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Monitoring testicular activity of male Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx by fecal testosterone metabolite measurement.  


The aim of the present study was to identify relevant fecal testosterone metabolites in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) using HPLC analysis and to evaluate the specificity of two testosterone immunoassays against these fecal metabolites. Finally, fecal hormone analysis was used to characterize seasonal reproductive activity of captive male Eurasian and Iberian (Lynx pardinus) lynx. Fecal samples from a male Eurasian lynx who received an i.v. injection of [3H]testosterone were subjected to HPLC analysis. All HPLC fractions were analyzed for radioactivity and androgen content by two testosterone immune assays (EIA and Testosterone-Immulite kits, DPC Biermann, Germany). Furthermore, fecal samples from four Eurasian lynx males (n=174) and three Iberian lynx (n=52) were collected throughout the year and fecal testosterone metabolites were determined with Testosterone-Immulite assay. HPLC separation of radiolabeled Eurasian lynx fecal extract indicated that the majority of testosterone metabolites are substances with a higher polarity than testosterone. Only minor proportion of radioactivity co-eluted with authentic testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Enzymatic hydrolysis and solvolysis of the fecal extract were insufficient to liberate testosterone. After solvolysis relatively more activity was eluated the position of DHT, but the majority of metabolites remained unaffected. The EIA measured substantial amount of immunoreactivity, which corresponded with two radioactive peaks. Additionally, both immunoassays recognized two metabolites, which were only minor components according to their radioactivity. The Immulite assay was able to recognize a metabolite at the position of dihydrotestosterone. HPLC separation of Iberian lynx feces extracts revealed a similar metabolite pattern determined by EIA that were typical for Eurasian lynx fecal extracts. Simultaneous analyses of fecal samples with both testosterone assays provided comparative results for both lynx species (Eurasian lynx, r2=0.488; p<0.001; Iberian lynx, r2=0.85, p<0.0001). Thus, seasonal reproductive activity of male Eurasian lynx was demonstrated also by Immulite -assay, confirming high testosterone levels during breeding season in March/April as previously documented with EIA. Preliminary results on testosterone measurements in Iberian lynx feces confirmed the suitability of the applied Immulite test in this highly endangered species. PMID:16843462

Jewgenow, K; Naidenko, S V; Goeritz, F; Vargas, A; Dehnhard, M



New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.



Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  


Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr



Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables.

Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pal; Stenseth, Nils Chr.



Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hard; Morner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre



Canada lynx Lynx canadensis habitat and forest succession in northern Maine, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contiguous United States population of Canada lynx Lynx canadensis was listed as threatened in 2000. The long-term viability of lynx populations at the southern edge of their geographic range has been hypothesized to be dependent on old growth forests; however, lynx are a specialist predator on snowshoe hare Lepus americanus, a species associated with early-successional forests. To quantify the effects of succession and forest management on landscape-scale (100 km2) patterns of habitat occupancy by lynx, we compared landscape attributes in northern Maine, USA, where lynx had been detected on snow track surveys to landscape attributes where surveys had been conducted, but lynx tracks had not been detected. Models were constructed a priori and compared using logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), which quantitatively balances data fit and parsimony. In the models with the lowest (i.e. best) AIC, lynx were more likely to occur in landscapes with much regenerating forest, and less likely to occur in landscapes with much recent clearcut, partial harvest and forested wetland. Lynx were not associated positively or negatively with mature coniferous forest. A probabilistic map of the model indicated a patchy distribution of lynx habitat in northern Maine. According to an additional survey of the study area for lynx tracks during the winter of 2003, the model correctly classified 63.5% of the lynx occurrences and absences. Lynx were more closely associated with young forests than mature forests; however, old-growth forests were functionally absent from the landscape. Lynx habitat could be reduced in northern Maine, given recent trends in forest management practices. Harvest strategies have shifted from clearcutting to partial harvesting. If this trend continues, future landscapes will shift away from extensive regenerating forests and toward landscapes dominated by pole-sized and larger stands. Because Maine presently supports the only verified populations of this federally threatened species in the eastern United States, changes in forest management practices could affect recovery efforts throughout that region.

Hoving, C. L.; Harrison, D. J.; Krohn, W. B.; Jakubas, W. J.; McCollough, M. A.



Canine distemper virus-associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) of eastern Canada.  


Between 1993 and 1999, encephalitis caused by morbillivirus was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and histology in six lynx (Lynx canadensis) and one bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the eastern Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Five of the six cases in lynx occurred within an 11-mo period in 1996-97. A second bobcat with encephalitis caused by unidentified protozoa and a nematode larva also had immunohistochemical evidence of neurologic infection by morbillivirus. The virus was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing in four of five animals from which frozen tissue samples were available, and it was isolated in cell culture from one of them. To our knowledge, this is the first report of disease caused by CDV in free-living felids in North America. PMID:19617471

Daoust, Pierre-Yves; McBurney, Scott R; Godson, Dale L; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E



Population regulation in snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx: Asymmetric food web configurations between hare and lynx  

PubMed Central

The snowshoe hare and the Canadian lynx in the boreal forests of North America show 9- to 11-year density cycles. These are generally assumed to be linked to each other because lynx are specialist predators on hares. Based on time series data for hare and lynx, we show that the dominant dimensional structure of the hare series appears to be three whereas that of the lynx is two. The three-dimensional structure of the hare time series is hypothesized to be due to a three-trophic level model in which the hare may be seen as simultaneously regulated from below and above. The plant species in the hare diet appear compensatory to one another, and the predator species may, likewise, be seen as an internally compensatory guild. The lynx time series are, in contrast, consistent with a model of donor control in which their populations are regulated from below by prey availability. Thus our analysis suggests that the classic view of a symmetric hare–lynx interaction is too simplistic. Specifically, we argue that the classic food chain structure is inappropriate: the hare is influenced by many predators other than the lynx, and the lynx is primarily influenced by the snowshoe hare.

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Falck, Wilhelm; Bj?rnstad, Ottar N.; Krebs, Charles J.



An Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one of the worldÃÂs most endangered cat species.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a carnivorous mammal that was once common on the Iberian Peninsula, where its preferred habitat is scrub vegetation and Mediterranean woodland. The species declined dramatically during the 20th century, and despite efforts to conserve the species, only two isolated populations are known to exist. Thus, it is among the worldÃÂs most endangered cats. Ecological modeling may be very useful in situations where the ecological information needed to plan for the recovery and conservation of rare species is lacking. Efforts to model the habitat selection and conservation requirements of the Iberian lynx have included use of molecular detection techniques to identify lynx scat samples. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (16:3) in June of 2006.

Sabater, Antonia



Lynx: a database and knowledge extraction engine for integrative medicine.  


We have developed Lynx ( web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine, supporting annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Its underlying knowledge base (LynxKB) integrates various classes of information from >35 public databases and private collections, as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators. Lynx provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization to assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, whereas its service-oriented architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces. PMID:24270788

Sulakhe, Dinanath; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Xie, Bingqing; Feng, Bo; Taylor, Andrew; Wang, Sheng; Berrocal, Eduardo; Dave, Utpal; Xu, Jinbo; Börnigen, Daniela; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia



Competitive Asymmetries in the Use of Supplementary Food by the Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)  

PubMed Central

Background As a conservation tool, supplementary feeding programs may be directed to specific individuals or sectors of the target population whose productivity or survival is thought to be limited by food scarcity. However, the use of supplemental food by different sex and age classes has received little attention. We studied individual variation in the access of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to supplementary food. Methodology/Principal Findings From 5349 pictures taken with automatic cameras placed in 25 feeding stations, we identified 28 individuals whose sex and age were known. All individuals known to live in areas subjected to supplementation regularly visited feeding stations. Food consumption was not proportional to expected variations in energy demand within sex and age classes. Food consumption by males was higher than by females, and increased with age, in agreement with a despotic distribution. Food consumption also increased with lynx body mass, and this pattern held for individuals sharing the same breeding territories. The access of inferior competitors increased with the number of feeding stations available within lynx territories. Conclusions/Significance All lynx exposed to food supplementation made a regular use of extra food but individuals predicted to be competitively dominant visited stations more frequently than subordinates of the same breeding territory. Our results suggest that insufficient provision of supplementary food could restrict the access of juveniles, or even adult females, to feeding stations. Limited consumption by these target individuals may compromise the efficiency of the supplementary feeding programme at the population level, in endangered species that, as the Iberian lynx, exhibit marked sexual dimorphism in body size.

Lopez-Bao, Jose V.; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Palomares, Francisco



Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.  


The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global warming in hare-lynx system. PMID:23846828

Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin



Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.




Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed 3 aspects of the human dimension of large carnivore conservation in Austria. We examined hunter ranking of wildlife species and suggest that while hunters still remain negative to brown bears (Ursus arctos) and lynx (Lynx lynx), there are differences between those who live in provinces with a longer tradition of living with bears and lynx and those who



Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar  

SciTech Connect

Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.



Estimation of the Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus ) population in the Doñana area, SW Spain, using capture–recapture analysis of camera-trapping data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) has a highly restricted geographic distribution, limited even within the Iberian Peninsula. The last national survey reported\\u000a less than 200 remaining individuals, distributed in two isolated areas—Andújar-Cardeña and Doñana—and in consequence, the\\u000a Iberian lynx was listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Critically Endangered”. In this study, we\\u000a estimate the Iberian lynx

German Garrote; Ramon Perez de Ayala; Pablo Pereira; Francisco Robles; Nicolas Guzman; Francisco J. García; Maria C. Iglesias; Jaime Hervás; Iñigo Fajardo; Manuel Simón; Jose L. Barroso



Hematology, serum chemistry, and body mass of free-ranging and captive Canada lynx in Minnesota.  


Baseline blood chemistry data could be particularly valuable if reference values from free-ranging populations of rare or endangered species are not available. The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the conterminous United States, even though the species is managed as a furbearer in Alaska and in most provinces of Canada. Body mass, blood chemistry, and hematologic data for free-ranging lynx were collected from 2003 to 2007 and for captive lynx from 1984 to 2007. Up to 2 yr of age, captive lynx were consistently heavier than free-ranging lynx. Body mass of adult free-ranging lynx was similar to body mass of captive adult lynx. Some differences in blood chemistry between free-ranging and captive lynx were statistically significant, but most measured values were within reference ranges for domestic cats. Free-ranging lynx had higher concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen than did captive lynx, and these were outside the reference value ranges for domestic cats. Alkaline phosphatase and phosphorus were higher in juveniles (<12 mo when captured) as compared to adults. Free-ranging lynx maintained body mass between serial captures. Hematologic values, blood chemistry values, and body mass of free-ranging Canada lynx provide support for the hypothesis that Canada lynx in Minnesota, at the southern edge of their range, are in normal physical condition. PMID:20090014

Moen, Ron; Rasmussen, James M; Burdett, Christopher L; Pelican, Katharine M



Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

Bujold, M. P.



Lynx web services for annotations and systems analysis of multi-gene disorders.  


Lynx is a web-based integrated systems biology platform that supports annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Lynx has integrated multiple classes of biomedical data (genomic, proteomic, pathways, phenotypic, toxicogenomic, contextual and others) from various public databases as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators (LynxKB). Lynx provides tools for gene list enrichment analysis using multiple functional annotations and network-based gene prioritization. Lynx provides access to the integrated database and the analytical tools via REST based Web Services ( This comprises data retrieval services for specific functional annotations, services to search across the complete LynxKB (powered by Lucene), and services to access the analytical tools built within the Lynx platform. PMID:24948611

Sulakhe, Dinanath; Taylor, Andrew; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Feng, Bo; Xie, Bingqing; Börnigen, Daniela; Dave, Utpal J; Foster, Ian T; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia



Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian (Lynx lynx), the Iberian (L. pardinus), the Canada lynx (L. canadensis) and the bobcat (L. rufus).  


With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal samples collected before, during, and after pregnancy from individual females of each lynx species. Gestagens and estrogens revealed three similar classes of immunoreactive faecal metabolites: (1) polar metabolites which were enzyme-hydrolysable and thus may be designated as conjugates, (2) non-hydrolysable polar metabolites, and (3) non-polar metabolites or free steroids. For both hormones, strong similarities in the HPLC immunograms across species suggests that steroid metabolism is relatively conserved among Lynx species. Gestagens were primarily excreted as polar conjugates or unknown metabolites, whereas estrogen metabolism revealed a huge proportion (approximately 50%) consisting of 17beta-estradiol and estrone. These results are consistent with patterns of steroid metabolism in other felid species. Only two minor species-specific patterns emerged. In bobcats, we observed an exceptionally high proportion of gestagen conjugates, and in Iberian lynx, there was an exceptionally high proportion of estrone. The comparison of HPLC immunograms within individuals revealed that intra-individual variations in steroid metabolite composition are considerably high. However, changes in metabolite composition did not correlate with specific reproductive stages; rather, they seemed to occur at random. We assume that these differences may reflect changes in liver metabolism and/or qualitative and quantitative variations in gut bacteria composition, resulting in differences in faecal metabolite composition. PMID:20346945

Dehnhard, M; Fanson, K; Frank, A; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Jewgenow, K



Detection of antibiotic resistant enterococci and Escherichia coli in free range Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).  


Thirty fecal samples from wild specimens of Iberian lynx were collected and analyzed for Enterococcus spp. (27 isolates) and Escherichia coli (18 isolates) recovery. The 45 isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial resistance, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and presence of virulence genes. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus hirae were the most prevalent species (11 isolates each), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (5 isolates). High percentages of resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin (33% and 30%, respectively) were detected among enterococcal isolates. The tet(M) and/or tet(L), erm(B), aac(6')-Ie-aph(2?)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia, or aph(3')-IIIa genes were detected among resistant enterococci. Virulence genes were detected in one E. faecalis isolate (cpd, cylB, and cylL) and one E. hirae isolate (cylL). High percentages of resistance were detected in E. coli isolates to tetracycline (33%), streptomycin (28%), nalidixic acid (28%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT, 22%). Additionally, the blaTEM, tet(A), aadA, cmlA, and different combinations of sul genes were detected among most ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and SXT-resistant isolates, respectively. Two isolates contained a class 1 integron with the gene cassette arrays dfrA1 + aadA1 and dfrA12 + aadA2. The E. coli isolates were ascribed to phylo-groups A (n=5); B1 (n=4); B2 (n=6), and D (n=3), with the virulence gene fimA present in all E. coli isolates. This study found resistance genes in wild specimens of Iberian lynx. Thus, it is important to notice that multiresistant bacteria have reached species as rare and completely non-synanthropic as the Iberian lynx. Furthermore, the susceptibility of this endangered species to bacterial infection may be affected by the presence of these virulence and resistance genes. PMID:23588135

Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Pacheco, Rui; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia



Notoedric and Sarcoptic Mange in Free-ranging Lynx from Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between March and December 1999, five free-ranging lynx (Lynx lynx) affect- ed by mange were found dead or shot by game wardens in the Swiss Alps. In the first two cas- es, Notoedres cati was isolated from the skin; in the third and fourth case, Sarcoptes scabiei was the cause of the infection; and in the fifth case, a mixed

Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis; Andreas Ryser; Luca N. Bacciarini; Christof Angst; Bruno Gottstein



From patterns to processes: Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle  

PubMed Central

Across the boreal forest of North America, lynx populations undergo 10-year cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 to the present demonstrates that these fluctuations are generated by nonlinear processes with regulatory delays. Trophic interactions between lynx and hares cause delayed density-dependent regulation of lynx population growth. The nonlinearity, in contrast, appears to arise from phase dependencies in hunting success by lynx through the cycle. Using a combined approach of empirical, statistical, and mathematical modeling, we highlight how shifts in trophic interactions between the lynx and the hare generate the nonlinear process primarily by shifting functional response curves during the increase and the decrease phases.

Stenseth, Nils C.; Falck, Wilhelm; Chan, Kung-Sik; Bj?rnstad, Ottar N.; O'Donoghue, Mark; Tong, Howell; Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan; Krebs, Charles J.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.



Notoedric and sarcoptic mange in free-ranging lynx from Switzerland.  


Between March and December 1999, five free-ranging lynx (Lynx lynx) affected by mange were found dead or shot by game wardens in the Swiss Alps. In the first two cases, Notoedres cati was isolated from the skin; in the third and fourth case, Sarcoptes scabiei was the cause of the infection; and in the fifth case, a mixed infection was diagnosed. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) affected with sarcoptic mange and domestic cats infested with N. cati are likely to be the sources of infection. It seems improbable that mange will occur as an epidemic in lynx in Switzerland, but losses due to infections with N. cati and/or S. scabiei may have an impact on this small, geographically limited lynx population. This is the first report of notoedric mange in a free-ranging lynx and the first report of mange in lynx from Switzerland. PMID:11838224

Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Ryser, Andreas; Bacciarini, Luca N; Angst, Christof; Gottstein, Bruno; Janovsky, Martin; Breitenmoser, Urs



Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  


Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired. PMID:3586212

Dubey, J P; Quinn, W J; Weinandy, D



Large-scale clumpy structure in Lynx region (Nakata+, 2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lynx field was observed over 2000 November2001 March in the V, R, i' and z' bands with the Suprime-Cam. Only eight of the 10 charge-coupled devices (CCDs) of the Suprime-Cam were ready at the time of these observations. (1 data file).

Nakata, F.; Kodama, T.; Shimasaku, K.; Doi, M.; Furusawa, H.; Hamabe, M.; Kimura, M.; Komiyama, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Okamura, S.; Ouchi, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yagi, M.; Yasuda, N.



Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Once found throughout the Rocky Mountains and forests of the northern states, the lynx now hides in pockets of its former range while feeding mostly on small animals like snowshoe hares. A team of government and university scientists review the newest sci...

C. J. Krebs G. M. Koehler J. R. Squires K. B. Aubry K. S. McKelvey L. F. Ruggiero S. W. Buskirk



Optimizing the size of the area surveyed for monitoring a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) population in the Swiss Alps by means of photographic capture-recapture.  


We studied the influence of surveyed area size on density estimates by means of camera-trapping in a low-density felid population (1-2 individuals/100 km(2) ). We applied non-spatial capture-recapture (CR) and spatial CR (SCR) models for Eurasian lynx during winter 2005/2006 in the northwestern Swiss Alps by sampling an area divided into 5 nested plots ranging from 65 to 760 km(2) . CR model density estimates (95% CI) for models M0 and Mh decreased from 2.61 (1.55-3.68) and 3.6 (1.62-5.57) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the smallest to 1.20 (1.04-1.35) and 1.26 (0.89-1.63) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the largest area surveyed. SCR model density estimates also decreased with increasing sampling area but not significantly. High individual range overlaps in relatively small areas (the edge effect) is the most plausible reason for this positive bias in the CR models. Our results confirm that SCR models are much more robust to changes in trap array size than CR models, thus avoiding overestimation of density in smaller areas. However, when a study is concerned with monitoring population changes, large spatial efforts (area surveyed ?760 km(2) ) are required to obtain reliable and precise density estimates with these population densities and recapture rates. PMID:24020463

Zimmermann, Fridolin; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Molinari-Jobin, Anja; Breitenmoser, Urs



Use of winter habitat by roe deer at a northern latitude where Eurasian lynx are present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter climate at northern latitudes is a challenge to small-bodied ungulates, and they modify behaviour to save energy and to increase the likelihood of survival. Also, the ongoing expansion of large carnivores in several European countries can lead to the recovery of (potentially energetically costly) anti-predator behaviours. In an area recently recolonized by Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx, we snow-tracked radio-collared

I. I. Ratikainen; M. Panzacchi; A. Mysterud; J. Odden; J. Linnell; R. Andersen



Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

Hoving, C. L.; Harrison, D. J.; Krohn, W. B.; Joseph, R. A.; O'Brien, M.



A deep ROSAT survey of the Lynx area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the optical spectroscopic follow-up to a deep ROSAT (Röntgen Satellite) Survey in the Lynx area are presented. The best optical candidates for the X-ray sources taken with the Kitt Peak 4 meter Hydra multi-fiber spectrograph and the Multiple Mirror Telescope's Red Channel are presented. Of the 72 ROSAT X-ray sources flux-limited here, 68 have had at least

Douglas Frank Mathis



Assessment of semen quality, sperm cryopreservation and heterologous IVF in the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  


Semen traits and factors affecting sperm cryopreservation were assessed in the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), a species regarded as the most endangered felid in the world. For cryopreservation, semen was washed, resuspended in a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST) or a Tris-based diluent (Biladyl), both with 20% egg yolk and 4% glycerol, loaded into straws, cooled to 5 degrees C using an automated programmable system and frozen on nitrogen vapour. Heterologous IVF of in vitro-matured domestic cat oocytes was used to test the fertilising ability of cryopreserved spermatozoa. Electroejaculates from five males were obtained. Characterisation of the electroejaculates revealed mean (+/- s.e.m.) values of 3.3 +/- 0.6 x 10(6) total spermatozoa, 73.6 +/- 4.6% motile spermatozoa, 23.7 +/- 4.0% morphologically normal spermatozoa and 40.7 +/- 2.3% spermatozoa with intact acrosomes. After thawing a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa was seen in TEST than in Biladyl (34.0 +/- 6.2% v. 7.5 +/- 4.8%, respectively; P < 0.05); however, there were no differences in the percentage of intact acrosomes between the two diluents. Iberian lynx spermatozoa fertilised domestic cat oocytes in vitro, with higher fertilisation rates observed for spermatozoa cryopreserved in TEST than in Biladyl, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (20.5 +/- 4.5% v. 11.5 +/- 6.8%, respectively). There were positive significant relations between the fertilisation rates and both the percentage of normal spermatozoa and the percentage of spermatozoa with an intact acrosome before cryopreservation (P = 0.04). This first report of the collection and cryopreservation of Iberian lynx semen and analysis of fertilising ability is an important step in the development of assisted reproductive techniques for this critically endangered felid species. PMID:19698289

Gañán, Natalia; González, Raquel; Garde, J Julián; Martínez, Fernando; Vargas, Astrid; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S



Feline leukemia virus outbreak in the critically endangered Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus ): high-throughput sequencing of envelope variable region A and experimental transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian lynx is the most endangered felid species. During winter\\/spring 2006\\/7, a feline leukemia virus (FeLV) outbreak\\u000a of unexpected virulence killed about 2\\/3 of the infected Iberian lynxes. All FeLV-positive animals were co-infected with feline\\u000a hemoplasmas. To further characterize the Iberian lynx FeLV strain and evaluate its potential virulence, the FeLV envelope\\u000a gene variable region A (VRA) mutant spectrum

C. P. Geret; V. Cattori; M. L. Meli; B. Riond; F. Martínez; G. López; A. Vargas; M. A. Simón; J. V. López-Bao; R. Hofmann-Lehmann; H. Lutz



Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive

John D. C. Linnell; Henrik Broseth; John Odden; Erlend Birkeland Nilsen



The Endangered Species List and Lynx Conservation in Idaho: Public Paranoia and Politics Over Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Idaho, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the United States Forest Service, had planned to release lynx to the Clearwater National Forest (CNF) in Idaho. Lynx are at the southern periphery of their range in Idaho, and although once present on the CNF, now are apparently extinct or very rare in the

D. L. Murray



Age, sex, reproduction, and spatial organization of lynxes colonizing northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1972 through 1978, lynxes (Felis lynx) emigrating from Canada were studied in northeastern Minnesota. Fourteen individuals were radio-tracked, 8 wefe ear-tagged, and 49 carcasses were examined. Sex ratios of the samples were equal during the first years of the study, but females predominated later. At least half of the radiotagged lynxes were killed by humans; no natural mortality was detected. Home range sizes ranged from 51 to 122 km2 for females and 145 to 243 km2 for males, up to 10 times the sizes of those reported by other workers. Ranges of females tended to overlap. Males and females appeared to be segregated in the population.

Mech, L.D.



Fatal cytauxzoonosis in a free-ranging bobcat (Lynx rufus).  


In September 2000, a free-ranging bobcat (Lynx rufus) cub was presented to the Kansas State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Manhattan, Kansas, USA) in a moribund state with signs of severe anemia and respiratory difficulty. The cub was euthanized. Gross necropsy findings included multifocal atelectasis, splenomegaly, and pericardial effusion. Microscopic examination revealed subacute pulmonary thrombosis, mild vasculitis in the brain, and large schizont-filled macrophages within blood vessels of all tissues examined. The organisms were typical of the developmental stages of Cytauxzoon felis. Cytauxzoonosis is considered to be a persistent, subclinical infection in the bobcat; however, this cub had lesions consistent with those seen in fatal infections in domestic cats. This case of fatal C. felis infection indicates that some free-ranging bobcats may die of cytauxzoonosis. PMID:12238380

Nietfeld, Jerome C; Pollock, Christal



Embryo transfer and embryonic capsules in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  


Bobcats (Lynx rufus) (n=22) were used to test a surgical embryo transfer protocol for wild felines. Five blastocysts were collected 8-14 days post-initial copulation (PIC). Translucent capsule-like structures were recovered at 12 days PIC and are the first report of such a structure in a felid. Endometrial fibrosis was observed in one cat but, in general, post-surgical fibrosis of the uterus did not seem to impede ova or embryo transport. One embryo underwent cryopreservation and this embryo plus two other transferrable embryos were placed in recipient cats during the course of the study. No pregnancies were maintained; but one non-cryopreserved embryo was detected by ultrasound examination at 2 weeks post-transfer. This study provides valuable groundwork for future studies and warrants optimism for continued research in this area. PMID:12047248

Miller, D L; Waldhalm, S J; Leopold, B D; Estill, C



Identification of volatile components of bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine.  


Bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine reduces scent-marking activity of woodchucks (Marmota monax) and feeding activity of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and deer (Odocoileus virginianus, O. hemionus). In order to identify the semiochemicals responsible for these behavior modifications, a dichloromethane extract of the bobcat urine was analyzed by GC-MS. Among the known compounds identified in the extract are phenol, indole, dimethyl sulfone, and 3-mercapto-3-methylbutanol. Compounds for which spectroscopic data are presented for the first time include one sulfide, two disulfides, and two trisulfides. The sulfur compounds are derived from an amino acid,S-(l,1-dimethyl-3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine ("felinine"), which was identified several years ago in the urine of the domestic cat (Felis domesticus). PMID:24258737

Mattina, M J; Pignatello, J J; Swihart, R K



The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.  


Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities. PMID:24652527

Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil



Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range\\u000a of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand\\u000a technically challenging. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management

John D. C. LinnellHenrik; Henrik Broseth; John Odden; Erlend Birkeland Nilsen



Defining space use and movements of Canada lynx with global positioning system telemetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Space use and movements of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are difficult to study with very-high-frequency radiocollars. We deployed global positioning system (GPS) collars on 11 lynx in Minnesota to study their seasonal space-use patterns. We estimated home ranges with minimum-convex-polygon and fixed-kernel methods and estimated core areas with area/probability curves. Fixed-kernel home ranges of males (range = 29-522 km2) were significantly larger than those of females (range = 5-95 km2) annually and during the denning season. Some male lynx increased movements during March, the month most influenced by breeding activity. Lynx core areas were predicted by the 60% fixed-kernel isopleth in most seasons. The mean core-area size of males (range = 6-190 km2) was significantly larger than that of females (range = 1-19 km2) annually and during denning. Most female lynx were reproductive animals with reduced movements, whereas males often ranged widely between Minnesota and Ontario. Sensitivity analyses examining the effect of location frequency on home-range size suggest that the home-range sizes of breeding females are less sensitive to sample size than those of males. Longer periods between locations decreased home-range and core-area overlap relative to the home range estimated from daily locations. GPS collars improve our understanding of space use and movements by lynx by increasing the spatial extent and temporal frequency of monitoring and allowing home ranges to be estimated over short periods that are relevant to life-history characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

Burdett, C. L.; Moen, R. A.; Niemi, G. J.; Mech, L. D.



A deep ROSAT survey of the Lynx area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the optical spectroscopic follow-up to a deep ROSAT (Röntgen Satellite) Survey in the Lynx area are presented. The best optical candidates for the X-ray sources taken with the Kitt Peak 4 meter Hydra multi-fiber spectrograph and the Multiple Mirror Telescope's Red Channel are presented. Of the 72 ROSAT X-ray sources flux-limited here, 68 have had at least one optical candidate observed spectroscopically: 58 reliable identifications have been made, and the remaining 10 spectra are unclassified leaving a total of 14 X-ray sources without secure optical identifications. The identifications are 22 stars, 20 galaxies, and 16 quasars. The fraction of stellar identifications is >= 25%, which is attributed to the incomplete spectral coverage (only completely down to Gunn-r ~ 19 mag) of the optical catalog, which reaches Gunn-r ~ 25 mag. A review of the collected X-ray data is given. Most sources have hard (0.4-2.4 keV) spectra, four are rather soft (0.1-0.4 keV), and two seem to be extended X-ray sources. The observed ROSAT X-ray source counts in Lynx have a slope and amplitude consistent with those of the Einstein Medium Sensitivity (EMSS) and the Einstein Deep Surveys. Around SX ~ 10-14 ergs cm- 2 s-1, our counts appear to flatten, in agreement with the results of the ROSAT Extended Medium-Deep Sensitivity and Lockman field surveys. Below this level and to our 3.5? completeness limit, the observed counts have a slope of 1.1 +/- 0.2. After correction for ``Eddington bias'', our inferred intrinsic slope is 0.9 +/- 0.2, a value (at least marginally) flatter than the EMSS slope of 1.48 +/- 0.05 appropriate at brighter X-ray fluxes. A comparison of the flux ratios (X-ray to optical) for this deep ROSAT Survey's galaxies and quasi-stellar objects (QSO) agrees fairly well with those for the EMSS. Follow-up work will include completion of the optical spectroscopic follow-up so that the bias from the stellar identifications can be overcome, and constraining the trivariate (radio-optical-X-ray) luminosity function.

Mathis, Douglas Frank



Adapted conservation measures are required to save the Iberian lynx in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) has suffered severe population declines in the twentieth century and is now on the brink of extinction. Climate change could further threaten the survival of the species, but its forecast effects are being neglected in recovery plans. Quantitative estimates of extinction risk under climate change have so far mostly relied on inferences from correlative projections of species' habitat shifts. Here we use ecological niche models coupled to metapopulation simulations with source-sink dynamics to directly investigate the combined effects of climate change, prey availability and management intervention on the persistence of the Iberian lynx. Our approach is unique in that it explicitly models dynamic bi-trophic species interactions in a climate change setting. We show that anticipated climate change will rapidly and severely decrease lynx abundance and probably lead to its extinction in the wild within 50 years, even with strong global efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In stark contrast, we also show that a carefully planned reintroduction programme, accounting for the effects of climate change, prey abundance and habitat connectivity, could avert extinction of the lynx this century. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, why considering prey availability, climate change and their interaction in models is important when designing policies to prevent future biodiversity loss.

Fordham, D. A.; Akçakaya, H. R.; Brook, B. W.; Rodríguez, A.; Alves, P. C.; Civantos, E.; Triviño, M.; Watts, M. J.; Araújo, M. B.



Faecal genetic analysis to determine the presence and distribution of elusive carnivores: design and feasibility for the Iberian lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive methods using genetic markers have been suggested as ways to overcome difficulties associated with documenting the presence of elusive species. We present and assess a novel, reliable and effective molecular genetic technique for the unequivocal genetic identification of faeces from the endangered Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus ). From mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and D -loop region sequences,




Genes and evolution of two-domain toxins from lynx spider venom.  


Spiderines are comparatively long polypeptide toxins (?110 residues) from lynx spiders (genus Oxyopes). They are built of an N-terminal linear cationic domain (?40 residues) and a C-terminal knottin domain (?60 residues). The linear domain empowers spiderines with strong cytolytic activity. In the present work we report 16 novel spiderine sequences from Oxyopes takobius and Oxyopes lineatus classified into two subfamilies. Strikingly, negative selection acts on both linear and knottin domains. Genes encoding Oxyopes two-domain toxins were sequenced and found to be intronless. We further discuss a possible scenario of lynx spider modular toxin evolution. PMID:24462682

Sachkova, Maria Y; Slavokhotova, Anna A; Grishin, Eugene V; Vassilevski, Alexander A



Habitat Selection and Risk of Predation: Re-colonization by Lynx had Limited Impact on Habitat Selection by Roe Deer  

PubMed Central

Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx – the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection). Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations.

Samelius, Gustaf; Andren, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof



Non cat-like ovarian cycle in the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx - ultrasonographical and endocrinological analysis.  


The Iberian lynx is considered the most endangered felid species. Therefore, an ex situ conservation program was initiated to protect this species from extinction. Additional knowledge on lynx reproduction biology and reliable methods for reproductive monitoring are important for developing a captive breeding program. The aim of this study in lynx was to implement transrectal ultrasonography to visualize ovarian structures (follicles, corpora lutea) and to assess ovarian activity in addition to analysis of serum progesterone and oestradiol. Because of limited access to Iberian lynxes, the less-endangered Eurasian lynx and bobcat were also studied in this comparative study. Recent endocrinological studies based on faecal and urinary progesterone and oestrogen metabolites revealed that steroid profiles in both these species were alike and did not follow the typical pattern of other felids. Pregnancy diagnosis was not possible, since progesterone concentrations did not differ between pregnant and pseudopregnant animals. Progesterone was also detected after parturition as well as after weaning until the onset of a new oestrous cycle. In the present study, the presence of corpora lutea during the non-breeding season was confirmed by ultrasonography and by elevated serum levels of progesterone averaging 3.56 +/- 1.3 ng/ml in Eurasian and 6.1 +/- 0.26 ng/ml in Iberian lynx, respectively. The ultrasonographical findings on the ovarian structures suggest strongly that corpora lutea developed after ovulation stay active until November and regress before the onset of the next oestrus. PMID:19754543

Göritz, F; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Martinez, F; López-Bao, J V; Palomares, F; Jewgenow, K



Performance and rotor loads measurements of the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a series of flight tests on the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades. The test objectives were to explore the flight envelope and to measure the performance and structural loads of the Lynx main-rotor system. The tests were conducted as part of the British Experimental Rotor Program (BERP) under a contract with the Ministry of Defense in England. Data were acquired for steady-level flights at five weight coefficients. Some flight conditions were tested at beyond the retreating-blade stall boundary, which was defined by a predetermined limit on the pitchlink vibratory load. In addition to documenting the flight conditions and data, this report describes the aircraft, particularly the rotor system, in detail.

Lau, Benton H.; Louie, Alexander W.; Griffiths, Nicholas; Sotiriou, Costantinos P.



Characterization of regionally associated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus).  


Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific FIVs. However, recent studies have detected an FIV strain infecting both bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in California and Florida. To further investigate this observation, we evaluated FIV from bobcats in Florida (n=25) and Colorado (n=80) between 2008 and 2011. Partial viral sequences from five Florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from Florida panthers. We did not detect FIV in Colorado bobcats. PMID:23778629

Lagana, Danielle M; Lee, Justin S; Lewis, Jesse S; Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Sweanor, Linda L; McBride, Roy; McBride, Caleb; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue



The subtle role of climate change on population genetic structure in Canada lynx.  


Anthropogenically driven climatic change is expected to reshape global patterns of species distribution and abundance. Given recent links between genetic variation and environmental patterns, climate change may similarly impact genetic population structure, but we lack information on the spatial and mechanistic underpinnings of genetic-climate associations. Here, we show that current genetic variability of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is strongly correlated with a winter climate gradient (i.e. increasing snow depth and winter precipitation from west-to-east) across the Pacific-North American (PNO) to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climatic systems. This relationship was stronger than isolation by distance and not explained by landscape variables or changes in abundance. Thus, these patterns suggest that individuals restricted dispersal across the climate boundary, likely in the absence of changes in habitat quality. We propose habitat imprinting on snow conditions as one possible explanation for this unusual phenomenon. Coupling historical climate data with future projections, we also found increasingly diverging snow conditions between the two climate systems. Based on genetic simulations using projected climate data (2041-2070), we predicted that this divergence could lead to a threefold increase in genetic differentiation, potentially leading to isolated east-west populations of lynx in North America. Our results imply that subtle genetic structure can be governed by current climate and that substantive genetic differentiation and related ecological divergence may arise from changing climate patterns. PMID:24415466

Row, Jeffrey R; Wilson, Paul J; Gomez, Celine; Koen, Erin L; Bowman, Jeff; Thornton, Daniel; Murray, Dennis L



Lynx body size in Norway is related to its main prey (Roe deer) density, climate, and latitude.  


We studied the effect of various factors on body size variation of the Eurasian lynx in Norway, using data from 374 lynx collected between 1960 and 1976 and whose locality of capture, year of birth, sex, and age were known. Body size of lynx in Norway was mainly affected by sex and age. Female skull size (and by implication body size) was also positively affected by the availability of its main prey (roe deer) and by latitude, and negatively by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Male size was not affected by any of the environmental factors examined. We interpret the effects of NAO and latitude on body size through their effect on the local climate and particularly snow conditions. We suggest that females are more sensitive to environmental factors than males. PMID:21404822

Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kvam, Tor; Wiig, Øystein



Genetics at the verge of extinction: insights from the Iberian lynx.  


Population viability might become compromised by the loss of genetic diversity and the accumulation of inbreeding resulting from population decline and fragmentation. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) provides a paradigmatic example of a species at the verge of extinction, and because of the well-documented and different demographic histories of the two remaining populations (Doñana and Andújar), it provides the opportunity to evaluate the performance of analytical methods commonly applied to recently declined populations. We used mitochondrial sequences and 36 microsatellite markers to evaluate the current genetic status of the species and to assess the genetic signatures of its past history. Mitochondrial diversity was extremely low with only two haplotypes, alternatively fixed in each population. Both remnant populations have low levels of genetic diversity at microsatellite markers, particularly the population from Doñana, and genetic differentiation between the two populations is high. Bayesian coalescent-based methods suggest an earlier decline starting hundreds of years ago, while heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests did not provide conclusive and consistent evidence for recent bottlenecks. Also, a model of gene flow received overwhelming support over a model of pure drift. Results that are in conflict with the known recent demography of the species call for caution in the use of these methods, especially when no information on previous demographic history is available. Overall, our results suggest that current genetic patterns in the Iberian lynx are mainly the result of its recent decline and fragmentation and alerts on possible genetic risks for its persistence. Conservation strategies should explicitly consider this threat and incorporate an integrated genetic management of wild, captive and re-introduced populations, including genetic restoration through translocations. PMID:24128177

Casas-Marce, M; Soriano, L; López-Bao, J V; Godoy, J A



Lynx multi-mode SAR in support of NATO Unified Vision 2012 trial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2012, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Reconnaissance Systems Group participated in the NATO Unified Vision 2012 (UV12) Joint ISR (JISR) Trial at Orland Main Air Station in Brekstad, Norway. GA-ASI supplied a modified King Air 200 as a Predator B/MQ-9 Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) surrogate outfitted with a Lynx Block 30 Multi-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI), a FLIR Star SAFIRE 3800HD Electro-optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor, and a L-3 Tactical Common Data Link. This airborne platform was combined with GA-ASI's new System for Tactical Archival, Retrieval, and Exploitation (STARE) for full integration into the NATO ISR exploitation community. UV12 was an event sponsored by the NATO Joint Capability Group on Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) to focus on the interoperability of national ISR assets and improving JISR concept of operations. The Predator B RPA surrogate flew alongside multiple NATO ISR assets in nine missions that showcased the platform's all-weather ISR capabilities focusing on the Lynx SAR/GMTI and Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) modes. The inclusion of the STARE technology allowed GA-ASI's radar and Full Motion Video (FMV) data to be seamlessly processed and passed to joint networks where the data was fused with other NATO ISR products, resulting in a full battlefield reconnaissance picture.

Dunkel, R.; Verge, T.; Linnehan, R.; Doerry, A.



Reconsidering the specialist-generalist paradigm in niche breadth dynamics: resource gradient selection by Canada lynx and bobcat.  


The long-standing view in ecology is that disparity in overall resource selection is the basis for identifying niche breadth patterns, with species having narrow selection being classified "specialists" and those with broader selection being "generalists". The standard model of niche breadth characterizes generalists and specialists as having comparable levels of overall total resource exploitation, with specialists exploiting resources at a higher level of performance over a narrower range of conditions. This view has gone largely unchallenged. An alternate model predicts total resource use being lower for the specialized species with both peaking at a comparable level of performance over a particular resource gradient. To reconcile the niche breadth paradigm we contrasted both models by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species' niche, we determined that Canada lynx demonstrated higher total performance over a restricted set of variables, specifically those related to snow and altitude, while bobcat had higher total performance across most variables. Unlike predictions generated by the standard model, bobcat level of exploitation was not compromised by the trade-off with peak performance, and Canada lynx were not restricted to exploiting a narrower range of conditions. Instead, the emergent pattern was that specialist species have a higher total resource utilization and peak performance value within a smaller number of resources or environmental axes than generalists. Our results also indicate that relative differences in niche breadth are strongly dependent on the variable under consideration, implying that the appropriate model describing niche breadth dynamics between specialists and generalists may be more complex than either the traditional heuristic or our modified version. Our results demonstrate a need to re-evaluate traditional, but largely untested, assumptions regarding resource utilization in species with broad and narrow niches. PMID:23236508

Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L



The effect of climatic forcing on population synchrony and genetic structuring of the Canadian lynx  

PubMed Central

The abundance of Canadian lynx follows 10-year density fluctuations across the Canadian subcontinent. These cyclic fluctuations have earlier been shown to be geographically structured into three climatic regions: the Atlantic, Continental, and Pacific zones. Recent genetic evidence revealed an essentially similar spatial structuring. Introducing a new population model, the “climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns” model, we link the observed ecological and evolutionary patterns. Specifically, we demonstrate that there is greater phase synchrony within climatic zones than between them and show that external climatic forcing may act as a synchronizer. We simulated genetic drift by using data on population dynamics generated by the climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns model, and we demonstrate that the observed genetic structuring can be seen as an emerging property of the spatiotemporal ecological dynamics.

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Ehrich, Dorothee; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr.; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; O'Donoghue, Mark; Robinson, David A.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.



Diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  


An 18-yr-old male bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with chronic moderate weight loss and acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. Hypercalcemia and azotemia were present on the serum chemistry panel. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hyperechoic renal cortices, but no evidence of neoplasia. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were mildly elevated, intact parathyroid hormone was severely elevated, and parathormone-related protein was undetected, suggesting primary hyperparathyroidism with possible renal dysfunction. Azotemia lessened in severity following diuresis, but hypercalcemia persisted; thus primary hyperparathyroidism was considered the most probable differential diagnosis. A second ultrasound including the cervical region revealed a solitary intraparenchymal left thyroid nodule. The nodule was surgically excised; histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Although primary hyperparathyroidism was suspected, diagnosis was not achieved from serum chemistry values alone. This case emphasizes the importance of diagnostic imaging and histopathology in the investigation of persistently abnormal laboratory values. PMID:22950324

Goodnight, Andrea L; Gottfried, Sharon D; Emanuelson, Karen



The effect of climatic forcing on population synchrony and genetic structuring of the Canadian lynx.  


The abundance of Canadian lynx follows 10-year density fluctuations across the Canadian subcontinent. These cyclic fluctuations have earlier been shown to be geographically structured into three climatic regions: the Atlantic, Continental, and Pacific zones. Recent genetic evidence revealed an essentially similar spatial structuring. Introducing a new population model, the "climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns" model, we link the observed ecological and evolutionary patterns. Specifically, we demonstrate that there is greater phase synchrony within climatic zones than between them and show that external climatic forcing may act as a synchronizer. We simulated genetic drift by using data on population dynamics generated by the climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns model, and we demonstrate that the observed genetic structuring can be seen as an emerging property of the spatiotemporal ecological dynamics. PMID:15067131

Stenseth, Nils Chr; Ehrich, Dorothee; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; O'Donoghue, Mark; Robinson, David A; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S



Climate, season, and social status modulate the functional response of an efficient stalking predator: the Eurasian lynx.  


1. Predation plays a major role in shaping the structure and dynamics of ecological communities, and the functional response of a predator is of crucial importance to the dynamics of any predator-prey system by linking the trophic levels. For large mammals, there is a dearth of field studies documenting functional responses, and observations at low prey density are particularly scarce. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding about how variables such as season, social status and climate modulate the functional response curves. 2. We analysed kill rate data collected over a 10-year period based on radio-marked lynx (Lynx lynx) mainly preying on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) along a steep prey density gradient in south-eastern Norway. 3. The asymptotic kill rate was reached at a very low prey density for both solitary individuals and family groups (i.e. females with their dependent kittens), indicative of an efficient predator. This highlights the importance of understanding the interplay between predator and prey at low prey densities. 4. A purely prey-dependent functional response was a poor descriptor of the data, as the curve was strongly modulated by season and differences between lynx of different social status. In addition, there was a clear effect of abiotic climatic factors (indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation) on observed kill rates in the more snow-rich portion of our study area. 5. Our analysis suggests that simple functional response curves might be poor descriptors of predator consumption rates in complex natural system, and that auxiliary factors are likely to induce complexity into any predator-prey systems that would not be captured by simple deterministic approaches. PMID:19486380

Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Andersen, Reidar



Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories.

Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E. K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue



Detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx, including Enterococcus faecium strains of CC17 and the new singleton ST573.  


The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) within the faecal flora of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx. The association with other resistance genes and the detection of virulence genes were also analysed. From 2008 to 2010, 365 faecal samples from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx were collected and tested for VRE recovery. Mechanisms of resistance to vancomycin and other antibiotics, as well as genes encoding virulence factors were detected through PCR. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was performed for Enterococcus faecium strains. VRE were recovered in 8 of the 365 analysed samples. The vanA gene was identified in two E. faecium isolates recovered from Iberian wolf faecal samples and the remaining six showed intrinsic resistance (3 vanC1-E. gallinarum and 3 vanC2-E. casseliflavus, from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx faecal samples, respectively). One vanA-containing isolate showed tetracycline and erythromycin resistance [with erm(B) and tet(L) genes] and the other one also exhibited ampicillin and kanamycin resistance [with erm(B), tet(M) and aph(3')-III genes]. One of the vanA-isolates revealed a new sequence type named ST573 and the other one belonged to the CC17 clonal complex (ST18). The hyl gene was detected in one E. casseliflavus and three E. gallinarum but not among vanA-positive isolates, and the occurrence of cylA and cylL genes was confirmed in two E. casseliflavus isolates. A low prevalence of VRE has been detected in faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx and strains with an acquired mechanism of resistance to vancomycin have not been detected among Iberian lynx. PMID:22018960

Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; López, María; Guerra, Ana; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia



Discovery of an extremely gas rich dwarf triplet near the centre of the Lynx-Cancer void  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) H i observations, done as part of an ongoing study of dwarf galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void, resulted in the discovery of a triplet of extremely gas rich galaxies located near the centre of the void. The triplet members SDSS J0723+3621, SDSS J0723+3622 and SDSS J0723+3624 have absolute magnitudes MB of -14.2, -11.9 and -9.7 and M(H i)/LB of ˜2.9, ˜10 and ˜25, respectively. The gas mass fractions, as derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry and the GMRT data, are 0.93, 0.997 and 0.997, respectively. The faintest member of this triplet, SDSS J0723+3624, is one of the most gas rich galaxies known. We find that all three galaxies deviate significantly from the Tully-Fisher relation, but follow the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. All three galaxies also have a baryon fraction that is significantly smaller than the cosmic baryon fraction. For the largest galaxy in the triplet, this is in contradiction to numerical simulations. The discovery of this very unique dwarf triplet lends further support to the idea that the void environment is conducive to the formation of galaxies with unusual properties. These observations provide further motivation to do deep searches of voids for a `hidden' very gas rich galaxy population with MB ? -11.

Chengalur, J. N.; Pustilnik, S. A.



Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide ap adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

Franklin, S. P.; Troyer, J. L.; TerWee, J. A.; Lyren, L. M.; Kays, R. W.; Riley, S. P. D.; Boyce, W. M.; Crooks, K. R.; Vandewoude, S.



Presence of Echinococcus oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863) Lühe, 1910 in Lynx rufus texensis Allen, 1895 from San Fernando, Tamaulipas state, in north-east Mexico.  


A bobcat was found recently killed on "Highway 101" near the town of San Fernando, Tamaulipas State, Mexico (100 km south of Brownsville, TX, U.S.A.). The cat (Lynx rufus texensis) was parasitized by several species of nematodes and trematodes, but mainly by a cestode, Echinococcus oligarthrus. The diagnostic characteristics of this cestode are described and illustrated. E. oligarthrus has not been reported previously in North America. This is the first time that the strobilar stage has been recovered from a "bobcat". A potential public health problem may be raised by the presence of this cestode in Mexico. PMID:8894772

Salinas-López, N; Jiménez-Guzmán, F; Cruz-Reyes, A



Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange.  


Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats ( Lynx rufus ) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002-2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations. PMID:23957865

Serieys, Laurel E K; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Poppenga, Robert H; Clifford, Deana L; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P D



Distribution and prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats (Lynx rufus), the natural reservoir, and other wild felids in thirteen states.  


Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan parasite of wild and domestic felids, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic and some exotic felids in the United States. The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is the natural reservoir for this parasite, but other felids such as Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryii) and domestic cats may maintain long-term parasitemias and serve as reservoirs. Experimentally, two tick species, Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum, have demonstrated the ability to transmit C. felis. These two tick species have overlapping distributions throughout much of the southeastern United States. The objective of the current study was to determine the distribution and prevalence of C. felis in free-ranging bobcat populations from 13 states including California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and West Virginia. These states were selected because of differential vector presence; D. variabilis is present in each of these states except for the region of Colorado sampled and A. americanum is currently known to be present only in a subset of these states. Blood or spleen samples from 696 bobcats were tested for C. felis infection by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay which targeted the first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1). Significantly higher prevalences of C. felis were detected from Missouri (79%, n=39), North Carolina (63%, n=8), Oklahoma (60%, n=20), South Carolina (57%, n=7), Kentucky (55%, n=74), Florida (44%, n=45), and Kansas (27%, n=41) compared with Georgia (9%, n=159), North Dakota (2.4%, n=124), Ohio (0%, n=19), West Virginia (0%, n=37), California (0%, n=26), and Colorado (0%, n=67). In addition to bobcats, seven cougars (Puma concolor) from Georgia, Louisiana, and North Dakota and one serval (Leptailurus serval) from Louisiana were tested for C. felis. Only one cougar from Louisiana was PCR positive, which represents the first report of an infected cougar outside of the Florida panther population. These data also indicate that C. felis is present in North Dakota where infection has not been reported in domestic cats. Based on a nonparametric analysis, prevalence rates were significantly higher in states where there are established populations of A. americanum, which supports recent data on the experimental transmission of C. felis by A. americanum and the fact that domestic cat clinical cases are temporally associated with A. americanum activity. Collectively, these data confirm that bobcats are a common reservoir for C. felis and that A. americanum is likely an epidemiologically important vector. PMID:21071149

Shock, Barbara C; Murphy, Staci M; Patton, Laura L; Shock, Philip M; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Prange, Suzanne; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Bevins, Sarah N; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R; Nettles, Victor F; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J



"Ears of the lynx" sign in a marchiafava-bignami patient: structural basis and fiber-tracking DTI contribution to the understanding of this imaging abnormality.  


The "ears of the lynx" sign was previously reported as a neuroimaging finding observed in patients with autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia in association with a thin corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC). We report a patient with a chronic form of Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) that presented with this imaging feature. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber-tracking data support that this finding is a consequence of the structural derangement, which enlarges a preexisting border zone of the bundles of fibers from the corpus callosum (CC) genu to the forceps minor and anterior corona radiata. Therefore, we assume that despite their pathological differences, damage to the anterior portion of the CC is responsible for the imaging similarities between MBD and ARHSP-TCC. PMID:23216703

Pacheco, Felipe Torres; Rego, Milena Morais; do Rego, Jose Iram Mendonça; da Rocha, Antonio J



In-situ Analysis of Diamonds and Their Mineral Inclusions From the Lynx Kimberlite Dyke Complex, Central Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty diamonds from the 522 Ma Lynx kimberlite dyke complex were selected from 442 stones in the 1.47- 3.45mm (+3 to +11 DTC) sieve class on the basis of visible inclusions. The 442 diamonds are part of a larger population of 6598 stones produced from 34 t and 494 t bulk samples taken in 2005 and 2007, respectively. The twenty diamonds all have octahedral primary growth forms. Three macles occur, as does one example of two intergrown octahedra connected along their {111} faces. Two samples are coarse intergrowths of octahedra. Most of the diamonds display a significant degree of resorption and range from octahedra with rounded corners and edges to tetrahexahedroida. Shield and serrate laminae, and hillocks are the most common resorption-related surface features. Nineteen of the samples have light brown to brown colouration. After their external morphology was examined, the diamonds were cut and polished along a single plane to expose included mineral grains for compositional analysis and to image internal structure. Cathodoluminescence imaging reveals deformation lamellae in the majority of the diamonds. A subset of these stones show deformation lamellae truncated by growth/resorption zones and in some cases intersection of planes of different orientation. Oscillatory planar growth patterns are the most common. However, examples of simple homogeneous, complex planar, and complex undulating growth zones occur. Inclusions, particularly olivine, typically occur in core/early growth regions of the diamonds. Of the twenty diamonds, sixteen have primary inclusions. The inclusion suite is largely peridotitic. Seventeen forsteritic olivine inclusions occur in ten diamonds and have molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)= 0.916-0.933. Seven Cr-diopside inclusions occur in one diamond (2.2-2.3 wt. % Cr2O3). Four Cr-pyropes (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.28-0.41) occur in three diamonds. Two enstatite inclusions (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.938-0.94) occur in two diamonds. One heterogeneous inclusion of monosulfide solid solution was also found (13.6-20.1 wt. % Ni, 3.9-9.6 wt. % Cu). One stone containing a grain of omphacite (0.01 wt. % K2O, 4.1 wt. % Na2O) is the only eclogitic diamond in the group. The diopside inclusions have nearly identical compositions that indicate equilibration conditions in the range of 58-60 kbar and 1250-1280°C that plot on the 41 mW/m2 geotherm. The least forsteritic olivine inclusion analysed was also found in the diamond with the diopside inclusions, suggesting a fairly fertile lherzolitic region of mantle at 180-190 km depth. The garnet data indicate both strongly harzburgitic (G10, 12.4- 13.7 wt. % Cr2O3, 3.7-4.4 wt. % CaO) and more lherzolitic (G10-G9 boundary, 8.9 wt. % Cr2O3, 5.8 wt. % CaO) parageneses.

van Rythoven, A.; McCandless, T. E.; Schulze, D. J.; Bellis, A.; Taylor, L. A.; Liu, Y.



Use of stratigraphic models as soft information to constrain stochastic modeling of rock properties: Development of the GSLIB-Lynx integration module  

SciTech Connect

Rock properties in volcanic units at Yucca Mountain are controlled largely by relatively deterministic geologic processes related to the emplacement, cooling, and alteration history of the tuffaceous lithologic sequence. Differences in the lithologic character of the rocks have been used to subdivide the rock sequence into stratigraphic units, and the deterministic nature of the processes responsible for the character of the different units can be used to infer the rock material properties likely to exist in unsampled regions. This report proposes a quantitative, theoretically justified method of integrating interpretive geometric models, showing the three-dimensional distribution of different stratigraphic units, with numerical stochastic simulation techniques drawn from geostatistics. This integration of soft, constraining geologic information with hard, quantitative measurements of various material properties can produce geologically reasonable, spatially correlated models of rock properties that are free from stochastic artifacts for use in subsequent physical-process modeling, such as the numerical representation of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport. Prototype modeling conducted using the GSLIB-Lynx Integration Module computer program, known as GLINTMOD, has successfully demonstrated the proposed integration technique. The method involves the selection of stratigraphic-unit-specific material-property expected values that are then used to constrain the probability function from which a material property of interest at an unsampled location is simulated.

Cromer, M.V. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.



Spider toxins comprising disulfide-rich and linear amphipathic domains: a new class of molecules identified in the lynx spider Oxyopes takobius.  


In addition to the conventional neurotoxins and cytotoxins, venom of the lynx spider Oxyopes takobius was found to contain two-domain modular toxins named spiderines: OtTx1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. These toxins show both insecticidal activity (a median lethal dose against flesh fly larvae of 75 ?g·g(-1)) and potent antimicrobial effects (minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range 0.1-10 ?m). Full sequences of the purified spiderines were established by a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and cDNA cloning. They are relatively large molecules (~ 110 residues, 12.0-12.5 kDa) and consist of two distinct modules separated by a short linker. The N-terminal part (~ 40 residues) contains no cysteine residues, is highly cationic, forms amphipathic ?-helical structures in a membrane-mimicking environment, and shows potent cytolytic effects on cells of various origins. The C-terminal part (~ 60 residues) is disulfide-rich (five S-S bonds), and contains the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK/knottin) signature. The N-terminal part of spiderines is very similar to linear cytotoxic peptides found in various organisms, whereas the C-terminal part corresponds to the usual spider neurotoxins. We synthesized the modules of OtTx1a and compared their activity to that of full-length mature toxin produced recombinantly, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal part, which retained full-length toxin activity in both insecticidal and antimicrobial assays. The unique structure of spiderines completes the range of two-domain spider toxins. PMID:24118933

Vassilevski, Alexander A; Sachkova, Maria Y; Ignatova, Anastasija A; Kozlov, Sergey A; Feofanov, Alexei V; Grishin, Eugene V



Early-type Galaxies at z = 1.3. I. The Lynx Supercluster: Cluster and Groups at z = 1.3. Morphology and Color-Magnitude Relation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We confirm the detection of three groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z ? 1.3, through spectroscopic follow-up and X-ray imaging, and we give estimates for their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies compared to the two central clusters, RX J0849+4452 and RX J0848+4453. Using spectroscopic follow-up and multi-wavelength photometric redshifts, we select 89 galaxies in the clusters, of which 41 are spectroscopically confirmed, and 74 galaxies in the groups, of which 25 are spectroscopically confirmed. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30%-40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g., based on Sérsic index). In luminosity-selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of bulge-dominated galaxies with a diffuse component that we visually identified as a disk and which we classified as bulge-dominated spirals, e.g., Sas. The ETG fractions never rise above ?50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in other massive clusters at z ? 1. In the groups, ETG fractions never exceed ?25%. However, overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions (ETG plus Sas) are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z ~ 1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as spirals might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star formation seems to have been quenched before experiencing a morphological transformation. Because their fraction is smaller at lower redshifts, they might be the spiral population that evolves into ETGs. For mass-selected samples of galaxies with masses M > 1010.6 M ? within ? > 500 Mpc-2, the ETG and overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions show no significant evolution with respect to local clusters, suggesting that morphological transformations might occur at lower masses and densities. The ETG mass-size relation shows evolution toward smaller sizes at higher redshift in both clusters and groups, while the late-type mass-size relation matches that observed locally. When compared to the clusters, the group ETG red sequence shows lower zero points (at ~2?) and larger scatters, both expected to be an indication of a younger galaxy population. However, we show that any allowed difference between the age in groups and clusters would be small when compared to the differences in age in galaxies of different masses.

Mei, Simona; Stanford, S. Adam; Holden, Brad P.; Raichoor, Anand; Postman, Marc; Nakata, Fumiaki; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ford, Holland C.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rosati, Piero; Tanaka, Masayuki; Huertas-Company, Marc; Rettura, Alessandro; Shankar, Francesco; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Demarco, Ricardo; Eisenhardt, Peter; Jee, Myungkook J.; Koyama, Yusei; White, Richard L.



Economic Impacts of Designating Critical Habitat Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: Case Study of the Canada Lynx (Lynx Canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of species and their habitats yields economic benefits to society. The principal U.S. species conservation law, the Endangered Species Act (ESA), requires the designation of critical habitat for ESA-listed species. The ESA provides room for economic analysis to enter conservation decisions by stipulating that the decision to designate a particular area take into account the resulting economic impact. Unfortunately,

Timm Kroeger; Frank Casey



Pleistocene and ecological effects on continental-scale genetic differentiation in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  


The potential for widespread, mobile species to exhibit genetic structure without clear geographic barriers is a topic of growing interest. Yet the patterns and mechanisms of structure--particularly over broad spatial scales--remain largely unexplored for these species. Bobcats occur across North America and possess many characteristics expected to promote gene flow. To test whether historical, topographic or ecological factors have influenced genetic differentiation in this species, we analysed 1 kb mtDNA sequence and 15 microsatellite loci from over 1700 samples collected across its range. The primary signature in both marker types involved a longitudinal cline with a sharp transition, or suture zone, occurring along the Great Plains. Thus, the data distinguished bobcats in the eastern USA from those in the western half, with no obvious physical barrier to gene flow. Demographic analyses supported a scenario of expansion from separate Pleistocene refugia, with the Great Plains representing a zone of secondary contact. Substructure within the two main lineages likely reflected founder effects, ecological factors, anthropogenic/topographic effects or a combination of these forces. Two prominent topographic features, the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, were not supported as significant genetic barriers. Ecological regions and environmental correlates explained a small but significant proportion of genetic variation. Overall, results implicate historical processes as the primary cause of broad-scale genetic differentiation, but contemporary forces seem to also play a role in promoting and maintaining structure. Despite the bobcat's mobility and broad niche, large-scale landscape changes have contributed to significant and complex patterns of genetic structure. PMID:22548482

Reding, Dawn M; Bronikowski, Anne M; Johnson, Warren E; Clark, William R



Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the Pennsylvania bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus).  


From 2000 to 2002 bobcat blood samples were collected, in association with the Pennsylvania Game Commission, during the recently reactivated bobcat hunting and trapping season. Sex, age, and county/township data were recorded for each animal. Blood was tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test. In the 2-yr study, 131 bobcat samples were collected in 14 Pennsylvania counties and 109 (83%) of these had antibodies to T. gondii (titer>or=25). A two-way Chi-Square test (95% confidence interval) yielded no significance differences in antibody prevalence between males (83%) and females (88%) or adults (83%) and juveniles (77%). All 14 counties had at least one bobcat with antibodies to T. gondii. PMID:16699165

Mucker, Eric M; Dubey, J P; Lovallo, Matthew J; Humphreys, Jan G



Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  


There is limited information on bobcat ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation and fertilizing ability. Bobcats were electroejaculated under general anesthesia in November (autumn) and April (spring), and endocrine and sperm traits were characterized. Testosterone (mean+/-SEM: 0.90+/-0.15 ng/mL) was not different between sampling times, but cortisol (average: 13.95+/-1.73 microg/dL) was significantly higher in April. Average number of spermatozoa was 10.0+/-3.4 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate, with values being significantly higher in April. Sperm motility (average 55.7+/-5.8% motile sperm) was not different between sampling times. The proportion of normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate (average: 14.7+/-2.1%) was significantly higher in April, but the percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes (average: 43.7+/-3.8%) was significantly higher in autumn. Spermatozoa were cryopreserved in a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST) or Biladyl, both containing 20% egg yolk and 4% glycerol. Diluted sperm were loaded into straws, refrigerated using a programmable thermoblock with a dry chamber, frozen in nitrogen vapors, thawed, and incubated in F-10 medium with 5% fetal bovine serum for up to 3h. After cryopreservation in TEST, there were about 50% motile sperm upon thawing, and survival was high during incubation post-thaw. Cryopreservation in Biladyl led to similar results, but motility decreased substantially during incubation post-thaw. Bobcat spermatozoa fertilized domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro. Fertilization rates were higher for sperm collected in April and cryopreserved in TEST (46%) than for those cryopreserved using Biladyl (<3%). Fertilized oocytes cleaved in culture, and some (27%) reached the morula stage. This study has allowed us to gain further baseline information on bobcat reproduction, explore sperm cryopreservation conditions, and show that fertilizing capacity can be tested using in vitro-matured cat oocytes. These results will be important for future conservation efforts. PMID:19410285

Gañán, N; González, R; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Sánchez, I; Aguilar, J M; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S



Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat ( Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited information on bobcat ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation and fertilizing ability. Bobcats were electroejaculated under general anesthesia in November (autumn) and April (spring), and endocrine and sperm traits were characterized. Testosterone (mean±SEM: 0.90±0.15 ng\\/mL) was not different between sampling times, but cortisol (average: 13.95±1.73?g\\/dL) was significantly higher in April. Average number of spermatozoa was 10.0±3.4×106 sperm\\/ejaculate, with

N. Gañán; R. González; A. Sestelo; J. J. Garde; I. Sánchez; J. M. Aguilar; M. Gomendio; E. R. S. Roldan



Bovine Tuberculosis in Doñana Biosphere Reserve: The Role of Wild Ungulates as Disease Reservoirs in the Last Iberian Lynx Strongholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doñana National Park (DNP) in southern Spain is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve where commercial hunting and wildlife artificial feeding do not take place and traditional cattle husbandry still exists. Herein, we hypothesized that Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence in wild ungulates will depend on host ecology and that variation in prevalence will reflect variation in the interaction between hosts and environmental

Christian Gortázar; María José Torres; Joaquín Vicente; Pelayo Acevedo; Manuel Reglero; José de La Fuente; Juan José Negro; Javier Aznar-Martín; Peter M. Bennett



Use of stratigraphic models as soft information to constrain stochastic modeling of rock properties: Development of the GSLIB-Lynx integration module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock properties in volcanic units at Yucca Mountain are controlled largely by relatively deterministic geologic processes related to the emplacement, cooling, and alteration history of the tuffaceous lithologic sequence. Differences in the lithologic character of the rocks have been used to subdivide the rock sequence into stratigraphic units, and the deterministic nature of the processes responsible for the character of

M. V. Cromer; C. A. Rautman



77 FR 322 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project name and location: LYNX Blue Line Extension Northeast Corridor Light Rail Project, Charlotte, NC. Project sponsor...Supporting documentation: LYNX Blue Line Extension Northeast Corridor Light Rail Project Final Environmental Impact...



78 FR 7890 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are two federally listed species with habitat requirements that likely overlap those of the wolverine: the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis). The gray wolf's listing status in Colorado and New Mexico is as an endangered...



50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...river otter (Lontra canadensis ), and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis ), and the Alaskan populations of gray wolf (Canis lupus ), and brown bear (Ursus arctos ). These species are included in Appendix II based on Article II(2)(b) of...



Comparing profile methods and site-occupancy modelling for the study of occurrence of an elusive species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on 1,053 signs of presence collected between 2002 and 2006 by a network of well-trained observers, we modelled the occurrence\\u000a of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in France using two methods. The Mahalanobis distance factor analysis (MADIFA) provided a measure of habitat suitability\\u000a based on environmental covariates, and site-occupancy modelling provided estimates of both presence and detection probabilities\\u000a over

Jonathan Rolland; Mathieu Basille; Éric Marboutin; Jean-Michel Gaillard


In vitro cloning of complex mixtures of DNA on microbeads: Physical separation of differentially expressed cDNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Lynx Therapeutics, Inc., 25861 Industrial Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94545; and BASF-LYNX Bioscience, Im Neuenheimer Feld 515, Heidelberg 69120, Germany Contributed by Sydney Brenner, December 14, 1999 We describe a method for cloning nucleic acid molecules onto the surfaces of 5-mum microbeads rather than in biological hosts. A unique tag sequence is attached to each molecule, and the tagged library

Sydney Brenner; Steven R. Williams; Eric H. Vermaas; Thorsten Storck; Keith Moon; Christie McCollum; Jen-I. Mao; Shujun Luo; James J. Kirchner; Sam Eletr; Robert B. Dubridge; Timothy Burcham; Glenn Albrecht



Carnivores as Focal Species for Conservation Planning in the Rocky Mountain Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability analysis of well-selected focal species can complement ecosystem- level conservation planning by revealing thresholds in habitat area and landscape connec- tivity. Mammalian carnivores are good candidates for focal species because their distri- butional patterns often strongly reflect regional-scale population processes. We incorporated focal species analysis of four carnivore species, fisher (Martes pennanti), lynx (Lynx can- adensis), wolverine (Gulo gulo),

Carlos Carroll; Reed F. Noss; Paul C. Paquet



Life Tracks Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are descriptions of and information about various endangered species in Wisconsin. They include: the timber wolf (Canis lupus lycaon); Forester's tern (Sterna forsteri); the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis); Higgins' eye pearly mussel (Lampsilis higginsii); the piping plover (Charadrius melodus); the osprey (Pandion haliaetus); the…

Brynildson, Inga


XCOR AeroSpace: Providing Low Cost Access to Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Company Status (XCOR in 60 sec): Founded in 1999 * Located at Mojave Air and Spaceport * Ten different rocket engine designs with over 3,500 firings * Two generations of rocket powered vehicles built and flown * Now designing Sub-Orbital Lynx and Lynx II ...



Enhancing species distribution modeling by characterizing predator-prey interactions.  


Niche theory is a well-established concept integrating a diverse array of environmental variables and multispecies interactions used to describe species geographic distribution. It is now customary to employ species distribution models (SDMs) that use environmental variables in conjunction with species location information to characterize species' niches and map their geographic ranges. The challenge remains, however, to account for the biotic interactions of species with other community members on which they depend. We show here how to connect species spatial distribution and their dependence with other species by modeling spatially explicit predator-prey interactions, which we call a trophic interaction distribution model (TIDM). To develop the principles, we capitalized on data from Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced into Colorado. Spatial location information for lynx obtained from telemetry was used in conjunction with environmental data to construct an SDM. The spatial locations of lynx-snowshoe hare encounters obtained from snow-tracking in conjunction with environmental data were used to construct a TIDM. The environmental conditions associated with lynx locations and lynx-hare encounters identified through both SDM and TIDM revealed an initial transient phase in habitat use that settled into a steady state. Nevertheless, despite the potential for the SDM to broadly encompass all lynx hunting and nonhunting spatial locations, the spatial extents of the SDM and TIDM differed; about 40% of important lynx-snowshoe hare locations identified in the TIDM were not identified in the lynx-only SDM. Our results encourage greater effort to quantify spatial locations of trophic interactions among species in a community and the associated environmental conditions when attempting to construct models aimed at projecting current and future species geographic distributions. PMID:24640545

Trainor, Anne M; Schmitz, Oswald J; Ivan, Jacob S; Shenk, Tanya M



Comparison of properties of digital spectrometer systems.  


We have tested two digital spectrometer systems, the DSP 9660 and Lynx(®) modules, connected to a HPGe detector. Lynx(®) is a fully integrated 32K channel signal analyzer based on digital signal processing techniques, which offers advanced digital stabilization. The model DSP 9660 digitalizes the signal directly at a very high sampling rate. The evaluated properties were integral nonlinearity, differential linearity, channel profiles, resolution and throughput. We found that the DSP system has slightly inferior resolution and throughput in comparison with the Lynx(®) system. PMID:24342559

Mazanova, Monika; Dryak, Pavel; Kovar, Petr; Auerbach, Pavel



Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in exotic wild felids from Brazilian zoos.  


Serum samples from 37 captive exotic felids in 12 zoos from six Brazilian states were assayed for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites. Titers greater than or equal to 1:20 were considered positive. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 24 of 37 (64.9%) felids, including one European lynx (Lynx lynx), two jungle cats (Felis chaus), two servals (Leptailurus serval), two tigers (Panthera tigris), three leopards (Panthera pardus), and 14 of 27 lions (Panthera leo). This is the first serologic analysis for T. gondii infection in exotic wild felids from Brazilian zoos. PMID:12785684

Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Marvulo, M F; Ferreira-Neto, J S; Dubey, J P



Management Information System Master Plan for Bulgarian State Railways: Final Report Appendices. Volume 2, Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study, conducted by Lynx Technologies, Inc., funded by the Trade and Development Agency. The report analyzes the development of a Management Information System for Bulgarian State Railways to provide more efficient and cost effective customer service...



76 FR 63922 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final EIS, FTA, NC, LYNX--Blue Line Extension Northeast Corridor Light Rail Project, Proposed Light Rail Extension...20110343, Final EIS, FHWA, WI, Zoo Interchange Corridor Study, Interstate I-94, I-894, and...



75 FR 52736 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Patricia A. KurKul 978-281-9250. EIS No. 20100336, Draft EIS, FTA, NC, LYNX--Blue Line Extension Northeast Corridor Light Rail Project, Proposed Light Rail Extension from Center City Charlotte to I-485 near the...



77 FR 71759 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Prairie...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...typical predators of plains spotted skunk, such as coyote (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and great horned owls (Bubo virginanus), which prefer more open habitats. Open conditions in mature forest stands might be more favorable for the...



78 FR 2710 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conforming Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: January 7, 2013. Description: Application of SmartLynx Airlines Estonia OU requesting a foreign air carrier permit and exemption authority authorizing the carrier to operate charter foreign air...



Access to ADS Catalogs Through the World Wide Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalog access tool was developed that allows access to the Astrophysics Data System's (ADS) catalogs through the World Wide Web (WWW) and its interfaces (e.g., XMosaic, Lynx, Chimera). This allows catalog access from character based terminals with an easy to use interface (e.g., via Lynx, see figure) as well as through a graphical user interface (e.g., XMosaic). The access address is:

Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.



Associations between Trichinella species and host species in Finland.  


Examination of 627 wild animals--raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), European lynxes (Lynx lynx), brown bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and badgers (Meles meles)--revealed Trichinella spp. The prevalence varied according to geographical region of Finland (north; southwest, SW; and southeast, SE) and was the highest among lynxes (70%, SW). The risk of trichinellosis was higher in the SE (odds ratio, OR, 19.4) and SW regions (OR 14.3), as compared with the northern region (OR 1), with no difference between the former 2 regions. Foxes (OR 2.1) and lynxes (OR 1.9) had a higher risk than raccoon dogs (OR 1) of being infected. The distribution of different Trichinella species was evaluated in 87 wild and domestic mammals by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Trichinella spiralis was detected more often in domestic and synanthropic animals than in sylvatic hosts. Trichinella nativa was detected only in wildlife. Trichinella pseudospiralis was found both in sylvatic and synanthropic hosts. Trichinella britovi was detected only in mixed infections with other Trichinella species. The raccoon dog was the sole host for all 4 Trichinella species and also carried the most intense infections. PMID:12053985

Oivanen, Leena; Kapel, Christian M O; Pozio, Edoardo; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Mikkonen, Taina; Sukura, Antti



In situ analysis of carbon isotopes in North American diamonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamonds from three North American kimberlite occurrences were investigated with cathodoluminescence (CL) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine their growth history and carbon isotope composition. Diamonds analyzed include fourteen from Lynx (Quebec), twelve from Kelsey Lake (Colorado) and eleven from A154 South (Diavik mine, Northwest Territories). Growth histories for the diamonds vary from simple to highly complex based on their CL images and depending on the individual stone. Deformation laminae are evident in CL images of the Lynx diamonds that typically are brownish in color. Two to five points per diamond were analyzed by SIMS for carbon isotope composition. Sample heterogeneity is minimal in terms of ?13C (vs. PDB) values. Points within single diamond had a maximum range of approximately 1 ‰. The results for the A154 South (-6.4 to -3 ‰) and Kelsey Lake (-11.2 to -2.6 ‰) stones were in accordance with earlier reported values. The Lynx kimberlite stones have anomalously high ratios and range from -3.5 to +0.2 ‰ (average: -1.4 ‰). No previous carbon isotope analyses on diamonds from Lynx or any other eastern Superior craton occurrence have been published. The diamonds possess carbon isotope ratios higher than those for the only other reported analyses of Superior craton diamonds at Wawa, Ontario (-5.5 to -1.1 ‰). In global terms, the only published analyses of diamonds that consistently contain even higher values are those from New South Wales (Australia). However, these diamonds are alluvial and contain eclogitic and/or exotic mineral inclusions. The Lynx diamonds are entirely peridotitic and from a primary deposit. The unusually low (i.e. >-5‰) ?13C values of the Lynx (and Wawa) diamonds may indicate a different carbon reservoir for the Superior craton mantle as compared to other cratons.

van Rythoven, A. D.; Hauri, E. H.; Wang, J.; McCandless, T.; Shirey, S. B.; Schulze, D. J.



Native predators reduce harvest of reindeer by Sámi pastoralists.  


Contemporary efforts to protect biological diversity recognize the importance of sustaining traditional human livelihoods, particularly uses of the land that are compatible with intact landscapes and ecologically complete food webs. However, these efforts often confront conflicting goals. For example, conserving native predators may harm pastoralist economies because predators consume domestic livestock that sustain people. This potential conflict must be reconciled by policy, but such reconciliation requires a firm understanding of the effects of predators on the prey used by people. We used a long-term, large-scale database and Bayesian models to estimate the impacts of lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and brown bear (Ursus arctos) on harvest of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by Sami pastoralists in Sweden. The average annual harvest of reindeer averaged 25% of the population (95% credible interval = 19, 31). Annual harvest declined by 96.6 (31, 155) reindeer for each lynx family group (the surveyed segment of the lynx population) in a management unit and by 94.3 (20, 160) for each wolverine reproduction (the surveyed segment of the wolverine population). We failed to detect effects of predation by brown bear. The mechanism for effects of predation on harvest was reduced population growth rate. The rate of increase of reindeer populations declined with increasing abundance of lynx and wolverine. The density of reindeer, latitude, and weather indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation also influenced reindeer population growth rate. We conclude that there is a biological basis for compensating the Sámi reindeer herders for predation on reindeer. PMID:22908719

Hobbs, N Thompson; Andrén, Henrik; Persson, Jens; Aronsson, Malin; Chapron, Guillaume



Echinococcus multilocularis in European wolves (Canis lupus).  


Nested PCR was used as a diagnostic tool to investigate the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm in protected species of carnivores in Slovakia. Twenty-three faecal samples from wolves, four samples from bears and three samples from lynx from the Muránska Planina mountains and eight samples from wolves from the Bukovské Vrchy mountains were examined. E. multilocularis DNA was detected in two samples of wolves' faeces from the Muránska Planina mountains and one sample from the Bukovské Vrchy mountains. Examination of bears' and lynx faecal samples gave negative results. The detection of E. multilocularis in wolves has extended the range of its known definitive hosts in Europe. PMID:11688890

Martínek, K; Kolárová, L; Hapl, E; Literák, I; Uhrin, M



Making It Their Own: Severn Ojibwe Communicative Practices. Anthropological Horizons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a discourse-centered approach to ethnography, this book provides an empirically based, contemporary overview of a rapidly changing First Nations village in northern Ontario (Canada). Data were collected in the 1980s during a 2-year residence and follow-up visits in the Severn Ojibwa community of Lynx Lake, a remote subarctic village in which…

Valentine, Lisa Philips


Test plan for performance testing of the Eaton AC3 electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternating current (ac) propulsion system for an electric vehicle was developed and tested. The test bed vehicle is a modified 1981 Mercury Lynx. The test plan was prepared specifically for the third modification to this test bed and identified as the Eaton AC-3. The scope of the testing done on the Eaton AC-3 includes coastdown and dynamometer tests but

R. L. Crumley; H. W. Heiselmann



Massive star formation in a gravitationally-lensed H II galaxy at z=3.357  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lynx arc, with a redshift of 3.357, was discovered during spectroscopic follow-up of the z=0.570 cluster RX J0848+4456 from the ROSAT Deep Cluster Survey. The arc is characterized by a very red R - K color and strong, narrow emission lines.

Rauch, G.; Stanford, M.; Holden, S. A.; Stern, B. P.; Rosati, D.; Lombardi, P.; Humphrey, M.; Villar-Martin, A.; Hook, M.; Fosbury, R. N.; Squires, R. A. E.



Operationally applicable objective method for the analysis and evaluation of the flights of helicopter mission task elements during field-of-view trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995 the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency conducted a series of pilotage field of view (FOV) trials on a Lynx helicopter. These were performed under the auspices of the Technical Cooperation Program, subgroup H, Technical Panel 6. Before the commencement of the trials it was clear that it would be necessary to have available an objective method of

Kenneth L. Edwards; John W. Buckle; Mark J. Doherty; Lionel J. Lee; Adam C. Pratty; John F. White



Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.  

PubMed Central

Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E



Ac Propulsion System for an Electric Vehicle, Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ...

J. M. Slicker



Re-introduction of birds and mammals to the British Isles.  


Large and exciting raptors like white-tailed eagle and red kite have been restored to the skies of Scotland and England, and now there are advanced plans to return the beaver. These successes encourage debate on other missing animals, with the elusive Eurasian lynx as the next best candidate. PMID:12586953

Dennis, Roy



Nebular and stellar properties of a metal-poor HII galaxy at z= 3.36  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have characterized the physical properties (electron temperature, density and metallicity) of the ionized gas and the ionizing population (age, metallicity and presence of Wolf-Rayet stars) in the Lynx arc, an HII galaxy at z= 3.36. The ultraviolet doublets (i.e. CIII], SiIII] and NIV) imply the existence of a density gradient in this object, with a high-density region (0.1-1.0 × 105cm-3) and a lower density region (<3200cm-3). The temperature-sensitive ratio [OIII]??1661,1666/?5007 implies an electron temperature Te= 17300+500-700 K, in agreement within the errors with photoionization model predictions. Nebular abundance determination using standard techniques and the results from photoionization models imply a nebular metallicity of O/H ~ 10 +/- 3percent (O/H)solar, in good agreement with recent results from Fosbury et al. Both methods suggest that nitrogen is overabundant relative to other elements, with [N/O]~ 2.0-3.0 ×[N/O]solar. We do not find evidence for Si overabundance, as Fosbury et al. did. Photoionization models imply that the ionizing stellar population in the Lynx arc has an age of <~5 Myr. If He+ is ionized by Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, then the ionizing stars in the Lynx arc have metallicities Zstar > 5percent Zsolar and ages ~2.8-3.4 Myr (depending on Zstar), when WR stars appear and are responsible for the He2+ emission. However, alternative excitation mechanisms for this species are not discarded. Since the emission lines trace the properties of the present burst only, nothing can be said about the possible presence of an underlying old stellar population. The Lynx arc is a low-metallicity HII galaxy that is undergoing a burst of star formation of <~5 Myr age. One possible scenario that explains the emission-line spectrum of the Lynx arc, the large strength of the nitrogen lines and the He2+ emission is that the object has experienced a merger event that has triggered a burst of star formation. WR stars have formed that contribute to a fast enrichment of the interstellar medium. Like Fosbury et al., we find a factor of >~10 discrepancy between the mass of the instantaneous burst required to power the luminosity of the H? line and the mass implied by the continuum level measured for the Lynx arc. We discuss several possible solutions to this problem. The most likely explanation is that gas and stars have different spatial distributions, so that the emission lines and the stellar continuum suffer different gravitational amplifications by the intervening cluster.

Villar-Martín, M.; Cerviño, M.; González Delgado, R. M.



Bovine Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Wildlife in Spain  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife and feral species is a potential source of infection for livestock and a threat to protected and endangered species. The aim of this study was to identify Spanish wild animal species infected with M. bovis through bacteriological culture and spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) of isolates for epidemiological purposes. This study included samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), hare (Lepus europaeus), and cattle (Bos taurus). They were collected in several geographical areas that were selected for their unique ecological value and/or known relationships between wildlife and livestock. In the areas included in this survey, M. bovis strains with the same spoligotyping pattern were found infecting several wild species and livestock, which indicates an epidemiological link. A locally predominant spoligotype was found in these areas. Better understanding of the transmission and distribution of disease in these populations will permit more precise targeting of control measures.

Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucia; Montero, Natalia; Sanchez, Celia; Galka, Margarita; Delso, Consuelo; Alvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Vela, Ana I.; Briones, Victor; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas



[Felines: an alternative in genetic toxicology studies?].  


The micronuclei (MN) test carry out in peripheral blood is fast, simple, economic and it is used to detect genotoxic environmental agents. MN are fragments of chromosomes or complete chromosomes remaining in the cytoplasm after cell division, which increase when organisms are exposed to genotoxic agents. Therefore, species with the highest values of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) are the most suitable to be potentials biomonitor of micronucleogenic agents, using a drop of blood. Nine species of Felines that present spontaneous MNE in peripheral blood are shown. From these species, the cat has been previously proven, with positive results and also lion (Panthera leo), yaguaroundi (Felis yagoaroundi), lynx (Lynx ruffus), jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), tiger (Panthera tigris), ocelote (Felis padalis) and leopard (Panthera pardus) display spontaneous MNE, and with this characteristic this Family can be propose like a potential group to be used in toxicogenetic studies. PMID:19256458

Zamora-Perez, Ana; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Ramos-Ibarra, Maria L; Batista-González, Cecilia M; Luna-Aguirre, Jaime; González-Rodríguez, Andrés; Rodríguez-Avila, José L; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M



Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter\\/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery

J. M. Slicker; L. Kalns



Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2

W. L. Kelledes



Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.  


Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens. PMID:9732040

Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D



Basic haematological values in carnivores--II. The Felidae.  


1. Basic haematological values in 34 animals of eight carnivorous species are reported. 2. In four Northern lynxs (Lynx lynx lynx), two male and two female animals, the mean values are given: erythrocyte counts 8.51 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.392/l, haemoglobin content 148.0 g/l and leukocyte count 7.92 X 10(9)/l. 3. In six male pumas (Puma concolor missolensis) the mean values estimated are: erythrocyte count 9.35 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.43/l, haemoglobin content 163.9 g/l and leukocyte count 7.73 X 10(9)/l. Individual values in one female puma are also given. 4. In six jaguars (Panthera onca), three male and three female animals, the mean values are given: erythrocyte count 8.27 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.37/l, haemoglobin content 137.1 g/l and leukocyte count 15.15 X 10(9)/l. 5. Only individual values are reported in one clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), in one leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), in one Corbett's tiger (Panthera tigris Corbetti) and in one Altaic tiger (Panthera tigris Altaica). 6. In four lions (Panthera leo leo), two male and two female animals, the mean estimated values are: erythrocyte count 10.14 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.462/l, haemoglobin content 159.0 g/l and leukocyte count 11.05 X 10(9)/l. In six female cheetahs (Acinonox jubatus jubatus) the mean values estimated are: erythrocyte count 7.86 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.373/l, haemoglobin content 142.8 g/l and leukocyte count 8.65 X 10(9)/l. For three male cheetahs only individual values are reported. 8. All results achieved are compared with those abstracted from the literature and discussed. PMID:2886279

Pospísil, J; Kase, F; Váhala, J



Leptospirosis in wild and domestic carnivores in natural areas in Andalusia, Spain.  


Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Carnivores are at the top of the feeding chain, thus being exposed to pathogens through their preys. From June 2004 to April 2007, we analyzed for evidences of contact with 14 serovars of Leptospira interrogans Sensu Lato serum (analyzed by indirect Microscopic Agglutination Test) and urine or kidney samples (analyzed by microscopic observation, immunostaining and culture) collected from 201 wild and domestic carnivores, including 26 free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 33 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 25 common genets (Genetta genetta), two Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and one Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), and 53 free-roaming cats and 28 rural dogs in protected areas in Andalusia (southern Spain). Twenty-three percent of the animals presented evidences of contact, being the prevalence similar among wild (23.5%) and domestic species (22.2%). Contact with Lesptospira was detected in all the species but the otter. Prevalence was: lynx (11% by bacteriological detection, 32% by serology), fox (0%, 47%), mongoose (5%, 20%), genet (0%, 12%), badger (0%, 50%), cat (20%, 14%), dog (only serology: 36%). Serovar Icterohemorragiae accounted for 2/3 of the cases. Serovar Canicola was detected in half of the positive dogs and one lynx. Other serovars detected were Ballum, Sejroë, and Australis. No macroscopic lesions were observed in necropsied animals that showed evidence of contact with the agent, although histopathologic lesions (chiefly chronic interstitial nephritis) were observed in 7 out of the 11 microscopically analyzed individuals. Thus, L. interrogans may cause previously unrecorded disease in wild carnivores in Spain. Wild and free-roaming carnivores may not act as reservoir of L. interrogans but as a dead-end hosts, though the dog may act as reservoir of serovar Canicola. Carnivores are apparently good sentinels for the epidemiological monitorization of leptospirosis. PMID:18973450

Millán, Javier; Candela, Mónica G; López-Bao, José Vicente; Pereira, Marian; Jiménez, María Angeles; León-Vizcaíno, Luis



Measuring OS support for real-time CORBA ORBs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of real time operating systems, VxWorks and LynxOS, and general purpose operating systems with real time extensions, Windows NT, Solaris, and Linux, for real time ORB middleware. While holding the hardware and ORB constant, we vary these operating systems and measure platform-specific variations in context switching overhead and priority inversions. Our findings illustrate

David L. Levine; Sergio Flores-Gaitan; Christopher D. Gill; Douglas C. Schmidt



AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted

J. M. Slicker



ac powertrain for an electric vehicle. Phase 2 and Phase 3 final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes work relating to Phases 2 and 3 development and testing of an ac powertrain for a 25 hp four-passenger electric vehicle. The system, which consists of a two-speed automatic mechanical transaxle, 18.6 kW ac induction traction motor, 33.6 kW inverter and overall logic controller, was installed and evaluated in a converted Mercury Lynx rolling test bed vehicle.




A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application  

SciTech Connect

(U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.



Antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in Canada.  


Antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [CAV-2], feline herpesvirus [FHV], phocine herpesvirus [PHV-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [DMV], phocine distemper virus [PDV], parainfluenza virus type 3 [PI3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [DRV], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, Borrelia burgdorferi and Toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals, including cougars (Fellis concolor), lynxes (Fellis lynx), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), fishers (Martes pennanti), wolverines (Gulo gulo), wolves (Canis lupus), black bears (Ursus americanus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), which had been collected at several locations in Canada between 1984 and 2001. Antibodies to a number of viruses were detected in species in which these infections have not been reported before, for example, antibodies to CAV-2 in walruses, to PDV in black bears, grizzly bears, polar bears, lynxes and wolves, to DMV in grizzly bears, polar bears, walruses and wolves, to PI3 in black bears and fishers, and to DRV in belugas and walruses. PMID:15338705

Philippa, J D W; Leighton, F A; Daoust, P Y; Nielsen, O; Pagliarulo, M; Schwantje, H; Shury, T; Van Herwijnen, R; Martina, B E E; Kuiken, T; Van de Bildt, M W G; Osterhaus, A D M E



A Fall fur-hunt from Maine to New Brunswick, Canada: The 1858 journal of Manly Hardy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecologists, conservationists, and others increasingly ask questions that require a reliable understanding of natural conditions in the past. For example, when the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to list the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) under the Federal Endangered Species Act, there was a need to know the historical status of this species in the northeastern US. The natural history writings of Manly Hardy, a successful, nineteenth-century businessman and respected amateur naturalist from Brewer, ME, proved useful in assessing the lynx's historical status. Because of the wide array of potential uses of Hardy's writings, the objective of this paper is to make biologists and other scholars aware of Hardy, especially his 15 surviving journals, 1852-1899. Hardy left the most extensive published record of any of the naturalists who wrote about wildlife in Maine from the late 1800s through the early 1900s. His articles and essays covered a wide range of subjects about a variety of bird and mammal species. A recently published biographical sketch of Hardy contains an annotated bibliography of his publications along with the republication of 14 of his mammalian works. In contrast, this article contains an example of his unpublished journal writing with significant wildlife observations.

Krohn, W. B.



A strategy for screening and identifying mycotoxins in herbal medicine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  


The objective of this study was to develop an effective strategy for screening and identifying mycotoxins in herbal medicine (HM). Here, Imperatae Rhizoma, a commonly used Chinese herb, was selected as a model HM. A crude drug contaminated with fungi was analyzed by comparing with uncontaminated ones. Ultra-performance LC coupled to tandem quadrupole TOF-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with collision energy function was applied to analyze different samples from Imperatae Rhizoma. Then, MarkerLynx(TM) software was employed to screen the excess components in analytes, compared with control samples, and those selected markers were likely to be the metabolites of fungi. Furthermore, each of the accurate masses of the markers obtained from MarkerLynx(TM) was then searched in a mycotoxins/fungal metabolites database established in advance. The molecular formulas with relative mass error between the measured and theoretical mass within 5 ppm were chosen and then applied to MassFragment(TM) analysis for further confirmation of their structures. With the use of this approach, five mycotoxins that have never been reported in HM were identified in contaminated Imperatae Rhizoma. The results demonstrate the potential of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS coupled with the MarkerLynx(TM) software and MassFragment(TM) tool as an efficient and convenient method to screen and identify mycotoxins in herbal materials and aid in the quality control of HM. PMID:23873590

Fang, Lian-xiang; Xiong, Ai-zhen; Wang, Rui; Ji, Shen; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-tao



Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. Painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. However, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-Canidae species. Here, we extended cross-species painting with dog probes to seven more species representing six carnivore families: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the stone marten (Martes foina), the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Javan mongoose (Hepestes javanicas), the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The numbers and positions of intra-chromosomal rearrangements were found to differ among these carnivore species. A comparative map between human and stone marten, and a map among the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), stone marten and human were also established to facilitate outgroup comparison and to integrate comparative maps between stone marten and other carnivores with such maps between human and other species. These comparative maps give further insight into genome evolution and karyotype phylogenetic relationships among carnivores, and will facilitate the transfer of gene mapping data from human, domestic dog and cat to other species.

Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Wang, D; Tanomtong, A; Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F



Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.  


Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (Canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (Martes foina), 4 of 4 pine martens (Martes martes), 6 of 6 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 4 of 4 polecats (Mustela putorius), 1 of 1 ferret (Mustela putorius furo), 13 of 21 (61.9%) European genets (Genetta genetta), and 13 of 22 (59.1%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon). Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among wild carnivores in Spain. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in Iberian lynx and the European wildcat reported here may be of epidemiologic significance because seropositive cats might have shed oocysts. PMID:17689869

Sobrino, R; Cabezón, O; Millán, J; Pabón, M; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortázar, C; Dubey, J P; Almeria, S



The Atsa Suborbital Observatory: An Observatory for a Commercial Suborbital Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of astronomical observations made above Earth's atmosphere have long been understood: free access to spectral regions inaccessible from Earth (e.g., UV) or affected by the atmosphere's content (e.g., IR). Most robotic, space-based telescopes maintain large angular separation between the Sun and an observational target in order to avoid accidental damage to instruments from the Sun. For most astronomical targets, this possibility is easily avoided by waiting until objects are visible away from the Sun. For the Solar System objects inside Earth's orbit, this is never the case. Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. Commercial suborbital spacecraft are largely expected to go to ~100 km altitude above Earth, providing a limited amount of time for astronomical observations. The unique scientific advantage to these observations is the ability to point close to the Sun: if a suborbital spacecraft accidentally turns too close to the Sun and fries an instrument, it is easy to land the spacecraft and repair the hardware for the next flight. Objects uniquely observed during the short observing window include inner-Earth asteroids, Mercury, Venus, and Sun-grazing comets. Both open-FOV and target-specific observations are possible. Despite many space probes to the inner Solar System, scientific questions remain. These include inner-Earth asteroid size and bulk density informing Solar System evolution studies and efforts to develop methods of mitigation against imminent impactors to Earth; chemistry and dynamics of Venus' atmosphere addressing physical phenomena such as greenhouse effect, atmospheric super-rotation and global resurfacing on Venus. With the Atsa Suborbital Observatory, we combine the strengths of both ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with both in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. Rapid turnaround will depend only on flight frequency. Data are stored on-board for retrieval when the spacecraft lands. We provide robust instrumentation that can survive suborbital spaceflight, assessment of the feasibility of the requested observations, rigorous scripting of the telescope operation, integration of the telescope plus instrument in a provider spacecraft, and periodic preventive maintenance for the telescope and instrument suite. XCOR Aerospace's Lynx III spacecraft is the best candidate vehicle to host a suborbital astronomical observatory. Unlike other similar vehicles, the Lynx will operate with only 1 or 2 people onboard (the pilot and an operator), allowing for each mission to be totally dedicated to the observation (no tourists will be bumping about; no other experiments will affect spacecraft pointing). A stable platform, the Lynx can point to an accuracy of ± 0.5o. Fine pointing is done by the telescope system. Best of all, the Lynx has a dorsal pod that opens directly to space. For astronomical observations, the best window is NO window. Currently, we plan to deploy a 20" diameter telescope in the Lynx III dorsal pod. XCOR Aerospace has the goal of eventually maintaining a Lynx flight frequency capability of 4 times/day. As with any observatory, Atsa will be available for observations by the community at large.

Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.



Implementation uncertainty when using recreational hunting to manage carnivores  

PubMed Central

1. Wildlife managers often rely on resource users, such as recreational or commercial hunters, to achieve management goals. The use of hunters to control wildlife populations is especially common for predators and ungulates, but managers cannot assume that hunters will always fill annual quotas set by the authorities. It has been advocated that resource management models should account for uncertainty in how harvest rules are realized, requiring that this implementation uncertainty be estimated. 2. We used a survival analysis framework and long-term harvest data from large carnivore management systems in three countries (Estonia, Latvia and Norway) involving four species (brown bear, grey wolf, Eurasian lynx and wolverine) to estimate the performance of hunters with respect to harvest goals set by managers. 3. Variation in hunter quota-filling performance was substantial, ranging from 40% for wolverine in Norway to nearly 100% for lynx in Latvia. Seasonal and regional variation was also high within country–species pairs. We detected a positive relationship between the instantaneous potential to fill a quota slot and the relative availability of the target species for both wolverine and lynx in Norway. 4. Survivor curves and hazards – with survival time measured as the time from the start of a season until a quota slot is filled – can indicate the extent to which managers can influence harvest through adjustments of season duration and quota limits. 5. Synthesis and applications. We investigated seven systems where authorities use recreational hunting to manage large carnivore populations. The variation and magnitude of deviation from harvest goals was substantial, underlining the need to incorporate implementation uncertainty into resource management models and decisions-making. We illustrate how survival analysis can be used by managers to estimate the performance of resource users with respect to achieving harvest goals set by managers. The findings in this study come at an opportune time given the growing popularity of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models in fisheries and a push towards incorporating MSE into terrestrial harvest management.

Bischof, Richard; Nilsen, Erlend B; Br?seth, Henrik; Mannil, Peep; Ozolins, Jaanis; Linnell, John D C; Bode, Michael



Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.  


Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs. PMID:15526881

Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F



Suborbital Research and Education Missions with Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV) will provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space. In the case of XCOR's Lynx, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a unique mission on a customized flight trajectory. This new manned, reusable commercial platform will allow for repeated observations with a single instrument, but without the need to refurbish the vehicle between flights. In addition, the short turn-around means a researcher can do multiple observations, measurements, or targets. The vehicle is designed for multi-mission primary and secondary payload capabilities, including: in-cockpit experiments and instrumentation testing, externally mounted experiments, upper atmospheric sampling, and microsatellite launch. This vehicle takes off horizontally from a runway and will go into a powered ascent attaining Mach 2.9 maximum airspeed. After about three minutes and at approximately 58 km (190,000 ft) the engines are shutdown and the RLV then coasts upwards. The low gravity period (at or below 0.001go) begins soon after at 3.35 minutes and the microgravity period (at or below 10-6go) starts at 4.25 minutes. At approximately four and half minutes the vehicle reaches apogee of 100 km (328, 000 ft). After reentry and a Max-G force pullout of 4 g, the Lynx touches down on the takeoff runway after approximately 30 minutes.Typical Lynx Mark II flight profile

Rodway, K.; Nelson, A.; Voigt, J.



Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated that food preferences for bobcats in eastern Tennessee are similar to those in other southeastern states where the habitat is similar to the Oak Ridge area and somewhat different from those with significantly different habitat.

Story, J.D.; Galbraith, W.J.; Kitchings, J.T.



[Analysis and identification of chemical constituents in Siwu decoction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS(E)].  


This research analyzed the chemical constituents of Siwu decoction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS(E). Base on the data of mass and related-literatures, 43 peaks were profiled and 25 compounds, which contain 8 monoterpene glycosides from Paeonia lactiflora and 13 phthalides from Rhizoma chuanxiong and Radix angelica sinensis mainly, were identified in both positive and negative mode respectively. Meanwhile, chemical constituents of water extract and 60% ethanol extract of Siwu decoction were compared by the principal constituent analysis with MarkerLynx software, which provides the basis for the active ingredients of Siwu decoction. PMID:24494558

Wang, Zhen-Fang; Zhao, Yang; Pang, Xu; Yu, He-Shui; Kang, Li-Ping; Gao, Yue; Ma, Bai-Ping



Exploring Potential Chemical Transformation by Chemical Profiling Approach for Rapidly Evaluating Chemical Consistency between Sun-Dried and Sulfur-Fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) based on a chemical profiling method was applied to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba. By virtue of the high resolution, high speed of UPLC, and the accurate mass measurement of TOFMS coupled with reliable MarkerLynx software, five newly assigned monoterpene glycoside sulfonates were found and identified in sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba samples. This method could be applied for rapid quality evaluation of different kinds of sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba among commercial samples.

Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wen, Chengping; Fan, Yongsheng



Evidence of a limited schizogonous cycle for Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats following exposure to infected ticks.  


Schizogonous tissue stages of Cytauxzoon felis (Apicomplexa: Theileridae) were not observed by microscopic evaluation of impression smears of liver, spleen, lung and lymph nodes in 10 bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Oklahoma with naturally occurring piroplasm infections. Schizogonous stages were observed in similar tissues from experimentally-infected bobcats at 11 days postexposure to infected Dermacentor variabilis, but not at 30 days following tick feeding. The schizogonous cycle of this parasite appears to be short, although the bobcat appears to be a long-term carrier. PMID:3114505

Blouin, E F; Kocan, A A; Kocan, K M; Hair, J



Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

Sowizral, Henry A.



Beamline operation using an industrial control system and distributed object-oriented hardware access  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the Control System of the CERN Neutrino Beamline, based on FactoryLink and equipment controllers using PCs running LynxOS. FactoryLink runs on a workstation and connects via communications tasks over Ethernet to both the PCs and the data acquisition systems of the experiments. The PCs access VME and CAMAC directly via the VICbus. Object-oriented control software, entirely data driven, deals with hardware modules and local survey operations. Remote stations have access via X-Window.

Butler, H.; Myers, D.R.; Rueden, W. von; Yang, J. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). ECP Div.)



ac powertrain for an electric vehicle. Phase 2 and Phase 3 final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work relating to Phases 2 and 3 development and testing of an ac powertrain for a 25 hp four-passenger electric vehicle. The system, which consists of a two-speed automatic mechanical transaxle, 18.6 kW ac induction traction motor, 33.6 kW inverter and overall logic controller, was installed and evaluated in a converted Mercury Lynx rolling test bed vehicle. An on-board charger and an auxiliary dc-to-dc converter were integrated into the inverter/controller package.

Slicker, J.M.



Citizen Science and Citizen Space Exploration: Potentials for Professional Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Citizens in Space is a project of the United States Rocket Academy, with the goal of promoting citizen science and citizen space exploration. This goal is enabled by the new reusable suborbital spacecraft now under development by multiple companies in the US. For the first phase of this project, we have acquired a contract for 10 flights on the Lynx suborbital spacecraft, which is under construction by XCOR Aerospace in Mojave, CA. This represents, to the best of our knowledge, the largest single bulk purchase of suborbital flights to date. Citizens in Space has published an open call for experiments to fly on these missions, which we expect will begin in late 2013 or early 2014. We will be selecting approx. 100 small experiments and 10 citizen astronauts to fly as payload operators. Although our primary goal is to encourage citizen science, these flight opportunities are also open to professional researchers who have payloads that meet our criteria. We believe that the best citizen-science projects are collaborations between professional and citizen scientists. We will discuss various ways in which professional scientists can collaborate with citizen scientists to take advantage of the flight opportunities provided by our program. We will discuss the capabilities of the Lynx vehicle, the 1u- and 2u-CubeSat form factor we are using for our payloads, and general considerations for payload integration. As an example of the payloads we can accommodate, we will discuss a NASA-inspired experiment to collect particles from the upper atmosphere.;

Wright, E.



A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.



Species-, sex-, and age-dependent urinary excretion of cauxin, a mammalian carboxylesterase.  


Domestic cats exhibit physiological proteinuria due to the excretion of cauxin, a carboxylesterase, into the urine. In the present report, we demonstrate that cauxin is excreted in a species-, sex-, and age-dependent manner. Although the cauxin gene is conserved in mammals, including human, mouse, and dog, urinary cauxin was found only in member of the genus Felis and lynx (bobcat, and lynx) and not in other Felidae (genus: Panthera and puma) tested. In mature cats, cauxin excretion was higher in intact males than in castrated males or in intact or spayed females. Daily cauxin excretion decreased immediately after castration. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that cauxin expression in the kidney proximal straight tubules was higher in intact males than in castrated males. Urinary cauxin was detectable by Western blotting in cats older than about 3 months, and its excretion increased with age. In a zymographic esterase assay, urine contained a major cauxin band; by contrast, kidney homogenates contained three major bands, comprising two carboxylesterases and an unidentified esterase, and one minor cauxin band. These results suggest that 1. cauxin excretion is regulated by sex hormones, such as testosterone, 2. cauxin functions as an esterase in the urine rather than in kidney cells, and 3. the decomposition products by cauxin are excreted in a species-, sex-, and age-dependent manner, as is cauxin itself. PMID:17045831

Miyazaki, Masao; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Taira, Hideharu; Suzuki, Akemi



Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : I. Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus).  


The effectiveness of predator odors (fecal, urine, and anal scent gland) in suppressing feeding damage by snowshoe hares was investigated in pen bioassays at the University of British Columbia Research Forest, Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. A total of 28 bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on hare consumption of willow browse and coniferous seedlings. Lynx and bobcat feces, weasel anal gland secretion, and lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, fox, and wolverine urines resulted in the most effective suppression of hare feeding damage. Novel odors of domestic dog urine and 2-methylbutyric acid did not reduce feeding. A field bioassay with lodgepole pine seedlings and weasel scent provided significant results comparable to the pen bioassays. The short-term (up to seven days) effectiveness of these treatments was more likely due to evaporative loss of the active repellent components of a given odor than habituation of hares to the stimulus. Predator odors as repellents have a biological basis compared with the anthropomorphic origins of commercial repellents. When encapsulated in weather-proof controlled-release devices, these odors could provide long-term protection for forestry plantations and agricultural crops which experience hare/rabbit feeding damage. PMID:24310275

Sullivan, T P; Nordstrom, L O; Sullivan, D S



A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.  


Abstract Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool. PMID:24484483

Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E



Design exploration and verification platform, based on high-level modeling and FPGA prototyping, for fast and flexible digital communication in physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many research fields as high energy physics (HEP), astrophysics, nuclear medicine or space engineering with harsh operating conditions, the use of fast and flexible digital communication protocols is becoming more and more important. The possibility to have a smart and tested top-down design flow for the design of a new protocol for control/readout of front-end electronics is very useful. To this aim, and to reduce development time, costs and risks, this paper describes an innovative design/verification flow applied as example case study to a new communication protocol called FF-LYNX. After the description of the main FF-LYNX features, the paper presents: the definition of a parametric SystemC-based Integrated Simulation Environment (ISE) for high-level protocol definition and validation; the set up of figure of merits to drive the design space exploration; the use of ISE for early analysis of the achievable performances when adopting the new communication protocol and its interfaces for a new (or upgraded) physics experiment; the design of VHDL IP cores for the TX and RX protocol interfaces; their implementation on a FPGA-based emulator for functional verification and finally the modification of the FPGA-based emulator for testing the ASIC chipset which implements the rad-tolerant protocol interfaces. For every step, significant results will be shown to underline the usefulness of this design and verification approach that can be applied to any new digital protocol development for smart detectors in physics experiments.

Magazzù, G.; Borgese, G.; Costantino, N.; Fanucci, L.; Incandela, J.; Saponara, S.



A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

Haines, Seth S.;Diffendorfer, James;Balistrieri, Laurie S.;Berger, Byron R.;Cook, Troy A.;Gautier, Donald L.;Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie



A fully automated LC/MS method development and quantification protocol targeting 52 carbamates, thiocarbamates, and phenylureas.  


We have developed a fully automated LC/MS method development and quantification protocol targeting 52 carbamtes, thiocarbamates, and phenylureas. This is a simple LC/MS method with direct injection; no post-column derivatization was required. The method utilized the Waters Alliance HT Chromatography System and the Waters ZQ 2000 mass spectrometer. System control and data processing was by MassLynx 4.0 with QuanLynx Application Manager. Analyte separation was accomplished by Waters Symmetry reversed-phase C8 column. An ammonium acetate water/acetonitrile binary gradient was used for the separation. The MS multichannel ability minimized the LC method development time with less demand on chromatographic peak resolution. Quantification results were obtained for 46 analytes out of the 52 targets. The coefficients of determination ranged from 0.886 to 0.999. The automated LC/MS protocol has sufficient sensitivity to accommodate the current EPA requirements. The limits of detection (3 times the S/N) ranged from 0.091 to 19.3 ng/mL with 50-microL injection. The highly selective MS detector enabled the matrix effect to be minimized. This method was applied to local drinking water and wastewater samples. Each matrix was spiked with the 52 target analytes at 2 and 20 ng/mL. The recoveries were within the EPA acceptance range. PMID:14632123

Yu, Kate; Krol, Jim; Balogh, Michael; Monks, Iain



UPLC-QTOF-MS with chemical profiling approach for rapidly evaluating chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction was rapidly evaluated by UPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with the MarkerLynx software. Two different kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction: water extract of mixed six constituent herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and dispensing granules decoction: mixed water extract of each individual herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, were prepared. Results Chemical difference was found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, and albiflorin, paeoniflorin, gallic acid, amygdalin, and hydroxysafflor yellow A were identified as the significantly changed components during decocting Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction. All the peaks of mass spectrum from Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction and each herb were extracted and integration by using QuanLynx™. And the optimized data was used for linear regression analysis. The contribution of each herb in Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and the optimal compatibility proportion of dispensing granule decoction were derived from the linear regression equation. Conclusions The optimal dosage proportionality of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu dispensing granule decoction was obtained as 2.5:0.2:1:0.5:0.6:0.1 (DG : CX : BS : SD : TR : HH), which guided better clinic application of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction as dispensing granule decoctions usage, and it also provided some experimental data to reveal the compatibility rule of the relative TCM formulae.



Key role of European rabbits in the conservation of the Western Mediterranean basin hotspot.  


The Mediterranean Basin is a global hotspot of biodiversity. Hotspots are said to be experiencing a major loss of habitat, but an added risk could be the decline of some species having a special role in ecological relationships of the system. We reviewed the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a keystone species in the Iberian Peninsula portion of the Mediterranean hotspot. Rabbits conspicuously alter plant species composition and vegetation structure through grazing and seed dispersal, which creates open areas and preserves plant species diversity. Moreover, rabbit latrines have a demonstrable effect on soil fertility and plant growth and provide new feeding resources for many invertebrate species. Rabbit burrows provide nest sites and shelter for vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition, rabbits serve as prey for a number of predators, including the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Thus, the Mediterranean ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula should be termed "the rabbit's ecosystem." To our knowledge, this is the first empirical support for existence of a multifunctional keystone species in a global hotspot of biodiversity. Rabbit populations have declined drastically on the Iberian Peninsula, with potential cascading effects and serious ecological and economic consequences. From this perspective, rabbit recovery is one of the biggest challenges for conservation of the Mediterranean Basin hotspot. PMID:18680504

Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Delibes, Miguel; Ferreras, Pablo; Villafuerte, Rafael



Evaluation of candidate rain gages for upgrading precipitation measurement tools for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1977 to investigate atmospheric deposition and its effects on the environment. Since its establishment, precipitation records have been obtained at all NADP sites using a gage developed approximately 50 years ago-the Belfort 5-780 mechanical rain gage. In 1998 and 1999, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate four recently developed, technologically advanced rain gages as possible replacement candidates for the mechanical gage currently (2002) in use by the NADP. The gage types evaluated were the Belfort 3200, Geonor T-200, ETI Noah II, and the OTT PLUVIO. The Belfort 5-780 was included in the study to compare the performance of the rain gage currently (2002) used by NADP to the performance of the more recently developed gages. As a reference gage, the NovaLynx Model 260-2510 National Weather Service type stick gage also was included in the study. Two individual gages of each type were included in the study to evaluate precision between gages of the same type. A two-phase evaluation was completed. Phase I consisted of indoor bench tests with known amounts of simulated rainfall applied in 20 individual tests. Phase II consisted of outdoor testing by collecting precipitation during a 26-week period near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The ETI Noah II, OTT PLUVIO, and NovaLynx stick gages consistently recorded depths more commensurate with the amounts of applied simulated rainfall in Phase I testing than the Geonor T-200, Belfort 5-780, and Belfort 3200 gages. Gages where both the median difference between the measured and applied simulated rainfall and the interquartile range of all of their measured minus applied simulated rainfall differences were small (less than or equal to 0.01 inch) were judged to have performed very well in Phase I testing. The median and interquartile-range values were 0.01 inch or less for each of the ETI Noah II gages, OTT PLUVIO gages, and NovaLynx stick gages. The performance of the Geonor T-200 and Belfort 3200 gages was affected by technical problems during Phase I testing. As part of the evaluation of Phase II results, the average weekly precipitation totals obtained from the Belfort 5-780 gages and from each of the gages under consideration as possible replacements for the Belfort 5-780 gage were all compared with the average precipitation weekly totals obtained from two NovaLynx stick gages. The median absolute differences between a particular gage model and the NovaLynx stick reference gage for the 26 weeks of outdoor testing ranged from 0.04 inch for the ETI Noah II and OTT PLUVIO gages to 0.06 inch for the Geonor T-200. The total absolute difference between a particular gage type and the reference gage ranged from 1.23 inches for the Belfort 5-780 to 1.83 inches for the Geonor T-200 gages. Because the Belfort 3200 gages were inoperable for most of the Phase II testing, it is not meaningful to include the results from that gage type in a calculation of median or total absolute differences. The OTT PLUVIO proved to be the most reliable gage in Phase I and II testing, operating trouble free over the duration of the study.

Gordon, John D.



Predicting the potential demographic impact of predators on their prey: a comparative analysis of two carnivore-ungulate systems in Scandinavia.  


1. Understanding the role of predation in shaping the dynamics of animal communities is a fundamental issue in ecological research. Nevertheless, the complex nature of predator-prey interactions often prevents researchers from modelling them explicitly. 2. By using periodic Leslie-Usher matrices and a simulation approach together with parameters obtained from long-term field projects, we reconstructed the underlying mechanisms of predator-prey demographic interactions and compared the dynamics of the roe deer-red fox-Eurasian lynx-human harvest system with those of the moose-brown bear-gray wolf-human harvest system in the boreal forest ecosystem of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula. 3. The functional relationship of both roe deer and moose ? to changes in predation rates from the four predators was remarkably different. Lynx had the strongest impact among the four predators, whereas predation rates by wolves, red foxes, or brown bears generated minor variations in prey population ?. Elasticity values of lynx, wolf, fox and bear predation rates were -0·157, -0·056, -0·031 and -0·006, respectively, but varied with both predator and prey densities. 4. Differences in predation impact were only partially related to differences in kill or predation rates, but were rather a result of different distribution of predation events among prey age classes. Therefore, the age composition of killed individuals emerged as the main underlying factor determining the overall per capita impact of predation. 5. Our results confirm the complex nature of predator-prey interactions in large terrestrial mammals, by showing that different carnivores preying on the same prey species can exert a dramatically different demographic impact, even in the same ecological context, as a direct consequence of their predation patterns. Similar applications of this analytical framework in other geographical and ecological contexts are needed, but a more general evaluation of the subject is also required, aimed to assess, on a broader systematic and ecological range, what specific traits of a carnivore are most related to its potential impact on prey species. PMID:22077484

Gervasi, Vincenzo; Nilsen, Erlend B; Sand, Håkan; Panzacchi, Manuela; Rauset, Geir R; Pedersen, Hans C; Kindberg, Jonas; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Odden, John; Liberg, Olof; Swenson, Jon E; Linnell, John D C



A biological framework for evaluating whether a species is threatened or endangered in a significant portion of its range.  


Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), a species can be listed if it is at risk "in all or a significant portion of its range," but the ESA provides no guidance on how to interpret this key phrase. We propose a simple test to determine whether the areas of a species' range in which it is currently at risk amount to a significant portion: If the species were to become extirpated from these areas, at that point would the entire species be at risk? If so, then these areas represent a significant portion of the species' range. By establishing the species itself as the point of reference for determining significance, this test directs attention to biological risk factors and avoids difficulties inherent in subjective evaluations of importance to humans. For broadly distributed species this framework could provide ESA protection due to cumulative risks before the entire species met the criteria to be considered threatened or endangered. This framework also allows a somewhat broader concept of range to include major components of diversity necessary for long-term persistence. The concept of a historical template (i.e., conditions under which the species was known to be viable) is important in providing a fixed reference point for evaluating viability. Empirical examples illustrate how these concepts have been applied in recent ESA listing determinations. Most ESA-listed units of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can be divided into multiple strata that differ in terms of ecology, geology, or life-history traits of the component populations. The goal of ESA recovery planning is to restore viable populations in enough strata that the listed unit as a whole is no longer threatened or endangered in all or a significant portion of its range. In a recent review of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Puget Sound, current status (some populations increasing and others declining) was evaluated in the context of the historical template, and it was concluded that current patterns of distribution and abundance do not depart substantially from what would be expected at any point in time under natural conditions in a large metapopulation. The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) is ESA listed in the contiguous United States, where it occurs in four geographic areas. Populations in one region, the Northern Rockies/Cascades, have always been the most important for long-term persistence of the species in the United States. Because the other regions never contained more than limited amounts of good-quality lynx habitat, those areas are not considered to represent a significant portion of the species' range. PMID:17650247

Waples, Robin S; Adams, Peter B; Bohnsack, James; Taylor, Barbara L



Discovery of the acceleration in the wind emission lines of CI Cam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CI Cam (XTE J0421+560) is an X-ray transient and a binary system with the optical companion, which shows the B[e] phenomenon. Its strong all-wavelength outburst occured in 1998 April. The system consists of a B4 III-V star and a possible white dwarf on an eccentric (e = 0.62) orbit with the period of 19.407 day (ATel #416; Astronomy Reports, 2006, V.50, 664). We analysed seventeen echelle spectra (resolution FWHM=0.08-0.21A) taken with Russian 6-m telescope BTA (LYNX and NES spectrographs), CFHT (ESPaDOnS spectrograph), and McDonald 2.1-m (Sandiford spectrograph) and 2.7-m (cs2 spectrograph) telescopes.

Barsukova, E. A.; Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.; Yushkin, M. V.; Goranskij, V. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Manset, N.



Evolution of the USANZ tie.  


•?The Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand (USANZ) tie represents the dual nationality of the society, the ancient history of urology, and the continuing development of urology in Australia and New Zealand. •?The earliest badge of the Urological Society of Australasia (USA) was a cartoon depiction of the cystoscopic view of a prostate from the urethra. The inception of the USANZ tie began with the borrowing of the crest of the newly granted USA coat of arms (lynx holding an exploratorium) as the logo for the USA Annual Scientific Meeting Tie in 1988. This tie was adopted de facto as the USA Society Tie; it became the template for subsequent scientific meeting ties, from which the formal USANZ tie design was adapted in 2006, to coincide with and mark the new society name, from the USA to the USANZ. This paper traces the evolution of the USANZ tie. PMID:21492368

Webb, David R; Lawrentschuk, Nathan



The FINUDA data acquisition system -- A C/C++ DAQ based on ROOT as event monitor  

SciTech Connect

A parallel scalable Data Acquisition System, based on VME, has been developed to be used in the FINUDA experiment, scheduled to run at the DA{Phi}NE machine at Frascati in 998. The acquisition software runs on embedded RTPC 8067 processors using the LynxOS operating system. The read-out of event fragments is coordinated by a suitable trigger Supervisor. Data read by different controllers are transported via dedicated bus to a Global Event Builder running on a powerPC machine. Commands from and to VME processors are sent via socket based network protocols. The Online Monitor, froot, is based on an object oriented approach in the framework of the ROOT package.

Cerello, P.; Marcello, S. [INFN, Torino (Italy)] [INFN, Torino (Italy); Filippini, V. [INFN, Pavia (Italy)] [INFN, Pavia (Italy); Fiore, L. [INFN, Bari (Italy)] [INFN, Bari (Italy); Gianotti, P. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Frascati] [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Frascati; Raimondo, A. [INFN, Torino (Italy)] [INFN, Torino (Italy); [Univ. di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Sperimentale



Affordable miniaturized SAR for tactical UAV applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia"s fielded and experimental SAR systems are well known for their real time, high resolution imagery. Previous designs, such as the Lynx radar, have been successfully demonstrated on medium-payload UAVs, including Predator and Fire Scout. However, fielding a high performance SAR sensor on even smaller (sub-50 pound payload) UAVs will require at least a 5x reduction in size, weight, and cost. This paper gives an overview of Sandia"s system concept and roadmap for near-term SAR miniaturization. Specifically, the "miniSAR" program, which plans to demonstrate a 25 pound system with 4 inch resolution in early 2005, is detailed. Accordingly, the conceptual approach, current status, design tradeoffs, and key facilitating technologies are reviewed. Lastly, future enhancements and directions are described, such as the follow-on demonstration of a sub-20 pound version with multi-mode (SAR/GMTI) capability.

Sloan, George R.; Dubbert, Dale F.



Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.  


A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442

Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James



Empirical evaluation of OS endsystem support for real-time CORBA object request brokers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides two contributions to the study of OS endsystem support for real-time Object Request Broker (ORB) middleware. First, we empirically compare and evaluate the suitability of real-time operating systems, VxWorks and LynxOS, and general-purpose operating systems with real-time scheduling classes, Windows NT, Solaris, and Linus, for real-time ORB middleware. While holding the hardware and ORB constant, we systematically vary the OS and measure key platform-specific variations in latency, jitter, operation throughput, and CPU processing overhead. Second, we describe specific areas where these operating systems must improve so that ORB middleware will be predictable, efficient, and scalable enough to support the QoS requirements of multimedia applications.

Levine, David L.; Flores-Gaitan, Sergio; Schmidt, Douglas C.



Tethering toxins and peptide ligands for modulation of neuronal function  

PubMed Central

Tethering genetically encoded peptide toxins or ligands close to their point of activity at the cell plasma membrane provides a new approach to the study of cell networks and neuronal circuits, as it allows selective targeting of specific cell populations, enhances the working concentration of the ligand or blocker peptide, and permits the engineering of a large variety of t-peptides (e.g., including use of fluorescent markers, viral vectors and point mutation variants). This review describes the development of tethered toxins and peptides derived from the identification of the cell surface nAChR modulator lynx1, the existence of related endogenous cell surface modulators of nAChR and AMPA receptors, and the application of the t-toxin and t-neuropeptide technology to the dissection of neuronal circuits in metazoans.

Ibanez-Tallon, Ines; Nitabach, Michael N.



Searching the SOHO online catalogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SOHO on-line catalogs will contain information about the observations from several made or planned campaigns, that must be available to scientists who wish to use SOHO data. The World Wide Web (WWW) was chosen as the interface to the SOHO on-line catalogs, because it is easy to use, well suited to a geographically distributed user community, and freely available. Through the use of a forms-capable WWW client such as Mosaic or Lynx, a scientist will be able to browse through the catalogs of observations in a very simple, self explanatory way. Data files can then be selected from the returned lists for either immediate transferring or sending on tape by mail, with appropriate checks for whether data is in the public domain or not.

Thompson, William; Yurow, Ron



Increased flexibility for modeling telemetry and nest-survival data using the multistate framework  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although telemetry is one of the most common tools used in the study of wildlife, advances in the analysis of telemetry data have lagged compared to progress in the development of telemetry devices. We demonstrate how standard known-fate telemetry and related nest-survival data analysis models are special cases of the more general multistate framework. We present a short theoretical development, and 2 case examples regarding the American black duck and the mallard. We also present a more complex lynx data analysis. Although not necessary in all situations, the multistate framework provides additional flexibility to analyze telemetry data, which may help analysts and biologists better deal with the vagaries of real-world data collection.

Devineau, Olivier; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F., Jr.; Shenk, Tanya M.; White, Gary C.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Burnham, Kenneth P.



[Using thin-layer chromatography of fecal bile acid to study the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica) population].  


Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of fecal bile acids has been used to confirm visual identification of 30 scat samples found in Armenia from April 2004 to November 2005 and attributed to the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica). The results of TLC do not differ significantly from those of visual identification, confirming the reliability of the latter method. All samples identified incorrectly (lynx and wolf scats) are from the Meghri Ridge, indicating that the ecological niches of the three predators apparently overlap in this area. Taking into account the frequency and distribution of scats, two priority areas for leopard conservation have been identified: the Central and Khachadzor districts of the Khosrov Nature Reserve and the Nuvadi-Shvanidzor area in eastern Meghri ridge. PMID:17969256

Khorozian, I G; Cazon, A; Malkhasian, A G; Abramov, A V



Sensitivity of Borrelia genospecies to serum complement from different animals and human: a host-pathogen relationship.  


Different Borrelia species and serotypes were tested for their sensitivity to serum complement from various animals and human. Complement-mediated Borrelia killing in cattle, European bison and deer was higher irrespective of the Borrelia species whereas in other animals and human it was intermediate and Borrelia species-dependent. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by particular Borrelia strain was in correlation with its sensitivity or resistance. These results support the incompetent reservoir nature of cattle, European bison, red, roe and fallow deer, at the same time present the probable reservoir nature of mouflon, dog, wolf, cat and lynx. In short, this study reviews Borrelia-host relationship and its relevance in reservoir competence nature of animals. PMID:15681146

Bhide, Mangesh R; Travnicek, Milan; Levkutova, Maria; Curlik, Jan; Revajova, Viera; Levkut, Mikulas



Effects of anionic polyacrylamide products on gill histopathology in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  


Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) products are commonly used to remove suspended materials from turbid waters and to help mitigate soil erosion. In the present study, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 3?mg/L to 300?mg/L of 10 commercially available PAM products (Clearflow Water Lynx Polymer Log and Clearflow Soil Lynx Granular Polymer; Clearflow Enviro Systems Group), and gill histological parameters were measured following either 7 d or 30 d of polymer exposure. A cationic polymer product (?0.38?mg/L MagnaFloc 368; Ciba Specialty Chemical) was also tested for comparison. Mild gill lesions were observed in fish exposed to polymer products. Lamellar fusion, interlamellar hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, mucous cell metaplasia, and cell counts of epithelial swelling and necrosis/apoptosis were minimal in fish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of anionic polymer (?30?mg/L). Gill morphology was largely unaffected by exposure to concentrations up to 300?mg/L of many PAM products. Several anionic polymer products noticeably affected gill tissue by increasing epithelial hypertrophy, interlamellar hyperplasia, mucous cell metaplasia, and the frequency of necrotic cells. The severity of the lesions lessened with time, suggesting that fish may have experienced a short-term irritant effect. Similar levels of gill pathology were frequently observed in fish exposed to cationic polymer MagnaFloc 368 despite the concentration being 1000-fold lower than that of the PAM products. These observations highlight the increased toxicity of cationic polymers to aquatic life compared with anionic PAMs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1552-1562. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24648306

Kerr, Jennifer L; Lumsden, John S; Russell, Spencer K; Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G



Identification, characterization, and application of a recombinant antigen for the serological investigation of feline hemotropic Mycoplasma infections.  


In felids, three hemotropic mycoplasma species (hemoplasmas) have been described: Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis." In particular, M. haemofelis may cause severe, potentially life-threatening hemolytic anemia. No routine serological assays for feline hemoplasma infections are available. Thus, the goal of our project was to identify and characterize an M. haemofelis antigen (DnaK) that subsequently could be applied as a recombinant antigen in a serological assay. The gene sequence of this protein was determined using consensus primers and blood samples from two naturally M. haemofelis-infected Swiss pet cats, an experimentally M. haemofelis-infected specific-pathogen-free cat, and a naturally M. haemofelis-infected Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). The M. haemofelis DnaK gene sequence showed the highest identity to an analogous protein of a porcine hemoplasma (72%). M. haemofelis DnaK was expressed recombinantly in an Escherichia coli DnaK knockout strain and purified using Ni affinity, size-exclusion, and anion-exchange chromatography. It then was biochemically and functionally characterized and showed characteristics typical for DnaKs (secondary structure profile, thermal denaturation, ATPase activity, and DnaK complementation). Moreover, its immunogenicity was assessed using serum samples from experimentally hemoplasma-infected cats. In Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, it was recognized by sera from cats infected with M. haemofelis, "Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Ca. Mycoplasma turicensis," respectively, but not from uninfected cats. This is the first description of a full-length purified recombinant feline hemoplasma antigen that can readily be applied in future pathogenesis studies and may have potential for application in a diagnostic serological test. PMID:20876820

Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Jäckel, Christian; Museux, Kristina; Hoelzle, Katharina; Tasker, Séverine; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina



The Effect of LC-MS Data Preprocessing Methods on the Selection of Plasma Biomarkers in Fed vs. Fasted Rats  

PubMed Central

The metabolic composition of plasma is affected by time passed since the last meal and by individual variation in metabolite clearance rates. Rat plasma in fed and fasted states was analyzed with liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF) for an untargeted investigation of these metabolite patterns. The dataset was used to investigate the effect of data preprocessing on biomarker selection using three different softwares, MarkerLynxTM, MZmine, XCMS along with a customized preprocessing method that performs binning of m/z channels followed by summation through retention time. Direct comparison of selected features representing the fed or fasted state showed large differences between the softwares. Many false positive markers were obtained from custom data preprocessing compared with dedicated softwares while MarkerLynxTM provided better coverage of markers. However, marker selection was more reliable with the gap filling (or peak finding) algorithms present in MZmine and XCMS. Further identification of the putative markers revealed that many of the differences between the markers selected were due to variations in features representing adducts or daughter ions of the same metabolites or of compounds from the same chemical subclasses, e.g., lyso-phosphatidylcholines (LPCs) and lyso-phosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs). We conclude that despite considerable differences in the performance of the preprocessing tools we could extract the same biological information by any of them. Carnitine, branched-chain amino acids, LPCs and LPEs were identified by all methods as markers of the fed state whereas acetylcarnitine was abundant during fasting in rats.

Gurdeniz, Gozde; Kristensen, Mette; Skov, Thomas; Dragsted, Lars O.



Preparative two-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the purification of complex pharmaceutical samples.  


A new preparative two-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system (2D LC-LC/MS) has been designed and implemented to enhance capability and resolving power for the separation and purification of pharmaceutical samples. The system was constructed by modifications of a conventional preparative LC/MS instrument with the addition of a set of switching valves and a sample loop, as well as interfacing a custom software program with MassLynx. The system integrates two chromatographic separations from the first and second dimensions into a single automated run to perform the purification of a target compound from a complex mixture without intermediate steps of sample preparation. The chromatography in the first dimension, operated in the heart-cutting mode, separates the target compound from the impurities by mass-triggered fractionation based on its molecular weight. This purified fraction from the first dimension is stored in the sample loop, and then gets transferred to the second column by using at-column dilution. A control software program, coined Prep 2D LCMS, was designed to integrate with MassLynx to retrieve data acquisition status. All of the chromatographic hardware components used in this preparative 2D LC-LC/MS system are from the original open access preparative LC/MS system, which has high level of robustness and affords easy and user-friendly operation. The new system is very versatile and capable of collecting multiple fractions with different masses under various purification modes as configured in the methods, such as conventional one-dimensional (1D) purification and/or 2D purification. This new preparative 2D LC-LC/MS system is therefore the ideal tool for medicinal chemistry lab in drug discovery environment. PMID:24309715

Zhang, Yinong; Zeng, Lu; Pham, Catherine; Xu, Rongda



Neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.  


Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolves (Canis lupus); in 12.0% of 25 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus); in 16.7% of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris); in 6.4% of 31 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles); in 21.4% of 14 stone martens (Martes foina); in 66.7% of 3 pine martens (M. martes) and in 50% of 2 polecats (Mustela putorius). Antibodies to N. caninum in common genets (Genetta genetta) and Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon) were only observed by c-ELISA but were not confirmed by IFAT and/or NAT. No antibodies were detected in 5 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) by any technique. Statistically significant differences were observed among species and among geographical areas. The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum infection was observed in the Cantabric Coastal region characterized by high humidity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in free ranging wild carnivores, other than wild canids, in Europe. The existence of a possible sylvatic cycle could have important implications in both sylvatic and domestic cycles since they might influence the prevalence of infection in cattle farms in those areas. PMID:18556128

Sobrino, R; Dubey, J P; Pabón, M; Linarez, N; Kwok, O C; Millán, J; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; López-Gatius, F; Thulliez, P; Gortázar, C; Almería, S



Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased markedly in LB- and TBE-endemic areas in South (Götaland) and Central Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that I. ricinus has expanded its range in North Sweden and has become distinctly more abundant in Central and South Sweden during the last three decades. However, in the northern mountain region I. ricinus is still absent. The increased abundance of the tick can be explained by two main factors: First, the high availability of large numbers of important tick maintenance hosts, i.e., cervids, particularly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during the last three decades. Second, a warmer climate with milder winters and a prolonged growing season that permits greater survival and proliferation over a larger geographical area of both the tick itself and deer. High reproductive potential of roe deer, high tick infestation rate and the tendency of roe deer to disperse great distances may explain the range expansion of I. ricinus and particularly the appearance of new TBEV foci far away from old TBEV-endemic localities. The geographical presence of LB in Sweden corresponds to the distribution of I. ricinus. Thus, LB is now an emerging disease risk in many parts of North Sweden. Unless countermeasures are undertaken to keep the deer populations, particularly C. capreolus and Dama dama, at the relatively low levels that prevailed before the late 1970s - especially in and around urban areas where human population density is high - by e.g. reduced hunting of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and lynx (Lynx lynx), the incidences of human LB and TBE are expected to continue to be high or even to increase in Sweden in coming decades.



High-resolution synthetic aperture radar experiments for ATR development and performance prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial availability of very high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery will enable development of automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms to exploit its rich information content. This availability also permits exploration of both empirical and first principles approaches for predicting ATR performance. This paper describes a recent collection of high resolution SAR imagery. It details the operating conditions represented by the data and provides recommended experiments designed to challenge ATR algorithms and performance prediction. This set of information, along with the imagery, is contained in a Problem Set that will be made available to the community. The imagery is from a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (DUSD) for Science and Technology (S&T) sponsored collection using the Sandia National Laboratory and General Atomics Lynx Sensor. The Lynx is now available as a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sensor. It was designed for use in medium-altitude UAVs and manned platforms. It operates at Ku-band frequency in stripmap, spotlight, and ground moving target indicator modes. Imagery in this collection was collected at 4' resolution and was then also reprocessed to 1' resolution. The collection included several military vehicles with significant variation in target, sensor, and background conditions. Defined experiments in the Problem Set present ATR algorithm development challenges by defining development (training) sets with limited representation of operating conditions and test sets that explore the algorithm's ability to extend to more complex operating conditions. These challenges are critical to military employment of ATR because the real world contains much more variability than it will be possible to explicitly address in an algorithm. For example, neither the storage nor the search through an exhaustive bay of templates is achievable for any realistic application. Thus, advanced developments that allow robust performance in denied conditions will accelerate the transition of ATR to the field. Additional experiments in the Problem Set present challenges in ATR performance prediction. Here, the development imagery provides empirical data to support development of prediction approaches. Test imagery provides an opportunity to validate the prediction technique's ability to, for example, interpolate or extrapolate performance.

Westerkamp, Lori A.; Morrison, S. A.; Wild, Thomas J.; Mossing, John C.



Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.  


Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species. PMID:24063119

Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P



IRAC and MIPS Mapping of Galaxy Populations in a Supercluster at z=1.27  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to complete the mapping of the Lynx supercluster at z=1.27 in the mid-infrared, to cover a large range of environments that will include newly discovered galaxy groups. The proposed observations would obtain IRAC data on the 7 recently discovered groups, and MIPS 24 micron imaging of all the groups and the two central clusters. The two short wavelength IRAC bands sample the rest-frame near-IR, where the SED of old stellar populations peaks, so these data are useful for constraining estimates of stellar masses. Knowledge of the way that the stellar mass function varies with local galaxy density at z > 1 would be valuable for comparisons with the results for the low z universe derived from SDSS. We will combine the four IRAC bands with our optical and NIR data to measure accurate spectral energy distributions, to which evolutionary spectral synthesis models can be fit in order to estimate the stellar population ages and masses, as well as refined photometric redshifts. We will use the MIPS 24 micron observations to measure star-formation activity as a function of local environment in the supercluster to investigate the location of star formation during the transitions of field galaxies through groups and into clusters.

Stanford, Spencer; Brodwin, Mark; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Eisenhardt, Peter; Holden, Bradford; John, Blakeslee; Kodama, Tadayuki; Mei, Simona; Nakata, Fumiaki



Profiling and identification of the absorbed constituents and metabolites of schisandra lignans by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.  


Schisandra chinensis Baill grows wild in Russia, China, Korea and Japan, and its fruit has been found to be effective in amnesia and insomnia. It is enriched in schisandra lignans (SL) that are major components responsible for therapeutic action. However, there are no reports on the biotransformation analysis of SL. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray-ionization high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS) method was developed to investigate the metabolism of SL in vivo. MS was performed on a Waters Micromass high-definition system with an electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode and automated MetaboLynx software analysis with excellent MS accuracy and enhanced MS data acquisition. An improved mass defect filter (MDF) method employing both drug and core structure filter templates was applied to the processing of UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS data for the detection and structural characterization of metabolites. In this study, 30 metabolites were detected and identified in vivo, and demethylation and hydroxylation were confirmed as the primacy metabolic pathway for SL in rat plasma. In conclusion, the presently developed methodology was suitable for biotransformation research of SL and will find wide use in metabolic studies for other herbal medicines. PMID:23760884

Sun, Hui; Wu, Fangfang; Zhang, Aihua; Wei, Wenfeng; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun



Current test results for the Athena radar responsive tag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with General Atomics and Sierra Monolithics to develop the Athena tag for the Army's Radar Tag Engagement (RaTE) program. The radar-responsive Athena tag can be used for Blue Force tracking and Combat Identification (CID) as well as data collection, identification, and geolocation applications. The Athena tag is small (~4.5" x 2.4" x 4.2"), battery-powered, and has an integral antenna. Once remotely activated by a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar, the tag transponds modulated pulses to the radar at a low transmit power. The Athena tag can operate Ku-band and X-band airborne SAR and MTI radars. This paper presents results from current tag development testing activities. Topics covered include recent field tests results from the AN/APY-8 Lynx, F16/APG-66, and F15E/APG-63 V(1) radars and other Fire Control radars. Results show that the Athena tag successfully works with multiple radar platforms, in multiple radar modes, and for multiple applications. Radar-responsive tags such as Athena have numerous applications in military and government arenas. Military applications include battlefield situational awareness, combat identification, targeting, personnel recovery, and unattended ground sensors. Government applications exist in nonproliferation, counter-drug, search-and-rescue, and land-mapping activities.

Ormesher, Richard C.; Martinez, Ana; Plummer, Kenneth W.; Erlandson, David; Delaware, Sheri; Clark, David R.



The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).  


Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently. PMID:9300340

García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T



Semi-automated extraction and delineation of 3D roads of street scene from mobile laser scanning point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate 3D road information is important for applications such as road maintenance and virtual 3D modeling. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) is an efficient technique for capturing dense point clouds that can be used to construct detailed road models for large areas. This paper presents a method for extracting and delineating roads from large-scale MLS point clouds. The proposed method partitions MLS point clouds into a set of consecutive "scanning lines", which each consists of a road cross section. A moving window operator is used to filter out non-ground points line by line, and curb points are detected based on curb patterns. The detected curb points are tracked and refined so that they are both globally consistent and locally similar. To evaluate the validity of the proposed method, experiments were conducted using two types of street-scene point clouds captured by Optech's Lynx Mobile Mapper System. The completeness, correctness, and quality of the extracted roads are over 94.42%, 91.13%, and 91.3%, respectively, which proves the proposed method is a promising solution for extracting 3D roads from MLS point clouds.

Yang, Bisheng; Fang, Lina; Li, Jonathan



West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.  

SciTech Connect

During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

Ashley, Paul R.



Biotic Population Dynamics: Creative Biotic Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present empirical studies and computer models of population dynamics that demonstrate creative features and we speculate that these creative processes may underline evolution. Changes in population size of lynx, muskrat, beaver, salmon, and fox display diversification, episodic changes in pattern, novelty, and evidence for nonrandom causation. These features of creativity characterize bios, and rule out random, periodic, chaotic, and random walk patterns. Biotic patterns are also demonstrated in time series generated with multi-agent predator-prey simulations. These results indicate that evolutionary processes are continually operating. In contrast to standard evolutionary theory (random variation, competition for scarce resources, selection by survival of the fittest, and directionless, meaningless evolution), we propose that biological evolution is a creative development from simple to complex in which (1) causal actions generate biological variation; (2) bipolar feedback (synergy and antagonism, abundance and scarcity) generates information (diversification, novelty and complexity); (3) connections (of molecules, genes, species) construct systems in which simple processes have priority for survival but complex processes acquire supremacy.

Sabelli, Hector; Kovacevic, Lazar


Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions  

PubMed Central

Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development – the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity-actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins – endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

Nabel, Elisa M.; Morishita, Hirofumi



Upgrading NASA/DOSE laser ranging system control computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser ranging systems now managed by the NASA Dynamics of the Solid Earth (DOSE) and operated by the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Texas have produced a wealth on interdisciplinary scientific data over the last three decades. Despite upgrades to the most of the ranging station subsystems, the control computers remain a mix of 1970's vintage minicomputers. These encompass a wide range of vendors, operating systems, and languages, making hardware and software support increasingly difficult. Current technology allows replacement of controller computers at a relatively low cost while maintaining excellent processing power and a friendly operating environment. The new controller systems are now being designed using IBM-PC-compatible 80486-based microcomputers, a real-time Unix operating system (LynxOS), and X-windows/Motif IB, and serial interfaces have been chosen. This design supports minimizing short and long term costs by relying on proven standards for both hardware and software components. Currently, the project is in the design and prototyping stage with the first systems targeted for production in mid-1993.

Ricklefs, Randall L.; Cheek, Jack; Seery, Paul J.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Mcgarry, Jan F.



Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : II. Black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).  


The effectiveness of predator odors (fecal and urine) in suppressing feeding damage by black-tailed deer was investigated in pen bioassays at the University of British Columbia Research Forest, Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. A total of eight bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on deer consumption of salal leaves and coniferous seedlings. Cougar, coyote,and wolf feces as well as coyote, wolf, fox, wolverine, lynx, and bobcat urines provided the most effective suppression of deer feeding damage. Novel odors of ammonia and human urine did not reduce feeding. Predator fecal odor formulations in direct foliar application, adhesive application, and in plastic vials were all effective in suppressing deer feeding. Of all urines tested, coyote provided the most consistent suppression of deer browsing on salal. Deer consumed significantly more untreated Douglas fir and western red cedar seedlings than those protected by coyote urine odor. The active repellent components of predator odors which suppress deer feeding may be suitable for encapsulation in controlled-release devices which could provide long-term protection for forest and agricultural crops. PMID:24310276

Sullivan, T P; Nordstrom, L O; Sullivan, D S



Postmortem evaluation of reintroduced migratory whooping cranes in eastern North America.  


Reintroduction of endangered Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in eastern North America has successfully established a migratory population between Wisconsin and Florida. Eighty birds (47 males, 33 females) were released between 2001 and 2006, and all birds were tracked following release with satellite and/or VHF monitoring devices. By the end of 2006, 17 deaths (12 males, five females) were recorded from this population. Postmortem findings and field data were evaluated for each bird to determine the cause of death. Causes included predation (n=8, 47%), trauma (n=2, 12%), and degenerative disease (n=1, 6%); the cause of death was undetermined for 35% (n=6) of the birds. Based on physical evidence, the primary predator of the birds was the bobcat (Lynx rufus). Limited roosting habitat availability or bird behavior were likely prime factors in the occurrence of predation. Traumatic injuries and mortality were caused by gunshot, electrical utility lines, and an unknown source. The lone case of degenerative disease was due to chronic exertional myopathy associated with translocation. Available postmortem testing did not indicate the presence of infectious disease in this limited sample. PMID:19204333

Cole, Gretchen A; Thomas, Nancy J; Spalding, Marilyn; Stroud, Richard; Urbanek, Richard P; Hartup, Barry K



Cell disruption using a different methodology for proteomics analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi strains.  


We have developed a cell disruption method to produce a protein extract using Trypanosoma cruzi cells based on a straightforward hypoosmotic lysis protocol. The procedure consists of three steps: incubation of the cells in a hypoosmotic lysis buffer, sonication in a water bath, and centrifugation. The final protein extract was designated TcS12. The stages of cell disruption at different incubation times were monitored by differential interference contrast microscopy. After 30min of incubation in lysis buffer at 4°C, the T. cruzi epimastigote forms changed from slender to round-shaped parasites. Nevertheless, cell disruption took place following sonication of the sample for 30min. The efficiency of the methodology was also validated by flow cytometry, which resulted in 72% of propidium iodide (PI)-labeled cells. To estimate the protein extraction yield and the differential protein expression, the proteomics profile of four T. cruzi strains (CL-Brener, Dm28c, Y, and 4167) were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) on a SYNAPT HDMS system using the label-free MS(E) approach. ProteinLynx Global Server (version 2.5) with Expression(E) analysis identified a total of 1153 proteins and revealed 428 differentially expressed proteins among the strains. Gene ontology analysis showed that not only cytosolic proteins but also nuclear and organellar ones were present in the extract. PMID:24291641

Silva Galdino, Tainah; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Britto, Constança; Samudio, Franklyn; Brandão, Adeilton; Kalume, Dário Eluan



The equipment access software for a distributed UNIX-based accelerator control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a generic equipment access software package for a distributed control system using computers with UNIX or UNIX-like operating systems. The package consists of three main components, an application Equipment Access Library, Message Handler and Equipment Data Base. An application task, which may run in any computer in the network, sends requests to access equipment through Equipment Library calls. The basic request is in the form Equipment-Action-Data and is routed via a remote procedure call to the computer to which the given equipment is connected. In this computer the request is received by the Message Handler. According to the type of the equipment connection, the Message Handler either passes the request to the specific process software in the same computer or forwards it to a lower level network of equipment controllers using MIL1553B, GPIB, RS232 or BITBUS communication. The answer is then returned to the calling application. Descriptive information required for request routing and processing is stored in the real-time Equipment Data Base. The package has been written to be portable and is currently available on DEC Ultrix, LynxOS, HPUX, XENIX, OS-9 and Apollo domain.

Trofimov, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zharkov, Eugeny; Charrue, Pierre; Gareyte, Claire; Poirier, Hervé



[Metabolomic study of the action mechanism of nourishing blood effect of fo-shou-san on blood deficiency mice].  


The metabolic effect of Fo-Shou-San on blood deficiency mice was studied by using metabolomic method. UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to analyze the plasma metabolome in blood deficiency mice. MS data were processed by MarkerLynx software. With multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles, a clear separation among control, blood deficiency model, and Fo-Shou-San groups was achieved. Potential biomarkers were selected according to the parameters of variable importance in the projection (VIP) and identified according to MS information and database retrieval. The metabolic network of blood deficiency was predicted via MetPA database. Twenty-two potential biomarkers were identified and used to explain the thiamine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, histidine metabolism, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, tyrosine metabolism and citrate cycle (TCA cycle). Those metabolic pathways were disturbed in blood deficiency mice, but which could be regulated nearly to normal state after Fo-Shou-San administration. In this study, the metabolomics of blood deficiency mice and the action mechanism of nourishing blood effect of Fo-Shou-San were evaluated. The physiological and metabolic state of the organism could be represented comprehensively by using metabolomics. And metabolomics can be used to evaluate the pharmacodynamics and related mechanisms of Chinese medicine and formulae. PMID:24187840

Li, Wei-Xia; Huang, Mei-Yan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Guo, Jian-Ming; Shang, Er-Xin; Wang, Lin-Yan; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao



Multiworld Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Multiworld" is a multimedia multilingual magazine, published bi-monthly via the World Wide Web. It is devoted to articles describing the world we live in by publishing the experiences of contributors relating to nature, wildlife, culture, people, traveling, and art (including music, painting, photography, and computer art). It focuses on objectivity and strives for stories that will appeal to and interest our readers. Multiworld carries both English and Chinese articles an full-color digitized photos, graphics, and sound to illustrate the magazine articles. The magazine can be viewed by readers with standard web browsers, such as Netscape, Mosaic, Lynx, etc., with or without special software for viewing GB, HZ, and Big5 encoded Chinese text. It is hoped the magazine will help build bridges between readers of the world, particularly in furthering our appreciation of the beauty of nature, increasing our interest in different cultures, and helping us better understand people of various societies. The inaugural issue of Multiworld was published on Thursday, June 15, 1995. It is free and open to all.



The response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic factors influence a variety of ecological processes determining patterns of species density and distribution in a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems. We review the effects of the NAO on processes and patterns of terrestrial ecosystems, including both plants and animals. In plants, the NAO index correlates with date of first flowering, tree ring growth and with quality of agricultural crops (wheat and wine grapes). Also, breeding dates are earlier after high NAO index winters for amphibians and birds in Europe. Population dynamical consequences of the NAO have also been reported for birds, and the differential impact of the NAO on two similar species may prevent competitive exclusion. Different effects of the NAO on large herbivore populations have been reported for different regions, depending on limiting factors and the correlation with local weather parameters. The NAO synchronizes population dynamics of lynx and some other carnivore populations in the eastern U.S. Most effects are on an ecological time scale; the evolutionary consequences of long term trends in the NAO are poorly documented. Important for predator and prey dynamics is (1) the disruption of phenology (the match-mismatch hypothesis), (2) that there may be delayed effects (cohort-effects), and (3) that effects of the NAO may interact with other factors such as density. We discuss the challenges related to nonlinearity, of using different climate indices, and how we can progress using these pattern-oriented NAO studies at coarse scales to conduct better process-oriented small-scale experiments.

Mysterud, Alte; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Ottersen, Geir; Langvatn, Rolf


Classification of mobile terrestrial laser point clouds using semantic constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With mobile terrestrial laser scanning, laser point clouds of large urban areas can be acquainted rapidly during normal speed driving. Classification of the laser points is beneficial to the city reconstruction from laser point cloud, but a manual classification process can be rather time-consuming due to the huge amount of laser points. Although the pulse return is often used to automate classification, it is only possible to distinguish limited types such as vegetation and ground. In this paper we present a new method which classifies mobile terrestrial laser point clouds using only coordinate information. First, a point of a whole urban scene is segmented, and geometric properties of each segment are computed. Then semantic constraints for several object types are derived from observation and knowledge. These constraints concern not only geometric properties of the semantic objects, but also regulate the topological and hierarchical relations between objects. A search tree is formulated from the semantic constraints and applied to the laser segments for interpretation. 2D map can provide the approximate locations of the buildings and roads as well as the roads' dominant directions, so it is integrated to reduce the search space. The applicability of this method is demonstrated with a Lynx data of the city Enschede and a Streetmapper data of the city Esslingen. Four object types: ground, road, building façade, and traffic symbols, are classified in these data sets.

Pu, Shi; Zhan, Qingming



Ground vibration tests of a helicopter structure using OMA techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focused on an assessment of the state-of-the-art of operational modal analysis (OMA) methodologies in estimating modal parameters from output responses on helicopter structures. For this purpose, a ground vibration test was performed on a real helicopter airframe. In the following stages, several OMA techniques were applied to the measured data and compared with the results from typical input-output approach. The results presented are part of a more general research activity carried out in the Group of Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe (GARTEUR) Action Group 19, helicopter technical activity, whose overall objective is the improvement of the structural dynamic finite element models using in-flight test data. The structure considered is a medium-size helicopter, a time-expired Lynx Mk7 (XZ649) airframe. In order to have a comprehensive analysis, the behaviour of both frequency- and time-domain-based OMA techniques are considered for the modal parameter estimates. An accuracy index and the reliability of the OMA methods with respect to the standard EMA procedures, together with the evaluation of the influence of the experimental setup on the estimate of the modal parameters, will be presented in the paper.

Ameri, N.; Grappasonni, C.; Coppotelli, G.; Ewins, D. J.



The important zoonoses in the protected areas of the Tatra National Park (TANAP).  


The northern part of Slovakia constitutes an important tourist and recreational area of the country. Protected localities of the Tatra National Park (TANAP) are characterised by specific ecological conditions. The high numbers of animals inhabiting protected areas of the TANAP and their potential encounters with tourists contribute to a risk of transmission of important parasitic zoonoses. The aim of presently reported study was to perform a long-lasting and detailed survey on the occurrence of zoonotic agents (in particular Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp.) with particular emphasis on the interactions between the environment, the host, and the parasite as well as the adaptation mechanisms in individual ecosystems. Within the pilot part of the study, which started in 2007, in total 397 samples of wild predators representing 10 species belonging to families Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae and Ursidae were investigated. Helminthological necropsy (modified sedimentation and counting technique) and artificial digestion method were used for the parasites detection. Multiplex PCR approach has been used for species identification of Trichinella isolates obtained from infected animals. E. multilocularis was found in 42.7% of foxes and 1 raccoon dog. Trichinella larvae were present in 16.7% of foxes, 37.9% of martens, 33.3% of polecats, 1 bear and 1 lynx. All animals were infected by T. britovi. PMID:20209814

Hurníková, Zuzana; Miterpáková, Martina; Chovancová, Barbara



From genome to "venome": Molecular origin and evolution of the snake venom proteome inferred from phylogenetic analysis of toxin sequences and related body proteins  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the origin and evolution of snake venom proteome by means of phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of the toxins and related nonvenom proteins. The snake toxins were shown to have arisen from recruitment events of genes from within the following protein families: acetylcholinesterase, ADAM (disintegrin/metalloproteinase), AVIT, complement C3, crotasin/? defensin, cystatin, endothelin, factor V, factor X, kallikrein, kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor, LYNX/SLUR, L-amino oxidase, lectin, natriuretic peptide, ?nerve growth factor, phospholipase A2, SPla/Ryanodine, vascular endothelial growth factor, and whey acidic protein/secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor. Toxin recruitment events were found to have occurred at least 24 times in the evolution of snake venom. Two of these toxin derivations (CRISP and kallikrein toxins) appear to have been actually the result of modifications of existing salivary proteins rather than gene recruitment events. One snake toxin type, the waglerin peptides from Tropidolaemus wagleri (Wagler's Viper), did not have a match with known proteins and may be derived from a uniquely reptilian peptide. All of the snake toxin types still possess the bioactivity of the ancestral proteins in at least some of the toxin isoforms. However, this study revealed that the toxin types, where the ancestral protein was extensively cysteine cross-linked, were the ones that flourished into functionally diverse, novel toxin multigene families.

Fry, Bryan G.



Rail Track Detection and Modelling in Mobile Laser Scanner Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for detecting and modelling rails in mobile laser scanner data. The detection is based on the properties of the rail tracks and contact wires such as relative height, linearity and relative position with respect to other objects. Points classified as rail track are used in a 3D modelling algorithm. The modelling is done by first fitting a parametric model of a rail piece to the points along each track, and estimating the position and orientation parameters of each piece model. For each position and orientation parameter a smooth low-order Fourier curve is interpolated. Using all interpolated parameters a mesh model of the rail is reconstructed. The method is explained using two areas from a dataset acquired by a LYNX mobile mapping system in a mountainous area. Residuals between railway laser points and 3D models are in the range of 2 cm. It is concluded that a curve fitting algorithm is essential to reliably and accurately model the rail tracks by using the knowledge that railways are following a continuous and smooth path.

Oude Elberink, S.; Khoshelham, K.; Arastounia, M.; Diaz Benito, D.



Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.



Effects of environment and genotype on phenolic acids in wheat in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen.  


Phenolic acid content and composition have been determined in 26 wheat genotypes grown in Hungary over three consecutive years and at three additional locations (France, United Kingdom, and Poland) during the third year. Fractions comprising free, soluble conjugated, and bound phenolic acids were analyzed using HPLC with measurements being made for individual phenolic acids in each fraction. Statistically significant differences in phenolic acid content occurred across the different growing locations with the average total phenolic acid content being highest in the genotypes grown in Hungary. The growth year in Hungary also had a large impact, especially on the free and conjugated phenolic acid contents. Certain genotypes were more resistant to environmental impacts than others. Of the genotypes with high levels of total phenolic acids, Lynx, Riband, Tommi, and Cadenza were most stable with respect to their total contents, whereas Valoris, Herzog, and Malacca, also high in phenolic acid content, were least stable. Of the three fractions analyzed, the free and conjugated phenolic acids were most variable and were also susceptible to the effect of environment, whereas bound phenolic acids, which comprised the greatest proportion of the total phenolic acids, were the most stable. PMID:20707366

Fernandez-Orozco, Rebeca; Li, Li; Harflett, Claudia; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L



The Potential and Flux Landscape Theory of Ecology  

PubMed Central

The species in ecosystems are mutually interacting and self sustainable stable for a certain period. Stability and dynamics are crucial for understanding the structure and the function of ecosystems. We developed a potential and flux landscape theory of ecosystems to address these issues. We show that the driving force of the ecological dynamics can be decomposed to the gradient of the potential landscape and the curl probability flux measuring the degree of the breaking down of the detailed balance (due to in or out flow of the energy to the ecosystems). We found that the underlying intrinsic potential landscape is a global Lyapunov function monotonically going down in time and the topology of the landscape provides a quantitative measure for the global stability of the ecosystems. We also quantified the intrinsic energy, the entropy, the free energy and constructed the non-equilibrium thermodynamics for the ecosystems. We studied several typical and important ecological systems: the predation, competition, mutualism and a realistic lynx-snowshoe hare model. Single attractor, multiple attractors and limit cycle attractors emerge from these studies. We studied the stability and robustness of the ecosystems against the perturbations in parameters and the environmental fluctuations. We also found that the kinetic paths between the multiple attractors do not follow the gradient paths of the underlying landscape and are irreversible because of the non-zero flux. This theory provides a novel way for exploring the global stability, function and the robustness of ecosystems.

Zhang, Kun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin



Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.  


Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J



AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

Slicker, J. M.



Trophic control of mesopredators in terrestrial ecosystems: top-down or bottom-up?  


It has been argued that widespread extinctions of top predators have changed terrestrial ecosystem structures through mesopredator release, where increased abundances of medium-sized predators have detrimental effects on prey communities. This top-down concept has received much attention within conservation biology, but few studies have demonstrated the phenomenon. The concept has been criticized since alternative explanations involving bottom-up impacts from bioclimatic effects on ecosystem productivity and from anthropogenic habitat change are rarely considered. We analyse the response of a mesopredator (the red fox) to declines in top predators (wolf and Eurasian lynx) and agricultural expansion over 90 years in Sweden, taking bioclimatic effects into account. We show a top-down mesopredator release effect, but ecosystem productivity determined its strength. The impacts of agricultural activity were mediated by their effects on top predator populations. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes need to be understood for effective preservation of biodiversity in anthropogenically transformed ecosystems. PMID:17305803

Elmhagen, Bodil; Rushton, Stephen P



Identification of 17 Highly Expressed Genes within Mouse Lumbar Spinal Cord Anterior Horn Region from an In-Situ Hybridization Atlas of 3430 Genes: Implications for Motor Neuron Disease  

PubMed Central

In an effort to find possible new gene candidates involved in the causation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a prior version of the on-line brain gene expression atlas GENSAT was extensively searched for selectively intense expression within spinal motor neurons. Using autoradiographic data of in-situ hybridization from 3430 genes, a search for selectively intense activity was made for the anterior horn region of murine lumbar spinal cord sectioned in the axial plane. Of 3430 genes, a group of 17 genes was found to be highly expressed within the anterior horn suggesting localization to its primary cellular constituent, the alpha spinal motor neuron. For some genes, an inter-relationship to ALS was already known, such as for heavy, medium, and light neurofilaments, and peripherin. Other genes identified include: Gamma Synuclein, GDNF, SEMA3A, Extended Synaptotagmin-like protein 1, LYNX1, HSPA12a, Cadherin 22, PRKACA, TPPP3 as well as Choline Acetyltransferase, Janus Kinase 1, and the Motor Neuron and Pancreas Homeobox 1. Based on this study, Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 was found to have a particularly selective and intense localization pattern to the ventral horn and may be a good target for development of motor neuron disease therapies; further research is needed.

Meyer, Michael A.



Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development can have multiple effects on mammalian carnivore communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 7,929 photographs from 217 localities in 11 camera-trap studies across coastal southern California to describe habitat use and determine the effects of urban proximity (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) were distributed widely across the region. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were detected less frequently, and long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were detected rarely. Habitat use generally reflected availability for most species. Coyote and raccoon occurrence increased with both proximity to and intensity of urbanization, whereas bobcat, gray fox, and mountain lion occurrence decreased with urban proximity and intensity. Domestic dogs and Virginia opossums exhibited positive and weak negative relationships, respectively, with urban intensity but were unaffected by urban proximity. Striped skunk occurrence increased with urban proximity but decreased with urban intensity. Native species richness was negatively associated with urban intensity but not urban proximity, probably because of the stronger negative response of individual species to urban intensity.

Ordenana, Miguel A.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Siudyla, Shalene; Haas, Christopher D.; Harris, Sierra; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Turschak, Greta M.; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.



Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS --Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of a fenced stream crossing over the Pahsimeroi River to enhance a livestock riparian enclosure. This structure would include up to four wood fence posts and two deadman anchors buried in the ground. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat by preventing livestock from entering the riparian area via the river. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Carl Rudeen with the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District (August 4, 2004) and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are gray wolf, Canada lynx, bald eagle, Ute ladies'Tresses, Snake River chinook salmon, Snake River steelhead trout, and Columbia River Basin bull trout. It was determined that the proposed fence crossing construction project would have no effect on these species. Bald eagle, gray wolf and Canada lynx are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity. Since the site is used primarily as livestock pasture it does not lend itself to the presence of Ute ladies'Tresses. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. Soil disturbance will be limited to the livestock pasture and to two holes that will be used to bury anchors for the suspended portion of the fence. Required river crossings will be made on foot. Requirements associated with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act were handled by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), in cooperation with staff from the U.S. Forest Service (Boise National Forest), under their existing Programmatic Agreement with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). A description of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project and site information was reviewed by a qualified archaeologist and it was determined that an archaeological survey was needed. Bruce Blackmere with NRCS conducted an intensive-complete survey of the project site and cultural resources were not identified (July 30, 2004). Based on these findings, it was recommended that the project proceed as planned. All survey findings were provided to the Idaho SHPO. In the unlikely event that archaeological material is discovered during project implementation, an archaeologist should be notified immediately and work halted in the vicinity of the finds until they can be inspected and assessed. Standard water quality protection procedures and Best Management Practices should be followed during the implementation of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project. No construction is authorized to begin until the proponent has obtained all applicable local, state, and federal permits and approvals. Public involvement has occurred as part of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project. This project was coordinated through the Upper Salmon Basin Technical Team and Advisory Committee composed of representatives from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NOAA Fisheries, Shoshone Bannock Tribe, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game. In addition, the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District holds monthly meetings that are open to the public in which this project was discussed.

N /A



Changes in tear protein profile in keratoconus disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze tear protein profile variations in patients with keratoconus (KC) and to compare them with those of control subjects. Subjects and methods Tears from 12 normal subjects and 12 patients with KC were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Analysis of the 2-DE gels was performed using Progenesis SameSpots software (Nonlinear Dynamics). Proteins exhibiting high variation in expression levels (P-value <0.05) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–TOF spectrometry. For LC–MS analysis, a label-free quantification approach was used. Tears were digested with trypsin, subjected to data-independent acquisition (MSE) analysis, and identified proteins were relatively quantified using ProteinLynx Global Server software (Waters). Results The 2-DE and LC–MS analyses revealed a significant decrease in the levels of members of the cystatin family and an increase in lipocalin-1 in KC patients. A 1.43-fold decrease was observed for cystatin-S by 2-DE, and 1.69- and 1.56-fold for cystatin-SN and cystatin-SA by LC–MS, respectively. The increase in lipocalin-1 was observed by both methods with fold changes of 1.26 in the 2-DE approach and 1.31 according to LC–MS. Significant protein upregulation was also observed for Ig-?chain C and Ig J chain proteins by 2-DE. Levels of lipophilin-C, lipophilin-A, and phospholipase A2 were decreased in tears from KC patients according to LC–MS. Serum albumin was found to be increased in KC patients according to LC–MS. Conclusion The results show differences in the tear protein profile of KC and control subjects. These changes are indicative of alterations in tear film stability and in interactions with the corneal surface in KC patients.

Acera, A; Vecino, E; Rodriguez-Agirretxe, I; Aloria, K; Arizmendi, J M; Morales, C; Duran, J A



Searching for in silico predicted metabolites and designer modifications of (cortico)steroids in urine by high-resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  


Glucocorticosteroids are a restricted class of substances and appear on the 'in-competition' prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Analysis of glucocorticosteroids is complicated since they show significant phase 1 and 2 metabolism in the human body and are excreted into urine in concentrations in the microg/L range. Full scan, high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis generates information on all ionisable components in urine, including known and unknown metabolites of steroids and even designer modifications of anabolic steroids. However, evaluation of the data obtained can be difficult and time-consuming because of the need to differentiate between endogenous components and compounds of interest. MetaboLynx, a spectral and chromatographic search program, was modified for the determination of in silico predicted metabolites of glucocorticosteroids and designer modifications of anabolic steroids in human urine. Spiked urine samples were successfully screened for known components in a targeted approach and for unknown species in a non-targeted approach using data filtering to limit potential false-positives. A simplified combined approach of targeted and untargeted screening was used for the detection of metabolites and designer modifications of existing compounds. This approach proved successful and showed its strength in the detection of tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), a designer modification of gestrinone. THG was positively detected in a spiked urine sample and correctly identified as a twofold hydrogenation of gestrinone. The developed screening method can easily be adapted to specific needs and it is envisaged that a similar approach would be amendable to the discovery of metabolites or designer modifications of other compounds of interest. PMID:19575408

Peters, Ruud J B; van Engelen, Marcel C; Touber, Manja E; Georgakopoulus, Costas; Nielen, Michel W F



Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.  


Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale patterns in social dynamics of human-wildlife conflicts. PMID:23894353

Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P



Observing with HST IV: Improvements in Observation Planning and Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning and scheduling Hubble Space Telescope observations is a formidable task. During the course of a year tens of thousands of exposures are taken on several thousand targets. Many observations are linked to others via scientific ``special requirements'' specified by the observer in the proposal. All observations are subject to numerous observing constraints such as Sun avoidance, occultation by the Earth, and spacecraft roll and power constraints. At the beginning of the HST mission, planning and scheduling work concentrated on the correct implementation and execution of observations. In Cycles 2 and 3 a major effort to increase the productivity of the observatory (while retaining quality) was begun and increased HST observation efficiency by about 50%. In Cycle 4, a major effort is underway to further improve the planning and scheduling process, in order to achieve stability in the observing program long-range plan, to improve the system's flexibility and responsiveness to change, and to increase visibility into the HST observing schedule as it evolves. This paper will describe the basis for these improvements, including the long-range planning criteria and timescales, the process of planning and scheduling and how changes will be supported. We will also describe the major observing constraints and how they are handled by the planning and scheduling system. Finally, we will discuss how recent advances in networking technology have made it possible to dramatically increase the ability of HST proposers to view the long- and short-range HST observing plans. Using a client program such as Mosaic or Lynx, an astronomer will be able to access a World Wide Web (WWW) server at the STScI to provide convenient access to HST observing proposals and their implementation status, and both the long-range and short-term observing schedules.

Miller, Glenn; Blacker, Brett; Giuliano, Mark; Kinzel, Wayne; McElroy, Doug; Moler, Palle; Reinhart, Merle; Ross, Brian; Shea, Molly; Stanley, Peg; Suchkov, Anatoly; Surdej, Jean; Wissler, Steve



UPLC/ESI-MS/MS-based determination of metabolism of several new illicit drugs, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, QUPIC, 5F-QUPIC and ?-PVT, by human liver microsome.  


The metabolism by human liver microsomes of several new illicit drugs, that is, N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3- carboxamide (ADB-FUBINACA), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1- (4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBINACA), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-PINACA), quinolin-8-yl 1-pentyl-(1H-indole)-3-carboxylate (QUPIC), quinolin-8-yl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-(1H-indole)-3-carboxylate (5?F-QUPIC) and ?-pyrrolidinovalerothiophenone (?-PVT), which have indole, indazole, quinolinol ester and thiophene structures, was investigated using reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry. The present method is based upon the oxidation by cytochrome p450 superfamily enzymes in the microsomes. The oxidation of ADB-FUBINACA and AB-FUBINACA mainly occurred on the N-(1-amino-alkyl-1-oxobutan) moiety. However, the oxidation of AB-PINACA seemed to occur on the 1-pentyl moiety. On the other hand, QUPIC and 5?F-QUPIC, which have a quinolinol ester structure, predominantly underwent a cleavage reaction to produce indoleacetic acid type metabolites. In contrast, the metabolism reaction of ?-PVT was different from that of the other tested drugs, and various oxidation products were observed on the chromatograms. The obtained metabolites are not in conflict with the results predicted by MetaboLynx software. However, the exact structures of the metabolites, except for 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid (QUPIC metabolite) and 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid (5?F-QUPIC metabolite), are currently not proven, because we have no authentic compounds for comparison. The proposed approach using human liver microsome seems to provide a new technology for the prediction of possible metabolites occuring in humans. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24861751

Takayama, Takahiro; Suzuki, Mayu; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Min, Jun Zhe; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa



Real-time operating system timing jitter and its impact on motor control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all OS services. Examples include ETS, LynxOS, QNX, Windows CE and VxWorks. RTOS extensions add real-time scheduling capabilities to non-real-time OSes, and provide minimal services needed for the time-critical portions of an application. Examples include RTAI and RTL for Linux, and HyperKernel, OnTime and RTX for Windows NT. Timing jitter is an issue in these systems, due to hardware effects such as bus locking, caches and pipelines, and software effects from mutual exclusion resource locks, non-preemtible critical sections, disabled interrupts, and multiple code paths in the scheduler. Jitter is typically on the order of a microsecond to a few tens of microseconds for hard real-time operating systems, and ranges from milliseconds to seconds in the worst case for soft real-time operating systems. The question of its significance on the performance of a controller arises. Naturally, the smaller the scheduling period required for a control task, the more significant is the impact of timing jitter. Aside from this intuitive relationship is the greater significance of timing on open-loop control, such as for stepper motors, than for closed-loop control, such as for servo motors. Techniques for measuring timing jitter are discussed, and comparisons between various platforms are presented. Techniques to reduce jitter or mitigate its effects are presented. The impact of jitter on stepper motor control is analyzed.

Proctor, Frederick M.; Shackleford, William P.



Trichinella spiralis (T1) and Trichinella T5: a comparison using animal infectivity and molecular biology techniques.  


We compared Trichinella T5 of bobcat (Lynx rufus) origin with Trichinella spiralis (T1) by using animal infectivity and molecular biology techniques. Swine, SD rats, and CF1 mice were highly resistant to infection with Trichinella T5 but sensitive to T. spiralis, whereas deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) had similar sensitivity to both parasites. The fecundity of Trichinella T5 in deer mice was 10-35-fold higher in comparison to the fecundity in laboratory rodents (SD rats and CF1 mice). Fecundity of T. spiralis was approximately the same in both groups. A western blot, using excretory-secretory proteins (ESP) from first-stage larvae of T. spiralis as antigen, showed similar banding patterns in the pigs infected with either T. spiralis or Trichinella T5, however, the homologous reaction was stronger than the heterologous reaction. Antibodies were detectable in swine sera commencing 3 or 5 wk postinfection with T. spiralis or Trichinella T5, respectively. Complementary DNAs encoding the 46-, 49/43-, or 53-kDa ESP showed 3.54, 1.94, and 5.91% differences, respectively, between the 2 parasites. Deduced amino acid sequences of the 3 cDNAs were different at 7.20, 5.08, and 8.55%, respectively. All recombinant proteins of the 3 cDNAs from both parasites could detect antibodies in positive sera. The sequences of cDNAs encoding the 46-, 49/43-, or 53-kDa ESP from T. spiralis are also compared to the previously reported sequences, and the differences are discussed. PMID:9057702

Yao, C; Prestwood, A K; McGraw, R A



Evaluation of OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage versus Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Atmospheric Deposition Program, a cooperative effort supported by Federal, State, and local agencies, and Indian Tribes, was established in 1977 to study atmospheric deposition and its impact on the environment. The program's National Trends Network now includes wet-deposition networks at more than 250 sites across the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Precipitation amounts are currently measured using a Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780, which involves technology that is more than 50 years old. In 1999, a three-phase study was begun to evaluate several weighing, all-weather precipitation gages to find a possible replacement for the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780. One gage that performed consistently well in phase I and II testing was the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage. Phase III of the study, discussed herein, was to determine the accuracy and comparability of the data sets collected by the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages and the existing Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780. Seven OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages were installed at six National Trends Network sites across the country for a data-collection period of approximately 18 months. The NovaLynx Model 260-2510 Standard Rain and Snow Gage also was used, as a reference, at two of the sites. Paired t-tests analysis showed no significant differences in precipitation measurements between the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 and the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages at three of the six sites. When the false positives were removed from the precipitation-event data sets, the gages at all sites were in agreement and the paired t-tests showed the gage measurements were not significantly different. A false positive is defined as a zero response from the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 concurrent with a recorded response from the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage.

Tumbusch, Mary L.



An Approach Toward Understanding Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the most conspicuous environmental effects of roads are vehicle-related mortalities of wildlife. Research to understand the factors that contribute to wildlife-vehicle collisions can be partitioned into several major themes, including (i) characteristics associated with roadkill hot spots, (ii) identification of road-density thresholds that limit wildlife populations, and (iii) species-specific models of vehicle collision rates that incorporate information on roads (e.g., proximity, width, and traffic volume) and animal movements. We suggest that collision models offer substantial opportunities to understand the effects of roads on a diverse suite of species. We conducted simulations using collision models and information on Blanding’s turtles ( Emydoidea blandingii), bobcats ( Lynx rufus), and moose ( Alces alces), species endemic to the northeastern United States that are of particular concern relative to collisions with vehicles. Results revealed important species-specific differences, with traffic volume and rate of movement by candidate species having the greatest influence on collision rates. We recommend that future efforts to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions be more proactive and suggest the following protocol. For species that pose hazards to drivers (e.g., ungulates), identify collision hot spots and implement suitable mitigation to redirect animal movements (e.g., underpasses, fencing, and habitat modification), reduce populations of problematic game species via hunting, or modify driver behavior (e.g., dynamic signage that warns drivers when animals are near roads). Next, identify those species that are likely to experience additive (as opposed to compensatory) mortality from vehicle collisions and rank them according to vulnerability to extirpation. Then combine information on the distribution of at-risk species with information on existing road networks to identify areas where immediate actions are warranted.

Litvaitis, John A.; Tash, Jeffrey P.



Carnivore distributions across chaparral habitats exposed to wildfire and rural housing in southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in southern California support biologically diverse plant and animal communities. However, native plant and animal species within these shrubland systems are increasingly exposed to human-caused wildfires and an expansion of the human–wildland interface. Few data exist to evaluate the effects of fire and anthropogenic pressures on plant and animal communities found in these environments. This is particularly true for carnivore communities. To address this knowledge gap, we collected detection–non-detection data with motion-sensor cameras and track plots to measure carnivore occupancy patterns following a large, human-caused wildfire (1134 km2) in eastern San Diego County, California, USA, in 2003. Our focal species set included coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). We evaluated the influence on species occupancies of the burned environment (burn edge, burn interior and unburned areas), proximity of rural homes, distance to riparian area and elevation. Gray fox occupancies were the highest overall, followed by striped skunk, coyote and bobcat. The three species considered as habitat and foraging generalists (gray fox, coyote, striped skunk) were common in all conditions. Occupancy patterns were consistent through time for all species except coyote, whose occupancies increased through time. In addition, environmental and anthropogenic variables had weak effects on all four species, and these responses were species-specific. Our results helped to describe a carnivore community exposed to frequent fire and rural human residences, and provide baseline data to inform fire management policy and wildlife management strategies in similar fire-prone ecosystems.

Schuette, P. A.; Diffendorfer, J. E.; Deutschman, D. H.; Tremor, S.; Spencer, W.



Properties of the most metal-poor gas-rich LSB dwarf galaxies SDSS J0015+0104 and J2354-0005 residing in the Eridanus void  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SDSS J0015+0104 is the lowest metallicity low surface brightness dwarf (LSBD) galaxy known. The oxygen abundance in its H II region SDSS J001520.70+010436.9 (at ˜1.5 kpc from the galaxy centre) is 12+log (O/H) = 7.07 (Guseva et al.). This galaxy, at the distance of 28.4 Mpc, appears to reside deeply in the volume devoid of luminous massive galaxies, known as the Eridanus void. SDSS J235437.29-000501.6 is another Eridanus void LSBD galaxy, with parameter 12+log (O/H) = 7.36 (also Guseva et al.). We present the results of their H I observations with the Nançay Radio Telescope revealing their high ratios of M(H I)/LB ˜ 2.3. Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey images, we derived for both galaxies their radial surface brightness profiles and the main photometric parameters. Their colours and total magnitudes are used to estimate the galaxy stellar mass and ages. The related gas mass fractions, fg ˜ 0.98 and ˜0.97, and the extremely low metallicities (much lower than for their more typical counterparts with the same luminosity) indicate their unevolved status. We compare these Eridanus void LSBDs with several extreme LSBD galaxies residing in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. Based on the combination of all their unusual properties, the two discussed LSBD galaxies are similar to the unusual LSBDs residing in the closer void. This finding presents additional evidence for the existence in voids of a sizeable fraction of low-mass unevolved galaxies. Their dedicated search might result in the substantial increase of the number of such objects in the local Universe and in the advancement of understanding their nature.

Pustilnik, S. A.; Martin, J.-M.; Lyamina, Y. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.




SciTech Connect

We have surveyed two science fields totaling 1 deg.{sup 2} with Bolocam at 2.1 mm to search for secondary Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies caused by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). The fields are in the Lynx and Subaru/XMM SDS1 fields. Our survey is sensitive to angular scales with an effective angular multipole of l{sub eff} = 5700 with FWHM{sub l} = 2800 and has an angular resolution of 60 arcsec FWHM. Our data provide no evidence for anisotropy. We are able to constrain the level of total astronomical anisotropy, modeled as a flat-band power in C{sub l}, with most frequent 68%, 90%, and 95% CL upper limits of 590, 760, and 830 {mu}K {sup 2} {sub CMB}. We statistically subtract the known contribution from primary CMB anisotropy, including cosmic variance, to obtain constraints on the SZE anisotropy contribution. Now including flux calibration uncertainty, our most frequent 68%, 90%, and 95% CL upper limits on a flat-band power in C{sub l} are 690, 960, and 1000 {mu}K {sup 2} {sub CMB}. When we instead employ the analytical spectrum suggested by Komatsu and Seljack in 2002, and account for the non-Gaussianity of the SZE anisotropy signal, we obtain upper limits on the average amplitude of their spectrum weighted by our transfer function of 790, 1060, and 1080 {mu}K {sup 2} {sub CMB}. We obtain a 90% CL upper limit on {sigma}{sub 8}, which normalizes the power spectrum of density fluctuations, of 1.57. These are the first constraints on anisotropy and {sigma}{sub 8} from survey data at these angular scales at frequencies near 150 GHz.

Sayers, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Rossinot, P.; Edgington, S. F.; Lange, A. E. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 59-33, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ade, P. A. R.; Haig, D.; Mauskopf, P. D. [Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, P.O. Box 913, Cardiff CF24 3YB, Wales (United Kingdom); Aguirre, J. E.; Glenn, J.; Laurent, G. T. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bock, J. J.; Goldin, A.; Nguyen, H. T. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail:



Revisiting the classics: considering nonconsumptive effects in textbook examples of predator-prey interactions.  


Predator effects on prey dynamics are conventionally studied by measuring changes in prey abundance attributed to consumption by predators. We revisit four classic examples of predator-prey systems often cited in textbooks and incorporate subsequent studies of nonconsumptive effects of predators (NCE), defined as changes in prey traits (e.g., behavior, growth, development) measured on an ecological time scale. Our review revealed that NCE were integral to explaining lynx-hare population dynamics in boreal forests, cascading effects of top predators in Wisconsin lakes, and cascading effects of killer whales and sea otters on kelp forests in nearshore marine habitats. The relative roles of consumption and NCE of wolves on moose and consequent indirect effects on plant communities of Isle Royale depended on climate oscillations. Nonconsumptive effects have not been explicitly tested to explain the link between planktonic alewives and the size structure of the zooplankton, nor have they been invoked to attribute keystone predator status in intertidal communities or elsewhere. We argue that both consumption and intimidation contribute to the total effects of keystone predators, and that characteristics of keystone consumers may differ from those of predators having predominantly NCE. Nonconsumptive effects are often considered as an afterthought to explain observations inconsistent with consumption-based theory. Consequently, NCE with the same sign as consumptive effects may be overlooked, even though they can affect the magnitude, rate, or scale of a prey response to predation and can have important management or conservation implications. Nonconsumptive effects may underlie other classic paradigms in ecology, such as delayed density dependence and predator-mediated prey coexistence. Revisiting classic studies enriches our understanding of predator-prey dynamics and provides compelling rationale for ramping up efforts to consider how NCE affect traditional predator-prey models based on consumption, and to compare the relative magnitude of consumptive and NCE of predators. PMID:18831163

Peckarsky, Barbara L; Abrams, Peter A; Bolnick, Daniel I; Dill, Lawrence M; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Luttbeg, Barney; Orrock, John L; Peacor, Scott D; Preisser, Evan L; Schmitz, Oswald J; Trussell, Geoffrey C



Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.



Clinical Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum infections in dogs.  


Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs. We investigated one breeder's 25 Basset Hounds for these infections. In addition, tissues from dogs and other non-canine hosts previously reported as S. canis infections were studied retrospectively. Schizonts resembling those of S. neurona, and recognized by polyclonal rabbit anti-S. neurona antibodies, were found in six of eight retrospective cases, as well as in two additional dogs (one Basset Hound, one Springer Spaniel) not previously reported. S. neurona schizonts were found in several tissues including the central nervous system, lungs, and kidneys. Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in an adult dog, and neosporosis was diagnosed in an adult and a pup related to the one diagnosed with S. neurona. No serological reactivity to S. neurona antibodies occurred when S. canis-like liver schizonts were retrospectively assayed from two dogs, a dolphin, a sea lion, a horse, a chinchilla, a black or either of two polar bears. Sequencing conserved (18S) and variable (ITS-1) portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA isolated from the schizont-laden liver of a polar bear distinguished it from all previously characterized species of Sarcocystis. We take this genetic signature as provisionally representative of S. canis, an assumption that should be tested with future sequencing of similar liver infections in other mammalian hosts. These findings further extend the uncharacteristically broad intermediate host range for S. neurona, which also causes a neurologic disease in cats, mink, raccoons, skunks, Pacific harbor seals, ponies, zebras, lynxes, and sea otters. Further work is necessary to delineate the causative agent(s) of other cases of canine sarcocystosis, and in particular to specify the attributes of S. canis, which corresponds morphologically to infections reported from wide range of terrestrial and marine mammals. PMID:16458431

Dubey, J P; Chapman, Jennifer L; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mense, M; Schueler, Ronald L



A hyphenated microLC-Q-TOF-MS platform for exosomal lipidomics investigations: application to RCC urinary exosomes.  


Urinary exosomes are released from every renal epithelial cell type facing the urinary space and therefore, they may carry molecular markers of renal dysfunction and structural injury. Here, we present a hyphenated microLC-Q-TOF-MS platform for lipidomics studies applied to investigate the urinary exosome lipid repertoire. Lipids were separated by reversed-phase chromatography using a linear gradient of formic acid 0.2% and tetrahydrofuran, in 40 min of analysis. Features (m/z with associated own retention time) were extracted by MarkerLynx(TM) (Waters) and processed, demonstrating good analytical performance in terms of repeatability and mass accuracy of the microLC Q-TOF MS platform. In particular, a stable retention time (RSD less than 4%) and relative intensity (RSD from 2.9% to 11%) were observed. Moreover, the method takes advantages by the use of a lock spray interface (Waters) that allows readjusting the m/z data after acquisition, obtaining inaccuracy below 6 ppm in measuring the m/z value of the reference compound during chromatographic run. The method was employed in a preliminary application to perform comparative analysis from healthy control subjects and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients, in order to possibly highlight differences in lipid composition to be exploited as potential tumor biomarker. Differential lipid composition in RCC urinary exosomes was achieved and tentatively identified by accurate mass, providing a preliminary indication of a relationship between lipid composition of urinary exosomes and RCC disease. Among the total features significantly different in RCC exosomes, the ion at m/z 502.3 was taken as an example for molecular confirmation by MS/MS fragmentation analysis. PMID:22451062

Del Boccio, Piero; Raimondo, Francesca; Pieragostino, Damiana; Morosi, Lavinia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Sacchetta, Paolo; Magni, Fulvio; Pitto, Marina; Urbani, Andrea



Ancient papillomavirus-host co-speciation in Felidae  

PubMed Central

Background Estimating evolutionary rates for slowly evolving viruses such as papillomaviruses (PVs) is not possible using fossil calibrations directly or sequences sampled over a time-scale of decades. An ability to correlate their divergence with a host species, however, can provide a means to estimate evolutionary rates for these viruses accurately. To determine whether such an approach is feasible, we sequenced complete feline PV genomes, previously available only for the domestic cat (Felis domesticus, FdPV1), from four additional, globally distributed feline species: Lynx rufus PV type 1, Puma concolor PV type 1, Panthera leo persica PV type 1, and Uncia uncia PV type 1. Results The feline PVs all belong to the Lambdapapillomavirus genus, and contain an unusual second noncoding region between the early and late protein region, which is only present in members of this genus. Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the evolutionary relationships between feline PVs perfectly mirror those of their feline hosts, despite a complex and dynamic phylogeographic history. By applying host species divergence times, we provide the first precise estimates for the rate of evolution for each PV gene, with an overall evolutionary rate of 1.95 × 10-8 (95% confidence interval 1.32 × 10-8 to 2.47 × 10-8) nucleotide substitutions per site per year for the viral coding genome. Conclusion Our work provides evidence for long-term virus-host co-speciation of feline PVs, indicating that viral diversity in slowly evolving viruses can be used to investigate host species evolution. These findings, however, should not be extrapolated to other viral lineages without prior confirmation of virus-host co-divergence.

Rector, Annabel; Lemey, Philippe; Tachezy, Ruth; Mostmans, Sara; Ghim, Shin-Je; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Roelke, Melody; Bush, Mitchell; Montali, Richard J; Joslin, Janis; Burk, Robert D; Jenson, Alfred B; Sundberg, John P; Shapiro, Beth; Van Ranst, Marc



Tracking Cats: Problems with Placing Feline Carnivores on ?18O, ?D Isoscapes  

PubMed Central

Background Several felids are endangered and threatened by the illegal wildlife trade. Establishing geographic origin of tissues of endangered species is thus crucial for wildlife crime investigations and effective conservation strategies. As shown in other species, stable isotope analysis of hydrogen and oxygen in hair (?Dh, ?18Oh) can be used as a tool for provenance determination. However, reliably predicting the spatial distribution of ?Dh and ?18Oh requires confirmation from animal tissues of known origin and a detailed understanding of the isotopic routing of dietary nutrients into felid hair. Methodology/Findings We used coupled ?Dh and ?18Oh measurements from the North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) with precipitation-based assignment isoscapes to test the feasibility of isotopic geo-location of felidae. Hairs of felid and rabbit museum specimens from 75 sites across the United States and Canada were analyzed. Bobcat and puma lacked a significant correlation between H/O isotopes in hair and local waters, and also exhibited an isotopic decoupling of ?18Oh and ?Dh. Conversely, strong ?D and ?18O coupling was found for key prey, eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus; hair) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; collagen, bone phosphate). Conclusions/Significance Puma and bobcat hairs do not adhere to expected pattern of H and O isotopic variation predicted by precipitation isoscapes for North America. Thus, using bulk hair, felids cannot be placed on ?18O and ?D isoscapes for use in forensic investigations. The effective application of isotopes to trace the provenance of feline carnivores is likely compromised by major controls of their diet, physiology and metabolism on hair ?18O and ?D related to body water budgets. Controlled feeding experiments, combined with single amino acid isotope analysis of diets and hair, are needed to reveal mechanisms and physiological traits explaining why felid hair does not follow isotopic patterns demonstrated in many other taxa.

Pietsch, Stephanie J.; Hobson, Keith A.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Tutken, Thomas



Jasmonate and ethylene dependent defence gene expression and suppression of fungal virulence factors: two essential mechanisms of Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat?  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium species like F. graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol produced by the fungus affect plant and animal health, and cause significant reductions of grain yield and quality. Resistant varieties are the only effective way to control this disease, but the molecular events leading to FHB resistance are still poorly understood. Transcriptional profiling was conducted for the winter wheat cultivars Dream (moderately resistant) and Lynx (susceptible). The gene expressions at 32 and 72?h after inoculation with Fusarium were used to trace possible defence mechanisms and associated genes. A comparative qPCR was carried out for selected genes to analyse the respective expression patterns in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3 (Chinese spring wheat). Results Among 2,169 differentially expressed genes, two putative main defence mechanisms were found in the FHB-resistant Dream cultivar. Both are defined base on their specific mode of resistance. A non-specific mechanism was based on several defence genes probably induced by jasmonate and ethylene signalling, including lipid-transfer protein, thionin, defensin and GDSL-like lipase genes. Additionally, defence-related genes encoding jasmonate-regulated proteins were up-regulated in response to FHB. Another mechanism based on the targeted suppression of essential Fusarium virulence factors comprising proteases and mycotoxins was found to be an essential, induced defence of general relevance in wheat. Moreover, similar inductions upon fungal infection were frequently observed among FHB-responsive genes of both mechanisms in the cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Conclusions Especially ABC transporter, UDP-glucosyltransferase, protease and protease inhibitor genes associated with the defence mechanism against fungal virulence factors are apparently active in different resistant genetic backgrounds, according to reports on other wheat cultivars and barley. This was further supported in our qPCR experiments on seven genes originating from this mechanism which revealed similar activities in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Finally, the combination of early-stage and steady-state induction was associated with resistance, while transcript induction generally occurred later and temporarily in the susceptible cultivars. The respective mechanisms are attractive for advanced studies aiming at new resistance and toxin management strategies.



Greater sage-grouse nest predators in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse, populations have declined across their range due to the loss, degradation, and fragmentation of habitat. Habitat alterations can lead not only to vegetative changes but also to shifts in animal behavior and predator composition that may influence population vital rates, such as nest success. For example, common ravens Corvus corax are sage-grouse nest predators, and common raven abundance is positively associated with human-caused habitat alterations. Because nest success is a central component to sage-grouse population persistence, research that identifies factors influencing nest success will better inform conservation efforts. We used videography to unequivocally identify sage-grouse nest predators within the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada, USA, from 2009 to 2011 and used maximum likelihood to calculate daily probability of nest survival. In the Virginia Mountains, fires, energy exploration, and other anthropogenic activities have altered historic sage-grouse habitat. We monitored 71 sage-grouse nests during the study, placing video cameras at 39 nests. Cumulative nest survival for all nests was 22.4% (95% CI, 13.0–33.4%), a survival rate that was significantly lower than other published results for sage-grouse in the Great Basin. Depredation was the primary cause for nest failure in our study (82.5%), and common ravens were the most frequent sage-grouse nest predator, accounting for 46.7% of nest depredations. We also successfully documented a suite of mammalian and reptilian species depredating sage-grouse nests, including some predators never previously confirmed in the literature to be sage-grouse nest predators (i.e., bobcats Lynx rufus and long-tailed weasels Mephitis frenata). Within the high elevation, disturbed habitat of the Virginia Mountains, low sage-grouse nest success may be limiting sage-grouse population growth. These results suggest that management actions that restore habitat in the Virginia Mountains and decrease anthropogenic subsidies of ravens will benefit sage-grouse.

Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.



Clinical and molecular epidemiology of veterinary blastomycosis in Wisconsin  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown that Blastomyces dermatitidis, the etiologic agent of blastomycosis, is a genetically diverse pathogen. Blastomycosis is a significant health issue in humans and other mammals. Veterinary and human isolates matched with epidemiological case data from the same geographic area and time period were used to determine: (i) if differences in genetic diversity and structure exist between clinical veterinary and human isolates of B. dermatitidis and (ii) if comparable epidemiologic features differ among veterinary and human blastomycosis cases. Results Genetic typing of 301 clinical B. dermatitidis isolates produced 196 haplotypes (59 unique to veterinary isolates, 134 unique to human isolates, and 3 shared between canine and human isolates). Private allelic richness was higher in veterinary (median 2.27) compared to human isolates (median 1.14) (p = 0.005). Concordant with previous studies, two distinct genetic groups were identified among all isolates. Genetic group assignment was different between human and veterinary isolates (p < 0.001), with more veterinary isolates assigned to Group 2. The mean age of dogs diagnosed with blastomycosis was 6 years. Thirty cases were in male dogs (52%) and 24 were females (41%). The breed of dog was able to be retrieved in 38 of 58 cases with 19 (50%) being sporting breeds. Three of four felines infected with blastomycosis were domestic shorthair males between ages 6–12, and presented with disseminated disease. The other was a lynx with pulmonary disease. The equine isolate was from an 11-year-old male Halflinger with disseminated disease. Disseminated disease was reported more often in veterinary (62%) than human cases (19%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions Isolates from all hosts clustered largely into previously identified genetic groups, with 3 haplotypes being shared between human and canine isolates confirming that B. dermatitidis isolates capable of infecting both species occur in nature. Allelic diversity measures trended higher in veterinary samples, with a higher number of total alleles and private alleles. Veterinary isolates of B. dermatitidis contributed a substantial amount of diversity to the overall population genetic structure demonstrating the importance of including veterinary isolates in genetic studies of evolution and virulence in this organism.



Medium-Sized Mammals around a Radioactive Liquid Waste Lagoon at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Uptake of Contaminants and Evaluation of Radio-Frequency Identification Technology  

SciTech Connect

Use of a radioactive liquid waste lagoon by medium-sized mammals and levels of tritium, other selected radionuclides, and metals in biological tissues of the animals were documented at Technical Area 53 (TA-53) of Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1997 and 1998. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegates), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) were captured at TA-53 and at a control site on the Santa Fe National Forest. Captured animals were anesthetized and marked with radio-frequency identification (RFD) tags and/or ear tags. We collected urine and hair samples for tritium and metals (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and thallium) analyses, respectively. In addition, muscle and bone samples from two rock squirrels collected from each of TA-53, perimeter, and regional background sites were tested for tritium, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and total uranium. Animals at TA-53 were monitored entering and leaving the lagoon area using a RFID monitor to read identification numbers from the RFID tags of marked animals and a separate camera system to photograph all animals passing through the monitor. Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.), rock squirrel, and raccoon were the species most frequently photographed going through the RFID monitor. Less than half of all marked animals in the lagoon area were detected using the lagoon. Male and female rock squirrels from the lagoon area had significantly higher tritium concentrations compared to rock squirrels from the control area. Metals tested were not significantly higher in rock squirrels from TA-53, although there was a trend toward increased levels of lead in some individuals at TA-53. Muscle and bone samples from squirrels in the lagoon area appeared to have higher levels of tritium, total uranium, and {sup 137}Cs than samples collected from perimeter and background locations. However, the committed effective dose equivalent estimated from the potential human consumption of the muscle and bone tissue from these rock squirrels did not suggest any human health risk. Indirect routes of tritium uptake, possibly through consumption of vegetation, are important for animals in the lagoon area.

Leslie A. Hansen; Phil R. Fresquez; Rhonda J. Robinson; John D. Huchton; Teralene S. Foxx



PoSSUM: Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project PoSSUM ( is a suborbital research project leveraging imaging and remote sensing techniques from Reusable Suborbital Launch Vehicles (rSLVs) to gather critical climate data through use of the PoSSUM Observatory and the PoSSUM Aeronomy Laboratory. An acronym for Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere, PoSSUM grew from the opportunity created by the Noctilucent Cloud Imagery and Tomography Experiment, selected by the NASA Flight Opportunities Program as Experiment 46-S in March 2012. This experiment will employ an rSLV (e.g. the XCOR Lynx Mark II) launched from a high-latitude spaceport (e.g. Eielson AFB, Alaska or Kiruna, Sweden) during a week-long deployment scheduled for July 2015 to address critical questions concerning noctilucent clouds (NLCs) through flights that transition the cloud layer where the clouds will be under direct illumination from the sun. The 2015 Project PoSSUM NLC campaign will use the unique capability of rSLVs to address key under-answered questions pertaining to NLCs. Specifically, PoSSUM will answer: 1) What are the small-scale dynamics of NLCs and what does this tell us about the energy and momentum deposition from the lower atmosphere? 2) What is the seasonal variability of NLCs, mesospheric dynamics, and temperatures? 3) Are structures observed in the OH layer coupled with NLC structures? 4) How do NLCs nucleate? and 5) What is the geometry of NLC particles and how do they stratify? Instrumentation will include video and still-frame visible cameras (PoSSUMCam), infrared cameras, a mesospheric temperatures experiment, a depolarization LiDAR, a mesospheric density and temperatures experiment (MCAT), a mesospheric winds experiment, and a meteoric smoke detector (MASS). The instrument suite used on PoSSUM will mature through subsequent campaigns to develop an integrated, modular laboratory (the ';PoSSUM Observatory') that will provide repeatable, low cost, in-situ NLC and aeronomy observations as well as validate a method to serve the broader Earth Observation science, atmospheric science, and aeronomy communities.

Reimuller, J. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Thomas, G. E.; Taylor, M. J.; Mitchell, S.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Watchorn, S. R.; Baumgarten, G.; Plane, J. M.



Ionization of large-scale absorbing haloes and feedback events from high-redshift radio galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims.We present photoionization calculations for the spatially-extended absorbers observed in front of the extended emission-line spectrum of two high-redshift radio galaxies, 0943-242 (z_e=2.922) and 0200+015 (z_e=2.230), with the aim of reproducing the absorber column ratio, N_CIV/N_HI. Methods: .We explore the effects of using different UV continua in the photoionization calculations. A comparison is made between the absorber in 0200+015 and the two absorbers observed near the lensed Lynx arc nebula at redshift 3.36, which present very similar N_CIV/N_HI ratios. Results: .We find that hot stars from a powerful starburst, or a metagalactic background radiation (mbr) in which stars dominate quasars, are equally successful in reproducing the observed N_CIV/N_HI, assuming subsolar gas metallicities for each absorber. These softer seds eliminate the difference of a factor 1000 in metallicity between the two absorbers encountered in earlier work where a power-law sed was assumed. The detection of continuum flux in 0943-242 suggests that the level of ionizing photons is consistent with a stellar ionizing source. Conclusions: .If the mbr is responsible for the ionization of the radio galaxy absorbing shells, their radii (if spherical) would be large (> 100 kpc) and their mass huge >1012 {M?}, implying that the feedback mechanism initiated by the central galaxy has caused the expulsion of more baryonic mass than that left in the radio galaxy. If, as we believe is more likely, stellar ionizing sources within the radio galaxy are responsible for the absorber's ionization, smaller radii of 25 kpc and much smaller masses ( 108 {-} 1010 {M?}) are inferred. This radius is consistent with the observed transition in radio source size between the smaller sources in which strong H i absorption is almost ubiquitous and the larger sources where it is mostly lacking. Finally, we outline further absorption-line diagnostics that could be used to further constrain the properties of the haloes and their source of ionization.

Binette, L.; Wilman, R. J.; Villar-Martín, M.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Jarvis, M. J.; Röttgering, H. J. A.



Temporal and Spatial Variation in Rainfall at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune North Carolina Using Tipping Bucket Gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) is a research-based program that is sited at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL), NC. This program provides a unique opportunity to create results of broadly scoped ecological research, that improve our understanding of the structure and function of diverse coastal ecosystems, while directly integrating this research to address the Base’s management needs for sustaining the military training mission. This presentation outlines current efforts to assess the temporal and spatial trends in rainfall amounts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems within the confines of MCBCL (~ 60,700 ha) using tipping bucket gauges (HOBO Data Logging Rain Gauge, Onset Computer Corp.). To date, 23 tipping bucket gauges have been deployed, each with their own battery operated data logger. The data loggers record the time and date for each 0.2 mm of rainfall collected, allowing delineation of rainfall amounts within and between events. Five manual rain gauges with wind screens (Model 260-2510 Standard Rain Gauge, NovaLynx Corp.) are co-located with tipping buckets across MCBCL in order to assess accuracy. Rainfall amounts on an event basis are highly linearly correlated between the tipping bucket gauges and the manual rain gauges with a slope of 0.84 +/- 0.09 (95% confidence level), suggesting a consistent ~16% negative bias using the tipping bucket gauges. Measured rainfall amounts are more variable during the warm months of the year (% coefficient of variation (CV) > 25) than during the fall and winter months (%CV < 15). Analysis using repeated measures indicates date not location is driving the observed differences, suggesting that proximity to the Atlantic Ocean along the southern boundary of MCBCL is not influencing rainfall patterns across the Base. When averaged over time periods of at least 6 months, however, the uncertainty in rainfall amount is only 13% CV, providing an estimate of uncertainty for historical rainfall records at MCBCL that are based on single point observations. Interpolated maps of rainfall deposition are being generated using thin plate spline interpolation in conjunction with semi-variograms to measure spatial autocorrelation between collectors. The resulting maps will form the basis of estimating nutrient inputs from rainfall into different aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at MCBCL.

Robarge, W. P.; Austin, R.; Baumann, K.; Cunningham, P.



Characterization of Canberra's Tomographic Gamma-Ray Can Scanner ('Can-TGS') - 13311  

SciTech Connect

The Tomographic Gamma-ray Scanner (TGS) for large volume drummed waste has been successfully commercialized by Canberra over the last several years. As part of an R and D effort to continually improve this technology, we have developed a scaled down version of the standard commercial product (Can-TGS). The Can-TGS is able to accommodate cans and pails of various sizes, ranging from sub-liter to 20 liter volumes with densities of up to 4 g/cc. The Can-TGS has three diamond-shaped collimators (6.35 mm [0.25''], 12.7 mm [0.5''], and 25.4 mm [1'']) to facilitate a range of container volumes and heights. As with the standard TGS, the Can-TGS has a transmission source sub-system, where the transmission source can be easily swapped between sources of various strengths and type. The acquisition portion of the Can-TGS is powered by the Canberra Lynx{sup R} MCA which accommodates both multi-spectral scaling (MSS) and list-mode. Recently, the Can-TGS has been successfully characterized for an 18.93 L [5-gallon] container for the 25.4 mm diamond-shaped collimator. In principle, a single measurement (with good statistics) is required for each configuration in order to characterize the system. However, for this study, measurements were performed for several different matrices. For each matrix used, 6 different measurements were acquired. For each of these measurements, the drum was rotated 60 deg. with respect to the previous starting position. This procedure was followed in order to average out any radial bias that might be produced from just a single measurement. A description of the Can-TGS system is given. The details of the recent characterization measurements and the associated data analysis and results are presented. TGS results are compared with Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) results for the same source configuration. Additionally, the future outlook for Canberra's R and D efforts with this system is discussed. These efforts include TGS algorithm optimization, improving our understanding of the uncertainties associated with TGS results, and the overall benefits and limitations of this technology as compared to other available non-destructive assay techniques. (authors)

LeBlanc, P.J.; Lagana, J.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Nakazawa, D.; Smith, S. Kane; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M.; Young, B.M. [Canberra Industries, 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries, 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)




NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These Hubble Space Telescope images pinpoint three distant supernovae, which exploded and died billions of years ago. Scientists are using these faraway light sources to estimate if the universe was expanding at a faster rate long ago and is now slowing down. Images of SN 1997cj are in the left hand column; SN 1997ce, in the middle; and SN 1997ck, on the right. All images were taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The top row of images are wider views of the supernovae. The supernovae were discovered in April 1997 in a ground-based survey at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Once the supernovae were discovered, the Hubble telescope was used to distinguish the supernovae from the light of their host galaxies. A series of Hubble telescope images were taken in May and June 1997 as the supernovae faded. Six Hubble telescope observations spanning five weeks were taken for each supernova. This time series enabled scientists to measure the brightness and create a light curve. Scientists then used the light curve to make an accurate estimate of the distances to the supernovae. Scientists combined the estimated distance with the measured velocity of the supernova's host galaxy to determine the expansion rate of the universe in the past (5 to 7 billion years ago) and compare it with the current rate. These supernovae belong to a class called Type Ia, which are considered reliable distance indicators. Looking at great distances also means looking back in time because of the finite velocity of light. SN 1997ck exploded when the universe was half its present age. It is the most distant supernova ever discovered (at a redshift of 0.97), erupting 7.7 billion years ago. The two other supernovae exploded about 5 billion years ago. SN 1997ce has a redshift of 0.44; SN 1997cj, 0.50. SN 1997ck is in the constellation Hercules, SN 1997ce is in Lynx, just north of Gemini; and SN 1997cj is in Ursa Major, near the Hubble Deep Field. Credits: Peter Garnavich, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the High-z Supernova Search Team, and NASA



A Mobile Automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning System - 13231  

SciTech Connect

Canberra Industries have recently designed and built a new automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) system for mobile deployment. The TGS technique combines high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with low spatial resolution 3-dimensional image reconstruction to provide increased accuracy over traditional approaches for the assay of non-uniform source distributions in low-to medium-density, non-heterogeneous matrices. Originally pioneered by R. Estep at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the TGS method has been further developed and commercialized by Canberra Industries in recent years. The present system advances the state of the art on several fronts: it is designed to be housed in a standard cargo transport container for ease of transport, allowing waste characterization at multiple facilities under the purview of a single operator. Conveyor feed, drum rotator, and detector and collimator positioning mechanisms operated by programmable logic control (PLC) allow automated batch mode operation. The variable geometry settings can accommodate a wide range of waste packaging, including but not limited to standard 220 liter drums, 380 liter overpack drums, and smaller 20 liter cans. A 20 mCi Eu-152 transmission source provides attenuation corrections for drum matrices up to 1 g/cm{sup 3} in TGS mode; the system can be operated in Segmented Gamma Scanning (SGS) mode to measure higher density drums. To support TGS assays at higher densities, the source shield is sufficient to house an alternate Co-60 transmission source of higher activity, up to 250 mCi. An automated shutter and attenuator assembly is provided for operating the system with a dual intensity transmission source. The system's 1500 kg capacity rotator turntable can handle heavy containers such as concrete lined 380 liter overpack drums. Finally, data acquisition utilizes Canberra's Broad Energy Germanium (BEGE) detector and Lynx MCA, with 32 k channels, providing better than 0.1 keV/channel resolution to support both isotopic analysis with the MGA/MGAU software and a wide 3 MeV dynamic range. The calibration and verification of the system is discussed, and quantitative results are presented for a variety of drum types and matrices. (authors)

Kirkpatrick, J.M.; LeBlanc, P.J.; Nakazawa, D.; Petroka, D.L.; Kane Smith, S.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M. [Canberra Industries, Inc. 800 Research Parkway, Meriden CT 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries, Inc. 800 Research Parkway, Meriden CT 06450 (United States)




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just about anywhere you look in the natural sciences you'll find a cycle of some description. From cells to individuals to populations and beyond, cyclical patterns exist on every scale. The following collection of Web sites follows on this theme: The first site (1) is an excellent, animated introduction to the cell cycle from Cells Alive! Users can also get a closer look at the stages of mitosis by following the links provided. The next site from the Center for Biological Timing contains a tutorial on chronobiology, the study of biological rhythms (2). Visitors will find a thorough overview of the human clock and related concepts, with emphasis on our 24-hour sleep-wake cycle. Speaking of internal cycles, the next site contains an interesting article from BBC News, relating how a woman's choice of men may vary in accordance with her menstrual cycle (3). The next site moves from internal to externally-evident cycles, namely the life cycle of the monarch butterfly. Monarch Watch provides a detailed description of the butterfly life cycle, from egg to larva to pupa to adult (4). Perhaps not quite as appealing as the monarch butterfly, but nevertheless intriguing, Schistosoma flatworms have a complicated life cycle involving humans and a particular group of snails. The University of California-Los Angeles Institute of the Environment offers an illustrated explanation of this highly specialized life cycle (5). The following site from Science New Online describes how global climate change is accelerating the annual life cycles of plants and animals around the world (6). On the level of population, the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County offers the familiar example of the Canada lynx and the hare -- the same example used by countless textbooks to demonstrate the cyclical nature of predator-prey dynamics (7). And finally, Georgia State University provides a nicely simplified introduction to the energy cycle in living things, focusing on the transfer of energy from the sun to plants to animals (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.


A Digital Motion Control System for Large Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and programmed a digital motion control system for large telescopes, in particular, the 6-meter antennas of the Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea. The system consists of a single robust, high-reliability microcontroller board which implements a two-axis velocity servo while monitoring and responding to critical safety parameters. Excellent tracking performance has been achieved with this system (0.3 arcsecond RMS at sidereal rate). The 24x24 centimeter four-layer printed circuit board contains a multitude of hardware devices: 40 digital inputs (for limit switches and fault indicators), 32 digital outputs (to enable/disable motor amplifiers and brakes), a quad 22-bit ADC (to read the motor tachometers), four 16-bit DACs (that provide torque signals to the motor amplifiers), a 32-LED status panel, a serial port to the LynxOS PowerPC antenna computer (RS422/460kbps), a serial port to the Palm Vx handpaddle (RS232/115kbps), and serial links to the low-resolution absolute encoders on the azimuth and elevation axes. Each section of the board employs independent ground planes and power supplies, with optical isolation on all I/O channels. The processor is an Intel 80C196KC 16-bit microcontroller running at 20MHz on an 8-bit bus. This processor executes an interrupt-driven, scheduler-based software system written in C and assembled into an EPROM with user-accessible variables stored in NVSRAM. Under normal operation, velocity update requests arrive at 100Hz from the position-loop servo process running independently on the antenna computer. A variety of telescope safety checks are performed at 279Hz including routine servicing of a 6 millisecond watchdog timer. Additional ADCs onboard the microcontroller monitor the winding temperature and current in the brushless three-phase drive motors. The PID servo gains can be dynamically changed in software. Calibration factors and software filters can be applied to the tachometer readings prior to the application of the servo gains in the torque computations. The Palm pilot handpaddle displays the complete status of the telescope and allows full local control of the drives in an intuitive, touchscreen user interface which is especially useful during reconfigurations of the antenna array.

Hunter, T. R.; Wilson, R. W.; Kimberk, R.; Leiker, P. S.



Use of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to determine proposed structures of transformation products of the herbicide bromacil after water chlorination.  


The herbicide bromacil has been extensively used in the Spanish Mediterranean region, and although plant protection products containing bromacil have been withdrawn by the European Union, this compound is still frequently detected in surface and ground water of this area. However, the fast and complete disappearance of this compound has been observed in water intended for human consumption, after it has been subjected to chlorination. There is a concern about the possible degradation products formed, since they might be present in drinking water and might be hazardous. In this work, the sensitive full-spectrum acquisition, high resolution and exact mass capabilities of hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry have allowed the discovery and proposal of structures of transformation products (TPs) of bromacil in water subjected to chlorination. Different ground water samples spiked at 0.5?µg/mL were subjected to the conventional chlorination procedure applied to drinking waters, sampling 2-mL aliquots at different time intervals (1, 10 and 30?min). The corresponding non-spiked water was used as control sample in each experiment. Afterwards, 50 ?L of the water was directly injected into an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-(Q)TOF system. The QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous recording of two acquisition functions at different collision energies (MS(E) approach): the low-energy (LE) function, fixed at 4?eV, and the high-energy (HE) function, with a collision energy ramp from 15 to 40?eV. This approach enables the simultaneous acquisition of both parent (deprotonated and protonated molecules) and fragment ions in a single injection. The low mass errors observed for the deprotonated and protonated molecules (detected in LE function) allowed the assignment of a highly probable molecular formula. Fragment ions and neutral losses were investigated in both LE and HE spectra to elucidate the structures of the TPs found. For those compounds that displayed poor fragmentation, product ion scan (MS/MS) experiments were also performed. On processing the data with specialized software (MetaboLynx), four bromacil TPs were detected and their structures were elucidated. To our knowledge, two of them had not previously been reported. PMID:21953966

Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V; Pozo, Oscar J; Hernández, Félix



Small instrument to volcanic seismic signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the presence of volcanoes represents a threat to their local populations, and for this reason, scientific communities invest resources to monitor seismic activity of an area, and to obtain information to identify risk situations. To perform such monitoring, it can use different general purpose acquisition systems commercially available, but these devices do not meet to the specifications of reduced dimensions, low weight, low power consumption and low cost. These features allow the system works in autonomous mode for a long period of time, and it makes easy to be carried and to be installed. In the line of designing a volcanic acquisition system with the previously mentioned specifications, exists the Volcanology Department of CSIC, developers of a system with some of these specifications. The objective of this work is to improve the energy consumption requirements of the previous system, providing three channels of data acquisition and with the possibility to transmit data acquisition via radio frequency to a base station, allowing operation it in remote mode. The developed acquisition system consists of three very low-power acquisition modules of Texas Instruments (ADS1246), and this is designed to capture information of the three coordinate axes. A microprocessor also of Texas Instruments (MSP430F5438) is used to work in low-power, due to it is ready to run this consumption and also takes advantage the power save mode in certain moments when system is not working. This system is configurable by serial port, and it has a SD memory to storage data. Contrast to the previous system, it has a RF communication module incorporated specially to work in remote mode of Lynx (YLX-TRM8053-025-05), and boasts also with a GPS module which keeps the time reference synchronized with module of SANAV (GM-1315LA). Thanks to this last selection of components, it is designed a small system about 106 x 106 mm. Assuming that the power supply system is working during all the time, except GPS (it works the 1.4% of time) and the RF communications (it works the 20% of time), it has been able to obtain experimental consumption data of prototype developed. That is the reason why the final power supply of system with one channel active is of 110,5mW when using the communication module. If it calculates the power supply without communication, this consumes about 71mW. The new system needs to work at 3.3V, and the calculations have made in base of that. In contrast, the previous system needs 12V, and does not use RF communications. In order to compare those two versions, is used the power supply as reference, up to 696mW in this previous system. Finally it can be concluded that the implemented electronic design has up to three channels to acquire seismic data, it has the ability to transmit these data by radio frequency to a base station, and power consumption is lower than the initial prototype. The experimental results allow providing an operating time of a year, with weight of 4,84 Kg if the equipment used li-ion batteries.

Carreras, Normandino; Gomariz, Spartacus; Manuel, Antoni



Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Hellsgate Project, 1999-2000 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was conducted on lands acquired and/or managed (4,568 acres total) by the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate project) to mitigate some of the losses associated with the original construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam and inundation of habitats behind the dams. Three separate properties, totaling 2,224 acres were purchased in 1998. One property composed of two separate parcels, mostly grassland lies southeast of the town of Nespelem in Okanogan County (770 acres) and was formerly called the Hinman property. The former Hinman property lies within an area the Tribes have set aside for the protection and preservation of the sharp-tailed grouse (Agency Butte unit). This special management area minus the Hinman acquisition contains 2,388 acres in a long-term lease with the Tribes. The second property lies just south of the Silver Creek turnoff (Ferry County) and is bisected by the Hellsgate Road (part of the Friedlander unit). This parcel contains 60 acres of riparian and conifer forest cover. The third property (now named the Sand Hills unit) acquired for mitigation (1,394 acres) lies within the Hellsgate Reserve in Ferry County. This new acquisition links two existing mitigation parcels (the old Sand Hills parcels and the Lundstrum Flat parcel, all former Kuehne purchases) together forming one large unit. HEP team members included individuals from the Colville Confederated Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department (CTCR), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The HEP team conducted a baseline habitat survey using the following HEP species models: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mink (Mustela vison), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), bobcat (Lynx rufus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus). HEP analysis and results are discussed within the body of the text. The cover types evaluated for this study were grasslands, shrub-steppe, rock, conifer forest and woodland, and riparian. These same cover types were evaluated for other Hellsgate Project acquisitions within the same geographic area. Mule deer habitat on the Sand Hills unit rated good overall for winter food and cover in the shrub-steppe and conifer woodland cover types. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat on the former Hinman property and special management area rated good for nesting and brood rearing in the grassland cover type. Mink habitat on the Friedlander parcel rated poor due to lack of food and cover in and along the riparian cover type. The Downy woodpecker rated poor for food and cover on the Friedlander parcel in the conifer forest cover type. This species also rated poor on the conifer woodland habitat on the Hinman parcel. Yellow warbler habitat on the Agency Butte Special Management area rated very poor due to lack of shrubs for cover and reproduction around the scattered semi/permanent ponds that occur on the area. Bobcat habitat on this same area rated poor due to lack of cover and food. Fragmentation of existing quality habitat is also a problem for both these species. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation and managed lands, and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, this information will be used to manage these lands for the benefit of wildlife.

Berger, Matthew



Restrictions to cross-species transmission of lentiviral infection gleaned from studies of FIV.  


More than 40 species of primates and over 20 species of cats harbor antibodies that sero-react to lentiviral antigens. In nearly all cases where viral genetic analysis has been conducted, each host species is infected with a unique lentivirus. Though lentivirus clades within a species can be substantially divergent, they are typically monophyletic within that species. A notable significant departure from this observation is apparent cross-species transmission of FIV between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in Southern California that has occurred at least three times; evidence from one bobcat sequence suggests this cross-over may have also occurred in Florida between bobcats and the endangered Florida panther. Several other isolated reports demonstrate cross-species transmission of FIV isolates among captive animals housed in close proximity, and it is well established that HIV-1 and HIV-2 arose from human contact with SIV-infected non-human primates. Using an experimental model, we have determined that domestic cats (Felis catus) are susceptible to FIVs originating from pumas or lions. While infections are initially replicative, and animals seroconvert, within a relatively short period of time circulating virus is reduced to nearly undetectable levels in a majority of animals. This diminution of viral load is proportional to initial viral peak. Although viral reservoirs can be identified in gastrointestinal tissues, most viral genomes recovered peripherally are highly mutated, suggesting that the non-adapted host successfully inhibits normal viral replication, leading to replication incompetent viral progeny. Mechanisms possible for such restriction of cross-species infections in natural settings include: (1) Lack of contact conducive to lentiviral transmission between infected and shedding animals of different species; (2) Lack of suitable receptor repertoire to allow viral entry to susceptible cells of a new species; (3) Cellular machinery in the new host sufficiently divergent from the primary host to support viral replication (i.e. passive unfacilitated viral replication); (4) Intracellular restriction mechanisms present in the new host that is able to limit viral replication (i.e. active interrupted viral replication. These include factors that limit uncoating, replication, packaging, and virion release); (5) Unique ability of new host to raise sterilizing adaptive immunity, resulting in aborted infection and inability to spread infections among con-specifics; or (6) Production of defective or non-infectious viral progeny that lack cellular cofactors to render them infectious to con-specifics (i.e. particles lacking appropriate cellular components in viral Env to render them infectious to other animals of the same species). Data to support or refute the relative importance of each of these possibilities is described in this review. Insights based on our in vivo cross-species model suggest intracellular restriction mechanisms effectively inhibit rapid inter-specific transmission of lentiviruses. Further, limited contact both within and between species in natural populations is highly relevant to limiting the opportunity for spread of FIV strains. Studies of naturally occurring SIV and innate host restriction systems suggest these same two mechanisms are significant factors inhibiting widespread cross-species transmission of lentiviruses among primate species as well. PMID:19896218

VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Jennifer; Poss, Mary



Catalogues from a deep 327 MHz Westerbork Survey (Wieringa 1991,1993)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a deep survey of six fields with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope at 327 MHz. In total we have detected ~4500 sources brighter than our 5-sigma noise level, which ranges from 2.4-3.5 mJy/beam, over an area of ~95 square degrees. For four fields we also obtained 608 MHz observations, for the remaining two fields 608 MHz observations were already available. We present the source catalogues at both frequencies and derive source counts and spectral indices. The data were calibrated using the DWARF redundancy package and absolute calibration is based on 3C286, using a flux of 26.93 Jy at 327 Mhz and 21.47 Jy at 608 MHz. The source parameters were determined using a gaussian fitting procedure for all but the most complex sources and statistical corrections for noise bias were applied. As part of my PhD-thesis at Leiden Observatory I made the following surveys at 327 and 608 MHz using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope: ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - 64W2: Lynx, 327 MHz only (this field has been mapped at this frequency before by M.J.A. Oort (thesis), I've added a 2 after the W to indicate the revised list), numbers do not correspond because the present survey is more sensitive. 69W : Draco, a survey of 2 overlapping fields at 327 MHz and 6 fields at 608 MHz. 70W : Umi, 327 MHz only, one field. 75W : OH471, one 327 MHz field and three 608 MHz fields 76W : Cam, one 327 MHz field and three 608 MHz fields ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Sources detected at both frequencies have corresponding numbers in the 327 MHz (92cm) and 608 MHz (50cm) lists. Multiple sources are indicated by a '*' after the name, their components by 'A','B', etc. Components of multiple sources do not necessarily correspond between the two frequencies, also in some cases one or more components may not be detected at the other frequency. The .tex files are in plain TeX format The .dat files were written with the following format (fortran): FORMAT(A8,1X,F9.2,1X,F4.2,1X,F9.1,1X,F4.1,1X,F8.2,1X,F7.2,1X,A2, 1 1X,F5.1,1X,F4.1,1X,F4.0,1X,F3.0,1X,F5.1,1X,F5.2,1X,F7.2, 1 1X,F5.2,1X,F5.2) (8 data files).

Wieringa, M. H.



Palmetto Academy: Undergraduates Exploring and Communicating the Multidisciplinary Nature of STEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the pillars of the US economy is a well-trained Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) workforce (National Academy of Sciences, 2007). The number of students choosing to study science and engineering has taken a dramatic decline. The percentage of those degrees conferred in SC was substantially lower than the national average and the percentage of those occupations within the SC workforce also falls below the national average, supporting the need for engaging and educational STEM programs. The NASA South Carolina Space Grant Consortium's Palmetto Research Academy (PRA) program is an immersive and integrated multidisciplinary exposure and training for undergraduate students with various backgrounds and career aspirations of critical importance to the Nation. This program offers exciting and inspiring hands-on research experiences that are aligned with NASA missions. The PRA advances NASA's research interest in areas such as aeronautics, biomedical science, sun-earth connections, planetary and Earth science. The PRA helps to develop the STEM workforce in STEM disciplines, a necessity in South Carolina. In addition, the PRA incorporates an education/outreach component, where the students engage secondary educators and students in NASA scientific and technical expertise. In 2012, the PRA had 10 research projects across the state in disciplines of mechanical and chemical engineering, bioengineering, chemistry, biogeooptical sciences, physics and astronomy and biomedical sciences. 18 undergraduates and 2 technical college students participated in authentic hands-on research mentored by leading scientists and engineers throughout the state. Examples projects include: A) Development of a series of astronomical telescopes to be mounted on a commercial human-tended suborbital rockets. The students built the instrument, including the power system and the mechanical interface, and performed function and fit testing on the XCOR Aerospace Lynx vehicle mock-up. B) Mechanical modeling and statistical analysis to understand effects of radiation exposure on the joints of astronauts. The students characterized the effect of radiation on porcine cartilage biomechanics and biosynthesis through nano and microscale soft tissue mechanical testing, histological staining, and tissue biological assay techniques. C) Spectroscopy and derivation of water quality parameters from satellite visible/near-infrared (VIR) spectral radiometry. The student analyzed data, which provided frequent spatial information critical to the understanding of biogeochemical processes of interest to climate studies. The student conducted an intensive sampling campaign aboard a research vessel measuring biogeooptical properties and developed bio-optical models using NASA's MODIS sensor aboard the Aqua satellite to characterize water quality parameters (phytoplankton, suspended sediment, and dissolved organic matter). The student outreach project centered around the NASA Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover. The PRA interns organized an event with several general astronomy and Mars/Curiosity planetarium shows, space-related games, and a viewing of the landing for over 50 elementary-middle school students, their parents, and numerous undergraduates. The results and the opportunities provided by PRA will be discussed.

Hall, C.; Ali, A.; Runyon, C. J.; Colgan, M. W.



Deformation Monitoring of Motorway Underpasses Using Laser Scanning Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motorway Ourense - Celanova will become the next years in one of the main roads of inland Galicia (northwest region of Spain) that will connect quickly with the cities of Northern Portugal. This highway is projected as a public - private partnership between the regional government of Xunta de Galicia and the construction companies Copasa SA and Extraco SA. There are currently under construction the 19 km of this road and presents a number of structures as viaducts, overpasses and underpasses. The viaducts are part of the main road, allowing passage of the vehicles at conventional speed. Overpasses are mainly used in the connection of the highway with secondary roads. Moreover, the underpasses are better suited for the passage of wildlife animals, persons or agricultural machinery. The underpass arch-shape structures used for this project consist of two reinforced concrete voussoirs placed on two small concrete walls. For each set of voussoirs there are three joining points, two between the walls and the voussoirs and one between the both voussoirs at the top of the structure. These underpasses suffer significant mechanical stress during construction, because during the backfilling process asymmetric loads are applied to both sides. Thus, it is very important the monitoring of the structure using geodetic techniques as total stations, levels or laser scanners The underpass selected for this study is located at the kilometric point 4.9 of the highway, with a total length of 50.38 m, maximum span of 13.30 m and rise of 7.23 m. Voussoirs has a thickness of 0.35 m and a length of 2.52 m. The small lateral walls exhibit a height of 2.35 m and thickness of 0.85 m. The underpass presents a slope of approximately 4 % and the maximum height of the backfill over the top of the structure is 3.80 m. The foundation consists of a concrete slab arch-shape (curvature opposite the main arch) with a thickness of 0.7 m. The geodetic technology used for the deformation monitoring is a Optech Lynx mobile LiDAR. This laser scanner is based on time of flight technology and presents an accuracy of 6 mm in the determination of the geometrical coordinates. This accuracy can be improved to around 1 mm using fitting post-processing techniques and makes this technology very useful for studies related with deformation monitoring. The laser scanner, in comparison with other geodetic techniques as total stations, allows the control of all the structure, including unexpected deformations. Reflective targets are permanently positioned over the small walls of the structure to allow the 3D orientation of the different scans. Two main scans are made for this study, before and after the backfilling process. Backfilling takes about 10 days for the construction companies. The scans need a time of approximately 12 minutes. Construction works do not need to be interrupted during the scans. Point clouds are then post-processed using QT Modeler Software. First, the point cloud is cleaned to use only the data directly related with the structure under study. Then, using the target coordinates, both point clouds are moved to the same coordinate system. Finally, the deformation of the underpass is studied using two algorithms specifically developed using Matlab software. First algorithm fits a geometrical surface to the point cloud of the first scan and evaluates the residuals of both scans for this fitting surface. Differences in the residuals give the deformation map of the structure. Second algorithm takes a portion of the point cloud from the top of the structure, where it is located the joining point between the voussoirs. The joining between two voussoirs shows a height step that in an ideal case must tend to zero. Deformations produced by the loading of the structure are measured as a comparison between the steps before and after the backfilling process. The analysis of the results show as some deformation occurs in the structure in the joining point of the voussoirs ranging between 1 mm and 5 mm. These deformations are under the tolerances predicted by the

Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.



Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)  

SciTech Connect

During a long-term study on tortoise growth within 3 fenced 9-ha enclosures in Rock Valley, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, USA, tortoises have been captured annually since 1964 (Medica et al. 1975. Copeia 1975:630-643; Turner et al. 1987. Copeia 1987:974-979). Between early August and mid October 2003 we observed a significant mortality event. The Rock Valley enclosures were constructed of 6 x 6 mm mesh 1.2 m wide hardware cloth, buried 0.3 m in the soil with deflective flashing on both sides on the top to restrict the movement of small mammals and lizards from entering or leaving the enclosures (Rundel and Gibson 1996, Ecological communities and process in a Mojave Desert ecosystem: Rock Valley, Nevada, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. 369 pp.). On August 6, 2003, the carcass of an adult female Desert Tortoise No.1411 (carapace length 234 mm when alive) was collected while adult male tortoise No.4414 (carapace length 269 mm) was observed alive and in good health on the same day. Subsequently the carcass of No.4414 was found on October 16, 2003. Between October 16-17, 2003, the remains of 6 (5 adult and 1 juvenile) Desert Tortoises were found, some within each of the 3 enclosures in Rock Valley. A seventh adult tortoise was found on September 26, 2006, its death also attributed to the 2003 mortality event based upon the forensic evidence. Each of the 7 adult Desert Tortoises had the central portion of their carapace broken open approximately to the dorsal portion of the marginal scutes while the plastron was still intact (Figure 1A). Adjacent to 7 of the 8 remains we located numerous bone fragments including parts of the carapace and limbs as well as dried intestines in a nearby Range Rhatany (Krameria parvifolia) shrub. The significance of the frequent use of this shrub is puzzling. Three of the Desert Tortoise shell remains possessed distinctive intercanine punctures measuring 55-60 mm center to center indicating that this was an adult sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm.; Medica 1990. Great Basin Nat. 50:83-84), while Coyotes (Canis latrans) were never observed within th

Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica



The Quiet Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very weak and 'soft' [1], very different from a gamma-ray burst and more in line with what is expected from a normal supernova." So, after the supernova was discovered, the team rapidly observed it from the Asiago Observatory in Northern Italy and established that it was a Type Ic supernova. "These are supernovae produced by stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium-rich outermost layers before exploding, and are the only type of supernovae which are associated with (long) gamma-ray bursts," explains Mazzali. "The object thus became even more interesting!" Earlier this year, an independent team of astronomers reported in the journal Nature that SN 2008D is a rather normal supernova. The fact that X-rays were detected was, they said, because for the first time, astronomers were lucky enough to catch the star in the act of exploding. Mazzali and his team think otherwise. "Our observations and modeling show this to be a rather unusual event, to be better understood in terms of an object lying at the boundary between normal supernovae and gamma-ray bursts." The team set up an observational campaign to monitor the evolution of the supernova using both ESO and national telescopes, collecting a large quantity of data. The early behaviour of the supernova indicated that it was a highly energetic event, although not quite as powerful as a gamma-ray burst. After a few days, however, the spectra of the supernova began to change. In particular Helium lines appeared, showing that the progenitor star was not stripped as deeply as supernovae associated with gamma-ray bursts. Over the years, Mazzali and his group have developed theoretical models to analyse the properties of supernovae. When applied to SN2008D, their models indicated that the progenitor star was at birth as massive as 30 times the Sun, but had lost so much mass that at the time of the explosion the star had a mass of only 8-10 solar masses. The likely result of the collapse of such a massive star is a black hole. "Since the masses and energies involved ar