpes), recently introduced predators (coyotes, Canis latrans ), nonnative predators (ocelots, Leopardus pardalis ), a native herbivore (white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus), or a water control. Rather, GUD was related to microhabitat: rodents removed more seeds from foraging trays sheltered beneath vegetative cover compared with exposed trays outside of cover. Rodents also removed more seeds during nights with precipitation and when moon illumination was low. Our results suggest that P. polionotus used indirect cues rather than direct cues to assess risk of vertebrate predation. Indirect cues may be more reliable than are direct scent cues for estimating risk from multiple vertebrate predators that present the most risk in open environments.

Orrock, John, L.; Danielson, Brent, J.; Brinkerhoff, R., Jory

2004-01-01

454

Molecular and biologic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from wildlife in the United States.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii isolates can be grouped into 3 genetic lineages. Type I isolates are considered more virulent in outbred mice and have been isolated predominantly from clinical cases of human toxoplasmosis, whereas types II and III isolates are considered less virulent for mice and are found in humans and food animals. Little is known of genotypes of T. gondii isolates from wild animals. In the present report, genotypes of isolates of T. gondii from wildlife in the United States are described. Sera from wildlife were tested for antibodies to T. gondii with the modified agglutination test, and tissues from animals with titers of 1:25 (seropositive) were bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the hearts of 21 of 34 seropositive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Mississippi and from 7 of 29 raccoons (Procyon lotor); 5 of 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus); and the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and coyote (Canis latrans) from Georgia. Toxoplasma gondii was also isolated from 7 of 10 seropositive black bears (Ursus americanus) from Pennsylvania by bioassay in cats. All 3 genotypes of T. gondii based on the SAG2 locus were circulating among wildlife. PMID:15040668

Dubey, J P; Graham, D H; De Young, R W; Dahl, E; Eberhard, M L; Nace, E K; Won, K; Bishop, H; Punkosdy, G; Sreekumar, C; Vianna, M C B; Shen, S K; Kwok, O C H; Sumners, J A; Demarais, S; Humphreys, J G; Lehmann, T

2004-02-01

455

Rabies among infrequently reported mammalian carnivores in the United States, 1960-2000.  

PubMed

Most cases of rabies reported annually in the United States occur among three groups of carnivores--raccoons (Procyon lotor), skunks (Mephitis, Spilogale, and Putorius), foxes (Vulpes, Urocyon, and Alopex)--and among bats (numerous species). However, between 1960 and 2000, a total of 2,851 cases of rabies in 17 other carnivore taxa were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia (USA), from 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Three species of these other carnivores (mongooses [Herpestes javanicus], coyotes [Canis latrans], and bobcats [Lynx rufus]) accounted for 92% (2,624/2,851) of the cases reported among other canivorous mammals (OCMs). Most OCMs demonstrated temporal or spatial variation in numbers of reported cases. Tests of specimens from OCMs infected in the United States identified variants of the rabies virus that corresponded with variants associated with the major terrestrial reservoirs within their respective regions of origin. Variants of the rabies virus in samples from mongooses in Puerto Rico could not be distinguished from those in samples from dogs in Puerto Rico by virus typing methods. PMID:12910751