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1

Survival rates and causes of mortality in Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) in multi-use landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes of mortality were described for 245 radio-marked Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in five different Scandinavian study areas. Furthermore, the survival rates and the population growth rates were estimated for three of the study areas where 202 lynx were followed for a total of 314 radio-years. The main causes of mortality in adult Eurasian lynx in all our study areas

Henrik Andrén; John D. C. Linnell; Olof Liberg; Reidar Andersen; Anna Danell; Jens Karlsson; John Odden; P aû l F. Moa; Per Ahlqvist; Tor Kvam; Robert Franzén; Peter Segerström

2006-01-01

2

Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.  

PubMed

We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ? 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection. PMID:23778601

Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

2013-07-01

3

New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

2006-01-01

4

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.  

PubMed

Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

2013-01-25

5

Collection of field reproductive data from carcasses of the female Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Information about reproductive physiology in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) would generate knowledge that could be useful in the management of the Swedish lynx population based on the knowledge about their reproductive potential and population development. Age-related differences in ovulation and implantation rates would affect the reproductive output and the development of the population. The aims of this study were to evaluate a protocol for collection of reproductive data from carcasses by comparisons with published field data and to generate data about reproduction in the Swedish lynx. Reproductive organs from 120 females that were harvested between March 1 and April 9 from 2009 to 2011 were collected and evaluated macroscopically for placental scars. Females had their first estrus as yearlings but did not have their first litter until the next season. Pregnancy rates were lower in 2-year-old females than in females aged 3 to 7 years but did not differ significantly from females aged 8 to 13 years (54.5%, 95.6%, and 75.0%, respectively). CL from the present season were morphologically distinctly different from luteal bodies from previous cycles (LBPC). All females ?3 years had macroscopically visible LBPC, whereas only 67% of 22 to 23 months old females had one to three LBPC and no females <1 year of age had LBPC. Females aged 34 to 35 months had up to eight LPBC, whereas the highest number of LBPC counted in females ?3 years of age was 11. These data would be in agreement with only one estrus per season and LBPC from at least three previous reproductive seasons in older females. The number of LBPC was significantly correlated with the weight of the ovaries rs = 0.648, P < 0.001) and the age of the animals (rs = 0.572, P < 0.001). Uterine weight differed significantly with the stage of the reproductive cycle and was highest for mature females in the luteal phase of the cycle. The estrous period, defined as occurrence of ovarian follicles lasted from March 5 to April 1 in this material. In conclusion, this study confirms that useful information about lynx reproduction can be collected from reproductive organs retrieved after the death of the animals. Continuous monitoring of lynx reproductive organs would therefore make a valuable contribution to collection of field data, gathering information that can be useful for the management of lynx populations and potentially for the lynx as an indicator of environmental disturbances. PMID:23987987

Axnér, E; Payan-Carreira, R; Setterlind, P; Asbrink, J; Söderberg, A

2013-08-27

6

Occurrence of Thelazia callipaeda and Toxocara cati in an imported European lynx (Lynx lynx) in Japan.  

PubMed

A necropsy was performed on an adult European lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), held in captivity until its death, to determine level of parasitism. Examination of the eyes revealed the oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda, in the conjunctival sac and the third eyelid of both eyes. The species was confirmed by location and morphology. Intact worms were fixed, mounted, and identified. Examination of the alimentary tract revealed the common ascaroid nematode, Toxocara cati. Species was confirmed by the arrow-like anterior end. One hundred and forty-one adult worms were collected. The presence of these nematodes indicated the importance of eliminating the contact of zoo animals with Amiota spp. vectors and to prevent contamination with the infective T. cati eggs. PMID:23082531

El-Dakhly, Khaled; Abo El-Hadid, Shawky; Shimizu, Hirofumi; El-Nahass, Shaymaa; Murai, Atsuko; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

2012-09-01

7

Exposure to disease agents in the endangered Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid species in the world. Lynx populations have decreased dramatically in size and distribution\\u000a in the last four decades, thus becoming increasingly vulnerable to catastrophic events such as epizooties. From 1989 to 2000,\\u000a serum samples were obtained from 48 free-ranging lynx captured in the Doñana National Park (DNP, n?=?31) and mountains

Melody E. Roelke; Warren E. Johnson; Javier Millán; Francisco Palomares; Eloy Revilla; Alejandro Rodríguez; Javier Calzada; Pablo Ferreras; Luis León-Vizcaíno; Miguel Delibes; Stephen J. O’Brien

2008-01-01

8

Status survey of the critically endangered Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the Iberian lynx was conducted in Portugal between January 2002 and November 2003 in order to define lynx status\\u000a and distribution baselines. Intensive search for lynx scats, scat DNA analysis, and camera trapping were used in areas of\\u000a potential lynx presence. Over 4,200 km were investigated during a global searching effort of 1,975 man-hours. DNA obtained\\u000a from 168

Pedro Sarmento; Joana Cruz; Pedro Monterroso; Pedro Tarroso; Catarina Ferreira; Nuno Negrões; Catarina Eira

2009-01-01

9

Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hard; Morner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2011-01-01

10

The selection of breeding dens by the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus): implications for its conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the preferences shown by Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) for structures and sites for denning in Donana National Park. Lynx proved to be highly selective regarding the features of the natural structures selected, but their preferences concerning the characteristics of the habitat for the denning sites were not so evident. All located litters were born inside hollow trunks with

Nestor Fernandez; Francisco Palomares

2000-01-01

11

Bregmatic bones in North American lynx.  

PubMed

Anomalous bregmatic fontanelle bones were present in 279 of 1790 skulls of Lynx rufus examined, but with no apparent correlation with age, sex, or place of origin of the specimens. Examination of 472 skulls of Lynx canadensis disclosed only one possessing bregmatic bones. PMID:14420785

MANVILLE, R H

1959-11-01

12

Feline Leukemia Virus and Other Pathogens as Important Threats to the Survival of the Critically Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. Methodology\\/ Principal Findings: We systematically analyzed the prevalence

Marina L. Meli; Valentino Cattori; Fernando Martínez; Guillermo López; Astrid Vargas; Miguel A. Simón; Irene Zorrilla; Alvaro Muñoz; Francisco Palomares; Jose V. López-Bao; Josep Pastor; Ravi Tandon; Barbara Willi; Regina Hofmann-Lehmann; Hans Lutz

2009-01-01

13

Bovine tuberculosis and the endangered Iberian lynx.  

PubMed Central

We report the first case of bovine tuberculosis in a free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), an extremely endangered feline, from Doñana National Park in Spain. The isolate (Mycobacterium bovis) correlates by molecular characterization with other isolates from wild ungulates in the park, strongly suggesting an epidemiologic link. Mycobacterium bovis infects many animal species, with wild and free-ranging domestic ungulates being the main reservoirs in nature (1).

Briones, V.; de Juan, L.; Sanchez, C.; Vela, A. I.; Galka, M.; Montero; Goyache, J.; Aranaz, A.; Dominguez, L.

2000-01-01

14

Population regulation in snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx: Asymmetric food web configurations between hare and lynx  

PubMed Central

The snowshoe hare and the Canadian lynx in the boreal forests of North America show 9- to 11-year density cycles. These are generally assumed to be linked to each other because lynx are specialist predators on hares. Based on time series data for hare and lynx, we show that the dominant dimensional structure of the hare series appears to be three whereas that of the lynx is two. The three-dimensional structure of the hare time series is hypothesized to be due to a three-trophic level model in which the hare may be seen as simultaneously regulated from below and above. The plant species in the hare diet appear compensatory to one another, and the predator species may, likewise, be seen as an internally compensatory guild. The lynx time series are, in contrast, consistent with a model of donor control in which their populations are regulated from below by prey availability. Thus our analysis suggests that the classic view of a symmetric hare–lynx interaction is too simplistic. Specifically, we argue that the classic food chain structure is inappropriate: the hare is influenced by many predators other than the lynx, and the lynx is primarily influenced by the snowshoe hare.

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Falck, Wilhelm; Bj?rnstad, Ottar N.; Krebs, Charles J.

1997-01-01

15

Competitive Asymmetries in the Use of Supplementary Food by the Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAs a conservation tool, supplementary feeding programs may be directed to specific individuals or sectors of the target population whose productivity or survival is thought to be limited by food scarcity. However, the use of supplemental food by different sex and age classes has received little attention. We studied individual variation in the access of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx

José V. López-Bao; Alejandro Rodríguez; Francisco Palomares; Michael Somers

2009-01-01

16

Parvovirus infection in a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and in a European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris).  

PubMed

A Eurasian lynx and a European wildcat from the same wildlife park were submitted for necropsy examination after sudden death and after death following a clinical history of lethargy, respectively. Neither animal had been vaccinated against feline parvovirus (feline panleukopenia virus). Feral domestic cats were widespread in the area of the wildlife park and a number of these animals that had been captured had recently died from parvovirus infection. Gross and microscopical findings in the two non-domestic felids were consistent with feline parvovirus infection and this was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The introduction of feline parvovirus into captive non-domestic felid populations could pose a threat to their health and survival. Vaccination of captive non-domestic felids is therefore recommended. PMID:19135211

Wasieri, J; Schmiedeknecht, G; Förster, C; König, M; Reinacher, M

2009-01-08

17

Feline Leukemia Virus and Other Pathogens as Important Threats to the Survival of the Critically Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated.Methodology\\/ Principal FindingsWe systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of

Marina L. Meli; Valentino Cattori; Fernando Martínez; Guillermo López; Astrid Vargas; Miguel A. Simón; Irene Zorrilla; Alvaro Muñoz; Francisco Palomares; Jose V. López-Bao; Josep Pastor; Ravi Tandon; Barbara Willi; Regina Hofmann-Lehmann; Hans Lutz; Philip G. Stevenson

2009-01-01

18

An Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one of the worldÃÂs most endangered cat species.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a carnivorous mammal that was once common on the Iberian Peninsula, where its preferred habitat is scrub vegetation and Mediterranean woodland. The species declined dramatically during the 20th century, and despite efforts to conserve the species, only two isolated populations are known to exist. Thus, it is among the worldÃÂs most endangered cats. Ecological modeling may be very useful in situations where the ecological information needed to plan for the recovery and conservation of rare species is lacking. Efforts to model the habitat selection and conservation requirements of the Iberian lynx have included use of molecular detection techniques to identify lynx scat samples. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (16:3) in June of 2006.

Sabater, Antonia

2010-02-11

19

Spatiotemporal dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western Québec, Canada.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, one of the more common zoonotic parasites in the world, can cause serious illness in humans and other animals worldwide. Felids are the only known host that can shed T. gondii oocysts, which are essential to the perpetuation of the parasite. In much of boreal Canada, the Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) is the only wild felid host that could contribute to environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. We estimated the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in Canadian lynx from western Québec and compared our results with earlier findings in the same region 12 yr earlier. We investigated factors associated with seroconversion, including age, sex, geographic location, and possible co-occurrence with domestic cats (Felis catus), and we assessed the proportion of lynx shedding T. gondii oocysts. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 84 lynx harvested by trappers in the eastern part of the study area during winter 2009-2010. Sera were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer 1:50) and fecal samples for parasite eggs by fecal flotation. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in sera of 14% of 84 lynx. Numerous helminth ova and coccidian oocysts were found in feces, whereas T. gondii-like oocysts were not detected. Antibody prevalence increased with age class (odds ratio [OR]=4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.57-11.99, P<0.01). Antibody prevalence (14%) in our study was significantly lower than in 84 lynx (36%) trapped in the western part of the study area during winter 1997-1998 (OR=0.18, 95% CI=0.08-0.44, P<0.001). Our results suggest there may be significant spatiotemporal dynamics of T. gondii infection in lynx in Canada, and we review possible abiotic and biotic ecologic factors supporting these findings. PMID:23307370

Simon, Audrey; Bigras Poulin, Michel; Rousseau, Alain N; Dubey, Jitender P; Ogden, Nicholas H

2013-01-01

20

Factors conditioning the camera-trapping efficiency for the Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camera trapping is the most used method for surveying medium-sized carnivores in Spain. The main target for these surveys\\u000a has been the Iberian lynx, the most endangered cat in the world. The Iberian lynx conservation program has received the largest\\u000a EU LIFE projects grant. So, efficiency is a key goal for managing this grant. During 2003 and 2007, we have

Francisco Guil; Sandra Agudín; Nuria El-Khadir; Mariana Fernandez-Olalla; Juan Figueredo; Francisco G. Domínguez; Paloma Garzon; Gregorio Gonzalez; Jaime Muñoz-Igualada; Javier Oria; Fernando Silvestre

2010-01-01

21

Ectoparasites of the endangered Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus and sympatric wild and domestic carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

Ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. We surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 Iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes Vulpes vulpes, 24 Egyptian mongooses Herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets Genetta genetta, two Eurasian badgers Meles meles, one polecat Mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging carnivores (46 cats Felis catus, 29 dogs Canis familiaris) from June 2004 to June 2006 in the two areas where the last lynx metapopulations survive: Sierra Morena and Doñana (Andalusia, southern Spain). A total of 65% of lynxes were parasitized (50% by ticks, 19% by fleas, 4% by lice, 31% by hippoboscid flies), as were 75% of foxes (58%, 60%, 0%, 19%), 71% of mongooses (50%, 4%, 46%, 0%), 54% of genets (18%, 36%, 0%, 0%), 30% of cats (22%, 14%, 0%, 2%), and 7% of dogs (surveyed only for ticks). Both badgers presented ticks, fleas and lice. Five species of ixodid ticks (Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev and Matikashvili, Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), Ixodes hexagonus Leach and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado; and Hyalomma sp.), four species of fleas (Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans Linnaeus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale), Xenopsylla cunicularis Smit), three species of chewing lice (Felicola (Felicola) inequalis (Piaget), Trichodectes (Trichodectes) melis (Fabricius), and Felicola (Lorisicola) isidoroi Pérez and Palma), and one species of hippoboscid fly (Hippobosca longipennis (Fabricius)) were found. We did not detect any cases of mange. Hippobosca longipennis is a new record for Spanish wildlife, and all the flea species are new records for the Iberian lynx. Fleas were more frequent on lynxes and foxes in winter than in spring. Rhipicephalus spp. were more frequent on cats in spring than in any other season. These and other epidemiological findings are discussed with respect to the conservation of the Iberian lynx. PMID:17897365

Millán, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Márquez, F J; Viota, M; López-Bao, J V; Paz Martín-Mateo, M

2007-09-01

22

Coprological study on helminth fauna in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest in eastern Poland.  

PubMed

One hundred fecal samples were collected during research on Eurasian lynx ecology and food habits in the Polish part of the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest (BPF) from 2001 to 2006. Seventy-three percent of samples contained eggs or larvae of helminths. A total of 10 species of helminths was identified, including 3 Cestoda (Diphyllobothrium latum, Spirometra janickii, and unidentified species of Taeniidae), 1 Trematoda (Alaria alata), and 6 Nematoda (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Eucoleus aerophilus, Metastrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., and Toxocara cati). Alaria alata has not been reported previously in lynx. A statistical comparison of the 2 techniques used to isolate eggs, i.e., flotation and sedimentation, indicates that sedimentation was more effective. PMID:18576790

Szczesna, J; Popio?ek, M; Schmidt, K; Kowalczyk, R

2008-08-01

23

Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.  

PubMed

The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global warming in hare-lynx system. PMID:23846828

Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

2013-09-11

24

Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on the causes of animal dispersal focus on species of birds or small mammals, but there are few such studies on solitary carnivores. A complete picture of the causes of animal dispersal is not possible without considering cases on a representative set of animals. The Iberian lynx is a medium-size, solitary carnivore that inhabits metapopulations, where dispersal plays

Pablo Ferreras; Eloy Revilla; Francisco Palomares; José M. Fedriani; Javier Calzada

2004-01-01

25

ATTITUDES OF AUSTRIAN HUNTERS AND VIENNA RESIDENTSTOWARD BEAR AND LYNX IN AUSTRIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed 3 aspects of the human dimension of large carnivore conservation in Austria. We examined hunter ranking of wildlife species and suggest that while hunters still remain negative to brown bears (Ursus arctos) and lynx (Lynx lynx), there are differences between those who live in provinces with a longer tradition of living with bears and lynx and those who

H. ZEILER; Peter Jordan; A. ZEDROSSER; A. BATH

26

Movement pattern and home range use by the Eurasian lynx in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement patterns of free-living lynx, Lynx lynx, were studied by radio- telemetry in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Eighteen lynx were fitted with radio-collars and their movements were recorded by continuous 24-h sequences and daily relocations. On average, lynx moved 7.2 km per day, and males covered longer distances than females (9.0 and 6.8 km, respectively). In males, the daily

Wlodzimierz Jedrzejewski; Krzysztof Schmidt; Henryk Okarma; Rafal Kowalczyk

27

Snow conditions may create an invisible barrier for lynx  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) abundance are geographically structured according to the influence of large-scale climatic regimes. Here we demonstrate that this structuring matches zones of differential snow conditions, in particular surface hardness, as determined by the frequency of winter warm spells. Through a modified functional response curve, we show that various features of the snow may influence lynx interaction with its main prey species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). This study highlights the importance of snow, and exemplifies how large-scale climatic fluctuations can mechanistically influence population biological patterns.

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Shabbar, Amir; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Ehrich, Dorothee; Hurrell, James W.; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

2004-01-01

28

Snow conditions may create an invisible barrier for lynx.  

PubMed

The dynamics of Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) abundance are geographically structured according to the influence of large-scale climatic regimes. Here we demonstrate that this structuring matches zones of differential snow conditions, in particular surface hardness, as determined by the frequency of winter warm spells. Through a modified functional response curve, we show that various features of the snow may influence lynx interaction with its main prey species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). This study highlights the importance of snow, and exemplifies how large-scale climatic fluctuations can mechanistically influence population biological patterns. PMID:15249676

Stenseth, Nils Chr; Shabbar, Amir; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Ehrich, Dorothee; Hurrell, James W; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

2004-07-12

29

Lynx management in Latvia: population control or sport hunting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the harvesting manner of lynx population in Latvia. Samples from hunting bags compose the main material used for analysis. From 1998 to 2005 a total of 178 lynxes were in- vestigated for sex, absolute age, female fertility, and fecundity. The sample consisted of 33.7% juve- niles, 12.4% yearlings and 53.9% adults. The sex ratio did not deviate

ALDA PUPILA; GUNA BAGRADE

30

Enhancement in Motor Learning through Genetic Manipulation of the Lynx1 Gene  

PubMed Central

The cholinergic system is a neuromodulatory neurotransmitter system involved in a variety of brain processes, including learning and memory, attention, and motor processes, among others. The influence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the cholinergic system are moderated by lynx proteins, which are GPI-anchored membrane proteins forming tight associations with nicotinic receptors. Previous studies indicate lynx1 inhibits nicotinic receptor function and limits neuronal plasticity. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of lynx1 on nicotinic receptor function, through the generation of lynx mouse models, expressing a soluble version of lynx and comparing results to the full length overexpression. Using rotarod as a test for motor learning, we found that expressing a secreted variant of lynx leads to motor learning enhancements whereas overexpression of full-length lynx had no effect. Further, adult lynx1KO mice demonstrated comparable motor learning enhancements as the soluble transgenic lines, whereas previously, aged lynx1KO mice showed performance augmentation only with nicotine treatment. From this we conclude the motor learning is more sensitive to loss of lynx function, and that the GPI anchor plays a role in the normal function of the lynx protein. In addition, our data suggests that the lynx gene plays a modulatory role in the brain during aging, and that a soluble version of lynx has potential as a tool for adjusting cholinergic-dependent plasticity and learning mechanisms in the brain.

Miwa, Julie M.; Walz, Andreas

2012-01-01

31

American Marten, Fisher, Lynx, and Wolverine: Survey Methods for Their Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of the American marten (Martes americana), fisher (Martes pennanti), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and wolverine (Gulo gulo) is of increasing concern to managers and conservationists in much of the western United States. This report describes methods...

W. J. Zielinski T. E. Kucera

1995-01-01

32

Spatial interactions between grey wolves and Eurasian lynx in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various species of large predators are reported to influence each other through interference or exploitation competition that\\u000a may affect demography and survival of the subordinate species. We analyzed spatial relationships between grey wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF, eastern Poland) to determine how they partitioned the space. The wolves (n = 8) and lynx (n = 14)

Krzysztof Schmidt; W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Henryk Okarma; Rafa? Kowalczyk

2009-01-01

33

Iberian Lynx in a Fragmented Landscape: Predispersal, Dispersal, and Postdispersal Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applied conservation biology must provide solutions for the conservation of species in modern landscapes, where prime habitats are being continuously fragmented and altered and animals are restricted to small, nonviable populations. We studied habitat selection in a fragmented population of endangered Ibe- rian lynx ( Lynx pardinus ) by examining 14 years of radiotracking data obtained from lynx trapped in

F. Palomares; M. Delibes; P. Ferreras; J. M. Fedriani; J. Calzada; E. Revilla

2000-01-01

34

What shapes Eurasian lynx distribution in human dominated landscapes: selecting prey or avoiding people?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the multi-use landscape of southern Norway, the distribution of lynx is likely to be determined both by the abundance of their favoured prey the roe deer and the risk associated with the presence of humans because most lynx mortalities are caused by humans (recreational harvest, poaching, vehicle collisions). We described the distribution of the reproductive portion of the lynx

Mathieu Basille; Ivar Herfindal; Hugues Santin-Janin; John D. C. Linnell; John Odden; Reidar Andersen; Kjell Arild Høgda; Jean-Michel Gaillard

2009-01-01

35

From patterns to processes: Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle  

PubMed Central

Across the boreal forest of North America, lynx populations undergo 10-year cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 to the present demonstrates that these fluctuations are generated by nonlinear processes with regulatory delays. Trophic interactions between lynx and hares cause delayed density-dependent regulation of lynx population growth. The nonlinearity, in contrast, appears to arise from phase dependencies in hunting success by lynx through the cycle. Using a combined approach of empirical, statistical, and mathematical modeling, we highlight how shifts in trophic interactions between the lynx and the hare generate the nonlinear process primarily by shifting functional response curves during the increase and the decrease phases.

Stenseth, Nils C.; Falck, Wilhelm; Chan, Kung-Sik; Bj?rnstad, Ottar N.; O'Donoghue, Mark; Tong, Howell; Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan; Krebs, Charles J.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.

1998-01-01

36

Nuutuuyiglu Tuttuglu (The Lynx and the Two Caribou).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second grade elementary language text, designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in Ambler, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik, and Shungnak, contains a story about a lynx who tries to kill two caribou at one time but who is himself killed. Each page of text is illustrated with a black-and-white drawing. The English equivalent is given…

Pope, Mary L.; And Others

37

Optimizing the size of the area surveyed for monitoring a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) population in the Swiss Alps by means of photographic capture-recapture.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of surveyed area size on density estimates by means of camera-trapping in a low-density felid population (1-2 individuals/100 km(2) ). We applied non-spatial capture-recapture (CR) and spatial CR (SCR) models for Eurasian lynx during winter 2005/2006 in the northwestern Swiss Alps by sampling an area divided into 5 nested plots ranging from 65 to 760 km(2) . CR model density estimates (95% CI) for models M0 and Mh decreased from 2.61 (1.55-3.68) and 3.6 (1.62-5.57) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the smallest to 1.20 (1.04-1.35) and 1.26 (0.89-1.63) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the largest area surveyed. SCR model density estimates also decreased with increasing sampling area but not significantly. High individual range overlaps in relatively small areas (the edge effect) is the most plausible reason for this positive bias in the CR models. Our results confirm that SCR models are much more robust to changes in trap array size than CR models, thus avoiding overestimation of density in smaller areas. However, when a study is concerned with monitoring population changes, large spatial efforts (area surveyed ?760 km(2) ) are required to obtain reliable and precise density estimates with these population densities and recapture rates. PMID:24020463

Zimmermann, Fridolin; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Molinari-Jobin, Anja; Breitenmoser, Urs

2013-09-01

38

Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

Hoving, C. L.; Harrison, D. J.; Krohn, W. B.; Joseph, R. A.; O'Brien, M.

2005-01-01

39

Population cycles and changes in body size of the lynx in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lynx Lynx canadensis is a common predator in the boreal forests of North America. Its population fluctuates during a 9- to 11-year cycle in synchrony\\u000a with the population size of its main prey, the snowshoe hare Lepus americanus. Using adult museum specimens, we studied changes in skull (and hence body) size of the lynx in Alaska during the second

Yoram Yom-Tov; Shlomith Yom-Tov; Dusty MacDonald; Elad Yom-Tov

2007-01-01

40

A deep ROSAT survey of the Lynx area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the optical spectroscopic follow-up to a deep ROSAT (Röntgen Satellite) Survey in the Lynx area are presented. The best optical candidates for the X-ray sources taken with the Kitt Peak 4 meter Hydra multi-fiber spectrograph and the Multiple Mirror Telescope's Red Channel are presented. Of the 72 ROSAT X-ray sources flux-limited here, 68 have had at least

Douglas Frank Mathis

1999-01-01

41

Landscape structure and asymmetrical inter-patch connectivity in a metapopulation of the endangered Iberian lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the factors threatening the Iberian lynx, (Lynx pardinus) (the most endangered species of all the Felidae), loss and fragmentation of its habitats are probably the most important. Connectivity between the remaining populations in the predominantly fragmented landscapes is a key factor in the dynamics and persistence of metapopulations. Based on the data collected during a long-term study on the

P. Ferreras

2001-01-01

42

Functional Responses of Coyotes and Lynx to the Snowshoe Hare Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coyotes and lynx are the two most important mammalian predators of snow- shoe hares throughout much of the boreal forest. Populations of hares cycle in abundance, with peaks in density occurring every 8-11 yr, and experimental results suggest that pre- dation is a necessary factor causing these cycles. We measured the functional responses of coyotes and lynx during a cyclic

Mark O’Donoghue; Stan Boutin; Charles J. Krebs; Gustavo Zuleta; Dennis L. Murray; Elizabeth J. Hofer

1998-01-01

43

Age, sex, reproduction, and spatial organization of lynxes colonizing northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1972 through 1978, lynxes (Felis lynx) emigrating from Canada were studied in northeastern Minnesota. Fourteen individuals were radio-tracked, 8 wefe ear-tagged, and 49 carcasses were examined. Sex ratios of the samples were equal during the first years of the study, but females predominated later. At least half of the radiotagged lynxes were killed by humans; no natural mortality was detected. Home range sizes ranged from 51 to 122 km2 for females and 145 to 243 km2 for males, up to 10 times the sizes of those reported by other workers. Ranges of females tended to overlap. Males and females appeared to be segregated in the population.

Mech, L.D.

1980-01-01

44

Surgical plating of a fractured radius and ulna in a wild Canada lynx.  

PubMed

A free-ranging, adult male Canada-lynx (Lynx canadensis) experienced a closed, complete, non-comminuted transverse fracture of the left radius and ulna when captured in a leg snare. A dynamic compression plate (DCP) attached to the anterior surface of the radius was used to stabilize the fracture. Radiographs 44 days post-surgery indicated advanced primary bone healing. The lynx was released 46 days post-surgery near the site of capture. Radiotelemetry indicated long-term survival and movements similar to other males monitored during the same period. PMID:9577786

Poole, K G; Elkin, B T; Pisz, T; Elkin, K E; Robertson, D; Sabourin, M L

1998-04-01

45

HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) AND GREY FOXES (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microscopic examination of gastric mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor), porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and black bears (Ursus amaricanus) was done on archival tissue blocks for evidence of Helicobacter-like org...

46

Supercontraction of dragline silk spun by lynx spiders (Oxyopidae).  

PubMed

Supercontraction is commonly considered as a functional adaptation of major ampullate gland (MA) silk to its role as the main structural material in orb-webs. However, the observation of supercontraction in the dragline silk of a lynx spider species, as it is shown in this work, offers a strong support to the hypothesis that the appearance of supercontraction preceded the advent of capture webs. Moreover, the absence of proline in the sequence of dragline silk spidroin in Oxyopidae and related spiders indicates that the presence of this amino acid may not be required for the existence of supercontraction. In this regard, the presence of particular subrepeats--in orb-web and non-orb-web building spiders--adds new clues for the understanding of supercontraction and associated effects. PMID:20359492

Pérez-Rigueiro, J; Plaza, G R; Torres, F G; Hijar, A; Hayashi, C; Perea, G B; Elices, M; Guinea, G V

2010-03-30

47

Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat.  

PubMed

Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species' ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics. PMID:24174116

Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

2013-10-30

48

NMR Structure and Action on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Water-soluble Domain of Human LYNX1*  

PubMed Central

Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake ?-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which considerably complicates in vitro studies. We report for the first time the NMR spatial structure for the water-soluble domain of human LYNX1 lacking a GPI anchor (ws-LYNX1) and its concentration-dependent activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). At 5–30 ?m, ws-LYNX1 competed with 125I-?-bungarotoxin for binding to the acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) and to Torpedo nAChR. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing ?7 nAChRs to 1 ?m ws-LYNX1 enhanced the response to acetylcholine, but no effect was detected on ?4?2 and ?3?2 nAChRs. Increasing ws-LYNX1 concentration to 10 ?m caused a modest inhibition of these three nAChR subtypes. A common feature for ws-LYNX1 and LYNX1 is a decrease of nAChR sensitivity to high concentrations of acetylcholine. NMR and functional analysis both demonstrate that ws-LYNX1 is an appropriate model to shed light on the mechanism of LYNX1 action. Computer modeling, based on ws-LYNX1 NMR structure and AChBP x-ray structure, revealed a possible mode of ws-LYNX1 binding.

Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Mineev, Konstantin S.; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Filkin, Sergey Yu.; Krivolapova, Alexandra P.; Janickova, Helena; Dolezal, Vladimir; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Bertrand, Daniel; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.

2011-01-01

49

Defining space use and movements of Canada lynx with global positioning system telemetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Space use and movements of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are difficult to study with very-high-frequency radiocollars. We deployed global positioning system (GPS) collars on 11 lynx in Minnesota to study their seasonal space-use patterns. We estimated home ranges with minimum-convex-polygon and fixed-kernel methods and estimated core areas with area/probability curves. Fixed-kernel home ranges of males (range = 29-522 km2) were significantly larger than those of females (range = 5-95 km2) annually and during the denning season. Some male lynx increased movements during March, the month most influenced by breeding activity. Lynx core areas were predicted by the 60% fixed-kernel isopleth in most seasons. The mean core-area size of males (range = 6-190 km2) was significantly larger than that of females (range = 1-19 km2) annually and during denning. Most female lynx were reproductive animals with reduced movements, whereas males often ranged widely between Minnesota and Ontario. Sensitivity analyses examining the effect of location frequency on home-range size suggest that the home-range sizes of breeding females are less sensitive to sample size than those of males. Longer periods between locations decreased home-range and core-area overlap relative to the home range estimated from daily locations. GPS collars improve our understanding of space use and movements by lynx by increasing the spatial extent and temporal frequency of monitoring and allowing home ranges to be estimated over short periods that are relevant to life-history characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

Burdett, C. L.; Moen, R. A.; Niemi, G. J.; Mech, L. D.

2007-01-01

50

Adapted conservation measures are required to save the Iberian lynx in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) has suffered severe population declines in the twentieth century and is now on the brink of extinction. Climate change could further threaten the survival of the species, but its forecast effects are being neglected in recovery plans. Quantitative estimates of extinction risk under climate change have so far mostly relied on inferences from correlative projections of species' habitat shifts. Here we use ecological niche models coupled to metapopulation simulations with source-sink dynamics to directly investigate the combined effects of climate change, prey availability and management intervention on the persistence of the Iberian lynx. Our approach is unique in that it explicitly models dynamic bi-trophic species interactions in a climate change setting. We show that anticipated climate change will rapidly and severely decrease lynx abundance and probably lead to its extinction in the wild within 50 years, even with strong global efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In stark contrast, we also show that a carefully planned reintroduction programme, accounting for the effects of climate change, prey abundance and habitat connectivity, could avert extinction of the lynx this century. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, why considering prey availability, climate change and their interaction in models is important when designing policies to prevent future biodiversity loss.

Fordham, D. A.; Akçakaya, H. R.; Brook, B. W.; Rodríguez, A.; Alves, P. C.; Civantos, E.; Triviño, M.; Watts, M. J.; Araújo, M. B.

2013-10-01

51

Optimizing cholinergic tone through lynx modulators of nicotinic receptors: implications for plasticity and nicotine addiction.  

PubMed

The cholinergic system underlies both adaptive (learning and memory) and nonadaptive (addiction and dependency) behavioral changes through its ability to shape and regulate plasticity. Protein modulators such as lynx family members can fine tune the activity of the cholinergic system and contribute to the graded response of the cholinergic system, stabilizing neural circuitry through direct interaction with nicotinic receptors. Release of this molecular brake can unmask cholinergic-dependent mechanisms in the brain. Lynx proteins have the potential to provide top-down control over plasticity mechanisms, including addictive propensity. If this is indeed the case, then, what regulates the regulator? Transcriptional changes of lynx genes in response to pharmacological, physiological, and pathological alterations are explored in this review. PMID:22875450

Miwa, Julie M; Lester, Henry A; Walz, Andreas

2012-08-01

52

CASE (Community Advocacy and Service Engagement) Project Final Report: LYNX (C.F.R.T.A.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a final assessment of the CASE Project, a LYNX-FTA research project designed to study transit education and public engagement methods in Central Florida. In the Orlando area, as in other parts of the country, transit is viewed as a transpor...

R. Houck

2009-01-01

53

Annual Dynamics of Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Home Range and Core Use Areas in Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the annual dynamics of bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range and core use areas by radiotracking 23 female and 6 male bobcats from 10 January 1989 to 31 January 1998 in Mississippi. We quantified space use by measuring changes in the dispersion and central tendency of bobcat locations (i.e., radiotelemetry locations) between annual home range and core use areas.

Bruce W. Plowman; L. Mike Conner; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold; Loren W. Burger

2006-01-01

54

In Flight Research with Instrumented Main and Tail Rotor Blades Using the DRA Bedford Aeromechanics Research Lynx Helicopter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper serves to inform the reader about in-flight research at DRA Bedford on the DRA's Aeromechanics Lynx Control and Agility Testbed (ALYCAT) using instrumented main and tail rotor blades. The paper describes the instrumentation, data analysis techn...

P. C. Tarttelin A. W. Martyn

1995-01-01

55

Habitat Selection and Risk of Predation: Re-colonization by Lynx had Limited Impact on Habitat Selection by Roe Deer  

PubMed Central

Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx – the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection). Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations.

Samelius, Gustaf; Andren, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof

2013-01-01

56

Robotically assisted ventricular tachycardia substrate modification ablation with the novel Lynx(TM) integrated sheath and RF ablation catheter.  

PubMed

Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is demanding and time consuming. Robotically controlled catheter ablation reduces operator fatigue and exposure to X-rays, and provides greater precision and stability of the catheter. A new flexible, integrated robotic sheath and ablation catheter has recently been introduced (Lynx(TM)) and used in atrial ablation procedures. We describe the first VT substrate modification ablation in the world with the Lynx(TM) robotic radio frequency ablation catheter. PMID:23728128

Lorgat, Faizel; Pudney, Evan; van Deventer, Helena

2013-04-23

57

Habitat Selection and Risk of Predation: Re-colonization by Lynx had Limited Impact on Habitat Selection by Roe Deer.  

PubMed

Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection). Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations. PMID:24069419

Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof

2013-09-19

58

Lynx1, a cholinergic brake limits plasticity in adult visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Experience-dependent brain plasticity typically declines after an early critical period during which circuits are established. Loss of plasticity with closure of the critical period limits improvement of function in adulthood, but the mechanisms that change the brain’s plasticity remain poorly understood. Here, we identified an increase in expression of Lynx1 protein in mice that prevented plasticity in the primary visual cortex late in life. Removal of this molecular brake enhanced nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling. Lynx1 expression thus maintains stability of mature cortical networks in the presence of cholinergic innervation. The results suggest that modulating the balance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits reactivates visual plasticity and may present a therapeutic target.

Morishita, Hirofumi; Miwa, Julie M.; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hensch, Takao K

2012-01-01

59

Lynx1, a cholinergic brake, limits plasticity in adult visual cortex.  

PubMed

Experience-dependent brain plasticity typically declines after an early critical period during which circuits are established. Loss of plasticity with closure of the critical period limits improvement of function in adulthood, but the mechanisms that change the brain's plasticity remain poorly understood. Here, we identified an increase in expression of Lynx1 protein in mice that prevented plasticity in the primary visual cortex late in life. Removal of this molecular brake enhanced nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling. Lynx1 expression thus maintains stability of mature cortical networks in the presence of cholinergic innervation. The results suggest that modulating the balance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits reactivates visual plasticity and may present a therapeutic target. PMID:21071629

Morishita, Hirofumi; Miwa, Julie M; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hensch, Takao K

2010-11-11

60

ProbeLynx: a tool for updating the association of microarray probes to genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As genome sequence data and gene prediction improve, probes developed for a given microarray experiment should be continuously re-evaluated for their specificity for given genes. ProbeLynx (www.pathogenomics.ca\\/probelynx) is a new web servicewhichusescurrentgenomicsequenceinforma- tion to re-examine microarray probe specificity and provide annotation updates relevant to determining which gene(s) and transcript(s) are associated with a given probe. Probe sequences (either oligonucleo- tide-

Fiona M. Roche; Karsten Hokamp; Michael Acab; Lorne A. Babiuk; Robert E. W. Hancock; Fiona S. L. Brinkman

2004-01-01

61

Gene Sets for Utilization of Primary and Secondary Nutrition Supplies in the Distal Gut of Endangered Iberian Lynx  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads) related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of ‘presumptive’ aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding ‘active’ lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(amino)lipids, glyco(amino)glycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases) in genes encoding ?-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of ?-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of ?-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although ?-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80–100% wild rabbits) but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely suggests a tighter, more coordinated and complex evolutionary and nutritional ecology scenario of carnivore gut microbial communities than has been previously assumed.

Alcaide, Maria; Messina, Enzo; Richter, Michael; Bargiela, Rafael; Peplies, Jorg; Huws, Sharon A.; Newbold, Charles J.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Simon, Miguel A.; Lopez, Guillermo; Yakimov, Michail M.; Ferrer, Manuel

2012-01-01

62

Interacting Effects of Climate Change, Landscape Conversion, and Harvest on Carnivore Populations at the Range Margin: Marten and Lynx in the Northern Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple biocli- matic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis )i n southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential

CARLOS CARROLL

2007-01-01

63

Lynx body size in Norway is related to its main prey (Roe deer) density, climate, and latitude.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of various factors on body size variation of the Eurasian lynx in Norway, using data from 374 lynx collected between 1960 and 1976 and whose locality of capture, year of birth, sex, and age were known. Body size of lynx in Norway was mainly affected by sex and age. Female skull size (and by implication body size) was also positively affected by the availability of its main prey (roe deer) and by latitude, and negatively by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Male size was not affected by any of the environmental factors examined. We interpret the effects of NAO and latitude on body size through their effect on the local climate and particularly snow conditions. We suggest that females are more sensitive to environmental factors than males. PMID:21404822

Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kvam, Tor; Wiig, Øystein

2011-02-01

64

Possible extinction vortex for a population of Iberian lynx on the verge of extirpation.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that demographic and genetic traits deteriorate (i.e., fitness and genetic diversity decrease) when populations become small, and that such deterioration could precipitate positive feedback loops called extinction vortices. We examined whether demographic attributes and genetic traits have changed over time in one of the 2 remaining small populations of the highly endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Doñana, Spain. From 1983 to 2008, we recorded nontraumatic mortality rates, litter size, offspring survival, age at territory acquisition, and sex ratio. We combined these demographic attributes with measures of inbreeding and genetic diversity at neutral loci (microsatellites) and genes subjected to selection (major histocompatibility complex). Data on demographic traits were obtained through capture and radio tracking, checking dens during breeding, track surveys, and camera trapping. For genetic analyses, we obtained blood or tissue samples from captured or necropsied individuals or from museum specimens. Over time a female-biased sex ratio developed, age of territory acquisition decreased, mean litter size decreased, and rates of nontraumatic mortality increased, but there were no significant changes in overall mortality rates, standardized individual heterozygosity declined steadily, and allelic diversity of exon 2 of class II major histocompatibility complex DRB genes remained constant (2 allelic variants present in all individuals analyzed). Changes in sex ratio and age of territory acquisition may have resulted from demographic stochasticity, whereas changes in litter size and nontraumatic mortality may be related to observed increases in inbreeding. Concomitant deterioration of both demographic attributes and genetic traits is consistent with an extinction vortex. The co-occurrence, with or without interaction, of demographic and genetic deterioration may explain the lack of success of conservation efforts with the Doñana population of Iberian lynx. PMID:22731698

Palomares, Francisco; Godoy, José Antonio; López-Bao, José Vicente; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Roques, Severine; Casas-Marce, Mireia; Revilla, Eloy; Delibes, Miguel

2012-06-25

65

Water-soluble LYNX1 residues important for interaction with muscle-type and/or neuronal nicotinic receptors.  

PubMed

Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618-10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the ?7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of ?1 glycine receptor (?7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at ?7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its "non-classical" binding sites on ?7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for ?-bungarotoxin and similar snake ?-neurotoxins also targeting ?7 nAChR. This distinction may underlie their different actions, i.e. nAChRs modulation versus irreversible inhibition, for these two types of three-finger proteins. PMID:23585571

Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Buldakova, Svetlana L; Kasheverov, Igor E; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Reshetnikov, Roman V; Filkin, Sergey Y; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Ojomoko, Lucy O; Kryukova, Elena V; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Bregestovski, Piotr D; Tsetlin, Victor I

2013-04-12

66

Lynx multi-mode SAR in support of NATO Unified Vision 2012 trial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2012, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Reconnaissance Systems Group participated in the NATO Unified Vision 2012 (UV12) Joint ISR (JISR) Trial at Orland Main Air Station in Brekstad, Norway. GA-ASI supplied a modified King Air 200 as a Predator B/MQ-9 Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) surrogate outfitted with a Lynx Block 30 Multi-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI), a FLIR Star SAFIRE 3800HD Electro-optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor, and a L-3 Tactical Common Data Link. This airborne platform was combined with GA-ASI's new System for Tactical Archival, Retrieval, and Exploitation (STARE) for full integration into the NATO ISR exploitation community. UV12 was an event sponsored by the NATO Joint Capability Group on Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) to focus on the interoperability of national ISR assets and improving JISR concept of operations. The Predator B RPA surrogate flew alongside multiple NATO ISR assets in nine missions that showcased the platform's all-weather ISR capabilities focusing on the Lynx SAR/GMTI and Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) modes. The inclusion of the STARE technology allowed GA-ASI's radar and Full Motion Video (FMV) data to be seamlessly processed and passed to joint networks where the data was fused with other NATO ISR products, resulting in a full battlefield reconnaissance picture.

Dunkel, R.; Verge, T.; Linnehan, R.; Doerry, A.

2013-05-01

67

Behavioural response of a trophic specialist, the Iberian lynx, to supplementary food: Patterns of food use and implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prey scarcity compromises population survival, especially for specialist predators. Supplementary feeding is a management tool that can be applied to reverse the decline of food-limited populations. We analyse how a population of Iberian lynx, a threatened food specialist, initially reacted to, and subsequently used, supplementary food. Twenty-seven feeding stations (FS) with domestic rabbits were placed in the Doñana Biological Reserve,

José V. López-Bao; Alejandro Rodríguez; Francisco Palomares

2008-01-01

68

Reconsidering the Specialist-Generalist Paradigm in Niche Breadth Dynamics: Resource Gradient Selection by Canada Lynx and Bobcat  

PubMed Central

The long-standing view in ecology is that disparity in overall resource selection is the basis for identifying niche breadth patterns, with species having narrow selection being classified “specialists” and those with broader selection being “generalists”. The standard model of niche breadth characterizes generalists and specialists as having comparable levels of overall total resource exploitation, with specialists exploiting resources at a higher level of performance over a narrower range of conditions. This view has gone largely unchallenged. An alternate model predicts total resource use being lower for the specialized species with both peaking at a comparable level of performance over a particular resource gradient. To reconcile the niche breadth paradigm we contrasted both models by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species’ niche, we determined that Canada lynx demonstrated higher total performance over a restricted set of variables, specifically those related to snow and altitude, while bobcat had higher total performance across most variables. Unlike predictions generated by the standard model, bobcat level of exploitation was not compromised by the trade-off with peak performance, and Canada lynx were not restricted to exploiting a narrower range of conditions. Instead, the emergent pattern was that specialist species have a higher total resource utilization and peak performance value within a smaller number of resources or environmental axes than generalists. Our results also indicate that relative differences in niche breadth are strongly dependent on the variable under consideration, implying that the appropriate model describing niche breadth dynamics between specialists and generalists may be more complex than either the traditional heuristic or our modified version. Our results demonstrate a need to re-evaluate traditional, but largely untested, assumptions regarding resource utilization in species with broad and narrow niches.

Peers, Michael J. L.; Thornton, Daniel H.; Murray, Dennis L.

2012-01-01

69

The effect of climatic forcing on population synchrony and genetic structuring of the Canadian lynx  

PubMed Central

The abundance of Canadian lynx follows 10-year density fluctuations across the Canadian subcontinent. These cyclic fluctuations have earlier been shown to be geographically structured into three climatic regions: the Atlantic, Continental, and Pacific zones. Recent genetic evidence revealed an essentially similar spatial structuring. Introducing a new population model, the “climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns” model, we link the observed ecological and evolutionary patterns. Specifically, we demonstrate that there is greater phase synchrony within climatic zones than between them and show that external climatic forcing may act as a synchronizer. We simulated genetic drift by using data on population dynamics generated by the climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns model, and we demonstrate that the observed genetic structuring can be seen as an emerging property of the spatiotemporal ecological dynamics.

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Ehrich, Dorothee; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr.; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; O'Donoghue, Mark; Robinson, David A.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

2004-01-01

70

The effect of climatic forcing on population synchrony and genetic structuring of the Canadian lynx.  

PubMed

The abundance of Canadian lynx follows 10-year density fluctuations across the Canadian subcontinent. These cyclic fluctuations have earlier been shown to be geographically structured into three climatic regions: the Atlantic, Continental, and Pacific zones. Recent genetic evidence revealed an essentially similar spatial structuring. Introducing a new population model, the "climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns" model, we link the observed ecological and evolutionary patterns. Specifically, we demonstrate that there is greater phase synchrony within climatic zones than between them and show that external climatic forcing may act as a synchronizer. We simulated genetic drift by using data on population dynamics generated by the climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns model, and we demonstrate that the observed genetic structuring can be seen as an emerging property of the spatiotemporal ecological dynamics. PMID:15067131

Stenseth, Nils Chr; Ehrich, Dorothee; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; O'Donoghue, Mark; Robinson, David A; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

2004-04-05

71

Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid. PMID:22099537

Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

2011-11-17

72

FF-LYNX: Fast and flexible electrical links for data acquisition and distribution of Timing, Trigger and Control signals in future High Energy Physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FF-LYNX project aims at the definition of a flexible protocol that can handle both the distribution of Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) signals and the data acquisition in future High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. The implementation of this protocol in digital interfaces designed and produced in standard CMOS technologies (130 and/or 90 nm) and available as “IP cores” is also foreseen.

Bianchi, G.; Castaldi, R.; Fanucci, L.; Magazzú, G.; Saponara, S.; Tongiani, C.; Verdini, P. G.

2010-05-01

73

Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.  

PubMed

The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence. PMID:21270003

Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

2011-01-01

74

Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland - Do people want to keep the doors open?  

PubMed

This study investigates individuals' preferences toward protection programs aimed at increasing the chances of survival of the two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland. Those two groups, the Lowland and the Carpathian population, are exposed to different risks of extinction as they have different numbers, different-sized areas of occupation and different migration possibilities. Using a discrete choice experiment we examine the influence of the initial degree of endangerment on the allocation of respondents' funds. The results show that people prefer to invest in the conservation of the lynx population, which has initially lower chances of survival. The main driver of respondents' choices seems to be loss aversion rather than the urge to invest in an option with an expected higher outcome. This observation can be interpreted as people trying to keep all the options - doors - open by devoting more funds to the more vulnerable population than to the more stable one. Employing a scale-extended latent class model allowed us to detect segments among individuals showing different types of response behavior, including a form of serial non-participation. PMID:23811031

Bartczak, Anna; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

2013-06-26

75

Fast and automated characterization of major constituents in rat biofluid after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MetaboLynx.  

PubMed

In drug metabolism research, the setting up of a complex series of mass spectrometry experiments and the subsequent analysis of the large amounts of data produced are often time-consuming. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOFMS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot. Rat plasma and urine samples collected 1 h and 0-12 h after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot were analyzed by UPLC/QTOFMS within 15 min. The post-acquisition data were processed using MetaboLynx. With key parameters carefully set, MetaboLynx is able to show the presence of a wide range of metabolites with only a limited requirement for manual intervention and data interpretation time. A total of 16 and 38 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine compared with blank samples. The results indicated that methylation and glucuronidation after deglycosylation were the major metabolic pathways of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot. The present study provided important information about the metabolism of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot which will be helpful for fully understanding the mechanism of action of this herb. Furthermore, this work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC/QTOFMS approach using MetaboLynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites from Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:20069688

Guo, Jianming; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan

2010-02-01

76

Seasonal Variation in Metal-Laden Acid Drainage From an Adit of the Lynx Mine, Myra Falls Operations, Vancouver Island, BC, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before it ceased operations, the Lynx mine produced copper and zinc concentrates from massive sulfide deposits on a mineral lease within the mountainous interior of Vancouver Island, Canada. Annual precipitation at the site averages more than 2500 mm and occurs mainly as rainfall between October and February. Previous studies suggested that acid mine drainage from the 8-Level adit may be caused by groundwater leaching of tailings used to backfill a shallow stope in close hydraulic connection with the surface. In this detailed follow-up investigation, temporal variations in the flow rate, electrical conductivity and temperature of discharge from the adit were monitored continuously over a two-year period while effluent chemistry was sampled weekly. The flow hydrograph was observed to rise steeply with the first autumn rains with discharge peaking at over 4000 m3/d. From then on, it fluctuated sharply with recharge from successive weather systems over the winter. The hydrograph of head measured in a packed-off underground borehole also reacted sharply to autumn rains, quickly reaching a plateau of about 40m as the storage capacity of the rock mass above the adit was reached. The amplitude of annual head fluctuations suggested that a significant portion of the rock mass undergoes seasonal saturation and de-saturation. Effluent conductivity was relatively constant throughout most of the year but peaked with the first autumn rains. Thereafter, conductivity spikes gradually attenuated as recharge from successive events flushed accumulated soluble secondary minerals from the groundwater system. Concentrations of sulfate and most metals were closely correlated with conductivity as was pH. This made it possible to construct continuous chemographs of these parameters by regression on conductivity. Values of pH as low as 2.2 coincided with spikes of high conductivity as stored acidity was released along with dissolved and suspended species during the initial flushing. Partitioning of Fe, Al and Cu between dissolved and particulate phases was closely associated with fluctuations in pH. Seasonal variations in discharge chemistry observed here were qualitatively similar to those described in the literature although the intensity and timing of flushing events are particular to local hydrometeorological conditions.

Desbarats, A. J.; Dirom, G. C.

2004-05-01

77

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z = 1.3. I. THE LYNX SUPERCLUSTER: CLUSTER AND GROUPS AT z = 1.3. MORPHOLOGY AND COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION  

SciTech Connect

We confirm the detection of three groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, through spectroscopic follow-up and X-ray imaging, and we give estimates for their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies compared to the two central clusters, RX J0849+4452 and RX J0848+4453. Using spectroscopic follow-up and multi-wavelength photometric redshifts, we select 89 galaxies in the clusters, of which 41 are spectroscopically confirmed, and 74 galaxies in the groups, of which 25 are spectroscopically confirmed. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30%-40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g., based on Sersic index). In luminosity-selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of bulge-dominated galaxies with a diffuse component that we visually identified as a disk and which we classified as bulge-dominated spirals, e.g., Sas. The ETG fractions never rise above Almost-Equal-To 50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in other massive clusters at z Almost-Equal-To 1. In the groups, ETG fractions never exceed Almost-Equal-To 25%. However, overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions (ETG plus Sas) are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z {approx} 1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as spirals might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star formation seems to have been quenched before experiencing a morphological transformation. Because their fraction is smaller at lower redshifts, they might be the spiral population that evolves into ETGs. For mass-selected samples of galaxies with masses M > 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun} within {Sigma} > 500 Mpc{sup -2}, the ETG and overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions show no significant evolution with respect to local clusters, suggesting that morphological transformations might occur at lower masses and densities. The ETG mass-size relation shows evolution toward smaller sizes at higher redshift in both clusters and groups, while the late-type mass-size relation matches that observed locally. When compared to the clusters, the group ETG red sequence shows lower zero points (at {approx}2{sigma}) and larger scatters, both expected to be an indication of a younger galaxy population. However, we show that any allowed difference between the age in groups and clusters would be small when compared to the differences in age in galaxies of different masses.

Mei, Simona; Raichoor, Anand; Huertas-Company, Marc [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 5 Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Adam Stanford, S.; Rettura, Alessandro; Jee, Myungkook J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, Brad P.; Illingworth, Garth D. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85478 Garching (Germany); Ford, Holland C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosati, Piero [European South Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Tanaka, Masayuki; Koyama, Yusei [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Shankar, Francesco [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Carrasco, Eleazar R. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Demarco, Ricardo [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Eisenhardt, Peter [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

2012-08-01

78

Dynamics and Viability of a Metapopulation of the Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of metapopulation models in conservation biology is growing ex- ponentially, but there is a need for empirical studies that support theoretical approaches, especially for species with large and long-lived individuals. In this paper we explore the viability and dynamics of a real metapopulation of an endangered mammal by combining field work and modeling in order to support conservation

Pilar Gaona; Pablo Ferreras; Miguel Delibes

1998-01-01

79

Factors affecting seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. In the present stud...

80

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1981-01-01

81

Spray more, get more: masculinity, television advertising and the Lynx effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent growth in both the advertising of male grooming products and the sales of such products in Britain and, as such, it is important that we examine the representations of men, masculinity and the male role that are being used to advertise and indeed sell this new and growing market sector. After all, advertising cannot help

Rebecca Feasey

2009-01-01

82

SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN THE PENNSYLVANIA BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS RUFUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

From 2000-2002 bobcat serum samples were collected, in association with the Pennsylvania Game Commission, during the recently reactivated bobcat hunting and trapping season. Sex, age and county/township data were recorded for each sample. Sera were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using t...

83

Molecular mapping of Fusarium head blight resistance in the winter wheat population Dream\\/Lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, can significantly reduce the grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to mycotoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for FHB resistance in a winter wheat population developed by crossing the resistant German cultivar Dream with the susceptible British cultivar

M. Schmolke; G. Zimmermann; H. Buerstmayr; G. Schweizer; T. Miedaner; V. Korzun; E. Ebmeyer; L. Hartl

2005-01-01

84

Pleistocene and ecological effects on continental-scale genetic differentiation in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

The potential for widespread, mobile species to exhibit genetic structure without clear geographic barriers is a topic of growing interest. Yet the patterns and mechanisms of structure--particularly over broad spatial scales--remain largely unexplored for these species. Bobcats occur across North America and possess many characteristics expected to promote gene flow. To test whether historical, topographic or ecological factors have influenced genetic differentiation in this species, we analysed 1 kb mtDNA sequence and 15 microsatellite loci from over 1700 samples collected across its range. The primary signature in both marker types involved a longitudinal cline with a sharp transition, or suture zone, occurring along the Great Plains. Thus, the data distinguished bobcats in the eastern USA from those in the western half, with no obvious physical barrier to gene flow. Demographic analyses supported a scenario of expansion from separate Pleistocene refugia, with the Great Plains representing a zone of secondary contact. Substructure within the two main lineages likely reflected founder effects, ecological factors, anthropogenic/topographic effects or a combination of these forces. Two prominent topographic features, the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, were not supported as significant genetic barriers. Ecological regions and environmental correlates explained a small but significant proportion of genetic variation. Overall, results implicate historical processes as the primary cause of broad-scale genetic differentiation, but contemporary forces seem to also play a role in promoting and maintaining structure. Despite the bobcat's mobility and broad niche, large-scale landscape changes have contributed to significant and complex patterns of genetic structure. PMID:22548482

Reding, Dawn M; Bronikowski, Anne M; Johnson, Warren E; Clark, William R

2012-04-30

85

The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 - <50%, 50 - <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness. PMID:23861963

Rockhill, Aimee P; DePerno, Christopher S; Powell, Roger A

2013-07-08

86

DNA Analysis of Hair and Scat Collected Along Snow Tracks to Document the Presence of Canada Lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow tracking is often used to inventory carnivore communities, but species identification using this method can produce ambiguous and misleading results. DNA can be extracted from hair and scat samples collected from tracks made in snow. Using DNA analysis could allow positive track identification across a broad range of snow conditions, thus increasing survey accuracy and efficiency. We investigated the

KEVIN S. McKELVEY; JEFFREY VON KIENAST; KEITH B. AUBRY; GARY M. KOEHLER; BENJAMIN T. MALETZKE; JOHN R. SQUIRES; EDWARD L. LINDQUIST; STEVE LOCH; MICHAEL K. SCHWARTZ

2006-01-01

87

POPULATION STRUCTURE, SEASONALITY, AND HABITAT USE BY THE GREEN LYNX SPIDER PEUCETIA VIRIDANS (OXYOPIDAE) INHABITING CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS (EUPHORBIACEAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For one year we studied the habitat use of Peucetia viridans living on Cnidoscolus acon- itifolius, in a pasture land in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Highest spider density was recorded in August (total 118, adults 77), and lowest in May (total 7, adults 2). Spider density was significantly higher in isolated plants and lower in plants in a patch. Sex ratio

Angélica M. Arango; Victor Rico-Gray; Victor Parra-Tabla

2000-01-01

88

Vegetation structure and prey abundance requirements of the Iberian lynx: implications for the design of reserves and corridors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Habitat alteration and fragmentation are two of the greatest threats to biodiversity. The conservation of most species in highly encroached areas requires reserves that are connected by suitable habitat corridors to increase the effectiveness of the area under protection. However, the quality required for such corridors is still debated. This study investigated the habitat characteristics (vegetation structure and

F. Palomares

2001-01-01

89

Scientific Basis for Conserving Forest Carnivores: American Marten, Fisher, Lynx, and Wolverine in the Western United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conservation assessment reviews the biology and ecology of four forest carnivores. It also discusses management considerations stemming from what is known and identifies information needed. Overall, the authors found huge knowledge gaps that make it d...

K. B. Aubry L. F. Ruggiero L. J. Lyon S. W. Buskirk W. J. Zielinski

1994-01-01

90

Niche relations among three sympatric Mediterranean carnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies carried out in the Doñana National Park reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were killed by Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), whereas similar-sized Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) were not. Therefore, we predicted that fox would avoid lynx predation risk by niche segregation whereas we did not expect\\u000a such a segregation between badger and lynx. As an approach for evaluating

Jose M. Fedriani; Francisco Palomares; Miguel Delibes

1999-01-01

91

50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear...and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear...furbearers means bobcat (Lynx rufus ), river otter (Lontra canadensis ), and Canada...

2009-10-01

92

50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear...and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear...furbearers means bobcat (Lynx rufus ), river otter (Lontra canadensis ), and Canada...

2010-10-01

93

Effects of Matrix Heterogeneity on Animal Dispersal: From Individual Behavior to Metapopulation?Level Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mounting theoretical and empirical evidence shows that matrix heterogeneity may have contrasting effects on metapopulation dynamics by contributing to patch isolation in nontrivial ways. We analyze the movement properties during interpatch dispersal in a metapopulation of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). On a daily temporal scale, lynx habitat selection defines two types of matrix habitats where individuals may move: open and

Eloy Revilla; Thorsten Wiegand; Francisco Palomares; Pablo Ferreras; Miguel Delibes

2004-01-01

94

Overview of Forest Carnivore Survey Efforts in the Bitterroot Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance of forested habitats through natural or man-made causes is thought to adversely affect medium-sized carnivores such as the American marten (Martes americana), fisher (Martes pennanti), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and lynx (Lynx lynx). In order to recognize these impacts it is necessary to be able to accurately detect the presence of these species in both natural and disturbed habitats. This

Kerry R. Foresman

95

DAMAGE CAUSED BY LARGE CARNIVORES ON DOMESTIC GRAZING ANIMALS IN SLOVENIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) still occur in Europe but they are forced to live in highly fragmented and human-dominated areas. Like in other parts of Europe they are perceived as a major threat to domestic livestock in most of the Slovenia region, especially in places where cohabitation is unavoidable and con-

Andrej Bidovec

96

Habitat suitability, corridors and dispersal barriers for large carnivores in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivores are often particularly sensitive to landscape fragmentation. Ecological corridors may help to connect local populations,\\u000a ensuring gene flow and retaining viable meta-populations. We aimed to establish habitat suitability models for two large carnivores\\u000a in Poland, the grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 and the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx Linnaeus, 1758, based on ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA). Secondly, we

Maren Huck; W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Tomasz Borowik; Ma?gorzata Mi?osz-Cielma; Krzysztof Schmidt; Bogumi?a J?drzejewska; Sabina Nowak; Robert W. Mys?ajek

2010-01-01

97

Predator-prey oscillations, synchronization and pattern formation in ecological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological systems and their component biological populations exhibit a broad spectrum of non-equilibrium dynamics ranging from characteristic natural cy-cles to more complex chaotic oscillations [1]. Perhaps the most spectacular example of this dynamic is Ecology's well known hare-lynx cycle. Despite unpredictable population fluctuations from one cycle to the next in the snow-shoe hare (Lepus americanus) and the Canadian lynx (Lynx

Bernd Blasius; Ralf Tonjes

98

78 FR 61390 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Maintenance Department, Tenneco, Inc., Elite Staffing. 82,948............... Rosemount Analytical, Inc., Emerson Solon, OH........... July 31, 2012. 82,954............... Blue Lynx Media, Tribune...

2013-10-03

99

Life Tracks Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are descriptions of and information about various endangered species in Wisconsin. They include: the timber wolf (Canis lupus lycaon); Forester's tern (Sterna forsteri); the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis); Higgins' eye pearly mussel (Lampsilis higginsii); the piping plover (Charadrius melodus); the osprey (Pandion haliaetus); the…

Brynildson, Inga

100

Carnivores as Focal Species for Conservation Planning in the Rocky Mountain Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability analysis of well-selected focal species can complement ecosystem- level conservation planning by revealing thresholds in habitat area and landscape connec- tivity. Mammalian carnivores are good candidates for focal species because their distri- butional patterns often strongly reflect regional-scale population processes. We incorporated focal species analysis of four carnivore species, fisher (Martes pennanti), lynx (Lynx can- adensis), wolverine (Gulo gulo),

Carlos Carroll; Reed F. Noss; Paul C. Paquet

2001-01-01

101

[Early sibling aggression in mammals and its hormonal correlates].  

PubMed

Early sibling aggression is a widespread phenomenon in birds. Ornithologists distinguish species with "obligate" and "facultative" siblicide. Sibling aggression was described in some mammal species: the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and the Iberian lynx (L. par-dinus). In all of them, sibling aggression corresponds well with the "facultative" siblicide model in birds. Sibling aggression was observed at the age of 36-64 days in both lynx species. It is usually restricted to a single fight and can change the hierarchical structure and growth rate of the kittens. In the spotted hyena and the domestic pig, the frequency and intensity of aggressive interactions between siblings are strongest during the first days of postnatal ontogeny and then decrease gradually. The newborns of these species are much developed than newborn lynx kittens. Usually adult lynx females, in contrast to hyenas and pigs, try to stop sibling fights. This is probably related to the larger parental investment at the time of the fight in lynxes (a kitten's body weight is about 10% of the mother's) than in pigs (0.5%) and hyenas (1.9%). Sibling aggression in spotted hyenas could be related to the high level of androstenedione and is not related to testosterone concentration. In the Eurasian lynx, female sibs attack their littermates slightly more often than male sibs do, and sibling aggression is not testosterone-dependent. Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands may play an important role in this phenomenon. The data available so far, however, do not positively confirm the presence of hormonal trigger effects in mammal sibling aggression. PMID:17944114

Antonevich, A L; Na?denko, S V

102

The Rhinencephalon and Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lesions of the rhinencephalon, primarily restricted to the amygdaloid nuclei, modify aggressive behavior of lynxes, agoutis, monkeys, and cats toward relative docility, and precipitate a chronic state of hypersexuality. Some neuro-endocrine mechanisms bea...

L. Schreiner A. Kling

1965-01-01

103

American marten  

Treesearch

The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: American marten, fisher, lynx , ... also called the marten or American sable, is a carnivorous mammal about the ... even when frightened, produces odors only weakly perceptible to humans.

104

Modeling potential outcomes of fire and fuel management scenarios ...  

Treesearch

... management scenarios and compared vegetation trends against the natural range of ... thinning, prescribed fire) resulted in total area of closed-canopy large- and ... Lynx canadensis, Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System (INLAS),  ...

105

The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: American ...  

Treesearch

Apr 3, 2013 ... Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky ... assesses the state of knowledge related to the conservation status of four ... in the western United States: American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine.

106

50 CFR 23.36 - What are the requirements for an export permit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...application for an export permit Form no. (1) CITES:American Ginseng Appendix-I Plants Artificially Propagated...Lynx, River Otter, Brown Bear, Gray Wolf, and American Alligator Taken under an Approved State or Tribal Program...

2010-10-01

107

50 CFR 23.36 - What are the requirements for an export permit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...application for an export permit Form no. (1) CITES:American Ginseng Appendix-I Plants Artificially Propagated...Lynx, River Otter, Brown Bear, Gray Wolf, and American Alligator Taken under an Approved State or Tribal Program...

2009-10-01

108

A Further Study of Helicopter Rotor Pitch-Flap-Phase Coupling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pitch-flap phase coupling between the blades of a helicopter rotor was studied in order to improve overall aircraft stability. A mathematical model was constructed for the Westland Lynx helicopter, which incorporates a semiarticulated rotor head. Full exp...

A. East N. S. Sehmi

1981-01-01

109

78 FR 53002 - Notice of Proposed Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) requested a waiver of the Federal Transit Administration...This utility relocation will be performed in connection with the CATS LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an...

2013-08-27

110

Selecting habitat to survive: the impact of road density on survival in a large carnivore.  

PubMed

Habitat selection studies generally assume that animals select habitat and food resources at multiple scales to maximise their fitness. However, animals sometimes prefer habitats of apparently low quality, especially when considering the costs associated with spatially heterogeneous human disturbance. We used spatial variation in human disturbance, and its consequences on lynx survival, a direct fitness component, to test the Hierarchical Habitat Selection hypothesis from a population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in southern Norway. Data from 46 lynx monitored with telemetry indicated that a high proportion of forest strongly reduced the risk of mortality from legal hunting at the home range scale, while increasing road density strongly increased such risk at the finer scale within the home range. We found hierarchical effects of the impact of human disturbance, with a higher road density at a large scale reinforcing its negative impact at a fine scale. Conversely, we demonstrated that lynx shifted their habitat selection to avoid areas with the highest road densities within their home ranges, thus supporting a compensatory mechanism at fine scale enabling lynx to mitigate the impact of large-scale disturbance. Human impact, positively associated with high road accessibility, was thus a stronger driver of lynx space use at a finer scale, with home range characteristics nevertheless constraining habitat selection. Our study demonstrates the truly hierarchical nature of habitat selection, which aims at maximising fitness by selecting against limiting factors at multiple spatial scales, and indicates that scale-specific heterogeneity of the environment is driving individual spatial behaviour, by means of trade-offs across spatial scales. PMID:23874381

Basille, Mathieu; Van Moorter, Bram; Herfindal, Ivar; Martin, Jodie; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Andersen, Reidar; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

2013-07-10

111

Responses of a top and a meso predator and their prey to moon phases.  

PubMed

We compared movement patterns and rhythms of activity of a top predator, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, a mesopredator, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and their shared principal prey, the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, in relation to moon phases. Because the three species are mostly nocturnal and crepuscular, we hypothesized that the shared prey would reduce its activity at most risky moon phases (i.e. during the brightest nights), but that fox, an intraguild prey of lynx, would avoid lynx activity peaks at the same time. Rabbits generally moved further from their core areas on darkest nights (i.e. new moon), using direct movements which minimize predation risk. Though rabbits responded to the increased predation risk by reducing their activity during the full moon, this response may require several days, and the moon effect we observed on the rabbits had, therefore, a temporal gap. Lynx activity patterns may be at least partially mirroring rabbit activity: around new moons, when rabbits moved furthest and were more active, lynxes reduced their travelling distances and their movements were concentrated in the core areas of their home ranges, which generally correspond to areas of high density of rabbits. Red foxes were more active during the darkest nights, when both the conditions for rabbit hunting were the best and lynxes moved less. On the one hand, foxes increased their activity when rabbits were further from their core areas and moved with more discrete displacements; on the other hand, fox activity in relation to the moon seemed to reduce dangerous encounters with its intraguild predator. PMID:23579570

Penteriani, Vincenzo; Kuparinen, Anna; Del Mar Delgado, Maria; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, José Vicente; Fedriani, José María; Calzada, Javier; Moreno, Sacramento; Villafuerte, Rafael; Campioni, Letizia; Lourenço, Rui

2013-04-12

112

Associations between Trichinella species and host species in Finland.  

PubMed

Examination of 627 wild animals--raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), European lynxes (Lynx lynx), brown bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and badgers (Meles meles)--revealed Trichinella spp. The prevalence varied according to geographical region of Finland (north; southwest, SW; and southeast, SE) and was the highest among lynxes (70%, SW). The risk of trichinellosis was higher in the SE (odds ratio, OR, 19.4) and SW regions (OR 14.3), as compared with the northern region (OR 1), with no difference between the former 2 regions. Foxes (OR 2.1) and lynxes (OR 1.9) had a higher risk than raccoon dogs (OR 1) of being infected. The distribution of different Trichinella species was evaluated in 87 wild and domestic mammals by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Trichinella spiralis was detected more often in domestic and synanthropic animals than in sylvatic hosts. Trichinella nativa was detected only in wildlife. Trichinella pseudospiralis was found both in sylvatic and synanthropic hosts. Trichinella britovi was detected only in mixed infections with other Trichinella species. The raccoon dog was the sole host for all 4 Trichinella species and also carried the most intense infections. PMID:12053985

Oivanen, Leena; Kapel, Christian M O; Pozio, Edoardo; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Mikkonen, Taina; Sukura, Antti

2002-02-01

113

Native predators reduce harvest of reindeer by Sámi pastoralists.  

PubMed

Contemporary efforts to protect biological diversity recognize the importance of sustaining traditional human livelihoods, particularly uses of the land that are compatible with intact landscapes and ecologically complete food webs. However, these efforts often confront conflicting goals. For example, conserving native predators may harm pastoralist economies because predators consume domestic livestock that sustain people. This potential conflict must be reconciled by policy, but such reconciliation requires a firm understanding of the effects of predators on the prey used by people. We used a long-term, large-scale database and Bayesian models to estimate the impacts of lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and brown bear (Ursus arctos) on harvest of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by Sami pastoralists in Sweden. The average annual harvest of reindeer averaged 25% of the population (95% credible interval = 19, 31). Annual harvest declined by 96.6 (31, 155) reindeer for each lynx family group (the surveyed segment of the lynx population) in a management unit and by 94.3 (20, 160) for each wolverine reproduction (the surveyed segment of the wolverine population). We failed to detect effects of predation by brown bear. The mechanism for effects of predation on harvest was reduced population growth rate. The rate of increase of reindeer populations declined with increasing abundance of lynx and wolverine. The density of reindeer, latitude, and weather indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation also influenced reindeer population growth rate. We conclude that there is a biological basis for compensating the Sámi reindeer herders for predation on reindeer. PMID:22908719

Hobbs, N Thompson; Andrén, Henrik; Persson, Jens; Aronsson, Malin; Chapron, Guillaume

2012-07-01

114

Worldwide Occurrence of Feline Hemoplasma Infections in Wild Felid Species?  

PubMed Central

While hemoplasma infections in domestic cats are well studied, almost no information is available on their occurrence in wild felids. The aims of the present study were to investigate wild felid species as possible reservoirs of feline hemoplasmas and the molecular characterization of the hemoplasma isolates. Blood samples from the following 257 wild felids were analyzed: 35 Iberian lynxes from Spain, 36 Eurasian lynxes from Switzerland, 31 European wildcats from France, 45 lions from Tanzania, and 110 Brazilian wild felids, including 12 wild felid species kept in zoos and one free-ranging ocelot. Using real-time PCR, feline hemoplasmas were detected in samples of the following species: Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, European wildcat, lion, puma, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, margay, and ocelot. “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum” was the most common feline hemoplasma in Iberian lynxes, Eurasian lynxes, Serengeti lions, and Brazilian wild felids, whereas “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis” was the most prevalent in European wildcats; hemoplasma coinfections were frequently observed. Hemoplasma infection was associated with species and free-ranging status of the felids in all animals and with feline leukemia virus provirus-positive status in European wildcats. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and the partial RNase P gene revealed that most hemoplasma isolates exhibit high sequence identities to domestic cat-derived isolates, although some isolates form different subclusters within the phylogenetic tree. In conclusion, 9 out of 15 wild felid species from three different continents were found to be infected with feline hemoplasmas. The effect of feline hemoplasma infections on wild felid populations needs to be further investigated.

Willi, Barbara; Filoni, Claudia; Catao-Dias, Jose L.; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L.; Vargas, Astrid; Martinez, Fernando; Roelke, Melody E.; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2007-01-01

115

Operationally applicable objective method for the analysis and evaluation of the flights of helicopter mission task elements during field-of-view trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995 the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency conducted a series of pilotage field of view (FOV) trials on a Lynx helicopter. These were performed under the auspices of the Technical Cooperation Program, subgroup H, Technical Panel 6. Before the commencement of the trials it was clear that it would be necessary to have available an objective method of

Kenneth L. Edwards; John W. Buckle; Mark J. Doherty; Lionel J. Lee; Adam C. Pratty; John F. White

1997-01-01

116

Worldwide Occurrence of Feline Hemoplasma Infections in Wild Felid Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

While hemoplasma infections in domestic cats are well studied, almost no information is available on their occurrence in wild felids. The aims of the present study were to investigate wild felid species as possible reservoirs of feline hemoplasmas and the molecular characterization of the hemoplasma isolates. Blood samples from the following 257 wild felids were analyzed: 35 Iberian lynxes from

Barbara Willi; Claudia Filoni; J. L. Catao-Dias; V. Cattori; M. L. Meli; A. Vargas; F. Martinez; M. E. Roelke; M.-P. Ryser-Degiorgis; C. M. Leutenegger; H. Lutz; R. Hofmann-Lehmann

2007-01-01

117

36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other weapon to take or assist in taking any species of bear, caribou, Sitka black-tailed deer, elk, coyote, arctic and red fox, mountain goat, moose, Dall sheep, lynx, bison, musk ox, wolf and wolverine until after 3 a.m. on...

2009-07-01

118

36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other weapon to take or assist in taking any species of bear, caribou, Sitka black-tailed deer, elk, coyote, arctic and red fox, mountain goat, moose, Dall sheep, lynx, bison, musk ox, wolf and wolverine until after 3 a.m. on...

2010-07-01

119

36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...other weapon to take or assist in taking any species of bear, caribou, Sitka black-tailed deer, elk, coyote, arctic and red fox, mountain goat, moose, Dall sheep, lynx, bison, musk ox, wolf and wolverine until after 3 a.m. on the day...

2013-07-01

120

A Juvenile Sichuan Golden Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Predated by a Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Qinling Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that hawks, panthers, jackals, lynxes and wolves may prey on Sichuan golden monkeys in the wild [1, 2], but all these assumptions were based on observations of dead monkeys eaten by predators, and no direct attack of a living individual has been witnessed. During our field study on the behavioural ecology of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in

Shuyi Zhang; Baoping Ren; Baoguo Li

1999-01-01

121

A sex difference in the behavioural response of nesting mountain bluebirds ( Sialia currucoides ) to a mounted predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passerine nests can benefit parental fitness, but defense against predators may be costly. Although this paradigm is well\\u000a studied, no studies have been conducted on mountain bluebirds (Sialia currucoides). We observed the response of 17 bluebird pairs with nestlings to a mounted bobcat (Lynx rufus) and two controls. Bluebird pairs clearly differentiated the mounted predator and males moved closer to

K. W. Gibson; A. Moehrenschlager

2008-01-01

122

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in 3 zoos in Mexico City, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus...

123

78 FR 4382 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Northwest Iowa; Under Alternative Site Framework  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposed zone would include one ``magnet'' site: Proposed Site 1 (417.4 acres)--City of Le Mars Industrial Park in the southwest corner of Le Mars bounded by the CN rail line to the west, Industrial Road/Lynx Road to the east and County...

2013-01-22

124

Patterns of self-reported fear towards large carnivores among the Norwegian public  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyse self-reported fear of four large carnivore species in a representative sample of the Norwegian population. People reported the most fear of the two largest and most dangerous carnivores, brown bears and wolves, and less fear of lynx and wolverines. Women expressed significantly more fear of these species than did men, and expressed fear increased with

Eivin Røskaft; Tore Bjerke; Bjørn Kaltenborn; John D. C Linnell; Reidar Andersen

2003-01-01

125

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neosport caninum antibodies in Spanish ibex (Capra pryenaica hispanica)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. The Iberian lynx (L...

126

DSSS-LINK: Projektbeskrivning. Vagutbredningsmaetningar Oeland-Gotland (DSSS-LINK: Project Description. Wave Propagation Measurements Oeland-Gotland).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report within the DSSS-LINK project. The aim of the project is to evaluate the possibility of using commercial available 2Mbit(E1) direct sequence spread spectrum links for military link hops. The LYNX radio from Western Multiplex Corporation is...

B. Asp

1994-01-01

127

Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.  

PubMed

The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals. PMID:22037661

Bilandži?, Nina; Dež?ek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Doki?, Maja; Simi?, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

2011-10-30

128

POPULATION TRENDS IN FURBEARERS IN NEBRASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population trends are documented from 1941 to 1997 for the 12 species of furbearing mammals harvested in Nebraska. Populations of red fox (Vulpes vulpes, raccoon (Procyon lotor), beaver (Castor canadensis), coyote (Canis lupus), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) have increased during this period. Populations of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), mink (Mustela vison), eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius), long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), and

L. M. Landholt; Hugh H. Genoways

2000-01-01

129

Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.  

PubMed

Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog. PMID:3196978

Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

1988-10-01

130

When species' ranges meet: assessing differences in habitat selection between sympatric large carnivores.  

PubMed

Differentiation in habitat selection among sympatric species may depend on niche partitioning, species interactions, selection mechanisms and scales considered. In a mountainous area in Sweden, we explored hierarchical habitat selection in Global Positioning System-collared individuals of two sympatric large carnivore species; an obligate predator, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a generalist predator and scavenger, the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Although the species' fundamental niches differ widely, their ranges overlap in this area where they share a prey base and main cause of mortality. Both lynx and wolverines selected for steep and rugged terrain in mountainous birch forest and in heaths independent of scale and available habitats. However, the selection of lynx for their preferred habitats was stronger when they were forming home ranges and they selected the same habitats within their home ranges independent of home range composition. Wolverines displayed a greater variability when selecting home ranges and habitat selection also varied with home range composition. Both species selected for habitats that promote survival through limited encounters with humans, but which also are rich in prey, and selection for these habitats was accordingly stronger in winter when human activity was high and prey density was low. We suggest that the observed differences between the species result primarily from different foraging strategies, but may also depend on differences in ranging and resting behaviour, home range size, and relative density of each species. Our results support the prediction that sympatric carnivores with otherwise diverging niches can select for the same resources when sharing main sources of food and mortality. PMID:23242426

Rauset, Geir Rune; Mattisson, Jenny; Andrén, Henrik; Chapron, Guillaume; Persson, Jens

2012-12-14

131

Habitat differentiation within the large-carnivore community of Norway's multiple-use landscapes.  

PubMed

The re-establishment of large carnivores in Norway has led to increased conflicts and the adoption of regional zoning for these predators. When planning the future distribution of large carnivores, it is important to consider details of their potential habitat tolerances and strength of inter-specific differentiation. We studied differentiation in habitat and kill sites within the large-carnivore community of south-eastern Norway.We compared habitat selection of the brown bear Ursus arctos L., Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx L., wolf Canis lupus L. and wolverine Gulo gulo L., based on radio-tracking data. Differences in kill site locations were explored using locations of documented predator-killed sheep Ovis aries L. We modelled each species' selection for, and differentiation in, habitat and kill sites on a landscape scale using resource selection functions and multinomial logistic regression. Based on projected probability of occurrence maps, we estimated continuous patches of habitat within the study area.Although bears, lynx, wolves and wolverines had overlapping distributions, we found a clear differentiation for all four species in both habitat and kill sites. The presence of bears, wolves and lynx was generally associated with rugged, forested areas at lower elevations, whereas wolverines selected rugged terrain at higher elevations. Some degree of sympatry was possible in over 40% of the study area, although only 1.5% could hold all four large carnivores together.Synthesis and applications. A geographically differentiated management policy has been adopted in Norway, aimed at conserving viable populations of large carnivores while minimizing the potential for conflicts. Sympatry of all four carnivores will be most successful if regional zones are established of adequate size spanning an elevational gradient. High prey densities, low carnivore densities, low dietary overlap and scavenging opportunities have most probably led to reduced competitive exclusion. Although regional sympatry enhances the conservation of an intact guild of large carnivores, it may well increase conflict levels and resistance to carnivore conservation locally. PMID:19330031

May, Roel; van Dijk, Jiska; Wabakken, Petter; Swenson, Jon E; Linnell, John Dc; Zimmermann, Barbara; Odden, John; Pedersen, Hans C; Andersen, Reidar; Landa, Arild

2008-10-01

132

The Subsurface 3D Modelling of the Handeresi (Kalkim-Canakkale) Area, NW of Turkey, Pb-Zn-Cu Ore Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of 3D softwares are available for subsurface modelling. Some of the complete 3D softwares are GoCAD, LYNX, TECHBASE, VULCAN, GeoBLOCK, MVS, MICROMINE and RockWorks. These softwares have their own merits and demerits. RockWorks, one of these softwares, has efficient data management capabilities. It facilitates easy entry of different types of subsurface data such as lithological, geophysical, and geochemical

Sinan Akiska; Gökhan Demirela

2010-01-01

133

A full-flight-envelope high-bandwidth rotorcraft flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of a Lynx-like helicopter vary considerably over the operational flight envelope, and, to meet proposed handling quality requirements, it seems probable that a single linear time-invariant controller will not be able to provide adequate performance far from the design operating point. The authors outline two possible schemes, based on a two-degree-of-freedom (2 DOF) structure, currently being considered as

D. Walker; I. Postlthewaite

1991-01-01

134

Heterozygosity-fitness correlations and inbreeding depression in two critically endangered mammals.  

PubMed

The relation among inbreeding, heterozygosity, and fitness has been studied primarily among outbred populations, and little is known about these phenomena in endangered populations. Most researchers conclude that the relation between coefficient of inbreeding estimated from pedigrees and fitness traits (inbreeding-fitness correlations) better reflects inbreeding depression than the relation between marker heterozygosity and fitness traits (heterozygosity-fitness correlations). However, it has been suggested recently that heterozygosity-fitness correlations should only be expected when inbreeding generates extensive identity disequilibrium (correlations in heterozygosity and homozygosity across loci throughout the genome). We tested this hypothesis in Mohor gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). For Mohor gazelle, we calculated the inbreeding coefficient and measured heterozygosity at 17 microsatellite loci. For Iberian lynx, we measured heterozygosity at 36 microsatellite loci. In both species we estimated semen quality, a phenotypic trait directly related to fitness that is controlled by many loci and is affected by inbreeding depression. Both species showed evidence of extensive identity disequilibrium, and in both species heterozygosity was associated with semen quality. In the Iberian lynx the low proportion of normal sperm associated with low levels of heterozygosity was so extreme that it is likely to limit the fertility of males. In Mohor gazelle, although heterozygosity was associated with semen quality, inbreeding coefficient was not. This result suggests that when coefficient of inbreeding is calculated on the basis of a genealogy that begins after a long history of inbreeding, the coefficient of inbreeding fails to capture previous demographic information because it is a poor estimator of accumulated individual inbreeding. We conclude that among highly endangered species with extensive identity disequilibrium, examination of heterozygosity-fitness correlations may be an effective way to detect inbreeding depression, whereas inbreeding-fitness correlations may be poor indicators of inbreeding depression if the pedigree does not accurately reflect the history of inbreeding. PMID:22897325

Ruiz-López, María José; Gañan, Natalia; Godoy, José Antonio; Del Olmo, Ana; Garde, Julian; Espeso, Gerardo; Vargas, Astrid; Martinez, Fernando; Roldán, Eduardo R S; Gomendio, Montserrat

2012-08-16

135

AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted

J. M. Slicker

1983-01-01

136

ICT System Description for the 2006 TC-STAR Run #2 SLT Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes systems participated in 2006 TC-STAR Run #2 SLT Evaluation of Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We developed three systems based on different techniques: system Confucius based on phrase, system Lynx based on tree-to-string alignment template and system Bruin based on BTG (Bracketing Transduction Grammar). These three systems share the same phrase-based translation model and

Zhongjun He; Yang Liu; Deyi Xiong; Hongxu Hou; Qun Liu

2006-01-01

137

Trichinella pseudospiralis foci in Sweden.  

PubMed

In Sweden, the prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs has greatly decreased since the 1970s, with no reports in the past 4 years. However, infected wild animals continue to be found. The objective of the present study was to identify the species of Trichinella present in animals of Sweden, so as to contribute to the knowledge on the distribution area and hosts useful for the prevention and control of this zoonosis. In the period 1985-2003, Trichinella larvae were detected in the muscles of 81/1800 (4.5%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 1/6 (16.7%) arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), 1/7 (14.3%) wolf (Canis lupus), 10/200 (5.0%) lynxes (Lynx lynx), 4/8000 (0.05%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), and 27/66 x 10(6) (0.000041%) domestic pigs. All four Trichinella species previously found in Europe were detected (Trichinella spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis). The non-encapsulated species T. pseudospiralis was detected in three wild boars from Holo (Stockholm area) and in one lynx from Froso (Ostersund area), suggesting that this species is widespread in Sweden. These findings are consistent with those of a study from Finland, both for the unexpected presence of T. pseudospiralis infection and the presence of the same four Trichinella species, suggesting that this epidemiological situation is present in the entire Scandinavian region. The widespread diffusion of T. pseudospiralis in the Scandinavian region is also important in terms of it potential impact on public health, given that human infection can occur and the difficulties to detect it by the trichinelloscopic examination. PMID:15482889

Pozio, E; Christensson, D; Stéen, M; Marucci, G; La Rosa, G; Bröjer, C; Mörner, T; Uhlhorn, H; Agren, E; Hall, M

2004-11-10

138

A spectroscopic study of supergiants with infrared excesses: Pulsating RV Tau stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use high-resolution CCD spectra from the LYNX echelle spectrometer of the 6-m telescope to determine the fundamental parameters T_eff and log g and the detailed chemical composition for four pulsating RV Tau stars in the Galactic field - AC Her, U Mon, RV Tau, and AI CMi - by the method of model atmospheres. Based on high-resolution spectra, we

V. G. Klochkova; V. E. Panchuk

1998-01-01

139

Experimental evaluation of a COTS system for space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the impact of transient errors in the operating system of a COTS-based system (CETIA board with two PowerPC 750 processors running LynxOS) and quantifies their effects at both the OS and at the application level. The study has been conducted using a Software-Implemented Fault Injection tool (Xception) and both realistic programs and synthetic workloads (to focus on

Henrique Madeira; F. Moreira; D. Costa; David Rennels

2002-01-01

140

Cross-platform Q-TOF validation of global exo-metabolomic analysis: Application to human glioblastoma cells treated with the standard PI 3Kinase inhibitor LY294002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproducibility of a metabolomics method has been assessed to identify changes in tumour cell metabolites. Tissue culture media extracts were analyzed by reverse phase chromatography on a Waters Acquity T3 column with a 13min 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile gradient on Agilent and Waters LC-Q-TOF instruments. Features (m\\/z, RT) were extracted by MarkerLynx™ (Waters) and Molecular Feature Extractor (Agilent) in

R. Pandher; C. Ducruix; S. A. Eccles; F. I. Raynaud

2009-01-01

141

Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting.  

PubMed

Chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. Painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. However, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-Canidae species. Here, we extended cross-species painting with dog probes to seven more species representing six carnivore families: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the stone marten (Martes foina), the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Javan mongoose (Hepestes javanicas), the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The numbers and positions of intra-chromosomal rearrangements were found to differ among these carnivore species. A comparative map between human and stone marten, and a map among the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), stone marten and human were also established to facilitate outgroup comparison and to integrate comparative maps between stone marten and other carnivores with such maps between human and other species. These comparative maps give further insight into genome evolution and karyotype phylogenetic relationships among carnivores, and will facilitate the transfer of gene mapping data from human, domestic dog and cat to other species. PMID:22086079

Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Wang, D; Tanomtong, A; Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

2011-11-16

142

A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application  

SciTech Connect

(U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

1999-05-27

143

A Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If top predators are to persist into future years, they will likely need the help of committed advocates. The Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe (LCIE)--a network comprised of scientists, government representatives, and non-governmental agency representatives--works to "maintain and restore, in coexistence with people, viable populations of large carnivores as an integral part of ecosystems and landscapes across Europe." The LCIE website provides information about five important carnivorous species: wolverines, brown bears, wolves, Eurasian lynx, and Iberian lynx. The site also links to a variety of downloadable publications regarding LCIE, the aforementioned five species, and a variety of conservation and management issues. From the Carnivore Damage Protection page site visitors can download the latest issue of the LCIE newsletter, which is published to facilitate communication between people working to prevent carnivore damage. The site also contains some nice animal images, and links to the Eurasian Lynx Online Information System (reported on October 15, 2004 in the NSDL Report for the Life Sciences). This site is also reviewed in the November 12, 2004_NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

144

A Fall fur-hunt from Maine to New Brunswick, Canada: The 1858 journal of Manly Hardy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecologists, conservationists, and others increasingly ask questions that require a reliable understanding of natural conditions in the past. For example, when the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to list the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) under the Federal Endangered Species Act, there was a need to know the historical status of this species in the northeastern US. The natural history writings of Manly Hardy, a successful, nineteenth-century businessman and respected amateur naturalist from Brewer, ME, proved useful in assessing the lynx's historical status. Because of the wide array of potential uses of Hardy's writings, the objective of this paper is to make biologists and other scholars aware of Hardy, especially his 15 surviving journals, 1852-1899. Hardy left the most extensive published record of any of the naturalists who wrote about wildlife in Maine from the late 1800s through the early 1900s. His articles and essays covered a wide range of subjects about a variety of bird and mammal species. A recently published biographical sketch of Hardy contains an annotated bibliography of his publications along with the republication of 14 of his mammalian works. In contrast, this article contains an example of his unpublished journal writing with significant wildlife observations.

Krohn, W. B.

2005-01-01

145

Antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in Canada.  

PubMed

Antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [CAV-2], feline herpesvirus [FHV], phocine herpesvirus [PHV-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [DMV], phocine distemper virus [PDV], parainfluenza virus type 3 [PI3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [DRV], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, Borrelia burgdorferi and Toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals, including cougars (Fellis concolor), lynxes (Fellis lynx), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), fishers (Martes pennanti), wolverines (Gulo gulo), wolves (Canis lupus), black bears (Ursus americanus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), which had been collected at several locations in Canada between 1984 and 2001. Antibodies to a number of viruses were detected in species in which these infections have not been reported before, for example, antibodies to CAV-2 in walruses, to PDV in black bears, grizzly bears, polar bears, lynxes and wolves, to DMV in grizzly bears, polar bears, walruses and wolves, to PI3 in black bears and fishers, and to DRV in belugas and walruses. PMID:15338705

Philippa, J D W; Leighton, F A; Daoust, P Y; Nielsen, O; Pagliarulo, M; Schwantje, H; Shury, T; Van Herwijnen, R; Martina, B E E; Kuiken, T; Van de Bildt, M W G; Osterhaus, A D M E

2004-07-31

146

Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals. PMID:16387445

Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

2006-01-18

147

Quantification of the humoral immune response and hemoplasma blood and tissue loads in cats coinfected with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and feline leukemia virus.  

PubMed

'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) is a hemotropic mycoplasma (aka hemoplasma) of domestic cats and wild felids. In a transmission study, we exposed eight specified pathogen-free cats to blood from Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus) infected with CMhm. The cats were coinfected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) from an Iberian lynx or with a prototype FeLV. The goal of the present study was to quantify the humoral immune response to CMhm and to identify potential target tissues and sequestration sites. Antibodies were measured by a recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and blood and tissue loads were quantified using real-time PCR. Seven out of eight cats became CMhm-infected; all of these cats seroconverted between 3 and 13 weeks after inoculation. Antibody levels correlated with the CMhm blood loads. The peak CMhm blood loads were inversely correlated with the incubation period. PCR-positive results were found in all 24 tissues tested but not for all samples. Although all tissues were PCR-positive in one cat euthanized ten weeks after infection, many tissues tested negative in six cats euthanized at week 20 after infection. In several cats, the spleen, lung, liver, heart and aorta contained more copies than expected given the tissue's blood supply, but most tissues contained fewer copies than expected. In conclusion, this is the first study to quantify the humoral immune response and tissue loads in CMhm-FeLV-coinfected cats. The tissue loads appeared to correlate with the duration of infection and with the blood loads, but no evidence of significant CMhm tissue sequestration was found. PMID:22588083

Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Cattori, Valentino; Geret, Catrina P; Novacco, Marilisa; Meli, Marina L; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2012-05-12

148

Implementation uncertainty when using recreational hunting to manage carnivores.  

PubMed

1. Wildlife managers often rely on resource users, such as recreational or commercial hunters, to achieve management goals. The use of hunters to control wildlife populations is especially common for predators and ungulates, but managers cannot assume that hunters will always fill annual quotas set by the authorities. It has been advocated that resource management models should account for uncertainty in how harvest rules are realized, requiring that this implementation uncertainty be estimated.2. We used a survival analysis framework and long-term harvest data from large carnivore management systems in three countries (Estonia, Latvia and Norway) involving four species (brown bear, grey wolf, Eurasian lynx and wolverine) to estimate the performance of hunters with respect to harvest goals set by managers.3. Variation in hunter quota-filling performance was substantial, ranging from 40% for wolverine in Norway to nearly 100% for lynx in Latvia. Seasonal and regional variation was also high within country-species pairs. We detected a positive relationship between the instantaneous potential to fill a quota slot and the relative availability of the target species for both wolverine and lynx in Norway.4. Survivor curves and hazards - with survival time measured as the time from the start of a season until a quota slot is filled - can indicate the extent to which managers can influence harvest through adjustments of season duration and quota limits.5.Synthesis and applications. We investigated seven systems where authorities use recreational hunting to manage large carnivore populations. The variation and magnitude of deviation from harvest goals was substantial, underlining the need to incorporate implementation uncertainty into resource management models and decisions-making. We illustrate how survival analysis can be used by managers to estimate the performance of resource users with respect to achieving harvest goals set by managers. The findings in this study come at an opportune time given the growing popularity of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models in fisheries and a push towards incorporating MSE into terrestrial harvest management. PMID:23197878

Bischof, Richard; Nilsen, Erlend B; Brøseth, Henrik; Männil, Peep; Ozoli?š, Ja?nis; Linnell, John D C; Bode, Michael

2012-08-01

149

Beamline operation using an industrial control system and distributed object-oriented hardware access  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the Control System of the CERN Neutrino Beamline, based on FactoryLink and equipment controllers using PCs running LynxOS. FactoryLink runs on a workstation and connects via communications tasks over Ethernet to both the PCs and the data acquisition systems of the experiments. The PCs access VME and CAMAC directly via the VICbus. Object-oriented control software, entirely data driven, deals with hardware modules and local survey operations. Remote stations have access via X-Window.

Butler, H.; Myers, D.R.; Rueden, W. von; Yang, J. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). ECP Div.)

1994-02-01

150

ac powertrain for an electric vehicle. Phase 2 and Phase 3 final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work relating to Phases 2 and 3 development and testing of an ac powertrain for a 25 hp four-passenger electric vehicle. The system, which consists of a two-speed automatic mechanical transaxle, 18.6 kW ac induction traction motor, 33.6 kW inverter and overall logic controller, was installed and evaluated in a converted Mercury Lynx rolling test bed vehicle. An on-board charger and an auxiliary dc-to-dc converter were integrated into the inverter/controller package.

Slicker, J.M.

1984-11-01

151

The Near-Infrared Number Counts and Luminosity Functions of Local Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a wide-field near-infrared (K-band) survey in two fields;\\u000aSA 68 and Lynx 2. The survey covers an area of 0.6 deg.$^2$, complete to\\u000aK=16.5. A total of 867 galaxies are detected in this survey of which 175 have\\u000aavailable redshifts. The near-infrared number counts to K=16.5 mag. are\\u000aestimated from the complete photometric survey and are found

Gyula P. Szokoly; Mark U. Subbarao; Andrew J. Connolly; Bahram Mobasher

1998-01-01

152

Electromyographic activity of perioral muscle in breastfed and non-breastfed children.  

PubMed

The objective was to verify the electrical activity of the Mm. orbicularis oris and mentalis during suction of different liquids in breastfed and non-breastfed children from 2.5-3.5 years old. It was used a signal conditioner (MCS-V2-Lynx Eletrônica Ltda, SP, BR) and Beckman Ag-AgCl bipolar surface electrodes. Breastfed children presented higher activity for mentalis and smaller values for the M. orbicular oris than non-breastfed children, suggesting the existence of different profiles of muscle activation between them. PMID:15554405

Jacinto-Gonçalves, Suzane Rodrigues; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Berzin, Fausto; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Semeguini, Tatiana Adamov

2004-01-01

153

Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

Biggins, D. E.; Biggins, D. M.

2006-01-01

154

Performances of new green sensitive liquid photopolymers for volume phase holographic gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid photopolymers produced by Polygrama-Lynx (SM-532TR and SM-532TRF) have been studied to determine their performances in terms of refractive index modulation, transparency and overall optical quality. Volume phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) based on these materials have been obtained using a 532 DPSS laser and the grating efficiency has been measured at different angles and wavelengths. Using the Kogelnik model and/or the RCWA approach, the thickness and the refractive index modulation has been determined for gratings as function of light exposure, line density, etc. Index modulations up to 0.03 together with good optical quality were obtained.

Zanutta, Alessio; Bianco, Andrea; Zerbi, Filippo M.

2012-02-01

155

Synthetic aperture radar for disaster monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is well known to afford imaging in darkness and through clouds, smoke, and other obscurants. As such, it is particularly useful for mapping and monitoring a variety of natural and man-made disasters. A portfolio of SAR image examples has been collected using General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.'s (GA-ASI's) Lynx® family of Ku-Band SAR systems, flown on both operational and test-bed aircraft. Images are provided that include scenes of flooding, ice jams in North Dakota, agricultural field fires in southern California, and ocean oil slicks from seeps off the coast of southern California.

Dunkel, R.; Saddler, R.; Doerry, A. W.

2011-05-01

156

Test plan for performance testing of the Eaton AC-3 electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternating current (ac) propulsion system for an electric vehicle was developed and tested. The test bed vehicle is a modified 1981 Mercury Lynx. The test plan was prepared specifically for the third modification to this test bed and identified as the Eaton AC-3. The scope of the testing done on the Eaton AC-3 includes coastdown and dynamometer tests but does not include environmental, on-road, or track testing. Coastdown testing is performed in accordance with SAE J-1263 (SAE Recommended Practice for Road Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques).

Crumley, R.; Heiselmann, H. W.

1985-04-01

157

Test plan for performance testing of the Eaton AC-3 electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An alternating current (ac) propulsion system for an electric vehicle has been developed and tested by the Eaton Corporation. The test bed vehicle is a modified 1981 Mercury Lynx. The test plan has been prepared specifically for the third modification to this test bed and identified as the Eaton AC-3. The scope of the EG and G testing at INEL to be done on the Eaton AC-3 will include coastdown and dynamometer tests but will not include environmental, on-road, or track testing. Coastdown testing will be performed in accordance with SAE J-1263 (SAE Recommended Practice for Road Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques).

Crumley, R.L.; Heiselmann, H.W.

1985-04-01

158

Influence of different stimuli on electromyographic variables of the biceps brachii.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different stimuli on the muscular response of 30 young sedentary male and female subjects. A conditioning module with A/D 16/32 signals of 12 bits (LYNX), with band-pass filter of 10-500 Hz and sampling frequency of 1000 Hz was used. A bipolar active surface electrode (LYNX), a load cell (MM-100 KRATOS) and a pressure cuff were also used. The volunteers were submitted to four conditions: Without stimulus (WS), auditive stimulus (AS), visual stimulus (VS), and auditive + visual stimuli (AVS). Matlab 6.5.1 software was used to process the signals for analyzing RMS and median frequency (MF), as well as muscular force (F) and cuff pressure (P). Statistical analysis consisted of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test with a critical level of 5%. As to RMS, females presented a significant increase in all types of stimuli compared to WS. As to MF there was no significant difference between the different groups for either sex. P in both sexes presented a significant increase when submitted to VS and AVS. F was higher for AVS in males and for any of the stimuli in females when compared to WS. In all the variables analyzed, males presented significantly higher values than females for all types of stimuli. PMID:17191731

Guirro, R R J; Forti, F; Brambila, A C; Groff, K A

159

Comparison of the electromyographic variables at different muscle lengths and contraction intensities.  

PubMed

Thirty-three (33) healthy volunteers (2.29 +/- 2.4 years) participated. Two active surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris muscle: one on the motor point (M) and the other on the thickest distal portion of the muscle (V). The volunteer was positioned on a Bonet table, with his/her trunk fixed, thigh at 90 degrees and leg with 105 degrees and 45 degrees flexion. The signal was collected simultaneously in the 2 electrodes and in the load cell, during the extension of the leg at 50% or 100% of the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for 5 seconds, repeated 3 times, with an interval of 1 minute. The EMG signal was obtained through a data acquisition module (EMG1000 - Lynx) of 16 bits (LYNX), with band- pass filter of 20-1.000 Hz and sampling frequency of 2.000 Hz. RMS and mean frequency (MF) were assessed with Matlab software. Statistical analysis consisted of the Wilcoxon test and Student t test (p < 0.05). At 50% of the MVIC, the RMS was greater in the shortened muscle than the lengthened one. Whereas at 100% there was an inversion, with the lengthened muscle presenting greater amplitude. The FM both at 50% and 100% MVIC was greater for the muscle in the shortened position. It was possible to conclude that changes in muscular length and in contraction intensity alter the electromyographic variables. PMID:18338529

Forti, Fabiana; Guirro, Rinaldo R J

160

Polymorphism of CAG repeats in androgen receptor of carnivores.  

PubMed

Androgen effect is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). The polymorphism of CAG triplet repeat (polyCAG), in the N-terminal transactivation domain of the AR protein, has been involved either in endocrine or neurological disorders in human. We obtained partial sequence of AR exon 1 in 10 carnivore species. In most carnivore species, polyglutamine length polymorphism presented in all three CAG repeat regions of AR, in contrast, only CAG-I site polymorphism presented in primate species, and CAG-I and CAG-III sites polymorphism presented in Canidae. Therefore, studies focusing on disease-associated polymorphism of poly(CAG) in carnivore species AR should investigate all three CAG repeats sites, and should not only consider CAG-I sites as the human disease studies. The trinucleotide repeat length in carnivore AR exon 1 had undergone from expansions to contractions during carnivores evolution, unlike a linear increase in primate species. Furthermore, the polymorphisms of the triplet-repeats in the same tissue (somatic mosaicism) were demonstrated in Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx, Clouded leopard, Chinese tiger, Black leopard and Leopard AR. And, the abnormal stop codon was found in the exon 1 of three carnivore species AR (Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx and Black leopard). It seemed to have a high frequency presence of tissue-specific somatic in carnivores AR genes. Thus the in vivo mechanism leading to such highly variable phenotypes of the described mutations, and their impact on these animals, are worthwhile to be further elucidated. PMID:21643744

Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiuyue; Wang, Xiaofang; Zeng, Bo; Jia, Xiaodong; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong

2011-06-04

161

Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife in Spain.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife and feral species is a potential source of infection for livestock and a threat to protected and endangered species. The aim of this study was to identify Spanish wild animal species infected with M. bovis through bacteriological culture and spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) of isolates for epidemiological purposes. This study included samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), hare (Lepus europaeus), and cattle (Bos taurus). They were collected in several geographical areas that were selected for their unique ecological value and/or known relationships between wildlife and livestock. In the areas included in this survey, M. bovis strains with the same spoligotyping pattern were found infecting several wild species and livestock, which indicates an epidemiological link. A locally predominant spoligotype was found in these areas. Better understanding of the transmission and distribution of disease in these populations will permit more precise targeting of control measures. PMID:15184440

Aranaz, Alicia; De Juan, Lucía; Montero, Natalia; Sánchez, Celia; Galka, Margarita; Delso, Consuelo; Alvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Vela, Ana I; Briones, Victor; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

2004-06-01

162

Design exploration and verification platform, based on high-level modeling and FPGA prototyping, for fast and flexible digital communication in physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many research fields as high energy physics (HEP), astrophysics, nuclear medicine or space engineering with harsh operating conditions, the use of fast and flexible digital communication protocols is becoming more and more important. The possibility to have a smart and tested top-down design flow for the design of a new protocol for control/readout of front-end electronics is very useful. To this aim, and to reduce development time, costs and risks, this paper describes an innovative design/verification flow applied as example case study to a new communication protocol called FF-LYNX. After the description of the main FF-LYNX features, the paper presents: the definition of a parametric SystemC-based Integrated Simulation Environment (ISE) for high-level protocol definition and validation; the set up of figure of merits to drive the design space exploration; the use of ISE for early analysis of the achievable performances when adopting the new communication protocol and its interfaces for a new (or upgraded) physics experiment; the design of VHDL IP cores for the TX and RX protocol interfaces; their implementation on a FPGA-based emulator for functional verification and finally the modification of the FPGA-based emulator for testing the ASIC chipset which implements the rad-tolerant protocol interfaces. For every step, significant results will be shown to underline the usefulness of this design and verification approach that can be applied to any new digital protocol development for smart detectors in physics experiments.

Magazzù, G.; Borgese, G.; Costantino, N.; Fanucci, L.; Incandela, J.; Saponara, S.

2013-02-01

163

Independent variation of retinal S and M cone photoreceptor topographies: A survey of four families of mammals.  

PubMed

In mammals, cone photoreceptor subtypes are thought to establish topographies that reflect the species-relevant properties of the visual environment. Middle- to long-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones are the dominant population and in most species they form an area centralis at the visual axis. Short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cone topographies do not always match this pattern. We here correlate the interrelationship of S and M cone topographies in representatives of several mammalian orders with different visual ecology, including man, cheetah, cat, Eurasian lynx, African lion, wild hog, roe deer, and red deer. Retinas were labeled with opsin antisera and S and M cone distributions as well as S/M cone ratios were mapped. We find that species inhabiting open environments show M cone horizontal streaks (cheetah, pig, deer). Species living in structured habitats (tiger, lynx, red deer) have increased S cone densities along the retinal margin. In species with active vision (cheetah, bear, tiger, man), S cone distributions are more likely to follow the centripetal M cone gradients. Small species show a ventral bias of peak S cone density which either matches the peak of M cone density in a temporal area centralis (diurnal sciurid rodents, tree shrews) or not (cat, manul, roe deer). Thus, in addition to habitat structure, physical size and specific lifestyle patterns (e.g. food acquisition) appear to underlie the independent variations of M and S cone topographies. PMID:16961976

Ahnelt, Peter Kurt; Schubert, Christian; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Schiviz, Alexandra; Anger, Elisabeth

164

Electrophotometry of variable stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sample observations of eclipsing variables made in Berlin, Germany, using a 25-cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and an electric photometer with an EMI 9781B tube and UBV filters are presented, with the aim of demonstrating the usefulness and attainable precision of amateur observations of these stars. The photometer calibration procedure is outlined, and light curves of XY Leo, WW CnC, SAO 072799, BM Cas, V695 Gyg, Zeta And, RX Cas, and the 'c' object in Lynx (discovered by Frank in January, 1983) are discussed. The latter is found in preliminary observations to have a period of 0.197 day (assuming it is an eclipsing binary), and the fact that its B minimum occurs about 4 min later than its V minimum suggests that it may be a Delta-Scuti-type binary containing an A star. It is pointed out that a large number of unmeasured variable stars are of sufficient brightness for amateur photometric observations.

Fernandes, M.

1983-09-01

165

Forensic scatology: preliminary experimental study of the preparation and potential for identification of captive carnivore scat.  

PubMed

Carnivore scats recovered from animal attack and/or scavenging contexts frequently contain forensic evidence such as human bone fragments. Forensic cases with carnivore involvement are increasingly prevalent, necessitating a methodology for the recovery and analysis of scat evidence. This study proposes a method for the safe preparation of carnivore scat, recovery of bone inclusions, and quantification and comparison of scat variables. Fourteen scats (lion, jaguar, lynx, wolf, and coyote) were prepared with sodium-acetate-formalin fixative; analytical variables included carnivore individual, species, body size, and taxonomic family. Scat variables, particularly bone fragment inclusions, were found to vary among carnivore individuals, families, species, and sizes. The methods in this study facilitate safe scat processing, the complete recovery of digested evidence, and the preliminary identification of involved animals. This research demonstrates that scat collected from forensic contexts can yield valuable information concerning both the victim and the carnivore involved. PMID:21923796

Gilmour, Rebecca J; Skinner, Mark F

2011-09-16

166

[Using thin-layer chromatography of fecal bile acid to study the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica) population].  

PubMed

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of fecal bile acids has been used to confirm visual identification of 30 scat samples found in Armenia from April 2004 to November 2005 and attributed to the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica). The results of TLC do not differ significantly from those of visual identification, confirming the reliability of the latter method. All samples identified incorrectly (lynx and wolf scats) are from the Meghri Ridge, indicating that the ecological niches of the three predators apparently overlap in this area. Taking into account the frequency and distribution of scats, two priority areas for leopard conservation have been identified: the Central and Khachadzor districts of the Khosrov Nature Reserve and the Nuvadi-Shvanidzor area in eastern Meghri ridge. PMID:17969256

Khorozian, I G; Cazon, A; Malkhasian, A G; Abramov, A V

167

Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

1985-01-01

168

Affordable miniaturized SAR for tactical UAV applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia"s fielded and experimental SAR systems are well known for their real time, high resolution imagery. Previous designs, such as the Lynx radar, have been successfully demonstrated on medium-payload UAVs, including Predator and Fire Scout. However, fielding a high performance SAR sensor on even smaller (sub-50 pound payload) UAVs will require at least a 5x reduction in size, weight, and cost. This paper gives an overview of Sandia"s system concept and roadmap for near-term SAR miniaturization. Specifically, the "miniSAR" program, which plans to demonstrate a 25 pound system with 4 inch resolution in early 2005, is detailed. Accordingly, the conceptual approach, current status, design tradeoffs, and key facilitating technologies are reviewed. Lastly, future enhancements and directions are described, such as the follow-on demonstration of a sub-20 pound version with multi-mode (SAR/GMTI) capability.

Sloan, George R.; Dubbert, Dale F.

2004-08-01

169

Increasing frequency of feline cytauxzoonosis cases diagnosed in western Kentucky from 2001 to 2011.  

PubMed

Feline cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease in domestic cats caused by the tick-borne pathogen, Cytauxzoon felis. The primary reservoir host for this protozoan parasite is the bobcat (Lynx rufus). In this retrospective study, we have examined the positive cases of feline cytauxzoonosis identified at Murray State University's Breathitt Veterinary Center, a regional diagnostic facility located in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, between January 2001 and December 2011. Center records reveal that there has been an increase in the rate of diagnosis of domestic feline infection with C. felis over that 10-year span with the majority of cases (75%) occurring between 2006 and 2011. The infection was diagnosed from March through October and showed a single peak in May, corresponding well with the questing period for the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, a known vector of C. felis. PMID:24035030

Miller, Jean; Davis, Cheryl D

2013-08-21

170

Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.  

PubMed

Subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, Arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, Persian onager, Przewalski's wild horse, Malayan sun bear, Asian elephant, East African river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. It was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin sheaths. Occasionally, ballooned myelin sheaths contained thin strands of myelin and macrophages surrounding distorted axons. Additionally, a mild incidental lymphocytic polyneuritis was present in intradural nerve rootlets of the Malayan sun bear, and a moderate lymphocytic spinal ganglionitis in the East African river hippopotamus. PMID:8408784

Anderson, W I; Cummings, J F; Steinberg, H; deLahunta, A; King, J M

1993-07-01

171

Tethering toxins and peptide ligands for modulation of neuronal function  

PubMed Central

Tethering genetically encoded peptide toxins or ligands close to their point of activity at the cell plasma membrane provides a new approach to the study of cell networks and neuronal circuits, as it allows selective targeting of specific cell populations, enhances the working concentration of the ligand or blocker peptide, and permits the engineering of a large variety of t-peptides (e.g., including use of fluorescent markers, viral vectors and point mutation variants). This review describes the development of tethered toxins and peptides derived from the identification of the cell surface nAChR modulator lynx1, the existence of related endogenous cell surface modulators of nAChR and AMPA receptors, and the application of the t-toxin and t-neuropeptide technology to the dissection of neuronal circuits in metazoans.

Ibanez-Tallon, Ines; Nitabach, Michael N.

2011-01-01

172

[Reference relationships between human and animal in Hildegard von Bingen].  

PubMed

In "De animalibus", the 7th book in the "Liber simplicis medicinae", Hildegard von Bingen describes the characteristics of four-footed land animals. Some of these have a special relationship with humans in that they embody moral qualities. An explanation for this is already given in the preface, which states that human intelligence recognizes these qualities, declaring that "You are this or that sort of creature". Since the relationship that animals have with nature shares a degree of similarity with that of man's, they can be regarded as symbolic representatives for particular human traits and characteristics. The article at hand presents Hildegard von Bingen's descriptions of the monkey, the lion, the bear, the rabbit, the dog, the cat, the wolf, the lynx, and the donkey. While the monkey just mimics man's behaviour and is imperfect in both settings, the lion embodies will power. The bear on the other hand stands for unbridled sexual desire, while in the rabbit the gentleness of a sheep is united with the bounce of a deer. The lynx is regarded as hedonistic, the donkey as stupid, and the wolf as surrounded by dangerous sylphs. In Hildegard's depictions, exotic and native animal species display rather extraordinary behavioural traits, and the medieval Christian world view of the author conveys unexpected relationships between humans and animals. In addition to empirical observation and experience, Hildegard also relies on folkloristic beliefs and magical practices related to explanatory models of her time. She allows largely unknown sources into her animal lore but never strays from her ultimate goal of having it serve to instruct people. In doing so, Hildegard removed herself far from the common tradition of medieval animal portraits. PMID:23155757

Riethe, Peter

2012-01-01

173

Field performance evaluation for Heliborne FLIR systems by newly devised conversion methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion methodology for field performance of HFLIR (Heliborne FLIR) systems has been in phenomenon established to get reasonable evaluation for its detection and identification ranges. On the basis of the field performance model with Johnson criterion, the contribution factors affecting on the HFLIR performance are derived as follows: the bar target size, the temperature difference between the black and white in target, the atmospheric transmittance (the visibility, the atmospheric temperature and the humidity), the background temperature, and the instability in the system MRT requirement. Then, by considering those factors, the test and evaluation procedures are set up where the conversion process from the performance measured under real test condition to that at the evaluation criterion is implemented, which is newly devised in this paper. With the help of this methodology, the field performances (the detection and recognition ranges) of HFLIRs on S-LYNX, UH-60 and HH-47 helicopters have been measured and reasonably evaluated to check whether or not their performances meet the requirement of capability (ROC). As for the HFLIR on S-LYNX, the converted detection and recognition ranges are proved to be elongated respectively +10% and -9.2%, compared with the measured ranges. They for the HFLIR on UH-60 turn out to be respectively better +6.2% and +12.4% than the measured ones, and they for HFLIR on HH-47 show performances with conversion rate of +0.4% and +1%. The difference between the converted and the measured ranges, of course, comes from the difference in the real weather conditions at test day and at ROC. This methodology gives so fair and reasonable judgment that it may be very useful for the case that the measured values are comparable to those at ROC within the experimental error.

Han, Kee Tae

2011-05-01

174

Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus  

PubMed Central

The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n?=?99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n?=?19), stone marten (Martes foina, n?=?3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n?=?3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n?=?4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Silvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonca, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luis Miguel; Barros, Tania; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Monica V.

2013-01-01

175

High-resolution synthetic aperture radar experiments for ATR development and performance prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial availability of very high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery will enable development of automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms to exploit its rich information content. This availability also permits exploration of both empirical and first principles approaches for predicting ATR performance. This paper describes a recent collection of high resolution SAR imagery. It details the operating conditions represented by the data and provides recommended experiments designed to challenge ATR algorithms and performance prediction. This set of information, along with the imagery, is contained in a Problem Set that will be made available to the community. The imagery is from a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (DUSD) for Science and Technology (S&T) sponsored collection using the Sandia National Laboratory and General Atomics Lynx Sensor. The Lynx is now available as a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sensor. It was designed for use in medium-altitude UAVs and manned platforms. It operates at Ku-band frequency in stripmap, spotlight, and ground moving target indicator modes. Imagery in this collection was collected at 4' resolution and was then also reprocessed to 1' resolution. The collection included several military vehicles with significant variation in target, sensor, and background conditions. Defined experiments in the Problem Set present ATR algorithm development challenges by defining development (training) sets with limited representation of operating conditions and test sets that explore the algorithm's ability to extend to more complex operating conditions. These challenges are critical to military employment of ATR because the real world contains much more variability than it will be possible to explicitly address in an algorithm. For example, neither the storage nor the search through an exhaustive bay of templates is achievable for any realistic application. Thus, advanced developments that allow robust performance in denied conditions will accelerate the transition of ATR to the field. Additional experiments in the Problem Set present challenges in ATR performance prediction. Here, the development imagery provides empirical data to support development of prediction approaches. Test imagery provides an opportunity to validate the prediction technique's ability to, for example, interpolate or extrapolate performance.

Westerkamp, Lori A.; Morrison, S. A.; Wild, Thomas J.; Mossing, John C.

2002-08-01

176

Spontaneous micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes from 54 animal species (mammals, reptiles and birds): part two.  

PubMed

The normal numbers of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) observed in peripheral blood samples differ among species. This depends on the effectiveness of the spleen (or the rest of the reticuloendothelial system) to withdraw them from circulation. In our previous report, we assessed the number of MNE in the peripheral blood of 35 mammalian species. Here we show the results observed in 54 species including mammals, reptiles and birds. We obtained 212 peripheral blood samples from different species. In 14 species, only one individual was studied. Slides were stained with acridine orange. The total number of MNE (normo and polychromatic) in 10,000 erythrocytes per animal are shown. The species that display the higher MNE were: ocelote, lynx, owl, gray squirrel, hedgehog, lion, orange fronted parakeet and common barn owl. For this reason, these species could be tested as monitors for genotoxic events. Another interesting observation was that in the gray squirrel, we found the highest values of MNE in the smaller (younger) animals when compared with the larger (older) of the same species. PMID:10771274

Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Luna-Aguirre, J; González-Rodríguez, A; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ventura-Aguilar, A J; Ramos-Ibarra, M L; Ramos-Mora, A; Ortíz, G G; Gallegos-Arreola, M P

2000-04-13

177

Operationally applicable objective method for the analysis and evaluation of the flights of helicopter mission task elements during field-of-view trials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1995 the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency conducted a series of pilotage field of view (FOV) trials on a Lynx helicopter. These were performed under the auspices of the Technical Cooperation Program, subgroup H, Technical Panel 6. Before the commencement of the trials it was clear that it would be necessary to have available an objective method of determining not only the accuracy with which the various trial mission task elements would be flown, but also the relevance of the flying accuracy to the operational application. Such an objective method was not known to exist, therefore a suitable technique was derived, and deliberately tailored to give some read-across to the widely accepted subjective Cooper-Harper handling qualities rating. The derivation, application and usefulness of the composite objective rating technique are described herein, together with a synopsis of the trials themselves. The paper concludes with a summary of the trials results to date, which indicate a relationship between both objectively- and subjectively-gathered data concerning the flying performance, and the FOV of the evaluation pilot.

Edwards, Kenneth L.; Buckle, John W.; Doherty, Mark J.; Lee, Lionel J.; Pratty, Adam C.; White, John F.

1997-06-01

178

Screening for in vitro metabolites of Abelmoschus manihot extract in intestinal bacteria by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Abelmoschus manihot has drawn much attention recently due to its potential beneficial health effects after oral administration. However, the metabolic fate of A. manihot in intestinal flora is not well understood. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx™) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of flavonoids from A. manihot in intestinal flora. The human and rat incubated samples collected 72 h in the anaerobic incubator were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF MS within 10 min. A total of 14 metabolites were identified in human and rat incubated solution compared with blank samples. The results indicated that hydrolysis, hydroxylation and acetylation were the major metabolic pathways of flavonoids in A. manihot extract in vitro. MS(E) was used for simultaneous acquisition of precursor ion information and fragment ion data at high and low collision energy in one analytical run, which facilitated the fast structural characterization of metabolites. This work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC-Q-TOF MS approach using Metabolynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites of natural product in intestinal flora. PMID:22119023

Xue, Caifu; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao; Shang, Erxin

2011-11-07

179

SPring-8 beamline control system.  

PubMed

The SPring-8 beamline control system is now taking part in the control of the insertion device (ID), front end, beam transportation channel and all interlock systems of the beamline: it will supply a highly standardized environment of apparatus control for collaborative researchers. In particular, ID operation is very important in a third-generation synchrotron light source facility. It is also very important to consider the security system because the ID is part of the storage ring and is therefore governed by the synchrotron ring control system. The progress of computer networking systems and the technology of security control require the development of a highly flexible control system. An interlock system that is independent of the control system has increased the reliability. For the beamline control system the so-called standard model concept has been adopted. VME-bus (VME) is used as the front-end control system and a UNIX workstation as the operator console. CPU boards of the VME-bus are RISC processor-based board computers operated by a LynxOS-based HP-RT real-time operating system. The workstation and the VME are linked to each other by a network, and form the distributed system. The HP 9000/700 series with HP-UX and the HP 9000/743rt series with HP-RT are used. All the controllable apparatus may be operated from any workstation. PMID:15263588

Ohata, T; Konishi, H; Kimura, H; Furukawa, Y; Tamasaku, K; Nakatani, T; Tanabe, T; Matsumoto, N; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T

1998-05-01

180

Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions.

Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

2012-01-01

181

Responses of female orange wheat Blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, to wheat panicle volatiles.  

PubMed

Air entrainment samples of volatiles from panicles of intact wheat, Triticum aestivum, cultivar 'Lynx' were collected at the ear emergence/early anthesis growth stage. In an olfactometer bioassay, both freshly cut panicles and an air entrainment sample were found to attract female orange wheat blossom midge adults, Sitodiplosis mosellana. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG) analyses of panicle volatiles located six electrophysiologically active components. These were identified by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and coinjection with authentic standards, on polar and nonpolar GC columns, as acetophenone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 3-carene, 2-tridecanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and 1-octen-3-ol. Although none of these was active when presented individually at the levels present in the entrainment sample, acetophenone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and 3-carene were active in the olfactometer when presented at a higher dose of 100 ng on filter paper. However, the six-component blend and a blend of acetophenone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and 3-carene, in the same ratio and concentration as in a natural sample, was as attractive to female S. mosellana as the whole air entrainment sample. PMID:15503522

Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A; Martin, Janet L; Smart, Lesley E; Oakley, Jon; Wadhams, Lester J

2004-07-01

182

UPLC-Q-TOF/HSMS/MS(E)-based metabonomics for adenine-induced changes in metabolic profiles of rat faeces and intervention effects of ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one.  

PubMed

Ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (ergone), isolated from the medicinal fungus Polyporus umbellatus, has been proven to prevent the progression of renal injury and the subsequent renal fibrosis. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight high-sensitivity mass spectrometry and a novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (MS(E)) data collection technique was employed to investigate metabonomic characters of chronic renal failure (CRF) induced adenine and the protective effects of ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (ergone). Coupled with blood biochemistry and kidney histopathology results, the significant difference in metabolic profiling between adenine-induced CRF group and ergone-treated CRF group by using pattern recognition analysis indicated that changes in global faecal metabolites were occurred. Seven endogenous metabolites were identified by using metabonomic method combined with multivariate data analysis, the accurate mass, isotopic pattern, MS(E) fragments information and MassLynx i-FIT algorithm. These biochemical changes in faecal metabolites are related to the perturbations of bile acid metabolism and phospholipid metabolism, which may be helpful to further understand the CRF and therapeutic mechanisms of ergone. This research proved that MS(E) can simultaneous acquire precursor ion information and fragment ion data at high and low collision energy in one analytical run, which facilitated the fast structural characterization of metabolites. PMID:23246428

Zhao, Ying-Yong; Zhang, Li; Long, Feng-Ya; Cheng, Xian-Long; Bai, Xu; Wei, Feng; Lin, Rui-Chao

2012-12-13

183

Intelligent switches of integrated lightwave circuits with core telecommunication functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a brief overview of a promising switching technology based on Silica on Silicon thermo-optic integrated circuits. This is basically a 2D solid-state optical device capable of non-blocking switching operation. Except of its excellent performance (insertion loss<5dB, switching time<2ms...), the switch enables additional important build-in functionalities. It enables single-to- single channel switching and single-to-multiple channel multicasting/broadcasting. In addition, it has the capability of channel weighting and variable output power control (attenuation), for instance, to equalize signal levels and compensate for unbalanced different optical input powers, or to equalize unbalanced EDFA gain curve. We examine the market segments appropriate for the switch size and technology, followed by a discussion of the basic features of the technology. The discussion is focused on important requirements from the switch and the technology (e.g., insertion loss, power consumption, channel isolation, extinction ratio, switching time, and heat dissipation). The mechanical design is also considered. It must take into account integration of optical fiber, optical planar wafer, analog electronics and digital microprocessor controls, embedded software, and heating power dissipation. The Lynx Photon.8x8 switch is compared to competing technologies, in terms of typical market performance requirements.

Izhaky, Nahum; Duer, Reuven; Berns, Neil; Tal, Eran; Vinikman, Shirly; Schoenwald, Jeffrey S.; Shani, Yosi

2001-05-01

184

Biotic Population Dynamics: Creative Biotic Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present empirical studies and computer models of population dynamics that demonstrate creative features and we speculate that these creative processes may underline evolution. Changes in population size of lynx, muskrat, beaver, salmon, and fox display diversification, episodic changes in pattern, novelty, and evidence for nonrandom causation. These features of creativity characterize bios, and rule out random, periodic, chaotic, and random walk patterns. Biotic patterns are also demonstrated in time series generated with multi-agent predator-prey simulations. These results indicate that evolutionary processes are continually operating. In contrast to standard evolutionary theory (random variation, competition for scarce resources, selection by survival of the fittest, and directionless, meaningless evolution), we propose that biological evolution is a creative development from simple to complex in which (1) causal actions generate biological variation; (2) bipolar feedback (synergy and antagonism, abundance and scarcity) generates information (diversification, novelty and complexity); (3) connections (of molecules, genes, species) construct systems in which simple processes have priority for survival but complex processes acquire supremacy.

Sabelli, Hector; Kovacevic, Lazar

185

Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods-scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares-to collect detection-nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) throughout the rugged Vermont landscape. We analyzed these data using occupancy modeling that explicitly incorporated detectability as well as habitat and landscape variables. For black bears, percentage of forested land within 5 km of survey sites was an important positive predictor of occupancy, and percentage of human developed land within 5 km was a negative predictor. Although the relationship was less clear for bobcats, occupancy appeared positively related to the percentage of both mixed forest and forested wetland habitat within 1 km of survey sites. The relationship between specific covariates and fisher occupancy was unclear, with no specific habitat or landscape variables directly related to occupancy. For all species, we used model averaging to predict occurrence across the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of our black bear and fisher models suggested that occupancy modeling efforts with data from noninvasive surveys could be useful for carnivore conservation and management, as they provide insights into habitat use at the regional and landscape scale without requiring capture or direct observation of study species. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Long, R. A.; Donovan, T. M.; MacKay, P.; Zielinski, W. J.; Buzas, J. S.

2011-01-01

186

AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

Slicker, J. M.

1983-06-01

187

Current test results for the Athena radar responsive tag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with General Atomics and Sierra Monolithics to develop the Athena tag for the Army's Radar Tag Engagement (RaTE) program. The radar-responsive Athena tag can be used for Blue Force tracking and Combat Identification (CID) as well as data collection, identification, and geolocation applications. The Athena tag is small (~4.5" x 2.4" x 4.2"), battery-powered, and has an integral antenna. Once remotely activated by a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar, the tag transponds modulated pulses to the radar at a low transmit power. The Athena tag can operate Ku-band and X-band airborne SAR and MTI radars. This paper presents results from current tag development testing activities. Topics covered include recent field tests results from the AN/APY-8 Lynx, F16/APG-66, and F15E/APG-63 V(1) radars and other Fire Control radars. Results show that the Athena tag successfully works with multiple radar platforms, in multiple radar modes, and for multiple applications. Radar-responsive tags such as Athena have numerous applications in military and government arenas. Military applications include battlefield situational awareness, combat identification, targeting, personnel recovery, and unattended ground sensors. Government applications exist in nonproliferation, counter-drug, search-and-rescue, and land-mapping activities.

Ormesher, Richard C.; Martinez, Ana; Plummer, Kenneth W.; Erlandson, David; Delaware, Sheri; Clark, David R.

2006-06-01

188

Profiling and identification of the absorbed constituents and metabolites of schisandra lignans by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Schisandra chinensis Baill grows wild in Russia, China, Korea and Japan, and its fruit has been found to be effective in amnesia and insomnia. It is enriched in schisandra lignans (SL) that are major components responsible for therapeutic action. However, there are no reports on the biotransformation analysis of SL. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray-ionization high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS) method was developed to investigate the metabolism of SL in vivo. MS was performed on a Waters Micromass high-definition system with an electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode and automated MetaboLynx software analysis with excellent MS accuracy and enhanced MS data acquisition. An improved mass defect filter (MDF) method employing both drug and core structure filter templates was applied to the processing of UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS data for the detection and structural characterization of metabolites. In this study, 30 metabolites were detected and identified in vivo, and demethylation and hydroxylation were confirmed as the primacy metabolic pathway for SL in rat plasma. In conclusion, the presently developed methodology was suitable for biotransformation research of SL and will find wide use in metabolic studies for other herbal medicines. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23760884

Sun, Hui; Wu, Fangfang; Zhang, Aihua; Wei, Wenfeng; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

2013-06-13

189

Rapidly deteriorating course in Dutch hereditary spastic paraplegia type 11 patients.  

PubMed

Although SPG11 is the most common complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia, our knowledge of the long-term prognosis and life expectancy is limited. We therefore studied the disease course of all patients with a proven SPG11 mutation as tested in our laboratory, the single Dutch laboratory providing SPG11 mutation analysis, between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2011. We identified nine different SPG11 mutations, four of which are novel, in nine index patients. Eighteen SPG11 patients from these nine families were studied by means of a retrospective chart analysis and additional interview/examination. Ages at onset were between 4 months and 14 years; 39% started with learning difficulties rather than gait impairment. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a thin corpus callosum and typical periventricular white matter changes in the frontal horn region (known as the 'ears-of the lynx'-sign) in all. Most patients became wheelchair bound after a disease duration of 1 to 2 decades. End-stage disease consisted of loss of spontaneous speech, severe dysphagia, spastic tetraplegia with peripheral nerve involvement and contractures. Several patients died of complications between ages 30 and 48 years, 3-4 decades after onset of gait impairment. Other relevant features during the disease were urinary and fecal incontinence, obesity and psychosis. Our study of 18 Dutch SPG11-patients shows the potential serious long-term consequences of SPG11 including a possibly restricted life span. PMID:23443022

de Bot, Susanne T; Burggraaff, Rogier C; Herkert, Johanna C; Schelhaas, Helenius J; Post, Bart; Diekstra, Adinda; van Vliet, Reinout O; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Scheffer, Hans; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien C; Kremer, Hubertus Ph

2013-02-27

190

Population synchrony in small-world networks.  

PubMed

Network topography ranges from regular graphs (linkage between nearest neighbours only) via small-world graphs (some random connections between nodes) to completely random graphs. Small-world linkage is seen as a revolutionary architecture for a wide range of social, physical and biological networks, and has been shown to increase synchrony between oscillating subunits. We study small-world topographies in a novel context: dispersal linkage between spatially structured populations across a range of population models. Regular dispersal between population patches interacting with density-dependent renewal provides one ecological explanation for the large-scale synchrony seen in the temporal fluctuations of many species, for example, lynx populations in North America, voles in Fennoscandia and grouse in the UK. Introducing a small-world dispersal kernel leads to a clear reduction in synchrony with both increasing dispersal rate and small-world dispersal probability across a variety of biological scenarios. Synchrony is also reduced when populations are affected by globally correlated noise. We discuss ecological implications of small-world dispersal in the frame of spatial synchrony in population fluctuations. PMID:18055385

Ranta, Esa; Fowler, Mike S; Kaitala, Veijo

2008-02-22

191

Multiworld Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Multiworld" is a multimedia multilingual magazine, published bi-monthly via the World Wide Web. It is devoted to articles describing the world we live in by publishing the experiences of contributors relating to nature, wildlife, culture, people, traveling, and art (including music, painting, photography, and computer art). It focuses on objectivity and strives for stories that will appeal to and interest our readers. Multiworld carries both English and Chinese articles an full-color digitized photos, graphics, and sound to illustrate the magazine articles. The magazine can be viewed by readers with standard web browsers, such as Netscape, Mosaic, Lynx, etc., with or without special software for viewing GB, HZ, and Big5 encoded Chinese text. It is hoped the magazine will help build bridges between readers of the world, particularly in furthering our appreciation of the beauty of nature, increasing our interest in different cultures, and helping us better understand people of various societies. The inaugural issue of Multiworld was published on Thursday, June 15, 1995. It is free and open to all.

1995-01-01

192

The important zoonoses in the protected areas of the Tatra National Park (TANAP).  

PubMed

The northern part of Slovakia constitutes an important tourist and recreational area of the country. Protected localities of the Tatra National Park (TANAP) are characterised by specific ecological conditions. The high numbers of animals inhabiting protected areas of the TANAP and their potential encounters with tourists contribute to a risk of transmission of important parasitic zoonoses. The aim of presently reported study was to perform a long-lasting and detailed survey on the occurrence of zoonotic agents (in particular Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp.) with particular emphasis on the interactions between the environment, the host, and the parasite as well as the adaptation mechanisms in individual ecosystems. Within the pilot part of the study, which started in 2007, in total 397 samples of wild predators representing 10 species belonging to families Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae and Ursidae were investigated. Helminthological necropsy (modified sedimentation and counting technique) and artificial digestion method were used for the parasites detection. Multiplex PCR approach has been used for species identification of Trichinella isolates obtained from infected animals. E. multilocularis was found in 42.7% of foxes and 1 raccoon dog. Trichinella larvae were present in 16.7% of foxes, 37.9% of martens, 33.3% of polecats, 1 bear and 1 lynx. All animals were infected by T. britovi. PMID:20209814

Hurníková, Zuzana; Miterpáková, Martina; Chovancová, Barbara

2009-01-01

193

Metabolism of Genipin in Rat and Identification of Metabolites by Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The in vivo and in vitro metabolism of genipin was systematically investigated in the present study. Urine, plasma, feces, and bile were collected from rats after oral administration of genipin at a dose of 50?mg/kg body weight. A rapid and sensitive method using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) was developed for analysis of metabolic profile of genipin in rat biological samples (urine, plasma, feces, and bile). A total of ten metabolites were detected and identified by comparing their fragmentation patterns with that of genipin using MetaboLynx software tools. On the basis of the chromatographic peak area, the sulfated and glucuronidated conjugates of genipin were identified as major metabolites. And the existence of major metabolites G1 and G2 was confirmed by the in vitro enzymatic study further. Then, metabolite G1 was isolated from rat bile by semipreparative HPLC. Its structure was unambiguously identified as genipin-1-o-glucuronic acid by comparison of its UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectra with conference. In general, genipin was a very active compound that would transform immediately, and the parent form of genipin could not be observed in rats biological samples. The biotransformation pathways of genipin involved demethylated, ring-opened, cysteine-conjugated, hydroformylated, glucuronidated, and sulfated transformations.

Ding, Yue; Hou, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Li-Ying; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Yi; Cai, Zhen-Zhen; Yang, Li

2013-01-01

194

Sliced Inverse Regression for Time Series Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, general nonlinear models for time series data are considered. A basic form is x _{t} = f(beta_sp{1} {T}X_{t-1},beta_sp {2}{T}X_{t-1},... , beta_sp{k}{T}X_ {t-1},varepsilon_{t}), where x_{t} is an observed time series data, X_{t } is the first d time lag vector, (x _{t},x_{t-1},... ,x _{t-d-1}), f is an unknown function, beta_{i}'s are unknown vectors, varepsilon_{t }'s are independent distributed. Special cases include AR and TAR models. We investigate the feasibility applying SIR/PHD (Li 1990, 1991) (the sliced inverse regression and principal Hessian methods) in estimating beta _{i}'s. PCA (Principal component analysis) is brought in to check one critical condition for SIR/PHD. Through simulation and a study on 3 well -known data sets of Canadian lynx, U.S. unemployment rate and sunspot numbers, we demonstrate how SIR/PHD can effectively retrieve the interesting low-dimension structures for time series data.

Chen, Li-Sue

195

Menu of Gravettian people from southern Moravia.  

PubMed

There are a number of Upper Palaeolithic sites of Gravettian people in the southern Moravia. These people had eaten animals and their bones were used for creating artefacts. Their food was based on several species that lived in the vicinity of their settlement unit. The sites Dolní V?stonice II (Under Western Slope--UWS), IIa and III and Pavlov (1952, 1953, 1957 and 1958) have been studied to obtain a picture of the menu of Gravettian people in this region. Hunted animals fall into two groups, the first one includes those species hunted consistently and the second group those hunted occasionally. The following animals rank among the first group: mammoth, reindeer, horse, wolf, hare and fox. The second group includes bear, lion, wolverine, wildcat, lynx, deer, woolly rhinoceros and birds. The carnivores were hunted for their hides, fur and bones. The long bones of hunted animals were crushed for marrow. The proximal parts of bones were used for creating tools since distal parts of bones have been found predominantly. Teams of several hunters hunted herd animals. The rest of the species was hunted accidentally, some of them probably by hunting nets. PMID:15828198

Nývltová-Fisáková, M

2000-01-01

196

Classification of mobile terrestrial laser point clouds using semantic constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With mobile terrestrial laser scanning, laser point clouds of large urban areas can be acquainted rapidly during normal speed driving. Classification of the laser points is beneficial to the city reconstruction from laser point cloud, but a manual classification process can be rather time-consuming due to the huge amount of laser points. Although the pulse return is often used to automate classification, it is only possible to distinguish limited types such as vegetation and ground. In this paper we present a new method which classifies mobile terrestrial laser point clouds using only coordinate information. First, a point of a whole urban scene is segmented, and geometric properties of each segment are computed. Then semantic constraints for several object types are derived from observation and knowledge. These constraints concern not only geometric properties of the semantic objects, but also regulate the topological and hierarchical relations between objects. A search tree is formulated from the semantic constraints and applied to the laser segments for interpretation. 2D map can provide the approximate locations of the buildings and roads as well as the roads' dominant directions, so it is integrated to reduce the search space. The applicability of this method is demonstrated with a Lynx data of the city Enschede and a Streetmapper data of the city Esslingen. Four object types: ground, road, building façade, and traffic symbols, are classified in these data sets.

Pu, Shi; Zhan, Qingming

2009-08-01

197

IRAS galaxies at low galactic and high supergalactic latitudes  

SciTech Connect

Based on IR colors, 371 IRAS point sources with absolute value of b = 2-16 deg (b = galactic latitude) were selected for study at H I 21 cm as potential galaxies: 25 percent (93) of these sources are galaxies with redshifts less than 8000 km/s based on H I spectra. Most of the detected galaxies are at redshifts between 2000 and 7500 km/s. Fifty-five of these lie in an area about 40 deg away from the junction of the Pisces-Perseus and Lynx-Ursa Major superclusters, and show a distribution of systemic velocities very similar to these superclusters. There is an enhanced density of galaxies near 6000 km/s with galactic longitude l about 40 deg and b about 0 deg. The two regions surveyed, centered at l about 192 deg and l about 54 deg, lie outside the plane of the Local Supercluster and do not show any preference for galaxies with low velocity widths. 16 references.

Dow, M.W.; Lu, N.Y.; Houck, J.R.; Salpeter, E.E.; Lewis, B.M.

1988-01-01

198

Cross-platform Q-TOF validation of global exo-metabolomic analysis: application to human glioblastoma cells treated with the standard PI 3-Kinase inhibitor LY294002.  

PubMed

The reproducibility of a metabolomics method has been assessed to identify changes in tumour cell metabolites. Tissue culture media extracts were analyzed by reverse phase chromatography on a Waters Acquity T3 column with a 13 min 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile gradient on Agilent and Waters LC-Q-TOF instruments. Features (m/z, RT) were extracted by MarkerLynx (Waters) and Molecular Feature Extractor (Agilent) in positive and negative ionization modes. The number of features were similar on both instruments and the reproducibility of ten replicates was <35% signal variability for approximately 50% and 40% of all ions detected in positive and negative ionization modes, respectively. External standards spiked to the matrix showed CVs <25% in peak areas within and between days. U87MG glioblastoma cells exposed to the PI 3-Kinase inhibitor LY294002 showed significant alterations of several confirmed features. These included glycerophosphocholine, already shown by NMR to be modulated by LY294002, highlighting the power of this technology for biomarker discovery. PMID:19101213

Pandher, R; Ducruix, C; Eccles, S A; Raynaud, F I

2008-12-06

199

Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

Erb, Peter L; McShea, William J; Guralnick, Robert P

2012-08-06

200

Population synchrony in small-world networks  

PubMed Central

Network topography ranges from regular graphs (linkage between nearest neighbours only) via small-world graphs (some random connections between nodes) to completely random graphs. Small-world linkage is seen as a revolutionary architecture for a wide range of social, physical and biological networks, and has been shown to increase synchrony between oscillating subunits. We study small-world topographies in a novel context: dispersal linkage between spatially structured populations across a range of population models. Regular dispersal between population patches interacting with density-dependent renewal provides one ecological explanation for the large-scale synchrony seen in the temporal fluctuations of many species, for example, lynx populations in North America, voles in Fennoscandia and grouse in the UK. Introducing a small-world dispersal kernel leads to a clear reduction in synchrony with both increasing dispersal rate and small-world dispersal probability across a variety of biological scenarios. Synchrony is also reduced when populations are affected by globally correlated noise. We discuss ecological implications of small-world dispersal in the frame of spatial synchrony in population fluctuations.

Ranta, Esa; Fowler, Mike S; Kaitala, Veijo

2007-01-01

201

Identification of the urinary metabolites of glionitrin A in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Glionitrin A (GN A) is a new diketopiperazine disulfide with an aromatic nitro group, which is isolated from the coculture of an Aspergillus fumigatus fungal strain and a Sphingomonas bacterial strain. After intravenous administration of GN A in rats, 13 urinary metabolites of GN A were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (UPLC-QTOP-MS) analysis in conjunction with data processing programs such as MetaboLynx™ and MassFragnent™. Reduction, nitro-reduction and hydration were the primary metabolic processes affecting GN A in vivo, followed by demethylation or oxidative deamination to alcohol, as well as cysteine, glycine, glucuronide or sulfate conjugation. The metabolite resulting from reduction was found to be a molecule with a dithiol group, and the metabolite made by nitro reduction was found to be an aromatic amine corresponding to GN A. Both of these products may have pharmacological or toxicological activity, which is valuable information in terms of using GN A as a lead compound. In addition, this work showed that UPLC-QTOP-MS analysis coupled with efficient data processing programs is useful for rapid and reliable characterization of GN A metabolites in vivo. PMID:22947415

Lee, Soo Hyun; Yang, Hyun Ok; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Jung, Byung Hwa

2012-08-21

202

Strong resonance explains cycles in sockeye salmon populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of spawning sockeye salmon that return to their native streams in the Fraser river basin exhibit striking four-year oscillations, the dimension of which being no less notable than the widely known cycles of lynx and snowshoe hare in Canada. The period of the oscillation corresponds to the dominant generation time of these fish, and the phase differs between different stocks. Various not fully convincing explanations have been attempted, ascribing this phenomenon to transient effects, to stochastic influences, to depensatory predation, or to genetic effects. We show that these oscillations can be explained as a stable dynamical attractor of the population dynamics, resulting from a strong resonance near a Neimark Sacker bifurcation. This explains not only the long-term persistence of these oscillations, but also reproduces correctly the sequence of two strong years followed by two weak years. Furthermore, it explains the observations that the oscillations occur only in oligotrophic lakes, and that they do not occur in salmon species that have a longer generation time.

Guill, Christian; Drossel, Barbara

2010-03-01

203

Identification of isoquercitrin metabolites produced by human intestinal bacteria using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.  

PubMed

In this paper, ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and the MetaboLynx™ software combined with mass defect filtering were applied to identity the metabolites of isoquercitrin using an intestinal mixture of bacteria and 96 isolated strains from human feces. The human incubated samples collected for 72 h in the anaerobic incubator and extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS within 10 min. The parent compound and five metabolites were identified by eight isolated strains, including Bacillus sp. 17, Veillonella sp. 23 and 32 and Bacteroides sp. 40, 41, 56, 75 and 88 in vitro. The results indicate that quercetin, acetylated isoquercitrin, dehydroxylated isoquercitrin, hydroxylated quercetin and hydroxymethylated quercetin are the major metabolites of isoquercitrin. Furthermore, a possible metabolic pathway for the biotransformation of isoquercitrin was established in intestinal flora. This study will be helpful for understanding the metabolic route of isoquercitrin and the role of different intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of natural compounds. PMID:23018801

Lu, Linling; Qian, Dawei; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Er-xin; Duan, Jin-ao

2012-09-28

204

Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Distromet disdrometer model RD-80 and NovaLynx tipping bucket rain gauge model 260-2500E-12 are two devices deployed a few meters apart to measure the character and amount of liquid precipitation. The main purpose of the disdrometer is to measure drop size distribution, which it does over 20 size classes from 0.3 mm to 5.4 mm. The data from both instruments can be used to determine rain rate. The disdrometer results can also be used to infer several properties including drop number density, radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and energy flux. Two coefficients, N0 and ?, from an exponential fit between drop diameter and drop number density, are routinely calculated. Data are collected once a minute. The instruments make completely different kinds of measurements. Rain that falls on the disdrometer sensor moves a plunger on a vertical axis. The disdrometer transforms the plunger motion into electrical impulses whose strength is proportional to drop diameter. The rain gauge is the conventional tipping bucket type. Each tip collects an amount equivalent to 0.01 in. of water, and each tip is counted by a data acquisition system anchored by a Campbell CR1000 data logger.

Bartholomew. MJ

2009-12-01

205

Semi-automated extraction and delineation of 3D roads of street scene from mobile laser scanning point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate 3D road information is important for applications such as road maintenance and virtual 3D modeling. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) is an efficient technique for capturing dense point clouds that can be used to construct detailed road models for large areas. This paper presents a method for extracting and delineating roads from large-scale MLS point clouds. The proposed method partitions MLS point clouds into a set of consecutive "scanning lines", which each consists of a road cross section. A moving window operator is used to filter out non-ground points line by line, and curb points are detected based on curb patterns. The detected curb points are tracked and refined so that they are both globally consistent and locally similar. To evaluate the validity of the proposed method, experiments were conducted using two types of street-scene point clouds captured by Optech's Lynx Mobile Mapper System. The completeness, correctness, and quality of the extracted roads are over 94.42%, 91.13%, and 91.3%, respectively, which proves the proposed method is a promising solution for extracting 3D roads from MLS point clouds.

Yang, Bisheng; Fang, Lina; Li, Jonathan

2013-05-01

206

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of constituents of Suanzaoren decoction.  

PubMed

A rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) method with MassLynx™ MassFragment was developed for the analysis of Suanzaoren decoction (SZRD), a Chinese herbal prescription. The analysis was performed on a Waters UPLC BEH C(18) column using gradient elution system. A hyphenated electrospray ionization and Q-TOF analyzer was used for the determination of accurate mass of the protonated or deprotonated molecule and fragment ion in both negative and positive modes. The chromatographic separation was achieved by UPLC, which used a column with 1.7 ?m particle packing which enabled higher speed of analysis, peak capacity, greater resolution and increased sensitivity. The constituents of SZRD were identied and confirmed according to the mass spectrometric fragmentation mechanisms, MS/MS fragment ions, relevant literature and the establishment of an in-house molecular formula database. With this method, a total of 22 compounds of SZTD were tentatively identied based on MS and MS/MS data and comparison with available databases. It is concluded that a rapid and robust platform based on UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS was established, which is useful for identifying multiple-constituent of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions. Our present results proved that the established method could provide helpful chemical information for further pharmacological mechanism research of SZRD. PMID:21994021

Yang, Bo; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wu, Fangfang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun

2011-10-12

207

Diversity Array Technology Markers: Genetic Diversity Analyses and Linkage Map Construction in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)  

PubMed Central

We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines ‘Lynx-037DH’ and ‘Monty-028DH’. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed.

Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N.; Aslam, M.N.; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A.; Kilian, A.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Schondelmaier, Joerg

2012-01-01

208

Data gathering and simulation of climate change impacts in mountainous areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High mountains include species most at risk in a warming environment and are a critical link in the water supply chain for both human and natural systems. Scientists are monitoring and simulating these systems as snowpack depth changes, snowmelt timing changes, frozen soils melt and destabilize, and low elevation populations migrate upslope. Natural climate cycles and human activities interact with climate change trends and complicate the interpretation of the signal we observe. For ex. over the past 4 years in Yunnan (China), we documented that herbaceous alpine meadows are contracting as forest tree line advances and alpine shrub biomass increases. This is a result of interactions between human land use alteration and observed shifts in climate. In North America as snowpack decreases, wolverines and lynx denning conditions are jeopardized as human pressure reduces their extent. Coarse scale vegetation shift models using downscaled future climate scenarios fail to capture complex terrain features and microclimatic conditions that can either ensure critical habitat for the in-situ survival of threatened species or make things worse (ex. rockfalls) for climate migrants. Recent simulation efforts focus on high resolution models that address aspect, slope, soil types, and microclimate variations that affect local and migrating plants, their associated pollinators and insect herbivores, modifying habitat availability for birds and mammals

Bachelet, D.; Baker, B.; Hicke, J.; Conklin, D.; McKelvey, K.

2007-12-01

209

The equipment access software for a distributed UNIX-based accelerator control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a generic equipment access software package for a distributed control system using computers with UNIX or UNIX-like operating systems. The package consists of three main components, an application Equipment Access Library, Message Handler and Equipment Data Base. An application task, which may run in any computer in the network, sends requests to access equipment through Equipment Library calls. The basic request is in the form Equipment-Action-Data and is routed via a remote procedure call to the computer to which the given equipment is connected. In this computer the request is received by the Message Handler. According to the type of the equipment connection, the Message Handler either passes the request to the specific process software in the same computer or forwards it to a lower level network of equipment controllers using MIL1553B, GPIB, RS232 or BITBUS communication. The answer is then returned to the calling application. Descriptive information required for request routing and processing is stored in the real-time Equipment Data Base. The package has been written to be portable and is currently available on DEC Ultrix, LynxOS, HPUX, XENIX, OS-9 and Apollo domain.

Trofimov, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zharkov, Eugeny; Charrue, Pierre; Gareyte, Claire; Poirier, Hervé

1994-12-01

210

The response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic factors influence a variety of ecological processes determining patterns of species density and distribution in a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems. We review the effects of the NAO on processes and patterns of terrestrial ecosystems, including both plants and animals. In plants, the NAO index correlates with date of first flowering, tree ring growth and with quality of agricultural crops (wheat and wine grapes). Also, breeding dates are earlier after high NAO index winters for amphibians and birds in Europe. Population dynamical consequences of the NAO have also been reported for birds, and the differential impact of the NAO on two similar species may prevent competitive exclusion. Different effects of the NAO on large herbivore populations have been reported for different regions, depending on limiting factors and the correlation with local weather parameters. The NAO synchronizes population dynamics of lynx and some other carnivore populations in the eastern U.S. Most effects are on an ecological time scale; the evolutionary consequences of long term trends in the NAO are poorly documented. Important for predator and prey dynamics is (1) the disruption of phenology (the match-mismatch hypothesis), (2) that there may be delayed effects (cohort-effects), and (3) that effects of the NAO may interact with other factors such as density. We discuss the challenges related to nonlinearity, of using different climate indices, and how we can progress using these pattern-oriented NAO studies at coarse scales to conduct better process-oriented small-scale experiments.

Mysterud, Alte; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Ottersen, Geir; Langvatn, Rolf

211

Virological Survey in free-ranging wildcats (Felis silvestris) and feral domestic cats in Portugal.  

PubMed

To determine the presence of viral pathogens in natural areas a survey was conducted on an opportunistic sample of fifty eight wild (Felis silvestris silvestris) and feral cats (F. s. catus). The biological materials included serum, lung tissue extract and stool. Feline leukemia virus p27 antigen was detected in 13/50 serum/lung tissue extract samples (26%), canine distemper virus antibodies were detected in 2/26 serum/lung tissue extract samples (7.7%), feline coronavirus RNA was present in 6/29 stool samples (20.7%) and feline parvovirus DNA in 2/29 stool samples (6.9%). Canine distemper virus RNA was not detected. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus antibodies were not detected. Evidence of exposure to feline leukemia virus, canine distemper virus, feline coronavirus and feline parvovirus was found in wild and feral cats raising the importance of performing a comprehensive survey to correctly evaluate the potential threat of infectious diseases to endangered species, namely to the wildcat and to the Iberian lynx, which is meant to be reintroduced after 2012 in Portugal. PMID:22424865

Duarte, A; Fernandes, M; Santos, N; Tavares, L

2012-03-01

212

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.  

PubMed

Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species. PMID:24063119

Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

2013-09-01

213

Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS --Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of a fenced stream crossing over the Pahsimeroi River to enhance a livestock riparian enclosure. This structure would include up to four wood fence posts and two deadman anchors buried in the ground. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat by preventing livestock from entering the riparian area via the river. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Carl Rudeen with the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District (August 4, 2004) and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are gray wolf, Canada lynx, bald eagle, Ute ladies'Tresses, Snake River chinook salmon, Snake River steelhead trout, and Columbia River Basin bull trout. It was determined that the proposed fence crossing construction project would have no effect on these species. Bald eagle, gray wolf and Canada lynx are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity. Since the site is used primarily as livestock pasture it does not lend itself to the presence of Ute ladies'Tresses. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. Soil disturbance will be limited to the livestock pasture and to two holes that will be used to bury anchors for the suspended portion of the fence. Required river crossings will be made on foot. Requirements associated with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act were handled by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), in cooperation with staff from the U.S. Forest Service (Boise National Forest), under their existing Programmatic Agreement with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). A description of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project and site information was reviewed by a qualified archaeologist and it was determined that an archaeological survey was needed. Bruce Blackmere with NRCS conducted an intensive-complete survey of the project site and cultural resources were not identified (July 30, 2004). Based on these findings, it was recommended that the project proceed as planned. All survey findings were provided to the Idaho SHPO. In the unlikely event that archaeological material is discovered during project implementation, an archaeologist should be notified immediately and work halted in the vicinity of the finds until they can be inspected and assessed. Standard water quality protection procedures and Best Management Practices should be followed during the implementation of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project. No construction is authorized to begin until the proponent has obtained all applicable local, state, and federal permits and approvals. Public involvement has occurred as part of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project. This project was coordinated through the Upper Salmon Basin Technical Team and Advisory Committee composed of representatives from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NOAA Fisheries, Shoshone Bannock Tribe, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game. In addition, the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District holds monthly meetings that are open to the public in which this project was discussed.

N /A

2004-08-11

214

A SEARCH FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES ON ARCMINUTE SCALES WITH BOLOCAM  

SciTech Connect

We have surveyed two science fields totaling 1 deg.{sup 2} with Bolocam at 2.1 mm to search for secondary Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies caused by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). The fields are in the Lynx and Subaru/XMM SDS1 fields. Our survey is sensitive to angular scales with an effective angular multipole of l{sub eff} = 5700 with FWHM{sub l} = 2800 and has an angular resolution of 60 arcsec FWHM. Our data provide no evidence for anisotropy. We are able to constrain the level of total astronomical anisotropy, modeled as a flat-band power in C{sub l}, with most frequent 68%, 90%, and 95% CL upper limits of 590, 760, and 830 {mu}K {sup 2} {sub CMB}. We statistically subtract the known contribution from primary CMB anisotropy, including cosmic variance, to obtain constraints on the SZE anisotropy contribution. Now including flux calibration uncertainty, our most frequent 68%, 90%, and 95% CL upper limits on a flat-band power in C{sub l} are 690, 960, and 1000 {mu}K {sup 2} {sub CMB}. When we instead employ the analytical spectrum suggested by Komatsu and Seljack in 2002, and account for the non-Gaussianity of the SZE anisotropy signal, we obtain upper limits on the average amplitude of their spectrum weighted by our transfer function of 790, 1060, and 1080 {mu}K {sup 2} {sub CMB}. We obtain a 90% CL upper limit on {sigma}{sub 8}, which normalizes the power spectrum of density fluctuations, of 1.57. These are the first constraints on anisotropy and {sigma}{sub 8} from survey data at these angular scales at frequencies near 150 GHz.

Sayers, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Rossinot, P.; Edgington, S. F.; Lange, A. E. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 59-33, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ade, P. A. R.; Haig, D.; Mauskopf, P. D. [Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, P.O. Box 913, Cardiff CF24 3YB, Wales (United Kingdom); Aguirre, J. E.; Glenn, J.; Laurent, G. T. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bock, J. J.; Goldin, A.; Nguyen, H. T. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: jack@caltech.edu

2009-01-10

215

A Search for Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies on Arcminute Scales with Bolocam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have surveyed two science fields totaling 1 deg2 with Bolocam at 2.1 mm to search for secondary Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies caused by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). The fields are in the Lynx and Subaru/XMM SDS1 fields. Our survey is sensitive to angular scales with an effective angular multipole of elleff = 5700 with FWHMell = 2800 and has an angular resolution of 60 arcsec FWHM. Our data provide no evidence for anisotropy. We are able to constrain the level of total astronomical anisotropy, modeled as a flat-band power in C_?, with most frequent 68%, 90%, and 95% CL upper limits of 590, 760, and 830 ?K 2 CMB. We statistically subtract the known contribution from primary CMB anisotropy, including cosmic variance, to obtain constraints on the SZE anisotropy contribution. Now including flux calibration uncertainty, our most frequent 68%, 90%, and 95% CL upper limits on a flat-band power in C_? are 690, 960, and 1000 ?K 2 CMB. When we instead employ the analytical spectrum suggested by Komatsu and Seljack in 2002, and account for the non-Gaussianity of the SZE anisotropy signal, we obtain upper limits on the average amplitude of their spectrum weighted by our transfer function of 790, 1060, and 1080 ?K 2 CMB. We obtain a 90% CL upper limit on ?8, which normalizes the power spectrum of density fluctuations, of 1.57. These are the first constraints on anisotropy and ?8 from survey data at these angular scales at frequencies near 150 GHz.

Sayers, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Rossinot, P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J. E.; Bock, J. J.; Edgington, S. F.; Glenn, J.; Goldin, A.; Haig, D.; Lange, A. E.; Laurent, G. T.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Nguyen, H. T.

2009-01-01

216

Changes in tear protein profile in keratoconus disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze tear protein profile variations in patients with keratoconus (KC) and to compare them with those of control subjects. Subjects and methods Tears from 12 normal subjects and 12 patients with KC were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Analysis of the 2-DE gels was performed using Progenesis SameSpots software (Nonlinear Dynamics). Proteins exhibiting high variation in expression levels (P-value <0.05) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–TOF spectrometry. For LC–MS analysis, a label-free quantification approach was used. Tears were digested with trypsin, subjected to data-independent acquisition (MSE) analysis, and identified proteins were relatively quantified using ProteinLynx Global Server software (Waters). Results The 2-DE and LC–MS analyses revealed a significant decrease in the levels of members of the cystatin family and an increase in lipocalin-1 in KC patients. A 1.43-fold decrease was observed for cystatin-S by 2-DE, and 1.69- and 1.56-fold for cystatin-SN and cystatin-SA by LC–MS, respectively. The increase in lipocalin-1 was observed by both methods with fold changes of 1.26 in the 2-DE approach and 1.31 according to LC–MS. Significant protein upregulation was also observed for Ig-?chain C and Ig J chain proteins by 2-DE. Levels of lipophilin-C, lipophilin-A, and phospholipase A2 were decreased in tears from KC patients according to LC–MS. Serum albumin was found to be increased in KC patients according to LC–MS. Conclusion The results show differences in the tear protein profile of KC and control subjects. These changes are indicative of alterations in tear film stability and in interactions with the corneal surface in KC patients.

Acera, A; Vecino, E; Rodriguez-Agirretxe, I; Aloria, K; Arizmendi, J M; Morales, C; Duran, J A

2011-01-01

217

Revisiting the classics: considering nonconsumptive effects in textbook examples of predator-prey interactions.  

PubMed

Predator effects on prey dynamics are conventionally studied by measuring changes in prey abundance attributed to consumption by predators. We revisit four classic examples of predator-prey systems often cited in textbooks and incorporate subsequent studies of nonconsumptive effects of predators (NCE), defined as changes in prey traits (e.g., behavior, growth, development) measured on an ecological time scale. Our review revealed that NCE were integral to explaining lynx-hare population dynamics in boreal forests, cascading effects of top predators in Wisconsin lakes, and cascading effects of killer whales and sea otters on kelp forests in nearshore marine habitats. The relative roles of consumption and NCE of wolves on moose and consequent indirect effects on plant communities of Isle Royale depended on climate oscillations. Nonconsumptive effects have not been explicitly tested to explain the link between planktonic alewives and the size structure of the zooplankton, nor have they been invoked to attribute keystone predator status in intertidal communities or elsewhere. We argue that both consumption and intimidation contribute to the total effects of keystone predators, and that characteristics of keystone consumers may differ from those of predators having predominantly NCE. Nonconsumptive effects are often considered as an afterthought to explain observations inconsistent with consumption-based theory. Consequently, NCE with the same sign as consumptive effects may be overlooked, even though they can affect the magnitude, rate, or scale of a prey response to predation and can have important management or conservation implications. Nonconsumptive effects may underlie other classic paradigms in ecology, such as delayed density dependence and predator-mediated prey coexistence. Revisiting classic studies enriches our understanding of predator-prey dynamics and provides compelling rationale for ramping up efforts to consider how NCE affect traditional predator-prey models based on consumption, and to compare the relative magnitude of consumptive and NCE of predators. PMID:18831163

Peckarsky, Barbara L; Abrams, Peter A; Bolnick, Daniel I; Dill, Lawrence M; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Luttbeg, Barney; Orrock, John L; Peacor, Scott D; Preisser, Evan L; Schmitz, Oswald J; Trussell, Geoffrey C

2008-09-01

218

Nest fate and productivity of American Oystercatchers, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) is listed as a species of high priority by the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan and is state-listed as rare in Georgia; however, biologists have not focused on identifying the causes of egg and hatchling losses. In 2003 and 2004, continuous video monitoring was used to document reproductive success of American Oystercatchers and identify causes of nest failure at Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia. The modified Mayfield method and program CONTRAST were used to determine and compare survival of eggs and nestlings. Eleven pairs made 32 nest attempts during two seasons. Nine attempts were successful, fledging 15 chicks. Daily survival of clutches was 0.973 (95% CI = 0.960-0.987) for 2003, 0.985 (95% CI = 0.974-0.995) for 2004, and 0.979 (95% CI = 0.970-0.987) for combined years. Daily survival was greater on the North End, than on the South End of the island (X21 = 7.211, P = 0.007). Eighteen of 20 nest failures during the egg stage and one of eight chick losses were documented. Egg predators included raccoon (Procyon lotor, N = 9), bobcat (Lynx rufus, N = 3), and American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos, N = 1). A ghost crab (Ocypode quadata) preyed on one chick. Other causes of nest failure were tidal overwash (N = 1), horse trampling (N = 1), abandonment (N = 2), and human destruction (N = 1). The North End of the island has one of the highest reproductive rates reported along the Atlantic coast. Predator control may be an effective means of increasing reproductive success on the South End of the island.

Sabine, J.B.; Schweitzer, S.H.; Meyers, J.M.

2006-01-01

219

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. IV. SCALING RELATIONS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z {approx} 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 10{sup 10} < M/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 11.5}, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z {approx} 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z {approx} 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} and those with masses M {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, {approx}35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Nakata, F.; Kodama, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Rosati, P. [European South Observatory, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Shankar, F. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Astrophysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tanaka, M. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, M.; White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R., E-mail: anand.raichoor@brera.inaf.it [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2012-02-01

220

Phase 1 STTR flywheel motor/alternator for hybrid electric vehicles. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

Visual Computing Systems (VCS) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have teamed, through a Phase 1 Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE), to develop an advanced, low-cost motor/alternator drive system suitable for Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) applications. During Phase 1, system performance and design requirements were established, design concepts were generated, and preliminary motor/alternator designs were developed and analyzed. ORNL provided mechanical design and finite element collaboration and Lynx Motion Technology, a spin-off from VCS to commercialize their technology, constructed a proof-of-concept axial-gap permanent magnet motor/alternator that employed their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) with a survivable design speed potential of 10,000 rpm. The VCS motor/alternator was successfully tested in ORNL`s Motor Test Tank using an ORNL inverter and ORNL control electronics. It was first operated as an unloaded motor to 6,000 rpm and driven as an unloaded generator to 6,000 rpm. Output from the generator was then connected to a resistance bank, which caused the loaded generator to decelerate to 3,860 rpm where data was collected. After about 4-1/2 minutes, the test was terminated because of an impact noise. Subsequent inspection and operation at low speeds did not reveal the source of the noise. Electrical performance of the motor was excellent, encouraging continued development of this technology. Phase 2 efforts will focus on further design development and optimization, manufacturing development and prototype construction, testing, and evaluation.

McKeever, J.W.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kessinger, R.L. Jr.; Robinson, S.T.; Seymour, K.P.; Dockstadter, K.D. [Visual Computer Systems Corp., Greenville, IN (United States)

1997-12-31

221

Nicotine is a selective pharmacological chaperone of acetylcholine receptor number and stoichiometry. Implications for drug discovery.  

PubMed

The acronym SePhaChARNS, for "selective pharmacological chaperoning of acetylcholine receptor number and stoichiometry," is introduced. We hypothesize that SePhaChARNS underlies classical observations that chronic exposure to nicotine causes "upregulation" of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). If the hypothesis is proven, (1) SePhaChARNS is the molecular mechanism of the first step in neuroadaptation to chronic nicotine; and (2) nicotine addiction is partially a disease of excessive chaperoning. The chaperone is a pharmacological one, nicotine; and the chaperoned molecules are alpha4beta2* nAChRs. SePhaChARNS may also underlie two inadvertent therapeutic effects of tobacco use: (1) the inverse correlation between tobacco use and Parkinson's disease; and (2) the suppression of seizures by nicotine in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. SePhaChARNS arises from the thermodynamics of pharmacological chaperoning: ligand binding, especially at subunit interfaces, stabilizes AChRs during assembly and maturation, and this stabilization is most pronounced for the highest-affinity subunit compositions, stoichiometries, and functional states of receptors. Several chemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics render exogenous nicotine a more potent pharmacological chaperone than endogenous acetylcholine. SePhaChARNS is modified by desensitized states of nAChRs, by acid trapping of nicotine in organelles, and by other aspects of proteostasis. SePhaChARNS is selective at the cellular, and possibly subcellular, levels because of variations in the detailed nAChR subunit composition, as well as in expression of auxiliary proteins such as lynx. One important implication of the SePhaChARNS hypothesis is that therapeutically relevant nicotinic receptor drugs could be discovered by studying events in intracellular compartments rather than exclusively at the surface membrane. PMID:19280351

Lester, Henry A; Xiao, Cheng; Srinivasan, Rahul; Son, Cagdas D; Miwa, Julie; Pantoja, Rigo; Banghart, Matthew R; Dougherty, Dennis A; Goate, Alison M; Wang, Jen C

2009-03-12

222

Electromyographic study of the flexor muscles of the elbow articulation in weightlifting trained subjects.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to register the electromyography data of the muscles brachialis, biceps brachii long portion, biceps brachii short portion and brachioradialis in the movements of elbow flexion, in the "Larry Scott" bench, in supination and pronation positions, in weightlifting trained subjects. Ten male right-handed subjects were selected, with at least one-year experience in weightlifting exercises, without previous neuromuscular diseases, age between 21 and 26 years. After taking the "Maximum Load" (M.L.) test, or a maximum repetition, we had the percent pattern to establish the loads used in the tests, which was 80%0 of the M. L. For the electromyography records was used a six-channel electromyography (lynx) and the AqDados software in four different moments for each subject: an isometric phase lasting five seconds in supination (1), keeping a 90 degrees angle between the arm and forearm; another one in isometric pronation (2); ten repetitions lasting fifty seconds in supination (3); and ten repetitions in pronation (4). The results of the normalization showed a level of similar activation between the involved muscles in one same moment, as much in supination as in pronation. From the analysis of variance ANOVA, having as level of significance p < 0,05, concludes that it did not have significant difference in the performance of these muscles. When compared between itself all the values of p were bigger than 0,05. Of this form we can perceive a joint action of all the flexion muscle of the elbow to resist the load imposed during the effort. PMID:17375882

Bankoff, A D P; Gushi, M S; Boer, N P

223

From process to pattern: how fluctuating predation risk impacts the stress axis of snowshoe hares during the 10-year cycle.  

PubMed

Predation is a central organizing process affecting populations and communities. Traditionally, ecologists have focused on the direct effects of predation--the killing of prey. However, predators also have significant sublethal effects on prey populations. We investigated how fluctuating predation risk affected the stress physiology of a cyclic population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in the Yukon, finding that they are extremely sensitive to the fluctuating risk of predation. In years of high predator numbers, hares had greater plasma cortisol levels at capture, greater fecal cortisol metabolite levels, a greater plasma cortisol response to a hormone challenge, a greater ability to mobilize energy and poorer body condition. These indices of stress had the same pattern within years, during the winter and over the breeding season when the hare:lynx ratio was lowest and the food availability the worst. Previously we have shown that predator-induced maternal stress lowers reproduction and compromises offspring's stress axis. We propose that predator-induced changes in hare stress physiology affect their demography through negative impacts on reproduction and that the low phase of cyclic populations may be the result of predator-induced maternal stress reducing the fitness of progeny. The hare population cycle has far reaching ramifications on predators, alternate prey, and vegetation. Thus, predation is the predominant organizing process for much of the North American boreal forest community, with its indirect signature--stress in hares--producing a pattern of hormonal changes that provides a sensitive reflection of fluctuating predator pressure that may have long-term demographic consequences. PMID:21246218

Sheriff, Michael J; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy

2011-01-19

224

Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Franklin, S. P.; Troyer, J. L.; Terwee, J. A.; Lyren, L. M.; Boyce, W. M.; Riley, S. P. D.; Roelke, M. E.; Crooks, K. R.; VandeWoude, S.

2007-01-01

225

From arctic lemmings to adaptive dynamics: Charles Elton's legacy in population ecology.  

PubMed

We shall examine the impact of Charles S. Elton's 1924 article on periodic fluctuations in animal populations on the development of modern population ecology. We argue that his impact has been substantial and that during the past 75 years of research on multi-annual periodic fluctuations in numbers of voles, lemmings, hares, lynx and game animals he has contributed much to the contemporary understanding of the causes and consequences of population regulation. Elton was convinced that the cause of the regular fluctuations was climatic variation. To support this conclusion, he examined long-term population data then available. Despite his firm belief in a climatic cause of the self-repeating periodic dynamics which many species display, Elton was insightful and far-sighted enough to outline many of the other hypotheses since put forward as an explanation for the enigmatic long-term dynamics of some animal populations. An interesting, but largely neglected aspect in Elton's paper is that it ends with speculation regarding the evolutionary consequences of periodic population fluctuations. The modern understanding of these issues will also be scrutinised here. In population ecology, Elton's 1924 paper has spawned a whole industry of research on populations displaying multi-annual periodicity. Despite the efforts of numerous research teams and individuals focusing on the origins of multi-annual population cycles, and despite the early availability of different explanatory hypotheses, we are still lacking rigorous tests of some of these hypotheses and, consequently, a consensus of the causes of periodic fluctuations in animal populations. Although Elton would have been happy to see so much effort spent on cyclic populations, we also argue that it is unfortunate if this focus on a special case of population dynamics should distract our attention from more general problems in population and community dynamics. PMID:11325052

Lindström, J; Ranta, E; Kokko, H; Lundberg, P; Kaitala, V

2001-02-01

226

Prey-mediated avoidance of an intraguild predator by its intraguild prey.  

PubMed

Intraguild (IG) predation is an important factor influencing community structure, yet factors allowing coexistence of IG predator and IG prey are not well understood. The existence of spatial refuges for IG prey has recently been noted for their importance in allowing coexistence. However, reduction in basal prey availability might lead IG prey to leave spatial refuges for greater access to prey, leading to increased IG predation and fewer opportunities for coexistence. We determined how the availability of prey affected space-use patterns of bobcats (Lynx rufus, IG prey) in relation to coyote space-use patterns (Canis latrans, IG predators). We located animals from fall 2007 to spring 2009 and estimated bobcat home ranges and core areas seasonally. For each bobcat relocation, we determined intensity of coyote use, distance to water, small mammal biomass, and mean small mammal biomass of the home range during the season the location was collected. We built generalized linear mixed models and used Akaike Information Criteria to determine which factors best predicted bobcat space use. Coyote intensity was a primary determinant of bobcat core area location. In bobcat home ranges with abundant prey, core areas occurred where coyote use was low, but shifted to areas intensively used by coyotes when prey declined. High spatial variability in basal prey abundance allowed some bobcats to avoid coyotes while at the same time others were forced into more risky areas. Our results suggest that multiple behavioral strategies associated with spatial variation in basal prey abundance likely allow IG prey and IG predators to coexist. PMID:20953798

Wilson, Ryan R; Blankenship, Terry L; Hooten, Mevin B; Shivik, John A

2010-10-16

227

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. II. MASSES AND AGES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR POPULATION MODEL ASSUMPTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have derived masses and ages for 79 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in different environments at z {approx} 1.3 in the Lynx supercluster and in the GOODS/CDF-S field using multi-wavelength (0.6-4.5 {mu}m; KPNO, Palomar, Keck, Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer) data sets. At this redshift the contribution of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase is important for ETGs, and the mass and age estimates depend on the choice of the stellar population model used in the spectral energy distribution fits. We describe in detail the differences among model predictions for a large range of galaxy ages, showing the dependence of these differences on age. Current models still yield large uncertainties. While recent models from Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual offer better modeling of the TP-AGB phase with respect to less recent Bruzual and Charlot models, their predictions do not often match. The modeling of this TP-AGB phase has a significant impact on the derived parameters for galaxies observed at high redshift. Some of our results do not depend on the choice of the model: for all models, the most massive galaxies are the oldest ones, independent of the environment. When using the Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual models, the mass distribution is similar in the clusters and in the groups, whereas in our field sample there is a deficit of massive (M {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) ETGs. According to those last models, ETGs belonging to the cluster environment host on average older stars with respect to group and field populations. This difference is less significant than the age difference in galaxies of different masses.

Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 5 Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Nakata, F.; Kodama, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Postman, M.; White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosati, P. [European South Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tanaka, M., E-mail: anand.raichoor@brera.inaf.it [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

2011-05-01

228

Spatial organization of a reintroduced population of bobcats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spacing patterns and mating systems of solitary carnivores have important implications for social behavior and for the survival and reproduction of individuals. Over 2 years, we reintroduced 32 (15 males and 17 females) bobcats (Lynx rufus) to a barrier island off the coast of Georgia and studied patterns of bobcat spatial distribution. Population density increased to 3.1 bobcats/10 km2. We found overlap of the home range for all females on the island increased during 1989-1991 such that, on average, each female shared a home-range area with the equivalent of >2 other females, and for core areas overlap was equivalent to sharing a core area with nearly 1 other female. Reproduction and home-range overlap were related inversely and food resources did not seem to be limiting. Our results were consistent with the land tenure concept in that the initial reintroduced bobcats established home ranges that changed little in size and location. However, bobcats resident on the island for ??? 1 year did not successfully exclude newcomers from their home ranges or core areas and no bobcats retained areas of exclusive use from conspecifics of the same sex. We suggest that the propensity of female bobcats to reproduce successfully may be related to their access to exclusive use areas even under conditions of adequate or good food availability. Under the conditions in this study (moderate bobcat density, adequate food availability, and limited dispersal) bobcats exhibited no evidence of an ability to exclude other adult individuals from their home ranges or core areas. ?? 2006 American Society of Mammalogists.

Diefenbach, D. R.; Hansen, L. A.; Warren, R. J.; Conroy, M. J.

2006-01-01

229

Vif of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from Domestic Cats Protects against APOBEC3 Restriction Factors from Many Felids?  

PubMed Central

To get more insight into the role of APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases in the species-specific restriction of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) of the domestic cat, we tested the A3 proteins present in big cats (puma, lion, tiger, and lynx). These A3 proteins were analyzed for expression and sensitivity to the Vif protein of FIV. While A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s inhibited ?vif FIV, felid A3Z2s did not show any antiviral activity against ?vif FIV or wild-type (wt) FIV. All felid A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s were sensitive to Vif of the domestic cat FIV. Vif also induced depletion of felid A3Z2s. Tiger A3s showed a moderate degree of resistance against the Vif-mediated counter defense. These findings may imply that the A3 restriction system does not play a major role to prevent domestic cat FIV transmission to other Felidae. In contrast to the sensitive felid A3s, many nonfelid A3s actively restricted wt FIV replication. To test whether VifFIV can protect also the distantly related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a chimeric HIV-1.VifFIV was constructed. This HIV-1.VifFIV was replication competent in nonpermissive feline cells expressing human CD4/CCR5 that did not support the replication of wt HIV-1. We conclude that the replication of HIV-1 in some feline cells is inhibited only by feline A3 restriction factors and the absence of the appropriate receptor or coreceptor.

Zielonka, Jorg; Marino, Daniela; Hofmann, Henning; Yuhki, Naoya; Lochelt, Martin; Munk, Carsten

2010-01-01

230

Performance Evaluation of three Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Methods for Broad Spectrum Drug Screening  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem LC-MS (LC-MS/MS) are increasingly used in toxicology laboratories as a complementary method to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) for comprehensive drug screening (CDS). This study was designed to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of three LC-MS(/MS) vendor-supplied methods for targeted CDS and identify the current limitations associated with the use of these technologies. METHODS Five methods for broad spectrum CDS, including LC-UV (REMEDi), full scan GC-MS, LC-MS (ZQ™-Mass Detector with MassLynx™-software), LC-QTRAP-MS/MS (3200-QTRAP® with Cliquid®-software) and LC-LIT-MS/MS (LXQ™ Linear Ion Trap with ToxID™-software) were evaluated based on their ability to detect drugs in 48 patient urine samples. RESULTS The tandem MS methods identified 15% more drugs than the single stage MS or LC-UV methods. Use of two broad spectrum screening methods identified more drugs than any single system alone. False negatives and false positives generated by the LC-MS(/MS) software programs were identified upon manual review of the raw data. CONCLUSIONS The LC-MS/MS methods detected a broader menu of drugs; however, it is essential to establish manual data review criteria for all LC-MS(/MS) drug screening methods. Use of an EI-GC-MS and ESI-LC-MS/MS combination for targeted CDS may be optimal due to the complementary nature of the chromatographic and ionization techniques.

Lynch, Kara L.; Breaud, Autumn R.; Vandenberghe, Hilde; Wu, Alan H. B.; Clarke, William

2010-01-01

231

Early-type Galaxies at z ~ 1.3. IV. Scaling Relations in Different Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z ~ 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 1010 < M/M ? < 1011.5, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z ~ 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z ~ 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M <~ 2 × 1011 M? and those with masses M ~ 1011 M? follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, ~35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

2012-02-01

232

Medium-Sized Mammals around a Radioactive Liquid Waste Lagoon at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Uptake of Contaminants and Evaluation of Radio-Frequency Identification Technology  

SciTech Connect

Use of a radioactive liquid waste lagoon by medium-sized mammals and levels of tritium, other selected radionuclides, and metals in biological tissues of the animals were documented at Technical Area 53 (TA-53) of Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1997 and 1998. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegates), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) were captured at TA-53 and at a control site on the Santa Fe National Forest. Captured animals were anesthetized and marked with radio-frequency identification (RFD) tags and/or ear tags. We collected urine and hair samples for tritium and metals (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and thallium) analyses, respectively. In addition, muscle and bone samples from two rock squirrels collected from each of TA-53, perimeter, and regional background sites were tested for tritium, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and total uranium. Animals at TA-53 were monitored entering and leaving the lagoon area using a RFID monitor to read identification numbers from the RFID tags of marked animals and a separate camera system to photograph all animals passing through the monitor. Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.), rock squirrel, and raccoon were the species most frequently photographed going through the RFID monitor. Less than half of all marked animals in the lagoon area were detected using the lagoon. Male and female rock squirrels from the lagoon area had significantly higher tritium concentrations compared to rock squirrels from the control area. Metals tested were not significantly higher in rock squirrels from TA-53, although there was a trend toward increased levels of lead in some individuals at TA-53. Muscle and bone samples from squirrels in the lagoon area appeared to have higher levels of tritium, total uranium, and {sup 137}Cs than samples collected from perimeter and background locations. However, the committed effective dose equivalent estimated from the potential human consumption of the muscle and bone tissue from these rock squirrels did not suggest any human health risk. Indirect routes of tritium uptake, possibly through consumption of vegetation, are important for animals in the lagoon area.

Leslie A. Hansen; Phil R. Fresquez; Rhonda J. Robinson; John D. Huchton; Teralene S. Foxx

1999-11-01

233

Quantification and molecular characterization of the feline leukemia virus A receptor.  

PubMed

Virus receptors and their expression patterns on the cell surface determine the cell tropism of the virus, host susceptibility and the pathogenesis of the infection. Feline thiamine transport protein 1 (fTHTR1) has been identified as the receptor for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) A. The goal of the present study was to develop a quantitative, TaqMan real-time PCR assay to investigate fTHTR1 mRNA expression in tissues of uninfected and FeLV-infected cats, cats of different ages, in tumor tissues and leukocyte subsets. Moreover, the receptor was molecularly characterized in different feline species. fTHTR1 mRNA expression was detected in all 30 feline tissues investigated, oral mucosa scrapings and blood. Importantly, identification of significant differences in fTHTR1 expression relied on normalization with an appropriate reference gene. The lowest levels were found in the blood, whereas high levels were measured in the oral mucosa, salivary glands and the musculature. In the blood, T lymphocytes showed significantly higher fTHTR1 mRNA expression levels than neutrophil granulocytes. In vitro activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with concanavalin A alone or followed by interleukin-2 led to a transient increase of fTHTR1 mRNA expression. In the blood, but not in the examined tissues, FeLV-infected cats tended to have lower fTHTR1 mRNA levels than uninfected cats. The fTHTR1 mRNA levels were not significantly different between tissues with lymphomas and the corresponding non-neoplastic tissues. fTHTR1 was highly conserved among different feline species (Iberian lynx, Asiatic and Indian lion, European wildcat, jaguarundi, domestic cat). In conclusion, while ubiquitous fTHTR1 mRNA expression corresponded to the broad target tissue range of FeLV, particularly high fTHTR1 levels were found at sites of virus entry and shedding. The differential susceptibility of different species to FeLV could not be attributed to variations in the fTHTR1 sequence. PMID:21889617

Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A; Cattori, Valentino; Bachler, Barbara; Hartnack, Sonja; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Pete; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2011-08-25

234

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were seropositive. Among 7 possible risk factors, sex, freezing meat temperature (above -13 C vs. below -13 C), washing vegetables thoroughly, frequency of feral cat sightings on zoo grounds (occasionally vs. frequently), frequency of feral cat control programs, capability of feral cats to enter hay/grain barn, and type of animal exhibit, exhibiting animals in open enclosures was the only factor identified as a significant risk (OR 3.22, P = 0.00). PMID:18605803

de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

2008-06-01

235

Microwave-assisted tissue processing for same-day EM-diagnosis of potential bioterrorism and clinical samples.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the turnaround times, section and image quality of a number of more "difficult" specimens destined for rapid diagnostic electron microscopy (EM) after microwave-assisted processing. The results were assessed and compared with those of conventionally processed samples. A variety of infectious agents, some with a potential for bioterrorism, and liver biopsies serving as an example for routine histopathology samples were studied. The samples represented virus-producing cell cultures (such as SARS-coronavirus, West Nile virus, Orthopox virus), bacteria suspensions (cultures of Escherichia coli and genetically knockout apathogenic Bacillus anthracis), suspensions of parasites (malaria Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania major, Microsporidia cuniculi, Caenorhabditis elegans), and whole Drosophila melanogaster flies infected with microsporidia. Fresh liver samples and infected flies were fixed in Karnovsky-fixative by microwaving (20 min), all other samples were fixed in buffered glutaraldehyde or Karnovsky-fixative overnight or longer. Subsequently, all samples were divided to evaluate alternative processing protocols: one part of the sample was OsO4-postfixed, ethanol-dehydrated, Epon-infiltrated (overnight) in an automated tissue processor (LYNX, Leica), and polymerized at 60 degrees C for 48 h; in parallel the other part was microwave-assisted processed in the bench microwave device (REM, Milestone), including post-osmication and the resin block polymerization. The microwave-assisted processing protocol required at minimum 3 h 20 min: the respective epon resin blocks were uniformly polymerized allowing an easy sectioning of semi- and ultrathin sections. Sections collected on non-coated 200 mesh grids were stable in the electron beam and showed an excellent preservation of the ultrastructure and high contrast, thus allowing an easy, unequivocal and rapid assessment of specimens. Compared with conventional routine methods, microwave technology facilitates a significant reduction in sample processing time from days to hours without any loss in ultrastructural details. Microwave-assisted processing could, therefore, be a substantial benefit for the routine electron microscopic diagnostic workload. Due to its speed and robust performance it could be applied wherever a rapid electron microscopy diagnosis is required, e.g., if bioterrorism or emerging agents are suspected. Combining microwave technology with digital image acquisition, the 1-day diagnosis based on ultrathin section electron microscopy will become possible, with crucial or interesting findings being consulted or shared worldwide with experts using modern telemicroscopy tools via Internet. PMID:16843832

Schroeder, Josef A; Gelderblom, Hans R; Hauroeder, Baerbel; Schmetz, Christel; Milios, Jim; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand

2006-01-01

236

A Digital Motion Control System for Large Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and programmed a digital motion control system for large telescopes, in particular, the 6-meter antennas of the Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea. The system consists of a single robust, high-reliability microcontroller board which implements a two-axis velocity servo while monitoring and responding to critical safety parameters. Excellent tracking performance has been achieved with this system (0.3 arcsecond RMS at sidereal rate). The 24x24 centimeter four-layer printed circuit board contains a multitude of hardware devices: 40 digital inputs (for limit switches and fault indicators), 32 digital outputs (to enable/disable motor amplifiers and brakes), a quad 22-bit ADC (to read the motor tachometers), four 16-bit DACs (that provide torque signals to the motor amplifiers), a 32-LED status panel, a serial port to the LynxOS PowerPC antenna computer (RS422/460kbps), a serial port to the Palm Vx handpaddle (RS232/115kbps), and serial links to the low-resolution absolute encoders on the azimuth and elevation axes. Each section of the board employs independent ground planes and power supplies, with optical isolation on all I/O channels. The processor is an Intel 80C196KC 16-bit microcontroller running at 20MHz on an 8-bit bus. This processor executes an interrupt-driven, scheduler-based software system written in C and assembled into an EPROM with user-accessible variables stored in NVSRAM. Under normal operation, velocity update requests arrive at 100Hz from the position-loop servo process running independently on the antenna computer. A variety of telescope safety checks are performed at 279Hz including routine servicing of a 6 millisecond watchdog timer. Additional ADCs onboard the microcontroller monitor the winding temperature and current in the brushless three-phase drive motors. The PID servo gains can be dynamically changed in software. Calibration factors and software filters can be applied to the tachometer readings prior to the application of the servo gains in the torque computations. The Palm pilot handpaddle displays the complete status of the telescope and allows full local control of the drives in an intuitive, touchscreen user interface which is especially useful during reconfigurations of the antenna array.

Hunter, T. R.; Wilson, R. W.; Kimberk, R.; Leiker, P. S.

2001-05-01

237

Jasmonate and ethylene dependent defence gene expression and suppression of fungal virulence factors: two essential mechanisms of Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat?  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium species like F. graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol produced by the fungus affect plant and animal health, and cause significant reductions of grain yield and quality. Resistant varieties are the only effective way to control this disease, but the molecular events leading to FHB resistance are still poorly understood. Transcriptional profiling was conducted for the winter wheat cultivars Dream (moderately resistant) and Lynx (susceptible). The gene expressions at 32 and 72?h after inoculation with Fusarium were used to trace possible defence mechanisms and associated genes. A comparative qPCR was carried out for selected genes to analyse the respective expression patterns in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3 (Chinese spring wheat). Results Among 2,169 differentially expressed genes, two putative main defence mechanisms were found in the FHB-resistant Dream cultivar. Both are defined base on their specific mode of resistance. A non-specific mechanism was based on several defence genes probably induced by jasmonate and ethylene signalling, including lipid-transfer protein, thionin, defensin and GDSL-like lipase genes. Additionally, defence-related genes encoding jasmonate-regulated proteins were up-regulated in response to FHB. Another mechanism based on the targeted suppression of essential Fusarium virulence factors comprising proteases and mycotoxins was found to be an essential, induced defence of general relevance in wheat. Moreover, similar inductions upon fungal infection were frequently observed among FHB-responsive genes of both mechanisms in the cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Conclusions Especially ABC transporter, UDP-glucosyltransferase, protease and protease inhibitor genes associated with the defence mechanism against fungal virulence factors are apparently active in different resistant genetic backgrounds, according to reports on other wheat cultivars and barley. This was further supported in our qPCR experiments on seven genes originating from this mechanism which revealed similar activities in the resistant cultivars Dream and Sumai 3. Finally, the combination of early-stage and steady-state induction was associated with resistance, while transcript induction generally occurred later and temporarily in the susceptible cultivars. The respective mechanisms are attractive for advanced studies aiming at new resistance and toxin management strategies.

2012-01-01

238

Restrictions to cross species transmission of lentiviral infection gleaned from studies of FIV  

PubMed Central

More than 40 species of primates and over 20 species of cats harbor antibodies that sero-react to lentiviral antigens. In nearly all cases where viral genetic analysis has been conducted, each host species is infected with a unique lentivirus. Though lentivirus clades within a species can be substantially divergent, they are typically monophyletic within that species. A notable significant departure from this observation is apparent cross-species transmission of FIV between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in southern California that has occurred at least three times; evidence from one bobcat sequence suggests this cross-over may have also occurred in Florida between bobcats and the endangered Florida panther. Several other isolated reports demonstrate cross-species transmission of FIV isolates among captive animals housed in close proximity, and it is well established that HIV-1 and HIV-2 arose from human contact with SIV-infected nonhuman primates. Using an experimental model, we have determined that domestic cats (Felis catus) are susceptible to FIVs originating from pumas or lions. While infections are initially replicative, and animals seroconvert, within a relatively short period of time circulating virus is reduced to nearly undetectable levels in a majority of animals. This diminution of viral load is proportional to initial viral peak. Although viral reservoirs can be identified in gastrointestinal tissues, most viral genomes recovered peripherally are highly mutated, suggesting that the non-adapted host successfully inhibits normal viral replication, leading to replication incompetent viral progeny. Mechanisms possible for such restriction of cross-species infections in natural settings include: 1. Lack of contact conducive to lentiviral transmission between infected and shedding animals of different species; 2. Lack of suitable receptor repertoire to allow viral entry to susceptible cells of a new species; 3. Cellular machinery in the new host sufficiently divergent from the primary host to support viral replication (ie passive unfacilitated viral replication); 4. Intracellular restriction mechanisms present in the new host that is able to limit viral replication (i.e. active interrupted viral replication. These include factors that limit uncoating, replication, packaging, and virion release); 5. Unique ability of new host to raise sterilizing adaptive immunity, resulting in aborted infection and inability to spread infections among con-specifics; or, 6. Production of defective or non-infectious viral progeny that lack cellular cofactors to render them infectious to conspecifics (i.e. particles lacking appropriate cellular components in viral Env to render them infectious to other animals of the same species). Data to support or refute the relative importance of each of these possibilities is described in this review. Insights based on our in vivo cross-species model suggest intracellular restriction mechanisms effectively inhibit rapid inter-specific transmission of lentiviruses. Further, limited contact both within and between species in natural populations is highly relevant to limiting the opportunity for spread of FIV strains. Studies of naturally-occurring SIV and innate host restriction systems suggest these same two mechanisms are significant factors inhibiting widespread cross-species transmission of lentiviruses among primate species as well.

Troyer, Jennifer; Poss, Mary

2009-01-01

239

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Hellsgate Project, 1999-2000 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was conducted on lands acquired and/or managed (4,568 acres total) by the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate project) to mitigate some of the losses associated with the original construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam and inundation of habitats behind the dams. Three separate properties, totaling 2,224 acres were purchased in 1998. One property composed of two separate parcels, mostly grassland lies southeast of the town of Nespelem in Okanogan County (770 acres) and was formerly called the Hinman property. The former Hinman property lies within an area the Tribes have set aside for the protection and preservation of the sharp-tailed grouse (Agency Butte unit). This special management area minus the Hinman acquisition contains 2,388 acres in a long-term lease with the Tribes. The second property lies just south of the Silver Creek turnoff (Ferry County) and is bisected by the Hellsgate Road (part of the Friedlander unit). This parcel contains 60 acres of riparian and conifer forest cover. The third property (now named the Sand Hills unit) acquired for mitigation (1,394 acres) lies within the Hellsgate Reserve in Ferry County. This new acquisition links two existing mitigation parcels (the old Sand Hills parcels and the Lundstrum Flat parcel, all former Kuehne purchases) together forming one large unit. HEP team members included individuals from the Colville Confederated Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department (CTCR), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The HEP team conducted a baseline habitat survey using the following HEP species models: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mink (Mustela vison), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), bobcat (Lynx rufus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus). HEP analysis and results are discussed within the body of the text. The cover types evaluated for this study were grasslands, shrub-steppe, rock, conifer forest and woodland, and riparian. These same cover types were evaluated for other Hellsgate Project acquisitions within the same geographic area. Mule deer habitat on the Sand Hills unit rated good overall for winter food and cover in the shrub-steppe and conifer woodland cover types. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat on the former Hinman property and special management area rated good for nesting and brood rearing in the grassland cover type. Mink habitat on the Friedlander parcel rated poor due to lack of food and cover in and along the riparian cover type. The Downy woodpecker rated poor for food and cover on the Friedlander parcel in the conifer forest cover type. This species also rated poor on the conifer woodland habitat on the Hinman parcel. Yellow warbler habitat on the Agency Butte Special Management area rated very poor due to lack of shrubs for cover and reproduction around the scattered semi/permanent ponds that occur on the area. Bobcat habitat on this same area rated poor due to lack of cover and food. Fragmentation of existing quality habitat is also a problem for both these species. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation and managed lands, and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, this information will be used to manage these lands for the benefit of wildlife.

Berger, Matthew

2000-05-01

240

Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)  

SciTech Connect

During a long-term study on tortoise growth within 3 fenced 9-ha enclosures in Rock Valley, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, USA, tortoises have been captured annually since 1964 (Medica et al. 1975. Copeia 1975:630-643; Turner et al. 1987. Copeia 1987:974-979). Between early August and mid October 2003 we observed a significant mortality event. The Rock Valley enclosures were constructed of 6 x 6 mm mesh 1.2 m wide hardware cloth, buried 0.3 m in the soil with deflective flashing on both sides on the top to restrict the movement of small mammals and lizards from entering or leaving the enclosures (Rundel and Gibson 1996, Ecological communities and process in a Mojave Desert ecosystem: Rock Valley, Nevada, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. 369 pp.). On August 6, 2003, the carcass of an adult female Desert Tortoise No.1411 (carapace length 234 mm when alive) was collected while adult male tortoise No.4414 (carapace length 269 mm) was observed alive and in good health on the same day. Subsequently the carcass of No.4414 was found on October 16, 2003. Between October 16-17, 2003, the remains of 6 (5 adult and 1 juvenile) Desert Tortoises were found, some within each of the 3 enclosures in Rock Valley. A seventh adult tortoise was found on September 26, 2006, its death also attributed to the 2003 mortality event based upon the forensic evidence. Each of the 7 adult Desert Tortoises had the central portion of their carapace broken open approximately to the dorsal portion of the marginal scutes while the plastron was still intact (Figure 1A). Adjacent to 7 of the 8 remains we located numerous bone fragments including parts of the carapace and limbs as well as dried intestines in a nearby Range Rhatany (Krameria parvifolia) shrub. The significance of the frequent use of this shrub is puzzling. Three of the Desert Tortoise shell remains possessed distinctive intercanine punctures measuring 55-60 mm center to center indicating that this was an adult sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm.; Medica 1990. Great Basin Nat. 50:83-84), while Coyotes (Canis latrans) were never observed within th

Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

2009-01-01