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Sample records for lynx lynx lynx

  1. Lynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lynx; abbrev. Lyn, gen. Lyncis; area 545 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Auriga, and culminates at midnight in late January. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. An inconspicuous constellation, Hevelius (who distrusted telescopic...

  2. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia. PMID:15362842

  3. Genotyping success of historical Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) samples.

    PubMed

    Polanc, Primož; Sindičić, Magda; Jelenčič, Maja; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Kos, Ivan; Huber, Duro

    2012-03-01

    Historical samples, like tanned hides and trophy skulls, can be extremely important for genetic studies of endangered or elusive species. Selection of a sampling protocol that is likely to provide sufficient amount and quality of DNA with a minimum damage to the original specimen is often critical for a success of the study. We investigated microsatellite genotyping success of DNA isolated from three different types of Eurasian lynx historical samples. We analysed a total of 20 microsatellite loci in 106 historical samples from the endangered Dinaric lynx population, established from re-introduction of three pairs of lynx in 1973 from Slovakian Carpathians. Of the three tested sample types, turbinal bone and septum from the nasal cavity of the trophy skulls had the lowest percentage of samples successfully genotyped for all 20 microsatellite loci. Footpad samples, collected using a cork drill, exhibited better results in polymerase chain reaction amplification and genotyping than samples of footpad epidermis cut with a scalpel. We report simple and efficient sampling protocols, which could be widely applied for future studies utilizing historical samples. PMID:22040140

  4. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results. PMID:26195214

  5. Concentrations of 137Cs in lynx (Lynx lynx) in relation to prey choice.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Gaare, Eldar; Kvam, Tor; Hove, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of (137)Cs were determined in 747 lynxes killed in Norway during the period 1986-2001. Highly variable (137)Cs concentrations and aggregated transfer coefficient values were observed, probably caused by variable (137)Cs concentrations in prey and the lynx's extensive home ranges and roaming distances. Adult lynxes had higher (137)Cs concentrations than sub-adults, and lynxes killed in regions with extensive reindeer grazing areas were more contaminated than others. A model with (137)Cs deposition density, the year lynxes were killed, age, and extent of reindeer grazing area accounted for 50% of the variability in observed (137)Cs concentrations. The analyses were equivocal regarding the influence of stomach content on (137)Cs concentrations in lynx muscle, i.e., on the lynx's specialization in prey species. Gender was not significant. Information on caesium retention in lynx and better estimates of deposition densities in lynxes' home ranges are important for further elucidation of factors influencing (137)Cs contamination in lynxes. PMID:15653191

  6. New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

  7. Musculoskeletal anatomy of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx (Carnivora: Felidae) forelimb: Adaptations to capture large prey?

    PubMed

    Viranta, Suvi; Lommi, Hanna; Holmala, Katja; Laakkonen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian carnivores adhere to two different feeding strategies relative to their body masses. Large carnivores prey on animals that are the same size or larger than themselves, whereas small carnivores prey on smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) falls in between these two categories. Lynx descend from larger forms that were probably large prey specialists, but during the Pleistocene became predators of small prey. The modern Eurasian lynx may be an evolutionary reversal toward specializing in large prey again. We hypothesized that the musculoskeletal anatomy of lynx should show traits for catching large prey. To test our hypothesis, we dissected the forelimb muscles of six Eurasian lynx individuals and compared our findings to results published for other felids. We measured the bones and compared their dimensions to the published material. Our material displayed a well-developed pectoral girdle musculature with some uniquely extensive muscle attachments. The upper arm musculature resembled that of the pantherine felids and probably the extinct sabertooths, and also the muscles responsible for supination and pronation were similar to those in large cats. The muscles controlling the pollex were well-developed. However, skeletal indices were similar to those of small prey predators. Our findings show that lynx possess the topographic pattern of muscle origin and insertion like in large felids. J. Morphol. 277:753-765, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26997516

  8. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

  9. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Sindičić, Magda; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC. PMID:22515208

  10. Adult-onset hypothyroidism in a lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Greer, Leah L; Troutman, Mitchell; McCracken, Malcolm D; Ramsay, Edward C

    2003-09-01

    A 19-yr-old female lynx (Lynx canadensis) presented for an acute onset of anorexia and reluctance to move. Physical examination, radiography, hematology, and serum biochemistry revealed evidence of renal failure, presumptive uremic gastritis, chronic intervertebral disk disease at T13-L1, and markedly low serum levels of total thyroxine (1.54 nmol/L) and total triixodothyronine (0.55 nmol/L). Twenty-five hours after its original presentation, the lynx exhibited horizontal nystagmus, which has been suggested as a clinical sign associated with hypothyroidism in domestic dogs. The lynx was euthanatized because of poor prognosis, and medical management concerns related to its chronic renal failure. Necropsy examination substantiated that the lynx had true hypothyroidism with 60-90% of the thyroid gland replaced with adipose tissue. Although feline adult-onset hypothyroidism may have low incidence, it should still be considered as a cause of nonspecific signs of disease in cats, as well as signs suggestive of hypothyroidism. Routine monitoring of baseline exotic felid thyroid levels throughout life would help to identify normal values and diagnose a potential disease that has obscure clinical signs. PMID:14582793

  11. Hormone-induced luteolysis on physiologically persisting corpora lutea in Eurasian and Iberian lynx (Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Painer, Johanna; Goeritz, Frank; Dehnhard, Martin; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Naidenko, Sergey V; Sánchez, Iñigo; Quevedo Muñoz, Miguel A; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2014-09-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most critically endangered felid. A high reproductive success within the Iberian Lynx Conservation Breeding Program is crucial to maintaining the goal of reintroducing captive born offspring to the wild and thus increasing the population. Lynx follow a unique reproductive strategy with a monoestrous cycle and persisting CLs over many years. These persistent CLs constantly produce progesterone (on average 5 ng/mL) and are hypothesized to hinder a polyestrous cyclicity in lynx. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether artificial luteolysis can be achieved with common luteolytic drugs and if luteolysis would induce a second estrus naturally. We observed a functional regression of lynx CLs after artificial luteolysis with 2.5 μg/kg body weight PGF2α analogue (cloprostenol) administered three times every 16 hours. We could see a similar effect when combining cloprostenol with other drugs like an anti-gestagen (aglepristone) or a dopamin-agonist (prolactin-inhibitor, cabergolin) or by prolonging the cloprostenol administration to a total of 5 days. However, the sample size was too small to draw conclusions about which protocol is superior or if combining different drugs would result in a positive synergism. Neither structural regression of CLs nor subsequent spontaneous estrus induction was induced with any of these treatments. We suggest that a dose of 2.5 μg/kg body weight cloprostenol administered once daily over 3 to 5 days is sufficient for functional luteolysis in lynx. The next step would be to compare the success of estrus induction with or without the preceding artificial luteolysis. PMID:24974257

  12. Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Garci-Perea, R; Gisbert, J; Feliu, C

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of 12 helminth species were collected from carcasses of eight Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827), a carnivore endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These species included: Brachylaima sp. (12.5%) (Trematoda); Taenia pisiformis (12.5%), T. polyacantha (25%), T. taeniaeformis (25%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (37.5%) (Cestoda); Eucoleus aerophilus (12.5%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (12.5%), Toxocara cati (37.5%), Toxascaris leonina (62.5%), Vigisospirura potekhina potekhina (12.5%), Mastophorus muris (12.5%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (12.5%) (Nematoda). The helminth fauna in Iberian lynx is compared with that of L. canadensis and L. rufus in America, and for L. lynx in Eurasia. The potential relationships between the parasitological data and some geographical, historical and dietary factors are discussed. PMID:9765373

  13. Scent-marking behaviour and social dynamics in a wild population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kristina; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Kölliker, Mathias; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2014-07-01

    Scent-marking is widespread among mammals and has been observed in many felid species. Although the behaviour is well-described, little is known about its function in wild felid populations. We investigated patterns of scent-marking and its role in intra- and intersexual communication among resident and non-resident Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx by observing interactions among wild lynx at natural marking sites by means of infrared camera traps. Marking activity of resident animals showed a peak during the mating season and was lowest during the time when females gave birth and lactated. Both sexes scent-marked, but male lynx visited marking sites much more often than females and marked relatively more often when visiting a site. Most visits to marking sites were by residents but we also observed scent-marking by non-residents. Juveniles were never observed marking. We found no evidence of lynx regularly renewing scent-marks after a certain 'expiry date' but the presence of a strange scent-mark triggered over-marking. Males responded similarly to the presence of another individual's scent-mark, irrespective of whether it was the top- or the underlying scent-mark in a mixture of scent-marks they encountered. Our results suggest that marking sites could serve as 'chemical bulletin boards', where male lynx advertise their presence and gain information on ownership relationships in a given area. Females placed their urine marks on top of the ones left by resident males, but further studies are needed to explain the functions of over-marking in females. PMID:24814909

  14. Occurrence of Thelazia callipaeda and Toxocara cati in an imported European lynx (Lynx lynx) in Japan.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled; Abo El-Hadid, Shawky; Shimizu, Hirofumi; El-Nahass, Shaymaa; Murai, Atsuko; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    A necropsy was performed on an adult European lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), held in captivity until its death, to determine level of parasitism. Examination of the eyes revealed the oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda, in the conjunctival sac and the third eyelid of both eyes. The species was confirmed by location and morphology. Intact worms were fixed, mounted, and identified. Examination of the alimentary tract revealed the common ascaroid nematode, Toxocara cati. Species was confirmed by the arrow-like anterior end. One hundred and forty-one adult worms were collected. The presence of these nematodes indicated the importance of eliminating the contact of zoo animals with Amiota spp. vectors and to prevent contamination with the infective T. cati eggs. PMID:23082531

  15. Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

    PubMed Central

    Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  16. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  17. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    PubMed

    Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  18. Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) – Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam

    PubMed Central

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  19. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    PubMed

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  20. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

  1. Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo) and wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis; Kålås, John Atle; Persson, Bertil; Asbrink, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland. (210)Po and (137)Cs have been analysed in samples of liver, kidney and muscle from 28 wolves from Sweden. In addition blood samples were taken from 27 wolves. In 9 of the wolves, samples of muscle, liver and blood were analysed for (210)Po. Samples of liver and muscle were collected from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway. The liver samples were analysed for (210)Po and (137)Cs. Only (137)Cs analyses were carried out for the muscle samples. The wolves were collected during the winter 2010 and 2011, while the samples for lynx and wolverines were all from 2011. The activity concentrations of (210)Po in wolves were higher for liver (range 20-523 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and kidney (range 24-942 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) than muscle (range 1-43 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and blood (range 2-54 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Activity ratios, (210)Po/(210)Pb, in wolf samples of muscle, liver and blood were in the ranges 2-77, 9-56 and 2-54. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal absorbed dose from (210)Po to wolf liver was estimated to 3500 μGy per year. Compared to wolf, the ranges of (210)Po in liver samples were lower in lynx (range 22-211 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and wolverine (range16-160 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Concentration of (137)Cs in wolf samples of muscle, liver, kidney and blood were in the ranges 70-8410 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 36-4050 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 31-3453 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 4-959 Bq kg(-1) d.w., respectively. (137)Cs in lynx muscle and liver samples were in the ranges 44-13393 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 125-10260 Bq kg(-1) d.w. The corresponding values for (137)Cs in wolverine were 22-3405 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for liver and 53-4780 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for muscle. The maximal absorbed dose from (137)Cs to lynx was estimated to 3000 μGy per year. PMID:24811891

  2. Detection of gastric Helicobacter species in free-ranging lynx (Lynx lynx) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mörner, Torsten; Bröjer, Caroline; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Wadström, Torkel

    2008-07-01

    Specimens of gastric mucosa and liver of 25 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) shot in Sweden during 1999-2000, were investigated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Histopathology, bacteriologic culture and urease test, Helicobacter genus-specific 16S rDNA PCR analysis, and DNA sequence analysis were applied. Numerous Helicobacter-like organisms were observed histologically in the gastric mucosa of one fox. Helicobacter spp. were detected in the stomach by PCR analysis in 17 (68%) of the lynx and in three (75%) of the foxes. Seven of the positive lynx were also positive in the urease test. PCR fragments, amplified from lynx and foxes, were sequenced and compared with those of known Helicobacter species. PCR products from lynx were closely related (>or=98% homology) to H. heilmannii, and PCR fragments from foxes demonstrated close homology to H. heilmannii and H. salomonis. No Helicobacter spp. or Helicobacter-like organisms could be cultured. The PCR analysis of the liver was negative for all animals. The pathologic significance of the presence of Helicobacter spp. in the stomach of free-ranging lynx and foxes remains uncertain. PMID:18689656

  3. Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. PMID:25185866

  4. Canada lynx Lynx canadensis habitat and forest succession in northern Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Jakubas, W.J.; McCollough, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The contiguous United States population of Canada lynx Lynx canadensis was listed as threatened in 2000. The long-term viability of lynx populations at the southern edge of their geographic range has been hypothesized to be dependent on old growth forests; however, lynx are a specialist predator on snowshoe hare Lepus americanus, a species associated with early-successional forests. To quantify the effects of succession and forest management on landscape-scale (100 km2) patterns of habitat occupancy by lynx, we compared landscape attributes in northern Maine, USA, where lynx had been detected on snow track surveys to landscape attributes where surveys had been conducted, but lynx tracks had not been detected. Models were constructed a priori and compared using logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), which quantitatively balances data fit and parsimony. In the models with the lowest (i.e. best) AIC, lynx were more likely to occur in landscapes with much regenerating forest, and less likely to occur in landscapes with much recent clearcut, partial harvest and forested wetland. Lynx were not associated positively or negatively with mature coniferous forest. A probabilistic map of the model indicated a patchy distribution of lynx habitat in northern Maine. According to an additional survey of the study area for lynx tracks during the winter of 2003, the model correctly classified 63.5% of the lynx occurrences and absences. Lynx were more closely associated with young forests than mature forests; however, old-growth forests were functionally absent from the landscape. Lynx habitat could be reduced in northern Maine, given recent trends in forest management practices. Harvest strategies have shifted from clearcutting to partial harvesting. If this trend continues, future landscapes will shift away from extensive regenerating forests and toward landscapes dominated by pole-sized and larger stands. Because Maine presently supports the only verified populations of this federally threatened species in the eastern United States, changes in forest management practices could affect recovery efforts throughout that region.

  5. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

    2014-09-15

    Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. PMID:25066418

  6. Bovine tuberculosis and the endangered Iberian lynx.

    PubMed Central

    Briones, V.; de Juan, L.; Sánchez, C.; Vela, A. I.; Galka, M.; Montero; Goyache, J.; Aranaz, A.; Domìnguez, L.

    2000-01-01

    We report the first case of bovine tuberculosis in a free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), an extremely endangered feline, from Doñana National Park in Spain. The isolate (Mycobacterium bovis) correlates by molecular characterization with other isolates from wild ungulates in the park, strongly suggesting an epidemiologic link. Mycobacterium bovis infects many animal species, with wild and free-ranging domestic ungulates being the main reservoirs in nature (1). PMID:10756155

  7. Ancient DNA evidence of Iberian lynx palaeoendemism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Ureña, Irene; García, Nuria; Crégut-Bonnoure, Evelyne; Mannino, Marcello A.; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Valdiosera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    The Iberian lynx, endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, is the most threatened carnivore in Europe and the most endangered felid in the world. Widely distributed throughout Iberia during the Pleistocene and Holocene it is now confined to two small populations in southern Spain. Lynx species differentiation, based solely on morphological analysis from skeletal traits, is a difficult task and can potentially lead to misidentification. In order to verify whether Iberian lynx had a wider geographical distribution in the past, we successfully sequenced 152 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome b gene and 183 bp of the mitochondrial control region in 20 Late Pleistocene and Holocene fossil remains of Lynx sp. from southern Europe. Our results confirm the presence of Iberian lynx outside the Iberian Peninsula demonstrating that this is a palaeoendemic species that had a wider distribution range in southern Europe during the Holocene and the Late Pleistocene. In addition, we documented the presence of both Palaearctic extant lynx species in the Arene Candide (north Italy) site during the Last Glacial Maximum.

  8. Factors affecting seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, I; Dubey, J P; Martínez, F; Vargas, A; Cabezón, O; Zorrilla, I; Arenas, A; Almería, S

    2010-01-20

    Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid species in the world. In the present study, seroprevalence and associated risk factors for T. gondii infection in a large population of Iberian lynx in Spain were determined. Serum samples from 129 Iberian lynx collected from 2005 to 2009 and 85 wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), sharing the habitat with the Iberian lynx, were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 81 of 129 (62.8%) Iberian lynx. Seroprevalence to T. gondii in Iberian lynx significantly increased with age (P<0.001). T. gondii seroprevalences were similar in free-ranging (66.7% of 93) and wild-caught captive lynx (69% of 84) but significantly lower in captive-born lynx (22.5% of 40). Seroprevalence was higher in lynx with concurrent Cytauxzoonfelis (88% of 25) but not with concurrent Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infection (53.8% of 13). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence between sexes, geographic region and year of sample collection (2005-2009). Oocysts of T. gondii were not detected microscopically in fecal samples from 58 lynx. Wild rabbits are considered the most important food for the lynx. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 14 (11.9%) of 85 rabbits tested. The present results indicate that T. gondii infection is widespread in the two areas where Iberian lynx survive in Spain. The fact that four captive-born lynx seroconverted was indication of contact with T. gondii also in the Captive Breeding Centers, hence, control measures to prevent T. gondii infection would be necessary in these centers. PMID:19879052

  9. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) female tubular reproductive organs in relation to ovarian structures.

    PubMed

    Axnér, E; Holm, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Söderberg, A; Bergqvist, A S

    2015-09-15

    Although monitoring wild animals in the field is essential for estimations of population size and development, there are pitfalls associated with field monitoring. In addition, some detailed data about reproductive physiology can be difficult to obtain in wild live animals. Studying reproductive organs from the Eurasian lynx killed at hunting or found dead could be used as a valuable addition to other field data. We evaluated reproductive organs from 39 Eurasian lynx females (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden during the hunting seasons in 2009, 2010, and 2011. According to notes on ovarian structures, the animals were categorized as being in one of four different reproductive stages: juvenile (n = 10), follicular stage (n = 8), luteal stage (n = 11), and anestrus (n = 10). Corpora lutea were classified as fresh CL from the present season or as luteal bodies from previous cycles. Microscopic evaluations were blindly coded while the outer measurements of the vagina and uterus were taken at the time of organ retrieval. The width of the endometrium, myometrium, outer width of the uterine horns, and the diameter of the vagina differed significantly with the reproductive stage (P < 0.001) and were largest in the follicular and luteal phases. The number of endometrial glands evaluated blindly coded on a subjective scale was significantly associated with the reproductive stage (P < 0.0001) and was significantly higher in the luteal phase than that in any other reproductive stages (P < 0.05). Cornification of the vaginal epithelium was only observed in females in the follicular stage or in females with signs of a recent ovulation. In conclusion, both macroscopic and histologic measurements are useful for a correct classification of the reproductive stage when evaluating reproductive organs in the Eurasian lynx killed during the hunting season. Routine evaluation of reproductive organs has a potential to be a useful additional tool to field studies of live lynx to monitor their reproduction. PMID:26050610

  10. First report of an intraerythrocytic small piroplasm in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Luaces, Inés; Aguirre, Enara; García-Montijano, Marino; Velarde, Jorge; Tesouro, Miguel A; Sánchez, Celia; Galka, Margarita; Fernández, Pilar; Sainz, Angel

    2005-10-01

    A wild injured Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) was taken from the Sierra Morena population. During the health check small intraerythrocytic piroplasms, morphologically indistinguishable from other feline piroplasms, were observed in Wright-Giemsa-stained blood films. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction of a portion of the 18S nuclear small subunit (NSS) rRNA gene and sequencing revealed similarity of the unknown organism with sequences obtained from Pallas's cat from Mongolia and from a domestic cat in Spain. In a retrospective (1993-2003) study of 50 Iberian lynx tissue samples, no amplifications of the 18S NSS rRNA gene of the organism were obtained. This is the first report of a naturally occurring erythroparasitemia in the Iberian lynx and the first documented case of naturally occurring piroplasm infection in a free-ranging felid from Europe. PMID:16456175

  11. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of Iberian lynx populations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W E; Godoy, J A; Palomares, F; Delibes, M; Fernandes, M; Revilla, E; O'Brien, S J

    2004-01-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one of the world's most endangered cat species, is vulnerable due to habitat loss, increased fragmentation of populations, and precipitous demographic reductions. An understanding of Iberian lynx evolutionary history is necessary to develop rational management plans for the species. Our objectives were to assess Iberian lynx genetic diversity at three evolutionary timescales. First we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation to position the Iberian lynx relative to other species of the genus LYNX: We then assessed the pattern of mtDNA variation of isolated populations across the Iberian Peninsula. Finally we estimated levels of gene flow between two of the most important remaining lynx populations (Doñana National Park and the Sierra Morena Mountains) and characterized the extent of microsatellite locus variation in these populations. Phylogenetic analyses of 1613 bp of mtDNA sequence variation supports the hypothesis that the Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, and Canadian lynx diverged within a short time period around 1.53-1.68 million years ago, and that the Iberian lynx and Eurasian lynx are sister taxa. Relative to most other felid species, genetic variation in mtDNA genes and nuclear microsatellites were reduced in Iberian lynx, suggesting that they experienced a fairly severe demographic bottleneck. In addition, the effects of more recent reductions in gene flow and population size are being manifested in local patterns of molecular genetic variation. These data, combined with recent studies modeling the viability of Iberian lynx populations, should provide greater urgency for the development and implementation of rational in situ and ex situ conservation plans. PMID:14757726

  12. Importance of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in free-ranging Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Meli, Marina L; Simmler, Pascale; Cattori, Valentino; Martínez, Fernando; Vargas, Astrid; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V; Simón, Miguel A; López, Guillermo; León-Vizcaino, Luis; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2010-11-20

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus that is the etiological agent of one of the most important viral diseases affecting canids and an expanding range of other carnivores. Using real-time RT-PCR, CDV RNA was detected in organs of an Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) found dead in the Doñana National Park, Southwestern Andalusia, Spain. This finding may be of great importance for the conservation of the species; at present the Iberian lynx is the most critically endangered wild felid. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the significance of CDV for the Iberian lynx population. High viral loads were evident in the dead lynx, suggesting an etiological involvement of CDV in its death. When carnivores from the same region were analyzed by CDV RT-PCR, a stone marten (Martes foina) was positive. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated high identity of the two detected CDVs and a close relationship to the European dog lineage of CDV. Antibodies to CDV were detected in 14.8% of 88 tested free-ranging Iberian lynxes. The sample seroprevalence was significantly higher in lynxes from the Doñana Natural Space (22.9%) than Sierra Morena (5%). The stone marten and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) also tested seropositive. In conclusion, CDV is present in the Iberian lynx population, especially in the Doñana region, with sporadic cases of disease. To reduce the infectious pressure of CDV on this endangered population, a mass dog vaccination should be considered. PMID:20570061

  13. Early development and growth in captive-born Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Yerga, Javier; Calzada, Javier; Manteca, Xavier; Vargas, Astrid; Rivas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on the growth and early development patterns of endangered species can become a useful conservation tool because it may allow detecting anomalous growth in newborns, both in captivity breeding and in the wild. We studied the growth and early development of 40 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) cubs belonging to 21 litters born in captivity between 2005 and 2012 at "El Acebuche" Iberian Lynx Breeding Centre. This is the first study on growth in this critically endangered species. The Iberian lynx cubs were not fully developed at birth. During the first 3 weeks of life, cubs underwent many of the physical changes that allowed them to improve their interaction with the environment, such as the opening of eye and auditory channels, teeth eruptions, and the ability to walk. When the cubs were 1 month old, they were ready to leave the den and develop new behaviors such as the exploration of their environment, play, or hunt. Three different models had been fitted to the body mass growth of the Iberian lynx. The von Bertalanffy curve provided the best fit. The asymptotic adult mass was the only parameter that differed between males and females (males being 8% larger), due to the higher growth rate of males. The adult weight of hand-reared cubs (i.e., those abandoned at born) did not differ from that of cubs reared by their mothers. Both growth and development showed differences from other lynx species. PMID:25081419

  14. Seasonal profiles of ovarian activity in Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) based on urinary hormone metabolite analyses.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, K; Göritz, F; Vargas, A; Dehnhard, M

    2009-07-01

    The Iberian Lynx Ex-Situ Conservation Programme is an essential part of a co-ordinated action plan to conserve the most endangered felid species of the world. Successful captive breeding demands reliable methods for reproduction monitoring including reliable non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis. During a 3-year study, urine samples from six captive Iberian lynx females were obtained (one non-pregnant, one pseudo-pregnant and 11 pregnant cycles). Progesterone, pregnanediol and oestradiol were determined in urinary extracts and relevant urinary oestrogen metabolites were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Urinary progestins did not follow the typical pregnancy-related course of felids. In the lynx, we failed to demonstrate an urinary progestin elevation during pregnancy. In contrast, urinary oestrogens increased from 3.8 +/- 0.6 to 8.6 +/- 0.5 ng/mg creatinine (p < 0.001) during the pregnancy. A comparison of pseudo-pregnant with pregnant cycles revealed a further increase of oestrogens caused by implantation (p < 0.05). In one female, which refused to mate, no difference was estimated between oestrogens levels during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Almost 10-fold higher oestrogen concentrations were measured in urines of females that shared enclosures with males. HPLC analysis of oestrogens in urine samples collected from Iberian lynx during the pregnancy revealed that lynx urine is composed of two polar oestrogen metabolites in addition to oestrone and minor amounts of oestradiol. Oestrone was detectable in all urinary extracts (8-12% of metabolites), whereas oestradiol was elevated only during late pregnancy (18%). Thus, seasonal luteal activity in Iberian lynx can be monitored by urinary oestrogens. The increase of urinary oestradiol during late pregnancy might indicate an oestradiol secretion by the lynx placenta. PMID:19754544

  15. Lynx: a database and knowledge extraction engine for integrative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Xie, Bingqing; Feng, Bo; Taylor, Andrew; Wang, Sheng; Berrocal, Eduardo; Dave, Utpal; Xu, Jinbo; Börnigen, Daniela; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We have developed Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu)—a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine, supporting annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Its underlying knowledge base (LynxKB) integrates various classes of information from >35 public databases and private collections, as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators. Lynx provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization to assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, whereas its service-oriented architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces. PMID:24270788

  16. Fatal clostridium septicum myonecrosis in a captive canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Izer, Jenelle M; Wilson, Ronald P; Cooper, Timothy K

    2014-09-01

    A 1-yr-old female Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) presented for sudden onset of rapidly progressive bilateral pelvic limb paralysis. The lynx was chemically immobilized to perform a physical examination but expired shortly thereafter. On postmortem radiographs, there were myriad small irregular, round-to-spherical gas densities within the skeletal muscle of the right thigh and epaxial musculature. At gross necropsy, the muscles of the right thigh, right lateral abdominal wall, and epaxial region were emphysematous and necrohemorrhagic, with subcutaneous and muscular crepitant swelling. Multiple skin puncture wounds, consistent with bites, were present over the affected tissues. Clostridium septicum was isolated in pure anaerobic culture from the musculature of the right hind limb. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute, severe necrohemorrhagic and gangrenous myositis and cellulitis. Gram stains demonstrated large gram-positive bacilli with subterminal spores. This is the first known documented case of C. septicum myonecrosis in a nondomestic felid. PMID:25314833

  17. Competitive Asymmetries in the Use of Supplementary Food by the Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    López-Bao, José V.; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Palomares, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background As a conservation tool, supplementary feeding programs may be directed to specific individuals or sectors of the target population whose productivity or survival is thought to be limited by food scarcity. However, the use of supplemental food by different sex and age classes has received little attention. We studied individual variation in the access of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to supplementary food. Methodology/Principal Findings From 5349 pictures taken with automatic cameras placed in 25 feeding stations, we identified 28 individuals whose sex and age were known. All individuals known to live in areas subjected to supplementation regularly visited feeding stations. Food consumption was not proportional to expected variations in energy demand within sex and age classes. Food consumption by males was higher than by females, and increased with age, in agreement with a despotic distribution. Food consumption also increased with lynx body mass, and this pattern held for individuals sharing the same breeding territories. The access of inferior competitors increased with the number of feeding stations available within lynx territories. Conclusions/Significance All lynx exposed to food supplementation made a regular use of extra food but individuals predicted to be competitively dominant visited stations more frequently than subordinates of the same breeding territory. Our results suggest that insufficient provision of supplementary food could restrict the access of juveniles, or even adult females, to feeding stations. Limited consumption by these target individuals may compromise the efficiency of the supplementary feeding programme at the population level, in endangered species that, as the Iberian lynx, exhibit marked sexual dimorphism in body size. PMID:19898611

  18. Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-11-01

    The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global warming in hare-lynx system. PMID:23846828

  19. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  20. Geographical gradients in diet affect population dynamics of Canada lynx.

    PubMed

    Roth, James D; Marshall, John D; Murray, Dennis L; Nickerson, David M; Steury, Todd D

    2007-11-01

    Geographical gradients in the stability of cyclic populations of herbivores and their predators may relate to the degree of specialization of predators. However, such changes are usually associated with transition from specialist to generalist predator species, rather than from geographical variation in dietary breadth of specialist predators. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations undergo cyclic fluctuations in northern parts of their range, but cycles are either greatly attenuated or lost altogether in the southern boreal forest where prey diversity is higher. We tested the influence of prey specialization on population cycles by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in lynx and their prey, estimating the contribution of hares to lynx diet across their range, and correlating this degree of specialization to the strength of their population cycles. Hares dominated the lynx diet across their range, but specialization on hares decreased in southern and western populations. The degree of specialization correlated with cyclic signal strength indicated by spectral analysis of lynx harvest data, but overall variability of lynx harvest (the standard deviation of natural-log-transformed harvest numbers) did not change significantly with dietary specialization. Thus, as alternative prey became more important in the lynx diet, the fluctuations became decoupled from a regular cycle but did not become less variable. Our results support the hypothesis that alternative prey decrease population cycle regularity but emphasize that such changes may be driven by dietary shifts among dominant specialist predators rather than exclusively through changes in the predator community. PMID:18051641

  1. Population regulation in snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx: Asymmetric food web configurations between hare and lynx

    PubMed Central

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Falck, Wilhelm; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; Krebs, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The snowshoe hare and the Canadian lynx in the boreal forests of North America show 9- to 11-year density cycles. These are generally assumed to be linked to each other because lynx are specialist predators on hares. Based on time series data for hare and lynx, we show that the dominant dimensional structure of the hare series appears to be three whereas that of the lynx is two. The three-dimensional structure of the hare time series is hypothesized to be due to a three-trophic level model in which the hare may be seen as simultaneously regulated from below and above. The plant species in the hare diet appear compensatory to one another, and the predator species may, likewise, be seen as an internally compensatory guild. The lynx time series are, in contrast, consistent with a model of donor control in which their populations are regulated from below by prey availability. Thus our analysis suggests that the classic view of a symmetric hare–lynx interaction is too simplistic. Specifically, we argue that the classic food chain structure is inappropriate: the hare is influenced by many predators other than the lynx, and the lynx is primarily influenced by the snowshoe hare. PMID:9144205

  2. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  3. Feline Leukemia Virus and Other Pathogens as Important Threats to the Survival of the Critically Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Marina L.; Cattori, Valentino; Martínez, Fernando; López, Guillermo; Vargas, Astrid; Simón, Miguel A.; Zorrilla, Irene; Muñoz, Alvaro; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, Jose V.; Pastor, Josep; Tandon, Ravi; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. Methodology/ Principal Findings We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis), and several bacterial (e.g., hemotropic mycoplasma) infections in 77 of approximately 200 remaining free-ranging Iberian lynxes of the Doñana and Sierra Morena areas, in Southern Spain, between 2003 and 2007. With the exception of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), evidence of infection by all tested feline pathogens was found in Iberian lynxes. Fourteen lynxes were feline leukemia virus (FeLV) provirus-positive; eleven of these were antigenemic (FeLV p27 positive). All 14 animals tested negative for other viral infections. During a six-month period in 2007, six of the provirus-positive antigenemic lynxes died. Infection with FeLV but not with other infectious agents was associated with mortality (p<0.001). Sequencing of the FeLV surface glycoprotein gene revealed a common origin for ten of the eleven samples. The ten sequences were closely related to FeLV-A/61E, originally isolated from cats in the USA. Endogenous FeLV sequences were not detected. Conclusions/Significance It was concluded that the FeLV infection most likely originated from domestic cats invading the lynx's habitats. Data available regarding the time frame, co-infections, and outcome of FeLV-infections suggest that, in contrast to the domestic cat, the FeLV strain affecting the lynxes in 2007 is highly virulent to this species. Our data argue strongly for vaccination of lynxes and domestic cats in and around lynx's habitats in order to prevent further spread of the virus as well as reduction the domestic cat population if the lynx population is to be maintained. PMID:19270739

  4. Patterns of testicular activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Jakubas, Walter J; Squires, John R; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2010-12-01

    Canada lynx are listed as a threatened species in the contiguous US. Understanding the reproductive characteristics (i.e., mating system, behavior, physiology) of a species is useful for ensuring effective in situ and ex situ management plans. The goal of this study was to describe patterns of androgen expression in both captive and wild male Canada lynx using fecal hormone metabolite analysis. Among captive lynx, juvenile and castrated males had lower concentrations of fecal androgens (fA) than intact males, thereby demonstrating that the assay detects biologically meaningful differences in testicular activity. We found that captive males in general had much higher fA levels than wild males. All males showed strong seasonal variation in fA concentrations, with significantly higher levels being expressed during the breeding season (February and March) than during the non-breeding season. Among captive males, variation in seasonal fA levels did not correlate with latitude. Finally, males housed with intact cage-mates (either male or female) had significantly higher fA levels than males housed alone or with a neutered cage-mate. PMID:20828574

  5. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  6. Enhancement in Motor Learning through Genetic Manipulation of the Lynx1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Julie M.; Walz, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The cholinergic system is a neuromodulatory neurotransmitter system involved in a variety of brain processes, including learning and memory, attention, and motor processes, among others. The influence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the cholinergic system are moderated by lynx proteins, which are GPI-anchored membrane proteins forming tight associations with nicotinic receptors. Previous studies indicate lynx1 inhibits nicotinic receptor function and limits neuronal plasticity. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of lynx1 on nicotinic receptor function, through the generation of lynx mouse models, expressing a soluble version of lynx and comparing results to the full length overexpression. Using rotarod as a test for motor learning, we found that expressing a secreted variant of lynx leads to motor learning enhancements whereas overexpression of full-length lynx had no effect. Further, adult lynx1KO mice demonstrated comparable motor learning enhancements as the soluble transgenic lines, whereas previously, aged lynx1KO mice showed performance augmentation only with nicotine treatment. From this we conclude the motor learning is more sensitive to loss of lynx function, and that the GPI anchor plays a role in the normal function of the lynx protein. In addition, our data suggests that the lynx gene plays a modulatory role in the brain during aging, and that a soluble version of lynx has potential as a tool for adjusting cholinergic-dependent plasticity and learning mechanisms in the brain. PMID:23139735

  7. Lynx web services for annotations and systems analysis of multi-gene disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Taylor, Andrew; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Feng, Bo; Xie, Bingqing; Börnigen, Daniela; Dave, Utpal J.; Foster, Ian T.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Lynx is a web-based integrated systems biology platform that supports annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Lynx has integrated multiple classes of biomedical data (genomic, proteomic, pathways, phenotypic, toxicogenomic, contextual and others) from various public databases as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators (LynxKB). Lynx provides tools for gene list enrichment analysis using multiple functional annotations and network-based gene prioritization. Lynx provides access to the integrated database and the analytical tools via REST based Web Services (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu/webservices.html). This comprises data retrieval services for specific functional annotations, services to search across the complete LynxKB (powered by Lucene), and services to access the analytical tools built within the Lynx platform. PMID:24948611

  8. Lynx web services for annotations and systems analysis of multi-gene disorders.

    PubMed

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Taylor, Andrew; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Feng, Bo; Xie, Bingqing; Börnigen, Daniela; Dave, Utpal J; Foster, Ian T; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Lynx is a web-based integrated systems biology platform that supports annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Lynx has integrated multiple classes of biomedical data (genomic, proteomic, pathways, phenotypic, toxicogenomic, contextual and others) from various public databases as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators (LynxKB). Lynx provides tools for gene list enrichment analysis using multiple functional annotations and network-based gene prioritization. Lynx provides access to the integrated database and the analytical tools via REST based Web Services (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu/webservices.html). This comprises data retrieval services for specific functional annotations, services to search across the complete LynxKB (powered by Lucene), and services to access the analytical tools built within the Lynx platform. PMID:24948611

  9. Ecological and genetic spatial structuring in the Canadian lynx.

    PubMed

    Rueness, Eli Knispel; Stenseth, Nils Chr; O'Donoghue, Mark; Boutin, Stan; Ellegren, Hans; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2003-09-01

    The Canadian lynx, distributed all across the northern part of North America, is well known for its regular population cycles-cycles that have different underlying structures in different parts of Canada. Using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we report here a close resemblance between the earlier observed spatial ecological structuring of the Canadian lynx and its spatial genetic structuring. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Rocky Mountains represent a barrier to gene flow in western Canada, and, somewhat surprisingly, we detect the presence of a geographically invisible barrier south of Hudson Bay (coinciding with the separation between the ecological Continental and Atlantic regions). No evidence for isolation in different glacial refugia within North America was found. We suggest that ecological factors underlying the spatial dynamic structuring also strongly influence the genetic structuring of the Canadian lynx. PMID:12955141

  10. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. PMID:25951893

  11. DNA reveals high dispersal synchronizing the population dynamics of Canada lynx.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael K; Mills, L Scott; McKelvey, Kevin S; Ruggiero, Leonard F; Allendorf, Fred W

    2002-01-31

    Population dynamics of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have been of interest to ecologists for nearly sixty years. Two competing hypotheses concerning lynx population dynamics and large-scale spatial synchrony are currently debated. The first suggests that dispersal is substantial among lynx populations, and the second proposes that lynx at the periphery of their range exist in small, isolated patches that maintain cycle synchrony via correlation with extrinsic environmental factors. Resolving the nature of lynx population dynamics and dispersal is important both to ecological theory and to the conservation of threatened lynx populations: the lack of knowledge about connectivity between populations at the southern periphery of the lynx's geographic range delayed their legal listing in the United States. We test these competing hypotheses using microsatellite DNA markers and lynx samples from 17 collection sites in the core and periphery of the lynx's geographic range. Here we show high gene flow despite separation by distances greater than 3,100 km, supporting the dispersal hypothesis. We therefore suggest that management actions in the contiguous United States should focus on maintaining connectivity with the core of the lynx's geographic range. PMID:11823858

  12. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  13. Lynx: a knowledge base and an analytical workbench for integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Xie, Bingqing; Taylor, Andrew; D'Souza, Mark; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Hashemifar, Somaye; White, Steven; Dave, Utpal J; Agam, Gady; Xu, Jinbo; Wang, Sheng; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu) is a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine. It supports annotation and analysis of high-throughput experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses regarding genes and molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes or conditions of interest. Since the last release, the Lynx knowledge base (LynxKB) has been periodically updated with the latest versions of the existing databases and supplemented with additional information from public databases. These additions have enriched the data annotations provided by Lynx and improved the performance of Lynx analytical tools. Moreover, the Lynx analytical workbench has been supplemented with new tools for reconstruction of co-expression networks and feature-and-network-based prioritization of genetic factors and molecular mechanisms. These developments facilitate the extraction of meaningful knowledge from experimental data and LynxKB. The Service Oriented Architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces. PMID:26590263

  14. Lynx: a knowledge base and an analytical workbench for integrative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Xie, Bingqing; Taylor, Andrew; D'Souza, Mark; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Hashemifar, Somaye; White, Steven; Dave, Utpal J.; Agam, Gady; Xu, Jinbo; Wang, Sheng; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu) is a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine. It supports annotation and analysis of high-throughput experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses regarding genes and molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes or conditions of interest. Since the last release, the Lynx knowledge base (LynxKB) has been periodically updated with the latest versions of the existing databases and supplemented with additional information from public databases. These additions have enriched the data annotations provided by Lynx and improved the performance of Lynx analytical tools. Moreover, the Lynx analytical workbench has been supplemented with new tools for reconstruction of co-expression networks and feature-and-network-based prioritization of genetic factors and molecular mechanisms. These developments facilitate the extraction of meaningful knowledge from experimental data and LynxKB. The Service Oriented Architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces. PMID:26590263

  15. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  16. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  17. Lynx maritime radar in USN experiment Trident Warrior 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, R.; Link, Z.; Verge, T.; Laue, J.

    2012-06-01

    General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. (GA-ASI) participated in the joint naval experiment Trident Warrior 2011 at Combat Direction Systems Activity (CDSA), Dam Neck, Va., in July 2011. The goal was to introduce the Lynx® Multi-Mode Radar's new Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) mode and display a viable Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) full kill chain solution for the naval environment. GA-ASI presented a manned platform, a Beechcraft Super King Air 200 modified with an operators console, Lynx Multi-mode Radar, FLIR Star SAFIRE 380-HD EO/IR camera system, and an L-3 TCDL (aircraft data link system) as a surrogate for the Predator® B/ MQ-9 UAS.

  18. A new species, Toxocara lyncis, in the caracal (Lynx caracal).

    PubMed

    Macchioni, G

    1999-12-01

    Toxocara lyncis, sp. n. is described from Lynx caracal in Somalia. It most closely resembles T. cati, the only species of Toxocara reported from L. caracal. It differs from T. cati in the comparative length of the spicules and the esophagus, and in the shape of the cervical alae. Cervical alae have a nearly uniform width along their length in T. lyncis, while they are narrow anteriorly and broad posteriorly forming an arrow head shaped cephalic end in T. cati. PMID:10870554

  19. Role of Lynx1 and related Ly6 proteins as modulators of cholinergic signaling in normal and neoplastic bronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao Wen; Song, Ping Fang; Spindel, Eliot R

    2015-11-01

    The ly-6 proteins are a large family of proteins that resemble the snake three finger alpha toxins such as α-bungarotoxin and are defined by their multiple cysteine residues. Multiple members of the ly-6 protein family can modulate nicotinic signaling including lynx1, lynx2, slurp-1, slurp-2 and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA). Consistent with the expression of multiple nicotinic receptors in bronchial epithelium, multiple members of the nicotinic-modulatory ly-6 proteins are expressed in lung including lynx1 and lynx2. We studied the role of lynx1 as an exemplar of the role of ly-6 proteins in lung. Our data demonstrates that lynx1 acts as a negative modulator of nicotinic signaling in normal and neoplastic lung. In normal lung lynx1 serves to limit the ability of chronic nicotine exposure to increase levels of nicotinic receptors and also serves to limit the ability of nicotine to upregulate levels of GABAA receptors in lung. In turn this allows lynx1 to limit the ability of nicotine to upregulate levels of mucin which is mediated by GABAergic signaling. This suggests that lynx1-mimetics may have potential for treatment of asthma and COPD. In that most lung cancer cells also express nicotinic receptor and lynx1 we examined the role of lynx-1 in lung cancer. Lynx1 levels are decreased in lung cancers compared to adjacent normal lung. Knockdown of lynx1 by siRNAs increased growth of lung cancer cells while expression of lynx1 in lung cancer cell decreased cell proliferation. This suggests that lynx1 is an endogenous regulator of lung cancer growth. Given that multiple small molecule negative and positive allosteric modulators of nicotinic receptors have already been developed, this suggests that lynx1 is a highly druggable target both for development of drugs that may limit lung cancer growth as well as for drugs that may be effective for asthma or COPD treatment. PMID:26025503

  20. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

  1. Large Impact of Eurasian Lynx Predation on Roe Deer Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

  2. Prevalence of infection and 18S rRNA gene sequences of Cytauxzoon species in Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Naranjo, V; Rodríguez, A; de la Lastra, J M Pérez; Mangold, A J; de la Fuente, J

    2007-07-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid in the world. Only about 160 individuals remain in 2 separate metapopulations in Southern Spain (Sierra Morena and Doñana). We obtained blood samples of 20 lynxes captured from 2004 to 2006, and determined the prevalence of infection and genetic diversity of Cytauxzoon spp. using 18S rRNA PCR and sequence analysis. Prevalence of infection was 15% (3 of 20). Cytauxzoon sp. was only detected in Sierra Morena. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the sequences reported in the present study and those characterized in different domestic and wild felids and ticks from North and South America, Asia and Europe. Three different Cytauxzoon sp. sequences were obtained. They were closely related to that obtained from a Spanish cat, but diverged in up to 1.0% with respect to the only previously reported sequence from an Iberian lynx. Conversely, the latter sequence clustered together with C. manul sequences obtained from Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul) in Mongolia. Our analysis yields a separate cluster of C. felis sequences from cats, wild felids and ticks in the United States and Brazil. These results suggest that at least 2 different Cytauxzoon spp. may be present in Iberian lynx. The apparent absence in one of the areas, together with the possibility of fatal cytauxzoonosis in lynxes makes necessary disease risks to be taken into account in management conservation strategies, such as translocations and re-introductions. PMID:17326847

  3. Feline leukemia virus outbreak in the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus): high-throughput sequencing of envelope variable region A and experimental transmission.

    PubMed

    Geret, C P; Cattori, V; Meli, M L; Riond, B; Martínez, F; López, G; Vargas, A; Simón, M A; López-Bao, J V; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H

    2011-05-01

    The Iberian lynx is the most endangered felid species. During winter/spring 2006/7, a feline leukemia virus (FeLV) outbreak of unexpected virulence killed about 2/3 of the infected Iberian lynxes. All FeLV-positive animals were co-infected with feline hemoplasmas. To further characterize the Iberian lynx FeLV strain and evaluate its potential virulence, the FeLV envelope gene variable region A (VRA) mutant spectrum was analyzed using the Roche 454 sequencing technology, and an in vivo transmission study of lynx blood to specified-pathogen-free cats was performed. VRA mutations indicated weak apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme and catalytic polypeptide-like cytidine deaminase (APOBEC) restriction of FeLV replication, and variants characteristic of aggressive FeLV strains, such as FeLV-C or FeLV-A/61C, were not detected. Cats exposed to FeLV/Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum-positive lynx blood did not show a particularly severe outcome of infection. The results underscore the special susceptibility of Iberian lynxes to infectious diseases. PMID:21302124

  4. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat. PMID:27010306

  5. The ly-6 protein, lynx1, is an endogenous inhibitor of nicotinic signaling in airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao Wen; Rekow, Stephen S; Spindel, Eliot R

    2012-10-15

    Our laboratory has previously reported that bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) express a regulatory cascade of classic neurotransmitters and receptors that communicate in an almost neuronal-like manner to achieve physiological regulation. In this paper we show that the similarity between neurotransmitter signaling in neurons and BEC extends to the level of transmitter receptor allosteric modulators. Lynx1 is a member of the ly-6/three-finger superfamily of proteins, many of which modulate receptor signaling activity. Lynx1 specifically has been shown to modulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function in neurons by altering receptor sensitivity and desensitization. We now report that lynx1 forms a complex with α7 nAChR in BEC and serves to negatively regulate α7 downstream signaling events. Treatment of primary cultures of BEC with nicotine increased levels of nAChR subunits and that increase was potentiated by lynx1 knockdown. Lynx1 knockdown also potentiated the nicotine-induced increase in GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R) and MUC5AC mRNA expression, and that effect was blocked by α7 antagonists and α7 knockdown. In parallel with the increases in nAChR, GABA(A)R, and mucin mRNA levels, lynx1 knockdown also increased levels of p-Src. Consistent with this, inhibition of Src signaling blocked the ability of the lynx1 knockdown to increase basal and nicotine-stimulated GABA(A)R and mucin mRNA expression. Thus lynx1 appears to act as a negative modulator of α7 nAChR-induced events by inhibiting Src activation. This suggests that lynx1 agonists or mimetics are a potentially important therapeutic target to develop new therapies for smoking-related diseases characterized by increased mucin expression. PMID:22923641

  6. Lynx Mobile Mapper for Surveying City Centers and Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, D.; Zampa, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last two years the Lynx Mobile Mapper has become the new lidar solution developed for surveying large areas that are impractical with static lidar sensors and require an accuracy and resolution that exceed airborne technologies. The system allows the scanning at a speed up to 100 km/h, obtaining accuracy better than 5 cm with an up to 7 mm resolution. Therefore, this solution proves to be an excellent tool for surveying city centers, highways, railways, thanks also to a very fast, safe and accurate data collection. This paper will present two applications: 1- The survey of the entire ancient city center of Brescia (Italy) with it medieval castle, the narrows streets and the main squares. It also has been run a test to survey with the Lynx the tunnel that go underneath the castle and compare the result with a static laser scanner survey, 2- The survey of the Calatrava Bridge on the A1 highway. The central bridge, which crosses over the high-speed rail line and the A1 motorway is composed as a single symmetrical arch, placed longitudinally, which rises to a height of 46m. During the survey the two A1 motorway carriageways have been scanned and the upper part of the bridge for a complete 3D model of this structure.

  7. Age, sex, reproduction, and spatial organization of lynxes colonizing northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    From 1972 through 1978, lynxes (Felis lynx) emigrating from Canada were studied in northeastern Minnesota. Fourteen individuals were radio-tracked, 8 wefe ear-tagged, and 49 carcasses were examined. Sex ratios of the samples were equal during the first years of the study, but females predominated later. At least half of the radiotagged lynxes were killed by humans; no natural mortality was detected. Home range sizes ranged from 51 to 122 km2 for females and 145 to 243 km2 for males, up to 10 times the sizes of those reported by other workers. Ranges of females tended to overlap. Males and females appeared to be segregated in the population.

  8. 50,000 years of genetic uniformity in the critically endangered Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ricardo; Ramírez, Oscar; Valdiosera, Cristina E; García, Nuria; Alda, Fernando; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan; Marmi, Josep; Doadrio, Ignacio; Willerslev, Eske; Götherström, Anders; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Thomas, Mark G; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Dalén, Love

    2011-09-01

    Low genetic diversity in the endangered Iberian lynx, including lack of mitochondrial control region variation, is thought to result from historical or Pleistocene/Holocene population bottlenecks, and to indicate poor long-term viability. We find no variability in control region sequences from 19 Iberian lynx remains from across the Iberian Peninsula and spanning the last 50,000 years. This is best explained by continuously small female effective population size through time. We conclude that low genetic variability in the Iberian lynx is not in itself a threat to long-term viability, and so should not preclude conservation efforts. PMID:21864323

  9. HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) AND GREY FOXES (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic examination of gastric mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor), porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and black bears (Ursus amaricanus) was done on archival tissue blocks for evidence of Helicobacter-like org...

  10. The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil

    2014-06-01

    Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities. PMID:24652527

  11. Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat

    PubMed Central

    Peers, Michael J. L.; Thornton, Daniel H.; Murray, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species’ ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics. PMID:24174116

  12. Lynx reproduction--long-lasting life cycle of corpora lutea in a feline species.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Painer, Johanna; Amelkina, Olga; Dehnhard, Martin; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-04-01

    A review of lynxes' reproductive biology and comparison between the reproductive cycles of the domestic cat and lynxes is presented. Three of the four lynx species (the bobcat excluded) express quite similar reproductive pattern (age at sexual maturity, estrus and pregnancy length, litter size). Similarly to the domestic cat, the bobcat is polyestric and can have more than one litter per year. Domestic cats and many other felid species are known to express anovulatory, pregnant and pseudo-pregnant reproductive cycles in dependence on ovulation induction and fertilization. The formation of corpora lutea (CLs) occurs after ovulation. In pregnant animals, luteal function ends with parturition, whereas during pseudo-pregnancy a shorter life span and lower hormone secretion are observed. The life cycle of corpora lutea in Eurasian lynxes is different from the pattern described in domestic cats. Lynx CLs produce progestagens in distinctive amounts permanently for at least two years, regardless of their origin (pregnancy or pseudo-pregnancy). It is suggested that long-lasting CLs induce a negative feedback to inactivate folliculogenesis, turning a normally polyestric cycle observed in most felids into a monoestric cycle in lynxes. PMID:24856466

  13. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  14. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05–74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57–9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  15. NMR Structure and Action on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Water-soluble Domain of Human LYNX1*

    PubMed Central

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Mineev, Konstantin S.; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Filkin, Sergey Yu.; Krivolapova, Alexandra P.; Janickova, Helena; Dolezal, Vladimir; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Bertrand, Daniel; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which considerably complicates in vitro studies. We report for the first time the NMR spatial structure for the water-soluble domain of human LYNX1 lacking a GPI anchor (ws-LYNX1) and its concentration-dependent activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). At 5–30 μm, ws-LYNX1 competed with 125I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) and to Torpedo nAChR. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7 nAChRs to 1 μm ws-LYNX1 enhanced the response to acetylcholine, but no effect was detected on α4β2 and α3β2 nAChRs. Increasing ws-LYNX1 concentration to 10 μm caused a modest inhibition of these three nAChR subtypes. A common feature for ws-LYNX1 and LYNX1 is a decrease of nAChR sensitivity to high concentrations of acetylcholine. NMR and functional analysis both demonstrate that ws-LYNX1 is an appropriate model to shed light on the mechanism of LYNX1 action. Computer modeling, based on ws-LYNX1 NMR structure and AChBP x-ray structure, revealed a possible mode of ws-LYNX1 binding. PMID:21252236

  16. Reproductive traits in captive and free-ranging males of the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Gan, Natalia; Sestelo, Adrin; Garde, J Julin; Martnez, Fernando; Vargas, Astrid; Snchez, Iigo; Prez-Aspa, Mara Jos; Lpez-Bao, Jos Vicente; Palomares, Francisco; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2010-01-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid in the world. Adequate genetic management of in situ and ex situ populations, and linkage between both, require knowledge on male reproductive biology and factors influencing it. We examined the influence of age, free-ranging versus captive conditions and seasonality on phenotypic, endocrine and semen traits, and links between reproductive traits and male fertility. Males had relatively small testes, produced low sperm numbers, a low proportion of normal sperm, and a high proportion of motile sperm. Young (2-year-old) males had lower testosterone levels, fewer sperm, and a lower proportion of motile and normal sperm than > or =4-year-old males. No major differences were found in semen traits before and after the mating season or between free-ranging and captive males, although the latter had better sperm motility. Males with larger relative testes weight and more sperm copulated more frequently, whereas males that produced more sperm with higher motility produced more cubs per female. In conclusion, small relative testes size and low sperm quality could indicate either low levels of sperm competition or high levels of inbreeding. Young males are probably subfertile; there is a slight trend for males in the captive breeding programme to have better semen quality than wild males, and males with higher sperm production are sexually more active and more fertile. These findings have major implications for decisions regarding which males should breed, provide samples for the genetic resource bank, or participate in programmes involving the use of assisted reproductive techniques. PMID:19736256

  17. Different cryopreservation requirements in foetal versus adult skin cells from an endangered mammal, the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    León-Quinto, Trinidad; Simón, Miguel A; Cadenas, Rafael; Martínez, Africa; Serna, Arturo

    2014-04-01

    Cryobanking somatic foetal cells acquire much relevance in endangered species for biodiversity conservation purposes. Such cells could be later used to reintroduce the lost genes into the breeding pool, by inducing pluripotency and/or nuclear transfer if necessary. Since requirements for preserving foetal cells are not always the same as for adult ones, we evaluated the cryosensitivity of foetal skin cells in comparison with adult ones from the critically endangered Iberian lynx. Responses to cryoinjury were analyzed in both thawed cell types by means of cell viability and functionality (by analyzing their membrane integrity, metabolic activity, glycosaminoglycan content and proliferative activity). Freezing media included the permeating cryoprotectant Me2SO, either alone or along with the non-permeating cryoprotectant sucrose at 0.1 or 0.2M. When Me2SO was the only cryoprotectant, survival rate fell in thawed foetal cells to 54±4% (against 89±6% for thawed adult ones) and both proliferative and metabolic activities remained significantly lower than values for thawed adult cells. However, the combination of sucrose (both 0.1 as 0.2) and Me2SO in foetal cells significantly increased their survival rates (to 71±4% and 73±5%, respectively), proliferative activities (partially at day 7 and completely at day 14 after thawing) and metabolic activities. Our findings clearly show a difference between foetal and adult cells concerning their cryopreservation sensitivity and requirements, as well as their recovery time after thawing. These results are of relevance for the cryopreservation of foetal and adult cells from the Iberian lynx and could be also useful for other mammals. PMID:24530371

  18. Defining space use and movements of Canada lynx with global positioning system telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdett, C.L.; Moen, R.A.; Niemi, G.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Space use and movements of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are difficult to study with very-high-frequency radiocollars. We deployed global positioning system (GPS) collars on 11 lynx in Minnesota to study their seasonal space-use patterns. We estimated home ranges with minimum-convex-polygon and fixed-kernel methods and estimated core areas with area/probability curves. Fixed-kernel home ranges of males (range = 29-522 km2) were significantly larger than those of females (range = 5-95 km2) annually and during the denning season. Some male lynx increased movements during March, the month most influenced by breeding activity. Lynx core areas were predicted by the 60% fixed-kernel isopleth in most seasons. The mean core-area size of males (range = 6-190 km2) was significantly larger than that of females (range = 1-19 km2) annually and during denning. Most female lynx were reproductive animals with reduced movements, whereas males often ranged widely between Minnesota and Ontario. Sensitivity analyses examining the effect of location frequency on home-range size suggest that the home-range sizes of breeding females are less sensitive to sample size than those of males. Longer periods between locations decreased home-range and core-area overlap relative to the home range estimated from daily locations. GPS collars improve our understanding of space use and movements by lynx by increasing the spatial extent and temporal frequency of monitoring and allowing home ranges to be estimated over short periods that are relevant to life-history characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  19. Habitat Loss, Not Fragmentation, Drives Occurrence Patterns of Canada Lynx at the Southern Range Periphery

    PubMed Central

    Hornseth, Megan L.; Walpole, Aaron A.; Walton, Lyle R.; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Murray, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The ‘threshold hypothesis’ predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the ‘flexibility hypothesis’ predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the ‘threshold hypothesis’ and ‘flexibility hypothesis’. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the ‘flexibility hypothesis’. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat alteration. PMID:25401737

  20. Habitat loss, not fragmentation, drives occurrence patterns of Canada lynx at the southern range periphery.

    PubMed

    Hornseth, Megan L; Walpole, Aaron A; Walton, Lyle R; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C; Fortin, Marie-Jose; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The 'threshold hypothesis' predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the 'flexibility hypothesis' predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the 'threshold hypothesis' and 'flexibility hypothesis'. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the 'flexibility hypothesis'. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat alteration. PMID:25401737

  1. Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

  2. Germ cell survival and differentiation after xenotransplantation of testis tissue from three endangered species: Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri) and Mohor gazelle (G. dama mhorr).

    PubMed

    Arregui, Lucía; Dobrinski, Ina; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2014-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive techniques for endangered species is a major goal for conservation. One of these techniques, testis tissue xenografting, allows for the development of spermatozoa from animals that die before reaching sexual maturity. To assess the potential use of this technique with endangered species, testis tissue from six Iberian lynxes (one fetus, two perinatal cubs, two 6-month-old and one 2-year-old lynx), two Cuvier's gazelle fetuses and one 8-month-old Mohor gazelle were transplanted ectopically into nude mice. Tissue from the lynx fetus, perinatal cubs and 2-year-old donors degenerated, whereas spermatogonia were present in 15% of seminiferous tubules more than 70 weeks after grafting in transplanted testis tissue from 6-month-old donors. Seminal vesicle weights (indicative of testosterone production) increased over time in mice transplanted with tissue from 6-month-old lynxes. Progression of spermatogenesis was observed in xenografts from gazelles and was donor age dependent. Tissue from Cuvier's gazelle fetuses contained spermatocytes 40 weeks after grafting. Finally, round spermatids were found 28 weeks after transplantation in grafts from the 8-month-old Mohor gazelle. This is the first time that xenotransplantation of testicular tissue has been performed with an endangered felid and the first successful xenotransplantation in an endangered species. Our results open important options for the preservation of biological diversity. PMID:23763851

  3. Unmasking Proteolytic Activity for Adult Visual Cortex Plasticity by the Removal of Lynx1

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Noreen; Burman, Poromendro N.; Hussein, Ayan; Demars, Michael P.; Sadahiro, Masato; Brady, Daniel M.; Tsirka, Stella E.; Russo, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Experience-dependent cortical plasticity declines with age. At the molecular level, experience-dependent proteolytic activity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) becomes restricted in the adult brain if mice are raised in standard cages. Understanding the mechanism for the loss of permissive proteolytic activity is therefore a key link for improving function in adult brains. Using the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) as a model, we demonstrate that tPA activity in V1 can be unmasked following 4 d of monocular deprivation when the mice older than 2 months are raised in standard cages by the genetic removal of Lynx1, a negative regulator of adult plasticity. This was also associated with the reduction of stubby and thin spine density and enhancement of ocular dominance shift in adult V1 of Lynx1 knock-out (KO) mice. These structural and functional changes were tPA-dependent because genetic removal of tPA in Lynx1 KO mice can block the monocular deprivation-dependent reduction of dendritic spine density, whereas both genetic and adult specific inhibition of tPA activity can ablate the ocular dominance shift in Lynx1 KO mice. Our work demonstrates that the adult brain has an intrinsic potential for experience-dependent elevation of proteolytic activity to express juvenile-like structural and functional changes but is effectively limited by Lynx1 if mice are raised in standard cages. Insights into the Lynx1-tPA plasticity mechanism may provide novel therapeutic targets for adult brain disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Experience-dependent proteolytic activity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) becomes restricted in the adult brain in correlation with the decline in cortical plasticity when mice are raised in standard cages. We demonstrated that removal of Lynx1, one of negative regulators of plasticity, unmasks experience-dependent tPA elevation in visual cortex of adult mice reared in standard cages. This proteolytic elevation facilitated dendritic spine reduction and ocular dominance plasticity in adult visual cortex. This is the first demonstration of adult brain to retain the intrinsic capacity to elevate tPA in an experience-dependent manner but is effectively limited by Lynx1. tPA-Lynx1 may potentially be a new candidate mechanism for interventions that were shown to activate plasticity in adult brain. PMID:26377459

  4. Adapted conservation measures are required to save the Iberian lynx in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fordham, D. A.; Akçakaya, H. R.; Brook, B. W.; Rodríguez, A.; Alves, P. C.; Civantos, E.; Triviño, M.; Watts, M. J.; Araújo, M. B.

    2013-10-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) has suffered severe population declines in the twentieth century and is now on the brink of extinction. Climate change could further threaten the survival of the species, but its forecast effects are being neglected in recovery plans. Quantitative estimates of extinction risk under climate change have so far mostly relied on inferences from correlative projections of species' habitat shifts. Here we use ecological niche models coupled to metapopulation simulations with source-sink dynamics to directly investigate the combined effects of climate change, prey availability and management intervention on the persistence of the Iberian lynx. Our approach is unique in that it explicitly models dynamic bi-trophic species interactions in a climate change setting. We show that anticipated climate change will rapidly and severely decrease lynx abundance and probably lead to its extinction in the wild within 50 years, even with strong global efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In stark contrast, we also show that a carefully planned reintroduction programme, accounting for the effects of climate change, prey abundance and habitat connectivity, could avert extinction of the lynx this century. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, why considering prey availability, climate change and their interaction in models is important when designing policies to prevent future biodiversity loss.

  5. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Moreno-Fernandez-de-Leceta, Aitor; Martinez-Garcia, Alexeiw; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder's daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense) or if something is wrong relative to the user's health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%. PMID:26783514

  6. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Moreno-Fernandez-de-Leceta, Aitor; Martinez-Garcia, Alexeiw; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder's daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense) or if something is wrong relative to the user's health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%. PMID:26783514

  7. Dental Pathology of the California Bobcat (Lynx rufus californicus).

    PubMed

    Aghashani, A; Kim, A S; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2016-05-01

    Skulls from 277 California bobcats (Lynx rufus californicus) were examined macroscopically and by radiography. The majority of the skulls were from adult animals (79.8%). The skulls were from 128 male (46.2%) and 114 female (41.2%) animals and gender was unknown for the remainder. The majority (95.6%) of teeth were present for examination. Only 16 teeth were identified as absent congenitally and 15 of these were incisor teeth. Teeth with abnormal morphology were rare (0.5%). The two most common abnormalities were unusually large crowns of the maxillary first molar teeth and bigemination of the mandibular incisor teeth. Teeth with an abnormal number of roots were uncommon (n = 68). Sixty-three teeth had abnormal roots, mostly the presence of two roots instead of one for the maxillary first molar tooth. The most prevalent dental lesions found in the California bobcat were attrition/abrasion (85.2%), periodontitis (56.0%) and tooth fractures (50.9%). Less common dental lesions were endodontal disease (n = 114 teeth) and tooth resorption (n = 73 teeth). PMID:27102444

  8. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. PMID:24080086

  9. The origin of the critically endangered Iberian lynx: Speciation, diet and adaptive changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan; Llenas, Manel; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2015-09-01

    A new cranial fossil attributable to the species Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827) attests to the presence of this felid in the late Early Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula. Certain diagnostic features, such as the confluence of the lacerum posterius and anterior condyloid foramina, and the long and lyre-shaped temporal ridges, allow this find to be established as the first occurrence of the Iberian lynx in Europe. The fossil described here was found in the Avenc Marcel cave (Vallirana, Barcelona, Spain) in association with many other Late Villafranchian faunal remains. The combined presence of the bovid genera Capra and Soergelia, and the rodent species Mimomys medasensis and Mimomys tornensis, allows the age of this deposit to be placed at about 1.6-1.7 Ma. Consequently, the appearance of Lynx pardinus is related here to the faunal turnover that occurred between the Middle and Late Villafranchian, considered to be one of the major changes in the European macromammal fauna. Such an early divergence is in accordance with the evolutionary split proposed by both the molecular data and with the glacial-interglacial dynamics that affected the European region during the Early Pleistocene. Under these circumstances, the Iberian lynx could have originated in isolation in the Iberian Peninsula (a recognized southern European refugium for several species), during one or more glacial episodes. In this time period, this species may also have developed a dependence on small-sized animal prey, such as the lagomorphs of the genus Prolagus and Oryctolagus, already widespread throughout the Iberian Peninsula by that point. In the present work, several topics regarding the earliest evolutionary history of Lynx pardinus are discussed. Understanding the events that took place surrounding the origins of this lineage can shed new light on the future conservation of this extremely threatened felid.

  10. Activity Patterns of Eurasian Lynx Are Modulated by Light Regime and Individual Traits over a Wide Latitudinal Range

    PubMed Central

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R.; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7′N in central Europe to 70°00′N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day–night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

  11. Habitat Selection and Risk of Predation: Re-colonization by Lynx had Limited Impact on Habitat Selection by Roe Deer

    PubMed Central

    Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx – the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection). Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations. PMID:24069419

  12. Faecal genetic analysis to determine the presence and distribution of elusive carnivores: design and feasibility for the Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Palomares, F; Godoy, J A; Piriz, A; O'Brien, S J

    2002-10-01

    Noninvasive methods using genetic markers have been suggested as ways to overcome difficulties associated with documenting the presence of elusive species. We present and assess a novel, reliable and effective molecular genetic technique for the unequivocal genetic identification of faeces from the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). From mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and D-loop region sequences, we designed four species-specific primers (for products 130-161 bp long) that were considered to be likely to amplify degraded DNA. We compared two DNA extraction methods, various DNA amplification conditions and the robustness and specificity of the primer pairs with 87 lynx samples from 5 potentially different lynx populations and with 328 samples of other carnivore species. The utility of the identification technique was tested with faeces of different ages, with faeces from controlled field experiments, and with faeces collected from locales with possible lynx populations from throughout the state of Andalusia, Spain (8052 km2). Faecal mtDNA extraction was more efficient using PBS wash of the faeces instead of a faeces homogenate. Our assay increased from 92.6 to 99% efficiency with a second amplification and a reduction in template concentration to overcome polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibition. Our assay never produced false positives, and correctly identified all lynx faeces. Of 252 faeces samples of unknown species collected throughout Andalusia, 26.6% (from three different areas) were classified as Iberian lynx, 1.4% showed evidence of PCR inhibition and 1.2% were of uncertain origin. This method has proven to be a reliable technique that can be incorporated into large-scale surveys of Iberian lynx populations and exemplifies an approach that can easily be extended to other species. PMID:12296958

  13. Habitat selection and risk of predation: re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer.

    PubMed

    Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection). Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations. PMID:24069419

  14. Lynx1 shifts α4β2 nicotinic receptor subunit stoichiometry by affecting assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Weston A; Henderson, Brandon J; Yu, Caroline; Parker, Rell L; Richards, Christopher I; Lester, Henry A; Miwa, Julie M

    2014-11-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored neurotoxin-like receptor binding proteins, such as lynx modulators, are topologically positioned to exert pharmacological effects by binding to the extracellular portion of nAChRs. These actions are generally thought to proceed when both lynx and the nAChRs are on the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that lynx1 also exerts effects on α4β2 nAChRs within the endoplasmic reticulum. Lynx1 affects assembly of nascent α4 and β2 subunits and alters the stoichiometry of the receptor population that reaches the plasma membrane. Additionally, these data suggest that lynx1 shifts nAChR stoichiometry to low sensitivity (α4)3(β2)2 pentamers primarily through this interaction in the endoplasmic reticulum, rather than solely via direct modulation of activity on the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, these data represent the first test of the hypothesis that a lynx family member, or indeed any glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, could act within the cell to alter assembly of a multisubunit protein. PMID:25193667

  15. Experimental transmission of Cytauxzoon felis from bobcats (Lynx rufus) to domestic cats (Felis domesticus).

    PubMed

    Kier, A B; Wagner, J E; Morehouse, L G

    1982-01-01

    Freshly collected blood and/or spleen homogenate from an experimentally infected Florida bobcat (Lynx rufus floridanus), which had died of feline cytauxzoonosis, was inoculated into domestic cats. All inoculated cats had clinical signs of feline cytauxzoonosis and died within 2 weeks after they were inoculated. Similar material collected from an eastern bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus) carrying an experimentally infected Cytauxzoon felis parasitemia was inoculated into domestic cats. All inoculated cats developed a parasitemia, but none developed clinical signs of disease and none died of the disease. Cats subinoculated with parasitemic cat blood also developed parasitemias and they too did not develop clinical signs of infection nor died. After carrying the blood phase of Cytauxzoon felis for various periods, the domestic cats were then challenge exposed with proven lethal Cytauxzoon inoculum of domestic cat origin. All cats died of cytauxzoonosis. PMID:6807145

  16. Performance and rotor loads measurements of the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Benton H.; Louie, Alexander W.; Griffiths, Nicholas; Sotiriou, Costantinos P.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a series of flight tests on the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades. The test objectives were to explore the flight envelope and to measure the performance and structural loads of the Lynx main-rotor system. The tests were conducted as part of the British Experimental Rotor Program (BERP) under a contract with the Ministry of Defense in England. Data were acquired for steady-level flights at five weight coefficients. Some flight conditions were tested at beyond the retreating-blade stall boundary, which was defined by a predetermined limit on the pitchlink vibratory load. In addition to documenting the flight conditions and data, this report describes the aircraft, particularly the rotor system, in detail.

  17. Characterization of regionally associated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Lagana, Danielle M; Lee, Justin S; Lewis, Jesse S; Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Sweanor, Linda L; McBride, Roy; McBride, Caleb; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific FIVs. However, recent studies have detected an FIV strain infecting both bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in California and Florida. To further investigate this observation, we evaluated FIV from bobcats in Florida (n=25) and Colorado (n=80) between 2008 and 2011. Partial viral sequences from five Florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from Florida panthers. We did not detect FIV in Colorado bobcats. PMID:23778629

  18. Retrospective study of morbidity and mortality of captive Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in the ex situ conservation programme (2004-June 2010).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Fernando; Manteca, Xavier; Pastor, Josep

    2013-12-01

    Medical records of 120 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) from the captive breeding population (CBP), 96 of which were older than 1 wk old, were studied from January 2004 to June 2010. From a total of 413 clinical signs recorded, it was possible to obtain a diagnosis in 258 (62.5%). Inappetence, skin wound, and vomiting had the highest incidence. Adult (2 to 6 yr old) and juvenile (1 wk to 1 yr old) animals accounted for most of the clinical signs. Vitamin D toxicosis and intraspecific trauma accounted for 55.4% and 15.1% of the clinical signs, respectively. Renal toxicosis due to the administration of supplements with an excess of vitamin D occurred in 2009 and affected a total of 39 individuals. Intraspecific trauma cases were predominantly observed from sibling aggression. Diet-related conditions consisted of sporadic cases of fatal salmonellosis, dermatophytosis, and gastrointestinal episodes. Suspected idiopathic epilepsy and femoral neck metaphyseal osteopathy were also observed. A total of 15 animals older than 1 wk old died including five vitamin D toxicosis cases and three juveniles due to intraspecific trauma. Mycobacterium bovis was found as a secondary infection in two animals that died from vitamin D toxicosis. Abortions, premature births, and stillbirths accounted for 12 mortalities, and 13 neonatal deaths due to maternal neglect or bacterial sepsis were observed. Data show that improvement of diet-related conditions is a key factor in preserving the health of animals in the CBP. Thus, the control of food and supplement composition, rabbit farm suppliers, and hygiene should be standardized and improved. Furthermore, data recording and diagnostic protocols should be standardized. PMID:24450042

  19. Genetics at the verge of extinction: insights from the Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Casas-Marce, M; Soriano, L; López-Bao, J V; Godoy, J A

    2013-11-01

    Population viability might become compromised by the loss of genetic diversity and the accumulation of inbreeding resulting from population decline and fragmentation. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) provides a paradigmatic example of a species at the verge of extinction, and because of the well-documented and different demographic histories of the two remaining populations (Doñana and Andújar), it provides the opportunity to evaluate the performance of analytical methods commonly applied to recently declined populations. We used mitochondrial sequences and 36 microsatellite markers to evaluate the current genetic status of the species and to assess the genetic signatures of its past history. Mitochondrial diversity was extremely low with only two haplotypes, alternatively fixed in each population. Both remnant populations have low levels of genetic diversity at microsatellite markers, particularly the population from Doñana, and genetic differentiation between the two populations is high. Bayesian coalescent-based methods suggest an earlier decline starting hundreds of years ago, while heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests did not provide conclusive and consistent evidence for recent bottlenecks. Also, a model of gene flow received overwhelming support over a model of pure drift. Results that are in conflict with the known recent demography of the species call for caution in the use of these methods, especially when no information on previous demographic history is available. Overall, our results suggest that current genetic patterns in the Iberian lynx are mainly the result of its recent decline and fragmentation and alerts on possible genetic risks for its persistence. Conservation strategies should explicitly consider this threat and incorporate an integrated genetic management of wild, captive and re-introduced populations, including genetic restoration through translocations. PMID:24128177

  20. Home range size and choice of management strategy for lynx in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Linnell, J D; Andersen, R; Kvam, T; Andrén, H; Liberg, O; Odden, J; Moa, P F

    2001-06-01

    Annual and seasonal home ranges were calculated for 47 Eurasian lynx in four Scandinavian study sites (two in Sweden and two in Norway). The observed home ranges were the largest reported for the species, with study site averages ranging from 600 to 1,400 km2 for resident males and from 300 to 800 km2 for resident females. When home range sizes were compared to the size of protected areas (national parks and nature reserves) in Scandinavia, it was concluded that very few protected areas contained sufficient forest to provide space for more than a few individuals. As a direct consequence of this, most lynx need to be conserved in the multiuse semi-natural forest habitats that cover large areas in Scandinavia. This conservation strategy leads to a number of conflicts with some land uses (sheep and semidomestic reindeer herding, and roe deer hunters), but not all (forestry and moose harvest). Accordingly research must be aimed at understanding the ecology of these conflicts, and finding solutions. PMID:11393321

  1. Lynx multi-mode SAR in support of NATO Unified Vision 2012 trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, R.; Verge, T.; Linnehan, R.; Doerry, A.

    2013-05-01

    In June 2012, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Reconnaissance Systems Group participated in the NATO Unified Vision 2012 (UV12) Joint ISR (JISR) Trial at Orland Main Air Station in Brekstad, Norway. GA-ASI supplied a modified King Air 200 as a Predator B/MQ-9 Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) surrogate outfitted with a Lynx Block 30 Multi-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI), a FLIR Star SAFIRE 3800HD Electro-optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor, and a L-3 Tactical Common Data Link. This airborne platform was combined with GA-ASI's new System for Tactical Archival, Retrieval, and Exploitation (STARE) for full integration into the NATO ISR exploitation community. UV12 was an event sponsored by the NATO Joint Capability Group on Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) to focus on the interoperability of national ISR assets and improving JISR concept of operations. The Predator B RPA surrogate flew alongside multiple NATO ISR assets in nine missions that showcased the platform's all-weather ISR capabilities focusing on the Lynx SAR/GMTI and Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) modes. The inclusion of the STARE technology allowed GA-ASI's radar and Full Motion Video (FMV) data to be seamlessly processed and passed to joint networks where the data was fused with other NATO ISR products, resulting in a full battlefield reconnaissance picture.

  2. Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

  3. Gene Sets for Utilization of Primary and Secondary Nutrition Supplies in the Distal Gut of Endangered Iberian Lynx

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, María; Messina, Enzo; Richter, Michael; Bargiela, Rafael; Peplies, Jörg; Huws, Sharon A.; Newbold, Charles J.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Simón, Miguel A.; López, Guillermo; Yakimov, Michail M.; Ferrer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads) related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of ‘presumptive’ aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding ‘active’ lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(amino)lipids, glyco(amino)glycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases) in genes encoding α-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of β-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of β-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although β-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80–100% wild rabbits) but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely suggests a tighter, more coordinated and complex evolutionary and nutritional ecology scenario of carnivore gut microbial communities than has been previously assumed. PMID:23251564

  4. Performance and loads data from an outdoor hover test of a Lynx tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Smith, Charles A.; Hagen, Martin J.

    1989-01-01

    A Lynx tail rotor was tested in hover at the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The test objectives were to measure the isolated rotor performance to provide a baseline for subsequent testing, and to operate the rotor throughout the speed and collective envelope before testing in the NFAC 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Rotor forces and blade bending moments were measured at ambient wind conditions from zero to 6.23 m/sec. The test envelope was limited to rotor speeds of 1550 to 1850 rpm and minus 13 deg to plus 20 deg of blade collective pitch. The isolated rotor performance and blade loads data are presented.

  5. Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Gritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2008-07-01

    The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p < 0.0001) showing a postpartum increase both in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females. The results from the Eurasian lynx revealed that the measurement of faecal progesterone metabolites led to profiles dissimilar to profiles shown in other felid species, but similar to those from faecal gestagen metabolite analysis in the Iberian lynx. To identify faecal gestagen and oestrogen metabolites a radio-metabolism study was performed. Using the progesterone immunoassay two major progesterone metabolites were detected demonstrating that the assay indeed tracks the relevant metabolites. The oestrogen assay measured authentic 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone, and their conjugates. The analysis of the faecal metabolite composition in samples from early and late pregnancy and lactation particularly revealed a distinct shift in the relation between 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone that changed in favour of oestrone. This might indicate different hormone sources during and after pregnancy (corpus luteum, placenta). We hypothesize, that placental steroid analysis in combination with other highly sophisticated analytical techniques, like liquid chromatography mass spectrometry or urinary relaxin analysis may led to analytical options to confirm pregnancy and to differentiate this from pseudo-pregnancy in lynx species. PMID:18638107

  6. Individual identification of endangered species using mosquito blood meals: a proof-of-concept study in Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Méndez, María; Ruiz, Santiago; Godoy, José A; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Host identification from mosquito blood meals has been routinely used to identify the feeding preferences of insects in studies on transmission of vector-borne pathogens. Here, we identified for the first time the susceptibility of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to the attack of a wild mosquito female, the mosquito Anopheles atroparvus. Furthermore, we used 11 microsatellite markers to test for the utility of vertebrate DNA isolated from insect blood meals for individual identification of wildlife. Only the three smallest markers were successfully amplified; however, this genotype did not match with any of the previously genotyped individuals in southern Spain. These results support the use of DNA from mosquito blood meals as a non-invasive source of DNA and a powerful tool on epidemiological and conservation biology studies. However, as may be the case of other non-invasive sampling methods, the utility of this technique is probably limited by the quantity and quality of vertebrate DNA. PMID:25656463

  7. LYNX: An unattended sensor system for detection of gamma-ray and neutron emissions from special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Kiff, Scott D.; Sidor, Daniel E.; Morris, Scott J.; Rohrer, John S.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Pfund, David M.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Mullen, Crystal A.

    2009-01-21

    This manuscript profiles an unattended and fully autonomous detection system sensitive to gamma-ray and neutron emissions from special nuclear material. The LYNX design specifically targets applications that require radiation detection capabilities but possess little or no infrastructure. In these settings, users need the capability to deploy sensors for extended periods of time that analyze whatever signal-starved data can be captured, since little or no control may be exerted over measurement conditions. The fundamental sensing elements of the LYNX system are traditional NaI(Tl) and 3He detectors. The new developments reported here center on two themes: low-power electronics and computationally simple analysis algorithms capable of discriminating gamma-ray signatures indicative of special nuclear materials from those of naturally occurring radioactive material. Incorporating tripwire-detection algorithms based on gamma-ray spectral signatures into a low-power electronics package significantly improves performance in environments where sensors encounter nuisance sources.

  8. Identification of Novel Gammaherpesviruses in Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Panama and Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Caitlin C; Sweanor, Linda L; Wilson-Henjum, Grete; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Ryan M

    2015-10-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) have been identified in many species and are often associated with disease. Recently, we characterized three novel felid GHVs in domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and pumas (Puma concolor). We investigated whether free-ranging ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and bobcats are infected with additional GHVs. We screened DNA samples from ocelots on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and bobcats in western Colorado, US, by using a degenerate nested PCR that targets the GHV glycoprotein B gene. We identified a novel GHV glycoprotein B sequence in two ocelots and a second novel sequence in a bobcat, which is distinct from the previously characterized bobcat GHV (Lynx rufus GHV 1). Utilizing additional degenerate and virus-specific PCRs, we extended these sequences to include 3.4 kilobases of the GHV glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. These sequences identify the first GHV detected in ocelots and the second GHV in bobcats. These viruses were provisionally named L. pardalis GHV 1 and Lynx rufus GHV 2, respectively. The viruses are most closely related to recently identified GHVs of the Percavirus genus found in domestic cats (F. catus GHV 1) and bobcats (L. rufus GHV 1), suggesting that a cluster of felid GHVs exists within the Percavirus genus. PMID:26280877

  9. Long-Range Gene Flow and the Effects of Climatic and Ecological Factors on Genetic Structuring in a Large, Solitary Carnivore: The Eurasian Lynx

    PubMed Central

    Ratkiewicz, Mirosław; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P.; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Schmidt, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore. PMID:25551216

  10. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Mirosław; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Schmidt, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore. PMID:25551216

  11. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories.

  12. Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Justin S.; Ruell, Emily W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alonso, Robert S.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches because of avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses on bobcats and their directly transmitted viral pathogen, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), to investigate the effects of urbanization on bobcat movement. We predicted that urban development, including major freeways, would limit bobcat movement and result in genetically structured host and pathogen populations. We analysed molecular markers from 106 bobcats and 19 FIV isolates from seropositive animals in urban southern California. Our findings indicate that reduced gene flow between two primary habitat patches has resulted in genetically distinct bobcat subpopulations separated by urban development including a major highway. However, the distribution of genetic diversity among FIV isolates determined through phylogenetic analyses indicates that pathogen genotypes are less spatially structured--exhibiting a more even distribution between habitat fragments. We conclude that the types of movement and contact sufficient for disease transmission occur with enough frequency to preclude structuring among the viral population, but that the bobcat population is structured owing to low levels of effective bobcat migration resulting in gene flow. We illustrate the utility in using multiple molecular markers that differentially detect movement and gene flow between subpopulations when assessing connectivity.

  13. Pre-layout AC decoupling analysis with Mentor Graphics HyperLynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatiuc, Mihaela; Iov, Cǎtǎlin J.

    2015-02-01

    Considerable resources have been used since the humans got interested to discover the world around. Any discovery and science advance was taken tremendously amount of time, money, sometimes lives. All of these define the cost of a discovery, developing process. Getting back to electronics, this field faced in the last 20-30 years, a big boom in terms of technologies and opportunities. Thousands of equipment were developed and placed on the market. The big difference between various competitors is made at the moment by that we call the time to market. A mobile, for instance, has a time to market of around 6 months and the tendency is to have it smaller than that. That means between the concept and the first model sale, no more than 6 months should be passing. That is why new approaches are needed. The one extensively used now is the simulation. We call the simulation virtual prototyping. The virtual prototyping takes into account more than the components only. It takes into account some other project parameters that would affect the final product. Certified tools can handle such analysis. In our paper we present the case of HyperLynx, a concept developed by Mentor Graphics Company, assisting the hardware designer throughout the designing process, from thermal point of view. A test case board was analyzed at the pre-layout stage and the results presented.

  14. Study of the Lynx-Cancer void galaxies. - V. The extremely isolated galaxy UGC 4722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chengalur, J. N.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Makarov, D. I.; Perepelitsyna, Y. A.; Safonova, E. S.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    2015-04-01

    We present a detailed study of the extremely isolated Sdm galaxy UGC 4722 (MB = -17.4) located in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. UGC 4722 is a member of the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies, and has also been identified as one of the most isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Optical images of the galaxy however show that it has a peculiar morphology with an elongated ˜14 kpc-long plume. New observations with the Russian 6-m telescope (BTA) and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the ionized and neutral gas in UGC 4722 reveal the second component responsible for the disturbed morphology of the system. This is a small, almost completely destroyed, very gas-rich dwarf (MB = -15.2, M(H I)/LB ˜ 4.3) We estimate the oxygen abundance for both galaxies to be 12 + log (O/H) ˜ 7.5-7.6 which is two to three times lower than what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation for similar galaxies in denser environments. The ugr colours of the plume derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images are consistent with a simple stellar population with a post starburst age of 0.45-0.5 Gyr. This system hence appears to be the first known case of a minor merger with a prominent tidal feature consisting of a young stellar population.

  15. The molecular detection of relaxin and its receptor RXFP1 in reproductive tissue of Felis catus and Lynx pardinus during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Braun, Beate C; Vargas, Astrid; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2012-03-01

    Relaxin acts as a pregnancy-specific signal in feline species, but specific information about protein structure and binding is essential for the improvement of pregnancy diagnosis in endangered feline species, like the Iberian lynx. To generate a felid-specific relaxin antibody, the DNA and protein sequences of lynx and cat were determined and peptides were chosen for antibody generation. In addition, relaxin and relaxin receptor (RXFP1) mRNA expressions were measured in uteri and ovaries of pregnant domestic cats and lynx placentae. Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, it was established that feline placenta is the main source of relaxin during pregnancy. In other tested tissues, relaxin mRNA expression was weak. The RXFP1 mRNA expression was found mainly in cat uterine tissue and feline placentae. It was assumed that these tissues were main targets for relaxin. In the ovary, relaxin immunostaining was associated with blood vessels, signifying its role in vascularization. PMID:22187673

  16. Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the northern Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple bioclimatic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential impact of these threats on semi-isolated populations at the range margin. Decreased snowfall may affect marten and lynx through decreased prey vulnerability and decreased competitive advantage over sympatric carnivores. I used a spatially explicit population model to assess potential effects of predicted changes in snowfall by 2055 on regional marten and lynx populations. The models' habitat rankings were derived from previous static models that correlated regional distribution with snowfall and vegetation data. Trapping scenarios were parameterized as a 10% proportional decrease in survival, and logging scenarios were parameterized as a 10% decrease in the extent of older coniferous or mixed forest. Both species showed stronger declines in the simulations due to climate change than to overexploitation or logging. Marten populations declined 40% because of climate change, 16% because of logging, and 30% because of trapping. Lynx populations declined 59% because of climate change, 36% because of trapping, and 20% in scenarios evaluating the effects of population cycles. Climate change interacted with logging in its effects on the marten and with trapping in its effects on the lynx, increasing overall vulnerability. For both species larger lowland populations were vulnerable to climate change, which suggests that contraction may occur in the core of their current regional range as well as among smaller peripheral populations. Despite their greater data requirements compared with bioclimatic models, mesoscale spatial viability models are important tools for generating more biologically realistic hypotheses regarding biotic response to climate change. PMID:17650258

  17. Evolution of Puma Lentivirus in Bobcats (Lynx rufus) and Mountain Lions (Puma concolor) in North America

    PubMed Central

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E. K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. IMPORTANCE An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure. PMID:24741092

  18. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure. PMID:24741092

  19. Modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (Lynx rufus) using verified records.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. Since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. Bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in North America. The increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their importance as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites that may affect wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Our objective was to predict the potential presence of the tapeworm Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929, the fluke Alaria marcianae (La Rue, 1917) and the roundworm Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) in southern Illinois. The empirical presence of these parasites in localities across the region was analysed in combination with a sampling bias layer (i.e. bobcat presence) and with environmental data: layers of water, soil, land cover, human density and climate variables in MAXENT to create maps of potential presence for these three species in an area of 46436 km2. All climatic variables were low contributors (0.0-2.0% contribution to model creation) whereas land cover surfaced as an important variable for the presence of A. marcianae (7.6%) and T. cati (6.3%); human density (4.8%) was of secondary importance for T. rileyi. Variables of importance likely represent habitat requirements necessary for the completion of parasite life cycles. Larger areas of potential presence were found for the feline specialist T. rileyi (85%) while potential presence was less likely for A. marcianae (73%), a parasite that requires multiple aquatic intermediate hosts. This study provides information to wildlife biologists and health officials regarding the potential impacts of growing bobcat populations in combination with complex and changing environmental factors. PMID:25549497

  20. Detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx, including Enterococcus faecium strains of CC17 and the new singleton ST573.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; López, María; Guerra, Ana; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) within the faecal flora of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx. The association with other resistance genes and the detection of virulence genes were also analysed. From 2008 to 2010, 365 faecal samples from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx were collected and tested for VRE recovery. Mechanisms of resistance to vancomycin and other antibiotics, as well as genes encoding virulence factors were detected through PCR. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was performed for Enterococcus faecium strains. VRE were recovered in 8 of the 365 analysed samples. The vanA gene was identified in two E. faecium isolates recovered from Iberian wolf faecal samples and the remaining six showed intrinsic resistance (3 vanC1-E. gallinarum and 3 vanC2-E. casseliflavus, from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx faecal samples, respectively). One vanA-containing isolate showed tetracycline and erythromycin resistance [with erm(B) and tet(L) genes] and the other one also exhibited ampicillin and kanamycin resistance [with erm(B), tet(M) and aph(3')-III genes]. One of the vanA-isolates revealed a new sequence type named ST573 and the other one belonged to the CC17 clonal complex (ST18). The hyl gene was detected in one E. casseliflavus and three E. gallinarum but not among vanA-positive isolates, and the occurrence of cylA and cylL genes was confirmed in two E. casseliflavus isolates. A low prevalence of VRE has been detected in faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx and strains with an acquired mechanism of resistance to vancomycin have not been detected among Iberian lynx. PMID:22018960

  1. Quantifying home range habitat requirements for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Vermont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, T.M.; Freeman, M.; Abouelezz, H.; Royar, K.; Howard, A.; Mickey, R.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how home range and habitat use analysis can inform landscape-scale conservation planning for the bobcat, Lynx rufus, in Vermont USA. From 2005 to 2008, we outfitted fourteen bobcats with GPS collars that collected spatially explicit locations from individuals every 4. h for 3-4. months. Kernel home range techniques were used to estimate home range size and boundaries, and to quantify the utilization distribution (UD), which is a spatially explicit, topographic mapping of how different areas within the home range are used. We then used GIS methods to quantify both biotic (e.g. habitat types, stream density) and abiotic (e.g. slope) resources within each bobcat's home range. Across bobcats, upper 20th UD percentiles (core areas) had 18% less agriculture, 42% less development, 26% more bobcat habitat (shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types), and 33% lower road density than lower UD percentiles (UD valleys). For each bobcat, we used Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate and compare 24 alternative Resource Utilization Functions (hypotheses) that could explain the topology of the individual's UD. A model-averaged population-level Resource Utilization Function suggested positive responses to shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types within 1. km of a location, and negative responses to roads and mixed forest cover types within 1. km of a location. Applying this model-averaged function to each pixel in the study area revealed habitat suitability for bobcats across the entire study area, with suitability scores ranging between -1.69 and 1.44, where higher values were assumed to represent higher quality habitat. The southern Champlain Valley, which contained ample wetland and shrub habitat, was a concentrated area of highly suitable habitat, while areas at higher elevation areas were less suitable. Female bobcat home ranges, on average, had an average habitat suitability score of near 0, indicating that home ranges consisted of both beneficial and detrimental habitat types. We discuss the application of habitat suitability mapping and home range requirements for bobcat conservation and landscape scale management. ?? 2011.

  2. PROGRESSIVE SYRINGOHYDROMYELIA AND DEGENERATIVE AXONOPATHY IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS) FOLLOWING SURGICAL CORRECTION OF A CHIARI-LIKE MALFORMATION.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan; Schumacher, Juergen; Ramsay, Edward; McCleery, Brynn; Baine, Katherine; Thomas, William; Nobrega-Lee, Michelle; Henry, George A; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-03-01

    A 3-yr-old male captive bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with chronic ataxia and right-sided head tilt. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebellar crowding and compression consistent with Chiari-like malformation. The clinical signs did not improve after surgical occipital craniectomy, and 2 mo postoperatively a second MRI showed hydromyelia and continued cerebellar compression. The bobcat was euthanized, and necropsy showed chronic focal cerebellar herniation and chronic multifocal atlanto-occipital joint osteophyte proliferation. Histology confirmed the presence of a thick fibrous membrane along the caudal aspect of the cerebellar vermis, suggestive of postoperative adhesions, and axonal degeneration of the cervical spinal cord, even in sections without a central canal lesion. These lesions appear to have been complications associated with surgical correction of the Chiari-like malformation. PMID:27010296

  3. Comparative analysis of intraluteal steroidogenic enzymes emphasises the functionality of fresh and persistent corpora lutea during pro--and metoestrus in the lynx.

    PubMed

    Zschockelt, Lina; Amelkina, Olga; Koster, Stefanie; Painer, Johanna; Okuyama, Minami W; Serra, Rodrigo; Vargas, Astrid; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C

    2015-11-01

    European lynx species demonstrate an atypical ovarian cycle compared to other felids. The physiological persistence of corpora lutea (CLs), reflected in constantly elevated progesterone (P4) concentrations in serum, is thought to ensure a seasonal monooestrus. Moreover, the coexistence of CLs from a recent ovulation (freshCLs) and persistent CLs from previous years (perCLs) on the same ovary has been proven. We assume that perCLs in lynxes occur due to fundamentally different mechanisms of luteal regression. Our study presents a detailed analysis of steroidogenic enzymes and steroids in fresh and perCLs obtained from Iberian lynxes during metoestrus, and in perCLs obtained from Eurasian lynxes during prooestrus. By quantitative PCR we measured relative mRNA amounts of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 oxidases (CYPs), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) and a steroid reductase (SRD). Protein expression in CLs was investigated for CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and HSD3B. Additionally, the intraluteal and serum steroid content was determined. During metoestrus, mRNA amounts of STAR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1, HSD17B7 and SRD5A1 were significantly higher in perCLs compared to freshCLs. Protein of CYP11A1 was detected independently of the CL age in metoestrus, but expression was less evident in prooestrous perCLs. The protein signal of CYP17A1 was strong in freshCLs and perCLs of metoestrus, but weak at prooestrus. The presence of CYP19A1 protein was confirmed in each stage of the CL. These findings contribute to the hypothesis that CLs from previous years might support freshly developed CLs for pregnancy maintenance. However, initiation of ovulation might require a functional down-regulation of perCLs prior to breeding. It is noteworthy that the HSD3B1 mRNA amount was significantly elevated in fresh compared to perCLs (metoestrus). Accordingly, HSD3B protein was substantially present in freshCLs, whereas signals were literally absent in all perCLs. Elevated expression of HSD3B coincided with high intraluteal oestrogen concentrations in freshCLs; however, the enzyme pattern was less concordant with intraluteal P4 and androgen concentrations. Serum P4 concentrations of Iberian lynxes were constant between prooestrus and prolonged dioestrus. Moreover, constantly high serum oestrogen concentrations were measured during pro-, met- and prolonged dioestrus. The physiology of exceptionally high serum oestrogen concentrations outside the breeding season of lynxes merits further investigation. In conclusion our study supports the concept that the unique reproductive strategy of lynxes is directly linked to sustained intraluteal steroid biogenesis in persistent CLs. PMID:26170243

  4. Apoptosis-Related Factors in the Luteal Phase of the Domestic Cat and Their Involvement in the Persistence of Corpora Lutea in Lynx.

    PubMed

    Amelkina, Olga; Zschockelt, Lina; Painer, Johanna; Serra, Rodrigo; Villaespesa, Francisco; Braun, Beate C; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient gland formed in the ovary after ovulation and is the major source of progesterone. In the Iberian and Eurasian lynx, CL physiologically persist after parturition and retain their capacity to produce progesterone, thus suppressing the ovarian activity. This unique reproductive characteristic has a big impact on the success of assisted reproduction techniques in the endangered Iberian lynx. The mechanisms behind CL persistence are not yet understood and require extensive studies on potential luteotropic and luteolytic factors in felids. Because the apoptosis system has been shown to be involved in structural regression of CL in many species, we aimed to investigate the capacity of perCL to undergo apoptosis. In addition, we performed initial studies on the apoptosis system in the luteal phase of the domestic cat. No previous research on this system has been made in this species. Our factors of interest included agents of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, i.e., pro-survival B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), the executioner caspase-3 (CASP3), as well as of the extrinsic pathway, i.e., pro-apoptotic receptor FAS, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors (pro-apoptotic TNFRSF1A and pro-survival TNFRSF1B). We analyzed the relative mRNA levels of these factors, as well as protein localization of CASP3 and TNF during stages of pregnancy and the non-pregnant luteal phase in CL of domestic cats. The same factors were investigated in freshly ovulated CL (frCL) and perCL of Iberian and Eurasian lynx, which were histologically analyzed. All factors were present in the CL tissue of both domestic cat and lynx throughout all analyzed stages. The presence of pro-apoptotic factors BAX, CASP3, FAS and TNFRSF1A in perCL of the Eurasian and Iberian lynx might indicate the potential sensitivity of perCL to apoptotic signals. The expression of pro-survival factors BCL2 and TNFRSF1B was significantly higher in perCL compared to frCL of studied Iberian lynx, suggesting the potential involvement of these factors in the structural integrity of perCL. In both Iberian lynx and pregnant and non-pregnant domestic cats, the expression of TNFRSF1A was significantly higher in forming CL compared to other stages, suggesting the conserved involvement of this factor in the tissue reorganization during formation of the feline CL. The mRNA levels of CASP3 and TNFRSF1B were highest during regression stages of domestic cat CL. The current study provides initial results on the possible involvement of the apoptosis system in the structure and function of the feline CL and in its physiological persistence. PMID:26599641

  5. Apoptosis-Related Factors in the Luteal Phase of the Domestic Cat and Their Involvement in the Persistence of Corpora Lutea in Lynx

    PubMed Central

    Amelkina, Olga; Zschockelt, Lina; Painer, Johanna; Serra, Rodrigo; Villaespesa, Francisco; Braun, Beate C.; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient gland formed in the ovary after ovulation and is the major source of progesterone. In the Iberian and Eurasian lynx, CL physiologically persist after parturition and retain their capacity to produce progesterone, thus suppressing the ovarian activity. This unique reproductive characteristic has a big impact on the success of assisted reproduction techniques in the endangered Iberian lynx. The mechanisms behind CL persistence are not yet understood and require extensive studies on potential luteotropic and luteolytic factors in felids. Because the apoptosis system has been shown to be involved in structural regression of CL in many species, we aimed to investigate the capacity of perCL to undergo apoptosis. In addition, we performed initial studies on the apoptosis system in the luteal phase of the domestic cat. No previous research on this system has been made in this species. Our factors of interest included agents of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, i.e., pro-survival B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), the executioner caspase-3 (CASP3), as well as of the extrinsic pathway, i.e., pro-apoptotic receptor FAS, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors (pro-apoptotic TNFRSF1A and pro-survival TNFRSF1B). We analyzed the relative mRNA levels of these factors, as well as protein localization of CASP3 and TNF during stages of pregnancy and the non-pregnant luteal phase in CL of domestic cats. The same factors were investigated in freshly ovulated CL (frCL) and perCL of Iberian and Eurasian lynx, which were histologically analyzed. All factors were present in the CL tissue of both domestic cat and lynx throughout all analyzed stages. The presence of pro-apoptotic factors BAX, CASP3, FAS and TNFRSF1A in perCL of the Eurasian and Iberian lynx might indicate the potential sensitivity of perCL to apoptotic signals. The expression of pro-survival factors BCL2 and TNFRSF1B was significantly higher in perCL compared to frCL of studied Iberian lynx, suggesting the potential involvement of these factors in the structural integrity of perCL. In both Iberian lynx and pregnant and non-pregnant domestic cats, the expression of TNFRSF1A was significantly higher in forming CL compared to other stages, suggesting the conserved involvement of this factor in the tissue reorganization during formation of the feline CL. The mRNA levels of CASP3 and TNFRSF1B were highest during regression stages of domestic cat CL. The current study provides initial results on the possible involvement of the apoptosis system in the structure and function of the feline CL and in its physiological persistence. PMID:26599641

  6. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores.

    PubMed

    Litvaitis, John A; Reed, Gregory C; Carroll, Rory P; Litvaitis, Marian K; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J A; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads. PMID:25832342

  7. Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Kays, R.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Boyce, W.M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide ap adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  8. Protein secondary structure of Green Lynx spider dragline silk investigated by solid-state NMR and X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dian; Shi, Xiangyan; Thompson, Forrest; Weber, Warner S; Mou, Qiushi; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the secondary structure of the major ampullate silk from Peucetia viridans (Green Lynx) spiders is characterized by X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. From X-ray diffraction measurement, β-sheet nanocrystallites were observed and found to be highly oriented along the fiber axis, with an orientational order, fc≈0.98. The size of the nanocrystallites was determined to be on average 2.5nm×3.3nm×3.8nm. Besides a prominent nanocrystalline region, a partially oriented amorphous region was also observed with an fa≈0.89. Two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C through-space and through-bond solid-state NMR experiments were employed to elucidate structure details of P. viridans silk proteins. It reveals that β-sheet nanocrystallites constitutes 40.0±1.2% of the protein and are dominated by alanine-rich repetitive motifs. Furthermore, based upon the NMR data, 18±1% of alanine, 60±2% glycine and 54±2% serine are incorporated into helical conformations. PMID:26226457

  9. Bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvaitis, John A.; Reed, Gregory C.; Carroll, Rory P.; Litvaitis, Marian K.; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J. A.; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  10. Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Birkenheuer, Adam J; Marr, Henry S; Warren, Camille; Acton, Anne E; Mucker, Eric M; Humphreys, Jan G; Tucker, Melissa D

    2008-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) infections in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from a region where C. felis is recognized in domestic cats, North Carolina (NC), and a region where C. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, Pennsylvania (PA). Samples from NC (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats. Samples from PA (n=70) were collected post-mortem onto Nobuto blood collecting strips by the PA Game Commission. Each sample was tested using a C. felis specific PCR assay as well as a PCR assay targeting host DNA to rule out the presence of PCR inhibitors. Three samples were excluded due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Thirty-three percent (10/30) of the samples from NC and 7% (5/69) of the samples from PA tested positive for the presence of C. felis. The proportion of C. felis positive bobcats from NC was significantly different than that from PA (P<0.005). Despite the lower prevalence of C. felis infections in bobcats from PA this finding is unique and indicates the potential for C. felis infections in domestic cats in the northeastern USA if the appropriate tick vectors are present. Veterinary practitioners in PA should be on alert for cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. Further studies about the epidemiology and transmission of C. felis infections among both domestic cats and bobcats are needed. PMID:18295403

  11. Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Clifford, Deana L.; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002–2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations.

  12. Population and genetic outcomes 20 years after reintroducing bobcats (Lynx rufus) to Cumberland Island, Georgia USA.

    PubMed

    Diefenbach, Duane; Hansen, Leslie; Bohling, Justin; Miller-Butterworth, Cassandra

    2015-11-01

    In 1988-1989, 32 bobcats Lynx rufus were reintroduced to Cumberland Island (CUIS), Georgia, USA, from which they had previously been extirpated. They were monitored intensively for 3 years immediately post-reintroduction, but no estimation of the size or genetic diversity of the population had been conducted in over 20 years since reintroduction. We returned to CUIS in 2012 to estimate abundance and effective population size of the present-day population, as well as to quantify genetic diversity and inbreeding. We amplified 12 nuclear microsatellite loci from DNA isolated from scats to establish genetic profiles to identify individuals. We used spatially explicit capture-recapture population estimation to estimate abundance. From nine unique genetic profiles, we estimate a population size of 14.4 (SE = 3.052) bobcats, with an effective population size (N e) of 5-8 breeding individuals. This is consistent with predictions of a population viability analysis conducted at the time of reintroduction, which estimated the population would average 12-13 bobcats after 10 years. We identified several pairs of related bobcats (parent-offspring and full siblings), but ~75% of the pairwise comparisons were typical of unrelated individuals, and only one individual appeared inbred. Despite the small population size and other indications that it has likely experienced a genetic bottleneck, levels of genetic diversity in the CUIS bobcat population remain high compared to other mammalian carnivores. The reintroduction of bobcats to CUIS provides an opportunity to study changes in genetic diversity in an insular population without risk to this common species. Opportunities for natural immigration to the island are limited; therefore, continued monitoring and supplemental bobcat reintroductions could be used to evaluate the effect of different management strategies to maintain genetic diversity and population viability. The successful reintroduction and maintenance of a bobcat population on CUIS illustrates the suitability of translocation as a management tool for re-establishing felid populations. PMID:26640668

  13. Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence. PMID:21270003

  14. Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland - do people want to keep the doors open?

    PubMed

    Bartczak, Anna; Meyerhoff, Jrgen

    2013-11-15

    This study investigates individuals' preferences toward protection programs aimed at increasing the chances of survival of the two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland. Those two groups, the Lowland and the Carpathian population, are exposed to different risks of extinction as they have different numbers, different-sized areas of occupation and different migration possibilities. Using a discrete choice experiment we examine the influence of the initial degree of endangerment on the allocation of respondents' funds. The results show that people prefer to invest in the conservation of the lynx population, which has initially lower chances of survival. The main driver of respondents' choices seems to be loss aversion rather than the urge to invest in an option with an expected higher outcome. This observation can be interpreted as people trying to keep all the options - doors - open by devoting more funds to the more vulnerable population than to the more stable one. Employing a scale-extended latent class model allowed us to detect segments among individuals showing different types of response behavior, including a form of serial non-participation. PMID:23811031

  15. Distribution and prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats (Lynx rufus), the natural reservoir, and other wild felids in thirteen states.

    PubMed

    Shock, Barbara C; Murphy, Staci M; Patton, Laura L; Shock, Philip M; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Prange, Suzanne; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Bevins, Sarah N; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R; Nettles, Victor F; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2011-02-10

    Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan parasite of wild and domestic felids, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic and some exotic felids in the United States. The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is the natural reservoir for this parasite, but other felids such as Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryii) and domestic cats may maintain long-term parasitemias and serve as reservoirs. Experimentally, two tick species, Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum, have demonstrated the ability to transmit C. felis. These two tick species have overlapping distributions throughout much of the southeastern United States. The objective of the current study was to determine the distribution and prevalence of C. felis in free-ranging bobcat populations from 13 states including California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and West Virginia. These states were selected because of differential vector presence; D. variabilis is present in each of these states except for the region of Colorado sampled and A. americanum is currently known to be present only in a subset of these states. Blood or spleen samples from 696 bobcats were tested for C. felis infection by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay which targeted the first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1). Significantly higher prevalences of C. felis were detected from Missouri (79%, n=39), North Carolina (63%, n=8), Oklahoma (60%, n=20), South Carolina (57%, n=7), Kentucky (55%, n=74), Florida (44%, n=45), and Kansas (27%, n=41) compared with Georgia (9%, n=159), North Dakota (2.4%, n=124), Ohio (0%, n=19), West Virginia (0%, n=37), California (0%, n=26), and Colorado (0%, n=67). In addition to bobcats, seven cougars (Puma concolor) from Georgia, Louisiana, and North Dakota and one serval (Leptailurus serval) from Louisiana were tested for C. felis. Only one cougar from Louisiana was PCR positive, which represents the first report of an infected cougar outside of the Florida panther population. These data also indicate that C. felis is present in North Dakota where infection has not been reported in domestic cats. Based on a nonparametric analysis, prevalence rates were significantly higher in states where there are established populations of A. americanum, which supports recent data on the experimental transmission of C. felis by A. americanum and the fact that domestic cat clinical cases are temporally associated with A. americanum activity. Collectively, these data confirm that bobcats are a common reservoir for C. felis and that A. americanum is likely an epidemiologically important vector. PMID:21071149

  16. Experimental transmission of Cystoisospora felis-like coccidium from bobcat (Lynx rufus) to the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Houk, A E; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Humphreys, J G; Lindsay, D S

    2015-06-30

    Cystoisospora felis is an ubiquitous coccidian of cats. The domestic cat (Felis catus) is its definitive host and several mammalian and avian species are its optional intermediate/transport hosts. Nothing is known if it is transmissible to wild felids. In the present study C. felis-like oocysts were found in two naturally infected bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Pennsylvania. To study transmission of C. felis-like parasite from bobcats to domestic cats, sporulated oocysts of C. felis-like from one bobcat were orally inoculated into interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mice, and 56 days later tissues of KO mice were fed to two coccidian-free cats; two littermate cats were uninoculated controls. The inoculated cats and controls were euthanized five and seven days later, and their small intestines were studied histologically. One inoculated cat excreted C. felis-like oocysts seven days post inoculation (p.i.) and was immediately euthanized. Mature schizonts, mature male and female gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were found in the lamina propria of small intestine; these stages were morphologically similar to C. felis of domestic cats. No parasites were seen in histological sections of small intestines of the remaining three cats. The experiment was terminated at seven days p.i. (minimum prepatent period for C. felis) to minimize spread of this highly infectious parasite to other cats. Although oocysts of the parasite in bobcats were morphologically similar to C. felis of domestic cats, the endogenous stages differed in their location of development. The bobcat derived parasite was located in the lamina propria of ileum whereas all endogenous stages of C. felis of domestic cats are always located in enterocytes of intestinal epithelium. Characterization of DNA isolated from C. felis-like oocysts from the donor bobcat revealed that sequences of the ITS1 region was only 87% similar to the ITS1 region of C. felis from domestic cats. These results indicate that the parasite in bobcat is likely different than C. felis of cats. PMID:25964236

  17. Developing biological resource banks as a supporting tool for wildlife reproduction and conservation The Iberian lynx bank as a model for other endangered species.

    PubMed

    Leon-Quinto, Trinidad; Simon, Miguel A; Cadenas, Rafael; Jones, Jonathan; Martinez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Moreno, Juan M; Vargas, Astrid; Martinez, Fernando; Soria, Bernat

    2009-06-01

    This work presents a Biological Resource Bank generated as a complementary supporting tool for the reproduction and the in situ and ex situ conservation of the Iberian lynx. In its design we prioritized the preservation of a maximum of the current genetic and biological diversity of the population, and the harmless collection of the samples. To provide future reproductive opportunities through any possible technique, we processed and cryopreserved germinal cells and tissues from dead animals, 7 males and 6 females, as well as somatic cells and tissues from 69 different individuals. This somatic cell reserve reflects a very important fraction of the population biodiversity which, furthermore, will allow the development of a wide variety of studies that can be easily extrapolated to the majority of the population. We have developed a new non-destructive method to isolate cells with stem-cell-like properties. If considered convenient in the future, and after proper research, such cells could permit therapeutic applications and perhaps be a good source to be used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. Samples of whole blood and its derivatives, hairs, urine and feces from many different individuals were also preserved. Proper storage of such samples is required to allow epidemiological studies to be performed for the testing of different etiological hypotheses or, in general, to develop any bio-sanitary study to improve conservation strategies within the natural habitat. This work describes the main aspects involved in the practical implementation of the Iberian lynx Biological Resource Bank, as a model that could be useful for the development of similar banks for other endangered species. PMID:18585877

  18. Characterization of the Commercially-Available Fluorescent Chloroquine-BODIPY Conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a Marker for Chloroquine Resistance and Uptake in a 96-Well Plate Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kitti W. K.; Choy, Kit-Ying; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce; Lear, Martin J.; Nosten, François H.; Tan, Kevin S. W.; Chow, Larry M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine was a cheap, extremely effective drug against Plasmodium falciparum until resistance arose. One approach to reversing resistance is the inhibition of chloroquine efflux from its site of action, the parasite digestive vacuole. Chloroquine accumulation studies have traditionally relied on radiolabelled chloroquine, which poses several challenges. There is a need for development of a safe and biologically relevant substitute. We report here a commercially-available green fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a proxy for chloroquine accumulation. This compound localized to the digestive vacuole of the parasite as observed under confocal microscopy, and inhibited growth of chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 more extensively than in the resistant strains 7G8 and K1. Microplate reader measurements indicated suppression of LynxTag-CQGREEN efflux after pretreatment of parasites with known reversal agents. Microsomes carrying either sensitive- or resistant-type PfCRT were assayed for uptake; resistant-type PfCRT exhibited increased accumulation of LynxTag-CQGREEN, which was suppressed by pretreatment with known chemosensitizers. Eight laboratory strains and twelve clinical isolates were sequenced for PfCRT and Pgh1 haplotypes previously reported to contribute to drug resistance, and pfmdr1 copy number and chloroquine IC50s were determined. These data were compared with LynxTag-CQGREEN uptake/fluorescence by multiple linear regression to identify genetic correlates of uptake. Uptake of the compound correlated with the logIC50 of chloroquine and, more weakly, a mutation in Pgh1, F1226Y. PMID:25343249

  19. Use of stratigraphic models as soft information to constrain stochastic modeling of rock properties: Development of the GSLIB-Lynx integration module

    SciTech Connect

    Cromer, M.V.; Rautman, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Rock properties in volcanic units at Yucca Mountain are controlled largely by relatively deterministic geologic processes related to the emplacement, cooling, and alteration history of the tuffaceous lithologic sequence. Differences in the lithologic character of the rocks have been used to subdivide the rock sequence into stratigraphic units, and the deterministic nature of the processes responsible for the character of the different units can be used to infer the rock material properties likely to exist in unsampled regions. This report proposes a quantitative, theoretically justified method of integrating interpretive geometric models, showing the three-dimensional distribution of different stratigraphic units, with numerical stochastic simulation techniques drawn from geostatistics. This integration of soft, constraining geologic information with hard, quantitative measurements of various material properties can produce geologically reasonable, spatially correlated models of rock properties that are free from stochastic artifacts for use in subsequent physical-process modeling, such as the numerical representation of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport. Prototype modeling conducted using the GSLIB-Lynx Integration Module computer program, known as GLINTMOD, has successfully demonstrated the proposed integration technique. The method involves the selection of stratigraphic-unit-specific material-property expected values that are then used to constrain the probability function from which a material property of interest at an unsampled location is simulated.

  20. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Black Bears (Ursus americanus), Bobcats (Lynx rufus), and Feral Cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cassinelli, Ana B; Kwok, Oliver C H; Van Why, Kyle; Su, Chunlei; Humphreys, Jan G

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase unusual genotypes in domestic cats and facilitate transmission of potentially more pathogenic genotypes to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. In the present study, we tested black bear (Ursus americanus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and feral cat (Felis catus) from the state of Pennsylvania for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 32 (84.2%) of 38 bears, both bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats tested by the modified agglutination test (cut off titer 1:25). Hearts from seropositive animals were bioassayed in mice, and viable T. gondii was isolated from 3 of 32 bears, 2 of 2 bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these isolates was characterized using multilocus PCR-RFLP markers. Three genotypes were revealed, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1 or #3 (Type II, 1 isolate), #5 (Type 12, 3 isolates), and #216 (3 isolates), adding to the evidence of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wildlife in Pennsylvania. Pathogenicity of 3 T. gondii isolates (all #216, 1 from bear, and 2 from feral cat) was determined in outbred Swiss Webster mice; all three were virulent causing 100% mortality. Results indicated that highly mouse pathogenic strains of T. gondii are circulating in wildlife, and these strains may pose risk to infect human through consuming of game meat. PMID:25393429

  1. Development and validation of a fecal PCR assay for Notoedres cati and application to notoedric mange cases in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Northern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Clifford, Deana; Worth, S Joy; Serieys, Laurel E K; Foley, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Notoedric mange in felids is a devastating disease caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to the mite Notoedres cati. The burrowing of the mite causes intense pruritis resulting in self-mutilation, secondary bacterial infection, and often death of affected felids if left untreated. Our understanding of how notoedric mange is maintained in felid populations, and the true geographic extent of infestations, has been hampered because wild felids are elusive and, thus, traditional diagnostic methods are difficult to implement. To create a noninvasive diagnostic test, we developed and validated a novel PCR assay to detect N. cati DNA in fecal samples of bobcats (Lynx rufus) and used this assay to investigate a recent outbreak of mange in northern California, United States. Although the fecal PCR assay was 100% specific and could detect as few as 1.9 mites/200 μg of feces, it had a moderate sensitivity of 52.6%, potentially due to intermittent shedding of mites in feces or fecal PCR inhibitors. In a field investigation, 12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.23) of fecal samples (n=65) collected from Rancho San Antonia County Park and Open Space Preserve in Santa Clara County, California were PCR-positive for N. cati. When this estimate was adjusted for test sensitivity, the corrected proportion for fecal samples containing N. cati was 23% (95% CI: 0.14, 0.36), suggesting widespread mange in this area. This novel PCR assay will be an important tool to assess the distribution and spread of notoedric mange in bobcats and could be validated to test other wild felids such as mountain lions (Puma concolor). The assay could also be used to detect notoedric mange in domestic cats (Felis catus), particularly feral cats, which may also suffer from mange and could represent an important contributor to mange in periurban bobcat populations. PMID:23568905

  2. Spider toxins comprising disulfide-rich and linear amphipathic domains: a new class of molecules identified in the lynx spider Oxyopes takobius.

    PubMed

    Vassilevski, Alexander A; Sachkova, Maria Y; Ignatova, Anastasija A; Kozlov, Sergey A; Feofanov, Alexei V; Grishin, Eugene V

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the conventional neurotoxins and cytotoxins, venom of the lynx spider Oxyopes takobius was found to contain two-domain modular toxins named spiderines: OtTx1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. These toxins show both insecticidal activity (a median lethal dose against flesh fly larvae of 75 ?gg(-1)) and potent antimicrobial effects (minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range 0.1-10 ?m). Full sequences of the purified spiderines were established by a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and cDNA cloning. They are relatively large molecules (~ 110 residues, 12.0-12.5 kDa) and consist of two distinct modules separated by a short linker. The N-terminal part (~ 40 residues) contains no cysteine residues, is highly cationic, forms amphipathic ?-helical structures in a membrane-mimicking environment, and shows potent cytolytic effects on cells of various origins. The C-terminal part (~ 60 residues) is disulfide-rich (five S-S bonds), and contains the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK/knottin) signature. The N-terminal part of spiderines is very similar to linear cytotoxic peptides found in various organisms, whereas the C-terminal part corresponds to the usual spider neurotoxins. We synthesized the modules of OtTx1a and compared their activity to that of full-length mature toxin produced recombinantly, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal part, which retained full-length toxin activity in both insecticidal and antimicrobial assays. The unique structure of spiderines completes the range of two-domain spider toxins. PMID:24118933

  3. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry combined with automated MetaboLynx analysis approach to screen the bioactive components and their metabolites in Wen-Xin-Formula.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Fang-mei; Wang, Qin-qin; Zhang, He; Song, Yan-hua; Zhou, Ying; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang-li; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2014-12-01

    Wen-Xin-Formula (WXF), a famous traditional prescription, has been widely used to treat myocardial ischemia syndrome for thousands of years. However, the constituents absorbed into blood after oral administration of WXF remain unknown. Here, an integrative ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) combined with the MetaboLynx approach was established to investigate the absorbed constituents in rats after oral administration of WXF. A hyphenated electrospray ionization and quadrupole-time-of-flight analyzer was used for the determination of accurate mass of the molecule and fragment ions. With this rapid and automated analysis method, a total of 32 peaks were tentatively characterized in vivo based on MS and MS/MS data and comparison with available databasess, 26 of which were parent components and six metabolites. These components mainly were ginsenosides, paeoniflorin, galloyl glucose, berberis alkaloids, phenolic, phenolic glycosides and unsaturated fatty acids, glucuronide products of original berberis alkaloids. The present study demonstrates that integrative UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS technique and MetaboLynx data processing method were successfully applied for the rapid discovery of potentially bioactive components and metabolites from WXF, and proved that the established method could help to explore the effective substances for further research into WXF. PMID:24853889

  4. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z = 1.3. I. THE LYNX SUPERCLUSTER: CLUSTER AND GROUPS AT z = 1.3. MORPHOLOGY AND COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Simona; Raichoor, Anand; Huertas-Company, Marc; Adam Stanford, S.; Rettura, Alessandro; Jee, Myungkook J.; Holden, Brad P.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ford, Holland C.; Rosati, Piero; Tanaka, Masayuki; Koyama, Yusei; Shankar, Francesco; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Demarco, Ricardo; Eisenhardt, Peter; and others

    2012-08-01

    We confirm the detection of three groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, through spectroscopic follow-up and X-ray imaging, and we give estimates for their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies compared to the two central clusters, RX J0849+4452 and RX J0848+4453. Using spectroscopic follow-up and multi-wavelength photometric redshifts, we select 89 galaxies in the clusters, of which 41 are spectroscopically confirmed, and 74 galaxies in the groups, of which 25 are spectroscopically confirmed. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30%-40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g., based on Sersic index). In luminosity-selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of bulge-dominated galaxies with a diffuse component that we visually identified as a disk and which we classified as bulge-dominated spirals, e.g., Sas. The ETG fractions never rise above Almost-Equal-To 50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in other massive clusters at z Almost-Equal-To 1. In the groups, ETG fractions never exceed Almost-Equal-To 25%. However, overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions (ETG plus Sas) are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z {approx} 1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as spirals might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star formation seems to have been quenched before experiencing a morphological transformation. Because their fraction is smaller at lower redshifts, they might be the spiral population that evolves into ETGs. For mass-selected samples of galaxies with masses M > 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun} within {Sigma} > 500 Mpc{sup -2}, the ETG and overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions show no significant evolution with respect to local clusters, suggesting that morphological transformations might occur at lower masses and densities. The ETG mass-size relation shows evolution toward smaller sizes at higher redshift in both clusters and groups, while the late-type mass-size relation matches that observed locally. When compared to the clusters, the group ETG red sequence shows lower zero points (at {approx}2{sigma}) and larger scatters, both expected to be an indication of a younger galaxy population. However, we show that any allowed difference between the age in groups and clusters would be small when compared to the differences in age in galaxies of different masses.

  5. Factors affecting seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. In the present stud...

  6. Toxoplasmosis in Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) in Québec, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii, one of the more common zoonotic parasites in the world, can cause serious illness in humans and other animals worldwide. Felids are the only host that can shed T. gondii oocysts, which are essential to the perpetuation of the parasite cycle. In much of Boreal Canada, the Canadian ...

  7. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Lovallo, M J; Sweeny, A R; Grigg, M E; Dubey, J P

    2015-09-15

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000× magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasites. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dasypi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host. PMID:26138150

  8. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Lynx Carnivora Felidae Lynx canadensis and Lynx lynx. Marmot Rodentia Scinridae Marmota bobak. Marten, American Carnivora Mustelidae Martes americana and Martes caurina. Marten, Baum ......do ......do Martes martes. Marten, Japanese ......do ......do Martes melampus. Marten, Stone ......do ......do Martes...

  9. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Lynx Carnivora Felidae Lynx canadensis and Lynx lynx. Marmot Rodentia Scinridae Marmota bobak. Marten, American Carnivora Mustelidae Martes americana and Martes caurina. Marten, Baum ......do ......do Martes martes. Marten, Japanese ......do ......do Martes melampus. Marten, Stone ......do ......do Martes...

  10. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Lynx Carnivora Felidae Lynx canadensis and Lynx lynx. Marmot Rodentia Scinridae Marmota bobak. Marten, American Carnivora Mustelidae Martes americana and Martes caurina. Marten, Baum ......do ......do Martes martes. Marten, Japanese ......do ......do Martes melampus. Marten, Stone ......do ......do Martes...

  11. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Lynx Carnivora Felidae Lynx canadensis and Lynx lynx. Marmot Rodentia Scinridae Marmota bobak. Marten, American Carnivora Mustelidae Martes americana and Martes caurina. Marten, Baum ......do ......do Martes martes. Marten, Japanese ......do ......do Martes melampus. Marten, Stone ......do ......do Martes...

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of striped lynx spider Oxyopes sertatus (Araneae: Oxyopidae).

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Fang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Peng; Pan, Hong-Chun

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Oxyopes sertatus is a circular molecule of 14,442 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 75.9% (T: 42.9%; C: 8.2%; A: 33.0%; G: 15.9%). COII, COIII and ND4 genes begin with TTG as start codon; ATP6, COI, ND1 and ND5 genes begin with ATA as start codon, ATP8, Cyt b, ND2 and ND3 genes begin with ATT as start codon, ND6 gene begins with GTG as start codon, while ND4L gene start with a typical ATG initiation codon. ND2 gene is terminated with TAG as stop codon, Cyt b and ND5 end with TA, COI, ND1 and ND4L end with T, ATP6, ATP8, COII, COIII, ND3, ND4 and ND6 end with TAA. PMID:25208169

  13. Pleistocene and ecological effects on continental-scale genetic differentiation in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Reding, Dawn M; Bronikowski, Anne M; Johnson, Warren E; Clark, William R

    2012-06-01

    The potential for widespread, mobile species to exhibit genetic structure without clear geographic barriers is a topic of growing interest. Yet the patterns and mechanisms of structure--particularly over broad spatial scales--remain largely unexplored for these species. Bobcats occur across North America and possess many characteristics expected to promote gene flow. To test whether historical, topographic or ecological factors have influenced genetic differentiation in this species, we analysed 1 kb mtDNA sequence and 15 microsatellite loci from over 1700 samples collected across its range. The primary signature in both marker types involved a longitudinal cline with a sharp transition, or suture zone, occurring along the Great Plains. Thus, the data distinguished bobcats in the eastern USA from those in the western half, with no obvious physical barrier to gene flow. Demographic analyses supported a scenario of expansion from separate Pleistocene refugia, with the Great Plains representing a zone of secondary contact. Substructure within the two main lineages likely reflected founder effects, ecological factors, anthropogenic/topographic effects or a combination of these forces. Two prominent topographic features, the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, were not supported as significant genetic barriers. Ecological regions and environmental correlates explained a small but significant proportion of genetic variation. Overall, results implicate historical processes as the primary cause of broad-scale genetic differentiation, but contemporary forces seem to also play a role in promoting and maintaining structure. Despite the bobcat's mobility and broad niche, large-scale landscape changes have contributed to significant and complex patterns of genetic structure. PMID:22548482

  14. The Effect of Illumination and Time of Day on Movements of Bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    PubMed Central

    Rockhill, Aimee P.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 - <50%, 50 - <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness. PMID:23861963

  15. Bobcat (Lynx rufus) as a new natural intermediate host for Sarcocystis neurona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive hos...

  16. Experimental transmission of Cystoisospora felis- like coccidium from bobcat (Lynx rufus) to the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cystoisospora felis is an ubiquitous coccidian of cats. The domestic cat (Felis catus) is its definitive host and several mammalian and avian species are its optional intermediate/transport hosts. Nothing is known if it is transmissible to wild felids. In the present study C. felis-like oocysts were...

  17. Oxygen isotope composition of North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) bone phosphate: implications for provenance and climate reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Stephanie J; Tütken, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Feline carnivores are threatened by illegal wildlife trade. Tracing the provenance of unknown felid tissues via stable isotope analysis could provide important information in wildlife crime investigations. The oxygen isotope composition of mammalian skeletal phosphate (δ(18)Op) is widely applied to trace the origin of animal remains and to reconstruct migratory patterns in palaeontological, archaeological, ecological and wildlife forensic applications. Teeth and bones of terrestrial mammals form at constant body temperature in isotope equilibrium with body water, which is predominantly controlled by ingested meteoric water (δ(18)Ow) that varies systematically with latitude, altitude and climate. Here we analysed δ(18)Op of 106 North American puma and bobcat bones of known geographic origin to establish the first δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow regression for feline carnivores: δ(18)Op = 0.40(±0.04) * δ(18)Ow + 20.10(±0.40) (R(2) = 0.46, n = 106). This was compared with those from their respective prey species (deer and rabbit), a canid carnivore (fox) and other placental mammals. Effects of species, sex and relative humidity on the feline δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation were analysed and additional intra-individual tissue comparisons (hair δ(18)Oh vs. bone δ(18)Op) were performed for some bobcat individuals. Bobcats and pumas exhibited only a moderate δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation, which differed from canid carnivores and other placental mammals. However, feline δ(18)Op values revealed a moderate relation with δ(18)Ow, which lacks for the δ(18)Oh of hair from the same bobcat individuals. This indicates a difference in oxygen isotope routing from body water to bioapatite and hair. Most herbivores and omnivores track δ(18)Ow in their bioapatite δ(18)Op values much better, whereas δ(18)Op and especially δ(18)Oh values of feline carnivores are less precise proxies for meteoric water δ(18)Ow values and thus for provenance determination in wildlife forensics and palaeoclimate reconstructions. Oxygen isotope fingerprinting of bobcat and puma is biased by factors related to their diet, behaviour and metabolism that need to be better understood. PMID:27002600

  18. Bovine Tuberculosis in Doñana Biosphere Reserve: The Role of Wild Ungulates as Disease Reservoirs in the Last Iberian Lynx Strongholds

    PubMed Central

    Gortázar, Christian; Torres, María José; Vicente, Joaquín; Acevedo, Pelayo; Reglero, Manuel; de la Fuente, José; Negro, Juan José; Aznar-Martín, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Doñana National Park (DNP) in southern Spain is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve where commercial hunting and wildlife artificial feeding do not take place and traditional cattle husbandry still exists. Herein, we hypothesized that Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence in wild ungulates will depend on host ecology and that variation in prevalence will reflect variation in the interaction between hosts and environmental risk factors. Cattle bTB reactor rates increased in DNP despite compulsory testing and culling of infected animals. In this study, 124 European wild boar, 95 red deer, and 97 fallow deer were sampled from April 2006 to April 2007 and analyzed for M. bovis infection. Modelling and GIS were used to identify risk factors and intra and inter-species relationships. Infection with M. bovis was confirmed in 65 (52.4%) wild boar, 26 (27.4%) red deer and 18 (18.5%) fallow deer. In the absence of cattle, wild boar M. bovis prevalence reached 92.3% in the northern third of DNP. Wild boar showed more than twice prevalence than that in deer (p<0.001). Modelling revealed that M. bovis prevalence decreased from North to South in wild boar (p<0.001) and red deer (p<0.01), whereas no spatial pattern was evidenced for fallow deer. Infection risk in wild boar was dependent on wild boar M. bovis prevalence in the buffer area containing interacting individuals (p<0.01). The prevalence recorded in this study is among the highest reported in wildlife. Remarkably, this high prevalence occurs in the absence of wildlife artificial feeding, suggesting that a feeding ban alone would have a limited effect on wildlife M. bovis prevalence. In DNP, M. bovis transmission may occur predominantly at the intra-species level due to ecological, behavioural and epidemiological factors. The results of this study allow inferring conclusions on epidemiological bTB risk factors in Mediterranean habitats that are not managed for hunting purposes. Our results support the need to consider wildlife species for the control of bTB in cattle and strongly suggest that bTB may affect animal welfare and conservation. PMID:18648665

  19. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

    PubMed Central

    Hiestand, Shelby J.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Jiménez, F. Agustín

    2014-01-01

    A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases. PMID:24521984

  20. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear harvested in... trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf... of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx rufus), river otter (Lontra canadensis),...

  1. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  2. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  3. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  4. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and... Article II(2)(b) of the Treaty (see § 23.89). The import, export, or re-export of fur skins and fur...

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), three of six European wildc...

  6. Tracking neighbours promotes the coexistence of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Mattisson, Jenny; Persson, Jens; Aronsson, Malin; Andrén, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The study of competition and coexistence among similar interacting species has long been considered a cornerstone in evolutionary and community ecology. However, understanding coexistence remains a challenge. Using two similar and sympatric competing large carnivores, Eurasian lynx and wolverines, we tested the hypotheses that tracking among heterospecifics and reactive responses to potential risk decreases the probability of an agonistic encounter when predators access shared food resources, thus facilitating coexistence. Lynx and wolverines actively avoided each other, with the degree of avoidance being greater for simultaneous than time-delayed predator locations. Wolverines reacted to the presence of lynx at relatively short distances (mean: 383 m). In general, lynx stayed longer, and were more stationary, around reindeer carcasses than wolverines. However, when both predators were present at the same time around a carcass, lynx shortened their visits, while wolverine behavior did not change. Our results support the idea that risk avoidance is a reactive, rather than a predictive, process. Since wolverines have adapted to coexist with lynx, exploiting lynx-killed reindeer carcasses while avoiding potential encounters, the combined presence of both predators may reduce wolverine kill rate and thus the total impact of these predators on semi-domestic reindeer in Scandinavia. Consequently, population management directed at lynx may affect wolverine populations and human-wolverine conflicts. PMID:26979573

  7. Tracking neighbours promotes the coexistence of large carnivores

    PubMed Central

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Mattisson, Jenny; Persson, Jens; Aronsson, Malin; Andrén, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The study of competition and coexistence among similar interacting species has long been considered a cornerstone in evolutionary and community ecology. However, understanding coexistence remains a challenge. Using two similar and sympatric competing large carnivores, Eurasian lynx and wolverines, we tested the hypotheses that tracking among heterospecifics and reactive responses to potential risk decreases the probability of an agonistic encounter when predators access shared food resources, thus facilitating coexistence. Lynx and wolverines actively avoided each other, with the degree of avoidance being greater for simultaneous than time-delayed predator locations. Wolverines reacted to the presence of lynx at relatively short distances (mean: 383 m). In general, lynx stayed longer, and were more stationary, around reindeer carcasses than wolverines. However, when both predators were present at the same time around a carcass, lynx shortened their visits, while wolverine behavior did not change. Our results support the idea that risk avoidance is a reactive, rather than a predictive, process. Since wolverines have adapted to coexist with lynx, exploiting lynx-killed reindeer carcasses while avoiding potential encounters, the combined presence of both predators may reduce wolverine kill rate and thus the total impact of these predators on semi-domestic reindeer in Scandinavia. Consequently, population management directed at lynx may affect wolverine populations and human-wolverine conflicts. PMID:26979573

  8. Life Tracks Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildson, Inga

    Presented are descriptions of and information about various endangered species in Wisconsin. They include: the timber wolf (Canis lupus lycaon); Forester's tern (Sterna forsteri); the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis); Higgins' eye pearly mussel (Lampsilis higginsii); the piping plover (Charadrius melodus); the osprey (Pandion haliaetus); the…

  9. 78 FR 76710 - Notice of Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... cabinet needed for an AT&T utility relocation associated with the Charlotte Area Transit System's (CATS... Transit System's (CATS or City of Charlotte) LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an FTA... interpretation of FTA's Buy America rules with respect to the utility relocation performed for the CATS LYNX...

  10. First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Krengel, Annika; Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Wachter, Bettina; Willi, Barbara; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-03-23

    Infections with feline hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have been documented in domestic cats and free-ranging feline species with high prevalences in Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynxes (Lynx lynx), European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African lions (Panthera leo) in Tanzania and domestic cats in South Africa. The prevalence of hemoplasmas has not yet been investigated in free-ranging felids in southern Africa. In this study we screened 73 blood samples from 61 cheetahs in central Namibia for the presence of hemoplasmas using quantitative real-time PCR. One of the cheetahs tested PCR-positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and RNAse P genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the Mycoplasma haemofelis/haemocanis group. This is the first molecular evidence of a hemoplasma infection in a free-ranging cheetah. PMID:23123173

  11. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea)

    PubMed Central

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator–prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  12. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  13. Enhancing species distribution modeling by characterizing predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Anne M; Schmitz, Oswald J; Ivan, Jacob S; Shenk, Tanya M

    2014-01-01

    Niche theory is a well-established concept integrating a diverse array of environmental variables and multispecies interactions used to describe species geographic distribution. It is now customary to employ species distribution models (SDMs) that use environmental variables in conjunction with species location information to characterize species' niches and map their geographic ranges. The challenge remains, however, to account for the biotic interactions of species with other community members on which they depend. We show here how to connect species spatial distribution and their dependence with other species by modeling spatially explicit predator-prey interactions, which we call a trophic interaction distribution model (TIDM). To develop the principles, we capitalized on data from Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced into Colorado. Spatial location information for lynx obtained from telemetry was used in conjunction with environmental data to construct an SDM. The spatial locations of lynx-snowshoe hare encounters obtained from snow-tracking in conjunction with environmental data were used to construct a TIDM. The environmental conditions associated with lynx locations and lynx-hare encounters identified through both SDM and TIDM revealed an initial transient phase in habitat use that settled into a steady state. Nevertheless, despite the potential for the SDM to broadly encompass all lynx hunting and nonhunting spatial locations, the spatial extents of the SDM and TIDM differed; about 40% of important lynx-snowshoe hare locations identified in the TIDM were not identified in the lynx-only SDM. Our results encourage greater effort to quantify spatial locations of trophic interactions among species in a community and the associated environmental conditions when attempting to construct models aimed at projecting current and future species geographic distributions. PMID:24640545

  14. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in exotic wild felids from Brazilian zoos.

    PubMed

    Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Marvulo, M F; Ferreira-Neto, J S; Dubey, J P

    2001-09-01

    Serum samples from 37 captive exotic felids in 12 zoos from six Brazilian states were assayed for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites. Titers greater than or equal to 1:20 were considered positive. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 24 of 37 (64.9%) felids, including one European lynx (Lynx lynx), two jungle cats (Felis chaus), two servals (Leptailurus serval), two tigers (Panthera tigris), three leopards (Panthera pardus), and 14 of 27 lions (Panthera leo). This is the first serologic analysis for T. gondii infection in exotic wild felids from Brazilian zoos. PMID:12785684

  15. 78 FR 2710 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: January 7, 2013. Description: Application of SmartLynx Airlines...: Application of Arubaanse Luchtvaart Maatschappji, N.V., d/b/a Aruba Airlines requesting a foreign air...

  16. Selecting habitat to survive: the impact of road density on survival in a large carnivore.

    PubMed

    Basille, Mathieu; Van Moorter, Bram; Herfindal, Ivar; Martin, Jodie; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Andersen, Reidar; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection studies generally assume that animals select habitat and food resources at multiple scales to maximise their fitness. However, animals sometimes prefer habitats of apparently low quality, especially when considering the costs associated with spatially heterogeneous human disturbance. We used spatial variation in human disturbance, and its consequences on lynx survival, a direct fitness component, to test the Hierarchical Habitat Selection hypothesis from a population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in southern Norway. Data from 46 lynx monitored with telemetry indicated that a high proportion of forest strongly reduced the risk of mortality from legal hunting at the home range scale, while increasing road density strongly increased such risk at the finer scale within the home range. We found hierarchical effects of the impact of human disturbance, with a higher road density at a large scale reinforcing its negative impact at a fine scale. Conversely, we demonstrated that lynx shifted their habitat selection to avoid areas with the highest road densities within their home ranges, thus supporting a compensatory mechanism at fine scale enabling lynx to mitigate the impact of large-scale disturbance. Human impact, positively associated with high road accessibility, was thus a stronger driver of lynx space use at a finer scale, with home range characteristics nevertheless constraining habitat selection. Our study demonstrates the truly hierarchical nature of habitat selection, which aims at maximising fitness by selecting against limiting factors at multiple spatial scales, and indicates that scale-specific heterogeneity of the environment is driving individual spatial behaviour, by means of trade-offs across spatial scales. PMID:23874381

  17. Selecting Habitat to Survive: The Impact of Road Density on Survival in a Large Carnivore

    PubMed Central

    Basille, Mathieu; Van Moorter, Bram; Herfindal, Ivar; Martin, Jodie; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Andersen, Reidar; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection studies generally assume that animals select habitat and food resources at multiple scales to maximise their fitness. However, animals sometimes prefer habitats of apparently low quality, especially when considering the costs associated with spatially heterogeneous human disturbance. We used spatial variation in human disturbance, and its consequences on lynx survival, a direct fitness component, to test the Hierarchical Habitat Selection hypothesis from a population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in southern Norway. Data from 46 lynx monitored with telemetry indicated that a high proportion of forest strongly reduced the risk of mortality from legal hunting at the home range scale, while increasing road density strongly increased such risk at the finer scale within the home range. We found hierarchical effects of the impact of human disturbance, with a higher road density at a large scale reinforcing its negative impact at a fine scale. Conversely, we demonstrated that lynx shifted their habitat selection to avoid areas with the highest road densities within their home ranges, thus supporting a compensatory mechanism at fine scale enabling lynx to mitigate the impact of large-scale disturbance. Human impact, positively associated with high road accessibility, was thus a stronger driver of lynx space use at a finer scale, with home range characteristics nevertheless constraining habitat selection. Our study demonstrates the truly hierarchical nature of habitat selection, which aims at maximising fitness by selecting against limiting factors at multiple spatial scales, and indicates that scale-specific heterogeneity of the environment is driving individual spatial behaviour, by means of trade-offs across spatial scales. PMID:23874381

  18. Responses of a top and a meso predator and their prey to moon phases.

    PubMed

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Kuparinen, Anna; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, José Vicente; Fedriani, José María; Calzada, Javier; Moreno, Sacramento; Villafuerte, Rafael; Campioni, Letizia; Lourenço, Rui

    2013-11-01

    We compared movement patterns and rhythms of activity of a top predator, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, a mesopredator, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and their shared principal prey, the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, in relation to moon phases. Because the three species are mostly nocturnal and crepuscular, we hypothesized that the shared prey would reduce its activity at most risky moon phases (i.e. during the brightest nights), but that fox, an intraguild prey of lynx, would avoid lynx activity peaks at the same time. Rabbits generally moved further from their core areas on darkest nights (i.e. new moon), using direct movements which minimize predation risk. Though rabbits responded to the increased predation risk by reducing their activity during the full moon, this response may require several days, and the moon effect we observed on the rabbits had, therefore, a temporal gap. Lynx activity patterns may be at least partially mirroring rabbit activity: around new moons, when rabbits moved furthest and were more active, lynxes reduced their travelling distances and their movements were concentrated in the core areas of their home ranges, which generally correspond to areas of high density of rabbits. Red foxes were more active during the darkest nights, when both the conditions for rabbit hunting were the best and lynxes moved less. On the one hand, foxes increased their activity when rabbits were further from their core areas and moved with more discrete displacements; on the other hand, fox activity in relation to the moon seemed to reduce dangerous encounters with its intraguild predator. PMID:23579570

  19. Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chapron, Guillaume; Kaczensky, Petra; Linnell, John D C; von Arx, Manuela; Huber, Djuro; Andrén, Henrik; López-Bao, José Vicente; Adamec, Michal; Álvares, Francisco; Anders, Ole; Balčiauskas, Linas; Balys, Vaidas; Bedő, Péter; Bego, Ferdinand; Blanco, Juan Carlos; Breitenmoser, Urs; Brøseth, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Bunikyte, Raimonda; Ciucci, Paolo; Dutsov, Alexander; Engleder, Thomas; Fuxjäger, Christian; Groff, Claudio; Holmala, Katja; Hoxha, Bledi; Iliopoulos, Yorgos; Ionescu, Ovidiu; Jeremić, Jasna; Jerina, Klemen; Kluth, Gesa; Knauer, Felix; Kojola, Ilpo; Kos, Ivan; Krofel, Miha; Kubala, Jakub; Kunovac, Saša; Kusak, Josip; Kutal, Miroslav; Liberg, Olof; Majić, Aleksandra; Männil, Peep; Manz, Ralph; Marboutin, Eric; Marucco, Francesca; Melovski, Dime; Mersini, Kujtim; Mertzanis, Yorgos; Mysłajek, Robert W; Nowak, Sabina; Odden, John; Ozolins, Janis; Palomero, Guillermo; Paunović, Milan; Persson, Jens; Potočnik, Hubert; Quenette, Pierre-Yves; Rauer, Georg; Reinhardt, Ilka; Rigg, Robin; Ryser, Andreas; Salvatori, Valeria; Skrbinšek, Tomaž; Stojanov, Aleksandar; Swenson, Jon E; Szemethy, László; Trajçe, Aleksandër; Tsingarska-Sedefcheva, Elena; Váňa, Martin; Veeroja, Rauno; Wabakken, Petter; Wölfl, Manfred; Wölfl, Sybille; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Zlatanova, Diana; Boitani, Luigi

    2014-12-19

    The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success include protective legislation, supportive public opinion, and a variety of practices making coexistence between large carnivores and people possible. The European situation reveals that large carnivores and people can share the same landscape. PMID:25525247

  20. Three-finger snake neurotoxins and Ly6 proteins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological tools and endogenous modulators.

    PubMed

    Tsetlin, Victor I

    2015-02-01

    Snake venom neurotoxins and lymphocyte antigen 6 (Ly6) proteins, most of the latter being membrane tethered by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, have a variety of biological activities, but their three-finger (3F) folding combines them in one Ly6/neurotoxin family. Subsets of two groups, represented by α-neurotoxins and Lynx1, respectively, interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and, hence, are of therapeutic interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, pain, and cancer. Information on the mechanisms of action and 3D structure of the binding sites, which is required for drug design, is available from the 3D structure of α-neurotoxin complexes with nAChR models. Here, I compare the structural and functional features of α-neurotoxins versus Lynx1 and its homologs to get a clearer picture of Lynx1-nAChR interactions that is necessary for fundamental science and practical applications. PMID:25528970

  1. The Influence of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements during Winter in High-Elevation Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Gese, Eric M.; Dowd, Jennifer L. B.; Aubry, Lise M.

    2013-01-01

    Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote movements within an area containing lynx and designated lynx habitat. PMID:24367565

  2. In situ analysis of carbon isotopes in North American diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rythoven, A. D.; Hauri, E. H.; Wang, J.; McCandless, T.; Shirey, S. B.; Schulze, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Diamonds from three North American kimberlite occurrences were investigated with cathodoluminescence (CL) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine their growth history and carbon isotope composition. Diamonds analyzed include fourteen from Lynx (Quebec), twelve from Kelsey Lake (Colorado) and eleven from A154 South (Diavik mine, Northwest Territories). Growth histories for the diamonds vary from simple to highly complex based on their CL images and depending on the individual stone. Deformation laminae are evident in CL images of the Lynx diamonds that typically are brownish in color. Two to five points per diamond were analyzed by SIMS for carbon isotope composition. Sample heterogeneity is minimal in terms of δ13C (vs. PDB) values. Points within single diamond had a maximum range of approximately 1 ‰. The results for the A154 South (-6.4 to -3 ‰) and Kelsey Lake (-11.2 to -2.6 ‰) stones were in accordance with earlier reported values. The Lynx kimberlite stones have anomalously high ratios and range from -3.5 to +0.2 ‰ (average: -1.4 ‰). No previous carbon isotope analyses on diamonds from Lynx or any other eastern Superior craton occurrence have been published. The diamonds possess carbon isotope ratios higher than those for the only other reported analyses of Superior craton diamonds at Wawa, Ontario (-5.5 to -1.1 ‰). In global terms, the only published analyses of diamonds that consistently contain even higher values are those from New South Wales (Australia). However, these diamonds are alluvial and contain eclogitic and/or exotic mineral inclusions. The Lynx diamonds are entirely peridotitic and from a primary deposit. The unusually low (i.e. >-5‰) δ13C values of the Lynx (and Wawa) diamonds may indicate a different carbon reservoir for the Superior craton mantle as compared to other cratons.

  3. Worldwide occurrence of feline hemoplasma infections in wild felid species.

    PubMed

    Willi, Barbara; Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José L; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L; Vargas, Astrid; Martínez, Fernando; Roelke, Melody E; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Leutenegger, Christian M; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2007-04-01

    While hemoplasma infections in domestic cats are well studied, almost no information is available on their occurrence in wild felids. The aims of the present study were to investigate wild felid species as possible reservoirs of feline hemoplasmas and the molecular characterization of the hemoplasma isolates. Blood samples from the following 257 wild felids were analyzed: 35 Iberian lynxes from Spain, 36 Eurasian lynxes from Switzerland, 31 European wildcats from France, 45 lions from Tanzania, and 110 Brazilian wild felids, including 12 wild felid species kept in zoos and one free-ranging ocelot. Using real-time PCR, feline hemoplasmas were detected in samples of the following species: Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, European wildcat, lion, puma, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, margay, and ocelot. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" was the most common feline hemoplasma in Iberian lynxes, Eurasian lynxes, Serengeti lions, and Brazilian wild felids, whereas "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" was the most prevalent in European wildcats; hemoplasma coinfections were frequently observed. Hemoplasma infection was associated with species and free-ranging status of the felids in all animals and with feline leukemia virus provirus-positive status in European wildcats. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and the partial RNase P gene revealed that most hemoplasma isolates exhibit high sequence identities to domestic cat-derived isolates, although some isolates form different subclusters within the phylogenetic tree. In conclusion, 9 out of 15 wild felid species from three different continents were found to be infected with feline hemoplasmas. The effect of feline hemoplasma infections on wild felid populations needs to be further investigated. PMID:17301277

  4. How a Picture Book Happens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonners, Susan

    1994-01-01

    The author and illustrator of a picture book about the life cycle of the lynx describes the research and development process she used to create the book. Contacts with wildlife biologists, presenting the predator/prey relationship, creating pictures and text, drawing from life, and creating the book jacket are among the topics covered. (KRN)

  5. 76 FR 69758 - Draft Environmental Assessment, Incidental Take Plan, and Application for an Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... expertise among trappers and non-trappers that may provide other minimization and mitigation measures in... inform the decision making process. In the draft EA, we attempted to quantify the incidental take of non-target wildlife (species other than lynx) in traps. We are particularly interested in whether there...

  6. Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Andrea V.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans. PMID:22718941

  7. 78 FR 47272 - Notice of Intent to Grant Exclusive License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ..., Washington, an exclusive license to the pea variety named ``Lynx''. DATES: Comments must be received on or.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Government's rights in this plant variety are assigned to the United... license this plant variety as Central Washington Grain Growers, Inc. of Waterville, Washington...

  8. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neosport caninum antibodies in Spanish ibex (Capra pryenaica hispanica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. The Iberian lynx (L...

  9. Massive star formation in a gravitationally-lensed H II galaxy at z=3.357

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, G.; Stanford, M.; Holden, S. A.; Stern, B. P.; Rosati, D.; Lombardi, P.; Humphrey, M.; Villar-Martin, A.; Hook, M.; Fosbury, R. N.; Squires, R. A. E.

    2003-01-01

    The Lynx arc, with a redshift of 3.357, was discovered during spectroscopic follow-up of the z=0.570 cluster RX J0848+4456 from the ROSAT Deep Cluster Survey. The arc is characterized by a very red R - K color and strong, narrow emission lines.

  10. 50 CFR 23.36 - What are the requirements for an export permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that it will be issued. Yes n/a n/a 23.35 (4) The scientific name of the species is the standard...) The scientific name of the CITES species is in the standard nomenclature in the CITES Appendices or... the Wild Export of Skins/Products of Bobcat, Canada Lynx, River Otter, Brown Bear, Gray Wolf,...

  11. Conservation genetics of Nordic carnivores: lessons from zoos.

    PubMed

    Laikre, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from genetic studies of Nordic carnivore populations bred in captivity. The conservation genetic implications of those results for the management of wild populations of the same species are discussed. Inbreeding depression has been documented in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) populations held in Nordic zoos. The characters negatively affected by inbreeding include litter size (brown bear and wolf), longevity (lynx and wolf), female reproduction, and weight (wolf). In addition, hereditary defects caused by single autosomal alleles occur in the wolf and brown bear populations. These deleterious alleles cause blindness (wolf) and albinism (brown bear) in the homozygous state. The amount of inbreeding depression observed in Nordic carnivores are similar to that documented in other species. The captive populations have the same genetic background as the current wild ones and inbreeding depression is therefore a potential threat to wild carnivore populations in Sweden. This threat is presently not being adequately recognized in the management of these species. Frequently occurring misunderstandings regarding the kind of conclusions that can be drawn from the presented genetic observations are also discussed. PMID:10509137

  12. 78 FR 17632 - Caribou-Targhee National Forest; Idaho and Wyoming; Amendment to the Targhee Revised Forest Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... linkage area map as an amendment to the 1997 Targhee Revised Forest Plan. Scoping Process This Notice... Revised Forest Plan (1997) to include a map identifying specific areas where the Northern Rockies Lynx Management Direction (NRLMD, 2007) applies. Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process: The decision...

  13. 36 CFR 242.26 - Subsistence taking of wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... jaw spread of less than 57/8 inches during any closed mink and marten season in the same Unit; (5... with State regulations. (k) Sealing of beaver, lynx, marten, otter, wolf, and wolverine. You may not possess or transport from Alaska the untanned skin of a marten taken in Units 1-5, 7, 13E, or 14-16 or...

  14. 50 CFR 100.26 - Subsistence taking of wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... steel trap having a jaw spread of less than 57/8 inches during any closed mink and marten season in the.... (k) Sealing of beaver, lynx, marten, otter, wolf, and wolverine. You may not possess or transport from Alaska the untanned skin of a marten taken in Units 1-5, 7, 13E, or 14-16 or the untanned skin...

  15. 50 CFR 100.26 - Subsistence taking of wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... steel trap having a jaw spread of less than 57/8 inches during any closed mink and marten season in the.... (k) Sealing of beaver, lynx, marten, otter, wolf, and wolverine. You may not possess or transport from Alaska the untanned skin of a marten taken in Units 1-5, 7, 13E, or 14-16 or the untanned skin...

  16. 36 CFR 242.26 - Subsistence taking of wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... steel trap having a jaw spread of less than 5 7/8 inches during any closed mink and marten season in the.... (k) Sealing of beaver, lynx, marten, otter, wolf, and wolverine. You may not possess or transport from Alaska the untanned skin of a marten taken in Units 1-5, 7, 13E, or 14-16 or the untanned skin...

  17. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-10-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog. PMID:3196978

  18. 78 FR 52981 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    .../One- Stop). 82954 Blue Lynx Media Lewisville, TX......... 08/02/13 08/01/13 (Company). 82955 Bank of America Concord, CA 08/02/13 08/01/13 (Workers). ] 82956 Micron Technology Inc. Longmont, CO 08/02/13...

  19. 78 FR 4382 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Northwest Iowa; Under Alternative Site Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... would include one ``magnet'' site: Proposed Site 1 (417.4 acres)--City of Le Mars Industrial Park in the southwest corner of Le Mars bounded by the CN rail line to the west, Industrial Road/Lynx Road to the...

  20. 78 FR 53002 - Notice of Proposed Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER... request for comment. SUMMARY: The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) requested a waiver of the Federal... CATS LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an FTA-funded project. With certain...

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in 3 zoos in Mexico City, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus...

  2. Zoonotic parasites of bobcats around human landscapes.

    PubMed

    Carver, Scott; Scorza, Andrea V; Bevins, Sarah N; Riley, Seth P D; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans. PMID:22718941

  3. In situ Analysis of North American Diamond: Implications for Diamond Growth Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, D. J.; Van Rythoven, A. D.; Hauri, E.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Diamond crystals from three North American kimberlite occurrences were investigated with cathodoluminescence (CL) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine their growth history, carbon isotope composition and nitrogen content. Samples analyzed include sixteen from Lynx (Quebec), twelve from Kelsey Lake (Colorado) and eighteen from A154 South (Diavik mine, Northwest Territories). Growth histories for the samples vary from simple to highly complex based on their CL images and depending on the individual stone. Deformation lamellae are evident in CL images of the Lynx crystals which typically are brownish in color. Two to five points per diamond were analyzed by SIMS for carbon isotope composition (δ13CPDB) and three to seven points for nitrogen content. The results for the A154 South (δ13CPDB = -6.76 to -1.68 ‰) and Kelsey Lake (δ13CPDB = -11.81 to -2.43 ‰) stones (mixed peridotitic and eclogitic suites) are similar to earlier reported values. The Lynx kimberlite stones have anomalously high carbon isotope ratios and range from -3.58 to +1.74 ‰. The Lynx diamond suite is almost entirely peridotitic. The unusually high (i.e. >-5‰) δ13C values of the Lynx diamonds, as well as those from Wawa, Ontario and Renard, Quebec, may indicate an anomalous carbon reservoir for the Superior cratonic mantle relative to other cratons. In addition to the heavier carbon isotope values, the Lynx samples have very low nitrogen contents (<100 ppm). Nitrogen contents for Kelsey Lake and Diavik samples are more typical and range to ~1100 ppm. Comparison of observed core to rim variations in nitrogen content and carbon isotopes with modeled Rayleigh fractionation trends for published diamond growth mechanisms allows for evaluation of carbon speciation and other parent fluid conditions. Observed trends that closely follow modeled data are rare, but appear to suggest diamond growth from carbonate-bearing fluids at Lynx and Diavik, and growth from a methane-bearing fluid at Kelsey Lake. However the majority of crystals appear to have very complex growth histories that are clearly the result of multiple growth and resorption events. Trends observed in most of the samples from this study are chaotic and no consistent patterns are seen.

  4. Habitat differentiation within the large-carnivore community of Norway's multiple-use landscapes

    PubMed Central

    May, Roel; van Dijk, Jiska; Wabakken, Petter; Swenson, Jon E; Linnell, John DC; Zimmermann, Barbara; Odden, John; Pedersen, Hans C; Andersen, Reidar; Landa, Arild

    2008-01-01

    The re-establishment of large carnivores in Norway has led to increased conflicts and the adoption of regional zoning for these predators. When planning the future distribution of large carnivores, it is important to consider details of their potential habitat tolerances and strength of inter-specific differentiation. We studied differentiation in habitat and kill sites within the large-carnivore community of south-eastern Norway. We compared habitat selection of the brown bear Ursus arctos L., Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx L., wolf Canis lupus L. and wolverine Gulo gulo L., based on radio-tracking data. Differences in kill site locations were explored using locations of documented predator-killed sheep Ovis aries L. We modelled each species’ selection for, and differentiation in, habitat and kill sites on a landscape scale using resource selection functions and multinomial logistic regression. Based on projected probability of occurrence maps, we estimated continuous patches of habitat within the study area. Although bears, lynx, wolves and wolverines had overlapping distributions, we found a clear differentiation for all four species in both habitat and kill sites. The presence of bears, wolves and lynx was generally associated with rugged, forested areas at lower elevations, whereas wolverines selected rugged terrain at higher elevations. Some degree of sympatry was possible in over 40% of the study area, although only 1·5% could hold all four large carnivores together. Synthesis and applications. A geographically differentiated management policy has been adopted in Norway, aimed at conserving viable populations of large carnivores while minimizing the potential for conflicts. Sympatry of all four carnivores will be most successful if regional zones are established of adequate size spanning an elevational gradient. High prey densities, low carnivore densities, low dietary overlap and scavenging opportunities have most probably led to reduced competitive exclusion. Although regional sympatry enhances the conservation of an intact guild of large carnivores, it may well increase conflict levels and resistance to carnivore conservation locally. PMID:19330031

  5. Prey switching as a means of enhancing persistence in predators at the trailing southern edge.

    PubMed

    Peers, Michael J L; Wehtje, Morgan; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on species' persistence is a major research interest; however, most studies have focused on responses at the northern or expanding range edge. There is a pressing need to explain how species can persist at their southern range when changing biotic interactions will influence species occurrence. For predators, variation in distribution of primary prey owing to climate change will lead to mismatched distribution and local extinction, unless their diet is altered to more extensively include alternate prey. We assessed whether addition of prey information in climate projections restricted projected habitat of a specialist predator, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), and if switching from their primary prey (snowshoe hare; Lepus americanus) to an alternate prey (red squirrel; Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) mitigates range restriction along the southern range edge. Our models projected distributions of each species to 2050 and 2080 to then refine predictions for southern lynx on the basis of varying combinations of prey availability. We found that models that incorporated information on prey substantially reduced the total predicted southern range of lynx in both 2050 and 2080. However, models that emphasized red squirrel as the primary species had 7-24% lower southern range loss than the corresponding snowshoe hare model. These results illustrate that (i) persistence at the southern range may require species to exploit higher portions of alternate food; (ii) selection may act on marginal populations to accommodate phenotypic changes that will allow increased use of alternate resources; and (iii) climate projections based solely on abiotic data can underestimate the severity of future range restriction. In the case of Canada lynx, our results indicate that the southern range likely will be characterized by locally varying levels of mismatch with prey such that the extent of range recession or local adaptation may appear as a geographical mosaic. PMID:24353147

  6. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an active instrument can be deployed in a sRLV under a satellite track, and serve as a "standard candle" for instruments on satellites. Yearly calibrations of the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Experiment (SEE) instrument aboard the TIMED orbiter using sounding rockets depict the necessity of calibrations and illustrates calibration frequency.

  7. [Felines: an alternative in genetic toxicology studies?].

    PubMed

    Zamora-Perez, Ana; Gmez-Meda, Belinda C; Ramos-Ibarra, Maria L; Batista-Gonzlez, Cecilia M; Luna-Aguirre, Jaime; Gonzlez-Rodrguez, Andrs; Rodrguez-Avila, Jos L; Ziga-Gonzlez, Guillermo M

    2008-06-01

    The micronuclei (MN) test carry out in peripheral blood is fast, simple, economic and it is used to detect genotoxic environmental agents. MN are fragments of chromosomes or complete chromosomes remaining in the cytoplasm after cell division, which increase when organisms are exposed to genotoxic agents. Therefore, species with the highest values of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) are the most suitable to be potentials biomonitor of micronucleogenic agents, using a drop of blood. Nine species of Felines that present spontaneous MNE in peripheral blood are shown. From these species, the cat has been previously proven, with positive results and also lion (Panthera leo), yaguaroundi (Felis yagoaroundi), lynx (Lynx ruffus), jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), tiger (Panthera tigris), ocelote (Felis padalis) and leopard (Panthera pardus) display spontaneous MNE, and with this characteristic this Family can be propose like a potential group to be used in toxicogenetic studies. PMID:19256458

  8. Interspecies transmission of Cytauxzoon felis.

    PubMed

    Kier, A B; Wightman, S R; Wagner, J E

    1982-01-01

    The causative agent of feline cytauxzoonosis was experimentally inoculated into 4 species of domestic farm animals, 9 species of laboratory animals, and 17 wildlife species. The inoculum consisted of freshly collected or deep-frozen blood and/or tissue homogenates from domestic cats euthanatized in extremis with experimentally transmitted feline cytauxzoonosis. A bobcat, Lynx rufus floridanus (Florida bobcat), developed cytauxzoonosis typical of the disease observed in domestic cats and died of the disease 2 weeks after inoculation. A persistent parasitemia, but no overt signs of illness, developed in another bobcat, Lynx rufus rufus (eastern bobcat). The sheep developed a low persistent parasitemia, but no clinical signs of illness. There was no clear evidence of cytauxzoonosis demonstrated by necropsy or histopathologic or blood smear examinations in all other species. Additionally, freshly collected blood and/or tissue homogenates from animals of various species, except bobcats, failed to produce evidence of cytauxzoonosis when subinoculated into domestic cats. PMID:6807139

  9. Predator-prey systems depend on a prey refuge.

    PubMed

    Chivers, W J; Gladstone, W; Herbert, R D; Fuller, M M

    2014-11-01

    Models of near-exclusive predator-prey systems such as that of the Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare have included factors such as a second prey species, a Holling Type II predator response and climatic or seasonal effects to reproduce sub-sets of six signature patterns in the empirical data. We present an agent-based model which does not require the factors or constraints of previous models to reproduce all six patterns in persistent populations. Our parsimonious model represents a generalised predator and prey species with a small prey refuge. The lack of the constraints of previous models, considered to be important for those models, casts doubt on the current hypothesised mechanisms of exclusive predator-prey systems. The implication for management of the lynx, a protected species, is that maintenance of an heterogeneous environment offering natural refuge areas for the hare is the most important factor for the conservation of this species. PMID:25058806

  10. Modeling population dynamics: A quantile approach.

    PubMed

    Chavas, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    The paper investigates the modeling of population dynamics, both conceptually and empirically. It presents a reduced form representation that provides a flexible characterization of population dynamics. It leads to the specification of a threshold quantile autoregression (TQAR) model, which captures nonlinear dynamics by allowing lag effects to vary across quantiles of the distribution as well as with previous population levels. The usefulness of the model is illustrated in an application to the dynamics of lynx population. We find statistical evidence that the quantile autoregression parameters vary across quantiles (thus rejecting the AR model as well as the TAR model) as well as with past populations (thus rejecting the quantile autoregression QAR model). The results document the nature of dynamics and cycle in the lynx population over time. They show how both the period of the cycle and the speed of population adjustment vary with population level and environmental conditions. PMID:25661501

  11. Echinococcus multilocularis in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Martínek, K; Kolárová, L; Hapl, E; Literák, I; Uhrin, M

    2001-10-01

    Nested PCR was used as a diagnostic tool to investigate the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm in protected species of carnivores in Slovakia. Twenty-three faecal samples from wolves, four samples from bears and three samples from lynx from the Muránska Planina mountains and eight samples from wolves from the Bukovské Vrchy mountains were examined. E. multilocularis DNA was detected in two samples of wolves' faeces from the Muránska Planina mountains and one sample from the Bukovské Vrchy mountains. Examination of bears' and lynx faecal samples gave negative results. The detection of E. multilocularis in wolves has extended the range of its known definitive hosts in Europe. PMID:11688890

  12. Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D

    1998-06-01

    Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens. PMID:9732040

  13. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers, accelerometers, etc. This low-cost, customizable platform provides researchers the ability to design immediately responsive, repeatable, high resolution experiments.

  14. Interference in the tundra predator guild studied using local ecological knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, Dorothee; Strømeng, Marita A; Killengreen, Siw T

    2016-04-01

    The decline or recolonization of apex predators such as wolves and lynx, often driven by management decisions, and the expansion of smaller generalist predators such as red foxes, can have important ecosystem impacts. The mesopredator release hypothesis proposes that apex predators control medium-sized predator populations through competition and/or intraguild predation. The decline of apex predators thus leads to an increase in mesopredators, possibly with a negative impact on prey populations. Information about the abundance of mammalian tundra predators, wolf (Canis lupus), wolverine (Gulo gulo), lynx (Lynx lynx), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) was collected from local active outdoors people during semi-structured interviews in 14 low arctic or sub-arctic settlements in western Eurasia. The perceived abundance of red fox decreased with higher wolf abundance and in more arctic areas, but the negative effect of wolves decreased in more arctic and therefore less productive ecosystems. The perceived abundance of arctic fox increased towards the arctic and in areas with colder winters. Although there was a negative correlation between the two fox species, red fox was not included in the model for perceived arctic fox abundance, which received most support. Our results support the mesopredator release hypothesis regarding the expansion of red foxes in subarctic areas and indicate that top-down control by apex predators is weaker in less productive and more arctic ecosystems. We showed that local ecological knowledge is a valuable source of information about large-scale processes, which are difficult to study through direct biological investigations. PMID:26686344

  15. The role of predation and food limitation on claims for compensation, reindeer demography and population dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tveraa, Torkild; Stien, Audun; Brøseth, Henrik; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in biodiversity conservation is to facilitate viable populations of large apex predators in ecosystems where they were recently driven to ecological extinction due to resource conflict with humans. Monetary compensation for losses of livestock due to predation is currently a key instrument to encourage human–carnivore coexistence. However, a lack of quantitative estimates of livestock losses due to predation leads to disagreement over the practice of compensation payments. This disagreement sustains the human–carnivore conflict. The level of depredation on year-round, free-ranging, semi-domestic reindeer by large carnivores in Fennoscandia has been widely debated over several decades. In Norway, the reindeer herders claim that lynx and wolverine cause losses of tens of thousands of animals annually and cause negative population growth in herds. Conversely, previous research has suggested that monetary predator compensation can result in positive population growth in the husbandry, with cascading negative effects of high grazer densities on the biodiversity in tundra ecosystems. We utilized a long-term, large-scale data set to estimate the relative importance of lynx and wolverine predation and density-dependent and climatic food limitation on claims for losses, recruitment and population growth rates in Norwegian reindeer husbandry. Claims of losses increased with increasing predator densities, but with no detectable effect on population growth rates. Density-dependent and climatic effects on claims of losses, recruitment and population growth rates were much stronger than the effects of variation in lynx and wolverine densities. Synthesis and applications. Our analysis provides a quantitative basis for predator compensation and estimation of the costs of reintroducing lynx and wolverine in areas with free-ranging semi-domestic reindeer. We outline a potential path for conflict management which involves adaptive monitoring programmes, open access to data, herder involvement and development of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models to disentangle complex responses including multiple stakeholders and individual harvester decisions. PMID:25558085

  16. Use of object-oriented techniques in a beam-line control system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.; Rueden, W. von; Butler, H.; Yang, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors describe the use of object-oriented programming in the control and data-acquisition system for the upgraded CERN neutrino beam-line. C++ in conjunction with Posix threads running under Lynx-OS have been used in several front-end PCs. These communicate using Remote Procedure Calls over ethernet with a workstation running the commercial supervisory package, FactoryLink.

  17. Mechanisms of inhibition and potentiation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by members of the Ly6 protein family.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meilin; Puddifoot, Clare A; Taylor, Palmer; Joiner, William J

    2015-10-01

    α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system and are thought to be the primary target of nicotine, the main addictive substance in cigarette smoking. Understanding the mechanisms by which these receptors are regulated may assist in developing compounds to selectively interfere with nicotine addiction. Here we report previously unrecognized modulatory properties of members of the Ly6 protein family on α4β2 nAChRs. Using a FRET-based Ca(2+) flux assay, we found that the maximum response of α4β2 receptors to agonist was strongly inhibited by Ly6h and Lynx2 but potentiated by Ly6g6e. The mechanisms underlying these opposing effects appear to be fundamentally distinct. Receptor inhibition by Lynx2 was accompanied by suppression of α4β2 expression at the cell surface, even when assays were preceded by chronic exposure of cells to an established chaperone, nicotine. Receptor inhibition by Lynx2 also was resistant to pretreatment with extracellular phospholipase C, which cleaves lipid moieties like those that attach Ly6 proteins to the plasma membrane. In contrast, potentiation of α4β2 activity by Ly6g6e was readily reversible by pretreatment with phospholipase C. Potentiation was also accompanied by slowing of receptor desensitization and an increase in peak currents. Collectively our data support roles for Lynx2 and Ly6g6e in intracellular trafficking and allosteric potentiation of α4β2 nAChRs, respectively. PMID:26276394

  18. Trichinella pseudospiralis foci in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Christensson, D; Stéen, M; Marucci, G; La Rosa, G; Bröjer, C; Mörner, T; Uhlhorn, H; Agren, E; Hall, M

    2004-11-10

    In Sweden, the prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs has greatly decreased since the 1970s, with no reports in the past 4 years. However, infected wild animals continue to be found. The objective of the present study was to identify the species of Trichinella present in animals of Sweden, so as to contribute to the knowledge on the distribution area and hosts useful for the prevention and control of this zoonosis. In the period 1985-2003, Trichinella larvae were detected in the muscles of 81/1800 (4.5%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 1/6 (16.7%) arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), 1/7 (14.3%) wolf (Canis lupus), 10/200 (5.0%) lynxes (Lynx lynx), 4/8000 (0.05%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), and 27/66 x 10(6) (0.000041%) domestic pigs. All four Trichinella species previously found in Europe were detected (Trichinella spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis). The non-encapsulated species T. pseudospiralis was detected in three wild boars from Holo (Stockholm area) and in one lynx from Froso (Ostersund area), suggesting that this species is widespread in Sweden. These findings are consistent with those of a study from Finland, both for the unexpected presence of T. pseudospiralis infection and the presence of the same four Trichinella species, suggesting that this epidemiological situation is present in the entire Scandinavian region. The widespread diffusion of T. pseudospiralis in the Scandinavian region is also important in terms of it potential impact on public health, given that human infection can occur and the difficulties to detect it by the trichinelloscopic examination. PMID:15482889

  19. Red in tooth and claw: how top predators shape terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher N

    2010-07-01

    Top predators are increasingly recognized as important regulators of ecosystem structure. Elmhagen et al. in this issue show how a recolonizing population of lynx in Finland is in the process of imposing control of the abundance of a mesopredator, the red fox, and relaxing predation pressure on a prey species. Their study shows how ecological restoration programs could use the power of top predators to limit mesopredator populations and control total predation pressure on prey species. PMID:20636839

  20. Using PGFM (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) as a non-invasive pregnancy marker for felids.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, M; Finkenwirth, C; Crosier, A; Penfold, L; Ringleb, J; Jewgenow, K

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the complex endocrine interactions that control reproduction in felids is essential for captive breeding management. The most important demand is a quick and reliable pregnancy diagnosis. However, the occurrence of pseudopregnancies in felids complicates matters. We investigated whether the fecal prostaglandin metabolite (PGFM) recently suggested for pregnancy diagnosis in the lynx is suitable for all felid species. We found that increased levels of PGFM during the last trimester indicate pregnancy in seven of the eight main lineages of the carnivore family Felidae. PGFM levels in a sand cat (domestic cat lineage) were basal at mating and remained so until Day 40 post-mating. Day 41 marked the beginning of a distinct increase culminating in peak levels of 6.5 μg/g before parturition and decreasing again to baseline thereafter. Similar pregnancy profiles were obtained from the domestic cat, the leopard cat, the lynx, the ocelot and the caracal lineage, whereas in pseudopregnant individuals (sand cat, Iberian and Eurasian lynx) fecal PGFM remained at basal levels. In pregnant cheetahs (puma lineage) PGFM increased above basal following day ∼48 peaking before pregnancy but remained at baseline in pseudopregnant females. Discrepancies existed in the Panthera lineage. While Chinese leopard, Sumatran tiger, and the black panther showed marked increases of PGFM during the last weeks of pregnancy, only moderate increases in PGFM levels were found in the Indochinese tiger and the Persian leopard. Altogether, PGFM as tool for pregnancy diagnosis has been proven to be useful in breeding management of felids. PMID:22192399

  1. Spatial patterns of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in mosses, herbivores and a carnivore from the Norwegian terrestrial biota.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Steinnes, Eiliv; Breivik, Knut; Nygård, Torgeir; Schlabach, Martin; Kålås, John Atle

    2008-10-01

    The widespread occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the environment has attracted considerable attention, leading to concerns about the extent and magnitude of wildlife and human exposure. In this work, we focus on the occurrence and fate of PBDEs in a Norwegian air-plant-herbivore-carnivore system. Specifically, we have analysed for PBDEs in moss, livers from various terrestrial herbivores (moose, grouse, and European roe deer) and, for the first time, livers from the top predator lynx. The samples were collected from different sites and time periods (1990-2004) to identify possible spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels and patterns. The general finding was that PBDEs were found in all (biotic) samples, although at lower concentrations than previously observed in mammals from the marine environment. The PBDE levels in the herbivores ranged from less than 0.5 ng/g lipid weight to 9.4 ng/g lipid weight as the highest. The median PBDE concentration in lynx was approximately one order of magnitude higher than in the herbivores. In the lynx samples there was a predominance of BDE-153 whereas BDE-47 and 99 dominated in the herbivores. This probably reflects different bioaccumulation properties or metabolic transformation processes of the BDE-congeners, and food choice. Levels of PBDEs in both moss and herbivores showed a general decline towards the northern parts of Norway. No clear temporal trends were observed. The PBDE levels observed in this study were low and are probably of limited toxicological significance. PMID:18627904

  2. Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Wang, D; Tanomtong, A; Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. Painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. However, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-Canidae species. Here, we extended cross-species painting with dog probes to seven more species representing six carnivore families: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the stone marten (Martes foina), the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Javan mongoose (Hepestes javanicas), the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The numbers and positions of intra-chromosomal rearrangements were found to differ among these carnivore species. A comparative map between human and stone marten, and a map among the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), stone marten and human were also established to facilitate outgroup comparison and to integrate comparative maps between stone marten and other carnivores with such maps between human and other species. These comparative maps give further insight into genome evolution and karyotype phylogenetic relationships among carnivores, and will facilitate the transfer of gene mapping data from human, domestic dog and cat to other species. PMID:22086079

  3. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  4. A Fall fur-hunt from Maine to New Brunswick, Canada: The 1858 journal of Manly Hardy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    Ecologists, conservationists, and others increasingly ask questions that require a reliable understanding of natural conditions in the past. For example, when the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to list the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) under the Federal Endangered Species Act, there was a need to know the historical status of this species in the northeastern US. The natural history writings of Manly Hardy, a successful, nineteenth-century businessman and respected amateur naturalist from Brewer, ME, proved useful in assessing the lynx's historical status. Because of the wide array of potential uses of Hardy's writings, the objective of this paper is to make biologists and other scholars aware of Hardy, especially his 15 surviving journals, 1852-1899. Hardy left the most extensive published record of any of the naturalists who wrote about wildlife in Maine from the late 1800s through the early 1900s. His articles and essays covered a wide range of subjects about a variety of bird and mammal species. A recently published biographical sketch of Hardy contains an annotated bibliography of his publications along with the republication of 14 of his mammalian works. In contrast, this article contains an example of his unpublished journal writing with significant wildlife observations.

  5. Sarcoptic mange in Swedish wildlife.

    PubMed

    Mörner, T

    1992-12-01

    Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes appeared among red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Scandinavia (south-west Finland) for the first time in this century in 1967. The disease was most probably introduced by foxes crossing the Gulf of Finland from Estonia. The mange epizootic spread northwards through Finland and reached Sweden in late 1975, when mangy foxes appeared in the northern part of the country. In 1984, mange was observed in most parts of Sweden. The disease was observed to spread rapidly in boreal areas, whereas it spread more slowly in agricultural areas. Mortality due to mange was very high. The duration of the disease before death due to emaciation has been shown experimentally to be over 90 days. An outbreak of fox mange among Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) occurred in 1986. The local population of Arctic foxes was caught and successfully treated. The following year, treated foxes were caught again and no signs of disease were found. Sporadic cases of fox mange have also been diagnosed in lynx (Lynx lynx), pine marten (Martes martes) and domestic dogs. Single cases have been observed in other species: wolf (Canis lupus), mountain hare (Lepus timidus), domestic cat and horse. No cases of sarcoptic mange have been recorded in the badger (Meles meles). At present, although fox mange occurs as an epizootic in local populations, the number of foxes has increased again in many parts of Sweden. PMID:1305857

  6. Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting

    PubMed Central

    Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Wang, D; Tanomtong, A; Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. Painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. However, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-Canidae species. Here, we extended cross-species painting with dog probes to seven more species representing six carnivore families: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the stone marten (Martes foina), the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Javan mongoose (Hepestes javanicas), the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The numbers and positions of intra-chromosomal rearrangements were found to differ among these carnivore species. A comparative map between human and stone marten, and a map among the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), stone marten and human were also established to facilitate outgroup comparison and to integrate comparative maps between stone marten and other carnivores with such maps between human and other species. These comparative maps give further insight into genome evolution and karyotype phylogenetic relationships among carnivores, and will facilitate the transfer of gene mapping data from human, domestic dog and cat to other species. PMID:22086079

  7. The Atsa Suborbital Observatory: An Observatory for a Commercial Suborbital Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    The advantages of astronomical observations made above Earth's atmosphere have long been understood: free access to spectral regions inaccessible from Earth (e.g., UV) or affected by the atmosphere's content (e.g., IR). Most robotic, space-based telescopes maintain large angular separation between the Sun and an observational target in order to avoid accidental damage to instruments from the Sun. For most astronomical targets, this possibility is easily avoided by waiting until objects are visible away from the Sun. For the Solar System objects inside Earth's orbit, this is never the case. Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. Commercial suborbital spacecraft are largely expected to go to ~100 km altitude above Earth, providing a limited amount of time for astronomical observations. The unique scientific advantage to these observations is the ability to point close to the Sun: if a suborbital spacecraft accidentally turns too close to the Sun and fries an instrument, it is easy to land the spacecraft and repair the hardware for the next flight. Objects uniquely observed during the short observing window include inner-Earth asteroids, Mercury, Venus, and Sun-grazing comets. Both open-FOV and target-specific observations are possible. Despite many space probes to the inner Solar System, scientific questions remain. These include inner-Earth asteroid size and bulk density informing Solar System evolution studies and efforts to develop methods of mitigation against imminent impactors to Earth; chemistry and dynamics of Venus' atmosphere addressing physical phenomena such as greenhouse effect, atmospheric super-rotation and global resurfacing on Venus. With the Atsa Suborbital Observatory, we combine the strengths of both ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with both in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. Rapid turnaround will depend only on flight frequency. Data are stored on-board for retrieval when the spacecraft lands. We provide robust instrumentation that can survive suborbital spaceflight, assessment of the feasibility of the requested observations, rigorous scripting of the telescope operation, integration of the telescope plus instrument in a provider spacecraft, and periodic preventive maintenance for the telescope and instrument suite. XCOR Aerospace's Lynx III spacecraft is the best candidate vehicle to host a suborbital astronomical observatory. Unlike other similar vehicles, the Lynx will operate with only 1 or 2 people onboard (the pilot and an operator), allowing for each mission to be totally dedicated to the observation (no tourists will be bumping about; no other experiments will affect spacecraft pointing). A stable platform, the Lynx can point to an accuracy of ± 0.5o. Fine pointing is done by the telescope system. Best of all, the Lynx has a dorsal pod that opens directly to space. For astronomical observations, the best window is NO window. Currently, we plan to deploy a 20" diameter telescope in the Lynx III dorsal pod. XCOR Aerospace has the goal of eventually maintaining a Lynx flight frequency capability of 4 times/day. As with any observatory, Atsa will be available for observations by the community at large.

  8. Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

    2006-03-31

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals. PMID:16387445

  9. Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2004-09-01

    Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs. PMID:15526881

  10. Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Majbrit M; Arvaniti, Maria; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Michalski, Dominik; Pinborg, Lars H; Härtig, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Morten S

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving impaired cholinergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ly-6/neurotoxin (Lynx) proteins have been shown to modulate cognition and neural plasticity by binding to nAChR subtypes and modulating their function. Hence, changes in nAChR regulatory proteins such as Lynx proteins could underlie the dysregulation of nAChRs in AD. Using Western blotting, we detected bands corresponding to the Lynx proteins prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and Lypd6 in human cortex indicating that both proteins are present in the human brain. We further showed that PSCA forms stable complexes with the α4 nAChR subunit and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells. In addition, we analyzed protein levels of PSCA and Lypd6 in postmortem tissue of medial frontal gyrus from AD patients and found significantly increased PSCA levels (approximately 70%). In contrast, no changes in Lypd6 levels were detected. In concordance with our findings in AD patients, PSCA levels were increased in the frontal cortex of triple transgenic mice with an AD-like pathology harboring human transgenes that cause both age-dependent β-amyloidosis and tauopathy, whereas Tg2576 mice, which display β-amyloidosis only, had unchanged PSCA levels compared to wild-type animals. These findings identify PSCA as a nAChR-binding protein in the human brain that is affected in AD, suggesting that PSCA-nAChR interactions may be involved in the cognitive dysfunction observed in AD. PMID:25680266

  11. Quantification of the humoral immune response and hemoplasma blood and tissue loads in cats coinfected with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Cattori, Valentino; Geret, Catrina P; Novacco, Marilisa; Meli, Marina L; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2012-08-01

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) is a hemotropic mycoplasma (aka hemoplasma) of domestic cats and wild felids. In a transmission study, we exposed eight specified pathogen-free cats to blood from Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus) infected with CMhm. The cats were coinfected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) from an Iberian lynx or with a prototype FeLV. The goal of the present study was to quantify the humoral immune response to CMhm and to identify potential target tissues and sequestration sites. Antibodies were measured by a recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and blood and tissue loads were quantified using real-time PCR. Seven out of eight cats became CMhm-infected; all of these cats seroconverted between 3 and 13 weeks after inoculation. Antibody levels correlated with the CMhm blood loads. The peak CMhm blood loads were inversely correlated with the incubation period. PCR-positive results were found in all 24 tissues tested but not for all samples. Although all tissues were PCR-positive in one cat euthanized ten weeks after infection, many tissues tested negative in six cats euthanized at week 20 after infection. In several cats, the spleen, lung, liver, heart and aorta contained more copies than expected given the tissue's blood supply, but most tissues contained fewer copies than expected. In conclusion, this is the first study to quantify the humoral immune response and tissue loads in CMhm-FeLV-coinfected cats. The tissue loads appeared to correlate with the duration of infection and with the blood loads, but no evidence of significant CMhm tissue sequestration was found. PMID:22588083

  12. Assessing cumulative impacts of forest development on the distribution of furbearers using expert-based habitat modeling.

    PubMed

    Bridger, M C; Johnson, C J; Gillingham, M P

    2016-03-01

    Cumulative impacts of anthropogenic landscape change must be considered when managing and conserving wildlife habitat. Across the central-interior of British Columbia, Canada, industrial activities are altering the habitat of furbearer species. This region has witnessed unprecedented levels of anthropogenic landscape change following rapid development in a number of resource sectors, particularly forestry. Our objective was to create expert-based habitat models for three furbearer species: fisher (Pekania pennanti), Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), and American marten (Martes americana) and quantify habitat change for those species. We recruited 10 biologist and 10 trapper experts and then used the analytical hierarchy process to elicit expert knowledge of habitat variables important to each species. We applied the models to reference landscapes (i.e., registered traplines) in two distinct study areas and then quantified the change in habitat availability from 1990 to 2013. There was strong agreement between expert groups in the choice of habitat variables and associated scores. Where anthropogenic impacts had increased considerably over the study period, the habitat models showed substantial declines in habitat availability for each focal species (78% decline in optimal fisher habitat, 83% decline in optimal lynx habitat, and 79% decline in optimal marten habitat). For those traplines with relatively little forest harvesting, the habitat models showed no substantial change in the availability of habitat over time. The results suggest that habitat for these three furbearer species declined significantly as a result of the cumulative impacts of forest harvesting. Results of this study illustrate the utility of expert knowledge for understanding large-scale patterns of habitat change over long time periods. PMID:27209791

  13. Reproductive patterns result from age-related sensitivity to resources and reproductive costs in a mammalian carnivore.

    PubMed

    Rauset, Geir Rune; Low, Matthew; Persson, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects of individual age, resource availability, and reproductive costs have been extensively studied to understand the causes of variation in reproductive output, there are almost no studies showing how these factors interact in explaining this variation. To examine this interaction, we used longitudinal demographic data from an 18-year study of 53 breeding female wolverines (Gulo gulo), and corresponding environmental data from their individual home ranges. Females showed a typical age-related pattern in reproductive output, with an initial increase followed by a senescent decline in later years. This pattern was largely driven by four processes: (1) physiological/behavioral maturation between ages two and three; (2) age-related differences in the costs of reproduction resulting in an initial increase, and then a declining probability of breeding two years in a row as individuals aged; (3) resource availability (reindeer [Rangifer tarandus] carcass abundance; mostly Eurasian lynx [Lynx lynx] kills) in the months preceding parturition, which influenced the probability of having cubs, but only for individuals that had successfully bred in the previous year; and (4) resource availability also influenced the cost of reproduction in an age-dependent manner, as prime age females that had bred in the previous year were more responsive to resource availability than those at other ages. This study demonstrates that by examining how drivers of reproductive variation interact, we can get a much clearer understanding of the mechanisms responsible for age-related patterns of reproduction. This has implications not only for general ecological theory, but will also allow better predictions of population resnonses to environmental changes or management based on a population's age-structure. PMID:26909422

  14. Intensity of space use reveals conditional sex-specific effects of prey and conspecific density on home range size.

    PubMed

    Aronsson, Malin; Low, Matthew; López-Bao, José V; Persson, Jens; Odden, John; Linnell, John D C; Andrén, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    Home range (HR) size variation is often linked to resource abundance, with sex differences expected to relate to sex-specific fitness consequences. However, studies generally fail to disentangle the effects of the two main drivers of HR size variation, food and conspecific density, and rarely consider how their relative influence change over spatiotemporal scales. We used location data from 77 Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from a 16-year Scandinavian study to examine HR sizes variation relative to prey and conspecific density at different spatiotemporal scales. By varying the isopleth parameter (intensity of use) defining the HR, we show that sex-specific effects were conditional on the spatial scale considered. Males had larger HRs than females in all seasons. Females' total HR size declined as prey and conspecific density increased, whereas males' total HR was only affected by conspecific density. However, as the intensity of use within the HR increased (from 90% to 50% isopleth), the relationship between prey density and area showed opposing patterns for females and males; for females, the prey density effect was reduced, while for males, prey became increasingly important. Thus, prey influenced the size of key regions within male HRs, despite total HR size being independent of prey density. Males reduced their HR size during the mating season, likely to remain close to individual females in estrous. Females reduced their HR size postreproduction probably because of movement constrains imposed by dependent young. Our findings highlight the importance of simultaneously considering resources and intraspecific interactions as HR size determinants. We show that sex-specific demands influence the importance of prey and conspecific density on space use at different spatiotemporal scales. Thus, unless a gradient of space use intensity is examined, factors not related to total HR size might be disregarded despite their importance in determining size of key regions within the HR. PMID:27217946

  15. Low levels of nucleotide diversity in mammalian Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Hellborg, Linda; Ellegren, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Sex chromosomes provide a useful context for the study of the relative importance of evolutionary forces affecting genetic diversity. The human Y chromosome shows levels of nucleotide diversity 20% that of autosomes, which is significantly less than expected when differences in effective population size and sex-specific mutation rates are taken into account. To study the generality of low levels of Y chromosome variability in mammalian genomes, we investigated nucleotide diversity in intron sequences of X (1.1-3.0 kb) and Y (0.7-3.5 kb) chromosome genes of five mammals: lynx, wolf, reindeer, cattle, and field vole. For all species, nucleotide diversity was found to be lower on Y than on X, with no segregating site observed in Y-linked sequences of lynx, reindeer, and cattle. For X chromosome sequences, nucleotide diversity was in the range of 1.6 x 10(-4) (lynx) to 8.0 x 10(-4) (field vole). When differences in effective population size and the extent of the male mutation bias were taken into account, all five species showed evidence of reduced levels of Y chromosome variability. Reduced levels of Y chromosome variability have also been observed in Drosophila and in plants, as well as in the female-specific W chromosome of birds. Among the different factors proposed to explain low levels of genetic variability in the sex-limited chromosome (Y/W), we note that selection is the only factor that is broadly applicable irrespective of mode of reproduction and whether there is male or female heterogamety. PMID:14595096

  16. Characterization of widespread canine leishmaniasis among wild carnivores from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Ferroglio, E; Oleaga, A; Romano, A; Millan, J; Revilla, M; Arnal, M C; Trisciuoglio, A; Gortázar, C

    2008-08-17

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum in Mediterranean countries, with sand flies (Phlebotomus spp.) as vectors and dogs as the main domestic reservoir. The role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis is still controversial. In order to determine the prevalence of natural infection with L. infantum in wild carnivores from Spain, we analyzed 217 samples by PCR and western blotting and used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to compare the patterns present in wild carnivores with those of domestic dogs from the same areas. DNA of the parasite was detected in spleen or blood samples from 35 (16.12%) analyzed wild carnivores, including 8 of 39 (20.5%) wolves (Canis lupus), 23 of 162 (14.1%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 2 of 7 (28.6%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 1 of 4 genets (Geneta geneta), and 1 of 4 Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus). No significant sex or age differences in prevalence were observed in wolves and foxes (P>0.05), but there was a significant difference among regions in foxes (P<0.05). A total of 12 PCR-RFLP patterns were found in foxes, 6 in wolves, 4 in dogs, 2 in Egyptian mongooses and 1 in lynx and genet. RFLP patterns differed between dogs and foxes in the two areas where they could be compared. This is the first study of canine leishmaniasis in wild canids and other carnivores from different regions of Spain by PCR. The prevalence of infection indicates the existence of natural infection in apparently healthy wild carnivore populations, and our results are suggestive of a sylvatic cycle independent of dogs. PMID:18579311

  17. Suborbital Research and Education Missions with Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodway, K.; Nelson, A.; Voigt, J.

    2012-12-01

    Suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV) will provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space. In the case of XCOR's Lynx, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a unique mission on a customized flight trajectory. This new manned, reusable commercial platform will allow for repeated observations with a single instrument, but without the need to refurbish the vehicle between flights. In addition, the short turn-around means a researcher can do multiple observations, measurements, or targets. The vehicle is designed for multi-mission primary and secondary payload capabilities, including: in-cockpit experiments and instrumentation testing, externally mounted experiments, upper atmospheric sampling, and microsatellite launch. This vehicle takes off horizontally from a runway and will go into a powered ascent attaining Mach 2.9 maximum airspeed. After about three minutes and at approximately 58 km (190,000 ft) the engines are shutdown and the RLV then coasts upwards. The low gravity period (at or below 0.001go) begins soon after at 3.35 minutes and the microgravity period (at or below 10-6go) starts at 4.25 minutes. At approximately four and half minutes the vehicle reaches apogee of 100 km (328, 000 ft). After reentry and a Max-G force pullout of 4 g, the Lynx touches down on the takeoff runway after approximately 30 minutes.Typical Lynx Mark II flight profile

  18. Test plan for performance testing of the Eaton AC-3 electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Heiselmann, H.W.

    1985-04-01

    An alternating current (ac) propulsion system for an electric vehicle has been developed and tested by the Eaton Corporation. The test bed vehicle is a modified 1981 Mercury Lynx. The test plan has been prepared specifically for the third modification to this test bed and identified as the Eaton AC-3. The scope of the EG and G testing at INEL to be done on the Eaton AC-3 will include coastdown and dynamometer tests but will not include environmental, on-road, or track testing. Coastdown testing will be performed in accordance with SAE J-1263 (SAE Recommended Practice for Road Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques).

  19. Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowizral, Henry A.

    1990-01-01

    Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

  20. Mechanisms and instrument electronics for the Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (OSMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, R.; Martini, P.; Derwent, M. A.; Gonzalez, R.; O'Brien, T. P.; Pappalardo, D. P.; Pogge, R. W.; Wong, M.-H.; Zhelem, R.

    2010-07-01

    The Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (OSMOS) is a new facility imager and spectrograph for the 2.4m Hiltner telescope at the MDM Observatory. We present a detailed description of the mechanical and electronic solutions employed in OSMOS, many of which have been developed and extensively tested in a large number of instruments built at Ohio State over the past ten years. These solutions include robust aperture wheel and linear stage designs, mechanism control with MicroLYNX programmable logic controllers, and WAGO fieldbus I/O modules.

  1. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  2. Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Story, J.D.; Galbraith, W.J.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated that food preferences for bobcats in eastern Tennessee are similar to those in other southeastern states where the habitat is similar to the Oak Ridge area and somewhat different from those with significantly different habitat.

  3. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  4. The Lyncis Two for One Special (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M.; Hintz, E.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The pulsating delta Scuti star AN Lyn and the near contact binary UU Lyn are conveniently located at high declination in the northern constellation of Lynx. These variable stars are about 15 arc minutes apart in the sky and differ in average brightness by roughly one magnitude. This combination makes it fairly straightforward to secure photometric data on both stars at the same time using a common set of comparison stars. We present observations made at the BYU West Mountain Observatory during the spring of 2015 and outline some preliminary conclusions that can be drawn about these distinctly different variable stars.

  5. Real-Time Linux Driving a Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, Peter; Harris, Andrew; Isaak, Kate; Morgan, James; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    We have been upgrading the software front-end to WASP (Wideband Autocorrelating SPectrometer, operating from 800 to 4000 MHz) from Lynx-OS to Real-Time Linux and will discuss Real-Time software aspects. We are using a standard parallel ``PIO'' card to receive data from the spectrometer and standard GPIB interfaces that drive a frequency synthesizer for bandpass calibration. WASP and its front-end computer are fully mobile and can be taken to any suitable radio telescope. The front-end is typically connected via Ethernet to the actual observing computer at the telescope. We will also discuss a typical observing setup in such a loosely coupled environment.

  6. Microsatellite genotyping of DNA isolated from claws left on tanned carnivore hides.

    PubMed

    Hedmark, Eva; Ellegren, Hans

    2005-11-01

    Tanned hides, a common form of preservation of mammalian specimens, are usually resistant to DNA analysis. However, we show that DNA isolated from the pulp of claws of tanned hides amplifies well for microsatellite markers. For eight wolverine and eight lynx hides tanned 5-20 years ago, 93-98% of replicate amplifications gave distinct PCR products. Genotypes obtained in analysis of tissue samples of the same individuals were in all cases in agreement with those obtained by analysis of claws. We thus conclude that the use of claws from tanned hides offers new possibilities to genetic studies of preserved mammalian specimens, for instance, in the monitoring of illegal trade. PMID:15690184

  7. [Unknown hepatoid glands of some species of cats and deer].

    PubMed

    Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    2003-01-01

    Our histological description of the fourth type of mammalian skin glands--hepatiod glands--allowed us to revise the obtained and published data mistaking the alveolar glands of the anal sacs in cats and the limb glands in deers as sebaceous. Large clusters of hepatiod glands were discovered in the anal sacs of the cat, lynx, and tiger, interdigital gland of elk, and the tarsal gland of reindeer. These glands secrete considerable amounts of protein to the clearance of the intercellular canaliculi and contain hydrophobic lipids. The available data substantiate revision of the data on the structure of many skin glandular organs with atypical sebaceous glands. PMID:12942753

  8. Species-, sex-, and age-dependent urinary excretion of cauxin, a mammalian carboxylesterase.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masao; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Taira, Hideharu; Suzuki, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Domestic cats exhibit physiological proteinuria due to the excretion of cauxin, a carboxylesterase, into the urine. In the present report, we demonstrate that cauxin is excreted in a species-, sex-, and age-dependent manner. Although the cauxin gene is conserved in mammals, including human, mouse, and dog, urinary cauxin was found only in member of the genus Felis and lynx (bobcat, and lynx) and not in other Felidae (genus: Panthera and puma) tested. In mature cats, cauxin excretion was higher in intact males than in castrated males or in intact or spayed females. Daily cauxin excretion decreased immediately after castration. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that cauxin expression in the kidney proximal straight tubules was higher in intact males than in castrated males. Urinary cauxin was detectable by Western blotting in cats older than about 3 months, and its excretion increased with age. In a zymographic esterase assay, urine contained a major cauxin band; by contrast, kidney homogenates contained three major bands, comprising two carboxylesterases and an unidentified esterase, and one minor cauxin band. These results suggest that 1. cauxin excretion is regulated by sex hormones, such as testosterone, 2. cauxin functions as an esterase in the urine rather than in kidney cells, and 3. the decomposition products by cauxin are excreted in a species-, sex-, and age-dependent manner, as is cauxin itself. PMID:17045831

  9. Extraordinary Genetic Diversity in a Wood Decay Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Baranova, Maria A.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Penin, Aleksey A.; Seplyarskiy, Vladimir B.; Safonova, Yana Y.; Naumenko, Sergey A.; Klepikova, Anna V.; Gerasimov, Evgeny S.; Bazykin, Georgii A.; James, Timothy Y.; Kondrashov, Alexey S.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of different species vary in the amounts of genetic diversity they possess. Nucleotide diversity π, the fraction of nucleotides that are different between two randomly chosen genotypes, has been known to range in eukaryotes between 0.0001 in Lynx lynx and 0.16 in Caenorhabditis brenneri. Here, we report the results of a comparative analysis of 24 haploid genotypes (12 from the United States and 12 from European Russia) of a split-gill fungus Schizophyllum commune. The diversity at synonymous sites is 0.20 in the American population of S. commune and 0.13 in the Russian population. This exceptionally high level of nucleotide diversity also leads to extreme amino acid diversity of protein-coding genes. Using whole-genome resequencing of 2 parental and 17 offspring haploid genotypes, we estimate that the mutation rate in S. commune is high, at 2.0 × 10−8 (95% CI: 1.1 × 10−8 to 4.1 × 10−8) per nucleotide per generation. Therefore, the high diversity of S. commune is primarily determined by its elevated mutation rate, although high effective population size likely also plays a role. Small genome size, ease of cultivation and completion of the life cycle in the laboratory, free-living haploid life stages and exceptionally high variability of S. commune make it a promising model organism for population, quantitative, and evolutionary genetics. PMID:26163667

  10. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-04-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool. PMID:24484483

  11. Dietary items as possible sources of (137)Cs in large carnivores in the Gorski Kotar forest ecosystem, Western Croatia.

    PubMed

    Šprem, Nikica; Piria, Marina; Barišić, Domagoj; Kusak, Josip; Barišić, Delko

    2016-01-15

    The mountain forest ecosystem of Gorski Kotar is distant from any significant sources of environmental pollution, though recent findings have revealed that this region is among the most intense (137)Cs contaminated area in Croatia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate (137)Cs and (40)K load in three large predator species in the mountain forest ecosystem. Radionuclides mass activities were determined by the gamma-spectrometric method in the muscle tissue of brown bear (47), wolf (7), lynx (1) and golden jackal (2). The highest (137)Cs mass activity was found in lynx (153 Bq kg(-1)), followed by brown bear (132 Bq kg(-1)), wolf (22.2 Bq kg(-1)), and golden jackal (2.48 Bq kg(-1)). Analysis of 63 samples of dietary items suggests that they are not all potentially dominant sources of (137)Cs for wildlife. The most important source of radionuclides for the higher parts of the food-chain from the study area were found to be the mushroom species wood hedgehog (Hydnum repandum), with a transfer factor TF of 5.166, and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) as a plant species (TF=2.096). Food items of animal origin indicated higher mass activity of radionuclides and therefore are possible moderate bioindicators of environmental pollution. The results also revealed that possible unknown wild animal food sources are a caesium source in the study region, and further study is required to illuminate this issue. PMID:26556746

  12. Extraordinary Genetic Diversity in a Wood Decay Mushroom.

    PubMed

    Baranova, Maria A; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A; Seplyarskiy, Vladimir B; Safonova, Yana Y; Naumenko, Sergey A; Klepikova, Anna V; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Bazykin, Georgii A; James, Timothy Y; Kondrashov, Alexey S

    2015-10-01

    Populations of different species vary in the amounts of genetic diversity they possess. Nucleotide diversity π, the fraction of nucleotides that are different between two randomly chosen genotypes, has been known to range in eukaryotes between 0.0001 in Lynx lynx and 0.16 in Caenorhabditis brenneri. Here, we report the results of a comparative analysis of 24 haploid genotypes (12 from the United States and 12 from European Russia) of a split-gill fungus Schizophyllum commune. The diversity at synonymous sites is 0.20 in the American population of S. commune and 0.13 in the Russian population. This exceptionally high level of nucleotide diversity also leads to extreme amino acid diversity of protein-coding genes. Using whole-genome resequencing of 2 parental and 17 offspring haploid genotypes, we estimate that the mutation rate in S. commune is high, at 2.0 × 10(-8) (95% CI: 1.1 × 10(-8) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) per nucleotide per generation. Therefore, the high diversity of S. commune is primarily determined by its elevated mutation rate, although high effective population size likely also plays a role. Small genome size, ease of cultivation and completion of the life cycle in the laboratory, free-living haploid life stages and exceptionally high variability of S. commune make it a promising model organism for population, quantitative, and evolutionary genetics. PMID:26163667

  13. [New evidence for the spread of Thelazia callipaeda in the Far East].

    PubMed

    Khrustalev, A V; Shaĭtanov, M V; Seredkin, I V

    2015-01-01

    Thelazia callipaeda nematodes parasitize in the eyes of domestic and wild carnivorous mammals (more often in Canidae). Numerous cases of human infestation are also known. The nematode spreads in South and East Asia although in the last decade this has been reported from dogs, cats and wolves in South and Central Europe as well. In the Russian Federation, T. callipaeda was earlier observed in dogs, cats, foxes and raccoon dogs in some regions of the Russian Far East. Two cases of human infestation were also reported. There has been no evidence of T. callipaeda in Russia in the past 50 years. Postmortem parasitological surveys of various wild carnivores were performed in the Primorsky Territory of Russia in the winter of 2012 to the summer of 2014. Conjunctival sac including the space under the nictitating membrane was sought for nematodes. T. callipaeda was detected in 28 sables of the 492 examined ones, in 5 out of the 11 raccoon dogs, in 2 out of the 3 foxes, and in one lynx. The examination of 25 kolinskies, 4 American minks, 3 Amur leopard cats, 2 yellow-throated martens and one badger provided negative results. The sable and the wild lynx are firstly reported as hosts of T. callipaeda. The findings suggest that there is a persisting natural reservoir of zoonotic thelaziosis in the Russian Far East. The epidemiological importance of this fact should not be underestimated. PMID:25850318

  14. Key role of European rabbits in the conservation of the Western Mediterranean basin hotspot.

    PubMed

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Delibes, Miguel; Ferreras, Pablo; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2008-10-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a global hotspot of biodiversity. Hotspots are said to be experiencing a major loss of habitat, but an added risk could be the decline of some species having a special role in ecological relationships of the system. We reviewed the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a keystone species in the Iberian Peninsula portion of the Mediterranean hotspot. Rabbits conspicuously alter plant species composition and vegetation structure through grazing and seed dispersal, which creates open areas and preserves plant species diversity. Moreover, rabbit latrines have a demonstrable effect on soil fertility and plant growth and provide new feeding resources for many invertebrate species. Rabbit burrows provide nest sites and shelter for vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition, rabbits serve as prey for a number of predators, including the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Thus, the Mediterranean ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula should be termed "the rabbit's ecosystem." To our knowledge, this is the first empirical support for existence of a multifunctional keystone species in a global hotspot of biodiversity. Rabbit populations have declined drastically on the Iberian Peninsula, with potential cascading effects and serious ecological and economic consequences. From this perspective, rabbit recovery is one of the biggest challenges for conservation of the Mediterranean Basin hotspot. PMID:18680504

  15. In vivo metabolite identification of bakuchiol in rats by UPLC/ESI-PDA-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chao; Liang, Qiande; Tang, Xianglin; Wang, Yuguang; Ma, Zengchun; Xiao, Chengrong; Tan, Hongling; Gao, Yue; Huang, Xianju

    2015-10-01

    Psoralea corylifolia L. is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various skin diseases such as psoriasis, vitiligo and chronic graft-versus-host. Bakuchiol, isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia L., is one of the most important active compounds. To study the metabolic fate of bakuchiol in rats, an ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-photo diode array-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-PDA-QTOF-MS) combined with MetaboLynx XS software was used, peak area-time curves of major metabolites in plasma from bakuchiol were determined. A total of 11 metabolites were identified after a single oral administration of bakuchiol, including 6 in plasma, 10 in bile, 8 in urine and 2 in feces, the metabolic transformation pathways of bakuchiol in rats included oxidation, hydroxylation, methylation, O-glucuronide conjugation and O-sulfate conjugation. In conclusion, this study expands our knowledge about the metabolism of bakuchiol which will be conducive to reveal its in vivo pharmacological and toxicological material basis, in addition, UPLC/ESI-PDA-QTOF-MS coupled with MetaboLynx XS software can be adopted as a useful tool for quick detection and identification of metabolites from medicine in vivo. PMID:26347955

  16. Bovine Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Wildlife in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucía; Montero, Natalia; Sánchez, Celia; Galka, Margarita; Delso, Consuelo; Álvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Vela, Ana I.; Briones, Victor; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife and feral species is a potential source of infection for livestock and a threat to protected and endangered species. The aim of this study was to identify Spanish wild animal species infected with M. bovis through bacteriological culture and spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) of isolates for epidemiological purposes. This study included samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), hare (Lepus europaeus), and cattle (Bos taurus). They were collected in several geographical areas that were selected for their unique ecological value and/or known relationships between wildlife and livestock. In the areas included in this survey, M. bovis strains with the same spoligotyping pattern were found infecting several wild species and livestock, which indicates an epidemiological link. A locally predominant spoligotype was found in these areas. Better understanding of the transmission and distribution of disease in these populations will permit more precise targeting of control measures. PMID:15184440

  17. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  18. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  19. Polymorphism of CAG repeats in androgen receptor of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiuyue; Wang, Xiaofang; Zeng, Bo; Jia, Xiaodong; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong

    2012-03-01

    Androgen effect is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). The polymorphism of CAG triplet repeat (polyCAG), in the N-terminal transactivation domain of the AR protein, has been involved either in endocrine or neurological disorders in human. We obtained partial sequence of AR exon 1 in 10 carnivore species. In most carnivore species, polyglutamine length polymorphism presented in all three CAG repeat regions of AR, in contrast, only CAG-I site polymorphism presented in primate species, and CAG-I and CAG-III sites polymorphism presented in Canidae. Therefore, studies focusing on disease-associated polymorphism of poly(CAG) in carnivore species AR should investigate all three CAG repeats sites, and should not only consider CAG-I sites as the human disease studies. The trinucleotide repeat length in carnivore AR exon 1 had undergone from expansions to contractions during carnivores evolution, unlike a linear increase in primate species. Furthermore, the polymorphisms of the triplet-repeats in the same tissue (somatic mosaicism) were demonstrated in Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx, Clouded leopard, Chinese tiger, Black leopard and Leopard AR. And, the abnormal stop codon was found in the exon 1 of three carnivore species AR (Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx and Black leopard). It seemed to have a high frequency presence of tissue-specific somatic in carnivores AR genes. Thus the in vivo mechanism leading to such highly variable phenotypes of the described mutations, and their impact on these animals, are worthwhile to be further elucidated. PMID:21643744

  20. Detection and identification of Bartonella sp. in fleas from carnivorous mammals in Andalusia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Márquez, F J; Millán, J; Rodríguez-Liébana, J J; García-Egea, I; Muniain, M A

    2009-12-01

    A total of 559 fleas representing four species (Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Spilopsyllus cuniculi) collected on carnivores (five Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, six European wildcat Felis silvestris, 10 common genet Genetta genetta, three Eurasian badger Meles meles, 22 red fox Vulpes vulpes, 87 dogs and 23 cats) in Andalusia, southern Spain, were distributed in 156 pools of monospecific flea from each carnivore, and tested for Bartonella infection in an assay based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16 S-23 S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Twenty-one samples (13.5%) were positive and the sequence data showed the presence of four different Bartonella species. Bartonella henselae was detected in nine pools of Ctenocephalides felis from cats and dogs and in three pools of Ctenocephalides canis from cats; Bartonella clarridgeiae in Ctenocephalides felis from a cat, and Bartonella alsatica in Spilopsyllus cuniculi from a wildcat. DNA of Bartonella sp., closely related to Bartonella rochalimae, was found in seven pools of Pulex irritans from foxes. This is the first detection of B. alsatica and Bartonella sp. in the Iberian Peninsula. All of these Bartonella species have been implicated as agents of human diseases. The present survey confirms that carnivores are major reservoirs for Bartonella spp. PMID:19941605

  1. Design exploration and verification platform, based on high-level modeling and FPGA prototyping, for fast and flexible digital communication in physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magazzù, G.; Borgese, G.; Costantino, N.; Fanucci, L.; Incandela, J.; Saponara, S.

    2013-02-01

    In many research fields as high energy physics (HEP), astrophysics, nuclear medicine or space engineering with harsh operating conditions, the use of fast and flexible digital communication protocols is becoming more and more important. The possibility to have a smart and tested top-down design flow for the design of a new protocol for control/readout of front-end electronics is very useful. To this aim, and to reduce development time, costs and risks, this paper describes an innovative design/verification flow applied as example case study to a new communication protocol called FF-LYNX. After the description of the main FF-LYNX features, the paper presents: the definition of a parametric SystemC-based Integrated Simulation Environment (ISE) for high-level protocol definition and validation; the set up of figure of merits to drive the design space exploration; the use of ISE for early analysis of the achievable performances when adopting the new communication protocol and its interfaces for a new (or upgraded) physics experiment; the design of VHDL IP cores for the TX and RX protocol interfaces; their implementation on a FPGA-based emulator for functional verification and finally the modification of the FPGA-based emulator for testing the ASIC chipset which implements the rad-tolerant protocol interfaces. For every step, significant results will be shown to underline the usefulness of this design and verification approach that can be applied to any new digital protocol development for smart detectors in physics experiments.

  2. Evaluation of candidate rain gages for upgrading precipitation measurement tools for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1977 to investigate atmospheric deposition and its effects on the environment. Since its establishment, precipitation records have been obtained at all NADP sites using a gage developed approximately 50 years ago-the Belfort 5-780 mechanical rain gage. In 1998 and 1999, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate four recently developed, technologically advanced rain gages as possible replacement candidates for the mechanical gage currently (2002) in use by the NADP. The gage types evaluated were the Belfort 3200, Geonor T-200, ETI Noah II, and the OTT PLUVIO. The Belfort 5-780 was included in the study to compare the performance of the rain gage currently (2002) used by NADP to the performance of the more recently developed gages. As a reference gage, the NovaLynx Model 260-2510 National Weather Service type stick gage also was included in the study. Two individual gages of each type were included in the study to evaluate precision between gages of the same type. A two-phase evaluation was completed. Phase I consisted of indoor bench tests with known amounts of simulated rainfall applied in 20 individual tests. Phase II consisted of outdoor testing by collecting precipitation during a 26-week period near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The ETI Noah II, OTT PLUVIO, and NovaLynx stick gages consistently recorded depths more commensurate with the amounts of applied simulated rainfall in Phase I testing than the Geonor T-200, Belfort 5-780, and Belfort 3200 gages. Gages where both the median difference between the measured and applied simulated rainfall and the interquartile range of all of their measured minus applied simulated rainfall differences were small (less than or equal to 0.01 inch) were judged to have performed very well in Phase I testing. The median and interquartile-range values were 0.01 inch or less for each of the ETI Noah II gages, OTT PLUVIO gages, and NovaLynx stick gages. The performance of the Geonor T-200 and Belfort 3200 gages was affected by technical problems during Phase I testing. As part of the evaluation of Phase II results, the average weekly precipitation totals obtained from the Belfort 5-780 gages and from each of the gages under consideration as possible replacements for the Belfort 5-780 gage were all compared with the average precipitation weekly totals obtained from two NovaLynx stick gages. The median absolute differences between a particular gage model and the NovaLynx stick reference gage for the 26 weeks of outdoor testing ranged from 0.04 inch for the ETI Noah II and OTT PLUVIO gages to 0.06 inch for the Geonor T-200. The total absolute difference between a particular gage type and the reference gage ranged from 1.23 inches for the Belfort 5-780 to 1.83 inches for the Geonor T-200 gages. Because the Belfort 3200 gages were inoperable for most of the Phase II testing, it is not meaningful to include the results from that gage type in a calculation of median or total absolute differences. The OTT PLUVIO proved to be the most reliable gage in Phase I and II testing, operating trouble free over the duration of the study.

  3. A biological framework for evaluating whether a species is threatened or endangered in a significant portion of its range.

    PubMed

    Waples, Robin S; Adams, Peter B; Bohnsack, James; Taylor, Barbara L

    2007-08-01

    Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), a species can be listed if it is at risk "in all or a significant portion of its range," but the ESA provides no guidance on how to interpret this key phrase. We propose a simple test to determine whether the areas of a species' range in which it is currently at risk amount to a significant portion: If the species were to become extirpated from these areas, at that point would the entire species be at risk? If so, then these areas represent a significant portion of the species' range. By establishing the species itself as the point of reference for determining significance, this test directs attention to biological risk factors and avoids difficulties inherent in subjective evaluations of importance to humans. For broadly distributed species this framework could provide ESA protection due to cumulative risks before the entire species met the criteria to be considered threatened or endangered. This framework also allows a somewhat broader concept of range to include major components of diversity necessary for long-term persistence. The concept of a historical template (i.e., conditions under which the species was known to be viable) is important in providing a fixed reference point for evaluating viability. Empirical examples illustrate how these concepts have been applied in recent ESA listing determinations. Most ESA-listed units of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can be divided into multiple strata that differ in terms of ecology, geology, or life-history traits of the component populations. The goal of ESA recovery planning is to restore viable populations in enough strata that the listed unit as a whole is no longer threatened or endangered in all or a significant portion of its range. In a recent review of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Puget Sound, current status (some populations increasing and others declining) was evaluated in the context of the historical template, and it was concluded that current patterns of distribution and abundance do not depart substantially from what would be expected at any point in time under natural conditions in a large metapopulation. The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) is ESA listed in the contiguous United States, where it occurs in four geographic areas. Populations in one region, the Northern Rockies/Cascades, have always been the most important for long-term persistence of the species in the United States. Because the other regions never contained more than limited amounts of good-quality lynx habitat, those areas are not considered to represent a significant portion of the species' range. PMID:17650247

  4. Increased flexibility for modeling telemetry and nest-survival data using the multistate framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devineau, Olivier; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F., Jr.; Shenk, Tanya M.; White, Gary C.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Although telemetry is one of the most common tools used in the study of wildlife, advances in the analysis of telemetry data have lagged compared to progress in the development of telemetry devices. We demonstrate how standard known-fate telemetry and related nest-survival data analysis models are special cases of the more general multistate framework. We present a short theoretical development, and 2 case examples regarding the American black duck and the mallard. We also present a more complex lynx data analysis. Although not necessary in all situations, the multistate framework provides additional flexibility to analyze telemetry data, which may help analysts and biologists better deal with the vagaries of real-world data collection.

  5. Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane as an indicator of post-release survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.; Hatfield, J.S.; Estevez, I.; Gee, G.F.; Clugston, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Predation by bobcats (Lynx rufus) is the major cause of mortality in captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) released into the wild to establish a nonmigratory flock in Florida. This study investigated whether rearing methods (parent-rearing, hand-rearing, or hand-rearing with exercise) of cranes, and behaviors observed in birds either before or shortly after release in the wild, are associated with survival after release. Rearing methods did not affect survival first year post-release, which was 55 ? 8% in 2 yr (1999 and 2000). Logistic regression revealed, however, that foraging bouts (+), walking bouts (-), and body weight (-) before release, and nonvigilant bouts (-) after release were significantly associated with survival. These results suggest that post-release survival of whooping cranes might be increased by rearing techniques that promote foraging.

  6. Increasing Frequency of Feline Cytauxzoonosis Cases Diagnosed in Western Kentucky From 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jean; Davis, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Feline cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease in domestic cats caused by the tick-borne pathogen, Cytauxzoon felis. The primary reservoir host for this protozoan parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). In this retrospective study, we have examined the positive cases of feline cytauxzoonosis identified at Murray State University’s Breathitt Veterinary Center, a regional diagnostic facility located in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, between January 2001 and December 2011. Center records reveal that there has been an increase in the rate of diagnosis of domestic feline infection with C. felis over that 10-year span with the majority of cases (75%) occurring between 2006–2011. The infection was diagnosed from March through October and showed a single peak in May, corresponding well with the questing period for the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, a known vector of C. felis. PMID:24035030

  7. Peptide mass fingerprinting using field-programmable gate arrays.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, I A; Coca, D; Beynon, R J

    2009-06-01

    The reconfigurable computing paradigm, which exploits the flexibility and versatility of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), has emerged as a powerful solution for speeding up time-critical algorithms. This paper describes a reconfigurable computing solution for processing raw mass spectrometric data generated by MALDI-TOF instruments. The hardware-implemented algorithms for denoising, baseline correction, peak identification, and deisotoping, running on a Xilinx Virtex-2 FPGA at 180 MHz, generate a mass fingerprint that is over 100 times faster than an equivalent algorithm written in C, running on a Dual 3-GHz Xeon server. The results obtained using the FPGA implementation are virtually identical to those generated by a commercial software package MassLynx. PMID:23853215

  8. Application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify curcumin metabolites produced by human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yan; Zheng, Jinqi; Hu, Haihong; Lee, Jun; Zeng, Su

    2015-03-15

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn, is a natural antioxidant that exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities and therapeutic properties. However, as curcumin is generally conjugated when absorbed through the intestine, free curcumin is present at extremely low levels in the body. Thus, curcumin metabolites are presumed to be responsible for curcumin bioactivity. In this study, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx(XS)) for rapid analysis of the metabolic profile of curcumin in human intestinal flora. The results show that curcumin undergoes extensive phase I and phase II metabolism. A total of 23 curcumin metabolites were detected and identified in vitro. Furthermore, we identified a number of novel metabolic pathways of curcumin in the human intestinal microflora system. PMID:25658514

  9. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical modeling of insensitive explosives in thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III

    1996-05-01

    The ability to predict the response of a weapon system that contains insensitive explosives to elevated temperatures is important in understanding its safety characteristics. To model such a system at elevated temperatures in a finite element computer code requires a variety of capabilities. These modeling capabilities include thermal diffusion and convection to transport the heat to the explosives in the weapon system, temperature based chemical reaction modeling of the decomposition of the explosive materials, and mechanical modeling of both the metal casing and the unreacted and decomposed explosive. The Chemical TOPAZ code has been developed to model coupled thermal/chemical problems where we do not need to model the mass motion. We have also developed the LYNX2D code, based on PALM2D and Chemical TOPAZ, which is an implicit, two-dimensional coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical finite element model computer code. Some representative examples are shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals. PMID:25413219

  11. Searching the SOHO online catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William; Yurow, Ron

    1994-01-01

    The SOHO on-line catalogs will contain information about the observations from several made or planned campaigns, that must be available to scientists who wish to use SOHO data. The World Wide Web (WWW) was chosen as the interface to the SOHO on-line catalogs, because it is easy to use, well suited to a geographically distributed user community, and freely available. Through the use of a forms-capable WWW client such as Mosaic or Lynx, a scientist will be able to browse through the catalogs of observations in a very simple, self explanatory way. Data files can then be selected from the returned lists for either immediate transferring or sending on tape by mail, with appropriate checks for whether data is in the public domain or not.

  12. A simple, inexpensive video camera setup for the study of avian nest activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabine, J.B.; Meyers, J.M.; Schweitzer, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Time-lapse video photography has become a valuable tool for collecting data on avian nest activity and depredation; however, commercially available systems are expensive (>USA $4000/unit). We designed an inexpensive system to identify causes of nest failure of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) and assessed its utility at Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia. We successfully identified raccoon (Procyon lotor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) predation on oystercatcher nests. Other detected causes of nest failure included tidal overwash, horse trampling, abandonment, and human destruction. System failure rates were comparable with commercially available units. Our system's efficacy and low cost (<$800) provided useful data for the management and conservation of the American Oystercatcher.

  13. Characterisation of proanthocyanidins from Schisandra chinensis seed coats by UPLC-QTOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ting; Hu, Gao-Sheng; Wang, An-Hua; Hong, Yu; Jia, Jing-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this article, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed to detect the chemical structures of proanthocyanidins (PAs) from seed coats of Schisandra chinensis. The cleavage pathways of the compounds were revealed. The structures of S. chinensis PAs, including two monomers, two B-type procyanidin dimers, three B-type procyanidin trimers, one mixed trimer and one B-type procyanidin tetramer, were confirmed. These nine compounds were detected in seed coats for the first time. The structures were identified by comparing their maximum absorption wavelengths, HPLC retention times and ESI-MS with those of authentic standards, or tentatively identified by MS/MS determination along with MetaboLynx(TM) software. PMID:25154470

  14. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James

    2006-12-01

    A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442

  15. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence effects on tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Martin J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Signor, David B.; Mosher, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of atmospheric turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. In contradiction to current theories, increasing rotor inflow and rotor thrust were found to increase turbulence ingestion noise. This is the final report of Task 13A--Helicopter Tail Rotor Noise, of the NASA/United Kingdom Defense Research Agency cooperative Aeronautics Research Program.

  16. Effects of ingested atmospheric turbulence on measured tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Mosher, Marianne; Hagen, Martin J.; George, Albert R.

    1992-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. Turbulence ingestion noise is found to be the dominant noise mechanism at locations near the rotor axis. At these locations, the sound radiated by the hovering rotor increases with both increasing atmospheric wind speed and ingested rms turbulent velocity.

  17. Advantages and Challenges of 10-Gbps Transmission on High-Density Interconnect Boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Chang Fei; Jambek, Asral Bahari; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to high-density interconnect (HDI) technology and its implementation on printed circuit boards (PCBs). The advantages and challenges of implementing 10-Gbps signal transmission on high-density interconnect boards are discussed in detail. The advantages (e.g., smaller via dimension and via stub removal) and challenges (e.g., crosstalk due to smaller interpair separation) of HDI are studied by analyzing the S-parameter, time-domain reflectometry (TDR), and transmission-line eye diagrams obtained by three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling (3DEM) and two-dimensional electromagnetic modeling (2DEM) using Mentor Graphics HyperLynx and Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS) electronic computer-aided design (ECAD) software. HDI outperforms conventional PCB technology in terms of signal integrity, but proper routing topology should be applied to overcome the challenge posed by crosstalk due to the tight spacing between traces.

  18. B-SSIPP: A Miniature Solar Observatory for Rocket or Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, Craig; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Diller, Jed; Brownsberger, Judy

    2016-05-01

    The Southwest Solar Instrument Pointing Package (SSIPP) is a miniature solar observatory for flight application. Conceived as a way to lower barriers to entry to spaceflight, SSIPP conditions a broadband solar beam for use by an IR, visible, or UV instrument on an optical table -- just as do ground-based observatories. The beam is conditioned by a closed-loop tip/tilt pointing system that can lock onto the Sun over a 20° cone of angles, and maintain arcsecond-class pointing from a dynamic flight platform. SSIPP was originally conceived as an instrument platform for the XCOR Lynx suborbital sportsrocket. It has been adapted for ballloon flight, incorporating a novel coarse pointing system that measures torsional pendulation in-flight to construct a stable pointing law on-the-fly. First flight is projected for June 2016 (shortly after SPD). We present status, major design elements, and future plans for the platform.

  19. Identification of Echinacoside Metabolites Produced by Human Intestinal Bacteria Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhou, Guisheng; Xing, Shihua; Tu, Pengfei; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-08-01

    Echinacoside (ECH) is one of the representative phenylethanoid glycosides. It is widely present in plants and exhibits various bioactivities. However, the extremely low oral bioavailability of ECH in rats implies that ECH may go through multiple hydrolysis steps in the gastrointestinal tract prior to its absorption into the blood. Therefore, the gastrointestinal metabolites of ECH are more likely to be the bioactive components. This study established an approach combining ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with MS(E) technology and MetaboLynx software for rapid analysis of the ECH metabolic profile produced by human intestinal bacteria. As a result, 13 ECH metabolites and 5 possible metabolic pathways (including deglycosylation, dehydroxylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and acetylation) were identified. Furthermore, hydroxytyrosol (HT) and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (3-HPP) were found to be the two bioactive metabolites of ECH produced by human intestinal bacteria. PMID:26186273

  20. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Shen, Jilong; Su, Chunlei; Sundermann, Christine A

    2013-03-01

    The genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife is of interest to understand the transmission of this parasite in the environment. In the present study, we genetically characterized five T. gondii isolates from different wild animals including two isolates from a bobcat (Lynx rufus), one from a red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus), one from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and one from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Genotyping of these samples using 11 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) revealed two types, including type I (ToxoDB#10) and type 12 (ToxoDB#5). This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii strains in wildlife from Alabama and from a red-shouldered hawk. PMID:23160892

  1. Modular real-time PCR screening assay for common European animal families.

    PubMed

    Naue, J; Lutz-Bonengel, S; Sänger, T; Schlauderer, N; Schmidt, U

    2014-01-01

    A screening assay based on real-time PCR and melt curve analysis was developed to detect DNA from nine common European animal families/species and human. The assay consists of a 10-cycle universal pre-amplification followed by specific nested PCR and was designed to exploit the different melting temperatures (T m) of family/species-specific 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and cytochrome b fragments, which are amplified in duplex reactions. Case-related modular application is possible. Beyond determination of the animal family and discrimination from human DNA, evaluation of the melt curve in some cases additionally allows for species determination (e.g. cat vs. lynx). The method presents a quick, flexible and sample-saving approach to assess non-human DNA at low expenses, and it is especially useful in resolution of DNA mixtures. PMID:23613031

  2. Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

    2001-10-01

    Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico. PMID:11695403

  3. H Calorimeter Daq Upgrade for Hera-Ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dirk; Duval, Pierre-Yves; Vallee, Claude

    2002-01-01

    The H1 collaboration has performed an upgrade of its data acquisition system for the calorimeters in view of the HERA-II programme. A heterogeneous system based on 29K/VRTX, 68k/OS9 and Vax/VMS was replaced by an integrated Unix cluster composed of two PPC/LynxOS VME boards and Sparc/SunOS stations, using TCP/IP protocols for inter process communication (IPC) and POSIX standards in general. Software transcription consisted of porting three essential functions: hardware setup, calibration datataking with a high serial data through-put and online datataking which emphasizes low frontend deadtime through a three level buffering by means of POSIX threads and messages. Low performance control tasks were programmed in Perl, the user interface has been written in Java. Although the very frontend electronics remain unchanged, a factor two increase in performance was obtained together with a manifestly improved environment for monitoring and diagnostics.

  4. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple time-of-flight with MS(E) technology used for qualitative analysis of non-volatile oxidation markers in sliced packed mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus).

    PubMed

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    61 different non-volatile compounds were determined in Agaricus Bisporus sliced mushrooms using UHPLC/Q-TOF with MS(E) technology. Both positive and negative electrospray ionization were applied. Chemical profile of three parts of mushroom was created: cap, gills and stipe. The analysed mushrooms were oxidized to identify the non-volatile markers in their parts. MarkerLynx(®) was proposed as a powerful tool to distinguish mushrooms purchased in different countries (Spain and Portugal) by determining their non-volatile markers. Some metabolites were identified. Surprisingly a mix of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) was detected in cap and gills of mushrooms. Whole mushrooms were considered as vegetable resistant to migration from packaging compounds. Additionally migration tests were performed to determine the source of migrating compounds. PMID:26777782

  5. Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W I; Cummings, J F; Steinberg, H; deLahunta, A; King, J M

    1993-07-01

    Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, Arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, Persian onager, Przewalski's wild horse, Malayan sun bear, Asian elephant, East African river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. It was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin sheaths. Occasionally, ballooned myelin sheaths contained thin strands of myelin and macrophages surrounding distorted axons. Additionally, a mild incidental lymphocytic polyneuritis was present in intradural nerve rootlets of the Malayan sun bear, and a moderate lymphocytic spinal ganglionitis in the East African river hippopotamus. PMID:8408784

  6. Assessing dam implementation impact on threatened carnivores: the case of Alqueva in SE Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria J; Pedroso, Nuno M; Ferreira, Joaquim P; Matos, Hugo M; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Pereira, Iris; Baltazar, Carla; Grilo, Clara; Cândido, Ana T; Sousa, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2008-07-01

    Large dam construction in water deficient areas is a management decision often controversial. Besides providing water storage, economical benefits, and a source of renewable energy, the construction and flooding caused by large dams cause disruptions in natural systems. We monitored the pre- and post-Alqueva dam impacts on the threatened carnivore species (polecat, otter, wildcat and Iberian lynx) populations in SE Portugal, and assessed which factors mostly contribute to post-dam distribution. Major short term impacts of large dams are: (1) increase in accessibility and human presence; (2) movement of heavy machinery and dam-workers; (3) deforestation with habitat loss and fragmentation; (4) change from lotic to lentic system; (5) lower prey availability and harsher capture; and (6) changes in land use adjacent to the reservoir. Thus, the response to those impacts can be predicted as a decline of polecat, wildcat and lynx distribution ranges, and a recovery of the otter from the severe short term impacts. Our results corroborate this hypothesis for all the species, especially during deforestation/early flooding. Otter's distribution range increased in the phase of greater impact, with a subsequent decrease with flooding. Our results suggest carnivores used "escape" areas with favourable habitat and prey conditions, however, the areas with higher probability of species presence decreased by two fold showing a drastic range reduction. To ensure populations' survival of these charismatic threatened carnivore populations of Mediterranean landscapes of south-east Portugal, we propose continuing the monitoring program and the development of a conservation program for the subsisting areas of optimal and suboptimal habitats. PMID:17932778

  7. Effects of anionic polyacrylamide products on gill histopathology in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kerr JL; Lumsden JS; Russell SK; Jasinska EJ; Goss GG

    2014-07-01

    Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) products are commonly used to remove suspended materials from turbid waters and to help mitigate soil erosion. In the present study, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 3 mg/L to 300 mg/L of 10 commercially available PAM products (Clearflow Water Lynx Polymer Log and Clearflow Soil Lynx Granular Polymer; Clearflow Enviro Systems Group), and gill histological parameters were measured following either 7 d or 30 d of polymer exposure. A cationic polymer product (≤0.38 mg/L MagnaFloc 368; Ciba Specialty Chemical) was also tested for comparison. Mild gill lesions were observed in fish exposed to polymer products. Lamellar fusion, interlamellar hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, mucous cell metaplasia, and cell counts of epithelial swelling and necrosis/apoptosis were minimal in fish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of anionic polymer (≤30 mg/L). Gill morphology was largely unaffected by exposure to concentrations up to 300 mg/L of many PAM products. Several anionic polymer products noticeably affected gill tissue by increasing epithelial hypertrophy, interlamellar hyperplasia, mucous cell metaplasia, and the frequency of necrotic cells. The severity of the lesions lessened with time, suggesting that fish may have experienced a short-term irritant effect. Similar levels of gill pathology were frequently observed in fish exposed to cationic polymer MagnaFloc 368 despite the concentration being 1000-fold lower than that of the PAM products. These observations highlight the increased toxicity of cationic polymers to aquatic life compared with anionic PAMs.

  8. Sinks without borders: Snowshoe hare dynamics in a complex landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, P.C.; Scott, Mills L.

    2009-01-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics of wide-ranging animals should account for the effects that movement and habitat use have on individual contributions to population growth or decline. Quantifying the per-capita, habitat-specific contribution to population growth can clarify the value of different patch types, and help to differentiate population sources from population sinks. Snowshoe hares, Lepus americanus, routinely use various habitat types in the landscapes they inhabit in the contiguous US, where managing forests for high snowshoe hare density is a priority for conservation of Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis. We estimated density and demographic rates via mark-recapture live trapping and radio-telemetry within four forest stand structure (FSS) types at three study areas within heterogeneous managed forests in western Montana. We found support for known fate survival models with time-varying individual covariates representing the proportion of locations in each of the FSS types, with survival rates decreasing as use of open young and open mature FSS types increased. The per-capita contribution to overall population growth increased with use of the dense mature or dense young FSS types and decreased with use of the open young or open mature FSS types, and relatively high levels of immigration appear to be necessary to sustain hares in the open FSS types. Our results support a conceptual model for snowshoe hares in the southern range in which sink habitats (open areas) prevent the buildup of high hare densities. More broadly, we use this system to develop a novel approach to quantify demographic sources and sinks for animals making routine movements through complex fragmented landscapes. ?? 2009 Oikos.

  9. Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Zieminski, Chris; Fuller, Todd K; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling costs, and the cost/sample for each method relative to species and study site, and performed simulations to determine the sampling intensity necessary to achieve abundance estimates with coefficients of variation (CV) of <10%. Scat sampling was effective for both coyotes and bears and hair snags effectively sampled bears in two of three study sites. Rub pads were ineffective in sampling coyotes and lynx. The precision of abundance estimates was dependent upon the number of captures/individual. Our simulations suggested that ~3.4 captures/individual will result in a < 10% CV for abundance estimates when populations are small (23-39), but fewer captures/individual may be sufficient for larger populations. We found scat sampling was more cost-effective for sampling multiple species, but suggest that hair sampling may be less expensive at study sites with limited road access for bears. Given the dependence of sampling scheme on species and study site, the optimal sampling scheme is likely to be study-specific warranting pilot studies in most circumstances. PMID:25693632

  10. Linking Hydrology, Shrub Habitat, and Novel Wildlife in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, K. D.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Christie, K.

    2014-12-01

    Warming during the 20th century changed the Arctic landscape, including aspects of vegetation, permafrost, and glaciers, but effects on wildlife have been difficult to detect. We explored linkages between components of the riparian ecosystem in Arctic Alaska since the 1970s, including streamflow timing, temperature, floodplain shrub habitat, and shrub herbivore distributions. Streamflow records showed that the peak spring snowmelt discharge has occurred 3.4 days per decade earlier, and consistent fall temperatures and snow arrival dates over the same period suggest that earlier peak discharge has prolonged the ensuing period of reduced flow in the floodplain. We used empirical correlations between cumulative summer warmth and riparian shrub height to estimate that the longer and warmer growing seasons since the 1970s have stimulated a 63% increase in the height of riparian shrubs. Earlier spring discharge and the estimated increase in riparian shrub height are consistent with the observed riparian shrub expansion in the region. Our measurements showed that snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) require a mean riparian shrub height of at least 1.05 to 1.35 m, a threshold which our hindcasting indicates was met between 1977 and 2002. This generally coincides with observational evidence we present suggesting that snowshoe hares became established in 1977 or 1978. Similar relationships are shown for moose, which colonized the region in the 1940s. We also show that Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) inhabited the region in 1998, probably due in part to increasing availability of snowshoe hares. The novel appearance in the Arctic during the 20th century of terrestrial herbivores such as snowshoe hares and moose in response increased shrub habitat is a contrasting terrestrial counterpart to the decline in marine mammals reliant on decreasing sea ice.

  11. [Reference relationships between human and animal in Hildegard von Bingen].

    PubMed

    Riethe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In "De animalibus", the 7th book in the "Liber simplicis medicinae", Hildegard von Bingen describes the characteristics of four-footed land animals. Some of these have a special relationship with humans in that they embody moral qualities. An explanation for this is already given in the preface, which states that human intelligence recognizes these qualities, declaring that "You are this or that sort of creature". Since the relationship that animals have with nature shares a degree of similarity with that of man's, they can be regarded as symbolic representatives for particular human traits and characteristics. The article at hand presents Hildegard von Bingen's descriptions of the monkey, the lion, the bear, the rabbit, the dog, the cat, the wolf, the lynx, and the donkey. While the monkey just mimics man's behaviour and is imperfect in both settings, the lion embodies will power. The bear on the other hand stands for unbridled sexual desire, while in the rabbit the gentleness of a sheep is united with the bounce of a deer. The lynx is regarded as hedonistic, the donkey as stupid, and the wolf as surrounded by dangerous sylphs. In Hildegard's depictions, exotic and native animal species display rather extraordinary behavioural traits, and the medieval Christian world view of the author conveys unexpected relationships between humans and animals. In addition to empirical observation and experience, Hildegard also relies on folkloristic beliefs and magical practices related to explanatory models of her time. She allows largely unknown sources into her animal lore but never strays from her ultimate goal of having it serve to instruct people. In doing so, Hildegard removed herself far from the common tradition of medieval animal portraits. PMID:23155757

  12. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-04: Measurement of Proton Pencil Beam Spot Profile Using Cherenkov Radiation in Two Dimensional Optical Fiber Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M; SHIN, D; Park, J; Lim, Y; Lee, S; Kim, J; Son, J; Hwang, U

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Proton therapy aims to deliver a high dose in a well-defined target volume while sparing the healthy surrounding tissues thanks to their inherent depth dose characteristic (Bragg peak). In proton therapy, several techniques can be used to deliver the dose into the target volume. The one that allows the best conformity with the tumor, is called PBS (Pencil Beam Scanning). The measurement of the proton pencil beam spot profile (spot size) and position is very important for the accurate delivery of dose to the target volume with a good conformity. Methods: We have developed a fine segmented detector array to monitor the PBS. A prototype beam monitor using Cherenkov radiation in clear plastic optical fibers (cPOF) has been developed for continuous display of the pencil beam status during the therapeutic proton Pencil Beam Scanning mode operation. The benefit of using Cherenkov radiation is that the optical output is linear to the dose. Pedestal substraction and the gain adjustment between channels are performed. Spot profiles of various pencil beam energies(100 MeV to 226 MeV) are measured. Two dimensional gaussian fit is used to analyze the beam width and the spot center. The results are compared with that of Lynx(Scintillator-based sensor with CCD camera) and EBT3 Film. Results: The measured gaussian widths using fiber array system changes from 13 to 5 mm for the beam energies from 100 to 226 MeV. The results agree well with Lynx and Film within the systematic error. Conclusion: The results demonstrate good monitoring capability of the system. Not only measuing the spot profile but also monitoring dose map by accumulating each spot measurement is available. The x-y monitoing system with 128 channel readout will be mounted to the snout for the in-situ real time monitoring.

  13. Modelling Landscape-Level Numerical Responses of Predators to Prey: The Case of Cats and Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Jennyffer; Glen, Alistair S.; Pech, Roger P.

    2013-01-01

    Predator-prey systems can extend over large geographical areas but empirical modelling of predator-prey dynamics has been largely limited to localised scales. This is due partly to difficulties in estimating predator and prey abundances over large areas. Collection of data at suitably large scales has been a major problem in previous studies of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and their predators. This applies in Western Europe, where conserving rabbits and predators such as Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is important, and in other parts of the world where rabbits are an invasive species supporting populations of introduced, and sometimes native, predators. In pastoral regions of New Zealand, rabbits are the primary prey of feral cats (Felis catus) that threaten native fauna. We estimate the seasonal numerical response of cats to fluctuations in rabbit numbers in grassland–shrubland habitat across the Otago and Mackenzie regions of the South Island of New Zealand. We use spotlight counts over 1645 km of transects to estimate rabbit and cat abundances with a novel modelling approach that accounts simultaneously for environmental stochasticity, density dependence and varying detection probability. Our model suggests that cat abundance is related consistently to rabbit abundance in spring and summer, possibly through increased rabbit numbers improving the fecundity and juvenile survival of cats. Maintaining rabbits at low abundance should therefore suppress cat numbers, relieving predation pressure on native prey. Our approach provided estimates of the abundance of cats and rabbits over a large geographical area. This was made possible by repeated sampling within each season, which allows estimation of detection probabilities. A similar approach could be applied to predator-prey systems elsewhere, and could be adapted to any method of direct observation in which there is no double-counting of individuals. Reliable estimates of numerical responses are essential for managing both invasive and threatened predators and prey. PMID:24039978

  14. Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

  15. Preparative two-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the purification of complex pharmaceutical samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinong; Zeng, Lu; Pham, Catherine; Xu, Rongda

    2014-01-10

    A new preparative two-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system (2D LC-LC/MS) has been designed and implemented to enhance capability and resolving power for the separation and purification of pharmaceutical samples. The system was constructed by modifications of a conventional preparative LC/MS instrument with the addition of a set of switching valves and a sample loop, as well as interfacing a custom software program with MassLynx. The system integrates two chromatographic separations from the first and second dimensions into a single automated run to perform the purification of a target compound from a complex mixture without intermediate steps of sample preparation. The chromatography in the first dimension, operated in the heart-cutting mode, separates the target compound from the impurities by mass-triggered fractionation based on its molecular weight. This purified fraction from the first dimension is stored in the sample loop, and then gets transferred to the second column by using at-column dilution. A control software program, coined Prep 2D LCMS, was designed to integrate with MassLynx to retrieve data acquisition status. All of the chromatographic hardware components used in this preparative 2D LC-LC/MS system are from the original open access preparative LC/MS system, which has high level of robustness and affords easy and user-friendly operation. The new system is very versatile and capable of collecting multiple fractions with different masses under various purification modes as configured in the methods, such as conventional one-dimensional (1D) purification and/or 2D purification. This new preparative 2D LC-LC/MS system is therefore the ideal tool for medicinal chemistry lab in drug discovery environment. PMID:24309715

  16. Enhanced understanding of predator-prey relationships using molecular methods to identify predator species, individual and sex.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Soulliere, Colleen E; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2014-01-01

    Predator species identification is an important step in understanding predator-prey interactions, but predator identifications using kill site observations are often unreliable. We used molecular tools to analyse predator saliva, scat and hair from caribou calf kills in Newfoundland, Canada to identify the predator species, individual and sex. We sampled DNA from 32 carcasses using cotton swabs to collect predator saliva. We used fragment length analysis and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA to distinguish between coyote, black bear, Canada lynx and red fox and used nuclear DNA microsatellite analysis to identify individuals. We compared predator species detected using molecular tools to those assigned via field observations at each kill. We identified a predator species at 94% of carcasses using molecular methods, while observational methods assigned a predator species to 62.5% of kills. Molecular methods attributed 66.7% of kills to coyote and 33.3% to black bear, while observations assigned 40%, 45%, 10% and 5% to coyote, bear, lynx and fox, respectively. Individual identification was successful at 70% of kills where a predator species was identified. Only one individual was identified at each kill, but some individuals were found at multiple kills. Predator sex was predominantly male. We demonstrate the first large-scale evaluation of predator species, individual and sex identification using molecular techniques to extract DNA from swabs of wild prey carcasses. Our results indicate that kill site swabs (i) can be highly successful in identifying the predator species and individual responsible; and (ii) serve to inform and complement traditional methods. PMID:23957886

  17. Snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of Egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida D; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox's as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten's as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

  18. Identification, characterization, and application of a recombinant antigen for the serological investigation of feline hemotropic Mycoplasma infections.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Jäckel, Christian; Museux, Kristina; Hoelzle, Katharina; Tasker, Séverine; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2010-12-01

    In felids, three hemotropic mycoplasma species (hemoplasmas) have been described: Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis." In particular, M. haemofelis may cause severe, potentially life-threatening hemolytic anemia. No routine serological assays for feline hemoplasma infections are available. Thus, the goal of our project was to identify and characterize an M. haemofelis antigen (DnaK) that subsequently could be applied as a recombinant antigen in a serological assay. The gene sequence of this protein was determined using consensus primers and blood samples from two naturally M. haemofelis-infected Swiss pet cats, an experimentally M. haemofelis-infected specific-pathogen-free cat, and a naturally M. haemofelis-infected Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). The M. haemofelis DnaK gene sequence showed the highest identity to an analogous protein of a porcine hemoplasma (72%). M. haemofelis DnaK was expressed recombinantly in an Escherichia coli DnaK knockout strain and purified using Ni affinity, size-exclusion, and anion-exchange chromatography. It then was biochemically and functionally characterized and showed characteristics typical for DnaKs (secondary structure profile, thermal denaturation, ATPase activity, and DnaK complementation). Moreover, its immunogenicity was assessed using serum samples from experimentally hemoplasma-infected cats. In Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, it was recognized by sera from cats infected with M. haemofelis, "Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Ca. Mycoplasma turicensis," respectively, but not from uninfected cats. This is the first description of a full-length purified recombinant feline hemoplasma antigen that can readily be applied in future pathogenesis studies and may have potential for application in a diagnostic serological test. PMID:20876820

  19. Effects of anionic polyacrylamide products on gill histopathology in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jennifer L; Lumsden, John S; Russell, Spencer K; Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G

    2014-07-01

    Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) products are commonly used to remove suspended materials from turbid waters and to help mitigate soil erosion. In the present study, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 3 mg/L to 300 mg/L of 10 commercially available PAM products (Clearflow Water Lynx Polymer Log and Clearflow Soil Lynx Granular Polymer; Clearflow Enviro Systems Group), and gill histological parameters were measured following either 7 d or 30 d of polymer exposure. A cationic polymer product (≤0.38 mg/L MagnaFloc 368; Ciba Specialty Chemical) was also tested for comparison. Mild gill lesions were observed in fish exposed to polymer products. Lamellar fusion, interlamellar hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, mucous cell metaplasia, and cell counts of epithelial swelling and necrosis/apoptosis were minimal in fish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of anionic polymer (≤30 mg/L). Gill morphology was largely unaffected by exposure to concentrations up to 300 mg/L of many PAM products. Several anionic polymer products noticeably affected gill tissue by increasing epithelial hypertrophy, interlamellar hyperplasia, mucous cell metaplasia, and the frequency of necrotic cells. The severity of the lesions lessened with time, suggesting that fish may have experienced a short-term irritant effect. Similar levels of gill pathology were frequently observed in fish exposed to cationic polymer MagnaFloc 368 despite the concentration being 1000-fold lower than that of the PAM products. These observations highlight the increased toxicity of cationic polymers to aquatic life compared with anionic PAMs. PMID:24648306

  20. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased markedly in LB- and TBE-endemic areas in South (Götaland) and Central Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that I. ricinus has expanded its range in North Sweden and has become distinctly more abundant in Central and South Sweden during the last three decades. However, in the northern mountain region I. ricinus is still absent. The increased abundance of the tick can be explained by two main factors: First, the high availability of large numbers of important tick maintenance hosts, i.e., cervids, particularly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during the last three decades. Second, a warmer climate with milder winters and a prolonged growing season that permits greater survival and proliferation over a larger geographical area of both the tick itself and deer. High reproductive potential of roe deer, high tick infestation rate and the tendency of roe deer to disperse great distances may explain the range expansion of I. ricinus and particularly the appearance of new TBEV foci far away from old TBEV-endemic localities. The geographical presence of LB in Sweden corresponds to the distribution of I. ricinus. Thus, LB is now an emerging disease risk in many parts of North Sweden. Unless countermeasures are undertaken to keep the deer populations, particularly C. capreolus and Dama dama, at the relatively low levels that prevailed before the late 1970s - especially in and around urban areas where human population density is high - by e.g. reduced hunting of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and lynx (Lynx lynx), the incidences of human LB and TBE are expected to continue to be high or even to increase in Sweden in coming decades. PMID:22233771

  1. Novel Gammaherpesviruses in North American Domestic Cats, Bobcats, and Pumas: Identification, Prevalence, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Julia A.; Stutzman-Rodriguez, Kathryn R.; Carver, Scott; Lozano, Caitlin C.; Lee, Justin S.; Lappin, Michael R.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Serieys, Laurel E. K.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Boyce, Walter M.; Vickers, T. Winston; McBride, Roy; Crooks, Kevin R.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) are a diverse and rapidly expanding group of viruses associated with a variety of disease conditions in humans and animals. To identify felid GHVs, we screened domestic cat (Felis catus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and puma (Puma concolor) blood cell DNA samples from California, Colorado, and Florida using a degenerate pan-GHV PCR. Additional pan-GHV and long-distance PCRs were used to sequence a contiguous 3.4-kb region of each putative virus species, including partial glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. We identified three novel GHVs, each present predominantly in one felid species: Felis catus GHV 1 (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats, Lynx rufus GHV 1 (LruGHV1) in bobcats, and Puma concolor GHV 1 (PcoGHV1) in pumas. To estimate infection prevalence, we developed real-time quantitative PCR assays for each virus and screened additional DNA samples from all three species (n = 282). FcaGHV1 was detected in 16% of domestic cats across all study sites. LruGHV1 was detected in 47% of bobcats and 13% of pumas across all study sites, suggesting relatively common interspecific transmission. PcoGHV1 was detected in 6% of pumas, all from a specific region of Southern California. The risk of infection for each host varied with geographic location. Age was a positive risk factor for bobcat LruGHV1 infection, and age and being male were risk factors for domestic cat FcaGHV1 infection. Further characterization of these viruses may have significant health implications for domestic cats and may aid studies of free-ranging felid ecology. IMPORTANCE Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) establish lifelong infection in many animal species and can cause cancer and other diseases in humans and animals. In this study, we identified the DNA sequences of three GHVs present in the blood of domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions, cougars, and panthers). We found that these viruses were closely related to, but distinct from, other known GHVs of animals and represent the first GHVs identified to be native to these feline species. We developed techniques to rapidly and specifically detect the DNA of these viruses in feline blood and found that the domestic cat and bobcat viruses were widespread across the United States. In contrast, puma virus was found only in a specific region of Southern California. Surprisingly, the bobcat virus was also detected in some pumas, suggesting relatively common virus transmission between these species. Adult domestic cats and bobcats were at greater risk for infection than juveniles. Male domestic cats were at greater risk for infection than females. This study identifies three new viruses that are widespread in three feline species, indicates risk factors for infection that may relate to the route of infection, and demonstrates cross-species transmission between bobcats and pumas. These newly identified viruses may have important effects on feline health and ecology. PMID:24453374

  2. Predicting the potential demographic impact of predators on their prey: a comparative analysis of two carnivore–ungulate systems in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Gervasi, Vincenzo; Nilsen, Erlend B; Sand, Håkan; Panzacchi, Manuela; Rauset, Geir R; Pedersen, Hans C; Kindberg, Jonas; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Odden, John; Liberg, Olof; Swenson, Jon E; Linnell, John D C

    2012-01-01

    1. Understanding the role of predation in shaping the dynamics of animal communities is a fundamental issue in ecological research. Nevertheless, the complex nature of predator–prey interactions often prevents researchers from modelling them explicitly. 2. By using periodic Leslie–Usher matrices and a simulation approach together with parameters obtained from long-term field projects, we reconstructed the underlying mechanisms of predator–prey demographic interactions and compared the dynamics of the roe deer–red fox–Eurasian lynx–human harvest system with those of the moose–brown bear–gray wolf–human harvest system in the boreal forest ecosystem of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula. 3. The functional relationship of both roe deer and moose λ to changes in predation rates from the four predators was remarkably different. Lynx had the strongest impact among the four predators, whereas predation rates by wolves, red foxes, or brown bears generated minor variations in prey population λ. Elasticity values of lynx, wolf, fox and bear predation rates were −0·157, −0·056, −0·031 and −0·006, respectively, but varied with both predator and prey densities. 4. Differences in predation impact were only partially related to differences in kill or predation rates, but were rather a result of different distribution of predation events among prey age classes. Therefore, the age composition of killed individuals emerged as the main underlying factor determining the overall per capita impact of predation. 5. Our results confirm the complex nature of predator–prey interactions in large terrestrial mammals, by showing that different carnivores preying on the same prey species can exert a dramatically different demographic impact, even in the same ecological context, as a direct consequence of their predation patterns. Similar applications of this analytical framework in other geographical and ecological contexts are needed, but a more general evaluation of the subject is also required, aimed to assess, on a broader systematic and ecological range, what specific traits of a carnivore are most related to its potential impact on prey species. PMID:22077484

  3. Seasonal Effects of Habitat on Sources and Rates of Snowshoe Hare Predation in Alaskan Boreal Forests.

    PubMed

    Feierabend, Dashiell; Kielland, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Survival and predation of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) has been widely studied, yet there has been little quantification of the changes in vulnerability of hares to specific predators that may result from seasonal changes in vegetation and cover. We investigated survival and causes of mortalities of snowshoe hares during the late increase, peak, and decline of a population in interior Alaska. From June 2008 to May 2012, we radio-tagged 288 adult and older juvenile hares in early successional and black spruce (Picea mariana) forests and, using known-fate methods in program MARK, evaluated 85 survival models that included variables for sex, age, and body condition of hares, as well as trapping site, month, season, year, snowfall, snow depth, and air temperature. We compared the models using Akaike's information criterion with correction for small sample size. Model results indicated that month, capture site, and body condition were the most important variables in explaining survival rates. Survival was highest in July, and more generally during summer, when alternative prey was available to predators of hares. Low survival rates coincided with molting periods, breeding activity in the spring, and the introduction of juveniles to the sample population in the fall. We identified predation as the cause of mortality in 86% of hare deaths. When the source of predation could be determined, hares were killed more often by goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) than other predators in early successional forest (30%), and more often by lynx (Lynx canadensis) than other predators in black spruce forest (31%). Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) represented smaller proportions of hare predation, and non-predatory causes were a minor source (3%) of mortality. Because hares rely on vegetative cover for concealment from predators, we measured cover in predation sites and habitats that the hares occupied and concluded that habitat type had a greater influence on the sources of predation than the amount of cover in any given location within a habitat. Our observations illustrate the vulnerability of hares to predators in even the densest coniferous habitat available in the boreal forest, and indicate strong seasonal changes in the rates and sources of predation. PMID:26717577

  4. High-resolution synthetic aperture radar experiments for ATR development and performance prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerkamp, Lori A.; Morrison, S. A.; Wild, Thomas J.; Mossing, John C.

    2002-08-01

    Commercial availability of very high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery will enable development of automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms to exploit its rich information content. This availability also permits exploration of both empirical and first principles approaches for predicting ATR performance. This paper describes a recent collection of high resolution SAR imagery. It details the operating conditions represented by the data and provides recommended experiments designed to challenge ATR algorithms and performance prediction. This set of information, along with the imagery, is contained in a Problem Set that will be made available to the community. The imagery is from a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (DUSD) for Science and Technology (S&T) sponsored collection using the Sandia National Laboratory and General Atomics Lynx Sensor. The Lynx is now available as a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sensor. It was designed for use in medium-altitude UAVs and manned platforms. It operates at Ku-band frequency in stripmap, spotlight, and ground moving target indicator modes. Imagery in this collection was collected at 4' resolution and was then also reprocessed to 1' resolution. The collection included several military vehicles with significant variation in target, sensor, and background conditions. Defined experiments in the Problem Set present ATR algorithm development challenges by defining development (training) sets with limited representation of operating conditions and test sets that explore the algorithm's ability to extend to more complex operating conditions. These challenges are critical to military employment of ATR because the real world contains much more variability than it will be possible to explicitly address in an algorithm. For example, neither the storage nor the search through an exhaustive bay of templates is achievable for any realistic application. Thus, advanced developments that allow robust performance in denied conditions will accelerate the transition of ATR to the field. Additional experiments in the Problem Set present challenges in ATR performance prediction. Here, the development imagery provides empirical data to support development of prediction approaches. Test imagery provides an opportunity to validate the prediction technique's ability to, for example, interpolate or extrapolate performance.

  5. RX J0848.6+4453: The evolution of galaxy sizes and stellar populations in A z = 1.27 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Jørgensen, Inger; Chiboucas, Kristin; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew; Bergmann, Marcel; Grützbauch, Ruth E-mail: kchiboucas@gemini.edu E-mail: sune@dark-cosmology.dk E-mail: marcelbergmann@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    RX J0848.6+4453 (Lynx W) at redshift 1.27 is part of the Lynx Supercluster of galaxies. We present an analysis of the stellar populations and star formation history for a sample of 24 members of the cluster. Our study is based on deep optical spectroscopy obtained with Gemini North combined with imaging data from Hubble Space Telescope. Focusing on the 13 bulge-dominated galaxies for which we can determine central velocity dispersions, we find that these show a smaller evolution with redshift of sizes and velocity dispersions than reported for field galaxies and galaxies in poorer clusters. Our data show that the galaxies in RX J0848.6+4453 populate the fundamental plane (FP) similar to that found for lower-redshift clusters. The zero-point offset for the FP is smaller than expected if the cluster's galaxies are to evolve passively through the location of the FP we established in our previous work for z = 0.8-0.9 cluster galaxies and then to the present-day FP. The FP zero point for RX J0848.6+4453 corresponds to an epoch of last star formation at z{sub form}=1.95{sub −0.15}{sup +0.22}. Further, we find that the spectra of the galaxies in RX J0848.6+4453 are dominated by young stellar populations at all galaxy masses and in many cases show emission indicating low-level ongoing star formation. The average age of the young stellar populations as estimated from the strength of the high-order Balmer line Hζ is consistent with a major star formation episode 1-2 Gyr prior, which in turn agrees with z {sub form} = 1.95. These galaxies dominated by young stellar populations are distributed throughout the cluster. We speculate that low-level star formation has not yet been fully quenched in the center of this cluster, possibly because the cluster is significantly poorer than other clusters previously studied at similar redshifts, which appear to have very little ongoing star formation in their centers. The mixture in RX J0848.6+4453 of passive galaxies with young stellar populations and massive galaxies still experiencing some star formation appears similar to the galaxy populations recently identified in two z ≈ 2 clusters.

  6. Seasonal Effects of Habitat on Sources and Rates of Snowshoe Hare Predation in Alaskan Boreal Forests

    PubMed Central

    Feierabend, Dashiell; Kielland, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Survival and predation of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) has been widely studied, yet there has been little quantification of the changes in vulnerability of hares to specific predators that may result from seasonal changes in vegetation and cover. We investigated survival and causes of mortalities of snowshoe hares during the late increase, peak, and decline of a population in interior Alaska. From June 2008 to May 2012, we radio-tagged 288 adult and older juvenile hares in early successional and black spruce (Picea mariana) forests and, using known-fate methods in program MARK, evaluated 85 survival models that included variables for sex, age, and body condition of hares, as well as trapping site, month, season, year, snowfall, snow depth, and air temperature. We compared the models using Akaike’s information criterion with correction for small sample size. Model results indicated that month, capture site, and body condition were the most important variables in explaining survival rates. Survival was highest in July, and more generally during summer, when alternative prey was available to predators of hares. Low survival rates coincided with molting periods, breeding activity in the spring, and the introduction of juveniles to the sample population in the fall. We identified predation as the cause of mortality in 86% of hare deaths. When the source of predation could be determined, hares were killed more often by goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) than other predators in early successional forest (30%), and more often by lynx (Lynx canadensis) than other predators in black spruce forest (31%). Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) represented smaller proportions of hare predation, and non-predatory causes were a minor source (3%) of mortality. Because hares rely on vegetative cover for concealment from predators, we measured cover in predation sites and habitats that the hares occupied and concluded that habitat type had a greater influence on the sources of predation than the amount of cover in any given location within a habitat. Our observations illustrate the vulnerability of hares to predators in even the densest coniferous habitat available in the boreal forest, and indicate strong seasonal changes in the rates and sources of predation. PMID:26717577

  7. Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  8. Enhanced Sphingomyelinase Activity Contributes to the Apoptotic Capacity of Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ke, Liang-Yin; Chan, Hua-Chen; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lu, Jonathan; Marathe, Gopal K; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Chan, Hsiu-Chuan; Wang, Chung-Ya; Tung, Yi-Ching; McIntyre, Thomas M; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2016-02-11

    Sphingomyelinase (SMase) catalyzes the degradation of sphingomyelin to ceramide. In patients with metabolic syndrome or diabetes, circulating plasma ceramide levels are significantly higher than in normal individuals. Our data indicate that electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) shows SMase activity, which leads to increased ceramide levels that can produce pro-inflammatory effects and susceptibility to aggregation. According to sequence alignment and protein structure predictions, the putative catalytic site of SMase activity is in the α2 region of apoB-100. To identify specific post-translational modifications of apoB100 near the catalytic region, we performed data-independent, parallel-fragmentation liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS(E)), followed by data analysis with ProteinLynx GlobalServer v2.4. Results showed that the serine of apoB100 in electronegative LDL was highly O-glycosylated, including S(1732), S(1959), S(2378), S(2408), and S(2429). These findings may support the changing of the α-helix/β-pleated sheets ratio in protein structure analysis. Further study is necessary to confirm the activation of SMase activity by electronegative LDL. PMID:26766134

  9. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Garca, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently. PMID:9300340

  10. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W E; O'Brien, S J

    1997-01-01

    The Felidae family represents a challenge for molecular phylogenetic reconstruction because it consists of 38 living species that evolved from a relatively recent common ancestor (10-15 million years ago). We have determined mitochondrial DNA sequences from two genes that evolve at relatively rapid evolutionary rates, 16S rRNA (379 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (NADH-5, 318 bp), from multiple individuals of 35 species. Based on separate and combined gene analyses using minimum evolution, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood phylogenetic methods, we recognized eight significant clusters or species clades that likely reflect separate monophyletic evolutionary radiations in the history of this family. The clusters include (1) ocelot lineage, (2) domestic cat lineage, (3) Panthera genus, (4) puma group, (5) Lynx genus, (6) Asian leopard cat group, (7) caracal group, and (8) bay cat group. The results confirm and extend previously hypothesized associations in most cases, but in others, e.g., the bay cat group, suggest novel phylogenetic relationships. The results are compared and evaluated with molecular, cytogenetic, and morphological data to derive a phylogenetic synthesis of field evolutionary history. PMID:9071018

  11. Receiver control for the Submillimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Todd R.; Wilson, Robert W.; Kimberk, Robert S.; Leiker, P. S.; Christensen, Robert D.

    2002-12-01

    Efficient operation of a submillimeter interferometer requires remote (preferably automated) control of mechanically tuned local oscillators, phase-lock loops, mixers, optics, calibration vanes and cryostats. The present control system for these aspects of the Submillimeter Array (SMA) will be described. Distributed processing forms the underlying architecture. In each antenna cabin, a serial network of up to ten independent 80C196 microcontroller boards attaches to the real-time PowerPC computer (running LynxOS). A multi-threaded, gcc-compiled program on the PowerPC accepts top-level requests via remote procedure calls (RPC), subsequently dispatches tuning commands to the relevant microcontrollers, and regularly reports the system status to optical-fiber-based reflective memory for common access by the telescope monitor and error reporting system. All serial communication occurs asynchronously via encoded, variable-length packets. The microcontrollers respond to the requested commands and queries by accessing non-volatile, rewriteable lookup-tables (when appropriate) and executing embedded software that operates additional electronic devices (DACs, ADCs, etc.). Since various receiver hardware components require linear or rotary motion, each microcontroller also implements a position servo via a one-millisecond interrupt service routine which drives a DC-motor/encoder combination that remains standard across each subsystem.

  12. Menu of Gravettian people from southern Moravia.

    PubMed

    Nývltová-Fisáková, M

    2000-01-01

    There are a number of Upper Palaeolithic sites of Gravettian people in the southern Moravia. These people had eaten animals and their bones were used for creating artefacts. Their food was based on several species that lived in the vicinity of their settlement unit. The sites Dolní Vĕstonice II (Under Western Slope--UWS), IIa and III and Pavlov (1952, 1953, 1957 and 1958) have been studied to obtain a picture of the menu of Gravettian people in this region. Hunted animals fall into two groups, the first one includes those species hunted consistently and the second group those hunted occasionally. The following animals rank among the first group: mammoth, reindeer, horse, wolf, hare and fox. The second group includes bear, lion, wolverine, wildcat, lynx, deer, woolly rhinoceros and birds. The carnivores were hunted for their hides, fur and bones. The long bones of hunted animals were crushed for marrow. The proximal parts of bones were used for creating tools since distal parts of bones have been found predominantly. Teams of several hunters hunted herd animals. The rest of the species was hunted accidentally, some of them probably by hunting nets. PMID:15828198

  13. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nabel, Elisa M.; Morishita, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development – the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity-actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins – endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24273519

  14. Postmortem evaluation of reintroduced migratory whooping cranes in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Cole, Gretchen A; Thomas, Nancy J; Spalding, Marilyn; Stroud, Richard; Urbanek, Richard P; Hartup, Barry K

    2009-01-01

    Reintroduction of endangered Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in eastern North America has successfully established a migratory population between Wisconsin and Florida. Eighty birds (47 males, 33 females) were released between 2001 and 2006, and all birds were tracked following release with satellite and/or VHF monitoring devices. By the end of 2006, 17 deaths (12 males, five females) were recorded from this population. Postmortem findings and field data were evaluated for each bird to determine the cause of death. Causes included predation (n=8, 47%), trauma (n=2, 12%), and degenerative disease (n=1, 6%); the cause of death was undetermined for 35% (n=6) of the birds. Based on physical evidence, the primary predator of the birds was the bobcat (Lynx rufus). Limited roosting habitat availability or bird behavior were likely prime factors in the occurrence of predation. Traumatic injuries and mortality were caused by gunshot, electrical utility lines, and an unknown source. The lone case of degenerative disease was due to chronic exertional myopathy associated with translocation. Available postmortem testing did not indicate the presence of infectious disease in this limited sample. PMID:19204333

  15. Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in Florida.

    PubMed

    Burridge, M J; Bigler, W J; Forrester, D J; Hennemann, J M

    1979-11-01

    Blood samples were collected for serum separation from 114 species of wild animals (25 species of mammals, 82 species of birds, and 7 species of reptiles) in Florida. Each of the 3,471 samples was tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, using the indirect hemagglutination test. The highest prevalences of T gondii antibodies were 19% in armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), 18% in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13% in black rats (Rattus rattus), and 11% in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in male than in female raccoons (P less than 0.05) and in adult than in nonadult raccoons and opossums (P less than 0.005). A high proportion of seropositive animals was found in three other mammalian species: 4 of 4 black bears (Ursus americanus), 2 of 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 2 of 8 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) tested. Antibodies were found in 8 of the 1,279 avian serums; they were not found in any of the 13 reptilian serums tested. There were no significant geographic variations in antibody prevalence in any species. PMID:521384

  16. XRD, LPF and FTIR investigation of Mn-Bi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Patil, Harsha; Jain, Garima

    2014-09-01

    High purity MnBi low temperature phase has been prepared and analyzed using X- ray diffraction, Lorentz-Polarization Factor and Fourier transforms infrared measurement. After synthesis of samples structural characterization has done on samples by X-ray diffraction, which shows that after making the bulk sample is in no single phase MnBi has been prepared by sintering Mn and Bi powder. The X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out using Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer. The X-rays were produced using a sealed tube and the wavelength of x-ray was 0.154nm (Cu K-alpha).and x-rays were detected using a fast counting detector based on Silicon strip technology (Bruker LynxEye detector). By Lorentz- Polarization Factor is affecting the relative intensity of diffraction lines on a powder form. The infrared absorption spectra of the alloys and intermetallic compound were measured at room temperature, in the wave number range 4000 to 400 cm-1 by a computerized spectrometer type Jasco FTIR-300 (JAPAN) using the KBr pellet technique. And by FTIR which shows absorption peaks of MnBi alloys.

  17. IRAS galaxies at low galactic and high supergalactic latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, M. W.; Lu, N. Y.; Houck, J. R.; Salpeter, E. E.; Lewis, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on IR colors, 371 IRAS point sources with absolute value of b = 2-16 deg (b = galactic latitude) were selected for study at H I 21 cm as potential galaxies: 25 percent (93) of these sources are galaxies with redshifts less than 8000 km/s based on H I spectra. Most of the detected galaxies are at redshifts between 2000 and 7500 km/s. Fifty-five of these lie in an area about 40 deg away from the junction of the Pisces-Perseus and Lynx-Ursa Major superclusters, and show a distribution of systemic velocities very similar to these superclusters. There is an enhanced density of galaxies near 6000 km/s with galactic longitude l about 40 deg and b about 0 deg. The two regions surveyed, centered at l about 192 deg and l about 54 deg, lie outside the plane of the Local Supercluster and do not show any preference for galaxies with low velocity widths.

  18. IRAS galaxies at low galactic and high supergalactic latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, M.W.; Lu, N.Y.; Houck, J.R.; Salpeter, E.E.; Lewis, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on IR colors, 371 IRAS point sources with absolute value of b = 2-16 deg (b = galactic latitude) were selected for study at H I 21 cm as potential galaxies: 25 percent (93) of these sources are galaxies with redshifts less than 8000 km/s based on H I spectra. Most of the detected galaxies are at redshifts between 2000 and 7500 km/s. Fifty-five of these lie in an area about 40 deg away from the junction of the Pisces-Perseus and Lynx-Ursa Major superclusters, and show a distribution of systemic velocities very similar to these superclusters. There is an enhanced density of galaxies near 6000 km/s with galactic longitude l about 40 deg and b about 0 deg. The two regions surveyed, centered at l about 192 deg and l about 54 deg, lie outside the plane of the Local Supercluster and do not show any preference for galaxies with low velocity widths. 16 references.

  19. Analysis of target contrast improvement using polarization filtering in the infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretz, David Gavin

    1994-12-01

    Computer analysis with Interactive Data Language (IDL) was performed on polarized infrared image data obtained during the MAPTIP coastal experiment. Analysis of contrast enhancement of the oceanographic ship Hr. Ms. Tydeman and a Lynx helicopter using polarization filters is presented. Contrast of vertical and horizontal polarized images was determined by two methods. Unpolarized image contrast was developed from polarization data and used to calculate contrast improvement factors for vertical and horizontal polarizations. Background effects upon contrast were explored. Dependence of projected ship area on contrast improvement was analyzed. Vertical and horizontal polarized images were compared to verify preliminary observations of negligible predominant polarization of man-made targets. Results of this analysis confirm that vertically polarized sea background radiance can be reduced by polarization filtering to enhance ship-to-background contrast. Man-made targets appear to present negligible polarization. Sky background immediately above the horizon also appears unpolarized. Combining radiance from both sky background above the horizon and sea background to form an average background reference radiance reduces overall contrast improvement. Ship-to-background contrast should be calculated with respect to the horizon location.

  20. MAPTIP experiment, marine aerosol properties and thermal imager performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Jensen, Douglas R.; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    1994-06-01

    During the fall of 1993, a field experimental study on marine aerosol properties and thermal imager performance was conducted in the Dutch coastal waters. Aerosol and meteorological instruments, as well as thermal imagers and calibrated targets, were used at several platforms and locations: the Dutch Meetpost Noordwijk (a tower 9 km from the Dutch coast), a beach station in Katwijk, the oceanographic research vessel Hr. Ms. Tydeman, a Lynx helicopter, a P3 Orion, the NCCOSC RDT&E Div airborne platform, and buoy systems. This network of instrumentation was used for obtaining a comprehensive data base of aerosol size distribution profiles and relevant meteorological variables throughout the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Thermal imagery has been included to provide ground truth for assessing the low- level propagation effects near the ocean surface. Measurements have been made of atmospheric turbulence and refractivity effects at wavelengths in the IR and visible, to assess the marine boundary layer effects on the degradation of thermal images. Calibrated targets at different altitudes were observed to the maximum observable range under a wide variety of conditions in both the 3 to 5 and 8 to 12 micrometers bands. These data will be used for the development and validation of IRST models and IR ship signature models with the view of determining the effects of marine-generated aerosols, turbulence and meteorological profiles on their performance.

  1. Can orchards help connect Mediterranean ecosystems? Animal movement data alter conservation priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Crooks, Kevin R.; McRae, Brad H.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    As natural habitats become fragmented by human activities, animals must increasingly move through human-dominated systems, particularly agricultural landscapes. Mapping areas important for animal movement has therefore become a key part of conservation planning. Models of landscape connectivity are often parameterized using expert opinion and seldom distinguish between the risks and barriers presented by different crop types. Recent research, however, suggests different crop types, such as row crops and orchards, differ in the degree to which they facilitate or impede species movements. Like many mammalian carnivores, bobcats (Lynx rufus) are sensitive to fragmentation and loss of connectivity between habitat patches. We investigated how distinguishing between different agricultural land covers might change conclusions about the relative conservation importance of different land uses in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Bobcats moved relatively quickly in row crops but relatively slowly in orchards, at rates similar to those in natural habitats of woodlands and scrub. We found that parameterizing a connectivity model using empirical data on bobcat movements in agricultural lands and other land covers, instead of parameterizing the model using habitat suitability indices based on expert opinion, altered locations of predicted animal movement routes. These results emphasize that differentiating between types of agriculture can alter conservation planning outcomes.

  2. Virological Survey in free-ranging wildcats (Felis silvestris) and feral domestic cats in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Duarte, A; Fernandes, M; Santos, N; Tavares, L

    2012-08-17

    To determine the presence of viral pathogens in natural areas a survey was conducted on an opportunistic sample of fifty eight wild (Felis silvestris silvestris) and feral cats (F. s. catus). The biological materials included serum, lung tissue extract and stool. Feline leukemia virus p27 antigen was detected in 13/50 serum/lung tissue extract samples (26%), canine distemper virus antibodies were detected in 2/26 serum/lung tissue extract samples (7.7%), feline coronavirus RNA was present in 6/29 stool samples (20.7%) and feline parvovirus DNA in 2/29 stool samples (6.9%). Canine distemper virus RNA was not detected. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus antibodies were not detected. Evidence of exposure to feline leukemia virus, canine distemper virus, feline coronavirus and feline parvovirus was found in wild and feral cats raising the importance of performing a comprehensive survey to correctly evaluate the potential threat of infectious diseases to endangered species, namely to the wildcat and to the Iberian lynx, which is meant to be reintroduced after 2012 in Portugal. PMID:22424865

  3. Rodent foraging is affected by indirect, but not by direct, cues of predation risk.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.; Danielson, Brent, J.; Brinkerhoff, R., Jory

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral Ecology Vol. 15 No. 3: 433 - 437 We used foraging trays to determine whether old field mice, Peromyscus polionotus , altered foraging in response to direct cues of predation risk (urine of native and nonnative predators) and indirect cues of predation risk (foraging microhabitat, precipitation, and moon illumination). The proportion of seeds remaining in each tray (a measure of the giving-up density [GUD]) was used to measure risk perceived by mice. Mice did not alter their GUD when presented with cues of native predators (bobcats, Lynx r ufus , and red foxes, Vulpes vulpes), recently introduced predators (coyotes, Canis latrans ), nonnative predators (ocelots, Leopardus pardalis ), a native herbivore (white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus), or a water control. Rather, GUD was related to microhabitat: rodents removed more seeds from foraging trays sheltered beneath vegetative cover compared with exposed trays outside of cover. Rodents also removed more seeds during nights with precipitation and when moon illumination was low. Our results suggest that P. polionotus used indirect cues rather than direct cues to assess risk of vertebrate predation. Indirect cues may be more reliable than are direct scent cues for estimating risk from multiple vertebrate predators that present the most risk in open environments.

  4. An integrative computational approach for prioritization of genomic variants.

    PubMed

    Dubchak, Inna; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Wang, Sheng; Cem, Meydan; Meyden, Cem; Sulakhe, Dinanath; Poliakov, Alexander; Brnigen, Daniela; Xie, Bingqing; Taylor, Andrew; Ma, Jianzhu; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Dave, Paul; Agam, Gady; Xu, Jinbo; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Mason, Christopher E; Ross, M Elizabeth; Maltsev, Natalia; Gilliam, T Conrad

    2014-01-01

    An essential step in the discovery of molecular mechanisms contributing to disease phenotypes and efficient experimental planning is the development of weighted hypotheses that estimate the functional effects of sequence variants discovered by high-throughput genomics. With the increasing specialization of the bioinformatics resources, creating analytical workflows that seamlessly integrate data and bioinformatics tools developed by multiple groups becomes inevitable. Here we present a case study of a use of the distributed analytical environment integrating four complementary specialized resources, namely the Lynx platform, VISTA RViewer, the Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB), and the RaptorX server, for the identification of high-confidence candidate genes contributing to pathogenesis of spina bifida. The analysis resulted in prediction and validation of deleterious mutations in the SLC19A placental transporter in mothers of the affected children that causes narrowing of the outlet channel and therefore leads to the reduced folate permeation rate. The described approach also enabled correct identification of several genes, previously shown to contribute to pathogenesis of spina bifida, and suggestion of additional genes for experimental validations. The study demonstrates that the seamless integration of bioinformatics resources enables fast and efficient prioritization and characterization of genomic factors and molecular networks contributing to the phenotypes of interest. PMID:25506935

  5. Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Robert A.; Donovan, Therese M.; MacKay, Paula; Zielinski, William J.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods—scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares—to collect detection–nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) throughout the rugged Vermont landscape. We analyzed these data using occupancy modeling that explicitly incorporated detectability as well as habitat and landscape variables. For black bears, percentage of forested land within 5 km of survey sites was an important positive predictor of occupancy, and percentage of human developed land within 5 km was a negative predictor. Although the relationship was less clear for bobcats, occupancy appeared positively related to the percentage of both mixed forest and forested wetland habitat within 1 km of survey sites. The relationship between specific covariates and fisher occupancy was unclear, with no specific habitat or landscape variables directly related to occupancy. For all species, we used model averaging to predict occurrence across the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of our black bear and fisher models suggested that occupancy modeling efforts with data from noninvasive surveys could be useful for carnivore conservation and management, as they provide insights into habitat use at the regional and landscape scale without requiring capture or direct observation of study species.

  6. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Koersel, Antonius C.

    2000-07-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the acoustic signal. The user-interface and the signal processing software are written in MatLabTM. The demonstrator detects the noise from helicopters; the classification is performed using a database with helicopter-specific features. The demonstrator currently contains information of 11 different helicopter types, but can easily be expanded to include additional types of helicopters. The input signal is analyzed in real time, the result is a classification ranging from `no target' to `helicopter type x', e.g. Lynx Mk2. If the helicopter is classified, its relative speed is estimated as well. The algorithm was developed and tested using a database of different helicopters (hovering and moving) recorded at distances ranging from 90 meter up to 8 kilometer. The sensitivity to noise was investigated using jet, tank, artillery and environmental (wind and turbulence) noise as input.

  7. Current test results for the Athena radar responsive tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Martinez, Ana; Plummer, Kenneth W.; Erlandson, David; Delaware, Sheri; Clark, David R.

    2006-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with General Atomics and Sierra Monolithics to develop the Athena tag for the Army's Radar Tag Engagement (RaTE) program. The radar-responsive Athena tag can be used for Blue Force tracking and Combat Identification (CID) as well as data collection, identification, and geolocation applications. The Athena tag is small (~4.5" x 2.4" x 4.2"), battery-powered, and has an integral antenna. Once remotely activated by a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar, the tag transponds modulated pulses to the radar at a low transmit power. The Athena tag can operate Ku-band and X-band airborne SAR and MTI radars. This paper presents results from current tag development testing activities. Topics covered include recent field tests results from the AN/APY-8 Lynx, F16/APG-66, and F15E/APG-63 V(1) radars and other Fire Control radars. Results show that the Athena tag successfully works with multiple radar platforms, in multiple radar modes, and for multiple applications. Radar-responsive tags such as Athena have numerous applications in military and government arenas. Military applications include battlefield situational awareness, combat identification, targeting, personnel recovery, and unattended ground sensors. Government applications exist in nonproliferation, counter-drug, search-and-rescue, and land-mapping activities.

  8. Strong resonance explains cycles in sockeye salmon populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guill, Christian; Drossel, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    The number of spawning sockeye salmon that return to their native streams in the Fraser river basin exhibit striking four-year oscillations, the dimension of which being no less notable than the widely known cycles of lynx and snowshoe hare in Canada. The period of the oscillation corresponds to the dominant generation time of these fish, and the phase differs between different stocks. Various not fully convincing explanations have been attempted, ascribing this phenomenon to transient effects, to stochastic influences, to depensatory predation, or to genetic effects. We show that these oscillations can be explained as a stable dynamical attractor of the population dynamics, resulting from a strong resonance near a Neimark Sacker bifurcation. This explains not only the long-term persistence of these oscillations, but also reproduces correctly the sequence of two strong years followed by two weak years. Furthermore, it explains the observations that the oscillations occur only in oligotrophic lakes, and that they do not occur in salmon species that have a longer generation time.

  9. Stability and restoration phenomena in competitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uechi, Lisa; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    A conservation law along with stability, recovering phenomena, and characteristic patterns of a nonlinear dynamical system have been studied and applied to physical, biological, and ecological systems. In our previous study, we proposed a system of symmetric 2n-dimensional conserved nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, competitive systems described by a 2-dimensional nonlinear dynamical (ND) model with external perturbations are applied to population cycles and recovering phenomena of systems from microbes to mammals. The famous 10-year cycle of population density of Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare is numerically analyzed. We find that a nonlinear dynamical system with a conservation law is stable and generates a characteristic rhythm (cycle) of population density, which we call the standard rhythm of a nonlinear dynamical system. The stability and restoration phenomena are strongly related to a conservation law and the balance of a system. The standard rhythm of population density is a manifestation of the survival of the fittest to the balance of a nonlinear dynamical system.

  10. Assessing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy species barriers with an in vitro prion protein conversion assay.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Carlson, Christina M; Morawski, Aaron R; Manthei, Alyson; Cashman, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    Studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. A number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. Here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitro prion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ratio (CER) assay. In this assay cellular prion protein (PrPC) from an uninfected host brain is denatured at both pH 7.4 and 3.5 to produce two substrates. When the pH 7.4 substrate is incubated with TSE agent, the amount of PrPC that converts to a proteinase K (PK)-resistant state is modulated by the original host's species barrier to the TSE agent. In contrast, PrPC in the pH 3.5 substrate is misfolded by any TSE agent. By comparing the amount of PK-resistant prion protein in the two substrates, an assessment of the host's species barrier can be made. We show that the CER assay correctly predicts known prion species barriers of laboratory mice and, as an example, show some preliminary results suggesting that bobcats (Lynx rufus) may be susceptible to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) chronic wasting disease agent. PMID:25867521

  11. On the selection of ordinary differential equation models with application to predator-prey dynamical models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

    2015-03-01

    We consider model selection and estimation in a context where there are competing ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, and all the models are special cases of a "full" model. We propose a computationally inexpensive approach that employs statistical estimation of the full model, followed by a combination of a least squares approximation (LSA) and the adaptive Lasso. We show the resulting method, here called the LSA method, to be an (asymptotically) oracle model selection method. The finite sample performance of the proposed LSA method is investigated with Monte Carlo simulations, in which we examine the percentage of selecting true ODE models, the efficiency of the parameter estimation compared to simply using the full and true models, and coverage probabilities of the estimated confidence intervals for ODE parameters, all of which have satisfactory performances. Our method is also demonstrated by selecting the best predator-prey ODE to model a lynx and hare population dynamical system among some well-known and biologically interpretable ODE models. PMID:25287611

  12. Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations.

    PubMed

    Serieys, Laurel E K; Lea, Amanda; Pollinger, John P; Riley, Seth P D; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996 to 2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite loci. We found that two freeways are significant barriers to gene flow. Further, a 3-year disease epizootic, associated with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, caused a population bottleneck that led to significant genetic differentiation between pre- and post-disease populations that was greater than that between populations separated by major freeways for >60 years. However, balancing selection acted on immune-linked loci during the epizootic, maintaining variation at functional regions. Conservation assessments need to assay loci that are potentially under selection to better preserve the adaptive potential of populations at the urban-wildland interface. Further, interconnected regions that contain appropriate habitat for wildlife will be critical to the long-term viability of animal populations in urban landscapes. PMID:25667604

  13. Infusing considerations of trophic dependencies into species distribution modelling.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Anne M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2014-12-01

    Community ecology involves studying the interdependence of species with each other and their environment to predict their geographical distribution and abundance. Modern species distribution analyses characterise species-environment dependency well, but offer only crude approximations of species interdependency. Typically, the dependency between focal species and other species is characterised using other species' point occurrences as spatial covariates to constrain the focal species' predicted range. This implicitly assumes that the strength of interdependency is homogeneous across space, which is not generally supported by analyses of species interactions. This discrepancy has an important bearing on the accuracy of inferences about habitat suitability for species. We introduce a framework that integrates principles from consumer-resource analyses, resource selection theory and species distribution modelling to enhance quantitative prediction of species geographical distributions. We show how to apply the framework using a case study of lynx and snowshoe hare interactions with each other and their environment. The analysis shows how the framework offers a spatially refined understanding of species distribution that is sensitive to nuances in biophysical attributes of the environment that determine the location and strength of species interactions. PMID:25250672

  14. Roads influence movement and home ranges of a fragmentation-sensitive carnivore, the bobcat, in an urban landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poessel, Sharon A; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Alonso, Robert S.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Roads in urbanized areas can impact carnivore populations by constraining their movements and increasing mortality. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are felids capable of living in urban environments, but are sensitive to habitat fragmentation and, thus, useful indicators of landscape connectivity; in particular, bobcat habitat selection, movement, and mortality may be affected by roads. We analyzed movement patterns of 52 bobcats in southern California in three study sites and investigated: (1) how bobcats responded to two types of roads within their home ranges; (2) how they placed their home ranges with respect to roads within the study area; and (3) whether male and female bobcats differed in their behavioral responses to roads. Within home ranges, primary and secondary roads did not influence movements, but bobcats more frequently crossed secondary roads when road densities were higher within their home ranges, thus increasing mortality risk. However, road densities within each study site were several times higher than road densities within home ranges, suggesting bobcats selected against roaded areas in home-range placement. Male home ranges bordering roads were smaller than home ranges for other males, but male home ranges containing roads were larger than those without roads. Male bobcats also were more likely to cross roads than females, potentially reflecting larger male home range sizes. Our results suggest roads have important impacts on urban bobcats, with stronger effects on males than females, and continued efforts to mitigate the effects of roads on carnivores and other fragmentation-sensitive species would help promote connectivity conservation in urban systems.

  15. The response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysterud, Alte; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Ottersen, Geir; Langvatn, Rolf

    Climatic factors influence a variety of ecological processes determining patterns of species density and distribution in a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems. We review the effects of the NAO on processes and patterns of terrestrial ecosystems, including both plants and animals. In plants, the NAO index correlates with date of first flowering, tree ring growth and with quality of agricultural crops (wheat and wine grapes). Also, breeding dates are earlier after high NAO index winters for amphibians and birds in Europe. Population dynamical consequences of the NAO have also been reported for birds, and the differential impact of the NAO on two similar species may prevent competitive exclusion. Different effects of the NAO on large herbivore populations have been reported for different regions, depending on limiting factors and the correlation with local weather parameters. The NAO synchronizes population dynamics of lynx and some other carnivore populations in the eastern U.S. Most effects are on an ecological time scale; the evolutionary consequences of long term trends in the NAO are poorly documented. Important for predator and prey dynamics is (1) the disruption of phenology (the match-mismatch hypothesis), (2) that there may be delayed effects (cohort-effects), and (3) that effects of the NAO may interact with other factors such as density. We discuss the challenges related to nonlinearity, of using different climate indices, and how we can progress using these pattern-oriented NAO studies at coarse scales to conduct better process-oriented small-scale experiments.

  16. Traffic sign detection in MLS acquired point clouds for geometric and image-based semantic inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soilán, Mario; Riveiro, Belén; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Arias, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, mobile laser scanning has become a valid technology for infrastructure inspection. This technology permits collecting accurate 3D point clouds of urban and road environments and the geometric and semantic analysis of data became an active research topic in the last years. This paper focuses on the detection of vertical traffic signs in 3D point clouds acquired by a LYNX Mobile Mapper system, comprised of laser scanning and RGB cameras. Each traffic sign is automatically detected in the LiDAR point cloud, and its main geometric parameters can be automatically extracted, therefore aiding the inventory process. Furthermore, the 3D position of traffic signs are reprojected on the 2D images, which are spatially and temporally synced with the point cloud. Image analysis allows for recognizing the traffic sign semantics using machine learning approaches. The presented method was tested in road and urban scenarios in Galicia (Spain). The recall results for traffic sign detection are close to 98%, and existing false positives can be easily filtered after point cloud projection. Finally, the lack of a large, publicly available Spanish traffic sign database is pointed out.

  17. Effects of environment and genotype on phenolic acids in wheat in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Orozco, Rebeca; Li, Li; Harflett, Claudia; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L

    2010-09-01

    Phenolic acid content and composition have been determined in 26 wheat genotypes grown in Hungary over three consecutive years and at three additional locations (France, United Kingdom, and Poland) during the third year. Fractions comprising free, soluble conjugated, and bound phenolic acids were analyzed using HPLC with measurements being made for individual phenolic acids in each fraction. Statistically significant differences in phenolic acid content occurred across the different growing locations with the average total phenolic acid content being highest in the genotypes grown in Hungary. The growth year in Hungary also had a large impact, especially on the free and conjugated phenolic acid contents. Certain genotypes were more resistant to environmental impacts than others. Of the genotypes with high levels of total phenolic acids, Lynx, Riband, Tommi, and Cadenza were most stable with respect to their total contents, whereas Valoris, Herzog, and Malacca, also high in phenolic acid content, were least stable. Of the three fractions analyzed, the free and conjugated phenolic acids were most variable and were also susceptible to the effect of environment, whereas bound phenolic acids, which comprised the greatest proportion of the total phenolic acids, were the most stable. PMID:20707366

  18. Synthetic aperture radar: not just a sensor of last resort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Lars M.; Doerry, Armin W.

    2003-08-01

    Modern high-performance Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems have evolved into highly versatile, robust, and reliable tactical sensors, offering images and information not available from other sensor systems. For example, real-time images are routinely formed by the Sandia-designed General Atomics (AN/APY-8) Lynx SAR yielding 4-inch resolution at 25 km range (representing better than arc-second resolutions) in clouds, smoke, and rain. Sandia's Real-Time Visualization (RTV) program operates an Interferometric SAR (IFSAR) system that forms three-dimensional (3D) topographic maps in near real-time with National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) level 4 performance (3 meter post spacing with 0.8-meter height accuracy) or better. When exported to 3-D rendering software, this data allows remarkable interactive fly-through experiences. Coherent Change Detection (CCD) allows detecting tire tracks on dirt roads, foot-prints, and other minor, otherwise indiscernible ground disturbances long after their originators have left the scene. Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar modes allow detecting and tracking moving vehicles. A Sandia program known as "MiniSAR" is developing technologies that are expected to culminate in a fully functioning, high-performance, real-time SAR that weighs less than 20 lbs. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent technology developments, as well as current on-going research and development efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.

  19. Sliced Inverse Regression for Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Sue

    1995-11-01

    In this thesis, general nonlinear models for time series data are considered. A basic form is x _{t} = f(beta_sp{1} {T}X_{t-1},beta_sp {2}{T}X_{t-1},... , beta_sp{k}{T}X_ {t-1},varepsilon_{t}), where x_{t} is an observed time series data, X_{t } is the first d time lag vector, (x _{t},x_{t-1},... ,x _{t-d-1}), f is an unknown function, beta_{i}'s are unknown vectors, varepsilon_{t }'s are independent distributed. Special cases include AR and TAR models. We investigate the feasibility applying SIR/PHD (Li 1990, 1991) (the sliced inverse regression and principal Hessian methods) in estimating beta _{i}'s. PCA (Principal component analysis) is brought in to check one critical condition for SIR/PHD. Through simulation and a study on 3 well -known data sets of Canadian lynx, U.S. unemployment rate and sunspot numbers, we demonstrate how SIR/PHD can effectively retrieve the interesting low-dimension structures for time series data.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species. PMID:24063119

  1. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  2. Metabolic fingerprinting of rat urine by LC/MS Part 2. Data pretreatment methods for handling of complex data.

    PubMed

    Idborg, Helena; Zamani, Leila; Edlund, Per-Olof; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Jacobsson, Sven P

    2005-12-15

    Metabolic fingerprinting of biofluids like urine is a useful technique for detecting differences between individuals. With this approach, it might be possible to classify samples according to their biological relevance. In Part 1 of this work a method for the comprehensive screening of metabolites was described, using two different liquid chromatography (LC) column set-ups and detection by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Data pretreatment of the resulting data described in is needed to reduce the complexity of the data and to obtain useful metabolic fingerprints. Three different approaches, i.e., reduced dimensionality (RD), MarkerLynx, and MS Resolver, were compared for the extraction of information. The pretreated data were then subjected to multivariate data analysis by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for classification. By combining two different chromatographic procedures and data analysis, the detection of metabolites was enhanced as well as the finding of metabolic fingerprints that govern classification. Additional potential biomarkers or xenobiotic metabolites were detected in the fraction containing highly polar compounds that are normally discarded when using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. PMID:16198158

  3. Remote Sensing of PMCs with the Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere (PoSSUM) Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S.; Thayer, J. P.; Reimuller, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere (PoSSUM) experiment is a modular observatory readily integrated into commercial manned Reusable Suborbital Launch Vehicles (RSLV) for aeronomy, remote sensing, solar physics, astronomy/astrophysics, and Earth observations. The proposed observatory, scheduled for deployment in July 2015, is being designed to operate onboard the XCOR Lynx and Virgin Galactic SpaceShipTwo vehicles. The observatory will enable unprecedented capabilities to dedicate low-cost suborbital campaigns for the study of the small-scale dynamics of polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) by obtaining imagery and remotely sensed data from apogee altitudes in excess of 100 km. A key component of the observatory is the PoSSUM Lidar, a Rayleigh/Mie backscatter lidar currently being designed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The proposed instrument transmitter consists of a 532 nm linearly polarized laser coupled with conditioning and steering optics. The receiver employs a photon counting approach to detect the received optical signals backscattered from PMCs during flight operations. The design of the PoSSUM Lidar will be presented, including the unique challenges associated with developing a lidar instrument for operations onboard a RSLV. Initial simulation data will be explored, including a discussion of the expected science products output by the lidar, such as PMC height and density, as well as the potential for depolarization measurements to evaluate PMC asphericity.

  4. Immunohistochemical study of rabies virus within the central nervous system of domestic and wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Stein, L T; Rech, R R; Harrison, L; Brown, C C

    2010-07-01

    Immunohistochemistry using a commercial polyclonal antibody for lyssavirus was applied to 39 archival cases of rabies. Paraffin blocks from 13 different species were available, including 3 dogs, 4 cats, 1 pig, 6 cattle, 4 horses, 1 llama, 7 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 7 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 bat (Myotis species), 1 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 1 bobcat (Lynx rufus), 2 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 1 red fox (Vulpes vulpes). All cases had previously been diagnosed as rabies using histopathology and/or fluorescent antibody testing. The immunohistochemistry technique successfully detected lyssavirus antigen in all cases. In species for which 3 or more samples were available, distributional trends were seen in 4 main brain regions: brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and cerebrum. The best site for rabies virus detection in dogs and cats was the hippocampus. For cattle, viral antigen was most prominent in the brainstem, followed by the cerebellum. In horses, the cervical spinal cord and adjacent brainstem were the optimal sites for detecting rabies virus antigen. In raccoons and skunks, positive labeling was widely dispersed, so selection might be less important for these wildlife reservoir species. Immunohistochemistry should prove useful in enhancing the accuracy of rabies diagnosis through informed selection of brain sampling sites when composite sampling is not feasible. This immunohistochemical technique could provide reliable virus detection in formalin-fixed tissues in any potentially infected species. PMID:20484176

  5. An Integrative Computational Approach for Prioritization of Genomic Variants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Meyden, Cem; Sulakhe, Dinanath; Poliakov, Alexander; Börnigen, Daniela; Xie, Bingqing; Taylor, Andrew; Ma, Jianzhu; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Dave, Paul; Agam, Gady; Xu, Jinbo; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Mason, Christopher E.; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Maltsev, Natalia; Gilliam, T. Conrad

    2014-01-01

    An essential step in the discovery of molecular mechanisms contributing to disease phenotypes and efficient experimental planning is the development of weighted hypotheses that estimate the functional effects of sequence variants discovered by high-throughput genomics. With the increasing specialization of the bioinformatics resources, creating analytical workflows that seamlessly integrate data and bioinformatics tools developed by multiple groups becomes inevitable. Here we present a case study of a use of the distributed analytical environment integrating four complementary specialized resources, namely the Lynx platform, VISTA RViewer, the Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB), and the RaptorX server, for the identification of high-confidence candidate genes contributing to pathogenesis of spina bifida. The analysis resulted in prediction and validation of deleterious mutations in the SLC19A placental transporter in mothers of the affected children that causes narrowing of the outlet channel and therefore leads to the reduced folate permeation rate. The described approach also enabled correct identification of several genes, previously shown to contribute to pathogenesis of spina bifida, and suggestion of additional genes for experimental validations. The study demonstrates that the seamless integration of bioinformatics resources enables fast and efficient prioritization and characterization of genomic factors and molecular networks contributing to the phenotypes of interest. PMID:25506935

  6. Comparing scat detection dogs, cameras, and hair snares for surveying carnivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Robert A.; Donovan, T.M.; MacKay, Paula; Zielinski, William J.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    Carnivores typically require large areas of habitat, exist at low natural densities, and exhibit elusive behavior - characteristics that render them difficult to study. Noninvasive survey methods increasingly provide means to collect extensive data on carnivore occupancy, distribution, and abundance. During the summers of 2003-2004, we compared the abilities of scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares to detect black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) at 168 sites throughout Vermont. All 3 methods detected black bears; neither fishers nor bobcats were detected by hair snares. Scat detection dogs yielded the highest raw detection rate and probability of detection (given presence) for each of the target species, as well as the greatest number of unique detections (i.e., occasions when only one method detected the target species). We estimated that the mean probability of detecting the target species during a single visit to a site with a detection dog was 0.87 for black bears, 0.84 for fishers, and 0.27 for bobcats. Although the cost of surveying with detection dogs was higher than that of remote cameras or hair snares, the efficiency of this method rendered it the most cost-effective survey method.

  7. Isotopic investigation of niche partitioning among native carnivores and the non-native coyote (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Warsen, Scott A; Frair, Jacqueline L; Teece, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    We employed stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes within a hypothetico-deductive framework to explore potential resource partitioning among terrestrial mammalian carnivores. Isotope values were acquired using guard hair samples from bobcat (Lynx rufus), coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Adirondack Park, NY, USA. Enrichment along the δ(13)C axis was expected to reflect the use of human sources of food (reflecting a corn subsidy), and by extension tolerance for human-modified environments, whereas enrichment along the δ(15)N axis was expected to reflect a higher level of carnivory (i.e. amount of animal-based protein in the diet) - two mechanisms by which these now sympatric species may achieve a dynamic coexistence. Although bobcats were the only obligate carnivore, all four species shared a similar δ(15)N space. In contrast, bobcat had a lower and distinct δ(13)C signature compared to foxes, consistent with the a priori expectation of bobcats being the species least tolerant of human activities. Isotope signatures for coyotes, which colonized the region in the 1920s, overlapped all three native carnivores, bobcats the least, gray fox the most, indicating their potential competitive influence on this suite of native carnivores. PMID:24666214

  8. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  9. Theoretical and Numerical Assessment of Strain Pattern Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, R. D.; Simpson, A.

    1996-04-01

    The Strain Pattern Analysis (SPA) method was conceived at the RAE in the 1970s as a means of estimating the displacement shape of a helicopter rotor blade by using only strain gauge data, but no attempt was made to provide theoretical justification for the procedure. In this paper, the SPA method is placed on a firm mathematical basis by the use of vector space theory. It is shown that the natural normwhich underlies the SPA projection is the strain energy functionalof the structure under consideration. The natural norm is a weightedversion of the original SPA norm. Numerical experiments on simple flexure and coupled flexure-torsion systems indicate that the use of the natural norm yields structural deflection estimates of significantly greater accuracy than those obtained from the original SPA procedure and that measurement error tolerance is also enhanced. Extensive numerical results are presented for an emulation of the SPA method as applied to existing mathematical models of the main rotor of the DRA Lynx ZD559 helicopter. The efficacy of SPA is demonstrated by using a quasi-linear rotor model in the frequency domain and a fully non-linear, kinematically exact model in the time domain: the procedure based on the natural (or weighted) norm is again found to be superior to that based on the original SPA method, both in respect of displacement estimates and measurement error tolerance.

  10. Characterization of the multiple components of Acanthopanax Senticosus stem by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiangcai; Han, Ying; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xijun

    2016-02-01

    Acanthopanax Senticosus Harms. has been used widely in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, neurasthenia, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. However, the in vivo constituents of the stem of Acanthopanax Senticosus remain unknown. In this paper, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the MarkerLynx(TM) software combined with multiple data processing approach were used to study the constituents in vitro and in vivo. The aqueous extract from the Acanthopanax Senticosus stem and the compositions in rat serum after intragastric administration were completely analyzed. Consequently, 115 compounds in the aqueous extract from Acanthopanax Senticosus stem and 41 compounds absorbed into blood were characterized. Of the 115 compounds in vitro, 54 were reported for first time, including sinapyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol diglucoside, and 1-O-sinapoyl-?-d-glucose. In the 41 compounds in vivo, 7 were prototype components and 34 were metabolites which were from 21 components of aqueous extract from Acanthopanax Senticosus stem, and the metabolic pathways of the metabolites were elucidated for first time. The results narrowed the range of screening the active components and provided a basis for the study of action mechanism and pharmacology. PMID:26632031

  11. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

    PubMed

    Erb, Peter L; McShea, William J; Guralnick, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  12. An integrative computational approach for prioritization of genomic variants

    SciTech Connect

    Dubchak, Inna; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Wang, Sheng; Meydan, Cem; Sulakhe, Dinanath; Poliakov, Alexander; Börnigen, Daniela; Xie, Bingqing; Taylor, Andrew; Ma, Jianzhu; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Dave, Paul; Agam, Gady; Xu, Jinbo; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Mason, Christopher E.; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Maltsev, Natalia; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Huang, Qingyang

    2014-12-15

    An essential step in the discovery of molecular mechanisms contributing to disease phenotypes and efficient experimental planning is the development of weighted hypotheses that estimate the functional effects of sequence variants discovered by high-throughput genomics. With the increasing specialization of the bioinformatics resources, creating analytical workflows that seamlessly integrate data and bioinformatics tools developed by multiple groups becomes inevitable. Here we present a case study of a use of the distributed analytical environment integrating four complementary specialized resources, namely the Lynx platform, VISTA RViewer, the Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB), and the RaptorX server, for the identification of high-confidence candidate genes contributing to pathogenesis of spina bifida. The analysis resulted in prediction and validation of deleterious mutations in the SLC19A placental transporter in mothers of the affected children that causes narrowing of the outlet channel and therefore leads to the reduced folate permeation rate. The described approach also enabled correct identification of several genes, previously shown to contribute to pathogenesis of spina bifida, and suggestion of additional genes for experimental validations. The study demonstrates that the seamless integration of bioinformatics resources enables fast and efficient prioritization and characterization of genomic factors and molecular networks contributing to the phenotypes of interest.

  13. An integrative computational approach for prioritization of genomic variants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dubchak, Inna; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Wang, Sheng; Meydan, Cem; Sulakhe, Dinanath; Poliakov, Alexander; Börnigen, Daniela; Xie, Bingqing; Taylor, Andrew; Ma, Jianzhu; et al

    2014-12-15

    An essential step in the discovery of molecular mechanisms contributing to disease phenotypes and efficient experimental planning is the development of weighted hypotheses that estimate the functional effects of sequence variants discovered by high-throughput genomics. With the increasing specialization of the bioinformatics resources, creating analytical workflows that seamlessly integrate data and bioinformatics tools developed by multiple groups becomes inevitable. Here we present a case study of a use of the distributed analytical environment integrating four complementary specialized resources, namely the Lynx platform, VISTA RViewer, the Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB), and the RaptorX server, for the identification of high-confidence candidatemore » genes contributing to pathogenesis of spina bifida. The analysis resulted in prediction and validation of deleterious mutations in the SLC19A placental transporter in mothers of the affected children that causes narrowing of the outlet channel and therefore leads to the reduced folate permeation rate. The described approach also enabled correct identification of several genes, previously shown to contribute to pathogenesis of spina bifida, and suggestion of additional genes for experimental validations. The study demonstrates that the seamless integration of bioinformatics resources enables fast and efficient prioritization and characterization of genomic factors and molecular networks contributing to the phenotypes of interest.« less

  14. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-06-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  15. Assessing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy species barriers with an in vitro prion protein conversion assay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Carlson, Christina M.; Morawski, Aaron R.; Manthei, Alyson; Cashman, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. A number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. Here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitroprion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ratio (CER) assay. In this assay cellular prion protein (PrPC) from an uninfected host brain is denatured at both pH 7.4 and 3.5 to produce two substrates. When the pH 7.4 substrate is incubated with TSE agent, the amount of PrPC that converts to a proteinase K (PK)-resistant state is modulated by the original host’s species barrier to the TSE agent. In contrast, PrPC in the pH 3.5 substrate is misfolded by any TSE agent. By comparing the amount of PK-resistant prion protein in the two substrates, an assessment of the host’s species barrier can be made. We show that the CER assay correctly predicts known prion species barriers of laboratory mice and, as an example, show some preliminary results suggesting that bobcats (Lynx rufus) may be susceptible to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) chronic wasting disease agent.

  16. Evaluation of road expansion and connectivity mitigation for wildlife in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alonso, Robert S.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Boydston, Erin E.; Haas, Christopher D.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    We designed a remote-camera survey to study how the expansion of California State Route 71 (CA-71) and implementation of connectivity mitigation affected the use of underpasses by large mammals in southern California. Based on detections by cameras, the use of underpasses by bobcats (Lynx rufus) was higher within the area of expansion and mitigation after construction than before, but there was no difference in use of underpasses in the impact zone compared to the control zone before or after construction. Use of underpasses by coyotes (Canis latrans) was higher in the control zone than in the impact zone, but there was no difference in use before and after construction. Small numbers of detections of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at only a few underpasses precluded comparison between control and impact zones. However, a comparison of use before and after construction revealed that use of underpasses by mule deer was slightly higher post-construction. We cannot fully attribute increased detections post-construction to mitigative efforts, because other factors, such as availability of habitat, urbanization, or demography, also may have influenced use of underpasses along CA-71. Nonetheless, even with the expansion of the freeway and subsequent increase in volume of traffic, mitigative structures along CA-71 did allow for continued movement and, hence, connectivity across the roadway for large mammals.

  17. Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelledes, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2 Kw rated, separately excited traction motor, and a transistorized motor controller with a single chopper providing limited armature current below motor base speed and full range field control above base speed at up to twice rated motor current. The controller utilized a microprocessor to perform motor and vehicle speed monitoring and shift sequencing by means of solenoids applying hydraulic pressure to the transaxle clutches. Bench dynamometer and track testing was performed. Track testing showed best system efficiency for steady-state cruising speeds of 65-80 Km/Hz (40-50 mph). Test results include acceleration, steady speed and SAE J227A/D cycle energy consumption, braking tests and coast down to characterize the vehicle road load.

  18. Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations

    PubMed Central

    Serieys, Laurel E K; Lea, Amanda; Pollinger, John P; Riley, Seth P D; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996 to 2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite loci. We found that two freeways are significant barriers to gene flow. Further, a 3-year disease epizootic, associated with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, caused a population bottleneck that led to significant genetic differentiation between pre- and post-disease populations that was greater than that between populations separated by major freeways for >60 years. However, balancing selection acted on immune-linked loci during the epizootic, maintaining variation at functional regions. Conservation assessments need to assay loci that are potentially under selection to better preserve the adaptive potential of populations at the urban–wildland interface. Further, interconnected regions that contain appropriate habitat for wildlife will be critical to the long-term viability of animal populations in urban landscapes. PMID:25667604

  19. Biotic Population Dynamics: Creative Biotic Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabelli, Hector; Kovacevic, Lazar

    We present empirical studies and computer models of population dynamics that demonstrate creative features and we speculate that these creative processes may underline evolution. Changes in population size of lynx, muskrat, beaver, salmon, and fox display diversification, episodic changes in pattern, novelty, and evidence for nonrandom causation. These features of creativity characterize bios, and rule out random, periodic, chaotic, and random walk patterns. Biotic patterns are also demonstrated in time series generated with multi-agent predator-prey simulations. These results indicate that evolutionary processes are continually operating. In contrast to standard evolutionary theory (random variation, competition for scarce resources, selection by survival of the fittest, and directionless, meaningless evolution), we propose that biological evolution is a creative development from simple to complex in which (1) causal actions generate biological variation; (2) bipolar feedback (synergy and antagonism, abundance and scarcity) generates information (diversification, novelty and complexity); (3) connections (of molecules, genes, species) construct systems in which simple processes have priority for survival but complex processes acquire supremacy.

  20. Rail Track Detection and Modelling in Mobile Laser Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oude Elberink, S.; Khoshelham, K.; Arastounia, M.; Diaz Benito, D.

    2013-10-01

    We present a method for detecting and modelling rails in mobile laser scanner data. The detection is based on the properties of the rail tracks and contact wires such as relative height, linearity and relative position with respect to other objects. Points classified as rail track are used in a 3D modelling algorithm. The modelling is done by first fitting a parametric model of a rail piece to the points along each track, and estimating the position and orientation parameters of each piece model. For each position and orientation parameter a smooth low-order Fourier curve is interpolated. Using all interpolated parameters a mesh model of the rail is reconstructed. The method is explained using two areas from a dataset acquired by a LYNX mobile mapping system in a mountainous area. Residuals between railway laser points and 3D models are in the range of 2 cm. It is concluded that a curve fitting algorithm is essential to reliably and accurately model the rail tracks by using the knowledge that railways are following a continuous and smooth path.

  1. The Potential and Flux Landscape Theory of Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The species in ecosystems are mutually interacting and self sustainable stable for a certain period. Stability and dynamics are crucial for understanding the structure and the function of ecosystems. We developed a potential and flux landscape theory of ecosystems to address these issues. We show that the driving force of the ecological dynamics can be decomposed to the gradient of the potential landscape and the curl probability flux measuring the degree of the breaking down of the detailed balance (due to in or out flow of the energy to the ecosystems). We found that the underlying intrinsic potential landscape is a global Lyapunov function monotonically going down in time and the topology of the landscape provides a quantitative measure for the global stability of the ecosystems. We also quantified the intrinsic energy, the entropy, the free energy and constructed the non-equilibrium thermodynamics for the ecosystems. We studied several typical and important ecological systems: the predation, competition, mutualism and a realistic lynx-snowshoe hare model. Single attractor, multiple attractors and limit cycle attractors emerge from these studies. We studied the stability and robustness of the ecosystems against the perturbations in parameters and the environmental fluctuations. We also found that the kinetic paths between the multiple attractors do not follow the gradient paths of the underlying landscape and are irreversible because of the non-zero flux. This theory provides a novel way for exploring the global stability, function and the robustness of ecosystems. PMID:24497975

  2. Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew. MJ

    2009-12-01

    The Distromet disdrometer model RD-80 and NovaLynx tipping bucket rain gauge model 260-2500E-12 are two devices deployed a few meters apart to measure the character and amount of liquid precipitation. The main purpose of the disdrometer is to measure drop size distribution, which it does over 20 size classes from 0.3 mm to 5.4 mm. The data from both instruments can be used to determine rain rate. The disdrometer results can also be used to infer several properties including drop number density, radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and energy flux. Two coefficients, N0 and Λ, from an exponential fit between drop diameter and drop number density, are routinely calculated. Data are collected once a minute. The instruments make completely different kinds of measurements. Rain that falls on the disdrometer sensor moves a plunger on a vertical axis. The disdrometer transforms the plunger motion into electrical impulses whose strength is proportional to drop diameter. The rain gauge is the conventional tipping bucket type. Each tip collects an amount equivalent to 0.01 in. of water, and each tip is counted by a data acquisition system anchored by a Campbell CR1000 data logger.

  3. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti), rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    PubMed Central

    Sweitzer, Rick A.; Furnas, Brett J.

    2016-01-01

    These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]). Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus]) ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii]), gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat. PMID:26937448

  4. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti), rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Rick A; Furnas, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, "Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests" [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]). Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus]) ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii]), gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km(2) grid cells of forest habitat. PMID:26937448

  5. Comments on 'Origin of British and Irish mammals: disparate post-glacial colonisation and species introductions' by W.I. Montgomery, J. Provan, A.M. McCabe, and D.W. Yalden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.

    2014-12-01

    Montgomery et al.'s recent paper in QSR (2014; vol. 98: 144-165) is a most welcome addition to the ongoing research into the origins of Irish mammals. In their Table 1, the authors have used "calibrated carbon dating, comparable stratigraphy and historical records … to establish the earliest known time of arrival of a species in […] Ireland […] where relevant, the latest record of a mammal species [was] used to establish the earliest date after which it was extinct". It is assumed that the dates mentioned in this table are, therefore, calibrated. However, this is very unclear - when dates generated by the Irish Quaternary Fauna project (Woodman et al., 1997) are compared with those used by Montgomery et al. (2014), the earliest recorded dates of Mountain/Irish hare, Irish stoat, lynx and pine marten seem to be direct uncalibrated dates. It is also unclear whether the earliest and latest records of each species relate to all published data available at the time of writing. Even if only consulting those dates generated by Woodman et al. (1997), there are older earliest records for Arctic Fox, Collared lemming and grey wolf. In addition, Montgomery et al. (2014) do not seem to have included early radiocarbon dates for giant deer, reindeer and red deer (Woodman et al., 1997; Carden et al., 2012), or any of the recent radiocarbon dates for brown bear (Edwards et al., 2011), despite reference to these papers.

  6. Rapidly deteriorating course in Dutch hereditary spastic paraplegia type 11 patients

    PubMed Central

    de Bot, Susanne T; Burggraaff, Rogier C; Herkert, Johanna C; Schelhaas, Helenius J; Post, Bart; Diekstra, Adinda; van Vliet, Reinout O; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Scheffer, Hans; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien C; Kremer, Hubertus PH

    2013-01-01

    Although SPG11 is the most common complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia, our knowledge of the long-term prognosis and life expectancy is limited. We therefore studied the disease course of all patients with a proven SPG11 mutation as tested in our laboratory, the single Dutch laboratory providing SPG11 mutation analysis, between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2011. We identified nine different SPG11 mutations, four of which are novel, in nine index patients. Eighteen SPG11 patients from these nine families were studied by means of a retrospective chart analysis and additional interview/examination. Ages at onset were between 4 months and 14 years; 39% started with learning difficulties rather than gait impairment. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a thin corpus callosum and typical periventricular white matter changes in the frontal horn region (known as the ‘ears-of the lynx'-sign) in all. Most patients became wheelchair bound after a disease duration of 1 to 2 decades. End-stage disease consisted of loss of spontaneous speech, severe dysphagia, spastic tetraplegia with peripheral nerve involvement and contractures. Several patients died of complications between ages 30 and 48 years, 3–4 decades after onset of gait impairment. Other relevant features during the disease were urinary and fecal incontinence, obesity and psychosis. Our study of 18 Dutch SPG11-patients shows the potential serious long-term consequences of SPG11 including a possibly restricted life span. PMID:23443022

  7. Surveillance and management of Echinococcus multilocularis in a wildlife park.

    PubMed

    Umhang, Gérald; Lahoreau, Jennifer; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Guenon, Amandine; Montange, Damien; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Boue, Franck

    2016-06-01

    The fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease that may be fatal if untreated. A broad spectrum of mammalian species may be accidentally infected even in captivity. In April 2011, liver lesions due to E. multilocularis were observed during the necropsy of a captive-born nutria (Myocastor coypus) in a French wildlife park, leading to initiation of a study to survey the parasite's presence in the park. A comparable environmental contamination with fox's feces infected by E. multilocularis was reported inside (17.8%) and outside (20.6%) the park. E. multilocularis worms were found in the intestines of three of the five roaming foxes shot in the park. Coprological analyses of potential definitive hosts in captivity (fox, lynx, wildcat, genet, wolf, bear and raccoon) revealed infection in one Eurasian wolf. Voles trapped inside the park also had a high prevalence of 5.3%. After diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in a Lemur catta during necropsy, four other cases in L. catta were detected by a combination of ultrasound and serology. These animals were treated twice daily with albendazole. The systematic massive metacestode development and numerous protoscoleces in L. catta confirmed their particular sensitivity to E. multilocularis infection. The autochthonous origin of the infection in all the captive animals infected was genetically confirmed by EmsB microsatellite analysis. Preventive measures were implemented to avoid the presence of roaming foxes, contact with potential definitive hosts and contaminated food sources for potential intermediate hosts. PMID:26780546

  8. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  9. Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Thomas William

    2010-06-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Instrument and the Observer: 1. The telescope; 2. The mode of observation; Part II. The Solar System: 1. The Sun; 2. Mercury; 3. Venus; 4. The Moon; 5. Index to the map of the moon; 6. Mars; 7. Jupiter; 8. Saturn; 9. Uranus and Neptune; 10. Comets; Part III. The Starry Heavens: 1. Double stars, clusters, and nebulae; 2. Andromeda; 3. Anser; 4. Antinous; 5. Aquarius; 6. Aquila; 7. Argo Navis; 8. Aries; 9. Auriga; 10. Boötes; 11. Camelopardus; 12. Cancer; 13. Canes Venatici; 14. Canis Major; 15. Canis Minor; 16. Capricornus; 17. Cassiopea; 18. Cepheus; 19. Cetus; 20. Clypeus Sobieskii; 21. Coma Berenices; 22. Corona Borealis; 23. Corvus; 24. Crater; 25. Cygnus; 26. Delphinus; 27. Draco; 28. Equuleus; 29. Eridanus; 30. Gemini; 31. Hercules; 32. Hydra; 33. Lacerta; 34. Leo; 35. Leo Minor; 36. Lepus; 37. Libra; 38. Lynx; 39. Lyra; 40. Monoceros; 41. Ophiuchus; 42. Orion; 43. Pegasus; 44. Perseus; 45. Pisces; 46. Sagitta; 47. Sagittarius; 48. Scorpio; Scutum, see Clypeus, Sobieskii; 49. Serpens; 50. Sextans; 51. Taurus; 52. Taurus Poniatowskii; 53. Triangulum; 54. Ursa Major; 55. Ursa Minor; 56. Virgo; 57. Vulpecula.

  10. Diversity Array Technology Markers: Genetic Diversity Analyses and Linkage Map Construction in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N.; Aslam, M.N.; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A.; Kilian, A.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines Lynx-037DH and Monty-028DH. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  11. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  12. ZmGrp3: identification of a novel marker for root initiation in maize and development of a robust assay to quantify allele-specific contribution to gene expression in hybrids.

    PubMed

    Woll, Katrin; Dressel, Angela; Sakai, Hajime; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2006-11-01

    This study comprises a comprehensive gene expression analysis of the root tip specific maize gene ZmGrp3. In the first part of this paper expression of ZmGrp3 was studied in maize inbred lines. First, RNA in situ hybridization experiments confined the expression of ZmGrp3 to the columella and the epidermis of all embryonic and postembryonic root types. Second, Northern-blot analyses of the maize root initiation mutants rtcs and lrt1 revealed that the ZmGrp3 gene is not expressed prior to root initiation, thus providing a novel marker for this developmental process. Finally, a comprehensive expression profiling in 42 tissues via the Lynx MPSS system revealed almost exclusive expression of ZmGrp3 in maize roots. In the second part of this survey, ZmGrp3 expression was assayed in maize hybrids. In this context, a novel approach to quantify allele-specific contribution to gene expression in maize hybrids was developed. This assay combines RT-PCR amplification of polymorphisms between two alleles and subsequent quantification of allele-specific gene expression via a combination of didesoxyterminator assays and capillary electrophoresis. Allelic expression of the ZmGrp3 gene in six reciprocal hybrids generated from three ZmGrp3 alleles was analyzed via a new statistical mixed model approach. PMID:16937154

  13. Searching for DNA in museum specimens: a comparison of sources in a mammal species.

    PubMed

    Casas-Marce, M; Revilla, E; Godoy, J A

    2010-05-01

    The number of genetic studies that use preserved specimens as sources of DNA has been steadily increasing during the last few years. Therefore, selecting the sources that are more likely to provide a suitable amount of DNA of enough quality to be amplified and at the minimum cost to the original specimen is an important step for future research. We have compared different types of tissue (hides vs. bones) from museum specimens of Iberian lynx and multiple alternative sources within each type (skin, footpad, footpad powder, claw, diaphysis, maxilloturbinal bone, mastoid process and canine) for DNA yield and probability of amplification of both mitochondrial and nuclear targets. Our results show that bone samples yield more and better DNA than hides, particularly from sources from skull, such as mastoid process and canines. However, claws offer an amplification success as high as bone sources, which makes them the preferred DNA source when no skeletal pieces have been preserved. Most importantly, these recommended sources can be sampled incurring minimal damage to the specimens while amplifying at a high success rate for both mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. PMID:21565049

  14. Technology evaluation: leukemia therapy, University of Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Orr, R M

    1999-06-01

    The University of Pennsylvania is developing an antisense oligonucleotide (AS ON) as a potential treatmentfor myelogenous leukemia. The 24-mer phosphorothioate (PS) ON targets the c-myb gene (codons 2 to 9), a regulator of transcription. In a pilot study, patient bone marrow was purged with the PS ON before being returned to the patient. In January 1997, it was reported that out of six evaluable patients, four demonstrated marked hematological remission with normalized white blood cell counts. A second phase I trial was initiated, in which myelogenous leukemia patients were treated with systemic infusions of the PS ON at doses of 0.3 to 2.0 mg/kg/dayfor 7 days. By January 1997, 18 patients had been treated, 12 showed stable disease and one patient in blast crisis experienced a transient reversal to the chronic phase of the disease. No dose-related toxicity was noted and c-myb mRNA and protein levels were halved. Preclinical studies in leukemic mice showed that the myb AS PS ON increased survival times 2- to 4-fold and reduced leukemic proliferation in the brain [229790]. The ON was originally developed and patented at Temple University and was being jointly developed by Lynx Therapeutics, however, this collaboration was terminated in 1996 [264351]. New phase I studies are starting in 1999, with INX-3001 (University of Pennsylvania c-myb AS PS) supported by the NIH and Inex Pharmaceuticals Corporation. PMID:11713805

  15. Upgrading NASA/DOSE laser ranging system control computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Randall L.; Cheek, Jack; Seery, Paul J.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Mcgarry, Jan F.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ranging systems now managed by the NASA Dynamics of the Solid Earth (DOSE) and operated by the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Texas have produced a wealth on interdisciplinary scientific data over the last three decades. Despite upgrades to the most of the ranging station subsystems, the control computers remain a mix of 1970's vintage minicomputers. These encompass a wide range of vendors, operating systems, and languages, making hardware and software support increasingly difficult. Current technology allows replacement of controller computers at a relatively low cost while maintaining excellent processing power and a friendly operating environment. The new controller systems are now being designed using IBM-PC-compatible 80486-based microcomputers, a real-time Unix operating system (LynxOS), and X-windows/Motif IB, and serial interfaces have been chosen. This design supports minimizing short and long term costs by relying on proven standards for both hardware and software components. Currently, the project is in the design and prototyping stage with the first systems targeted for production in mid-1993.

  16. Interspecific scaling of the morphology and posture of the limbs during the locomotion of cats (Felidae).

    PubMed

    Day, Lisa M; Jayne, Bruce C

    2007-02-01

    For phylogenetically diverse mammals, ranging from small rodents to large ungulates, the generalization that limb erectness increases with increased size is supported by some size-dependent scaling relationships of appendicular skeletal anatomy as well as a limited number of direct observations of limb posture during locomotion. If size alone is the causal basis for different limb posture, then the erectness of limbs should increase significantly with increased size within a phylogenetically narrow lineage, but such data are sparse. Thus, to better establish the correlation between size and posture of mammalian limbs, we quantified the scaling relationships between mass and limb dimensions and kinematics during walking of nine species within the felid (cat) clade, which has qualitatively similar limb design. We studied the domestic cat, serval, ocelot, lynx, leopard, cheetah, cougar, lion and tiger, which had masses ranging from <4 kg to nearly 200 kg. Apart from variation associated with overall size, the lengths of the appendicular skeletal structures of most of the felid species were morphologically very similar in multivariate space. The kinematics of the limbs were also relatively uniform, and size had little predictive value for limb posture among felid species. Only three out of a total of 24 angular variables at footfall and midstance changed significantly (0.02

  17. Population synchrony in small-world networks

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Esa; Fowler, Mike S; Kaitala, Veijo

    2007-01-01

    Network topography ranges from regular graphs (linkage between nearest neighbours only) via small-world graphs (some random connections between nodes) to completely random graphs. Small-world linkage is seen as a revolutionary architecture for a wide range of social, physical and biological networks, and has been shown to increase synchrony between oscillating subunits. We study small-world topographies in a novel context: dispersal linkage between spatially structured populations across a range of population models. Regular dispersal between population patches interacting with density-dependent renewal provides one ecological explanation for the large-scale synchrony seen in the temporal fluctuations of many species, for example, lynx populations in North America, voles in Fennoscandia and grouse in the UK. Introducing a small-world dispersal kernel leads to a clear reduction in synchrony with both increasing dispersal rate and small-world dispersal probability across a variety of biological scenarios. Synchrony is also reduced when populations are affected by globally correlated noise. We discuss ecological implications of small-world dispersal in the frame of spatial synchrony in population fluctuations. PMID:18055385

  18. Regularized Semiparametric Estimation for Ordinary Differential Equations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Naisyin

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are widely used in modeling dynamic systems and have ample applications in the fields of physics, engineering, economics and biological sciences. The ODE parameters often possess physiological meanings and can help scientists gain better understanding of the system. One key interest is thus to well estimate these parameters. Ideally, constant parameters are preferred due to their easy interpretation. In reality, however, constant parameters can be too restrictive such that even after incorporating error terms, there could still be unknown sources of disturbance that lead to poor agreement between observed data and the estimated ODE system. In this paper, we address this issue and accommodate short-term interferences by allowing parameters to vary with time. We propose a new regularized estimation procedure on the time-varying parameters of an ODE system so that these parameters could change with time during transitions but remain constants within stable stages. We found, through simulation studies, that the proposed method performs well and tends to have less variation in comparison to the non-regularized approach. On the theoretical front, we derive finite-sample estimation error bounds for the proposed method. Applications of the proposed method to modeling the hare-lynx relationship and the measles incidence dynamic in Ontario, Canada lead to satisfactory and meaningful results. PMID:26392639

  19. Data gathering and simulation of climate change impacts in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, D.; Baker, B.; Hicke, J.; Conklin, D.; McKelvey, K.

    2007-12-01

    High mountains include species most at risk in a warming environment and are a critical link in the water supply chain for both human and natural systems. Scientists are monitoring and simulating these systems as snowpack depth changes, snowmelt timing changes, frozen soils melt and destabilize, and low elevation populations migrate upslope. Natural climate cycles and human activities interact with climate change trends and complicate the interpretation of the signal we observe. For ex. over the past 4 years in Yunnan (China), we documented that herbaceous alpine meadows are contracting as forest tree line advances and alpine shrub biomass increases. This is a result of interactions between human land use alteration and observed shifts in climate. In North America as snowpack decreases, wolverines and lynx denning conditions are jeopardized as human pressure reduces their extent. Coarse scale vegetation shift models using downscaled future climate scenarios fail to capture complex terrain features and microclimatic conditions that can either ensure critical habitat for the in-situ survival of threatened species or make things worse (ex. rockfalls) for climate migrants. Recent simulation efforts focus on high resolution models that address aspect, slope, soil types, and microclimate variations that affect local and migrating plants, their associated pollinators and insect herbivores, modifying habitat availability for birds and mammals

  20. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ordenana, Miguel A.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Siudyla, Shalene; Haas, Christopher D.; Harris, Sierra; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Turschak, Greta M.; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2010-01-01

    Urban development can have multiple effects on mammalian carnivore communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 7,929 photographs from 217 localities in 11 camera-trap studies across coastal southern California to describe habitat use and determine the effects of urban proximity (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) were distributed widely across the region. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were detected less frequently, and long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were detected rarely. Habitat use generally reflected availability for most species. Coyote and raccoon occurrence increased with both proximity to and intensity of urbanization, whereas bobcat, gray fox, and mountain lion occurrence decreased with urban proximity and intensity. Domestic dogs and Virginia opossums exhibited positive and weak negative relationships, respectively, with urban intensity but were unaffected by urban proximity. Striped skunk occurrence increased with urban proximity but decreased with urban intensity. Native species richness was negatively associated with urban intensity but not urban proximity, probably because of the stronger negative response of individual species to urban intensity.

  1. Cell disruption using a different methodology for proteomics analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi strains.

    PubMed

    Silva Galdino, Tainah; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Britto, Constança; Samudio, Franklyn; Brandão, Adeilton; Kalume, Dário Eluan

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a cell disruption method to produce a protein extract using Trypanosoma cruzi cells based on a straightforward hypoosmotic lysis protocol. The procedure consists of three steps: incubation of the cells in a hypoosmotic lysis buffer, sonication in a water bath, and centrifugation. The final protein extract was designated TcS12. The stages of cell disruption at different incubation times were monitored by differential interference contrast microscopy. After 30min of incubation in lysis buffer at 4°C, the T. cruzi epimastigote forms changed from slender to round-shaped parasites. Nevertheless, cell disruption took place following sonication of the sample for 30min. The efficiency of the methodology was also validated by flow cytometry, which resulted in 72% of propidium iodide (PI)-labeled cells. To estimate the protein extraction yield and the differential protein expression, the proteomics profile of four T. cruzi strains (CL-Brener, Dm28c, Y, and 4167) were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) on a SYNAPT HDMS system using the label-free MS(E) approach. ProteinLynx Global Server (version 2.5) with Expression(E) analysis identified a total of 1153 proteins and revealed 428 differentially expressed proteins among the strains. Gene ontology analysis showed that not only cytosolic proteins but also nuclear and organellar ones were present in the extract. PMID:24291641

  2. Modernization of the NASA IRTF Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Eric J.; Harwood, James V.; Onaka, Peter M.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the ongoing modernization of the NASA IR Telescope Facility Telescope Control System. A major mandate of this project is to keep the telescope available for observations throughout. Therefore, we have developed an incremental plan that will allow us to replace components of the software and hardware without shutting down the system. The current system, running under FORTH on a DEC LSI 11/23 minicomputer interfaced to a Bus and boards developed in house, will be replaced with a combination of a Sun SPARCstation running SunOS, a MicroSPARC based Single Board Computer running LynxOS, and various intelligent VME based peripheral cards. The software is based on a design philosophy originally developed by Pat Wallace for use on the Anglo Australian Telescope. This philosophy has gained wide acceptance, and is currently used in a number of observatories around the world. A key element of this philosophy is the division of the TCS into `Virtual' and `Real' parts. This will allow us to replace the higher level functions of the TCS with software running on the Sun, while still relying on the LSI 11/23 for performance of the lower level functions. Eventual transfer of lower level functions to the MicroSPARC system will then proceed incrementally through use of a Q-Bus to VME-Bus converter.

  3. [WILD MAMMALS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA IN THE WORKS OF JEAN-EMMANUEL GILIBERT].

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Among the many topics of lively scientific work that Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) conducted in Grodno and Vilnius, an important place is occupied by his observations of wild mammals. Royal patronage and care from Antoni Tyzenhauz, Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the governor of Grodno, allowed Gilibert to keep and observe wild fauna captured by royal services in royal forests, including Białowieża Primeval Forest. Such was an origin of a female bison kept by Gilibert in Grodno. Its description, published in Indagatores naturae in Lithuania (Vilnius 1781) for decades became the primary source of information about the behaviour, food preferences and the anatomy of European bison. European science has just begun to take interest in European bison, therefore Gilibert's account entered scientific circulation by way of French natural history encyclopaedias (mainly Georges Buffon's Histoire naturelle) and works by Georges Cuvier or Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Apart from the description of European bison, Gilibert left an entire series of observations of wild mammals inhabiting the forests of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His accounts of moose were important in building a knowledge base for this species. In the first half of the 18th century, moose was known mainly from fantastic descriptions in Renaissance works and from prescriptions devoted to using moose hoof as the epilepsy treatment. Gilibert's observations helped to overthrow such superstitions. Similarly, Gilibert's first-hand information verified the widespread legends concerning brown bear (e.g. the belief that white bears, belonging to other species than polar bears, occur in Lithuania) . List of species kept and thoroughly watched by the scholar is much longer and includes lynx, wolf (and hybrids of wolves and dogs), beaver, badger, fox, hedgehog, and even white mouse. Also his comments on the species of mammals then absent in Lithuania but known either from farming or from the fur trade (wolverine, bobak marmot or steppe polecat). Also in these cases, Gilibert's descriptions were often the first reliable information that entered the circulation in European science. His accounts were not free of errors and mistakes--but they resulted mainly from the pioneering role of his work. Some of his breeding experiments can arouse the reader's sincere smile today, such as an attempt to feed a beaver with fish or serve cooked beans to a lynx In the margins of his mammal observations, Gilibert described also the place of their occurrence, extensive forests of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Read from the contemporary perspective, his thoughts are surprisingly relevant. In his praise of "primeval nature, free from human actions and not disturbed by accident or by the impatience of human desires" he sounds very similar to today's eulogists of the primeval forest of Białowieża. PMID:26445747

  4. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS --Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of a fenced stream crossing over the Pahsimeroi River to enhance a livestock riparian enclosure. This structure would include up to four wood fence posts and two deadman anchors buried in the ground. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat by preventing livestock from entering the riparian area via the river. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Carl Rudeen with the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District (August 4, 2004) and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are gray wolf, Canada lynx, bald eagle, Ute ladies'Tresses, Snake River chinook salmon, Snake River steelhead trout, and Columbia River Basin bull trout. It was determined that the proposed fence crossing construction project would have no effect on these species. Bald eagle, gray wolf and Canada lynx are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity. Since the site is used primarily as livestock pasture it does not lend itself to the presence of Ute ladies'Tresses. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. Soil disturbance will be limited to the livestock pasture and to two holes that will be used to bury anchors for the suspended portion of the fence. Required river crossings will be made on foot. Requirements associated with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act were handled by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), in cooperation with staff from the U.S. Forest Service (Boise National Forest), under their existing Programmatic Agreement with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). A description of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project and site information was reviewed by a qualified archaeologist and it was determined that an archaeological survey was needed. Bruce Blackmere with NRCS conducted an intensive-complete survey of the project site and cultural resources were not identified (July 30, 2004). Based on these findings, it was recommended that the project proceed as planned. All survey findings were provided to the Idaho SHPO. In the unlikely event that archaeological material is discovered during project implementation, an archaeologist should be notified immediately and work halted in the vicinity of the finds until they can be inspected and assessed. Standard water quality protection procedures and Best Management Practices should be followed during the implementation of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project. No construction is authorized to begin until the proponent has obtained all applicable local, state, and federal permits and approvals. Public involvement has occurred as part of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project. This project was coordinated through the Upper Salmon Basin Technical Team and Advisory Committee composed of representatives from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NOAA Fisheries, Shoshone Bannock Tribe, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game. In addition, the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District holds monthly meetings that are open to the public in which this project was discussed.

  5. Early-type Galaxies at z ~ 1.3. IV. Scaling Relations in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

    2012-02-01

    We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z ~ 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 1010 < M/M ⊙ < 1011.5, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z ~ 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z ~ 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M <~ 2 × 1011 M⊙ and those with masses M ~ 1011 M⊙ follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, ~35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

  6. Clinical Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Chapman, Jennifer L; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mense, M; Schueler, Ronald L

    2006-04-15

    Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs. We investigated one breeder's 25 Basset Hounds for these infections. In addition, tissues from dogs and other non-canine hosts previously reported as S. canis infections were studied retrospectively. Schizonts resembling those of S. neurona, and recognized by polyclonal rabbit anti-S. neurona antibodies, were found in six of eight retrospective cases, as well as in two additional dogs (one Basset Hound, one Springer Spaniel) not previously reported. S. neurona schizonts were found in several tissues including the central nervous system, lungs, and kidneys. Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in an adult dog, and neosporosis was diagnosed in an adult and a pup related to the one diagnosed with S. neurona. No serological reactivity to S. neurona antibodies occurred when S. canis-like liver schizonts were retrospectively assayed from two dogs, a dolphin, a sea lion, a horse, a chinchilla, a black or either of two polar bears. Sequencing conserved (18S) and variable (ITS-1) portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA isolated from the schizont-laden liver of a polar bear distinguished it from all previously characterized species of Sarcocystis. We take this genetic signature as provisionally representative of S. canis, an assumption that should be tested with future sequencing of similar liver infections in other mammalian hosts. These findings further extend the uncharacteristically broad intermediate host range for S. neurona, which also causes a neurologic disease in cats, mink, raccoons, skunks, Pacific harbor seals, ponies, zebras, lynxes, and sea otters. Further work is necessary to delineate the causative agent(s) of other cases of canine sarcocystosis, and in particular to specify the attributes of S. canis, which corresponds morphologically to infections reported from wide range of terrestrial and marine mammals. PMID:16458431

  7. Gammaretrovirus-Specific Antibodies in Free-Ranging and Captive Namibian Cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Krengel, Annika; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L.; Wachter, Bettina; Böni, Jürg; Bisset, Leslie R.; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Jago, Mark; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hofer, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    The cheetah population in Namibia is the largest free-ranging population in the world and a key population for research regarding the health status of this species. We used serological methods and quantitative real-time PCR to test free-ranging and captive Namibian cheetahs for the presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a gammaretrovirus that can be highly aggressive in populations with low genetic diversity, such as cheetahs. We also assessed the presence of antibodies to other gammaretroviruses and the responses to a FeLV vaccine developed for domestic cats. Up to 19% of the free-ranging cheetahs, 27% of the captive nonvaccinated cheetahs, and 86% of the captive vaccinated cheetahs tested positive for FeLV antibodies. FeLV-antibody-positive free-ranging cheetahs also tested positive for Rauscher murine leukemia virus antibodies. Nevertheless, FeLV was not detectable by quantitative real-time PCR and no reverse transcriptase activity was detectable by product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay in the plasma of cheetahs or the supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The presence of antibodies to gammaretroviruses in clinically healthy specimens may be caused either by infection with a low-pathogenic retrovirus or by the expression of endogenous retroviral sequences. The strong humoral immune responses to FeLV vaccination demonstrate that cheetahs can respond to the vaccine and that vaccination against FeLV infection may be beneficial should FeLV infection ever become a threat, as was seen in Iberian lynx and Florida panthers. PMID:25809630

  8. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi among eleven potential reservoir species from six states across the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emily L; Roellig, Dawn M; Gompper, Matthew E; Monello, Ryan J; Wenning, Krista M; Gabriel, Mourad W; Yabsley, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0-68%) and opossums (17-52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi in the United States. PMID:20020815

  9. Nest fate and productivity of American Oystercatchers, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabine, J.B.; Schweitzer, S.H.; Meyers, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) is listed as a species of high priority by the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan and is state-listed as rare in Georgia; however, biologists have not focused on identifying the causes of egg and hatchling losses. In 2003 and 2004, continuous video monitoring was used to document reproductive success of American Oystercatchers and identify causes of nest failure at Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia. The modified Mayfield method and program CONTRAST were used to determine and compare survival of eggs and nestlings. Eleven pairs made 32 nest attempts during two seasons. Nine attempts were successful, fledging 15 chicks. Daily survival of clutches was 0.973 (95% CI = 0.960-0.987) for 2003, 0.985 (95% CI = 0.974-0.995) for 2004, and 0.979 (95% CI = 0.970-0.987) for combined years. Daily survival was greater on the North End, than on the South End of the island (X21 = 7.211, P = 0.007). Eighteen of 20 nest failures during the egg stage and one of eight chick losses were documented. Egg predators included raccoon (Procyon lotor, N = 9), bobcat (Lynx rufus, N = 3), and American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos, N = 1). A ghost crab (Ocypode quadata) preyed on one chick. Other causes of nest failure were tidal overwash (N = 1), horse trampling (N = 1), abandonment (N = 2), and human destruction (N = 1). The North End of the island has one of the highest reproductive rates reported along the Atlantic coast. Predator control may be an effective means of increasing reproductive success on the South End of the island.

  10. Real-time operating system timing jitter and its impact on motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Frederick M.; Shackleford, William P.

    2001-12-01

    General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all OS services. Examples include ETS, LynxOS, QNX, Windows CE and VxWorks. RTOS extensions add real-time scheduling capabilities to non-real-time OSes, and provide minimal services needed for the time-critical portions of an application. Examples include RTAI and RTL for Linux, and HyperKernel, OnTime and RTX for Windows NT. Timing jitter is an issue in these systems, due to hardware effects such as bus locking, caches and pipelines, and software effects from mutual exclusion resource locks, non-preemtible critical sections, disabled interrupts, and multiple code paths in the scheduler. Jitter is typically on the order of a microsecond to a few tens of microseconds for hard real-time operating systems, and ranges from milliseconds to seconds in the worst case for soft real-time operating systems. The question of its significance on the performance of a controller arises. Naturally, the smaller the scheduling period required for a control task, the more significant is the impact of timing jitter. Aside from this intuitive relationship is the greater significance of timing on open-loop control, such as for stepper motors, than for closed-loop control, such as for servo motors. Techniques for measuring timing jitter are discussed, and comparisons between various platforms are presented. Techniques to reduce jitter or mitigate its effects are presented. The impact of jitter on stepper motor control is analyzed.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Stina S; Gouveia-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gjerde, Bjørn

    2008-01-25

    Six Sarcocystis species from reindeer (S. grueneri, S. rangi, S. tarandivulpes, S. hardangeri, S. rangiferi and S. tarandi) have previously been genetically characterised. The aim of this study was to identify possible definitive hosts for S. hardangeri, S. rangiferi and S. tarandi by including the six species in phylogenetic analyses of the Sarcocystidae, and also to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the species from reindeer and those from other hosts. The study also aimed at revealing whether the inclusion of six Sarcocystis species from the same intermediate host would have any effect on previously inferred phylogenetic relationships within the Sarcocystidae. The complete small subunit (ssu) rRNA gene sequences of all six Sarcocystis species from reindeer were used in the phylogenetic analyses along with ssu rRNA gene sequences of 85 other members of the Coccidea. Trees were constructed using Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood estimations. All six Sarcocystis species from reindeer were placed together with other Sarcocystis species using an even-toed ungulate as their intermediate host. The three canine transmitted species, S. grueneri, S. rangi, S. tarandivulpes, formed a sister group to other Sarcocystis species with a canine definitive host. The position of S. hardangeri on the tree suggested that it uses another type of definitive host than the other Sarcocystis species in this clade. Considering the geographical distribution and infection intensity of S. hardangeri, corvid birds are perhaps its most likely definitive hosts. The phylogenetic position, geographical distribution, prevalence and morphological similarity to feline transmitted Sarcocystis species in closely related Cervidae suggest that the most likely definitive hosts of S. rangiferi and S. tarandi are felines, and in Norway notably the lynx. The overall phylogeny of the Sarcocystidae did not change by the inclusion of the six Sarcocystis species from reindeer. This study suggests that phylogentic analysis can be a useful tool in the search for possible definitive hosts for those Sarcocystis species for which they are unknown and difficult to find solely by other methods. PMID:18022189

  12. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  13. Impacts of Mesopredator Control on Conservation of Mesopredators and Their Prey.

    PubMed

    Conner, L Mike; Morris, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Declining large carnivore populations, increased habitat fragmentation, declining interests in fur trapping, and other anthropogenic factors can all lead to increased mesopredator populations and these may negatively impact biodiversity. Lethal mesopredator control potentially mitigates some of these effects but can be controversial, largely because impacts on mesopredator populations have not been evaluated. Estimating these impacts may reduce controversies while increasing our understanding of when lethal control may be beneficial. Therefore, we analyzed published mesopredator removal data to determine if mesopredator removal rates changed over time. Removals of medium,(e.g., raccoons (Procyon lotor) or red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), and large, i.e., bobcats (Lynx rufus) or coyotes (Canis latrans), mesopredators were consistent from year to year and over the duration of study (i.e., number removed during the first and last years of studies were similar). In contrast, removals of small mesopredators, e.g., weasels (Mustela spp.) or spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius), declined over the duration of study. Study area size, number of species targeted for removal, and duration of removal effort were poor predictors of removal rates. Our analyses suggest that: (1) control, as typically implemented, is unlikely to cause negative long-term impacts on populations of medium and large mesopredators but may negatively impact small mesopredators, (2) if mesopredator control benefits prey, recurring removals will generally be needed to maintain benefits, and (3) timing of removals will be important to achieve management goals. We suggest that mesopredator control efforts are frequently spatially structured harvests from continuously distributed populations. This may explain (1) why removal of small mesopredators declined over time; whereas, medium and large mesopredator removals remained consistent, and (2) why some prey failed to respond to mesopredator control efforts. PMID:26361211

  14. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Al zheimer's Disease: The Role of Protein-Protein Interactions in Current and Future Treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Andreasen, Jesper Tobias; Arvaniti, Maria; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been pursued for decades as potential molecular targets to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to their positioning within regions of the brain critical in learning and memory, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and their demonstrated role in processes underlying cognition such as synaptic facilitation, and theta and gamma wave activity. Historically, activity at these receptors is facilitated in AD by use of drugs that increase the levels of their endogenous agonist acetylcholine, and more recently nAChR selective ligands have undergone clinical trials. Here we discuss recent findings suggesting that the expression and function of nAChRs in AD may be regulated by direct interactions with specific proteins, including Lynx proteins, NMDA-receptors and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, as well as β-amyloid. The ability of protein interactions to modify nAChR function adds a new level of complexity to cholinergic signaling in the brain that may be specifically altered in AD. It is currently not known to what degree current nAChR ligands affect these interactions, and it is possible that the difference in the clinical effect of nAChR ligands in AD is related to differences in their ability to modulate nAChR protein interactions, rather than their effects on ion flow through the receptors. Drugs designed to target these interactions may thus provide a new avenue for drug development to ameliorate cognitive symptoms in AD. Notably, the development of experimental drugs that specifically modulate these interactions may provide the opportunity to selectively affect those aspects of nAChR function that are affected in AD. PMID:26818866

  15. Transvaginal retropubic sling systems: efficacy and patient acceptability.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Christina P; Marinone, Michelle E; Staack, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is a common, disabling, and costly medical problem that affects approximately 50% of women with urinary incontinence. Suburethral retropubic slings have been developed as a minimally invasive and effective surgical option, and they have been used as a first-line treatment for stress urinary incontinence since 1995. However, complications including vaginal extrusion, erosion, pain, bleeding, infections, lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary retention, and incontinence have been reported with use of the slings. Several companies manufacture sling kits, and the sling kits vary with regard to the composition of the mesh and introducer needle. The aim of this review was to determine which sling kit was most effective for patients, had minimal reported side effects, and was best accepted by patients and surgeons. In a review of the literature, it was found that a total of 38 studies were published between 1995 and 2014 that reported on eight tension-free retropubic sling kits: SPARC, RetroArc, Align, Advantage, Lynx, Desara, Supris, and Gynecare TVT. The Gynecare TVT was the most cited sling kit; the second most cited was the SPARC. This review provides a summary of the studies that have examined positive and negative outcomes of the retropubic tension-free suburethral sling procedure using various sling kits. Overall, the results of the literature review indicated that data from comparisons of the available sling kits are insufficient to make an evidenced-based recommendation. Therefore, the decision regarding which sling kit is appropriate to use in surgery is determined by the medical provider's preference, training, and past experience, and not by the patient. PMID:25733928

  16. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. PMID:25132483

  17. Impact of high predation risk on genome-wide hippocampal gene expression in snowshoe hares.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Sophia G; McGowan, Patrick O; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy

    2014-11-01

    The population dynamics of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are fundamental to the ecosystem dynamics of Canada's boreal forest. During the 8- to 11-year population cycle, hare densities can fluctuate up to 40-fold. Predators in this system (lynx, coyotes, great-horned owls) affect population numbers not only through direct mortality but also through sublethal effects. The chronic stress hypothesis posits that high predation risk during the decline severely stresses hares, leading to greater stress responses, heightened ability to mobilize cortisol and energy, and a poorer body condition. These effects may result in, or be mediated by, differential gene expression. We used an oligonucleotide microarray designed for a closely-related species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to characterize differences in genome-wide hippocampal RNA transcript abundance in wild hares from the Yukon during peak and decline phases of a single cycle. A total of 106 genes were differentially regulated between phases. Array results were validated with quantitative real-time PCR, and mammalian protein sequence similarity was used to infer gene function. In comparison to hares from the peak, decline phase hares showed increased expression of genes involved in metabolic processes and hormone response, and decreased expression of immune response and blood cell formation genes. We found evidence for predation risk effects on the expression of genes whose putative functions correspond with physiological impacts known to be induced by predation risk in snowshoe hares. This study shows, for the first time, a link between changes in demography and alterations in neural RNA transcript abundance in a natural population. PMID:25234370

  18. Mark-recapture and mark-resight methods for estimating abundance with remote cameras: a carnivore case study.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Robert S; McClintock, Brett T; Lyren, Lisa M; Boydston, Erin E; Crooks, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Abundance estimation of carnivore populations is difficult and has prompted the use of non-invasive detection methods, such as remotely-triggered cameras, to collect data. To analyze photo data, studies focusing on carnivores with unique pelage patterns have utilized a mark-recapture framework and studies of carnivores without unique pelage patterns have used a mark-resight framework. We compared mark-resight and mark-recapture estimation methods to estimate bobcat (Lynx rufus) population sizes, which motivated the development of a new "hybrid" mark-resight model as an alternative to traditional methods. We deployed a sampling grid of 30 cameras throughout the urban southern California study area. Additionally, we physically captured and marked a subset of the bobcat population with GPS telemetry collars. Since we could identify individual bobcats with photos of unique pelage patterns and a subset of the population was physically marked, we were able to use traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight methods, as well as the new "hybrid" mark-resight model we developed to estimate bobcat abundance. We recorded 109 bobcat photos during 4,669 camera nights and physically marked 27 bobcats with GPS telemetry collars. Abundance estimates produced by the traditional mark-recapture, traditional mark-resight, and "hybrid" mark-resight methods were similar, however precision differed depending on the models used. Traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight estimates were relatively imprecise with percent confidence interval lengths exceeding 100% of point estimates. Hybrid mark-resight models produced better precision with percent confidence intervals not exceeding 57%. The increased precision of the hybrid mark-resight method stems from utilizing the complete encounter histories of physically marked individuals (including those never detected by a camera trap) and the encounter histories of naturally marked individuals detected at camera traps. This new estimator may be particularly useful for estimating abundance of uniquely identifiable species that are difficult to sample using camera traps alone. PMID:25822245

  19. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Coexistence of sympatric carnivores in relatively homogeneous Mediterranean landscapes: functional importance of habitat segregation at the fine-scale level.

    PubMed

    Soto, Carolina; Palomares, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    One of the main objectives of community ecology is to understand the conditions allowing species to coexist. However, few studies have investigated the role of fine-scale habitat use segregation in the functioning of guild communities in relatively homogeneous landscapes where opportunities for coexistence are likely to be the most restrictive. We investigate how the process of habitat use differentiation at the home range level according to the degree of specialism/generalism of species can lead to coexistence between guild species. We examine differences in fine-scale habitat use and niche separation as potential mechanisms explaining the coexistence of five sympatric carnivore species that differ in life history traits (Iberian lynx, Eurasian badger, Egyptian mongoose, common genet and red fox) by collecting data from systematic track censuses in a relatively homogeneous Mediterranean landscape. We found that a higher degree of specialism determines the segregation of species among the fine-scale ecological niche dimensions defined using quantitative elements associated with vegetation, landscape, prey availability and human disturbance. The species with the lowest total performance over the set of variables did not exhibit segregation in the use of habitat at this level. Our study indicates that in relatively homogeneous landscapes, there exist subtle patterns of habitat partitioning over small-scale gradients of habitat determinants as a function of the degree of specialism of carnivore species within a guild. Our results also suggest that coexistence between generalist species may be permitted by fine-scale spatial-temporal segregation of activity patterns or trophic resource consumption, but not fine-scale habitat use differentiation. PMID:25933639

  1. Anticoagulant rodenticides in urban bobcats: exposure, risk factors and potential effects based on a 16-year study.

    PubMed

    Serieys, L E K; Armenta, T C; Moriarty, J G; Boydston, E E; Lyren, L M; Poppenga, R H; Crooks, K R; Wayne, R K; Riley, S P D

    2015-05-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are increasingly recognized as a threat to nontarget wildlife. High exposure to ARs has been documented globally in nontarget predatory species and linked to the high prevalence of an ectoparasitic disease, notoedric mange. In southern California, mange associated with AR exposure has been the proximate cause of a bobcat (Lynx rufus) population decline. We measured AR exposure in bobcats from two areas in southern California, examining seasonal, demographic and spatial risk factors across landscapes including natural and urbanized areas. The long-term study included bobcats sampled over a 16-year period (1997-2012) and a wide geographic area. We sampled blood (N = 206) and liver (N = 172) to examine exposure ante- and post-mortem. We detected high exposure prevalence (89 %, liver; 39 %, blood) and for individuals with paired liver and blood data (N = 64), 92 % were exposed. Moreover, the animals with the most complete sampling were exposed most frequently to three or more compounds. Toxicant exposure was associated with commercial, residential, and agricultural development. Bobcats of both sexes and age classes were found to be at high risk of exposure, and we documented fetal transfer of multiple ARs. We found a strong association between certain levels of exposure (ppm), and between multiple AR exposure events, and notoedric mange. AR exposure was prevalent throughout both regions sampled and throughout the 16-year time period in the long-term study. ARs pose a substantial threat to bobcats, and likely other mammalian and avian predators, living at the urban-wildland interface. PMID:25707484

  2. Anticoagulant rodenticides in urban bobcats: exposure, risk factors and potential effects based on a 16-year study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Armenta, Tiffany C.; Moriarty, Joanne G.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Wayne, Robert K.; Riley, Seth P. D.

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are increasingly recognized as a threat to nontarget wildlife. High exposure to ARs has been documented globally in nontarget predatory species and linked to the high prevalence of an ectoparasitic disease, notoedric mange. In southern California, mange associated with AR exposure has been the proximate cause of a bobcat (Lynx rufus) population decline. We measured AR exposure in bobcats from two areas in southern California, examining seasonal, demographic and spatial risk factors across landscapes including natural and urbanized areas. The long-term study included bobcats sampled over a 16-year period (1997–2012) and a wide geographic area. We sampled blood (N = 206) and liver (N = 172) to examine exposure ante- and post-mortem. We detected high exposure prevalence (89 %, liver; 39 %, blood) and for individuals with paired liver and blood data (N = 64), 92 % were exposed. Moreover, the animals with the most complete sampling were exposed most frequently to three or more compounds. Toxicant exposure was associated with commercial, residential, and agricultural development. Bobcats of both sexes and age classes were found to be at high risk of exposure, and we documented fetal transfer of multiple ARs. We found a strong association between certain levels of exposure (ppm), and between multiple AR exposure events, and notoedric mange. AR exposure was prevalent throughout both regions sampled and throughout the 16-year time period in the long-term study. ARs pose a substantial threat to bobcats, and likely other mammalian and avian predators, living at the urban-wildland interface.

  3. Spatial organization of a reintroduced population of bobcats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Hansen, L.A.; Warren, R.J.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The spacing patterns and mating systems of solitary carnivores have important implications for social behavior and for the survival and reproduction of individuals. Over 2 years, we reintroduced 32 (15 males and 17 females) bobcats (Lynx rufus) to a barrier island off the coast of Georgia and studied patterns of bobcat spatial distribution. Population density increased to 3.1 bobcats/10 km2. We found overlap of the home range for all females on the island increased during 1989-1991 such that, on average, each female shared a home-range area with the equivalent of >2 other females, and for core areas overlap was equivalent to sharing a core area with nearly 1 other female. Reproduction and home-range overlap were related inversely and food resources did not seem to be limiting. Our results were consistent with the land tenure concept in that the initial reintroduced bobcats established home ranges that changed little in size and location. However, bobcats resident on the island for ??? 1 year did not successfully exclude newcomers from their home ranges or core areas and no bobcats retained areas of exclusive use from conspecifics of the same sex. We suggest that the propensity of female bobcats to reproduce successfully may be related to their access to exclusive use areas even under conditions of adequate or good food availability. Under the conditions in this study (moderate bobcat density, adequate food availability, and limited dispersal) bobcats exhibited no evidence of an ability to exclude other adult individuals from their home ranges or core areas. ?? 2006 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  5. SU-E-J-91: Novel Epitaxial Silicon Array for Quality Assurance in Photon and Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Talamonti, C; Zani, M; Scaringella, M; Bruzzi, M; Bucciolini, M; Menichelli, D; Friedl, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: to demonstrate suitability of a novel silicon array for measuring the dose properties of highly conformal photon and proton beams. Methods: prototype under test is a 24cm long linear array prototype, although the underlying technology is suitable to construct 2D arrays as well. It is based on a 64pixels monolithic sensor with 1mm pixel pitch, made of epitaxial ptype silicon. Thanks to design modularity, more sensors can be placed side by side without breaking pixel pitch. Flattened and unflattened photon beams, as well as proton radiation from a cyclotron in pencil beam scanning mode, were considered. Measurements of beam characteristics as percentage depth doses, dose profiles, output factors and energy response, which are necessary to deliver radiation with high precision and reliability, were performed. Results: Dose rate independence with photons was verified in the dose per pulse range 0.03 to 2mGy. Results clearly indicate nondependence of the detector sensitivity both for flattened and unflattened beams, with a variation of at most 0.5percentage. OFs were obtained for field with a lateral size ranging from 0.8cm to 16cm and the results are in good agreement with ion chamber A1SL, max difference less than 1.5percentage. Field sizes and beam penumbra were measured and compared to EBT film results. Concerning proton beams, sensitivity independence on dose rate was verified by changing the beam current in the interval 2-130Gy/s. Field sizes and beam penumbra measurements are in agreement with data taken with a scintillating 2D array with 0.5mm resolution IBA Lynx, and a better penumbra definition than an array of ionization chambers IBA MatriXX is reached. Conclusion: The device is a novel and valuable tool for QA both for photon and proton dose delivery. All measurements demonstrated its capability to measure with high spatial resolution many crucial properties of the RT beam.

  6. Gammaretrovirus-specific antibodies in free-ranging and captive Namibian cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Krengel, Annika; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L; Wachter, Bettina; Böni, Jürg; Bisset, Leslie R; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Jago, Mark; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The cheetah population in Namibia is the largest free-ranging population in the world and a key population for research regarding the health status of this species. We used serological methods and quantitative real-time PCR to test free-ranging and captive Namibian cheetahs for the presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a gammaretrovirus that can be highly aggressive in populations with low genetic diversity, such as cheetahs. We also assessed the presence of antibodies to other gammaretroviruses and the responses to a FeLV vaccine developed for domestic cats. Up to 19% of the free-ranging cheetahs, 27% of the captive nonvaccinated cheetahs, and 86% of the captive vaccinated cheetahs tested positive for FeLV antibodies. FeLV-antibody-positive free-ranging cheetahs also tested positive for Rauscher murine leukemia virus antibodies. Nevertheless, FeLV was not detectable by quantitative real-time PCR and no reverse transcriptase activity was detectable by product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay in the plasma of cheetahs or the supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The presence of antibodies to gammaretroviruses in clinically healthy specimens may be caused either by infection with a low-pathogenic retrovirus or by the expression of endogenous retroviral sequences. The strong humoral immune responses to FeLV vaccination demonstrate that cheetahs can respond to the vaccine and that vaccination against FeLV infection may be beneficial should FeLV infection ever become a threat, as was seen in Iberian lynx and Florida panthers. PMID:25809630

  7. From arctic lemmings to adaptive dynamics: Charles Elton's legacy in population ecology.

    PubMed

    Lindström, J; Ranta, E; Kokko, H; Lundberg, P; Kaitala, V

    2001-02-01

    We shall examine the impact of Charles S. Elton's 1924 article on periodic fluctuations in animal populations on the development of modern population ecology. We argue that his impact has been substantial and that during the past 75 years of research on multi-annual periodic fluctuations in numbers of voles, lemmings, hares, lynx and game animals he has contributed much to the contemporary understanding of the causes and consequences of population regulation. Elton was convinced that the cause of the regular fluctuations was climatic variation. To support this conclusion, he examined long-term population data then available. Despite his firm belief in a climatic cause of the self-repeating periodic dynamics which many species display, Elton was insightful and far-sighted enough to outline many of the other hypotheses since put forward as an explanation for the enigmatic long-term dynamics of some animal populations. An interesting, but largely neglected aspect in Elton's paper is that it ends with speculation regarding the evolutionary consequences of periodic population fluctuations. The modern understanding of these issues will also be scrutinised here. In population ecology, Elton's 1924 paper has spawned a whole industry of research on populations displaying multi-annual periodicity. Despite the efforts of numerous research teams and individuals focusing on the origins of multi-annual population cycles, and despite the early availability of different explanatory hypotheses, we are still lacking rigorous tests of some of these hypotheses and, consequently, a consensus of the causes of periodic fluctuations in animal populations. Although Elton would have been happy to see so much effort spent on cyclic populations, we also argue that it is unfortunate if this focus on a special case of population dynamics should distract our attention from more general problems in population and community dynamics. PMID:11325052

  8. Effectiveness of scat detection dogs for detecting forest carnivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Robert A.; Donovan, T.M.; MacKay, Paula; Zielinski, William J.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the detection and accuracy rates of detection dogs trained to locate scats from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus). During the summers of 2003-2004, 5 detection teams located 1,565 scats (747 putative black bear, 665 putative fisher, and 153 putative bobcat) at 168 survey sites throughout Vermont, USA. Of 347 scats genetically analyzed for species identification, 179 (51.6%) yielded a positive identification, 131 (37.8%) failed to yield DNA information, and 37 (10.7%) yielded DNA but provided no species confirmation. For 70 survey sites where confirmation of a putative target species' scat was not possible, we assessed the probability that ???1 of the scats collected at the site was deposited by the target species (probability of correct identification; P ID). Based on species confirmations or PID values, we detected bears at 57.1% (96) of sites, fishers at 61.3% (103) of sites, and bobcats at 12.5%o (21) of sites. We estimated that the mean probability of detecting the target species (when present) during a single visit to a site was 0.86 for black bears, 0.95 for fishers, and 0.40 for bobcats. The probability of detecting black bears was largely unaffected by site- or visit-specific covariates, but the probability of detecting fishers varied by detection team. We found little or no effect of topographic ruggedness, vegetation density, or local weather (e.g., temp, humidity) on detection probability for fishers or black bears (data were insufficient for bobcat analyses). Detection dogs were highly effective at locating scats from forest carnivores and provided an efficient and accurate method for collecting detection-nondetection data on multiple species.

  9. Transvaginal retropubic sling systems: efficacy and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, Christina P; Marinone, Michelle E; Staack, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is a common, disabling, and costly medical problem that affects approximately 50% of women with urinary incontinence. Suburethral retropubic slings have been developed as a minimally invasive and effective surgical option, and they have been used as a first-line treatment for stress urinary incontinence since 1995. However, complications including vaginal extrusion, erosion, pain, bleeding, infections, lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary retention, and incontinence have been reported with use of the slings. Several companies manufacture sling kits, and the sling kits vary with regard to the composition of the mesh and introducer needle. The aim of this review was to determine which sling kit was most effective for patients, had minimal reported side effects, and was best accepted by patients and surgeons. In a review of the literature, it was found that a total of 38 studies were published between 1995 and 2014 that reported on eight tension-free retropubic sling kits: SPARC, RetroArc, Align, Advantage, Lynx, Desara, Supris, and Gynecare TVT. The Gynecare TVT was the most cited sling kit; the second most cited was the SPARC. This review provides a summary of the studies that have examined positive and negative outcomes of the retropubic tension-free suburethral sling procedure using various sling kits. Overall, the results of the literature review indicated that data from comparisons of the available sling kits are insufficient to make an evidenced-based recommendation. Therefore, the decision regarding which sling kit is appropriate to use in surgery is determined by the medical provider’s preference, training, and past experience, and not by the patient. PMID:25733928

  10. High Female Mortality Resulting in Herd Collapse in Free-Ranging Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Åhman, Birgitta; Svensson, Kristin; Rönnegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B) used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October–December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007–2012) revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively). A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community. PMID:25356591

  11. Phase 1 STTR flywheel motor/alternator for hybrid electric vehicles. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; Kessinger, R.L. Jr.; Robinson, S.T.; Seymour, K.P.; Dockstadter, K.D.

    1997-12-31

    Visual Computing Systems (VCS) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have teamed, through a Phase 1 Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE), to develop an advanced, low-cost motor/alternator drive system suitable for Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) applications. During Phase 1, system performance and design requirements were established, design concepts were generated, and preliminary motor/alternator designs were developed and analyzed. ORNL provided mechanical design and finite element collaboration and Lynx Motion Technology, a spin-off from VCS to commercialize their technology, constructed a proof-of-concept axial-gap permanent magnet motor/alternator that employed their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) with a survivable design speed potential of 10,000 rpm. The VCS motor/alternator was successfully tested in ORNL`s Motor Test Tank using an ORNL inverter and ORNL control electronics. It was first operated as an unloaded motor to 6,000 rpm and driven as an unloaded generator to 6,000 rpm. Output from the generator was then connected to a resistance bank, which caused the loaded generator to decelerate to 3,860 rpm where data was collected. After about 4-1/2 minutes, the test was terminated because of an impact noise. Subsequent inspection and operation at low speeds did not reveal the source of the noise. Electrical performance of the motor was excellent, encouraging continued development of this technology. Phase 2 efforts will focus on further design development and optimization, manufacturing development and prototype construction, testing, and evaluation.

  12. Impacts of Mesopredator Control on Conservation of Mesopredators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    Conner, L. Mike; Morris, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Declining large carnivore populations, increased habitat fragmentation, declining interests in fur trapping, and other anthropogenic factors can all lead to increased mesopredator populations and these may negatively impact biodiversity. Lethal mesopredator control potentially mitigates some of these effects but can be controversial, largely because impacts on mesopredator populations have not been evaluated. Estimating these impacts may reduce controversies while increasing our understanding of when lethal control may be beneficial. Therefore, we analyzed published mesopredator removal data to determine if mesopredator removal rates changed over time. Removals of medium,(e.g., raccoons (Procyon lotor) or red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), and large, i.e., bobcats (Lynx rufus) or coyotes (Canis latrans), mesopredators were consistent from year to year and over the duration of study (i.e., number removed during the first and last years of studies were similar). In contrast, removals of small mesopredators, e.g., weasels (Mustela spp.) or spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius), declined over the duration of study. Study area size, number of species targeted for removal, and duration of removal effort were poor predictors of removal rates. Our analyses suggest that: (1) control, as typically implemented, is unlikely to cause negative long-term impacts on populations of medium and large mesopredators but may negatively impact small mesopredators, (2) if mesopredator control benefits prey, recurring removals will generally be needed to maintain benefits, and (3) timing of removals will be important to achieve management goals. We suggest that mesopredator control efforts are frequently spatially structured harvests from continuously distributed populations. This may explain (1) why removal of small mesopredators declined over time; whereas, medium and large mesopredator removals remained consistent, and (2) why some prey failed to respond to mesopredator control efforts. PMID:26361211

  13. Geo-Spatial Aspects of Acceptance of Illegal Hunting of Large Carnivores in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Gangaas, Kristin E.; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P.; Andreassen, Harry P.

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human – wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7–15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3–4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale patterns in social dynamics of human-wildlife conflicts. PMID:23894353

  14. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale patterns in social dynamics of human-wildlife conflicts. PMID:23894353

  15. Mark-recapture and mark-resight methods for estimating abundance with remote cameras: a carnivore case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alanso, Robert S.; McClintock, Brett T.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Boydston, Erin E.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Abundance estimation of carnivore populations is difficult and has prompted the use of non-invasive detection methods, such as remotely-triggered cameras, to collect data. To analyze photo data, studies focusing on carnivores with unique pelage patterns have utilized a mark-recapture framework and studies of carnivores without unique pelage patterns have used a mark-resight framework. We compared mark-resight and mark-recapture estimation methods to estimate bobcat (Lynx rufus) population sizes, which motivated the development of a new "hybrid" mark-resight model as an alternative to traditional methods. We deployed a sampling grid of 30 cameras throughout the urban southern California study area. Additionally, we physically captured and marked a subset of the bobcat population with GPS telemetry collars. Since we could identify individual bobcats with photos of unique pelage patterns and a subset of the population was physically marked, we were able to use traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight methods, as well as the new “hybrid” mark-resight model we developed to estimate bobcat abundance. We recorded 109 bobcat photos during 4,669 camera nights and physically marked 27 bobcats with GPS telemetry collars. Abundance estimates produced by the traditional mark-recapture, traditional mark-resight, and “hybrid” mark-resight methods were similar, however precision differed depending on the models used. Traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight estimates were relatively imprecise with percent confidence interval lengths exceeding 100% of point estimates. Hybrid mark-resight models produced better precision with percent confidence intervals not exceeding 57%. The increased precision of the hybrid mark-resight method stems from utilizing the complete encounter histories of physically marked individuals (including those never detected by a camera trap) and the encounter histories of naturally marked individuals detected at camera traps. This new estimator may be particularly useful for estimating abundance of uniquely identifiable species that are difficult to sample using camera traps alone.

  16. Fragmentation of Contaminant and Endogenous DNA in Ancient Samples Determined by Shotgun Sequencing; Prospects for Human Palaeogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Quinto, Federico; Ramirez, Oscar; Calafell, Francesc; Civit, Sergi; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the successful retrieval of genomes from past remains, the prospects for human palaeogenomics remain unclear because of the difficulty of distinguishing contaminant from endogenous DNA sequences. Previous sequence data generated on high-throughput sequencing platforms indicate that fragmentation of ancient DNA sequences is a characteristic trait primarily arising due to depurination processes that create abasic sites leading to DNA breaks. Methodology/Principals Findings To investigate whether this pattern is present in ancient remains from a temperate environment, we have 454-FLX pyrosequenced different samples dated between 5,500 and 49,000 years ago: a bone from an extinct goat (Myotragus balearicus) that was treated with a depurinating agent (bleach), an Iberian lynx bone not subjected to any treatment, a human Neolithic sample from Barcelona (Spain), and a Neandertal sample from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain). The efficiency of retrieval of endogenous sequences is below 1% in all cases. We have used the non-human samples to identify human sequences (0.35 and 1.4%, respectively), that we positively know are contaminants. Conclusions We observed that bleach treatment appears to create a depurination-associated fragmentation pattern in resulting contaminant sequences that is indistinguishable from previously described endogenous sequences. Furthermore, the nucleotide composition pattern observed in 5′ and 3′ ends of contaminant sequences is much more complex than the flat pattern previously described in some Neandertal contaminants. Although much research on samples with known contaminant histories is needed, our results suggest that endogenous and contaminant sequences cannot be distinguished by the fragmentation pattern alone. PMID:21904610

  17. Activated cholinergic signaling provides a target in squamous cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pingfang; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S.; Fu, Xiao Wen; Maier, Michelle; Jia, Yibing; Duan, Jie; Proskosil, Becky J.; Gravett, Courtney; Lindstrom, Jon; Mark, Gregory P.; Saha, Saurabh; Spindel, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    The binding of exogenous nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and the binding of endogenous acetylcholine to both nAChR and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) stimulates growth of both small cell and non-small cell lung carcinomas. Understanding how cholinergic signaling is upregulated in lung cancer may suggest new therapeutic approaches. Analysis of 28 squamous cell lung carcinomas (SCC) showed increased levels of a5 and β3 nAChR mRNA and increased levels of acetylcholine associated with increased levels of ChAT mRNA and decreased cholinesterase mRNAs. Lynx1, an allosteric inhibitor of nAChR activity, was also decreased in SCC. Thus cholinergic signaling is broadly increased in SCC caused by increased levels of receptors, increased levels of ligands and decreased levels of receptor inhibitors. Partially explaining the cholinergic upregulation seen in SCC, incubation of the H520 SCC cell line with nicotine increased levels of ACh secretion, increased expression of nAChR and, as measured by electrophysiologic recording, increased activity of the expressed nAChR. Consistent with these effects, nicotine stimulated proliferation of H520 cells. One approach to blocking proliferative effects of nicotine and acetylcholine on growth of lung cancers may be through M3 mAChR antagonists which can limit the activation of MAPK that is caused by both nicotinic and muscarinic signaling. This was tested with the M3-selective muscarinic antagonist darifenacin. Darifenacin blocked nicotine-stimulated H520 growth in vitro and also blocked H520 growth in nude mice in vivo. Thus cholinergic signaling is broadly upregulated in SCC and blocking cholinergic signaling can limit basal and nicotine-stimulated growth of SCC. PMID:18559515

  18. Pulpal temperature increase with high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and ultrasound tips.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Camargo, Fernanda Pelogia; Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Teixeira, Symone Cristina; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intrapulpal temperature increase produced by high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and CVDentus ultrasound tips during cavity preparation. Thirty bovine mandibular incisors with an enamel/dentin thickness of 4 mm at buccal surface had their roots amputated and were allocated to the following groups (n=10): Group I- high-speed handpiece; Group II- noncontact Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/4 Hz); and Group III- CVDentus ultrasouns tips. All devices were used with water cooling. Class V cavities were prepared to a depth of 3.5 mm, measured with a periodontal probe. A type T thermocouple was placed inside the pulp chamber to determine the temperature increase (degrees C), which was recorded by a data acquisition system ADS 2000 IP (Lynx Technology) linked to a notebook computer. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mean temperature rises were: 1.10 degrees C (+/-0.56) for Group I, 0.84 degrees C (+/-0.55) for Group II, and 3.00 degrees C (+/- 1.34) for Group III. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between Groups I and II, but both of them differed significantly from Group III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the use of Er:YAG laser and high-speed handpiece for cavity preparation resulted in similar temperature increase. Although ultrasound tips generated significantly higher intrapulpal temperature increase, it remained below the critical value of 5.5 degrees C and may be considered safe for use. PMID:19089220

  19. The Iberian Peninsula corridor or cul-de-sac? Mammalian faunal change and possible routes of dispersal in the last 2 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Regan, Hannah J.

    2008-11-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is almost surrounded by the sea and is topographically and ecologically variable. These factors will have impacted on both the distribution and dispersal patterns of large mammals (including hominins) within Iberia, and are considered in detail in this paper. There are two routes of mammalian dispersal into Iberia: across the Pyrenees and across the Gibraltar Strait. With an increasing interest in the possible use of coastlines by early hominins the latter route has been the focus of much discussion. However, the arguments are limited by the relative lack of hominin remains and archaeology from the Early Pleistocene. This paper takes a wider perspective to hominin dispersals by examining what is known of the evolution and movements of other taxa in Iberia and how these may inform our understanding of the hominin fossil record. Beginning by briefly reviewing the present day and Pleistocene glacial and interglacial vegetation of Iberia, it then considers the large-mammal fauna. Particular attention is paid to the potential routes of movement for terrestrial animals in and out of the peninsula, and the evidence for each route is assessed. Iberia was a refuge for temperate species during the Quaternary glacial cycles and movements of Quaternary faunas are reviewed in the light of modern phylogeographic analyses and studies of fossil assemblages. Iberian faunas are highly variable, with some absences of otherwise widespread European animals, but cold-phase taxa such as reindeer and woolly rhinoceros did cross the Pyrenees. It seems that the large mountain ranges were less a barrier for the dispersal of these taxa than the line which today forms the limit of the summer drought. Iberia also provided the last refuge for extinct species such as the Neanderthals and endangered extant species such as the Iberian lynx.

  20. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

  1. Carnivore distributions across chaparral habitats exposed to wildfire and rural housing in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuette, P.A.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Deutschman, D.H.; Tremor, S.; Spencer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in southern California support biologically diverse plant and animal communities. However, native plant and animal species within these shrubland systems are increasingly exposed to human-caused wildfires and an expansion of the human–wildland interface. Few data exist to evaluate the effects of fire and anthropogenic pressures on plant and animal communities found in these environments. This is particularly true for carnivore communities. To address this knowledge gap, we collected detection–non-detection data with motion-sensor cameras and track plots to measure carnivore occupancy patterns following a large, human-caused wildfire (1134 km2) in eastern San Diego County, California, USA, in 2003. Our focal species set included coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). We evaluated the influence on species occupancies of the burned environment (burn edge, burn interior and unburned areas), proximity of rural homes, distance to riparian area and elevation. Gray fox occupancies were the highest overall, followed by striped skunk, coyote and bobcat. The three species considered as habitat and foraging generalists (gray fox, coyote, striped skunk) were common in all conditions. Occupancy patterns were consistent through time for all species except coyote, whose occupancies increased through time. In addition, environmental and anthropogenic variables had weak effects on all four species, and these responses were species-specific. Our results helped to describe a carnivore community exposed to frequent fire and rural human residences, and provide baseline data to inform fire management policy and wildlife management strategies in similar fire-prone ecosystems.

  2. Deficiency of cytosolic arylamine N-acetylation in the domestic cat and wild felids caused by the presence of a single NAT1-like gene.

    PubMed

    Trepanier, L A; Cribb, A E; Spielberg, S P; Ray, K

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2. N-acetyltransferase in feline liver showed high affinity (mean Km = 2.1 microM) for p-aminobenzoic acid, an NAT1 selective substrate in humans and rabbits, but showed a very poor affinity (mean Km > 10 mM) for sulfamethazine, an NAT2 selective substrate in humans and rabbits. Immunoreactive N-acetyltransferase was detected in feline liver, bladder and colon using an NAT1-specific antipeptide antibody, but was not detected in any tissues using an NAT2-specific antibody. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA demonstrated a single band in domestic cats using each of six restriction digests; single bands were also found on Southern blot analysis of six wild felids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the central portion of feline N-acetyltransferase, obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification in both domestic cats and seven wild felids (lion, tiger, lynx, snow leopard, bobcat, Asian leopard cat and cheetah), contained three residues, Phe125, Arg127, and Tyr129, which determine NAT1-like substrate specificity in humans. These results support the conclusion that cytosolic arylamine N-acetylation activity is low in the cat because of the presence of a single N-acetyltransferase that has substrate specificity, immunogenicity and sequence characteristics similar to human NAT1, and that the unusual presence of only a single N-acetyltransferase gene appears to be a family wide trait shared by other felids. PMID:10022754

  3. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

  4. Comparative metabolism of PGFM (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2α) in feces of felids.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S V; Jewgenow, K

    2014-03-15

    Methods for monitoring endocrine activities are useful tools for reproduction management. In particular, captive breeding of endangered felid species is considered to be an important part of the species conservation efforts. Within breeding programs, reliable methods for pregnancy diagnosis are highly demanded to prevent peri- and postpartal losses, but pregnancy diagnosis based on gestagen metabolites in felids is hampered by pseudopregnancies. Recently, we described fecal PGFM as an indicator for pregnancy in several feline species, but peak levels of PGFM secretion differed dramatically between species. It is believed that prostaglandin composition and metabolism pathways may differ as well. Therefore, a study was devised to both compare various fecal immunoreactive PGFM metabolites and to identify prostaglandins in fecal extracts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Our results confirmed that fecal metabolite patterns differ between feline species. The identity of PGFM was confirmed in six of eight felids. In Iberian lynx and the Sumatran tiger, PGFM did not exceed 5% of all immunoreactivities. The total number of immunoreactivities varied between two (e.g., domestic cat) and four (e.g., oncilla). Several prostaglandins were identified by LCMS; apart from PGFM, all LCMS-identified prostaglandins, including tetranor-PGFM, did not show any cross-reactivity with our PGFM-specific antibody. This indicates the existence of still unknown eicosanoids and further studies are needed to clarify the origin of the different metabolites. Although differing stages of pregnancy did not reveal significant differences in the composition of metabolites, we could not exclude the possibility that metabolites from other prostaglandins (e.g. PGE2) contributed to the fecal metabolite patterns. PMID:24433781

  5. The first decade of commercial space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Wei

    2015-03-01

    In order to provide a basis for assessing the future prospects and challenges of space tourism, this paper begins with a brief overview of the history of space tourism. This is followed by a discussion on market demand and current developments in the academic community, as well as the status of traffic tools, regulations and legalization. In market demand, although studies conducted in 1990s assumed the possibility of 500,000 per year in space tourists and several billion USD of annual revenue, in 2008 a relatively modest 13,000 per year was predicted. At this time traffic transport tools including the Soyuz system, CST-100, DragonRider and International Space Station (ISS) can only provide a few tens in spare seats for space tourists per year compared to the projected 20,000 plus seat capacity of the Lynx, Dream Chaser and SpaceShipTwo (SS2) fleets, which have the potential to conduct their first full suborbital test flight and first commercial flight within the coming decade. Added to this, the US government has only a regulatory regime that supports privately owned suborbital space tourism (SST) and no government funded orbital space tourism (OST). These evidences reveal a very high and advantageous potential for SST to form a space tourism industry in the coming decade, whereas the possibility of OST is relatively low. However, even though the prosperity of SST in the coming years is expectable, its maturity, reliability and safety still need to win the confidence of the general public. For examples, the announcement of changes to fuel used in the SS2 rocket engine in May 2014 and the crash of one SS2 while performing test flight on 31 October 2014 indicated the need for much careful preparation, as any accident in commercial operation could seriously damage or even kill its future prospects.

  6. Preliminary identification of the absorbed bioactive components and metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of Shaoyao-Gancao decoction by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Yin, Quan-wei; Zhang, Ai-hua; Sun, Hui; Wu, Xiu-hong; Wang, Xi-jun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shaoyao-Gancao decoction (SGD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been used for the treatment of abdominal pain and dysmenorrhea disease in Asia over long period of time. Its effectiveness has been confirmed in clinic, but its active constituents remain unclear. Materials and methods: In this paper, a rapid, sensitive and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) in positive and negative ion mode were established to characterize the active constituents of SGD in vitro. The analysis was performed on a Waters UPLCTM HSS T3 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 µm) using gradient elution system. Automated MetaboLynxTM technique was employed to screen for the potentially bioactive components in rat plasma after oral administration of SGD. MS/MS fragmentation behavior was proposed for aiding the structural identification of the components. Results: Based on the developed method of fingerprint analysis, an injection run of the plasma sample was finished in 15.0 min. A total of 12 compounds including 9 prototype components such as gallicacid, albiflorin, liquiritin, pallidiflorin, liquiritigenin, isoLiquiritigenin, formononetin, isolicoflavonol, licoricone, C9H10O3 and 2 metabolites such as liquiritigenin-4’-O-glucuronide, formononetin glucuronide were identified or tentatively characterized. Of note, 3 ingredients were identified from Radix Paeoniae Alba, and 9 were from Radix Glycyrrhizae. Conclusion: The compounds found in dosed plasma could be the effective substances of SGT for treating dysmenorrheal, and may provide important experimental data for further pharmacological and clinical research of SGD. Furthermore, this work has demonstrated that the feasibility of the UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS for rapid and reliable characterization of identification and structural elucidation of the chemical constituents and their metabolites from herbal medicines. PMID:25422552

  7. A SEARCH FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES ON ARCMINUTE SCALES WITH BOLOCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Rossinot, P.; Edgington, S. F.; Lange, A. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Haig, D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Aguirre, J. E.; Glenn, J.; Laurent, G. T.; Bock, J. J.; Goldin, A.; Nguyen, H. T.

    2009-01-10

    We have surveyed two science fields totaling 1 deg.{sup 2} with Bolocam at 2.1 mm to search for secondary Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies caused by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). The fields are in the Lynx and Subaru/XMM SDS1 fields. Our survey is sensitive to angular scales with an effective angular multipole of l{sub eff} = 5700 with FWHM{sub l} = 2800 and has an angular resolution of 60 arcsec FWHM. Our data provide no evidence for anisotropy. We are able to constrain the level of total astronomical anisotropy, modeled as a flat-band power in C{sub l}, with most frequent 68%, 90%, and 95% CL upper limits of 590, 760, and 830 {mu}K {sup 2} {sub CMB}. We statistically subtract the known contribution from primary CMB anisotropy, including cosmic variance, to obtain constraints on the SZE anisotropy contribution. Now including flux calibration uncertainty, our most frequent 68%, 90%, and 95% CL upper limits on a flat-band power in C{sub l} are 690, 960, and 1000 {mu}K {sup 2} {sub CMB}. When we instead employ the analytical spectrum suggested by Komatsu and Seljack in 2002, and account for the non-Gaussianity of the SZE anisotropy signal, we obtain upper limits on the average amplitude of their spectrum weighted by our transfer function of 790, 1060, and 1080 {mu}K {sup 2} {sub CMB}. We obtain a 90% CL upper limit on {sigma}{sub 8}, which normalizes the power spectrum of density fluctuations, of 1.57. These are the first constraints on anisotropy and {sigma}{sub 8} from survey data at these angular scales at frequencies near 150 GHz.

  8. Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane (Grus americana) as an indicator of reintroduction behavior and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Predation by bobcats (Lynx rufus) has been the greatest cause of mortality of whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the reintroduced population in Florida. This study investigated whether the behavior of juvenile cranes during captive rearing and shortly after release can be used to predict their chances of survival once released in the wild. This study also examined differences in behavior based on rearing treatments and whether differences observed during rearing continued at the release site. Experimental rearing treatments were parent reared (PR), hand reared (RR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Two annual cycles of cranes were observed from hatch to 20 weeks of age in captivity (n=56 birds). Post-release bebavioral data were collected at the release site for a minimum of two weeks (n=34 birds), with mortality data collected up to one year post release (n=38 birds). Behavioral time budgets were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Logistic regression was used to build a model to identify behaviors that were associated with first-year survival. During rearing, PR birds were the most vigilant. There were no behavioral differences between HR and HRE birds. Generally, rearing treatments had few long-term effects on the post-release behavior of the birds. The main behavioral differences during rearing and after release were the frequency of bouts and the percentage of time spent performing different behaviors. This may be attributed to foraging strategies and adaptation from captive conditions to the wild. Survival was not related to rearing treatment. Fifty-five percent of the birds survived the first year post-release based upon data pooled over two years. During rearing, the frequency of foraging bouts was positively correlated to survival. Survival was negatively correlated to the frequency of walking bouts during rearing, and release weight of the birds. These correlations accounted for 32 percent of the variability in survival. At the release site, 20 percent of post-release survival was negatively correlated with the frequency of non vigilant bouts. This study suggests that none of the rearing treatments confer a survival advantage during the first year post release, however, survival may be improved by encouraging additional foraging opportunities during rearing.

  9. Variation in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 rRNA genomic regions of Cytauxzoon felis from bobcats and pumas in the eastern United States and comparison with sequences from domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Shock, Barbara C; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Patton, Laura L; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-11-23

    Cytauxzoon felis, a tick-borne protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats in the United States. The natural reservoir for this parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus), which typically does not develop clinical signs. Although not likely important reservoirs, C. felis has also been detected in pumas (Puma concolor) in Florida and Louisiana. Recent studies suggest that specific genotypes of C. felis that circulate in domestic cats may be associated with variable clinical outcomes and specific spatial locations. In the current study, we investigated the intraspecific variation of the C. felis internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 rRNA regions from 145 wild felids (139 bobcats and six pumas) from 11 states (Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania). Unambiguous ITS-1 and ITS-2 data were obtained for 144 and 112 samples, respectively, and both ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were obtained for 111 (77%) samples. For the ITS-1 region, sequences from 65 samples collected from wild felids were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats, while the other 79 sequences were unique. C. felis from 45 bobcats and one puma had ITS-1 sequences identical to the most common sequence reported from domestic cats. Within the ITS-2 region, sequences from 49 bobcats were identical to those previously reported in domestic cats and 63 sequences were unique (with some occurring in more than one bobcat). The most common ITS-2 sequence from domestic cats was also common in wild felids (31 bobcats and a puma). Samples from three pumas from Florida and two bobcats from Missouri had a 40- or 41-bp insert in the ITS-2 similar to one described previously in a domestic cat from Arkansas. Additionally, a previously undescribed 198- or 199-bp insert was detected in the ITS-2 sequence from four bobcats. Collectively, based on combined ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, five different genotypes were detected in the wild felids. Genotype ITSa was the most common genotype (11 bobcats and one puma) and fewer numbers of ITSb, ITSe, ITSg, and ITSi were detected in bobcats. These data indicate that, based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, numerous C. felis strains may circulate in wild felids. PMID:22776107

  10. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-36)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-10

    The compliance checklist for this project was originally completed by the Burns Paiute Tribe in 2000, and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD), as well as the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Logan Valley Wildlife Mitigation Plan, now being implemented, continues to be consistent with the above mentioned EISs and RODs. Pursuant to its obligations under the Endangered Species Act, BPA has made a determination of whether its proposed project will have any effects on any listed species under the jurisdiction of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). A species list was obtained from USFWS on June 12, 2003, identifying bald eagles, Canada lynx, and bull trout as potentially occurring in the project area. A site assessment was conducted on July 15, 2003 to determine if these species were present and the potential effects of project activities. A ''No Effect'' determination was made for all ESA-listed species. There were no listed species under the jurisdiction of NOAA Fisheries present in the project area. As management activities proceed in the future, BPA will annually re-assess potential effects of planned activities on listed species. The Burns-Paiute Tribe conducted a literature search for historic and archaeological sites on the property on January 11, 1999. No known sites were identified. Further site-specific surveys will be conducted for individual ground disturbing activities. The results of these surveys will be sent to the Oregon State Historic Preservation Office and BPA. BPA will annually summarize and submit a report to the State Historic Preservation Office. On December 29, 1999, Fred Walasavage of BPA completed a Phase I Site Assessment and concluded that the site did not reveal any environmental factors that would pose a significant liability for remedial action or cleanup under the Comprehensive Recovery, Compensation and Liability Act. A public meeting was held when the property was initially acquired where the property acquisition and proposed activities were discussed. Subsequent public involvement was conducted on July 23, 2002 for commenting on the proposed Logan Valley Wildlife Mitigation Plan.

  11. Greater sage-grouse nest predators in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse, populations have declined across their range due to the loss, degradation, and fragmentation of habitat. Habitat alterations can lead not only to vegetative changes but also to shifts in animal behavior and predator composition that may influence population vital rates, such as nest success. For example, common ravens Corvus corax are sage-grouse nest predators, and common raven abundance is positively associated with human-caused habitat alterations. Because nest success is a central component to sage-grouse population persistence, research that identifies factors influencing nest success will better inform conservation efforts. We used videography to unequivocally identify sage-grouse nest predators within the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada, USA, from 2009 to 2011 and used maximum likelihood to calculate daily probability of nest survival. In the Virginia Mountains, fires, energy exploration, and other anthropogenic activities have altered historic sage-grouse habitat. We monitored 71 sage-grouse nests during the study, placing video cameras at 39 nests. Cumulative nest survival for all nests was 22.4% (95% CI, 13.0–33.4%), a survival rate that was significantly lower than other published results for sage-grouse in the Great Basin. Depredation was the primary cause for nest failure in our study (82.5%), and common ravens were the most frequent sage-grouse nest predator, accounting for 46.7% of nest depredations. We also successfully documented a suite of mammalian and reptilian species depredating sage-grouse nests, including some predators never previously confirmed in the literature to be sage-grouse nest predators (i.e., bobcats Lynx rufus and long-tailed weasels Mephitis frenata). Within the high elevation, disturbed habitat of the Virginia Mountains, low sage-grouse nest success may be limiting sage-grouse population growth. These results suggest that management actions that restore habitat in the Virginia Mountains and decrease anthropogenic subsidies of ravens will benefit sage-grouse.

  12. Weather and Prey Predict Mammals’ Visitation to Water

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Grant; Sanderson, James G.; Erz, Jon; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Butler, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout many arid lands of Africa, Australia and the United States, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. In part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. Employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species, could assist wildlife management objectives while mitigating unintended consequences of year-round watering regimes. Therefore, we examined if weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity [RH], vapor pressure deficit [VPD], long and short-term precipitation) and predator-prey relationships (i.e., prey presence) predicted water visitation by 9 mammals. We modeled visitation as recorded by trail cameras at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA (June 2009 to September 2014) using generalized linear modeling. For 3 native ungulates, elk (Cervus Canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), less long-term precipitation and higher maximum temperatures increased visitation, including RH for mule deer. Less long-term precipitation and higher VPD increased oryx (Oryx gazella) and desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii) visitation. Long-term precipitation, with RH or VPD, predicted visitation for black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus). Standardized model coefficients demonstrated that the amount of long-term precipitation influenced herbivore visitation most. Weather (especially maximum temperature) and prey (cottontails and jackrabbits) predicted bobcat (Lynx rufus) visitation. Mule deer visitation had the largest influence on coyote (Canis latrans) visitation. Puma (Puma concolor) visitation was solely predicted by prey visitation (elk, mule deer, oryx). Most ungulate visitation peaked during May and June. Coyote, elk and puma visitation was relatively consistent throughout the year. Within the diel-period, activity patterns for predators corresponded with prey. Year-round water management may favor species with consistent use throughout the year, and facilitate predation. Providing water only during periods of high use by target species may moderate unwanted biological costs. PMID:26560518

  13. PoSSUM: Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimuller, J. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Thomas, G. E.; Taylor, M. J.; Mitchell, S.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Watchorn, S. R.; Baumgarten, G.; Plane, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Project PoSSUM (www.projectpossum.org) is a suborbital research project leveraging imaging and remote sensing techniques from Reusable Suborbital Launch Vehicles (rSLVs) to gather critical climate data through use of the PoSSUM Observatory and the PoSSUM Aeronomy Laboratory. An acronym for Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere, PoSSUM grew from the opportunity created by the Noctilucent Cloud Imagery and Tomography Experiment, selected by the NASA Flight Opportunities Program as Experiment 46-S in March 2012. This experiment will employ an rSLV (e.g. the XCOR Lynx Mark II) launched from a high-latitude spaceport (e.g. Eielson AFB, Alaska or Kiruna, Sweden) during a week-long deployment scheduled for July 2015 to address critical questions concerning noctilucent clouds (NLCs) through flights that transition the cloud layer where the clouds will be under direct illumination from the sun. The 2015 Project PoSSUM NLC campaign will use the unique capability of rSLVs to address key under-answered questions pertaining to NLCs. Specifically, PoSSUM will answer: 1) What are the small-scale dynamics of NLCs and what does this tell us about the energy and momentum deposition from the lower atmosphere? 2) What is the seasonal variability of NLCs, mesospheric dynamics, and temperatures? 3) Are structures observed in the OH layer coupled with NLC structures? 4) How do NLCs nucleate? and 5) What is the geometry of NLC particles and how do they stratify? Instrumentation will include video and still-frame visible cameras (PoSSUMCam), infrared cameras, a mesospheric temperatures experiment, a depolarization LiDAR, a mesospheric density and temperatures experiment (MCAT), a mesospheric winds experiment, and a meteoric smoke detector (MASS). The instrument suite used on PoSSUM will mature through subsequent campaigns to develop an integrated, modular laboratory (the ';PoSSUM Observatory') that will provide repeatable, low cost, in-situ NLC and aeronomy observations as well as validate a method to serve the broader Earth Observation science, atmospheric science, and aeronomy communities.

  14. A Genome-Wide Association Study for Clinical Mastitis in First Parity US Holstein Cows Using Single-Step Approach and Genomic Matrix Re-Weighting Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Tiezzi, Francesco; Parker-Gaddis, Kristen L.; Cole, John B.; Clay, John S.; Maltecca, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with large impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CM in first-lactation Holstein. Producer-recorded mastitis event information for 103,585 first-lactation cows were used, together with genotype information on 1,361 bulls from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Single-step genomic-BLUP methodology was used to incorporate genomic data into a threshold-liability model. Association analysis confirmed that CM follows a highly polygenic mode of inheritance. However, 10-adjacent-SNP windows showed that regions on chromosomes 2, 14 and 20 have impacts on genetic variation for CM. Some of the genes located on chromosome 14 (LY6K, LY6D, LYNX1, LYPD2, SLURP1, PSCA) are part of the lymphocyte-antigen-6 complex (LY6) known for its neutrophil regulation function linked to the major histocompatibility complex. Other genes on chromosome 2 were also involved in regulating immune response (IFIH1, LY75, and DPP4), or are themselves regulated in the presence of specific pathogens (ITGB6, NR4A2). Other genes annotated on chromosome 20 are involved in mammary gland metabolism (GHR, OXCT1), antibody production and phagocytosis of bacterial cells (C6, C7, C9, C1QTNF3), tumor suppression (DAB2), involution of mammary epithelium (OSMR) and cytokine regulation (PRLR). DAVID enrichment analysis revealed 5 KEGG pathways. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway (cell proliferation and apoptosis) and the ‘Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction’ (cytokine and interleukines response to infectious agents) are co-regulated and linked to the ‘ABC transporters’ pathway also found here. Gene network analysis performed using GeneMania revealed a co-expression network where 665 interactions existed among 145 of the genes reported above. Clinical mastitis is a complex trait and the different genes regulating immune response are known to be pathogen-specific. Despite the lack of information in this study, candidate QTL for CM were identified in the US Holstein population. PMID:25658712

  15. Jasmonate and ethylene dependent defence gene expression and suppression of fungal virulence factors: two essential mechanisms of Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium species like F. graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol produced by the fungus affect plant and animal health, and cause significant reductions of grain yield and quality. Resistant varieties are the only effective way to control this disease, but the molecular events leading to FHB resistance are still poorly understood. Transcriptional profiling was conducted for the winter wheat cultivars Dream (moderately resistant) and Lynx (susceptible). The gene expressions at 32 and 72 h after inoculation with Fusarium were used to trace possible defence mechanisms and associated genes. A comparative qPCR was carried out for selected genes to analyse the respective expression patterns in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3 (Chinese spring wheat). Results Among 2,169 differentially expressed genes, two putative main defence mechanisms were found in the FHB-resistant Dream cultivar. Both are defined base on their specific mode of resistance. A non-specific mechanism was based on several defence genes probably induced by jasmonate and ethylene signalling, including lipid-transfer protein, thionin, defensin and GDSL-like lipase genes. Additionally, defence-related genes encoding jasmonate-regulated proteins were up-regulated in response to FHB. Another mechanism based on the targeted suppression of essential Fusarium virulence factors comprising proteases and mycotoxins was found to be an essential, induced defence of general relevance in wheat. Moreover, similar inductions upon fungal infection were frequently observed among FHB-responsive genes of both mechanisms in the cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Conclusions Especially ABC transporter, UDP-glucosyltransferase, protease and protease inhibitor genes associated with the defence mechanism against fungal virulence factors are apparently active in different resistant genetic backgrounds, according to reports on other wheat cultivars and barley. This was further supported in our qPCR experiments on seven genes originating from this mechanism which revealed similar activities in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Finally, the combination of early-stage and steady-state induction was associated with resistance, while transcript induction generally occurred later and temporarily in the susceptible cultivars. The respective mechanisms are attractive for advanced studies aiming at new resistance and toxin management strategies. PMID:22857656

  16. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of veterinary blastomycosis in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that Blastomyces dermatitidis, the etiologic agent of blastomycosis, is a genetically diverse pathogen. Blastomycosis is a significant health issue in humans and other mammals. Veterinary and human isolates matched with epidemiological case data from the same geographic area and time period were used to determine: (i) if differences in genetic diversity and structure exist between clinical veterinary and human isolates of B. dermatitidis and (ii) if comparable epidemiologic features differ among veterinary and human blastomycosis cases. Results Genetic typing of 301 clinical B. dermatitidis isolates produced 196 haplotypes (59 unique to veterinary isolates, 134 unique to human isolates, and 3 shared between canine and human isolates). Private allelic richness was higher in veterinary (median 2.27) compared to human isolates (median 1.14) (p = 0.005). Concordant with previous studies, two distinct genetic groups were identified among all isolates. Genetic group assignment was different between human and veterinary isolates (p < 0.001), with more veterinary isolates assigned to Group 2. The mean age of dogs diagnosed with blastomycosis was 6 years. Thirty cases were in male dogs (52%) and 24 were females (41%). The breed of dog was able to be retrieved in 38 of 58 cases with 19 (50%) being sporting breeds. Three of four felines infected with blastomycosis were domestic shorthair males between ages 6–12, and presented with disseminated disease. The other was a lynx with pulmonary disease. The equine isolate was from an 11-year-old male Halflinger with disseminated disease. Disseminated disease was reported more often in veterinary (62%) than human cases (19%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions Isolates from all hosts clustered largely into previously identified genetic groups, with 3 haplotypes being shared between human and canine isolates confirming that B. dermatitidis isolates capable of infecting both species occur in nature. Allelic diversity measures trended higher in veterinary samples, with a higher number of total alleles and private alleles. Veterinary isolates of B. dermatitidis contributed a substantial amount of diversity to the overall population genetic structure demonstrating the importance of including veterinary isolates in genetic studies of evolution and virulence in this organism. PMID:23607640

  17. Human Secreted Ly-6/uPAR Related Protein-1 (SLURP-1) Is a Selective Allosteric Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Kudryavtsev, Denis; Bychkov, Maxim L; Kulbatskii, Dmitrii S; Kasheverov, Igor E; Astapova, Maria V; Feofanov, Alexey V; Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Tsetlin, Victor I; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2016-01-01

    SLURP-1 is a secreted toxin-like Ly-6/uPAR protein found in epithelium, sensory neurons and immune cells. Point mutations in the slurp-1 gene cause the autosomal inflammation skin disease Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is considered an autocrine/paracrine hormone that regulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and controls inflammation and malignant cell transformation. The majority of previous studies of SLURP-1 have been made using fusion constructs containing, in addition to the native protein, extra polypeptide sequences. Here we describe the activity and pharmacological profile of a recombinant analogue of human SLURP-1 (rSLURP-1) differing from the native protein only by one additional N-terminal Met residue. rSLURP-1 significantly inhibited proliferation (up to ~ 40%, EC50 ~ 4 nM) of human oral keratinocytes (Het-1A cells). Application of mecamylamine and atropine,-non-selective inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively, and anti-α7-nAChRs antibodies revealed α7 type nAChRs as an rSLURP-1 target in keratinocytes. Using affinity purification from human cortical extracts, we confirmed that rSLURP-1 binds selectively to the α7-nAChRs. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7-nAChRs to rSLURP-1 caused a significant non-competitive inhibition of the response to acetylcholine (up to ~ 70%, IC50 ~ 1 μM). It was shown that rSLURP-1 binds to α7-nAChRs overexpressed in GH4Cl cells, but does not compete with 125I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the receptor. These findings imply an allosteric antagonist-like mode of SLURP-1 interaction with α7-nAChRs outside the classical ligand-binding site. Contrary to rSLURP-1, other inhibitors of α7-nAChRs (mecamylamine, α-bungarotoxin and Lynx1) did not suppress the proliferation of keratinocytes. Moreover, the co-application of α-bungarotoxin with rSLURP-1 did not influence antiproliferative activity of the latter. This supports the hypothesis that the antiproliferative activity of SLURP-1 is related to 'metabotropic' signaling pathway through α7-nAChR, that activates intracellular signaling cascades without opening the receptor channel. PMID:26905431

  18. multimark: an R package for analysis of capture-recapture data consisting of multiple "noninvasive" marks.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Brett T

    2015-11-01

    I describe an open-source R package, multimark, for estimation of survival and abundance from capture-mark-recapture data consisting of multiple "noninvasive" marks. Noninvasive marks include natural pelt or skin patterns, scars, and genetic markers that enable individual identification in lieu of physical capture. multimark provides a means for combining and jointly analyzing encounter histories from multiple noninvasive sources that otherwise cannot be reliably matched (e.g., left- and right-sided photographs of bilaterally asymmetrical individuals). The package is currently capable of fitting open population Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) and closed population abundance models with up to two mark types using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. multimark can also be used for Bayesian analyses of conventional capture-recapture data consisting of a single-mark type. Some package features include (1) general model specification using formulas already familiar to most R users, (2) ability to include temporal, behavioral, age, cohort, and individual heterogeneity effects in detection and survival probabilities, (3) improved MCMC algorithm that is computationally faster and more efficient than previously proposed methods, (4) Bayesian multimodel inference using reversible jump MCMC, and (5) data simulation capabilities for power analyses and assessing model performance. I demonstrate use of multimark using left- and right-sided encounter histories for bobcats (Lynx rufus) collected from remote single-camera stations in southern California. In this example, there is evidence of a behavioral effect (i.e., trap "happy" response) that is otherwise indiscernible using conventional single-sided analyses. The package will be most useful to ecologists seeking stronger inferences by combining different sources of mark-recapture data that are difficult (or impossible) to reliably reconcile, particularly with the sparse datasets typical of rare or elusive species for which noninvasive sampling techniques are most commonly employed. Addressing deficiencies in currently available software, multimark also provides a user-friendly interface for performing Bayesian multimodel inference using capture-recapture data consisting of a single conventional mark or multiple noninvasive marks. PMID:26640671

  19. Comparative sacral morphology and the reconstructed tail lengths of five extinct primates: Proconsul heseloni, Epipliopithecus vindobonensis, Archaeolemur edwardsi, Megaladapis grandidieri, and Palaeopropithecus kelyus.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the morphology of the sacrum-the sole bony link between the tail or coccyx and the rest of the body-and tail length (including presence/absence) and function using a comparative sample of extant mammals spanning six orders (Primates, Carnivora, Rodentia, Diprotodontia, Pilosa, Scandentia; N = 472). Phylogenetically-informed regression methods were used to assess how tail length varied with respect to 11 external and internal (i.e., trabecular) bony sacral variables with known or suspected biomechanical significance across all mammals, only primates, and only non-primates. Sacral variables were also evaluated for primates assigned to tail categories ('tailless,' 'nonprehensile short-tailed,' 'nonprehensile long-tailed,' and 'prehensile-tailed'). Compared to primates with reduced tail lengths, primates with longer tails generally exhibited sacra having larger caudal neural openings than cranial neural openings, and last sacral vertebrae with more mediolaterally-expanded caudal articular surfaces than cranial articular surfaces, more laterally-expanded transverse processes, more dorsally-projecting spinous processes, and larger caudal articular surface areas. Observations were corroborated by the comparative sample, which showed that shorter-tailed (e.g., Lynx rufus [bobcat]) and longer-tailed (e.g., Acinonyx jubatus [cheetah]) non-primate mammals morphologically converge with shorter-tailed (e.g., Macaca nemestrina) and longer-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. 'Prehensile-tailed' primates exhibited last sacral vertebrae with more laterally-expanded transverse processes and greater caudal articular surface areas than 'nonprehensile long-tailed' primates. Internal sacral variables performed poorly compared to external sacral variables in analyses of extant primates, and were thus deemed less useful for making inferences concerning tail length and function in extinct primates. The tails lengths of five extinct primates were reconstructed from the external sacral variables: Archaeolemur edwardsi had a 'nonprehensile long tail,' Megaladapis grandidieri, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, and Epipliopithecus vindobonensis probably had 'nonprehensile short tails,' and Proconsul heseloni was 'tailless.' PMID:26767965

  20. Microhabitat selection by bobcats in the badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, USA: a comparison of Prairie and forested habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosby, Cory E.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Schroeder, Greg M.; Schmitz, Lowell E.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of habitat selection is important for management of wildlife species. Although bobcat (Lynx rufus) resource selection has been addressed in many regions of the United States, little work has been conducted in the Northern Great Plains. From 2006–2008 we captured and radiocollared 20 bobcats in the Badlands (n = 10) and Black Hills (n = 10) regions of South Dakota. During the summers of 2008 and 2009 we collected habitat measurements at 349 (176 Badlands, 176 Black Hills) bobcat locations and 321 (148 Badlands, 173 Black Hills) random sites. Microhabitat characteristics at bobcat use sites varied with region (P < 0.001) and sex of bobcat (P < 0.001). Percent slope, shrub, low cover, medium cover, and total cover were greater (P ≤ 0.017) at bobcat locations in the Black Hills than in the Badlands whereas distance to drainage was greater (P < 0.001) at locations in the Badlands than in the Black Hills. In the Badlands, male bobcat locations were closer (P ≤ 0.002) to prairie dog towns and drainages and had greater (P < 0.05) percent forbs and forb height than random sites, whereas females were closer to badland formations (P < 0.001) than random sites. In the Black Hills, male locations were at greater elevation (P < 0.001) and female locations were characterized by greater (P ≤ 0.02) grass height, shrub height, low cover, and total cover than random sites. Logistic regression indicated that microhabitat selection was similar between study areas; odds ratios indicated that odds of bobcat use increased by 0.998 (95% CI = 0.997–0.999) per 1 m increase in distance to drainage, 0.986 (95% CI = 0.978–0.993) per 1.0% increase in grass cover, by 1.024 (95% CI = 1.011–1.036) per 1 cm increase in grass height, by 1.013 (95% CI = 1.003–1.024) per 1% increase in forb cover, and by 1.028 (95% CI = 1.017–1.039) per 1% increase in medium cover. Our results were similar to other bobcat microhabitat selection studies, where bobcat relocations were associated with understory vegetation, drainages, and rugged terrain. These results identify the adaptability of the species to meet life history requirements in a variety of landscapes, and provide insight to how land use requirements vary within regional and management boundaries.

  1. [Distribution patterns of wild felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in the dry tropics of Central-Western Mexico].

    PubMed

    Charre-Medellín, Juan Felipe; Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio Cesar; Guido-Lemus, Daniel; Mendoza, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    The Michoacán state is characterized by the existence of important environmental heterogeneity in terms of climate, topography and types of vegetation, which includes the worldwide endangered tropical dry forest. Some reports indicating the presence of the six species of felids occurring in Mexico in this region have been made; however, evidence to support these reports is scant, and filling this lack of information is particularly critical in the case of threatened species or habitats. The aim of this study was to systematize and analyze data distribution patterns of felids in the state of Michoacán, in the Central-Western Mexico. We conducted a review of literature and databases to compile species presence records in the study region. Moreover, we analyzed data obtained from ten years of field work conducted in the region, in which complementary methods (detection of direct and indirect evidence of species occurrence along transects, camera-trapping and interviews to local people) were applied to detect the presence of felid species. We compiled a total of 29 presence records of felids in the region from our review. Additionally, field work, which accumulated 1,107.5 km of walked transects, and 8 699 camera-trap days, produced 672 records of species presence. Lynx rufus was the species with the lowest number of records and the most restricted distribution. In contrast, the species with the greatest number of records was Leoparduspardalis (n = 343). In general, 89% of felids records occurred below 1,000 masl. Overall mean annual temperature of presence records was 24 °C and mean annual precipitation was 1,040 mm. The species whose presence records showed the most distinctive pattern, in terms of temperature and precipitation associated, was L. rufus (15.8 ± 1.3°C and 941 ± 171 mm). Results of a cluster analysis showed that areas supporting different combinations of eco-regions and types of vegetation could be grouped in five clusters having different assemblages of felid species and camera-trapping records. This study results useful to garner a more comprehensive view of the distribution patterns of felids in a region with important environmental contrasts and subjected to an increased human pressure. Moreover, this study provides insights that further our understanding of the relationship between environmental variables and felid distribution patterns which may have an impact for conservation and management strategies at the local and regional levels. PMID:26666133

  2. Weather and Prey Predict Mammals' Visitation to Water.

    PubMed

    Harris, Grant; Sanderson, James G; Erz, Jon; Lehnen, Sarah E; Butler, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Throughout many arid lands of Africa, Australia and the United States, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. In part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. Employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species, could assist wildlife management objectives while mitigating unintended consequences of year-round watering regimes. Therefore, we examined if weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity [RH], vapor pressure deficit [VPD], long and short-term precipitation) and predator-prey relationships (i.e., prey presence) predicted water visitation by 9 mammals. We modeled visitation as recorded by trail cameras at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA (June 2009 to September 2014) using generalized linear modeling. For 3 native ungulates, elk (Cervus Canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), less long-term precipitation and higher maximum temperatures increased visitation, including RH for mule deer. Less long-term precipitation and higher VPD increased oryx (Oryx gazella) and desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii) visitation. Long-term precipitation, with RH or VPD, predicted visitation for black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus). Standardized model coefficients demonstrated that the amount of long-term precipitation influenced herbivore visitation most. Weather (especially maximum temperature) and prey (cottontails and jackrabbits) predicted bobcat (Lynx rufus) visitation. Mule deer visitation had the largest influence on coyote (Canis latrans) visitation. Puma (Puma concolor) visitation was solely predicted by prey visitation (elk, mule deer, oryx). Most ungulate visitation peaked during May and June. Coyote, elk and puma visitation was relatively consistent throughout the year. Within the diel-period, activity patterns for predators corresponded with prey. Year-round water management may favor species with consistent use throughout the year, and facilitate predation. Providing water only during periods of high use by target species may moderate unwanted biological costs. PMID:26560518

  3. Human Secreted Ly-6/uPAR Related Protein-1 (SLURP-1) Is a Selective Allosteric Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Bychkov, Maxim L.; Kulbatskii, Dmitrii S.; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Astapova, Maria V.; Feofanov, Alexey V.; Thomsen, Morten S.; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.

    2016-01-01

    SLURP-1 is a secreted toxin-like Ly-6/uPAR protein found in epithelium, sensory neurons and immune cells. Point mutations in the slurp-1 gene cause the autosomal inflammation skin disease Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is considered an autocrine/paracrine hormone that regulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and controls inflammation and malignant cell transformation. The majority of previous studies of SLURP-1 have been made using fusion constructs containing, in addition to the native protein, extra polypeptide sequences. Here we describe the activity and pharmacological profile of a recombinant analogue of human SLURP-1 (rSLURP-1) differing from the native protein only by one additional N-terminal Met residue. rSLURP-1 significantly inhibited proliferation (up to ~ 40%, EC50 ~ 4 nM) of human oral keratinocytes (Het-1A cells). Application of mecamylamine and atropine,—non-selective inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively, and anti-α7-nAChRs antibodies revealed α7 type nAChRs as an rSLURP-1 target in keratinocytes. Using affinity purification from human cortical extracts, we confirmed that rSLURP-1 binds selectively to the α7-nAChRs. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7-nAChRs to rSLURP-1 caused a significant non-competitive inhibition of the response to acetylcholine (up to ~ 70%, IC50 ~ 1 μM). It was shown that rSLURP-1 binds to α7-nAChRs overexpressed in GH4Cl cells, but does not compete with 125I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the receptor. These findings imply an allosteric antagonist-like mode of SLURP-1 interaction with α7-nAChRs outside the classical ligand-binding site. Contrary to rSLURP-1, other inhibitors of α7-nAChRs (mecamylamine, α-bungarotoxin and Lynx1) did not suppress the proliferation of keratinocytes. Moreover, the co-application of α-bungarotoxin with rSLURP-1 did not influence antiproliferative activity of the latter. This supports the hypothesis that the antiproliferative activity of SLURP-1 is related to ‘metabotropic’ signaling pathway through α7-nAChR, that activates intracellular signaling cascades without opening the receptor channel. PMID:26905431

  4. Medium-Sized Mammals around a Radioactive Liquid Waste Lagoon at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Uptake of Contaminants and Evaluation of Radio-Frequency Identification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie A. Hansen; Phil R. Fresquez; Rhonda J. Robinson; John D. Huchton; Teralene S. Foxx

    1999-11-01

    Use of a radioactive liquid waste lagoon by medium-sized mammals and levels of tritium, other selected radionuclides, and metals in biological tissues of the animals were documented at Technical Area 53 (TA-53) of Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1997 and 1998. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegates), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) were captured at TA-53 and at a control site on the Santa Fe National Forest. Captured animals were anesthetized and marked with radio-frequency identification (RFD) tags and/or ear tags. We collected urine and hair samples for tritium and metals (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and thallium) analyses, respectively. In addition, muscle and bone samples from two rock squirrels collected from each of TA-53, perimeter, and regional background sites were tested for tritium, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and total uranium. Animals at TA-53 were monitored entering and leaving the lagoon area using a RFID monitor to read identification numbers from the RFID tags of marked animals and a separate camera system to photograph all animals passing through the monitor. Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.), rock squirrel, and raccoon were the species most frequently photographed going through the RFID monitor. Less than half of all marked animals in the lagoon area were detected using the lagoon. Male and female rock squirrels from the lagoon area had significantly higher tritium concentrations compared to rock squirrels from the control area. Metals tested were not significantly higher in rock squirrels from TA-53, although there was a trend toward increased levels of lead in some individuals at TA-53. Muscle and bone samples from squirrels in the lagoon area appeared to have higher levels of tritium, total uranium, and {sup 137}Cs than samples collected from perimeter and background locations. However, the committed effective dose equivalent estimated from the potential human consumption of the muscle and bone tissue from these rock squirrels did not suggest any human health risk. Indirect routes of tritium uptake, possibly through consumption of vegetation, are important for animals in the lagoon area.

  5. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States.

    PubMed

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N; Lappin, Michael R; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mathew; Logan, Kenneth A; Sweanor, Linda L; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Mcbride, Roy; Cunningham, Mark C; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened > 1000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure; providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban land use predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest interspecific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intraspecific interactions through pile-up of home ranges. Beyond these regional and pathogen specific relationships, proximity to the wildland-urban interface did not generally increase the probability of disease exposure in wild or domestic felids, empha- sizing the importance of local ecological determinants. Indeed, pathogen exposure was often negatively associated with the wildland-urban interface for all felids. Our analyses suggest cross-species pathogen transmission events around this interface may be infrequent, but followed by self-sustaining propagation within the new host species. virus; puma (Puma concolor); Toxoplasma gondii; urbanization. PMID:27209780

  6. A Mobile Automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning System - 13231

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J.M.; LeBlanc, P.J.; Nakazawa, D.; Petroka, D.L.; Kane Smith, S.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M.

    2013-07-01

    Canberra Industries have recently designed and built a new automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) system for mobile deployment. The TGS technique combines high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with low spatial resolution 3-dimensional image reconstruction to provide increased accuracy over traditional approaches for the assay of non-uniform source distributions in low-to medium-density, non-heterogeneous matrices. Originally pioneered by R. Estep at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the TGS method has been further developed and commercialized by Canberra Industries in recent years. The present system advances the state of the art on several fronts: it is designed to be housed in a standard cargo transport container for ease of transport, allowing waste characterization at multiple facilities under the purview of a single operator. Conveyor feed, drum rotator, and detector and collimator positioning mechanisms operated by programmable logic control (PLC) allow automated batch mode operation. The variable geometry settings can accommodate a wide range of waste packaging, including but not limited to standard 220 liter drums, 380 liter overpack drums, and smaller 20 liter cans. A 20 mCi Eu-152 transmission source provides attenuation corrections for drum matrices up to 1 g/cm{sup 3} in TGS mode; the system can be operated in Segmented Gamma Scanning (SGS) mode to measure higher density drums. To support TGS assays at higher densities, the source shield is sufficient to house an alternate Co-60 transmission source of higher activity, up to 250 mCi. An automated shutter and attenuator assembly is provided for operating the system with a dual intensity transmission source. The system's 1500 kg capacity rotator turntable can handle heavy containers such as concrete lined 380 liter overpack drums. Finally, data acquisition utilizes Canberra's Broad Energy Germanium (BEGE) detector and Lynx MCA, with 32 k channels, providing better than 0.1 keV/channel resolution to support both isotopic analysis with the MGA/MGAU software and a wide 3 MeV dynamic range. The calibration and verification of the system is discussed, and quantitative results are presented for a variety of drum types and matrices. (authors)

  7. The Cycles of Snow Cover in Pyrenees Mountain and Mont Lebanon Analyzed Using the Global Modeling Technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapeau, L.; Mangiarotti, S.; Le Jean, F.; Gascoin, S.; Jarlan, L.

    2014-12-01

    The global modeling technique provides a way to obtain ordinary differential equations from single time series1. This technique, initiated in the 1990s, could be applied successfully to numerous theoretic and experimental systems. More recently it could be applied to environmental systems2,3. Here this technique is applied to seasonal snow cover area in the Pyrenees mountain (Europe) and Mont Lebanon (Mediterranean region). The snowpack evolution is complex because it results from combination of processes driven by physiography (elevation, slope, land cover...) and meteorological variables (precipitation, temperature, wind speed...), which are highly heterogeneous in such regions. Satellite observations in visible bands offer a powerful tool to monitor snow cover areas at global scale, with large resolutions range. Although this observable does not directly inform about snow water equivalent, its dynamical behavior strongly relies on it. Therefore, snow cover area is likely to be a good proxy of the global dynamics and global modeling technique a well adapted approach. The MOD10A2 product (500m) generated from MODIS by the NASA is used after a pretreatment is applied to minimize clouds effect. The global modeling technique is then applied using two packages4,5. The analysis is performed with two time series for the whole period (2000-2012) and year by year. Low-dimensional chaotic models are obtained in many cases. Such models provide a strong argument for chaos since involving the two necessary conditions in a synthetic way: determinism and strong sensitivity to initial conditions. The models comparison suggests important non-stationnarities at interannual scale which prevent from detecting long term changes. 1: Letellier et al 2009. Frequently asked questions about global modeling, Chaos, 19, 023103. 2: Maquet et al 2007. Global models from the Canadian lynx cycles as a direct evidence for chaos in real ecosystems. J. of Mathematical Biology, 55 (1), 21-39 3: Mangiarotti et al 2014. Two chaotic global models for cereal crops cycles observed from satellite in Northern Morocco. Chaos, 24, 023130. 4 : Mangiarotti et al 2012. Polynomial search and Global modelling: two algorithms for modeling chaos. Physical Review E, 86(4), 046205. 5: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/PoMoS/index.html.

  8. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North America fluctuate temporally and spatially. We also reviewed methods used to investigate jackrabbit populations, including spotlight line transects, flushing transects, drive counts, pellet plot counts, collections, roadside counts, mark-recapture studies, and radio-telemetry studies. Our review of jackrabbit literature illustrates a number of deficiencies in our understanding of jackrabbits in general. As an example, a detailed quantitative description of habitat preferences is lacking, as is a thorough understanding of sympatric jackrabbit species interactions. Even the existence of the oft-cited jackrabbit “cycle” is a matter of debate. Survey methods generally do not address efficacy or accuracy in measuring jackrabbit density or abundance. In addition, there is a paucity of information about jackrabbits in the Mojave Desert, with no real understanding of home ranges, habitat preferences, and population dynamics or demographics in this region.

  9. Temporal and Spatial Variation in Rainfall at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune North Carolina Using Tipping Bucket Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Austin, R.; Baumann, K.; Cunningham, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) is a research-based program that is sited at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL), NC. This program provides a unique opportunity to create results of broadly scoped ecological research, that improve our understanding of the structure and function of diverse coastal ecosystems, while directly integrating this research to address the Base’s management needs for sustaining the military training mission. This presentation outlines current efforts to assess the temporal and spatial trends in rainfall amounts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems within the confines of MCBCL (~ 60,700 ha) using tipping bucket gauges (HOBO Data Logging Rain Gauge, Onset Computer Corp.). To date, 23 tipping bucket gauges have been deployed, each with their own battery operated data logger. The data loggers record the time and date for each 0.2 mm of rainfall collected, allowing delineation of rainfall amounts within and between events. Five manual rain gauges with wind screens (Model 260-2510 Standard Rain Gauge, NovaLynx Corp.) are co-located with tipping buckets across MCBCL in order to assess accuracy. Rainfall amounts on an event basis are highly linearly correlated between the tipping bucket gauges and the manual rain gauges with a slope of 0.84 +/- 0.09 (95% confidence level), suggesting a consistent ~16% negative bias using the tipping bucket gauges. Measured rainfall amounts are more variable during the warm months of the year (% coefficient of variation (CV) > 25) than during the fall and winter months (%CV < 15). Analysis using repeated measures indicates date not location is driving the observed differences, suggesting that proximity to the Atlantic Ocean along the southern boundary of MCBCL is not influencing rainfall patterns across the Base. When averaged over time periods of at least 6 months, however, the uncertainty in rainfall amount is only 13% CV, providing an estimate of uncertainty for historical rainfall records at MCBCL that are based on single point observations. Interpolated maps of rainfall deposition are being generated using thin plate spline interpolation in conjunction with semi-variograms to measure spatial autocorrelation between collectors. The resulting maps will form the basis of estimating nutrient inputs from rainfall into different aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at MCBCL.

  10. Mark-Recapture and Mark-Resight Methods for Estimating Abundance with Remote Cameras: A Carnivore Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Robert S.; McClintock, Brett T.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Boydston, Erin E.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Abundance estimation of carnivore populations is difficult and has prompted the use of non-invasive detection methods, such as remotely-triggered cameras, to collect data. To analyze photo data, studies focusing on carnivores with unique pelage patterns have utilized a mark-recapture framework and studies of carnivores without unique pelage patterns have used a mark-resight framework. We compared mark-resight and mark-recapture estimation methods to estimate bobcat (Lynx rufus) population sizes, which motivated the development of a new "hybrid" mark-resight model as an alternative to traditional methods. We deployed a sampling grid of 30 cameras throughout the urban southern California study area. Additionally, we physically captured and marked a subset of the bobcat population with GPS telemetry collars. Since we could identify individual bobcats with photos of unique pelage patterns and a subset of the population was physically marked, we were able to use traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight methods, as well as the new “hybrid” mark-resight model we developed to estimate bobcat abundance. We recorded 109 bobcat photos during 4,669 camera nights and physically marked 27 bobcats with GPS telemetry collars. Abundance estimates produced by the traditional mark-recapture, traditional mark-resight, and “hybrid” mark-resight methods were similar, however precision differed depending on the models used. Traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight estimates were relatively imprecise with percent confidence interval lengths exceeding 100% of point estimates. Hybrid mark-resight models produced better precision with percent confidence intervals not exceeding 57%. The increased precision of the hybrid mark-resight method stems from utilizing the complete encounter histories of physically marked individuals (including those never detected by a camera trap) and the encounter histories of naturally marked individuals detected at camera traps. This new estimator may be particularly useful for estimating abundance of uniquely identifiable species that are difficult to sample using camera traps alone. PMID:25822245

  11. Tracking Cats: Problems with Placing Feline Carnivores on δ18O, δD Isoscapes

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Stephanie J.; Hobson, Keith A.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Tütken, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Several felids are endangered and threatened by the illegal wildlife trade. Establishing geographic origin of tissues of endangered species is thus crucial for wildlife crime investigations and effective conservation strategies. As shown in other species, stable isotope analysis of hydrogen and oxygen in hair (δDh, δ18Oh) can be used as a tool for provenance determination. However, reliably predicting the spatial distribution of δDh and δ18Oh requires confirmation from animal tissues of known origin and a detailed understanding of the isotopic routing of dietary nutrients into felid hair. Methodology/Findings We used coupled δDh and δ18Oh measurements from the North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) with precipitation-based assignment isoscapes to test the feasibility of isotopic geo-location of felidae. Hairs of felid and rabbit museum specimens from 75 sites across the United States and Canada were analyzed. Bobcat and puma lacked a significant correlation between H/O isotopes in hair and local waters, and also exhibited an isotopic decoupling of δ18Oh and δDh. Conversely, strong δD and δ18O coupling was found for key prey, eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus; hair) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; collagen, bone phosphate). Conclusions/Significance Puma and bobcat hairs do not adhere to expected pattern of H and O isotopic variation predicted by precipitation isoscapes for North America. Thus, using bulk hair, felids cannot be placed on δ18O and δD isoscapes for use in forensic investigations. The effective application of isotopes to trace the provenance of feline carnivores is likely compromised by major controls of their diet, physiology and metabolism on hair δ18O and δD related to body water budgets. Controlled feeding experiments, combined with single amino acid isotope analysis of diets and hair, are needed to reveal mechanisms and physiological traits explaining why felid hair does not follow isotopic patterns demonstrated in many other taxa. PMID:21931770

  12. [Methods for investigating Trichinella infections in domestic and wild animals].

    PubMed

    Müller, N; Sager, H; Schuppers, M; Gottstein, B

    2006-09-01

    Trichinellosis is an important parasitic zoonosis that is caused by the intracellular nematode Trichinella spp.. Infection of humans occurs through consumption of raw (or undercooked) meat containing infectious larvae. In Europe, meat from pork, horse, and wild boar have been identified as most important sources of Trichinella infections in humans. In Switzerland, both the domestic pig and wild boar population are considered free of Trichinella. Conversely, Swiss foxes, lynxs and recently a wolf were found to be infected, the species identified in these animals was always referred to as Trichinella britovi. Although this species rarely infects pork and, compared to Trichinella spiralis, only causes reduced pathogenic effects in humans, the basic presence of Trichinella in Switzerland cannot be neglegted. This fact has gained increasing importance since the responsible authorities in the European Union (EU) are preparing regulations for the official Trichinella-control in meat in order to improve food safety for consumers. These regulations will be implemented as a consequence of the recent association of east European countries with the EU. This new legislation particularly takes into account, that in the past by far most cases of human trichinellosis in the EU were due to consumption of imported east European meat.Within the framework of the bilateral agreements of Switzerland with the EU, the Swiss veterinary public health authorities will have to comply with the foreseen EU regulations. Although diagnostic methods for the direct demonstation of Trichinella in pork meat are already routine practice in several Swiss abattoirs, the implementation of a meat control program for Trichinella for the entire slaughter pig population of the country would lead to an enormous increase in costs for the administration and will require an increased infrastructure in veterinary services. In order to find a reduced testing format for monitoring Trichinella infections in Swiss pork, an infection risk-oriented survey strategy is currently evaluated. In the present article, this minimized survey strategy is discussed regarding its compatibility with the EU regulations laying down rules for the official control of meat for Trichinella. PMID:17024975

  13. Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Therese M; Warrington, Gregory S; Schwenk, W Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with < 1500 total pseudo-home ranges (points). Given present computational constraints, it is best suited for species that occur in clustered distributions (where the problem can be broken into several, smaller problems), or for species with large home ranges relative to grid scale where resampling the points to a coarser resolution can reduce the problem to manageable proportions. PMID:23387124

  14. HUBBLE PINPOINTS DISTANT SUPERNOVAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Hubble Space Telescope images pinpoint three distant supernovae, which exploded and died billions of years ago. Scientists are using these faraway light sources to estimate if the universe was expanding at a faster rate long ago and is now slowing down. Images of SN 1997cj are in the left hand column; SN 1997ce, in the middle; and SN 1997ck, on the right. All images were taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The top row of images are wider views of the supernovae. The supernovae were discovered in April 1997 in a ground-based survey at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Once the supernovae were discovered, the Hubble telescope was used to distinguish the supernovae from the light of their host galaxies. A series of Hubble telescope images were taken in May and June 1997 as the supernovae faded. Six Hubble telescope observations spanning five weeks were taken for each supernova. This time series enabled scientists to measure the brightness and create a light curve. Scientists then used the light curve to make an accurate estimate of the distances to the supernovae. Scientists combined the estimated distance with the measured velocity of the supernova's host galaxy to determine the expansion rate of the universe in the past (5 to 7 billion years ago) and compare it with the current rate. These supernovae belong to a class called Type Ia, which are considered reliable distance indicators. Looking at great distances also means looking back in time because of the finite velocity of light. SN 1997ck exploded when the universe was half its present age. It is the most distant supernova ever discovered (at a redshift of 0.97), erupting 7.7 billion years ago. The two other supernovae exploded about 5 billion years ago. SN 1997ce has a redshift of 0.44; SN 1997cj, 0.50. SN 1997ck is in the constellation Hercules, SN 1997ce is in Lynx, just north of Gemini; and SN 1997cj is in Ursa Major, near the Hubble Deep Field. Credits: Peter Garnavich, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the High-z Supernova Search Team, and NASA

  15. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were seropositive. Among 7 possible risk factors, sex, freezing meat temperature (above -13 C vs. below -13 C), washing vegetables thoroughly, frequency of feral cat sightings on zoo grounds (occasionally vs. frequently), frequency of feral cat control programs, capability of feral cats to enter hay/grain barn, and type of animal exhibit, exhibiting animals in open enclosures was the only factor identified as a significant risk (OR 3.22, P = 0.00). PMID:18605803

  16. Flathead River Basin Hydrologic Observatory, Northern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, W. W.; Running, S. W.; Potts, D. F.; Kimball, J. S.; Deluca, T. H.; Fagre, D. B.; Makepeace, S.; Hendrix, M. S.; Lorang, M. S.; Ellis, B. K.; Lafave, J.; Harper, J.

    2004-12-01

    We are proposing the 22, 515 km2 glacially-sculpted Flathead River Basin located in Montana and British Columbia as a Hydrologic Observatory. This hydrologic landscape is diverse and includes large pristine watersheds, rapidly developing intermountain valleys, and a 95 km2 regulated reservoir and 510 km2 lake. The basin has a topographic gradient of over 2,339 m, and spans high alpine to arid climatic zones and a range of biomes. Stream flows are snow-melt dominated and underpinned by groundwater baseflow. The site headwaters contain 37 glaciers and thousands of square kilometers of watersheds in which fire and disease are the only disturbances. In contrast, the HO also contains watersheds at multiple scales that were dominated by glaciers within the last 100 years but are now glacier free, impacted by timber harvests and fires of varying ages to varying degrees, modified by water management practices including irrigation diversion and dams, and altered by development for homes, cities and agriculture. This Observatory provides a sensitive monitor of historic and future climatic shifts, air shed influences and impacts, and the consequences of land and water management practices on the hydrologic system. The HO watersheds are some of the only pristine watersheds left in the contiguous U.S.. They provide critical habitat for key species including the native threaten bull trout and lynx, and the listed western cutthroat trout, bald eagle, gray wolf and the grizzly bear. For the last several thousand years this system has been dominated by snow-melt runoff and moderated by large quantities of water stored in glacial ice. However, the timing and magnitude of droughts and summer flows have changed dramatically. With the information that can be gleaned from sediment cores and landscape records at different scales, this HO provides scientists with opportunities to establish baseline watershed conditions and data on natural hydrologic variability within the system. Such a context frames the current and further observations and assists with translating measured changes into links with the varied HO ecosystems.

  17. A genome-wide association study for clinical mastitis in first parity US Holstein cows using single-step approach and genomic matrix re-weighting procedure.

    PubMed

    Tiezzi, Francesco; Parker-Gaddis, Kristen L; Cole, John B; Clay, John S; Maltecca, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with large impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CM in first-lactation Holstein. Producer-recorded mastitis event information for 103,585 first-lactation cows were used, together with genotype information on 1,361 bulls from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Single-step genomic-BLUP methodology was used to incorporate genomic data into a threshold-liability model. Association analysis confirmed that CM follows a highly polygenic mode of inheritance. However, 10-adjacent-SNP windows showed that regions on chromosomes 2, 14 and 20 have impacts on genetic variation for CM. Some of the genes located on chromosome 14 (LY6K, LY6D, LYNX1, LYPD2, SLURP1, PSCA) are part of the lymphocyte-antigen-6 complex (LY6) known for its neutrophil regulation function linked to the major histocompatibility complex. Other genes on chromosome 2 were also involved in regulating immune response (IFIH1, LY75, and DPP4), or are themselves regulated in the presence of specific pathogens (ITGB6, NR4A2). Other genes annotated on chromosome 20 are involved in mammary gland metabolism (GHR, OXCT1), antibody production and phagocytosis of bacterial cells (C6, C7, C9, C1QTNF3), tumor suppression (DAB2), involution of mammary epithelium (OSMR) and cytokine regulation (PRLR). DAVID enrichment analysis revealed 5 KEGG pathways. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway (cell proliferation and apoptosis) and the 'Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction' (cytokine and interleukines response to infectious agents) are co-regulated and linked to the 'ABC transporters' pathway also found here. Gene network analysis performed using GeneMania revealed a co-expression network where 665 interactions existed among 145 of the genes reported above. Clinical mastitis is a complex trait and the different genes regulating immune response are known to be pathogen-specific. Despite the lack of information in this study, candidate QTL for CM were identified in the US Holstein population. PMID:25658712

  18. A Digital Motion Control System for Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. R.; Wilson, R. W.; Kimberk, R.; Leiker, P. S.

    2001-05-01

    We have designed and programmed a digital motion control system for large telescopes, in particular, the 6-meter antennas of the Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea. The system consists of a single robust, high-reliability microcontroller board which implements a two-axis velocity servo while monitoring and responding to critical safety parameters. Excellent tracking performance has been achieved with this system (0.3 arcsecond RMS at sidereal rate). The 24x24 centimeter four-layer printed circuit board contains a multitude of hardware devices: 40 digital inputs (for limit switches and fault indicators), 32 digital outputs (to enable/disable motor amplifiers and brakes), a quad 22-bit ADC (to read the motor tachometers), four 16-bit DACs (that provide torque signals to the motor amplifiers), a 32-LED status panel, a serial port to the LynxOS PowerPC antenna computer (RS422/460kbps), a serial port to the Palm Vx handpaddle (RS232/115kbps), and serial links to the low-resolution absolute encoders on the azimuth and elevation axes. Each section of the board employs independent ground planes and power supplies, with optical isolation on all I/O channels. The processor is an Intel 80C196KC 16-bit microcontroller running at 20MHz on an 8-bit bus. This processor executes an interrupt-driven, scheduler-based software system written in C and assembled into an EPROM with user-accessible variables stored in NVSRAM. Under normal operation, velocity update requests arrive at 100Hz from the position-loop servo process running independently on the antenna computer. A variety of telescope safety checks are performed at 279Hz including routine servicing of a 6 millisecond watchdog timer. Additional ADCs onboard the microcontroller monitor the winding temperature and current in the brushless three-phase drive motors. The PID servo gains can be dynamically changed in software. Calibration factors and software filters can be applied to the tachometer readings prior to the application of the servo gains in the torque computations. The Palm pilot handpaddle displays the complete status of the telescope and allows full local control of the drives in an intuitive, touchscreen user interface which is especially useful during reconfigurations of the antenna array.

  19. Evidence for evolutionarily conserved secondary structure in the H19 tumor suppressor RNA.

    PubMed

    Juan, V; Crain, C; Wilson, C

    2000-03-01

    The molecular basis for function of the mammalian H19 as a tumor suppressor is poorly understood. Large, conserved open reading frames (ORFs) are absent from both the human and mouse cDNAs, suggesting that it may act as an RNA. Contradicting earlier reports, however, recent studies have shown that the H19 transcript exists in polysomal form and is likely translated. To distinguish between possible functional roles for the gene product, we have characterized the sequence requirements for H19-mediated in vitro suppression of tumor cell clonogenicity and analyzed the sequence of the gene cloned from a range of mammals. A cDNA version of the human gene, lacking the unusually short introns characteristic of imprinted genes, is as effective as a genomic copy in blocking anchorage-independent growth by G401 cells. The first 710 nucleotides of the gene can be deleted with no effect on in vitro activity. Further truncations from either the 5'- or 3'-end, however, cause a loss of suppression of clonogenicity. Using conserved sequences within the H19 gene as PCR primers, genomic DNA fragments were amplified from a range of mammalian species that span the functional domain defined by deletion analysis. Sequences from cat, lynx, elephant, gopher and orangutan complement the previous database of sequences from human, mouse, rat and rabbit. Hypothetical translation of the resulting sequences shows an absence of conserved ORFs of any size. Free energy and covariational analysis of the RNA sequences was used to identify potential helical pairings within the H19 transcript. A set of 16 helices are supported by covariation (i.e. conservation of base pairing potential in the absence of primary sequence conservation). The predicted RNA pairings consist largely of local hairpins but also include several long range interactions that bridge the 5'- and 3'-ends of the functional domain. Given the evolutionary conservation of structure at the RNA level and the absence of conservation at the protein level, we presume that the functional product of the H19 gene is a structured RNA. PMID:10666466

  20. Restrictions to cross-species transmission of lentiviral infection gleaned from studies of FIV.

    PubMed

    VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Jennifer; Poss, Mary

    2010-03-15

    More than 40 species of primates and over 20 species of cats harbor antibodies that sero-react to lentiviral antigens. In nearly all cases where viral genetic analysis has been conducted, each host species is infected with a unique lentivirus. Though lentivirus clades within a species can be substantially divergent, they are typically monophyletic within that species. A notable significant departure from this observation is apparent cross-species transmission of FIV between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in Southern California that has occurred at least three times; evidence from one bobcat sequence suggests this cross-over may have also occurred in Florida between bobcats and the endangered Florida panther. Several other isolated reports demonstrate cross-species transmission of FIV isolates among captive animals housed in close proximity, and it is well established that HIV-1 and HIV-2 arose from human contact with SIV-infected non-human primates. Using an experimental model, we have determined that domestic cats (Felis catus) are susceptible to FIVs originating from pumas or lions. While infections are initially replicative, and animals seroconvert, within a relatively short period of time circulating virus is reduced to nearly undetectable levels in a majority of animals. This diminution of viral load is proportional to initial viral peak. Although viral reservoirs can be identified in gastrointestinal tissues, most viral genomes recovered peripherally are highly mutated, suggesting that the non-adapted host successfully inhibits normal viral replication, leading to replication incompetent viral progeny. Mechanisms possible for such restriction of cross-species infections in natural settings include: (1) Lack of contact conducive to lentiviral transmission between infected and shedding animals of different species; (2) Lack of suitable receptor repertoire to allow viral entry to susceptible cells of a new species; (3) Cellular machinery in the new host sufficiently divergent from the primary host to support viral replication (i.e. passive unfacilitated viral replication); (4) Intracellular restriction mechanisms present in the new host that is able to limit viral replication (i.e. active interrupted viral replication. These include factors that limit uncoating, replication, packaging, and virion release); (5) Unique ability of new host to raise sterilizing adaptive immunity, resulting in aborted infection and inability to spread infections among con-specifics; or (6) Production of defective or non-infectious viral progeny that lack cellular cofactors to render them infectious to con-specifics (i.e. particles lacking appropriate cellular components in viral Env to render them infectious to other animals of the same species). Data to support or refute the relative importance of each of these possibilities is described in this review. Insights based on our in vivo cross-species model suggest intracellular restriction mechanisms effectively inhibit rapid inter-specific transmission of lentiviruses. Further, limited contact both within and between species in natural populations is highly relevant to limiting the opportunity for spread of FIV strains. Studies of naturally occurring SIV and innate host restriction systems suggest these same two mechanisms are significant factors inhibiting widespread cross-species transmission of lentiviruses among primate species as well. PMID:19896218

  1. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Hellsgate Project, 1999-2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Matthew

    2000-05-01

    A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was conducted on lands acquired and/or managed (4,568 acres total) by the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate project) to mitigate some of the losses associated with the original construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam and inundation of habitats behind the dams. Three separate properties, totaling 2,224 acres were purchased in 1998. One property composed of two separate parcels, mostly grassland lies southeast of the town of Nespelem in Okanogan County (770 acres) and was formerly called the Hinman property. The former Hinman property lies within an area the Tribes have set aside for the protection and preservation of the sharp-tailed grouse (Agency Butte unit). This special management area minus the Hinman acquisition contains 2,388 acres in a long-term lease with the Tribes. The second property lies just south of the Silver Creek turnoff (Ferry County) and is bisected by the Hellsgate Road (part of the Friedlander unit). This parcel contains 60 acres of riparian and conifer forest cover. The third property (now named the Sand Hills unit) acquired for mitigation (1,394 acres) lies within the Hellsgate Reserve in Ferry County. This new acquisition links two existing mitigation parcels (the old Sand Hills parcels and the Lundstrum Flat parcel, all former Kuehne purchases) together forming one large unit. HEP team members included individuals from the Colville Confederated Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department (CTCR), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The HEP team conducted a baseline habitat survey using the following HEP species models: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mink (Mustela vison), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), bobcat (Lynx rufus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus). HEP analysis and results are discussed within the body of the text. The cover types evaluated for this study were grasslands, shrub-steppe, rock, conifer forest and woodland, and riparian. These same cover types were evaluated for other Hellsgate Project acquisitions within the same geographic area. Mule deer habitat on the Sand Hills unit rated good overall for winter food and cover in the shrub-steppe and conifer woodland cover types. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat on the former Hinman property and special management area rated go