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1

Lynx  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lynxes have a dynamic predator-prey relationship with the hare, or rabbits. This relationship is cyclic. The hare population size increases every ten years or so because there is an abundance of vegetation. Shortly after, the lynx population increases because there are more hares to eat. Once the hares have eaten all the available vegetation, their population crashes because there is nothing to eat. The lynx population crashes shortly after that because there aren't enough hares around to eat.

Erwin Bauer (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; )

2005-06-29

2

Lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

(the Lynx; abbrev. Lyn, gen. Lyncis; area 545 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Auriga, and culminates at midnight in late January. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. An inconspicuous constellation, Hevelius (who distrusted telescopic...

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

3

Lynx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(the Lynx; abbrev. Lyn, gen. Lyncis; area 545 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Auriga, and culminates at midnight in late January. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. An inconspicuous constellation, Hevelius (who distrusted telescopic...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

4

Lynx Special Section Assessment of Canada Lynx Research and Conservation  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The ecology of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and their main prey, snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus hare. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) populations and those of their main prey, snowshoe hares (LepusLynx Special Section Assessment of Canada Lynx Research and Conservation Needs in the Southern

5

Oral papillomatosis in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

We observed 11 cases of oral papillomatosis among 48 free-ranging Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) that had been shipped to Colorado for translocation purposes. Lesions were 1-3 mm, multifocal, nonpigmented sessile masses and occurred on the ventral lingual surface. Adverse clinical signs were not observed. Six of the 11 cases resolved and the remainder appeared to be self-limiting when affected animals were examined lynx while in captivity. Histopathologic lesions included marked hyperplasia of the mucosal epithelium causing thickening of the stratum spinosum and corneum. Ballooning degeneration of epithelial cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed. Papilloma virus was found on negative contrast electron microscopy. Papillomatosis was seen in lynx from three geographically distant sources (British Columbia, five of 21 individuals; Quebec, five of 17; Yukon, one of four) suggesting the causative virus may be widespread among North American lynx populations. PMID:17984270

Wolfe, Lisa L; Spraker, Terry R

2007-10-01

6

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Habitat and Conservation Priority Areas for Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx)  

E-print Network

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Habitat and Conservation Priority Areas for Lynx canadensis canadensis (Canada Lynx) Acknowledgements Thanks to Chris Iverson (Assistant Director, Watershed, Fish areas for Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx) Abstract The dependence of Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx

7

Survival rates and causes of mortality in Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) in multi-use landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes of mortality were described for 245 radio-marked Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in five different Scandinavian study areas. Furthermore, the survival rates and the population growth rates were estimated for three of the study areas where 202 lynx were followed for a total of 314 radio-years. The main causes of mortality in adult Eurasian lynx in all our study areas

Henrik Andrén; John D. C. Linnell; Olof Liberg; Reidar Andersen; Anna Danell; Jens Karlsson; John Odden; P aû l F. Moa; Per Ahlqvist; Tor Kvam; Robert Franzén; Peter Segerström

2006-01-01

8

The federal listing of lynx (Lynx lynx) as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act  

E-print Network

including bobcats (Lynx rufus; Litvaitis and Harrison 1989,Koehler and Hornocker 1991) and ocelotsThe federal listing of lynx (Lynx lynx) as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act (Federal studies require capturing and handling lynx in ways that minimize both animal stress and the risk

9

Oral Papillomatosis in Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 11 cases of oral papillomatosis among 48 free-ranging Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) that had been shipped to Colorado for translocation purposes. Lesions were 1-3 mm, multifocal, nonpigmented ses- sile masses and occurred on the ventral lingual surface. Adverse clinical signs were not ob- served. Six of the 11 cases resolved and the remainder appeared to be self-limiting when

Lisa L. Wolfe; Terry R. Spraker

2007-01-01

10

Genotyping success of historical Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) samples.  

PubMed

Historical samples, like tanned hides and trophy skulls, can be extremely important for genetic studies of endangered or elusive species. Selection of a sampling protocol that is likely to provide sufficient amount and quality of DNA with a minimum damage to the original specimen is often critical for a success of the study. We investigated microsatellite genotyping success of DNA isolated from three different types of Eurasian lynx historical samples. We analysed a total of 20 microsatellite loci in 106 historical samples from the endangered Dinaric lynx population, established from re-introduction of three pairs of lynx in 1973 from Slovakian Carpathians. Of the three tested sample types, turbinal bone and septum from the nasal cavity of the trophy skulls had the lowest percentage of samples successfully genotyped for all 20 microsatellite loci. Footpad samples, collected using a cork drill, exhibited better results in polymerase chain reaction amplification and genotyping than samples of footpad epidermis cut with a scalpel. We report simple and efficient sampling protocols, which could be widely applied for future studies utilizing historical samples. PMID:22040140

Polanc, Primož; Sindi?i?, Magda; Jelen?i?, Maja; Gomer?i?, Tomislav; Kos, Ivan; Huber, Duro

2012-03-01

11

Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.  

PubMed

We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ? 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection. PMID:23778601

Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

2013-07-01

12

Endoparasites of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland.  

PubMed

We sampled 339 fecal samples, 296 intestines, and 82 lungs from 371 lynx hunted during the 2010-2011 season in Finland. The fecal samples were analyzed for endoparasites by a quantitative flotation method, and helminths from intestines were studied morphologically, while lungs were investigated for pulmonary parasites. From fecal samples, eggs and oocysts of at least 6 different endoparasite species were identified, with a mean of 1.5 (range 0-4) parasite species per host. In the intestines, at least 4 different helminth species were found, with the mean of 2.0 (range 1-4) species per infected host. The prevalence of eggs in feces and the prevalence of worms in intestines were 71% and 93% for Toxocara cati , 29% and 68% for Taenia spp., and 5% and 2% for Diphyllobothrium sp., respectively. Only eggs were detected for Capillaria sp. (46%) and Uncinaria sp. (0.6%) nematodes, and only adults were detected for Mesocestoides sp. cestodes (0.3%). Significant positive correlations were evident between the number of T. cati (r = 0.664; P = 0.01) and Diphyllobothrium sp. (r = 0.645; P = 0.01) eggs per gram of feces and adult worms detected in intestine. In addition to the metazoan parasites, protozoan Isospora sp. oocysts were also found (0.6%). Pulmonary samples were all negative for parasites. These data demonstrate that lynx commonly harbor various endoparasites, some of which are zoonotic. PMID:23016871

Deksne, Gunita; Laakkonen, Juha; Näreaho, Anu; Jokelainen, Pikka; Holmala, Katja; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

2013-04-01

13

A Snow-tracking Protocol Used to Delineate Local Lynx, Lynx canadensis, Distributions  

E-print Network

A Snow-tracking Protocol Used to Delineate Local Lynx, Lynx canadensis, Distributions JOHN R local lynx, Lynx canadensis, distributions. Canadian Field-Naturalist 118(4): 583-589. Determining Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) distribution is an important management need, especially at the southern

14

The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) was listed as a threatened species under the Endan-  

E-print Network

The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) was listed as a threatened species under the Endan- gered Species record for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, in Labrador. Canadian Field Naturalist 107:367­368. KOEHLER, G RECORD FOR CANADA LYNX, LYNX CANADENSIS, IN WESTERN MONTANA Jay A. Kolbe1,2 and John R. Squires1 Key

15

[Social play in the development of sibling relations in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)].  

PubMed

Social play fulfills an important function in creating and maintaining relations between siblings. However, its relationship with the intralitter social processes is poorly understood. It was noticed that, in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) litters, sex differences in social play are absent in the first 2-3 months of life. Itwas found that the most intense periods of play behavior (at an age of 9 and 1-2 weeks) coincide with periods of aggression. Gradual change in play interactions, which require close physical contact by play elements with increased motor activity, are described. This reflects the changes in the relevance of certain skills of lynx cubs as they grow older. PMID:25735181

2014-01-01

16

Landscape location affects genetic variation of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a population's location on the landscape on genetic variation has been of interest to population genetics for more than half a century. However, most studies do not consider broadscale biogeography when interpreting genetic data. In this study, we propose an operational definition of a peripheral population, and then explore whether peripheral populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

M. K. S CHWARTZ; L. S. M ILLS; Y. O RTEGA; L. F. R UGGIERO; F. W. A LLENDORF

2003-01-01

17

Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Québec, Canada.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in trapped lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Québec, Canada. Forty-seven of 106 (44%) lynx and 4 of 10 (40%) bobcats had positive titers for T. gondii (> or = 25) by means of the modified agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol and formalin-fixed tachyzoites. Seroprevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in adult lynx than in juvenile lynx. The presence of antibodies to T. gondii in lynx and bobcats suggests that this organism is widespread in the wild and that exposure to wild felids and game animals from Québec may represent a potential source of infection for humans. PMID:11695397

Labelle, P; Dubey, J P; Mikaelian, I; Blanchette, N; Lafond, R; St-Onge, S; Martineau, D

2001-10-01

18

Toward a Defensible Lynx Conservation  

E-print Network

carnivores--notably including the lynx. The basis for concern over most of these species was their putative. The findings of the forest carnivore conservation assessment were pub- lished in a report entitled, The Scientific Basis for Conserving Forest Carnivores: American Marten, Fisher, Lynx and Wolverine in the Western

19

Winter Prey Selection of Canada Lynx in  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles that diet and prey abundance play in habitat selection of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the contiguous United States is poorly understood. From 1998-2002, we back-tracked radiocollared lynx (6 F, 9 M) for a distance of 582 km and we located 86 kills in northwestern Montana, USA. Lynx preyed on 7 species that included blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus),

20

Canada Lynx-bobcat (Lynx canadensis 3 L. rufus) Hybrids at the Southern Periphery of Lynx range in Maine, Minnesota and New Brunswick  

E-print Network

Canada Lynx-bobcat (Lynx canadensis 3 L. rufus) Hybrids at the Southern Periphery of Lynx range (Lynx canadensis) and bobcat (L. rufus) was recently documented in the United States, but little between wild populations of Canada lynx and sympatric populations of bobcat (Lynx rufus) was unrecognized

21

New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

2006-01-01

22

Pyloric trichobezoar in a Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

An adult female Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) was presented with a 3-wk history of anorexia and lethargy. Initial examination and diagnostics did not provide a diagnosis. The lynx continued to demonstrate vague clinical signs, including anorexia and an abnormal gait. During follow-up immobilizations 2 wk later, a barium gastrointestinal study revealed a pyloric obstruction. Abdominal exploratory surgery was elected, and a gastrotomy and an enterotomy of the proximal duodenum were performed to remove the pyloric obstruction. The obstruction was determined to be a trichobezoar. Fleas, a likely cause of hair ingestion through grooming, were noted during surgical preparation. The lynx made a full recovery from surgery. Reoccurrence of the trichobezoar was prevented after surgery with the use of monthly flea control and three times a week hairball laxative. PMID:24450081

Kottwitz, Jack; Munsterman, Amelia S

2013-12-01

23

Landscape location affects genetic variation of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

The effect of a population's location on the landscape on genetic variation has been of interest to population genetics for more than half a century. However, most studies do not consider broadscale biogeography when interpreting genetic data. In this study, we propose an operational definition of a peripheral population, and then explore whether peripheral populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have less genetic variation than core populations at nine microsatellite loci. We show that peripheral populations of lynx have fewer mean numbers of alleles per population and lower expected heterozygosity. This is surprising, given the lynx's capacity to move long distances, but can be explained by the fact that peripheral populations often have smaller population sizes, limited opportunities for genetic exchange and may be disproportionately affected by ebbs and flows of species' geographical range. PMID:12803633

Schwartz, M K; Mills, L S; Ortega, Y; Ruggiero, L F; Allendorf, F W

2003-07-01

24

Plague as a Mortality Factor in Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) Reintroduced to Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a species recovery pro- gram, 129 Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) originating from British Columbia, the Yukon, Manitoba, and Quebec, Canada, and Alaska, USA, were reintroduced to southwestern Col- orado, USA, from 1999 to 2003. Of 52 lynx mortalities documented by October 2003, six lynx, including a female and her 5-mo-old kitten, had evidence of Yersinia pestis infection

Margaret A. Wild; Tanya M. Shenk; Terry R. Spraker; Fort Collins

2006-01-01

25

Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC. PMID:22515208

Sindi?i?, Magda; Gomer?i?, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

2012-06-01

26

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.  

PubMed

Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown. PMID:23347590

Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

2013-04-01

27

Adult-onset hypothyroidism in a lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

A 19-yr-old female lynx (Lynx canadensis) presented for an acute onset of anorexia and reluctance to move. Physical examination, radiography, hematology, and serum biochemistry revealed evidence of renal failure, presumptive uremic gastritis, chronic intervertebral disk disease at T13-L1, and markedly low serum levels of total thyroxine (1.54 nmol/L) and total triixodothyronine (0.55 nmol/L). Twenty-five hours after its original presentation, the lynx exhibited horizontal nystagmus, which has been suggested as a clinical sign associated with hypothyroidism in domestic dogs. The lynx was euthanatized because of poor prognosis, and medical management concerns related to its chronic renal failure. Necropsy examination substantiated that the lynx had true hypothyroidism with 60-90% of the thyroid gland replaced with adipose tissue. Although feline adult-onset hypothyroidism may have low incidence, it should still be considered as a cause of nonspecific signs of disease in cats, as well as signs suggestive of hypothyroidism. Routine monitoring of baseline exotic felid thyroid levels throughout life would help to identify normal values and diagnose a potential disease that has obscure clinical signs. PMID:14582793

Greer, Leah L; Troutman, Mitchell; McCracken, Malcolm D; Ramsay, Edward C

2003-09-01

28

The Scientific Basis for Lynx Conservation  

E-print Network

University Blvd., Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Kevin S. McKelvey, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research knowl- edge of lynx ecology, (2) the pertinence of this knowledge to lynx conser- vation will prevail. In the following pages, we have attempted to distill the state of knowl- edge regarding lynx

29

Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus.  

PubMed

Specimens of 12 helminth species were collected from carcasses of eight Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827), a carnivore endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These species included: Brachylaima sp. (12.5%) (Trematoda); Taenia pisiformis (12.5%), T. polyacantha (25%), T. taeniaeformis (25%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (37.5%) (Cestoda); Eucoleus aerophilus (12.5%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (12.5%), Toxocara cati (37.5%), Toxascaris leonina (62.5%), Vigisospirura potekhina potekhina (12.5%), Mastophorus muris (12.5%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (12.5%) (Nematoda). The helminth fauna in Iberian lynx is compared with that of L. canadensis and L. rufus in America, and for L. lynx in Eurasia. The potential relationships between the parasitological data and some geographical, historical and dietary factors are discussed. PMID:9765373

Torres, J; Garciá-Perea, R; Gisbert, J; Feliu, C

1998-09-01

30

Scent-marking behaviour and social dynamics in a wild population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx.  

PubMed

Scent-marking is widespread among mammals and has been observed in many felid species. Although the behaviour is well-described, little is known about its function in wild felid populations. We investigated patterns of scent-marking and its role in intra- and intersexual communication among resident and non-resident Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx by observing interactions among wild lynx at natural marking sites by means of infrared camera traps. Marking activity of resident animals showed a peak during the mating season and was lowest during the time when females gave birth and lactated. Both sexes scent-marked, but male lynx visited marking sites much more often than females and marked relatively more often when visiting a site. Most visits to marking sites were by residents but we also observed scent-marking by non-residents. Juveniles were never observed marking. We found no evidence of lynx regularly renewing scent-marks after a certain 'expiry date' but the presence of a strange scent-mark triggered over-marking. Males responded similarly to the presence of another individual's scent-mark, irrespective of whether it was the top- or the underlying scent-mark in a mixture of scent-marks they encountered. Our results suggest that marking sites could serve as 'chemical bulletin boards', where male lynx advertise their presence and gain information on ownership relationships in a given area. Females placed their urine marks on top of the ones left by resident males, but further studies are needed to explain the functions of over-marking in females. PMID:24814909

Vogt, Kristina; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Kölliker, Mathias; Breitenmoser, Urs

2014-07-01

31

Collection of field reproductive data from carcasses of the female Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Information about reproductive physiology in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) would generate knowledge that could be useful in the management of the Swedish lynx population based on the knowledge about their reproductive potential and population development. Age-related differences in ovulation and implantation rates would affect the reproductive output and the development of the population. The aims of this study were to evaluate a protocol for collection of reproductive data from carcasses by comparisons with published field data and to generate data about reproduction in the Swedish lynx. Reproductive organs from 120 females that were harvested between March 1 and April 9 from 2009 to 2011 were collected and evaluated macroscopically for placental scars. Females had their first estrus as yearlings but did not have their first litter until the next season. Pregnancy rates were lower in 2-year-old females than in females aged 3 to 7 years but did not differ significantly from females aged 8 to 13 years (54.5%, 95.6%, and 75.0%, respectively). CL from the present season were morphologically distinctly different from luteal bodies from previous cycles (LBPC). All females ?3 years had macroscopically visible LBPC, whereas only 67% of 22 to 23 months old females had one to three LBPC and no females <1 year of age had LBPC. Females aged 34 to 35 months had up to eight LPBC, whereas the highest number of LBPC counted in females ?3 years of age was 11. These data would be in agreement with only one estrus per season and LBPC from at least three previous reproductive seasons in older females. The number of LBPC was significantly correlated with the weight of the ovaries rs = 0.648, P < 0.001) and the age of the animals (rs = 0.572, P < 0.001). Uterine weight differed significantly with the stage of the reproductive cycle and was highest for mature females in the luteal phase of the cycle. The estrous period, defined as occurrence of ovarian follicles lasted from March 5 to April 1 in this material. In conclusion, this study confirms that useful information about lynx reproduction can be collected from reproductive organs retrieved after the death of the animals. Continuous monitoring of lynx reproductive organs would therefore make a valuable contribution to collection of field data, gathering information that can be useful for the management of lynx populations and potentially for the lynx as an indicator of environmental disturbances. PMID:23987987

Axnér, E; Payan-Carreira, R; Setterlind, P; Åsbrink, J; Söderberg, A

2013-11-01

32

RESEARCH ARTICLE Dispersal promotes high gene flow among Canada lynx  

E-print Network

structure of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have been surprisingly equivocal, despite a large amount dynamics and ecology of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have long garnered the attention of populationRESEARCH ARTICLE Dispersal promotes high gene flow among Canada lynx populations across mainland

Row, Jeffrey R.

33

Efficacy of lures and hair snares to detect lynx  

E-print Network

to detect presence of lynx (Lynx canadensis). We tested 2 key elements of the protocol: 1) a hair- snaring listing the lynx (Lynx canadensis) as "threatened" under the Endangered SpeciesAct. The "take" provisionsEfficacy of lures and hair snares to detect lynx Gregory Jf: McDaniel, Kevin S. McKelvey, John R

34

RESEARCH ARTICLE Dispersal promotes high gene flow among Canada lynx  

E-print Network

studies addressing the population structure of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have been surprisingly fluctuations, the population dynamics and ecology of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have long garneredRESEARCH ARTICLE Dispersal promotes high gene flow among Canada lynx populations across mainland

35

RESEARCH ARTICLE Functional connectivity of lynx at their southern range  

E-print Network

lynx Á Lynx canadensis Á Circuit theory Á Occupancy Á Functional connectivity Á Habitat IntroductionRESEARCH ARTICLE Functional connectivity of lynx at their southern range periphery in Ontario, we modeled occurrence of Canada lynx (Lynx canaden- sis) in relation to landscape characteristics

36

Occurrence of Thelazia callipaeda and Toxocara cati in an imported European lynx (Lynx lynx) in Japan.  

PubMed

A necropsy was performed on an adult European lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), held in captivity until its death, to determine level of parasitism. Examination of the eyes revealed the oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda, in the conjunctival sac and the third eyelid of both eyes. The species was confirmed by location and morphology. Intact worms were fixed, mounted, and identified. Examination of the alimentary tract revealed the common ascaroid nematode, Toxocara cati. Species was confirmed by the arrow-like anterior end. One hundred and forty-one adult worms were collected. The presence of these nematodes indicated the importance of eliminating the contact of zoo animals with Amiota spp. vectors and to prevent contamination with the infective T. cati eggs. PMID:23082531

El-Dakhly, Khaled; Abo El-Hadid, Shawky; Shimizu, Hirofumi; El-Nahass, Shaymaa; Murai, Atsuko; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

2012-09-01

37

Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-01-01

38

Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2014-01-01

39

Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

40

Exposure to disease agents in the endangered Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid species in the world. Lynx populations have decreased dramatically in size and distribution\\u000a in the last four decades, thus becoming increasingly vulnerable to catastrophic events such as epizooties. From 1989 to 2000,\\u000a serum samples were obtained from 48 free-ranging lynx captured in the Doñana National Park (DNP, n?=?31) and mountains

Melody E. Roelke; Warren E. Johnson; Javier Millán; Francisco Palomares; Eloy Revilla; Alejandro Rodríguez; Javier Calzada; Pablo Ferreras; Luis León-Vizcaíno; Miguel Delibes; Stephen J. O’Brien

2008-01-01

41

Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.  

PubMed

Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

2014-01-01

42

Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) – Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam  

PubMed Central

Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

2014-01-01

43

Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.  

PubMed

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

2011-04-01

44

Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2011-01-01

45

Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx ( Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP) expression in captive and wild female Canada lynx. Our results

Kerry V. Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Jennifer H. Vashon; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

2010-01-01

46

Sarcocystis neurona-like encephalitis in a Canada lynx (Felis lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

A 13-yr-old female Canada lynx (Felis lynx canadensis) died after a short clinical illness, and necropsy revealed multifocal, nonsuppurative encephalitis with protozoal schizonts present in cerebral vascular endothelial cells. The schizonts stained immunohistochemically with antiserum to Sarcocystis neurona. This is the first report of Sarcocystis encephalitis in the Canada lynx. PMID:11237148

Forest, T W; Abou-Madi, N; Summers, B A; Tornquist, S J; Cooper, B J

2000-09-01

47

Serologic Survey for Viral and Bacterial Infections in Western Populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis )i n western North America was conducted. Sam- ples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, fe- line calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pes- tis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of sam- ples was tested for

Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

2002-01-01

48

Histological and endocrine characterisation of the annual luteal activity in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Lynx presents a unique sexual cycle with persistent corpora lutea (CLs) and elevated serum progesterone (P?) throughout parturition and lactation. In other mammals, CLs normally disintegrate after parturition, therefore the aim of our study was to characterise the annual life cycle of lynx CLs. Ovaries from Eurasian lynxes were obtained from the National Veterinary Institute in Sweden, where tissues from killed lynx were stored at -20?°C. Ovaries from 66 animals were weighed; each corpus luteum was segmented for histology and hormone analysis. Ovary and CLs weights were constant throughout the year, peaking during pregnancy. In non-pregnant lynxes, the seasonal level of intraluteal steroids was steady for P? (3.2±1.9 s.d. ?g/g, n=53) and total oestrogens (18.3±15.5 s.d. ng/g, n=53). Within histology slides, structurally intact luteal cells were found throughout the year with the highest incidence in March/April; evidence of luteal regression was predominantly found in post-breeding season. Ovaries from pregnant animals contained two types of CLs. Group A was bigger in size with large luteal cells (P?, 72.3±65.4 s.d. ?g/g; oestrogen, 454.0±52.4 s.d. ng/g). In contrast, group B were smaller, with greater luteal regression and lower steroid concentrations (P?, 8.3±2.9 s.d. ?g/g; oestrogen, 31.5±20.4 s.d. ng/g). Our results suggest that structural luteolysis proceeds throughout the year and into next breeding cycle, resulting in two CLs types on the same ovary. PMID:22829688

Carnaby, Kim; Painer, Johanna; Söderberg, Arne; Gavier-Widèn, Dolores; Göritz, Frank; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina

2012-10-01

49

Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo) and wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland. (210)Po and (137)Cs have been analysed in samples of liver, kidney and muscle from 28 wolves from Sweden. In addition blood samples were taken from 27 wolves. In 9 of the wolves, samples of muscle, liver and blood were analysed for (210)Po. Samples of liver and muscle were collected from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway. The liver samples were analysed for (210)Po and (137)Cs. Only (137)Cs analyses were carried out for the muscle samples. The wolves were collected during the winter 2010 and 2011, while the samples for lynx and wolverines were all from 2011. The activity concentrations of (210)Po in wolves were higher for liver (range 20-523 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and kidney (range 24-942 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) than muscle (range 1-43 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and blood (range 2-54 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Activity ratios, (210)Po/(210)Pb, in wolf samples of muscle, liver and blood were in the ranges 2-77, 9-56 and 2-54. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal absorbed dose from (210)Po to wolf liver was estimated to 3500 ?Gy per year. Compared to wolf, the ranges of (210)Po in liver samples were lower in lynx (range 22-211 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and wolverine (range16-160 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Concentration of (137)Cs in wolf samples of muscle, liver, kidney and blood were in the ranges 70-8410 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 36-4050 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 31-3453 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 4-959 Bq kg(-1) d.w., respectively. (137)Cs in lynx muscle and liver samples were in the ranges 44-13393 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 125-10260 Bq kg(-1) d.w. The corresponding values for (137)Cs in wolverine were 22-3405 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for liver and 53-4780 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for muscle. The maximal absorbed dose from (137)Cs to lynx was estimated to 3000 ?Gy per year. PMID:24811891

Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis; Kålås, John Atle; Persson, Bertil; Asbrink, Jessica

2014-12-01

50

Plague as a mortality factor in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced to Colorado.  

PubMed

As part of a species recovery program, 129 Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) originating from British Columbia, the Yukon, Manitoba, and Quebec, Canada, and Alaska, USA, were reintroduced to southwestern Colorado, USA, from 1999 to 2003. Of 52 lynx mortalities documented by October 2003, six lynx, including a female and her 5-mo-old kitten, had evidence of Yersinia pestis infection as determined by fluorescent antibody test and/or culture. Postmortem findings in these lynx were characterized by pneumonia, ranging from acute suppurative pneumonia, to multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, to fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Histopathologic examination of lung revealed multiple areas of inflammation and consolidation, areas of edema and hemorrhage, and bacteria surrounded by extensive inflammation. Spleens had severe lymphoid depletion and hypocellular red pulp. Lymphadenomegaly was observed in only one plague-affected lynx. We hypothesize that these Canada lynx were exposed to Y. pestis by infected prey, and these are the first reports of plague in this species. PMID:17092896

Wild, Margaret A; Shenk, Tanya M; Spraker, Terry R

2006-07-01

51

Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected. PMID:25185866

Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

2014-01-01

52

Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).  

PubMed

Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-old vs. >2-year-old females). In general, the breeding proportion varied between age classes and study sites, whereas we did not detect such variation in litter size. The lack of differences in litter sizes among age classes is at odds with most findings in large mammals, and we argue that this is because the level of prenatal investment is relatively low in felids compared to their substantial levels of postnatal care. PMID:22707757

Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik

2012-07-01

53

Bregmatic Bones in North American Lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous bregmatic fontanolle bones were present in 279 of 1790 skulls of Lynx rufus examined, but with no apparent correlation with age, sex, or place of origin of the specimens. Examination of 472 skulls of Lynx canadensis disclosed only one possessing bregmatic bones.

Richard H. Manville

1959-01-01

54

Bregmatic bones in North American lynx.  

PubMed

Anomalous bregmatic fontanelle bones were present in 279 of 1790 skulls of Lynx rufus examined, but with no apparent correlation with age, sex, or place of origin of the specimens. Examination of 472 skulls of Lynx canadensis disclosed only one possessing bregmatic bones. PMID:14420785

MANVILLE, R H

1959-11-01

55

Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian ( Lynx lynx), the Iberian ( L. pardinus), the Canada lynx ( L. canadensis) and the bobcat ( L. rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal

M. Dehnhard; K. Fanson; A. Frank; S. V. Naidenko; A. Vargas; K. Jewgenow

2010-01-01

56

Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic Analysis of Iberian Lynx Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one of the world's most endangered cat species, is vulnerable due to habitat loss, increased fragmentation of populations, and precipitous demographic reductions. An understanding of Iberian lynx evolutionary history is necessary to develop rational management plans for the species. Our objectives were to assess Iberian lynx genetic diversity at three evolutionary timescales. First we analyzed

W. E. Johnson; J. A. GODOY; F. PALOMARES; M. DELIBES; M. FERNANDES; E. REVILLA; S. J. O'BRIEN

2004-01-01

57

Research Note Circadian Activity Patterns of Canada Lynx in Western  

E-print Network

Research Note Circadian Activity Patterns of Canada Lynx in Western Montana JAY A. KOLBE,1 Montana activity, Canada lynx, circadian activity, Lepus americanus, Lynx canadensis, snowshoe hares. The United the circadian activity of Canada lynx in western Montana, USA, by sex, season, and reproductive status. We

58

Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP) expression in captive and wild female Canada lynx. Our results indicate that Canada lynx have persistent corpora lutea, which underlie their uncharacteristic fP profiles compared to other felids. Thus, fP are not useful for diagnosing pregnancy in Canada lynx. We also found that Canada lynx are capable of ovulating spontaneously. Captive females had higher concentrations of fE and fP than wild females. Both populations exhibit a seasonal increase in ovarian activity (as measured by fE) between February and April. Finally, there was evidence of ovarian suppression when females were housed together. PMID:20850438

Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Vashon, Jennifer H; Squires, John R; Lucas, Jeffrey R

2010-12-01

59

Modeling the reintroduction of lynx to the southern portion of Todd D. Steury*, Dennis L. Murray1  

E-print Network

populations of lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to determine prey densities; Lynx canadensis; Population modelling; Prey density; Reintroduction; Release protocols; Snowshoe hare 1 State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA. #12;The Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, oc

Steury, Todd D.

60

Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Eurasian (Lynx lynx) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Stress hormone levels are important indicator of an animal's well-being, as stress has harmful effects on reproduction, growth and immune function. The development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to monitor faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGM) contributes a powerful tool to assess an animal's adrenal status non-invasively. We aimed to identify a suitable EIA for monitoring fGM by assessing the suitability of six different EIAs for detecting quantitative changes in fGM concentrations in response to an ACTH challenge test in Eurasian lynx. FGM were characterised in a male Eurasian lynx that received an injection of (3)H-cortisol. Using HPLC analyses radiolabeled metabolites were compared with immunoreactive metabolites. The second aim was to biologically validate the established EIA for monitoring adrenocortical activity of captive Iberian lynxes after a translocation to new enclosures in relation to behaviour. Additionally faecal samples of ten pregnant Iberian lynxes from the peripartal period were analysed. The ACTH challenge revealed an 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA as the most sensitive assay to reflect acute fGM elevations in the Eurasian lynx. HPLC immunograms demonstrated that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactivities corresponding to radiolabeled metabolites with strong similarities across both lynx species. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone in faeces of both, the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx. Longitudinal fGM profiles of Iberian lynx revealed increases in concentrations associated with management events. During the peripartal period, however, fGM concentrations were not significantly elevated. Our results show that the 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGM in both lynx species. PMID:25066418

Pribbenow, Susanne; Jewgenow, Katarina; Vargas, Astrid; Serra, Rodrigo; Naidenko, Sergey; Dehnhard, Martin

2014-09-15

61

Canine distemper virus-associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) of eastern Canada.  

PubMed

Between 1993 and 1999, encephalitis caused by morbillivirus was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and histology in six lynx (Lynx canadensis) and one bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the eastern Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Five of the six cases in lynx occurred within an 11-mo period in 1996-97. A second bobcat with encephalitis caused by unidentified protozoa and a nematode larva also had immunohistochemical evidence of neurologic infection by morbillivirus. The virus was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing in four of five animals from which frozen tissue samples were available, and it was isolated in cell culture from one of them. To our knowledge, this is the first report of disease caused by CDV in free-living felids in North America. PMID:19617471

Daoust, Pierre-Yves; McBurney, Scott R; Godson, Dale L; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

2009-07-01

62

Comparative Ecology of Lynx in North America  

E-print Network

the contiguous United States diverge from the well-studied areas of the taiga. We caution against uncritical have much greater knowledge of lynx ecology in the taiga (Chapters 6, 9) than in southern boreal

63

Ancient DNA evidence of Iberian lynx palaeoendemism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iberian lynx, endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, is the most threatened carnivore in Europe and the most endangered felid in the world. Widely distributed throughout Iberia during the Pleistocene and Holocene it is now confined to two small populations in southern Spain. Lynx species differentiation, based solely on morphological analysis from skeletal traits, is a difficult task and can potentially lead to misidentification. In order to verify whether Iberian lynx had a wider geographical distribution in the past, we successfully sequenced 152 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome b gene and 183 bp of the mitochondrial control region in 20 Late Pleistocene and Holocene fossil remains of Lynx sp. from southern Europe. Our results confirm the presence of Iberian lynx outside the Iberian Peninsula demonstrating that this is a palaeoendemic species that had a wider distribution range in southern Europe during the Holocene and the Late Pleistocene. In addition, we documented the presence of both Palaearctic extant lynx species in the Arene Candide (north Italy) site during the Last Glacial Maximum.

Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Ureña, Irene; García, Nuria; Crégut-Bonnoure, Evelyne; Mannino, Marcello A.; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Valdiosera, Cristina

2015-03-01

64

Importance of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in free-ranging Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus that is the etiological agent of one of the most important viral diseases affecting canids and an expanding range of other carnivores. Using real-time RT-PCR, CDV RNA was detected in organs of an Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) found dead in the Doñana National Park, Southwestern Andalusia, Spain. This finding may be of great importance for the conservation of the species; at present the Iberian lynx is the most critically endangered wild felid. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the significance of CDV for the Iberian lynx population. High viral loads were evident in the dead lynx, suggesting an etiological involvement of CDV in its death. When carnivores from the same region were analyzed by CDV RT-PCR, a stone marten (Martes foina) was positive. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated high identity of the two detected CDVs and a close relationship to the European dog lineage of CDV. Antibodies to CDV were detected in 14.8% of 88 tested free-ranging Iberian lynxes. The sample seroprevalence was significantly higher in lynxes from the Doñana Natural Space (22.9%) than Sierra Morena (5%). The stone marten and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) also tested seropositive. In conclusion, CDV is present in the Iberian lynx population, especially in the Doñana region, with sporadic cases of disease. To reduce the infectious pressure of CDV on this endangered population, a mass dog vaccination should be considered. PMID:20570061

Meli, Marina L; Simmler, Pascale; Cattori, Valentino; Martínez, Fernando; Vargas, Astrid; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V; Simón, Miguel A; López, Guillermo; León-Vizcaino, Luis; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

2010-11-20

65

Patterns of testicular activity in captive and wild Canada lynx ( Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada lynx are listed as a threatened species in the contiguous US. Understanding the reproductive characteristics (i.e., mating system, behavior, physiology) of a species is useful for ensuring effective in situ and ex situ management plans. The goal of this study was to describe patterns of androgen expression in both captive and wild male Canada lynx using fecal hormone metabolite

Kerry V. Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Walter J. Jakubas; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

2010-01-01

66

A PROGRAMMATIC AGREEMENT TO MIMINIZE HIGHWAY PROJECT IMPACTS ON CANADA LYNX (LYNX CANADENSIS) IN COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple highway projects which may affect lynx are proposed throughout the State of Colorado. Because these projects are federally funded, they must comply with the requirements of the ESA. The process for determining if and how a project will impact lynx will be similar for all projects. Therefore, a programmatic agreement between CDOT, FHWA and USFWS, outlining a standard methodology

Sarah A. Barnum

67

Factors affecting seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid species in the world. In the present study, seroprevalence and associated risk factors for T. gondii infection in a large population of Iberian lynx in Spain were determined. Serum samples from 129 Iberian lynx collected from 2005 to 2009 and 85 wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), sharing the habitat with the Iberian lynx, were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 81 of 129 (62.8%) Iberian lynx. Seroprevalence to T. gondii in Iberian lynx significantly increased with age (P<0.001). T. gondii seroprevalences were similar in free-ranging (66.7% of 93) and wild-caught captive lynx (69% of 84) but significantly lower in captive-born lynx (22.5% of 40). Seroprevalence was higher in lynx with concurrent Cytauxzoonfelis (88% of 25) but not with concurrent Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infection (53.8% of 13). There were no significant differences in seroprevalence between sexes, geographic region and year of sample collection (2005-2009). Oocysts of T. gondii were not detected microscopically in fecal samples from 58 lynx. Wild rabbits are considered the most important food for the lynx. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 14 (11.9%) of 85 rabbits tested. The present results indicate that T. gondii infection is widespread in the two areas where Iberian lynx survive in Spain. The fact that four captive-born lynx seroconverted was indication of contact with T. gondii also in the Captive Breeding Centers, hence, control measures to prevent T. gondii infection would be necessary in these centers. PMID:19879052

García-Bocanegra, I; Dubey, J P; Martínez, F; Vargas, A; Cabezón, O; Zorrilla, I; Arenas, A; Almería, S

2010-01-20

68

Hierarchical Den Selection of Canada Lynx in Western Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We studied den selection of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis; hereafter lynx) at multiple ecological scales based on 57 dens from 19 females located in western Montana, USA, between 1999 and 2006. We considered 3 spatial scales in this analysis, including den site (11-m- radius circle surrounding dens), den area (100-m-radius circle), and den environ (1-km radius surrounding dens). Lynx

John R. Squires; Nicholas J. Decesare; Jay A. Kolbe; Leonard F. Ruggiero

2008-01-01

69

Winter Prey Selection of Canada Lynx in Northwestern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The roles that diet and prey abundance,play in habitat selection of Canada,lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the contiguous,United States is poorly understood. From 1998–2002, we back-tracked radiocollared lynx (6 F, 9 M) for a distance of 582 km and we located 86 kills in northwestern Montana, USA. Lynx preyed on 7 species that included blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), spruce grouse

JOHN R. SQUIRES; LEONARD F. RUGGIERO

2007-01-01

70

Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2004 Annual Report  

E-print Network

Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2004 Annual Report to USDA Forest Service and MN Cooperative. #12;Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2004 Annual Report ii Executive Summary We summarize the second year of a project on the Canada lynx ecology in the Great Lakes region. The project is designed

Minnesota, University of

71

Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2003 Annual Report  

E-print Network

Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2003 Annual Report to USDA Forest Service and MN Cooperative Lynx Ecology in the Great Lakes Region project. We carried out initial work in the Superior National. We have developed a website for the Canada Lynx Ecology in the Great Lakes Region project (www

Minnesota, University of

72

Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2005 Annual Report  

E-print Network

Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2005 Annual Report to USDA Forest Service and MN Cooperative not be cited without permission. #12;Canada Lynx in the Great Lakes Region 2005 Annual Report ii Executive Summary We summarize the third year of a project on Canada lynx ecology in the Great Lakes region

Minnesota, University of

73

HEMATOLOGIC AND SERUM CHEMISTRY VALUES OF CAPTIVE CANADIAN LYNX  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present baseline values for 12 hematologic and 17 serum chemistry parameters collected from 22 captive lynx (Felis lynx canadensis) in December 1992, at Ronan, Montana (USA). There were no significant differences in hematologic parameters between yearlings and adults or between sexes. Lynx originally captured in the wild had significantly higher mean (±SE) counts of neutrophils (7.7 ± 0.37 x

John L. Weaver; Mark R. Johnson

74

Feline Leukemia Virus and Other Pathogens as Important Threats to the Survival of the Critically Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated.Methodology\\/ Principal FindingsWe systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of

Marina L. Meli; Valentino Cattori; Fernando Martínez; Guillermo López; Astrid Vargas; Miguel A. Simón; Irene Zorrilla; Alvaro Muñoz; Francisco Palomares; Jose V. López-Bao; Josep Pastor; Ravi Tandon; Barbara Willi; Regina Hofmann-Lehmann; Hans Lutz; Philip G. Stevenson

2009-01-01

75

Patterns of postnatal development in skulls of lynxes, genus Lynx (Mammalia: Carnivora).  

PubMed

Studies on ossification patterns and other ontogenetic events associated with postnatal cranial growth of wild felids are scarce. An analysis of developmental processes undergone by several cranial structures (presphenoidal and sphenooccipital synchondroses, temporal and sagittal crests, and deciduous and permanent teeth) during postnatal growth has been conducted on a sample of 336 specimens belonging to the four Recent species of lynxes (Lynx pardinus, Lynx lynx, Lynx rufus, and Lynx canadensis). Age has been estimated based on tooth replacement, skull size, and by counting the annual lines of cementum growth. Comparison of the results obtained for each of the four species reveal (1) a single pattern for both tooth replacement and ossification of the sphenooccipital synchondrosis, (2) two ossification patterns for the presphenoidal synchondrosis, (3) a common pattern for development of temporal ridges and sagittal crest showing different degrees of morphological expression, and (4) evidence suggesting the involvement of a heterochronic process, neoteny, in the morphological differentiation of several populations and species of the genus Lynx. These data also support the hypothesis that processes involved in the replacement of carnassials are based on functional requirements. PMID:8765807

Garcia-Perea, R

1996-09-01

76

The Effect of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements Within Lynx Home Ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are sympatric throughout much of the lynx's southern range. Researchers and managers have suggested that the presence of compacted snowmobile trails may allow coyotes to access lynx habitat from which they were previously excluded by deep, unconsolidated snow. This could then allow coyotes to more effectively compete with lynx for snowshoe hares

JAY A. KOLBE; JOHN R. SQUIRES; DANIEL H. PLETSCHER; LEONARD F. RUGGIERO

2007-01-01

77

Sir --As director of the laboratory that analysed the samples for the National Lynx  

E-print Network

Sir -- As director of the laboratory that analysed the samples for the National Lynx Survey to the damaging yet unsubstantiated conclusions in your Opinion article "Lynch mob turns on lynx researchers"1 and News article "Fur flies over lynx survey's suspect samples"2 about sampling for Canada lynx (Lynx

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

78

Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of samples was tested for feline immunodeficiency virus; all were negative. For all other pathogens, evidence for exposure was found in at least one location. Serologic evidence for FPV was found in all six areas but was more common in southern populations. Also, more males than females showed evidence of exposure to FPV. Overall, prevalences were low and did not exceed 8% for any of the pathogens tested. This suggests that free-ranging lynx rarely encounter common feline pathogens. PMID:12528455

Biek, Roman; Zarnke, Randall L; Gillin, Colin; Wild, Margaret; Squires, John R; Poss, Mary

2002-10-01

79

Lynx Special Section Hierarchical Den Selection of Canada Lynx in Western  

E-print Network

engelmannii), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and Squires and Laurion was the dominant habitat feature at den sites. Lynx generally denned in mature spruce­fir (Picea­Abies) forests

80

Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of Iberian lynx populations.  

PubMed

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), one of the world's most endangered cat species, is vulnerable due to habitat loss, increased fragmentation of populations, and precipitous demographic reductions. An understanding of Iberian lynx evolutionary history is necessary to develop rational management plans for the species. Our objectives were to assess Iberian lynx genetic diversity at three evolutionary timescales. First we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation to position the Iberian lynx relative to other species of the genus LYNX: We then assessed the pattern of mtDNA variation of isolated populations across the Iberian Peninsula. Finally we estimated levels of gene flow between two of the most important remaining lynx populations (Doñana National Park and the Sierra Morena Mountains) and characterized the extent of microsatellite locus variation in these populations. Phylogenetic analyses of 1613 bp of mtDNA sequence variation supports the hypothesis that the Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, and Canadian lynx diverged within a short time period around 1.53-1.68 million years ago, and that the Iberian lynx and Eurasian lynx are sister taxa. Relative to most other felid species, genetic variation in mtDNA genes and nuclear microsatellites were reduced in Iberian lynx, suggesting that they experienced a fairly severe demographic bottleneck. In addition, the effects of more recent reductions in gene flow and population size are being manifested in local patterns of molecular genetic variation. These data, combined with recent studies modeling the viability of Iberian lynx populations, should provide greater urgency for the development and implementation of rational in situ and ex situ conservation plans. PMID:14757726

Johnson, W E; Godoy, J A; Palomares, F; Delibes, M; Fernandes, M; Revilla, E; O'Brien, S J

2004-01-01

81

Spatiotemporal dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western Québec, Canada.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, one of the more common zoonotic parasites in the world, can cause serious illness in humans and other animals worldwide. Felids are the only known host that can shed T. gondii oocysts, which are essential to the perpetuation of the parasite. In much of boreal Canada, the Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) is the only wild felid host that could contribute to environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. We estimated the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in Canadian lynx from western Québec and compared our results with earlier findings in the same region 12 yr earlier. We investigated factors associated with seroconversion, including age, sex, geographic location, and possible co-occurrence with domestic cats (Felis catus), and we assessed the proportion of lynx shedding T. gondii oocysts. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 84 lynx harvested by trappers in the eastern part of the study area during winter 2009-2010. Sera were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer 1:50) and fecal samples for parasite eggs by fecal flotation. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in sera of 14% of 84 lynx. Numerous helminth ova and coccidian oocysts were found in feces, whereas T. gondii-like oocysts were not detected. Antibody prevalence increased with age class (odds ratio [OR]=4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.57-11.99, P<0.01). Antibody prevalence (14%) in our study was significantly lower than in 84 lynx (36%) trapped in the western part of the study area during winter 1997-1998 (OR=0.18, 95% CI=0.08-0.44, P<0.001). Our results suggest there may be significant spatiotemporal dynamics of T. gondii infection in lynx in Canada, and we review possible abiotic and biotic ecologic factors supporting these findings. PMID:23307370

Simon, Audrey; Bigras Poulin, Michel; Rousseau, Alain N; Dubey, Jitender P; Ogden, Nicholas H

2013-01-01

82

Early development and growth in captive-born Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Knowledge on the growth and early development patterns of endangered species can become a useful conservation tool because it may allow detecting anomalous growth in newborns, both in captivity breeding and in the wild. We studied the growth and early development of 40 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) cubs belonging to 21 litters born in captivity between 2005 and 2012 at "El Acebuche" Iberian Lynx Breeding Centre. This is the first study on growth in this critically endangered species. The Iberian lynx cubs were not fully developed at birth. During the first 3 weeks of life, cubs underwent many of the physical changes that allowed them to improve their interaction with the environment, such as the opening of eye and auditory channels, teeth eruptions, and the ability to walk. When the cubs were 1 month old, they were ready to leave the den and develop new behaviors such as the exploration of their environment, play, or hunt. Three different models had been fitted to the body mass growth of the Iberian lynx. The von Bertalanffy curve provided the best fit. The asymptotic adult mass was the only parameter that differed between males and females (males being 8% larger), due to the higher growth rate of males. The adult weight of hand-reared cubs (i.e., those abandoned at born) did not differ from that of cubs reared by their mothers. Both growth and development showed differences from other lynx species. PMID:25081419

Yerga, Javier; Calzada, Javier; Manteca, Xavier; Vargas, Astrid; Rivas, Antonio

2014-01-01

83

Ecology of Canada Lynx in Southern Boreal  

E-print Network

374 the western mountains and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests in the Northeast. Throughout and Cascade Range, and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests of southeastern Canada, New England, and the Great373 Chapter 13 Ecology of Canada Lynx in Southern Boreal Forests Keith B. Aubry, USDA Forest

84

Butterfly Project Report LYNX Reference Manual  

E-print Network

Butterfly Project Report 7 LYNX Reference Manual Michael L. Scott Revised Version: August 1986 subsequently been poned to the Butterfly Parallel Proce.ssor at the University of Rochester. This manual is intended for serious users of the Butterfly implementation. At the time of its writ- ing it constitutes

Scott, Michael L.

85

Lynx: a database and knowledge extraction engine for integrative medicine.  

PubMed

We have developed Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu)--a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine, supporting annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Its underlying knowledge base (LynxKB) integrates various classes of information from >35 public databases and private collections, as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators. Lynx provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization to assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, whereas its service-oriented architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces. PMID:24270788

Sulakhe, Dinanath; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Xie, Bingqing; Feng, Bo; Taylor, Andrew; Wang, Sheng; Berrocal, Eduardo; Dave, Utpal; Xu, Jinbo; Börnigen, Daniela; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

2014-01-01

86

Comparative patterns of adrenal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

Stress and animal well-being are often assessed using concentrations of glucocorticoids (GCs), a product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, GC concentrations can also be modulated by predictable events, such as changes in season or life history stage. Understanding normative patterns of adrenal activity is critical for making valid conclusions about changes in GC concentrations. In this study, we validated an assay for monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) in Canada lynx. We then used this technique to assess patterns of adrenal activity in Canada lynx across several contexts. Our results show that captive lynx have higher FGM concentrations than wild lynx, which may be related to differences in stress levels, metabolic rate, diet, or body condition. We also found that FGM concentrations are correlated with reproductive status in females, but not in males. For males, seasonal increases in FGM expression coincide with the onset of the breeding season, whereas in females, FGM increase toward the end of the breeding season. This information provides a valuable foundation for making inferences about normative versus stress-induced changes in adrenal activity in Canada lynx. PMID:21717144

Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Lucas, Jeffrey R

2012-01-01

87

Helminth parasites in faecal samples from the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

The Iberian lynx is the most endangered felid in the world. Enteropathogens may threaten its survival, and therefore we analysed faecal samples from 66 different individuals (37 males and 29 females), the largest population representation studied to date. The samples were obtained from November 2005 to October 2008 in the two areas where the Iberian lynx survives: Sierra Morena and Doñana (Andalusia, southern Spain). A total of 56.1% samples were parasitized with at least 6 species of helminths, including two cestodes (Hymenolepis spp. and Taenia spp.) and four Nematodes (Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp., Toxascaris leonina, and Capillaria sp.). In this work, the presence of Hymenolepis is reported for the first time in Lynx pardinus. The relevance of our findings is discussed focussed on the conservation of this endangered felid. PMID:21349643

Acosta, L; León-Quinto, T; Bornay-Llinares, F J; Simón, M A; Esteban, J G

2011-06-30

88

Fatal clostridium septicum myonecrosis in a captive canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

A 1-yr-old female Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) presented for sudden onset of rapidly progressive bilateral pelvic limb paralysis. The lynx was chemically immobilized to perform a physical examination but expired shortly thereafter. On postmortem radiographs, there were myriad small irregular, round-to-spherical gas densities within the skeletal muscle of the right thigh and epaxial musculature. At gross necropsy, the muscles of the right thigh, right lateral abdominal wall, and epaxial region were emphysematous and necrohemorrhagic, with subcutaneous and muscular crepitant swelling. Multiple skin puncture wounds, consistent with bites, were present over the affected tissues. Clostridium septicum was isolated in pure anaerobic culture from the musculature of the right hind limb. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute, severe necrohemorrhagic and gangrenous myositis and cellulitis. Gram stains demonstrated large gram-positive bacilli with subterminal spores. This is the first known documented case of C. septicum myonecrosis in a nondomestic felid. PMID:25314833

Izer, Jenelle M; Wilson, Ronald P; Cooper, Timothy K

2014-09-01

89

Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague.  

PubMed

As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log(10) reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29-59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000-08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats. PMID:22102659

Wolfe, Lisa L; Shenk, Tanya M; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E

2011-10-01

90

Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

2011-01-01

91

Snow conditions may create an invisible barrier for lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) abundance are geographically structured according to the influence of large-scale climatic regimes. Here we demonstrate that this structuring matches zones of differential snow conditions, in particular surface hardness, as determined by the frequency of winter warm spells. Through a modified functional response curve, we show that various features of the snow may influence

Nils C. Stenseth; Amir Shabbar; Kung-Sik Chan; Stan Boutin; Eli Knispel Rueness; Dorothee Ehrich; James W. Hurrell; Ole Chr. Lingjærde; Kjetill S. Jakobsen

2004-01-01

92

GEOGRAPHICGRADIENTS IN DIET AFFECT POPULATION DYNAMICS OF CANADA LYNX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical gradients in the stability of cyclic populations of herbivores and their predators may relate to the degree of specialization of predators. However, such changes are usually associated with transition from specialist to generalist predator species, rather than from geographical variation in dietary breadth of specialist predators. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations undergo cyclic fluctuations

James D. Roth; John D. Marshall; Dennis L. Murray; David M. Nickerson; Todd D. Steury

2007-01-01

93

Geographical gradients in diet affect population dynamics of Canada lynx.  

PubMed

Geographical gradients in the stability of cyclic populations of herbivores and their predators may relate to the degree of specialization of predators. However, such changes are usually associated with transition from specialist to generalist predator species, rather than from geographical variation in dietary breadth of specialist predators. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations undergo cyclic fluctuations in northern parts of their range, but cycles are either greatly attenuated or lost altogether in the southern boreal forest where prey diversity is higher. We tested the influence of prey specialization on population cycles by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in lynx and their prey, estimating the contribution of hares to lynx diet across their range, and correlating this degree of specialization to the strength of their population cycles. Hares dominated the lynx diet across their range, but specialization on hares decreased in southern and western populations. The degree of specialization correlated with cyclic signal strength indicated by spectral analysis of lynx harvest data, but overall variability of lynx harvest (the standard deviation of natural-log-transformed harvest numbers) did not change significantly with dietary specialization. Thus, as alternative prey became more important in the lynx diet, the fluctuations became decoupled from a regular cycle but did not become less variable. Our results support the hypothesis that alternative prey decrease population cycle regularity but emphasize that such changes may be driven by dietary shifts among dominant specialist predators rather than exclusively through changes in the predator community. PMID:18051641

Roth, James D; Marshall, John D; Murray, Dennis L; Nickerson, David M; Steury, Todd D

2007-11-01

94

National Interagency Canada Lynx Detection Survey in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan  

E-print Network

detected included black bears (Ursus americanus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), coyotes (Canis latrans), ungulatesNational Interagency Canada Lynx Detection Survey in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan Chris Interagency Canada Lynx Detection Survey (NLDS) was a survey designed to detect lynx with a hair

Minnesota, University of

95

Hematologic and serum chemistry values of captive Canadian lynx.  

PubMed

We present baseline values for 12 hematologic and 17 serum chemistry parameters collected from 22 captive lynx (Felis lynx canadensis) in December 1992, at Ronan, Montana (USA). There were no significant differences in hematologic parameters between yearlings and adults or between sexes. Lynx originally captured in the wild had significantly higher mean (+/- SE) counts of neutrophils (7.7 +/- 0.37 x 10(3) versus 7.2 +/- 0.35 x 10(3)) and lower counts of lymphocytes (1.1 +/- 0.05 x 10(3) versus 1.6 +/- 0.08 x 10(3)) compared to lynx born and raised in captivity. Yearling lynx had significantly higher values for alkaline phosphatase than adults (51.0 +/- 6.0 IU/l versus 17.5 +/- 0.8 IU/l. PMID:8583639

Weaver, J L; Johnson, M R

1995-04-01

96

Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on the causes of animal dispersal focus on species of birds or small mammals, but there are few such studies on solitary carnivores. A complete picture of the causes of animal dispersal is not possible without considering cases on a representative set of animals. The Iberian lynx is a medium-size, solitary carnivore that inhabits metapopulations, where dispersal plays

Pablo Ferreras; Eloy Revilla; Francisco Palomares; José M. Fedriani; Javier Calzada

2004-01-01

97

Population regulation in snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx: Asymmetric food web configurations between hare?and?lynx  

PubMed Central

The snowshoe hare and the Canadian lynx in the boreal forests of North America show 9- to 11-year density cycles. These are generally assumed to be linked to each other because lynx are specialist predators on hares. Based on time series data for hare and lynx, we show that the dominant dimensional structure of the hare series appears to be three whereas that of the lynx is two. The three-dimensional structure of the hare time series is hypothesized to be due to a three-trophic level model in which the hare may be seen as simultaneously regulated from below and above. The plant species in the hare diet appear compensatory to one another, and the predator species may, likewise, be seen as an internally compensatory guild. The lynx time series are, in contrast, consistent with a model of donor control in which their populations are regulated from below by prey availability. Thus our analysis suggests that the classic view of a symmetric hare–lynx interaction is too simplistic. Specifically, we argue that the classic food chain structure is inappropriate: the hare is influenced by many predators other than the lynx, and the lynx is primarily influenced by the snowshoe hare. PMID:9144205

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Falck, Wilhelm; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; Krebs, Charles J.

1997-01-01

98

Habitat Fragmentation and the Persistence of Lynx Populations in Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern counties of Washington state, USA; however, current distribution and status of lynx in Washington is poorly understood. During winters 2002-2004 we snow-tracked lynx for 155 km within a 211-km2 area in northern Washington, to develop a model of lynx-habitat relationships that we could use to assess their potential distribution and status in the

GARY M. KOEHLER; BENJAMIN T. MALETZKE; Large Carnivore; JEFF A. VON KIENAST; KEITH B. AUBRY; ROBERT B. WIELGUS; ROBERT H. NANEY

99

Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar  

SciTech Connect

Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

1999-03-08

100

Snow conditions may create an invisible barrier for lynx.  

PubMed

The dynamics of Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) abundance are geographically structured according to the influence of large-scale climatic regimes. Here we demonstrate that this structuring matches zones of differential snow conditions, in particular surface hardness, as determined by the frequency of winter warm spells. Through a modified functional response curve, we show that various features of the snow may influence lynx interaction with its main prey species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). This study highlights the importance of snow, and exemplifies how large-scale climatic fluctuations can mechanistically influence population biological patterns. PMID:15249676

Stenseth, Nils Chr; Shabbar, Amir; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Ehrich, Dorothee; Hurrell, James W; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

2004-07-20

101

Hematology, serum chemistry, and body mass of free-ranging and captive Canada lynx in Minnesota.  

PubMed

Baseline blood chemistry data could be particularly valuable if reference values from free-ranging populations of rare or endangered species are not available. The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the conterminous United States, even though the species is managed as a furbearer in Alaska and in most provinces of Canada. Body mass, blood chemistry, and hematologic data for free-ranging lynx were collected from 2003 to 2007 and for captive lynx from 1984 to 2007. Up to 2 yr of age, captive lynx were consistently heavier than free-ranging lynx. Body mass of adult free-ranging lynx was similar to body mass of captive adult lynx. Some differences in blood chemistry between free-ranging and captive lynx were statistically significant, but most measured values were within reference ranges for domestic cats. Free-ranging lynx had higher concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen than did captive lynx, and these were outside the reference value ranges for domestic cats. Alkaline phosphatase and phosphorus were higher in juveniles (<12 mo when captured) as compared to adults. Free-ranging lynx maintained body mass between serial captures. Hematologic values, blood chemistry values, and body mass of free-ranging Canada lynx provide support for the hypothesis that Canada lynx in Minnesota, at the southern edge of their range, are in normal physical condition. PMID:20090014

Moen, Ron; Rasmussen, James M; Burdett, Christopher L; Pelican, Katharine M

2010-01-01

102

Acquired antibiotic resistance among wild animals: the case of Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

The selective pressure generated by the clinical misuse of antibiotics has been the major driving force leading to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Antibiotics or even resistant bacteria are released into the environment and contaminate the surrounding areas. Human and animal populations in contact with these sources are able to become reservoirs of these resistant organisms. Then, due to the convergence between habitats, the contact of wild animals with other animals, humans, or human sources is now more common and this leads to an increase in the exchange of resistance determinants between their microbiota. Indeed, it seems that wildlife populations living in closer proximity to humans have higher levels of antibiotic resistance. Now, the Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a part of this issue, being suggested as natural reservoir of acquired resistant bacteria. The emerging public health concern regarding microbial resistance to antibiotics is becoming true: the bacteria are evolving and are now affecting unintentional hosts. PMID:25220796

Sousa, Margarida; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Silva, Nuno; Serra, Rodrigo; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Torres, Carmen; Caniça, Manuela; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

2014-01-01

103

[Maternal behavior of the Eurasian Lynx lynx L. during the early postnatal ontogeny of its cubs].  

PubMed

The dynamics of the major elements of maternal behavior of Eurasian lynx females during the first month of life of their cubs and their association with litter parameters (number of kittens, sex, and mass) have been traced. By the end of the first month, the amount of time spent by the female outside of the den significantly increases. An association between the litter size and maternal behavior has been found. Females rearing small litters spend more time outside of their den; they also spend more time on allogrooming of each separate kitten than females with large litters. Concerning allogrooming duration, a preference for male kittens by lynx females has been noticed in the third week. PMID:22567872

Chagaeva, A A; Na?denko, S V

2012-01-01

104

Transversus abdominis plane block for exploratory laparotomy in a Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an innovative regional anesthetic technique using local anesthetic that is gaining popularity in the analgesic management of human patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Needle placement in the TAP block is within the facial plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles and involves the abdominal and thoracic nerves. Successful blockade generally involves spinal nerves T10-L1 and may induce sensory blockade as far cranially as T7, thus producing analgesia for abdominal surgery. Human studies suggest that this regional anesthetic technique may provide postoperative analgesia of the abdominal wall for up to 48 hr. Because of the extent and duration of sensory blockade, this novel technique with bupivacaine was used on a Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis), possibly providing 8-10 hr ofintra- and postoperative analgesia concurrent to exploratory laparotomy for removal of a gastric foreign body. PMID:20597230

Schroeder, Carrie A; Schroeder, Kristopher M; Johnson, Rebecca A

2010-06-01

105

Patterns of testicular activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

Canada lynx are listed as a threatened species in the contiguous US. Understanding the reproductive characteristics (i.e., mating system, behavior, physiology) of a species is useful for ensuring effective in situ and ex situ management plans. The goal of this study was to describe patterns of androgen expression in both captive and wild male Canada lynx using fecal hormone metabolite analysis. Among captive lynx, juvenile and castrated males had lower concentrations of fecal androgens (fA) than intact males, thereby demonstrating that the assay detects biologically meaningful differences in testicular activity. We found that captive males in general had much higher fA levels than wild males. All males showed strong seasonal variation in fA concentrations, with significantly higher levels being expressed during the breeding season (February and March) than during the non-breeding season. Among captive males, variation in seasonal fA levels did not correlate with latitude. Finally, males housed with intact cage-mates (either male or female) had significantly higher fA levels than males housed alone or with a neutered cage-mate. PMID:20828574

Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Jakubas, Walter J; Squires, John R; Lucas, Jeffrey R

2010-12-01

106

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1981-01-01

107

Enhancement in motor learning through genetic manipulation of the Lynx1 gene.  

PubMed

The cholinergic system is a neuromodulatory neurotransmitter system involved in a variety of brain processes, including learning and memory, attention, and motor processes, among others. The influence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the cholinergic system are moderated by lynx proteins, which are GPI-anchored membrane proteins forming tight associations with nicotinic receptors. Previous studies indicate lynx1 inhibits nicotinic receptor function and limits neuronal plasticity. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of lynx1 on nicotinic receptor function, through the generation of lynx mouse models, expressing a soluble version of lynx and comparing results to the full length overexpression. Using rotarod as a test for motor learning, we found that expressing a secreted variant of lynx leads to motor learning enhancements whereas overexpression of full-length lynx had no effect. Further, adult lynx1KO mice demonstrated comparable motor learning enhancements as the soluble transgenic lines, whereas previously, aged lynx1KO mice showed performance augmentation only with nicotine treatment. From this we conclude the motor learning is more sensitive to loss of lynx function, and that the GPI anchor plays a role in the normal function of the lynx protein. In addition, our data suggests that the lynx gene plays a modulatory role in the brain during aging, and that a soluble version of lynx has potential as a tool for adjusting cholinergic-dependent plasticity and learning mechanisms in the brain. PMID:23139735

Miwa, Julie M; Walz, Andreas

2012-01-01

108

Lynx web services for annotations and systems analysis of multi-gene disorders.  

PubMed

Lynx is a web-based integrated systems biology platform that supports annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Lynx has integrated multiple classes of biomedical data (genomic, proteomic, pathways, phenotypic, toxicogenomic, contextual and others) from various public databases as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators (LynxKB). Lynx provides tools for gene list enrichment analysis using multiple functional annotations and network-based gene prioritization. Lynx provides access to the integrated database and the analytical tools via REST based Web Services (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu/webservices.html). This comprises data retrieval services for specific functional annotations, services to search across the complete LynxKB (powered by Lucene), and services to access the analytical tools built within the Lynx platform. PMID:24948611

Sulakhe, Dinanath; Taylor, Andrew; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Feng, Bo; Xie, Bingqing; Börnigen, Daniela; Dave, Utpal J; Foster, Ian T; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

2014-07-01

109

Lynx web services for annotations and systems analysis of multi-gene disorders  

PubMed Central

Lynx is a web-based integrated systems biology platform that supports annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Lynx has integrated multiple classes of biomedical data (genomic, proteomic, pathways, phenotypic, toxicogenomic, contextual and others) from various public databases as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators (LynxKB). Lynx provides tools for gene list enrichment analysis using multiple functional annotations and network-based gene prioritization. Lynx provides access to the integrated database and the analytical tools via REST based Web Services (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu/webservices.html). This comprises data retrieval services for specific functional annotations, services to search across the complete LynxKB (powered by Lucene), and services to access the analytical tools built within the Lynx platform. PMID:24948611

Sulakhe, Dinanath; Taylor, Andrew; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Feng, Bo; Xie, Bingqing; Börnigen, Daniela; Dave, Utpal J.; Foster, Ian T.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

2014-01-01

110

Habitat Conditions Associated With Lynx Hunting Behavior During Winter in Northern Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectively managing habitat for threatened populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) requires knowledge of habitat conditions that provide for the ecological needs of lynx. We snow-tracked lynx to identify habitat conditions associated with hunting behavior and predation during winters of 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 in the northern Cascade Range in Washington state, USA. We recorded number and success of predation attempts,

BENJAMIN T. MALETZKE; GARY M. KOEHLER; ROBERT B. WIELGUS; KEITH B. AUBRY; MARC A. EVANS

111

The influence of snow on lynx and coyote movements: does morphology affect behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied sympatric lynx (Lynx canadensis) and coyotes (Canis latrans) to assess how morphological disadvantages to locomotion over snow affected movement patterns. Both species are of similar size and mass, but the feet of lynx are much larger, and coyotes were found to have 4.1–8.8 times the foot-load (ratio of body mass to foot area) of lynx. This resulted in

Dennis L. Murray; Stan Boutin

1991-01-01

112

Spatial interactions between grey wolves and Eurasian lynx in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various species of large predators are reported to influence each other through interference or exploitation competition that\\u000a may affect demography and survival of the subordinate species. We analyzed spatial relationships between grey wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF, eastern Poland) to determine how they partitioned the space. The wolves (n = 8) and lynx (n = 14)

Krzysztof Schmidt; W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Henryk Okarma; Rafa? Kowalczyk

2009-01-01

113

Modeling the reintroduction of lynx to the southern portion of its range  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modeled populations of lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to determine prey densities required for persistence of lynx translocated to the southern portion of the species' range. The models suggested that a density of 1.1–1.8 hares\\/h is required for lynx persistence; these densities are higher than those reported for most hare populations across the USA. We found

Todd D. Steury; Dennis L. Murray

2004-01-01

114

Comparative metabolism of gestagens and estrogens in the four lynx species, the Eurasian (Lynx lynx), the Iberian (L. pardinus), the Canada lynx (L. canadensis) and the bobcat (L. rufus).  

PubMed

With the increasing prevalence of faecal hormone metabolite analysis, it is important to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of faecal metabolite composition. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative faecal gestagen and estrogen metabolite composition in the four lynx species: Eurasian lynx, Iberian lynx, Canada lynx and bobcats. Comparative HPLC immunograms were generated from faecal samples collected before, during, and after pregnancy from individual females of each lynx species. Gestagens and estrogens revealed three similar classes of immunoreactive faecal metabolites: (1) polar metabolites which were enzyme-hydrolysable and thus may be designated as conjugates, (2) non-hydrolysable polar metabolites, and (3) non-polar metabolites or free steroids. For both hormones, strong similarities in the HPLC immunograms across species suggests that steroid metabolism is relatively conserved among Lynx species. Gestagens were primarily excreted as polar conjugates or unknown metabolites, whereas estrogen metabolism revealed a huge proportion (approximately 50%) consisting of 17beta-estradiol and estrone. These results are consistent with patterns of steroid metabolism in other felid species. Only two minor species-specific patterns emerged. In bobcats, we observed an exceptionally high proportion of gestagen conjugates, and in Iberian lynx, there was an exceptionally high proportion of estrone. The comparison of HPLC immunograms within individuals revealed that intra-individual variations in steroid metabolite composition are considerably high. However, changes in metabolite composition did not correlate with specific reproductive stages; rather, they seemed to occur at random. We assume that these differences may reflect changes in liver metabolism and/or qualitative and quantitative variations in gut bacteria composition, resulting in differences in faecal metabolite composition. PMID:20346945

Dehnhard, M; Fanson, K; Frank, A; Naidenko, S V; Vargas, A; Jewgenow, K

2010-06-01

115

Detection of antibiotic resistant enterococci and Escherichia coli in free range Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Thirty fecal samples from wild specimens of Iberian lynx were collected and analyzed for Enterococcus spp. (27 isolates) and Escherichia coli (18 isolates) recovery. The 45 isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial resistance, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and presence of virulence genes. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus hirae were the most prevalent species (11 isolates each), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (5 isolates). High percentages of resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin (33% and 30%, respectively) were detected among enterococcal isolates. The tet(M) and/or tet(L), erm(B), aac(6')-Ie-aph(2?)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia, or aph(3')-IIIa genes were detected among resistant enterococci. Virulence genes were detected in one E. faecalis isolate (cpd, cylB, and cylL) and one E. hirae isolate (cylL). High percentages of resistance were detected in E. coli isolates to tetracycline (33%), streptomycin (28%), nalidixic acid (28%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT, 22%). Additionally, the blaTEM, tet(A), aadA, cmlA, and different combinations of sul genes were detected among most ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and SXT-resistant isolates, respectively. Two isolates contained a class 1 integron with the gene cassette arrays dfrA1 + aadA1 and dfrA12 + aadA2. The E. coli isolates were ascribed to phylo-groups A (n=5); B1 (n=4); B2 (n=6), and D (n=3), with the virulence gene fimA present in all E. coli isolates. This study found resistance genes in wild specimens of Iberian lynx. Thus, it is important to notice that multiresistant bacteria have reached species as rare and completely non-synanthropic as the Iberian lynx. Furthermore, the susceptibility of this endangered species to bacterial infection may be affected by the presence of these virulence and resistance genes. PMID:23588135

Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Pacheco, Rui; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

2013-07-01

116

Using Scent-Marking Stations to Collect Hair Samples to Monitor Eurasian Lynx Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive sampling of mammalian hairs for surveying their populations and for providing density estimations is widely applicable in wildlife ecology and management. However, the efficiency of the method may differ depending on the species or local circumstances. We modified a method of hair trapping from free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to collect DNA samples to work in a low-density population.

KRZYSZTOF SCHMIDT; RAFA? KOWALCZYK

2006-01-01

117

HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA  

E-print Network

HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA BY CORY E Abstract HABITAT SELECTION AND POPULATION ECOLOGY OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) IN SOUTH DAKOTA, USA Cory E. Mosby 2011 The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is native to much of the United States, including South Dakota where

118

TREE vol. 14, no. 11 November 1999 0169-5347/99/$ see front matter 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0169-5347(99)01717-6 417 The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis),  

E-print Network

. All rights reserved. PII: S0169-5347(99)01717-6 417 The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis), with its distant regions are synchronized. Elton's work on the lynx, together with studies of similar oscillations of the cycles. Al- though the period of oscillations in lynx numbers shows little variability about its mean

Lloyd, Alun

119

Ecological factors influencing the spatial pattern of Canada lynx relative to its southern range edge in Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the spatial pattern of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis Kerr, 1792) relative to its southern range edge at the boreal plains - prairie ecotone in Alberta, Canada. Relative to the original distribution of boreal forest in our study area, lynx range seems to have contracted up to 22%. In 100 km2 sampling areas, lynx occupancy rate increased 1.93 times

Erin M. Bayne; Stan Boutin; Richard A. Moses

2008-01-01

120

Combining resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for Canada lynx at their southern range periphery  

E-print Network

Lynx canadensis is a federally threatened bor- eal species that may require connectivity with northern of anthropogenic disturbance (Channell and Lomolino, 2000; Schaefer, 2003). Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), listedCombining resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for Canada lynx

Hebblewhite, Mark

121

From patterns to processes: Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle  

PubMed Central

Across the boreal forest of North America, lynx populations undergo 10-year cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 to the present demonstrates that these fluctuations are generated by nonlinear processes with regulatory delays. Trophic interactions between lynx and hares cause delayed density-dependent regulation of lynx population growth. The nonlinearity, in contrast, appears to arise from phase dependencies in hunting success by lynx through the cycle. Using a combined approach of empirical, statistical, and mathematical modeling, we highlight how shifts in trophic interactions between the lynx and the hare generate the nonlinear process primarily by shifting functional response curves during the increase and the decrease phases. PMID:9860985

Stenseth, Nils C.; Falck, Wilhelm; Chan, Kung-Sik; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; O’Donoghue, Mark; Tong, Howell; Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan; Krebs, Charles J.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.

1998-01-01

122

DNA reveals high dispersal synchronizing the population dynamics of Canada lynx.  

PubMed

Population dynamics of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have been of interest to ecologists for nearly sixty years. Two competing hypotheses concerning lynx population dynamics and large-scale spatial synchrony are currently debated. The first suggests that dispersal is substantial among lynx populations, and the second proposes that lynx at the periphery of their range exist in small, isolated patches that maintain cycle synchrony via correlation with extrinsic environmental factors. Resolving the nature of lynx population dynamics and dispersal is important both to ecological theory and to the conservation of threatened lynx populations: the lack of knowledge about connectivity between populations at the southern periphery of the lynx's geographic range delayed their legal listing in the United States. We test these competing hypotheses using microsatellite DNA markers and lynx samples from 17 collection sites in the core and periphery of the lynx's geographic range. Here we show high gene flow despite separation by distances greater than 3,100 km, supporting the dispersal hypothesis. We therefore suggest that management actions in the contiguous United States should focus on maintaining connectivity with the core of the lynx's geographic range. PMID:11823858

Schwartz, Michael K; Mills, L Scott; McKelvey, Kevin S; Ruggiero, Leonard F; Allendorf, Fred W

2002-01-31

123

Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired. PMID:3586212

Dubey, J P; Quinn, W J; Weinandy, D

1987-04-01

124

Predicting favorable habitat for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bobcats (Lynx rufus), once common in the prairie-woodland mosaic of the Midwest, were largely extirpated from the Corn Belt region by 1900. In the 1990's, sightings of bobcats in Iowa began to increase, and they are now abundant in southern Iowa. With the dramatic expansion of rowcrop agriculture resulting in loss of habitat, wildlife managers do not know whether bobcats

Stephanie Ann Linde

2010-01-01

125

Fatal Neonatal Toxoplasmosis in a Bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently con- genitally acquired.

J. P. Dube; W. J. Quinn; D. Weinandy

126

Identification of volatile components of bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine reduces scent-marking activity of woodchucks (Marmota monax) and feeding activity of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and deer (Odocoileus virginianus, O. hemionus). In order to identify the semiochemicals responsible for these behavior modifications, a dichloromethane extract of the bobcat urine was analyzed by GC-MS. Among the known compounds identified in the extract are phenol, indole, dimethyl sulfone,

M. J. I. Mattina; J. J. Pignatello; R. K. Swihart

1991-01-01

127

Statewide modeling of bobcat, Lynx rufus, habitat in Illinois, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used sighting location and remotely sensed habitat data, multivariate statistical techniques, and a geographic information system to model bobcat (Lynx rufus) habitat in Illinois, thereby providing state wildlife managers with information to review the listing of bobcats as a state-threatened species and contribute to the development of a statewide management plan. We used canonical discriminant function analysis to model

Alan Woolf; Clayton K. Nielsen; Theodore Weber; Tara J. Gibbs-Kieninger

2002-01-01

128

Optimizing the size of the area surveyed for monitoring a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) population in the Swiss Alps by means of photographic capture-recapture.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of surveyed area size on density estimates by means of camera-trapping in a low-density felid population (1-2 individuals/100 km(2) ). We applied non-spatial capture-recapture (CR) and spatial CR (SCR) models for Eurasian lynx during winter 2005/2006 in the northwestern Swiss Alps by sampling an area divided into 5 nested plots ranging from 65 to 760 km(2) . CR model density estimates (95% CI) for models M0 and Mh decreased from 2.61 (1.55-3.68) and 3.6 (1.62-5.57) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the smallest to 1.20 (1.04-1.35) and 1.26 (0.89-1.63) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the largest area surveyed. SCR model density estimates also decreased with increasing sampling area but not significantly. High individual range overlaps in relatively small areas (the edge effect) is the most plausible reason for this positive bias in the CR models. Our results confirm that SCR models are much more robust to changes in trap array size than CR models, thus avoiding overestimation of density in smaller areas. However, when a study is concerned with monitoring population changes, large spatial efforts (area surveyed ?760 km(2) ) are required to obtain reliable and precise density estimates with these population densities and recapture rates. PMID:24020463

Zimmermann, Fridolin; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Molinari-Jobin, Anja; Breitenmoser, Urs

2013-09-01

129

Stress and reproductive physiology in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis): Implications for in-situ and ex-situ conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species reintroductions are a valuable conservation tool, but such efforts often fail, and we have a poor understanding of why. Understanding the role of stress physiology in reintroductions may be critical for enhancing their success rates. The goal of my dissertation was to validate a technique for monitoring stress and reproductive physiology in Canada lynx, and apply this technique to

Kerry V. Petterson Fanson

2009-01-01

130

Hybridization Between Canada Lynx and Bobcats: Genetic Results and Management Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization between taxonomically similar species is an often-overlooked mechanism limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species. We present molecular genetic data for the first time demonstrating that Canada lynx and bobcats hybridize in the wild. We verify that two microsatellite loci Lc106 and Lc110 have non-overlapping allele ranges between Canada lynx and bobcats, and that three putative lynx from

Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Edward L. Lindquist; James J. Claar; Steve Loch; Leonard F. Ruggiero

2004-01-01

131

Genetic structure of the Eurasian lynx population in north-eastern Poland and the Baltic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the genotypes of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from three populations in the westernmost part of the species main range. One population was situated at the distribution\\u000a edge (NE Poland) and the two other (Latvia and Estonia) were located within the main, contiguous range of the species. The\\u000a aim was to determine if the genetic composition varied among these

Krzysztof Schmidt; Rafa? Kowalczyk; Janis Ozolins; Peep Männil; Joerns Fickel

2009-01-01

132

Interlinking hare and lynx dynamics using a century’s worth of annual data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic fur trade records on Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) have rarely been analysed in direct conjunction with data on its principal prey, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). Comparable long-term data for hare exist only for a region south of Hudson Bay. We fitted a bivariate log-linear time-series\\u000a model to this hare and lynx data to disentangle the within- and

Jon Olav Vik; Christian N. Brinch; Stan Boutin; Nils Christian Stenseth

2008-01-01

133

DEFINING SPACE USE AND MOVEMENTS OF CANADA LYNX WITH GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM TELEMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space use and movements of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are difficult to study with very-high-frequency radiocollars. We deployed global positioning system (GPS) collars on 11 lynx in Minnesota to study their seasonal space-use patterns. We estimated home ranges with minimum-convex-polygon and fixed-kernel methods and estimated core areas with area\\/probability curves. Fixed-kernel home ranges of males (range ¼ 29-522 km2) were

Christopher L. Burdett; Ron A. Moen; Gerald J. Niemi; L. David Mech

2007-01-01

134

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

Bujold, M P

1981-09-01

135

Lynx maritime radar in USN experiment Trident Warrior 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. (GA-ASI) participated in the joint naval experiment Trident Warrior 2011 at Combat Direction Systems Activity (CDSA), Dam Neck, Va., in July 2011. The goal was to introduce the Lynx® Multi-Mode Radar's new Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) mode and display a viable Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) full kill chain solution for the naval environment. GA-ASI presented a manned platform, a Beechcraft Super King Air 200 modified with an operators console, Lynx Multi-mode Radar, FLIR Star SAFIRE 380-HD EO/IR camera system, and an L-3 TCDL (aircraft data link system) as a surrogate for the Predator® B/ MQ-9 UAS.

Dunkel, R.; Link, Z.; Verge, T.; Laue, J.

2012-06-01

136

A new species, Toxocara lyncis, in the caracal (Lynx caracal).  

PubMed

Toxocara lyncis, sp. n. is described from Lynx caracal in Somalia. It most closely resembles T. cati, the only species of Toxocara reported from L. caracal. It differs from T. cati in the comparative length of the spicules and the esophagus, and in the shape of the cervical alae. Cervical alae have a nearly uniform width along their length in T. lyncis, while they are narrow anteriorly and broad posteriorly forming an arrow head shaped cephalic end in T. cati. PMID:10870554

Macchioni, G

1999-12-01

137

Feline leukemia virus outbreak in the critically endangered Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus ): high-throughput sequencing of envelope variable region A and experimental transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian lynx is the most endangered felid species. During winter\\/spring 2006\\/7, a feline leukemia virus (FeLV) outbreak\\u000a of unexpected virulence killed about 2\\/3 of the infected Iberian lynxes. All FeLV-positive animals were co-infected with feline\\u000a hemoplasmas. To further characterize the Iberian lynx FeLV strain and evaluate its potential virulence, the FeLV envelope\\u000a gene variable region A (VRA) mutant spectrum

C. P. Geret; V. Cattori; M. L. Meli; B. Riond; F. Martínez; G. López; A. Vargas; M. A. Simón; J. V. López-Bao; R. Hofmann-Lehmann; H. Lutz

2011-01-01

138

Lynx1 supports neuronal health in the mouse dorsal striatum during aging: an ultrastructural investigation.  

PubMed

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been shown to participate in neuroprotection in the aging brain. Lynx protein modulators dampen the activity of the cholinergic system through direct interaction with nicotinic receptors. Although lynx1 null mutant mice exhibit augmented learning and plasticity, they also exhibit macroscopic vacuolation in the dorsal striatum as they age, detectable at the optical microscope level. Despite the relevance of the lynx1 gene to brain function, little is known about the cellular ultrastructure of these age-related changes. In this study, we assessed degeneration in the dorsal striatum in 1-, 3-, 7-, and 13-month-old mice, using optical and transmission electron microscopy. We observed a loss of nerve fibers, a breakdown in nerve fiber bundles, and a loss of neuronal nuclei in the 13-month-old lynx1 null striatum. At higher magnification, these nerve fibers displayed intracellular vacuoles and disordered myelin sheaths. Few or none of these morphological alterations were present in younger lynx1 null mutant mice or in heterozygous lynx1 null mutant mice at any age. These data indicate that neuronal health can be maintained by titrating lynx1 dosage and that the lynx1 gene may participate in a trade-off between neuroprotection and augmented learning. PMID:25027556

Kobayashi, Atsuko; Parker, Rell L; Wright, Ashley P; Brahem, Hajer; Ku, Pauline; Oliver, Katherine M; Walz, Andreas; Lester, Henry A; Miwa, Julie M

2014-07-01

139

Pleistocene and ecological effects on continental-scale genetic differentiation in the bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

E-print Network

of genetic structure. Keywords: bobcat, landscape genetics, Lynx rufus, phylogeography, Pleistocene, suturePleistocene and ecological effects on continental-scale genetic differentiation in the bobcat (Lynx rufus) DAWN M. REDING,* ANNE M. BRONIKOWSKI,* WARREN E. JOHNSON and WILLIAM R. CLARK* *Department

Bronikowski, Anne

140

Large impact of eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.  

PubMed

The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was ? = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was ? = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by ?? = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

2015-01-01

141

Large Impact of Eurasian Lynx Predation on Roe Deer Population Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was ? = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was ? = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by ?? = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

2015-01-01

142

Feline leukemia virus outbreak in the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus): high-throughput sequencing of envelope variable region A and experimental transmission.  

PubMed

The Iberian lynx is the most endangered felid species. During winter/spring 2006/7, a feline leukemia virus (FeLV) outbreak of unexpected virulence killed about 2/3 of the infected Iberian lynxes. All FeLV-positive animals were co-infected with feline hemoplasmas. To further characterize the Iberian lynx FeLV strain and evaluate its potential virulence, the FeLV envelope gene variable region A (VRA) mutant spectrum was analyzed using the Roche 454 sequencing technology, and an in vivo transmission study of lynx blood to specified-pathogen-free cats was performed. VRA mutations indicated weak apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme and catalytic polypeptide-like cytidine deaminase (APOBEC) restriction of FeLV replication, and variants characteristic of aggressive FeLV strains, such as FeLV-C or FeLV-A/61C, were not detected. Cats exposed to FeLV/Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum-positive lynx blood did not show a particularly severe outcome of infection. The results underscore the special susceptibility of Iberian lynxes to infectious diseases. PMID:21302124

Geret, C P; Cattori, V; Meli, M L; Riond, B; Martínez, F; López, G; Vargas, A; Simón, M A; López-Bao, J V; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H

2011-05-01

143

50,000 years of genetic uniformity in the critically endangered Iberian lynx.  

PubMed

Low genetic diversity in the endangered Iberian lynx, including lack of mitochondrial control region variation, is thought to result from historical or Pleistocene/Holocene population bottlenecks, and to indicate poor long-term viability. We find no variability in control region sequences from 19 Iberian lynx remains from across the Iberian Peninsula and spanning the last 50,000 years. This is best explained by continuously small female effective population size through time. We conclude that low genetic variability in the Iberian lynx is not in itself a threat to long-term viability, and so should not preclude conservation efforts. PMID:21864323

Rodríguez, Ricardo; Ramírez, Oscar; Valdiosera, Cristina E; García, Nuria; Alda, Fernando; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan; Marmi, Josep; Doadrio, Ignacio; Willerslev, Eske; Götherström, Anders; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Thomas, Mark G; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Dalén, Love

2011-09-01

144

Age, sex, reproduction, and spatial organization of lynxes colonizing northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1972 through 1978, lynxes (Felis lynx) emigrating from Canada were studied in northeastern Minnesota. Fourteen individuals were radio-tracked, 8 wefe ear-tagged, and 49 carcasses were examined. Sex ratios of the samples were equal during the first years of the study, but females predominated later. At least half of the radiotagged lynxes were killed by humans; no natural mortality was detected. Home range sizes ranged from 51 to 122 km2 for females and 145 to 243 km2 for males, up to 10 times the sizes of those reported by other workers. Ranges of females tended to overlap. Males and females appeared to be segregated in the population.

Mech, L.D.

1980-01-01

145

Surgical plating of a fractured radius and ulna in a wild Canada lynx.  

PubMed

A free-ranging, adult male Canada-lynx (Lynx canadensis) experienced a closed, complete, non-comminuted transverse fracture of the left radius and ulna when captured in a leg snare. A dynamic compression plate (DCP) attached to the anterior surface of the radius was used to stabilize the fracture. Radiographs 44 days post-surgery indicated advanced primary bone healing. The lynx was released 46 days post-surgery near the site of capture. Radiotelemetry indicated long-term survival and movements similar to other males monitored during the same period. PMID:9577786

Poole, K G; Elkin, B T; Pisz, T; Elkin, K E; Robertson, D; Sabourin, M L

1998-04-01

146

HELICOBACTER-LIKE ORGANISMS IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF BOBCATS (LYNX RUFUS) AND GREY FOXES (UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microscopic examination of gastric mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor), porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and black bears (Ursus amaricanus) was done on archival tissue blocks for evidence of Helicobacter-like org...

147

Modelling the Canada lynx and snowshoe hare population cycle: the role of specialist predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models of the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) population cycles in the boreal forest have largely focused on the interaction between a single specialist predator and\\u000a its prey. Here, we consider the role that other hare predators play in shaping the cycles, using a predator–prey model for\\u000a up to three separate specialist predators. We consider

Rebecca Tyson; Sheena Haines; Karen E. Hodges

2010-01-01

148

The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.  

PubMed

Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities. PMID:24652527

Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil

2014-06-01

149

Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat.  

PubMed

Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species' ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics. PMID:24174116

Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

2013-12-22

150

Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat  

PubMed Central

Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species’ ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics. PMID:24174116

Peers, Michael J. L.; Thornton, Daniel H.; Murray, Dennis L.

2013-01-01

151

Lynx reproduction--long-lasting life cycle of corpora lutea in a feline species.  

PubMed

A review of lynxes' reproductive biology and comparison between the reproductive cycles of the domestic cat and lynxes is presented. Three of the four lynx species (the bobcat excluded) express quite similar reproductive pattern (age at sexual maturity, estrus and pregnancy length, litter size). Similarly to the domestic cat, the bobcat is polyestric and can have more than one litter per year. Domestic cats and many other felid species are known to express anovulatory, pregnant and pseudo-pregnant reproductive cycles in dependence on ovulation induction and fertilization. The formation of corpora lutea (CLs) occurs after ovulation. In pregnant animals, luteal function ends with parturition, whereas during pseudo-pregnancy a shorter life span and lower hormone secretion are observed. The life cycle of corpora lutea in Eurasian lynxes is different from the pattern described in domestic cats. Lynx CLs produce progestagens in distinctive amounts permanently for at least two years, regardless of their origin (pregnancy or pseudo-pregnancy). It is suggested that long-lasting CLs induce a negative feedback to inactivate folliculogenesis, turning a normally polyestric cycle observed in most felids into a monoestric cycle in lynxes. PMID:24856466

Jewgenow, Katarina; Painer, Johanna; Amelkina, Olga; Dehnhard, Martin; Goeritz, Frank

2014-04-01

152

Factors affecting hare?lynx dynamics in the classic time series of the Hudson Bay Company, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 10 yr hare-lynx (Lepus ameri- canus-Lynx canadensis) cycles in boreal forest of North America have been well known for >100 yr, but the underlying mechanism is still not fully un- derstood. Prey-predator interactions are generally thought to be the major causative factor for the cycle. The effect of climate on the hare-lynx cycle has been largely ignored. By using

Zhibin Zhang; Yi Tao; Zhenqing Li

2007-01-01

153

Embryo transfer and embryonic capsules in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Bobcats (Lynx rufus) (n=22) were used to test a surgical embryo transfer protocol for wild felines. Five blastocysts were collected 8-14 days post-initial copulation (PIC). Translucent capsule-like structures were recovered at 12 days PIC and are the first report of such a structure in a felid. Endometrial fibrosis was observed in one cat but, in general, post-surgical fibrosis of the uterus did not seem to impede ova or embryo transport. One embryo underwent cryopreservation and this embryo plus two other transferrable embryos were placed in recipient cats during the course of the study. No pregnancies were maintained; but one non-cryopreserved embryo was detected by ultrasound examination at 2 weeks post-transfer. This study provides valuable groundwork for future studies and warrants optimism for continued research in this area. PMID:12047248

Miller, D L; Waldhalm, S J; Leopold, B D; Estill, C

2002-04-01

154

Fatal cytauxzoonosis in a free-ranging bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

In September 2000, a free-ranging bobcat (Lynx rufus) cub was presented to the Kansas State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Manhattan, Kansas, USA) in a moribund state with signs of severe anemia and respiratory difficulty. The cub was euthanized. Gross necropsy findings included multifocal atelectasis, splenomegaly, and pericardial effusion. Microscopic examination revealed subacute pulmonary thrombosis, mild vasculitis in the brain, and large schizont-filled macrophages within blood vessels of all tissues examined. The organisms were typical of the developmental stages of Cytauxzoon felis. Cytauxzoonosis is considered to be a persistent, subclinical infection in the bobcat; however, this cub had lesions consistent with those seen in fatal infections in domestic cats. This case of fatal C. felis infection indicates that some free-ranging bobcats may die of cytauxzoonosis. PMID:12238380

Nietfeld, Jerome C; Pollock, Christal

2002-07-01

155

Identification of volatile components of bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine.  

PubMed

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine reduces scent-marking activity of woodchucks (Marmota monax) and feeding activity of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and deer (Odocoileus virginianus, O. hemionus). In order to identify the semiochemicals responsible for these behavior modifications, a dichloromethane extract of the bobcat urine was analyzed by GC-MS. Among the known compounds identified in the extract are phenol, indole, dimethyl sulfone, and 3-mercapto-3-methylbutanol. Compounds for which spectroscopic data are presented for the first time include one sulfide, two disulfides, and two trisulfides. The sulfur compounds are derived from an amino acid,S-(l,1-dimethyl-3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine ("felinine"), which was identified several years ago in the urine of the domestic cat (Felis domesticus). PMID:24258737

Mattina, M J; Pignatello, J J; Swihart, R K

1991-02-01

156

Different cryopreservation requirements in foetal versus adult skin cells from an endangered mammal, the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Cryobanking somatic foetal cells acquire much relevance in endangered species for biodiversity conservation purposes. Such cells could be later used to reintroduce the lost genes into the breeding pool, by inducing pluripotency and/or nuclear transfer if necessary. Since requirements for preserving foetal cells are not always the same as for adult ones, we evaluated the cryosensitivity of foetal skin cells in comparison with adult ones from the critically endangered Iberian lynx. Responses to cryoinjury were analyzed in both thawed cell types by means of cell viability and functionality (by analyzing their membrane integrity, metabolic activity, glycosaminoglycan content and proliferative activity). Freezing media included the permeating cryoprotectant Me2SO, either alone or along with the non-permeating cryoprotectant sucrose at 0.1 or 0.2M. When Me2SO was the only cryoprotectant, survival rate fell in thawed foetal cells to 54±4% (against 89±6% for thawed adult ones) and both proliferative and metabolic activities remained significantly lower than values for thawed adult cells. However, the combination of sucrose (both 0.1 as 0.2) and Me2SO in foetal cells significantly increased their survival rates (to 71±4% and 73±5%, respectively), proliferative activities (partially at day 7 and completely at day 14 after thawing) and metabolic activities. Our findings clearly show a difference between foetal and adult cells concerning their cryopreservation sensitivity and requirements, as well as their recovery time after thawing. These results are of relevance for the cryopreservation of foetal and adult cells from the Iberian lynx and could be also useful for other mammals. PMID:24530371

León-Quinto, Trinidad; Simón, Miguel A; Cadenas, Rafael; Martínez, Africa; Serna, Arturo

2014-04-01

157

Habitat Loss, Not Fragmentation, Drives Occurrence Patterns of Canada Lynx at the Southern Range Periphery  

PubMed Central

Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The ‘threshold hypothesis’ predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the ‘flexibility hypothesis’ predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the ‘threshold hypothesis’ and ‘flexibility hypothesis’. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the ‘flexibility hypothesis’. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat alteration. PMID:25401737

Hornseth, Megan L.; Walpole, Aaron A.; Walton, Lyle R.; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Murray, Dennis L.

2014-01-01

158

Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

2013-01-01

159

One size fits all: Eurasian lynx females share a common optimal litter size.  

PubMed

Lack proposed that the average clutch size of altricial species should be determined by the average maximum number of young the parents can raise such that all females in a given population should share a common optimal clutch size. Support for this model remains equivocal and recent studies have suggested that intra-population variation in clutch size is adaptive because each female has its own optimal clutch size associated with its intrinsic ability to raise offspring. Although Lack litter size and condition-dependent litter size are presented as two competing models, both are based on the concept of individual optimization. We propose a unified optimal litter size model (called 'adaptive litter size') and identify a set of conditions under which a common vs. a state-dependent optimal litter size should be observed. We test whether females of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a common optimal litter size, or whether they adjust their litter size according to their state. We used a detailed individual-based data set collected from contrasting populations of Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Observed reproductive patterns in female lynx provide strong support for the existence of a common optimal litter size. Litter size did not vary according to female body mass or reproductive category, or among contrasted populations and years. A litter size of 2 was associated with a higher fitness than both smaller and larger litters, and thus corresponded to the 'adaptive litter size' for female lynx. We suggest that the reproductive pattern of female lynx might correspond to a risk avoidance tactic common to all individuals, which has evolved in response to strong environmental constraints generated by a highly unpredictable food supply during lactation. PMID:23859302

Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Nilsen, Erlend B; Odden, John; Andrén, Henrik; Linnell, John D C

2014-01-01

160

Habitat loss, not fragmentation, drives occurrence patterns of Canada lynx at the southern range periphery.  

PubMed

Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The 'threshold hypothesis' predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the 'flexibility hypothesis' predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the 'threshold hypothesis' and 'flexibility hypothesis'. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the 'flexibility hypothesis'. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat alteration. PMID:25401737

Hornseth, Megan L; Walpole, Aaron A; Walton, Lyle R; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Murray, Dennis L

2014-01-01

161

Defining space use and movements of Canada lynx with global positioning system telemetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Space use and movements of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are difficult to study with very-high-frequency radiocollars. We deployed global positioning system (GPS) collars on 11 lynx in Minnesota to study their seasonal space-use patterns. We estimated home ranges with minimum-convex-polygon and fixed-kernel methods and estimated core areas with area/probability curves. Fixed-kernel home ranges of males (range = 29-522 km2) were significantly larger than those of females (range = 5-95 km2) annually and during the denning season. Some male lynx increased movements during March, the month most influenced by breeding activity. Lynx core areas were predicted by the 60% fixed-kernel isopleth in most seasons. The mean core-area size of males (range = 6-190 km2) was significantly larger than that of females (range = 1-19 km2) annually and during denning. Most female lynx were reproductive animals with reduced movements, whereas males often ranged widely between Minnesota and Ontario. Sensitivity analyses examining the effect of location frequency on home-range size suggest that the home-range sizes of breeding females are less sensitive to sample size than those of males. Longer periods between locations decreased home-range and core-area overlap relative to the home range estimated from daily locations. GPS collars improve our understanding of space use and movements by lynx by increasing the spatial extent and temporal frequency of monitoring and allowing home ranges to be estimated over short periods that are relevant to life-history characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

Burdett, C.L.; Moen, R.A.; Niemi, G.J.; Mech, L.D.

2007-01-01

162

Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

2013-01-01

163

Germ cell survival and differentiation after xenotransplantation of testis tissue from three endangered species: Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri) and Mohor gazelle (G. dama mhorr).  

PubMed

The use of assisted reproductive techniques for endangered species is a major goal for conservation. One of these techniques, testis tissue xenografting, allows for the development of spermatozoa from animals that die before reaching sexual maturity. To assess the potential use of this technique with endangered species, testis tissue from six Iberian lynxes (one fetus, two perinatal cubs, two 6-month-old and one 2-year-old lynx), two Cuvier's gazelle fetuses and one 8-month-old Mohor gazelle were transplanted ectopically into nude mice. Tissue from the lynx fetus, perinatal cubs and 2-year-old donors degenerated, whereas spermatogonia were present in 15% of seminiferous tubules more than 70 weeks after grafting in transplanted testis tissue from 6-month-old donors. Seminal vesicle weights (indicative of testosterone production) increased over time in mice transplanted with tissue from 6-month-old lynxes. Progression of spermatogenesis was observed in xenografts from gazelles and was donor age dependent. Tissue from Cuvier's gazelle fetuses contained spermatocytes 40 weeks after grafting. Finally, round spermatids were found 28 weeks after transplantation in grafts from the 8-month-old Mohor gazelle. This is the first time that xenotransplantation of testicular tissue has been performed with an endangered felid and the first successful xenotransplantation in an endangered species. Our results open important options for the preservation of biological diversity. PMID:23763851

Arregui, Lucía; Dobrinski, Ina; Roldan, Eduardo R S

2014-01-01

164

Forensic veterinary radiology: Ballistic-radiological 3D computertomographic reconstruction of an illegal lynx shooting in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lynx, which was reintroduced to Switzerland after being exterminated at the beginning of the 20th century, is protected by Swiss law. However, poaching occurs from time to time, which makes criminal investigations necessary. In the presented case, an illegally shot lynx was examined by conventional plane radiography and three-dimensional multislice computertomography (3D MSCT), of which the latter yielded superior

Michael J. Thali; Beat P. Kneubuehl; Stephan A. Bolliger; Andreas Christe; Urs Koenigsdorfer; Christoph Ozdoba; Elke Spielvogel; Richard Dirnhofer

2007-01-01

165

Neuron, Vol. 23, 105114, May, 1999, Copyright 1999 by Cell Press lynx1, an Endogenous Toxin-like Modulator  

E-print Network

Neuron, Vol. 23, 105­114, May, 1999, Copyright ©1999 by Cell Press lynx1, an Endogenous Toxin), conservation of a signature motif, similar tertiarylarge projection neurons in the hippocampus, cortex, conformation, and common gene structure (Gumley etand cerebellum. In cerebellar neurons, lynx1 protein al

Sali, Andrej

166

Adapted conservation measures are required to save the Iberian lynx in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) has suffered severe population declines in the twentieth century and is now on the brink of extinction. Climate change could further threaten the survival of the species, but its forecast effects are being neglected in recovery plans. Quantitative estimates of extinction risk under climate change have so far mostly relied on inferences from correlative projections of species' habitat shifts. Here we use ecological niche models coupled to metapopulation simulations with source-sink dynamics to directly investigate the combined effects of climate change, prey availability and management intervention on the persistence of the Iberian lynx. Our approach is unique in that it explicitly models dynamic bi-trophic species interactions in a climate change setting. We show that anticipated climate change will rapidly and severely decrease lynx abundance and probably lead to its extinction in the wild within 50 years, even with strong global efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In stark contrast, we also show that a carefully planned reintroduction programme, accounting for the effects of climate change, prey abundance and habitat connectivity, could avert extinction of the lynx this century. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, why considering prey availability, climate change and their interaction in models is important when designing policies to prevent future biodiversity loss.

Fordham, D. A.; Akçakaya, H. R.; Brook, B. W.; Rodríguez, A.; Alves, P. C.; Civantos, E.; Triviño, M.; Watts, M. J.; Araújo, M. B.

2013-10-01

167

Predators choose prey over prey habitats: evidence from a lynx-hare system.  

PubMed

Resource selection is grounded in the understanding that animals select resources based on fitness requirements. Despite uncertainty in how mechanisms relate to the landscape, resource selection studies often assume, but rarely demonstrate, a relationship between modeled variables and fitness mechanisms. Using Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) as a model system, we assess whether prey habitat is a viable surrogate for encounters between predators and prey. We simultaneously collected winter track data for lynx and hare in two study areas. We used information criteria to determine whether selection by lynx is best characterized by a hare resource selection probability function (RSPF) or by the amount of hare resource use. Results show that lynx selection is better explained by the amount of hare use (SIC = -21.9; Schwarz's Information Criterion) than by hare RSPF (SIC = -16.71), and that hare RSPF cannot be assumed to reveal the amount of resource use, a primary mechanism of predator selection. Our study reveals an obvious but important distinction between selection and use that is applicable to all resource selection studies. We recommend that resource selection studies be coupled with mechanistic data (e.g., metrics of diet, forage, fitness, or abundance) when investigating mechanisms of resource selection. PMID:21774407

Keim, Jonah L; DeWitt, Philip D; Lele, Subhash R

2011-06-01

168

Population cycles and changes in body size of the lynx in Alaska.  

PubMed

The lynx Lynx canadensis is a common predator in the boreal forests of North America. Its population fluctuates during a 9- to 11-year cycle in synchrony with the population size of its main prey, the snowshoe hare Lepus americanus. Using adult museum specimens, we studied changes in skull (and hence body) size of the lynx in Alaska during the second half of the 20th century. The population cycle in Alaska averaged 9 years, similar to that reported in the neighbouring Yukon. Using harvest data of lynx as an estimate of population size, we found that skull size was negatively related to population size. This relationship was strongest not for the population density in the year of death (X), but for year X-3, a carry-over effect from the first year (or years) of life, indicating that conditions during the fast-growth years are determining body size. We suggest that the density-dependent effect is probably due to changes in food supply, either resulting from the adverse effects of competition or a possible diminished availability of food. Two skull parameters decreased significantly during the second half of the 20th century. We do not know the cause for the year effect and suggest that it might be due to a long-term change in the availability of prey. Canine size did not change during the study period, probably an indication that snowshoe hares maintained their status as the main prey of the lynx throughout the study period. PMID:17277929

Yom-Tov, Yoram; Yom-Tov, Shlomith; MacDonald, Dusty; Yom-Tov, Elad

2007-05-01

169

GeneLynx: A Gene-Centric Portal to the Human Genome  

PubMed Central

GeneLynx is a meta-database providing an extensive collection of hyperlinks to human gene-specific information in diverse databases available on the Internet. The GeneLynx project is based on the simple notion that given any gene-specific identifier (accession number, gene name, text, or sequence), scientists should be able to access a single location that provides a set of links to all the publicly available information pertinent to the specified human gene. GeneLynx was implemented as an extensible relational database with an intuitive and user-friendly Web interface. The data are automatically extracted from more than 40 external resources, using appropriate approaches to maximize coverage of the available data. Construction and curation of the system is mediated by a custom set of software tools. An indexing utility is provided to facilitate the establishment of hyperlinks in external databases. A unique feature of the GeneLynx system is a communal curation system for user-aided annotation. GeneLynx can be accessed freely at http://www.genelynx.org. PMID:11731507

Lenhard, Boris; Hayes, William S.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

2001-01-01

170

Molecular evidence of shared hookworm Ancylostoma tubaeforme haplotypes between the critically endangered Iberian lynx and sympatric domestic cats.  

PubMed

Hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma are the most pathogenic parasites of young cats, and A. tubaeforme may cause morbidity or mortality in young individuals of the most endangered felid species in the world, the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Since the transmission of monoxenous parasites is related to host density and remaining lynx populations are currently very small, the presence of reservoir hosts may be necessary for the maintenance of the hookworm life-cycle, the domestic cat being the most likely reservoir of A. tubaeforme. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (Cox I) sequences of three A. tubaeforme specimens from a road-killed Iberian lynx from Doñana were compared with 14 specimens retrieved from five sympatric free-roaming cats from the same area, and with six specimens from three free-roaming cats from the Mediterranean island of Mallorca. Gene fragments (300 bp) from 23 A. tubaeforme individuals representing 16 different haplotypes were obtained. A statistical parsimony haplotype network analysis showed that the three specimens infecting an Iberian lynx corresponded to two different haplotypes, one of which was identical to a specimen in a cat found only 10 km from the lynx. Specimens from the Iberian lynx and those from cats in Doñana were only 1.03% genetically divergent, whereas specimens from Mallorca cats and those from Doñana cats and the lynx diverged by 1.33% and 1.36%, respectively. The existence of shared haplotypes of hookworms between lynx and cat reinforces the hypothesis that the abundant sympatric domestic cat population is acting as a reservoir for A. tubaeforme infection in the endangered Iberian lynx. PMID:22136770

Millán, Javier; Blasco-Costa, Isabel

2012-05-25

171

Optimizing cholinergic tone through lynx modulators of nicotinic receptors: implications for plasticity and nicotine addiction.  

PubMed

The cholinergic system underlies both adaptive (learning and memory) and nonadaptive (addiction and dependency) behavioral changes through its ability to shape and regulate plasticity. Protein modulators such as lynx family members can fine tune the activity of the cholinergic system and contribute to the graded response of the cholinergic system, stabilizing neural circuitry through direct interaction with nicotinic receptors. Release of this molecular brake can unmask cholinergic-dependent mechanisms in the brain. Lynx proteins have the potential to provide top-down control over plasticity mechanisms, including addictive propensity. If this is indeed the case, then, what regulates the regulator? Transcriptional changes of lynx genes in response to pharmacological, physiological, and pathological alterations are explored in this review. PMID:22875450

Miwa, Julie M; Lester, Henry A; Walz, Andreas

2012-08-01

172

Genes and evolution of two-domain toxins from lynx spider venom.  

PubMed

Spiderines are comparatively long polypeptide toxins (?110 residues) from lynx spiders (genus Oxyopes). They are built of an N-terminal linear cationic domain (?40 residues) and a C-terminal knottin domain (?60 residues). The linear domain empowers spiderines with strong cytolytic activity. In the present work we report 16 novel spiderine sequences from Oxyopes takobius and Oxyopes lineatus classified into two subfamilies. Strikingly, negative selection acts on both linear and knottin domains. Genes encoding Oxyopes two-domain toxins were sequenced and found to be intronless. We further discuss a possible scenario of lynx spider modular toxin evolution. PMID:24462682

Sachkova, Maria Y; Slavokhotova, Anna A; Grishin, Eugene V; Vassilevski, Alexander A

2014-03-01

173

Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. PMID:24080086

Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

2013-12-01

174

50,000 years of genetic uniformity in the critically endangered Iberian lynx  

E-print Network

), classi- fied as a Critically Endangered species (IUCN 2010), is the most endangered carnivore in Europe50,000 years of genetic uniformity in the critically endangered Iberian lynx RICARDO RODRI´GUEZ,*1-11, PO Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden. Abstract Low genetic diversity in the endangered Iberian

175

Assessment of the conservation efforts to prevent extinction of the Iberian lynx.  

PubMed

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) may be the first charismatic felid to become extinct in a high-income country, despite decades of study and much data that show extinction is highly probable. The International Union for Conservation of Nature categorizes it as critically endangered; about 200 free-ranging individuals remain in two populations in southern Spain. Conservation measures aimed at averting extirpation have been extensively undertaken with 4 of the former 10 Iberian lynx populations recorded 25 years ago. Two of the four populations have been extirpated. The number of individuals in the third population have declined by 83%, and in the fourth the probability of extirpation has increased from 34% to 95%. Major drivers of the pending extinction are the small areas to which conservation measures have been applied; lack of incorporation of evidence-based conservation, scientific monitoring, and adaptive management into conservation efforts; a lack of continuity in recovery efforts, and distrust by conservation agencies of scientific information. In contrast to situations in which conservation and economic objectives conflict, in the case of the Iberian lynx all stakeholders desire the species to be conserved. PMID:21091768

Palomares, Francisco; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Revilla, Eloy; López-Bao, José Vicente; Calzada, Javier

2011-02-01

176

Annual Dynamics of Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Home Range and Core Use Areas in Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the annual dynamics of bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range and core use areas by radiotracking 23 female and 6 male bobcats from 10 January 1989 to 31 January 1998 in Mississippi. We quantified space use by measuring changes in the dispersion and central tendency of bobcat locations (i.e., radiotelemetry locations) between annual home range and core use areas.

Bruce W. Plowman; L. Mike Conner; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold; Loren W. Burger

2006-01-01

177

Space Use, Movements and Habitat Selection of Adult Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Central Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors influence bobcat (Lynx rufus) space use, movements and habitat selection, including prey distribution and density, season, breeding behaviors and intraspecific relationships. Knowledge of ranging behaviors and habitat selection is required to understand population dynamics and ecology of bobcats within temperate ecosystems. We radio-monitored 58 adult bobcats from 1989-1997 in central Mississippi. Males maintained larger home ranges and core

MICHAEL J. CHAMBERLAIN; BRUCE D. LEOPOLD; L. MIKE CONNER

2003-01-01

178

ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE LA ALIMENTACIÓN DEL GATO MONTÉS (LYNX RUFUS) EN DOS DIFERENTES AMBIENTES DE MÉXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding habits of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in two different localities of Mexico were studied by the analysis of 197 and 922 scats. Lagomorphs, and rodents were the more important prey items in both places. At El Plomito, state of Sonora, we found 18 different prey species, and the most important were Sylvilagus audubonii (35.5%), Lepus sp. (31.5%), Neotoma albigula

Marcelo ARANDA; Octavio ROSAS; Francisco I. Madero

2002-01-01

179

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Breeding in Captivity: The Importance of Environmental Enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental enrichment is an improvement in the biological functioning of nonhuman animals in captivity resulting from modifications to their environment; however, specifying appropriate and practical measures of enrichment is problematic. This study analyzes the behavior of 4 bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Jerez Zoo before and after the application of a global program of environmental enrichment that included (a) changes

María I. Mollá; Miguel A. Quevedo; Francisca Castro

2011-01-01

180

Robotically assisted ventricular tachycardia substrate modification ablation with the novel Lynx(TM) integrated sheath and RF ablation catheter.  

PubMed

Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is demanding and time consuming. Robotically controlled catheter ablation reduces operator fatigue and exposure to X-rays, and provides greater precision and stability of the catheter. A new flexible, integrated robotic sheath and ablation catheter has recently been introduced (Lynx(TM)) and used in atrial ablation procedures. We describe the first VT substrate modification ablation in the world with the Lynx(TM) robotic radio frequency ablation catheter. PMID:23728128

Lorgat, Faizel; Pudney, Evan; van Deventer, Helena

2013-04-01

181

Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.  

PubMed

The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Lud?k; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D C

2014-01-01

182

Activity Patterns of Eurasian Lynx Are Modulated by Light Regime and Individual Traits over a Wide Latitudinal Range  

PubMed Central

The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7?N in central Europe to 70°00?N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day–night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Lud?k; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R.; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D. C.

2014-01-01

183

Lynx1 shifts ?4?2 nicotinic receptor subunit stoichiometry by affecting assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored neurotoxin-like receptor binding proteins, such as lynx modulators, are topologically positioned to exert pharmacological effects by binding to the extracellular portion of nAChRs. These actions are generally thought to proceed when both lynx and the nAChRs are on the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that lynx1 also exerts effects on ?4?2 nAChRs within the endoplasmic reticulum. Lynx1 affects assembly of nascent ?4 and ?2 subunits and alters the stoichiometry of the receptor population that reaches the plasma membrane. Additionally, these data suggest that lynx1 shifts nAChR stoichiometry to low sensitivity (?4)3(?2)2 pentamers primarily through this interaction in the endoplasmic reticulum, rather than solely via direct modulation of activity on the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, these data represent the first test of the hypothesis that a lynx family member, or indeed any glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, could act within the cell to alter assembly of a multisubunit protein. PMID:25193667

Nichols, Weston A; Henderson, Brandon J; Yu, Caroline; Parker, Rell L; Richards, Christopher I; Lester, Henry A; Miwa, Julie M

2014-11-01

184

Experimental transmission of Cytauxzoon felis from bobcats (Lynx rufus) to domestic cats (Felis domesticus).  

PubMed

Freshly collected blood and/or spleen homogenate from an experimentally infected Florida bobcat (Lynx rufus floridanus), which had died of feline cytauxzoonosis, was inoculated into domestic cats. All inoculated cats had clinical signs of feline cytauxzoonosis and died within 2 weeks after they were inoculated. Similar material collected from an eastern bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus) carrying an experimentally infected Cytauxzoon felis parasitemia was inoculated into domestic cats. All inoculated cats developed a parasitemia, but none developed clinical signs of disease and none died of the disease. Cats subinoculated with parasitemic cat blood also developed parasitemias and they too did not develop clinical signs of infection nor died. After carrying the blood phase of Cytauxzoon felis for various periods, the domestic cats were then challenge exposed with proven lethal Cytauxzoon inoculum of domestic cat origin. All cats died of cytauxzoonosis. PMID:6807145

Kier, A B; Wagner, J E; Morehouse, L G

1982-01-01

185

Performance and rotor loads measurements of the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a series of flight tests on the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades. The test objectives were to explore the flight envelope and to measure the performance and structural loads of the Lynx main-rotor system. The tests were conducted as part of the British Experimental Rotor Program (BERP) under a contract with the Ministry of Defense in England. Data were acquired for steady-level flights at five weight coefficients. Some flight conditions were tested at beyond the retreating-blade stall boundary, which was defined by a predetermined limit on the pitchlink vibratory load. In addition to documenting the flight conditions and data, this report describes the aircraft, particularly the rotor system, in detail.

Lau, Benton H.; Louie, Alexander W.; Griffiths, Nicholas; Sotiriou, Costantinos P.

1993-01-01

186

Isometric scaling in home-range size of male and female bobcats ( Lynx rufus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

For solitary carnivores a polygynous mating system should lead to predictable patterns in space-use dynamics. Females should be most influenced by resource distribution and abundance, whereas polygynous males should be strongly influenced by female spatial dynamics. We gathered mean annual home-range-size estimates for male and female bobcats (Lynx rufus (Schreber, 1777)) from previous studies to address variation in home-range size

Adam W. Ferguson; Nathan A. Currit; Floyd W. Weckerly

2009-01-01

187

Responses of a transplanted troop of Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata ) to bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of encounters between a transplanted troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) and one or more bobcats (Lynx rufus) is described. One incident of predation was observed and four additional cases assumed. Reactions of identified individuals\\u000a and groups of monkeys as well as general troop reactions are noted. The effects of breeding season behavior, troop size, differences\\u000a in mother

Harold Gouzoules; Linda M. Fedigan; Larry Fedigan

1975-01-01

188

Quantifying home range habitat requirements for bobcats ( Lynx rufus) in Vermont, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate how home range and habitat use analysis can inform landscape-scale conservation planning for the bobcat, Lynx rufus, in Vermont USA. From 2005 to 2008, we outfitted fourteen bobcats with GPS collars that collected spatially explicit locations from individuals every 4h for 3–4months. Kernel home range techniques were used to estimate home range size and boundaries, and to quantify

Therese M. Donovan; Mark Freeman; Hanem Abouelezz; Kimberly Royar; Alan Howard; Ruth Mickey

189

Characterization of regionally associated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific FIVs. However, recent studies have detected an FIV strain infecting both bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in California and Florida. To further investigate this observation, we evaluated FIV from bobcats in Florida (n=25) and Colorado (n=80) between 2008 and 2011. Partial viral sequences from five Florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from Florida panthers. We did not detect FIV in Colorado bobcats. PMID:23778629

Lagana, Danielle M; Lee, Justin S; Lewis, Jesse S; Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Sweanor, Linda L; McBride, Roy; McBride, Caleb; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

2013-07-01

190

The subtle role of climate change on population genetic structure in Canada lynx.  

PubMed

Anthropogenically driven climatic change is expected to reshape global patterns of species distribution and abundance. Given recent links between genetic variation and environmental patterns, climate change may similarly impact genetic population structure, but we lack information on the spatial and mechanistic underpinnings of genetic-climate associations. Here, we show that current genetic variability of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is strongly correlated with a winter climate gradient (i.e. increasing snow depth and winter precipitation from west-to-east) across the Pacific-North American (PNO) to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climatic systems. This relationship was stronger than isolation by distance and not explained by landscape variables or changes in abundance. Thus, these patterns suggest that individuals restricted dispersal across the climate boundary, likely in the absence of changes in habitat quality. We propose habitat imprinting on snow conditions as one possible explanation for this unusual phenomenon. Coupling historical climate data with future projections, we also found increasingly diverging snow conditions between the two climate systems. Based on genetic simulations using projected climate data (2041-2070), we predicted that this divergence could lead to a threefold increase in genetic differentiation, potentially leading to isolated east-west populations of lynx in North America. Our results imply that subtle genetic structure can be governed by current climate and that substantive genetic differentiation and related ecological divergence may arise from changing climate patterns. PMID:24415466

Row, Jeffrey R; Wilson, Paul J; Gomez, Celine; Koen, Erin L; Bowman, Jeff; Thornton, Daniel; Murray, Dennis L

2014-07-01

191

Interacting Effects of Climate Change, Landscape Conversion, and Harvest on Carnivore Populations at the Range Margin: Marten and Lynx in the Northern Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple biocli- matic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis )i n southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential

CARLOS CARROLL

2007-01-01

192

Lynx body size in Norway is related to its main prey (Roe deer) density, climate, and latitude.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of various factors on body size variation of the Eurasian lynx in Norway, using data from 374 lynx collected between 1960 and 1976 and whose locality of capture, year of birth, sex, and age were known. Body size of lynx in Norway was mainly affected by sex and age. Female skull size (and by implication body size) was also positively affected by the availability of its main prey (roe deer) and by latitude, and negatively by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Male size was not affected by any of the environmental factors examined. We interpret the effects of NAO and latitude on body size through their effect on the local climate and particularly snow conditions. We suggest that females are more sensitive to environmental factors than males. PMID:21404822

Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kvam, Tor; Wiig, Øystein

2011-02-01

193

Forensic veterinary radiology: ballistic-radiological 3D computertomographic reconstruction of an illegal lynx shooting in Switzerland.  

PubMed

The lynx, which was reintroduced to Switzerland after being exterminated at the beginning of the 20th century, is protected by Swiss law. However, poaching occurs from time to time, which makes criminal investigations necessary. In the presented case, an illegally shot lynx was examined by conventional plane radiography and three-dimensional multislice computertomography (3D MSCT), of which the latter yielded superior results with respect to documentation and reconstruction of the inflicted gunshot wounds. We believe that 3D MSCT, already described in human forensic-pathological cases, is also a suitable and promising new technique for veterinary pathology. PMID:16831528

Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bolliger, Stephan A; Christe, Andreas; Koenigsdorfer, Urs; Ozdoba, Christoph; Spielvogel, Elke; Dirnhofer, Richard

2007-08-24

194

Water-soluble LYNX1 residues important for interaction with muscle-type and/or neuronal nicotinic receptors.  

PubMed

Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618-10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the ?7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of ?1 glycine receptor (?7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at ?7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its "non-classical" binding sites on ?7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for ?-bungarotoxin and similar snake ?-neurotoxins also targeting ?7 nAChR. This distinction may underlie their different actions, i.e. nAChRs modulation versus irreversible inhibition, for these two types of three-finger proteins. PMID:23585571

Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Buldakova, Svetlana L; Kasheverov, Igor E; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Reshetnikov, Roman V; Filkin, Sergey Y; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Ojomoko, Lucy O; Kryukova, Elena V; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Bregestovski, Piotr D; Tsetlin, Victor I

2013-05-31

195

Retrospective study of morbidity and mortality of captive Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in the ex situ conservation programme (2004-June 2010).  

PubMed

Medical records of 120 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) from the captive breeding population (CBP), 96 of which were older than 1 wk old, were studied from January 2004 to June 2010. From a total of 413 clinical signs recorded, it was possible to obtain a diagnosis in 258 (62.5%). Inappetence, skin wound, and vomiting had the highest incidence. Adult (2 to 6 yr old) and juvenile (1 wk to 1 yr old) animals accounted for most of the clinical signs. Vitamin D toxicosis and intraspecific trauma accounted for 55.4% and 15.1% of the clinical signs, respectively. Renal toxicosis due to the administration of supplements with an excess of vitamin D occurred in 2009 and affected a total of 39 individuals. Intraspecific trauma cases were predominantly observed from sibling aggression. Diet-related conditions consisted of sporadic cases of fatal salmonellosis, dermatophytosis, and gastrointestinal episodes. Suspected idiopathic epilepsy and femoral neck metaphyseal osteopathy were also observed. A total of 15 animals older than 1 wk old died including five vitamin D toxicosis cases and three juveniles due to intraspecific trauma. Mycobacterium bovis was found as a secondary infection in two animals that died from vitamin D toxicosis. Abortions, premature births, and stillbirths accounted for 12 mortalities, and 13 neonatal deaths due to maternal neglect or bacterial sepsis were observed. Data show that improvement of diet-related conditions is a key factor in preserving the health of animals in the CBP. Thus, the control of food and supplement composition, rabbit farm suppliers, and hygiene should be standardized and improved. Furthermore, data recording and diagnostic protocols should be standardized. PMID:24450042

Martínez, Fernando; Manteca, Xavier; Pastor, Josep

2013-12-01

196

Cryobanking the genetic diversity in the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) from skin biopsies. Investigating the cryopreservation and culture ability of highly valuable explants and cells.  

PubMed

Cryobanking skin samples permit preserving a maximum of genetic representation from the population biodiversity. This is a relevant aspect for threatened species, potentially menaced by an epizooty and from which it is difficult to obtain gametes. As a first step for properly cryobanking skin samples of a given species, the optimal conditions of culture and freezing have to be studied by covering a broad range of possibilities. This paper presents, for the first time, a systematic study of such conditions for the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). To that end, we have analyzed twenty different culture conditions and fifteen different freezing solutions for skin explants, as well as three freezing solutions for isolated cells derived from them. The culture conditions included both two different culture strategies and several combinations of nutritional supplements and mitotic agents. For the freezing solutions, we have considered different concentrations of the permeating cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) either alone (5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% v/v for explants, 10% for isolated cells) or along with the non-permeating cryoprotectant sucrose (0.1 or 0.2M). Our results have been analyzed through several quantitative parameters and show that only thawed explants cryopreserved in Me(2)SO (10%) either alone or with sucrose (0.2M) presented similar properties to those in optimal fresh cultures. In addition, for these freezing conditions, isolated thawed cells also presented high survival rates (90%) and percentages of cellular functionality (85%). These results, focussed on the most endangered felid in the world, could be also useful for other threatened/endangered species. PMID:21315706

León-Quinto, Trinidad; Simón, Miguel A; Sánchez, Angel; Martín, Francisco; Soria, Bernat

2011-04-01

197

Genetics at the verge of extinction: insights from the Iberian lynx.  

PubMed

Population viability might become compromised by the loss of genetic diversity and the accumulation of inbreeding resulting from population decline and fragmentation. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) provides a paradigmatic example of a species at the verge of extinction, and because of the well-documented and different demographic histories of the two remaining populations (Doñana and Andújar), it provides the opportunity to evaluate the performance of analytical methods commonly applied to recently declined populations. We used mitochondrial sequences and 36 microsatellite markers to evaluate the current genetic status of the species and to assess the genetic signatures of its past history. Mitochondrial diversity was extremely low with only two haplotypes, alternatively fixed in each population. Both remnant populations have low levels of genetic diversity at microsatellite markers, particularly the population from Doñana, and genetic differentiation between the two populations is high. Bayesian coalescent-based methods suggest an earlier decline starting hundreds of years ago, while heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests did not provide conclusive and consistent evidence for recent bottlenecks. Also, a model of gene flow received overwhelming support over a model of pure drift. Results that are in conflict with the known recent demography of the species call for caution in the use of these methods, especially when no information on previous demographic history is available. Overall, our results suggest that current genetic patterns in the Iberian lynx are mainly the result of its recent decline and fragmentation and alerts on possible genetic risks for its persistence. Conservation strategies should explicitly consider this threat and incorporate an integrated genetic management of wild, captive and re-introduced populations, including genetic restoration through translocations. PMID:24128177

Casas-Marce, M; Soriano, L; López-Bao, J V; Godoy, J A

2013-11-01

198

Possible extinction vortex for a population of Iberian lynx on the verge of extirpation.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that demographic and genetic traits deteriorate (i.e., fitness and genetic diversity decrease) when populations become small, and that such deterioration could precipitate positive feedback loops called extinction vortices. We examined whether demographic attributes and genetic traits have changed over time in one of the 2 remaining small populations of the highly endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Doñana, Spain. From 1983 to 2008, we recorded nontraumatic mortality rates, litter size, offspring survival, age at territory acquisition, and sex ratio. We combined these demographic attributes with measures of inbreeding and genetic diversity at neutral loci (microsatellites) and genes subjected to selection (major histocompatibility complex). Data on demographic traits were obtained through capture and radio tracking, checking dens during breeding, track surveys, and camera trapping. For genetic analyses, we obtained blood or tissue samples from captured or necropsied individuals or from museum specimens. Over time a female-biased sex ratio developed, age of territory acquisition decreased, mean litter size decreased, and rates of nontraumatic mortality increased, but there were no significant changes in overall mortality rates, standardized individual heterozygosity declined steadily, and allelic diversity of exon 2 of class II major histocompatibility complex DRB genes remained constant (2 allelic variants present in all individuals analyzed). Changes in sex ratio and age of territory acquisition may have resulted from demographic stochasticity, whereas changes in litter size and nontraumatic mortality may be related to observed increases in inbreeding. Concomitant deterioration of both demographic attributes and genetic traits is consistent with an extinction vortex. The co-occurrence, with or without interaction, of demographic and genetic deterioration may explain the lack of success of conservation efforts with the Doñana population of Iberian lynx. PMID:22731698

Palomares, Francisco; Godoy, José Antonio; López-Bao, José Vicente; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Roques, Severine; Casas-Marce, Mireia; Revilla, Eloy; Delibes, Miguel

2012-08-01

199

Novel lynx spider toxin shares common molecular architecture with defense peptides from frog skin.  

PubMed

A unique 30-residue cationic peptide oxyopinin 4a (Oxt 4a) was identified in the venom of the lynx spider Oxyopes takobius (Oxyopidae). Oxt 4a contains a single N-terminally located disulfide bond, Cys4-Cys10, and is structurally different from any spider toxin studied so far. According to NMR findings, the peptide is disordered in water, but assumes a peculiar torpedo-like structure in detergent micelles. It features a C-terminal amphipathic ?-helical segment (body; residues 12-25) and an N-terminal disulfide-stabilized loop (head; residues 1-11), and has an unusually high density of positive charge in the head region. Synthetic Oxt 4a was produced and shown to possess strong and broad-spectrum cytolytic and antimicrobial activity. cDNA cloning showed that the peptide is synthesized in the form of a conventional prepropeptide with an acidic prosequence. Unlike other arachnid toxins, Oxt 4a exhibits striking similarity with defense peptides from the skin of ranid frogs that contain the so-called Rana-box motif (a C-terminal disulfide-enclosed loop). Parallelism or convergence is apparent on several levels: the structure, function and biosynthesis of a lynx spider toxin are mirrored by those of Rana-box peptides from frogs. PMID:21933345

Dubovskii, Peter V; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Samsonova, Olga V; Egorova, Natalya S; Kozlov, Sergey A; Feofanov, Alexei V; Arseniev, Alexander S; Grishin, Eugene V

2011-11-01

200

Lynx multi-mode SAR in support of NATO Unified Vision 2012 trial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2012, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Reconnaissance Systems Group participated in the NATO Unified Vision 2012 (UV12) Joint ISR (JISR) Trial at Orland Main Air Station in Brekstad, Norway. GA-ASI supplied a modified King Air 200 as a Predator B/MQ-9 Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) surrogate outfitted with a Lynx Block 30 Multi-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI), a FLIR Star SAFIRE 3800HD Electro-optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor, and a L-3 Tactical Common Data Link. This airborne platform was combined with GA-ASI's new System for Tactical Archival, Retrieval, and Exploitation (STARE) for full integration into the NATO ISR exploitation community. UV12 was an event sponsored by the NATO Joint Capability Group on Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) to focus on the interoperability of national ISR assets and improving JISR concept of operations. The Predator B RPA surrogate flew alongside multiple NATO ISR assets in nine missions that showcased the platform's all-weather ISR capabilities focusing on the Lynx SAR/GMTI and Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) modes. The inclusion of the STARE technology allowed GA-ASI's radar and Full Motion Video (FMV) data to be seamlessly processed and passed to joint networks where the data was fused with other NATO ISR products, resulting in a full battlefield reconnaissance picture.

Dunkel, R.; Verge, T.; Linnehan, R.; Doerry, A.

2013-05-01

201

Distribution and prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats ( Lynx rufus), the natural reservoir, and other wild felids in thirteen states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan parasite of wild and domestic felids, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic and some exotic felids in the United States. The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is the natural reservoir for this parasite, but other felids such as Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryii) and domestic cats may maintain long-term parasitemias and serve as reservoirs. Experimentally, two

Barbara C. Shock; Staci M. Murphy; Laura L. Patton; Philip M. Shock; Colleen Olfenbuttel; Jeff Beringer; Suzanne Prange; Daniel M. Grove; Matt Peek; Joseph W. Butfiloski; Daymond W. Hughes; J. Mitchell Lockhart; Sarah N. Bevins; Sue VandeWoude; Kevin R. Crooks; Victor F. Nettles; Holly M. Brown; David S. Peterson; Michael J. Yabsley

2011-01-01

202

Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats ( Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) infections in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from a region where C. felis is recognized in domestic cats, North Carolina (NC), and a region where C. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, Pennsylvania (PA). Samples from NC (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats.

Adam J. Birkenheuer; Henry S. Marr; Camille Warren; Anne E. Acton; Eric M. Mucker; Jan G. Humphreys; Melissa D. Tucker

2008-01-01

203

Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor ), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus

Samuel P. Franklin; Jennifer L. Troyer; Julie A. TerWee; Lisa M. Lyren; Roland W. Kays; Seth P. D. Riley; Walter M. Boyce; Kevin R. Crooks; Sue Vandewoude

204

Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

2010-05-01

205

Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Pennsylvania ABSTRACT bobcat stomachs taken from Pennsylvania during autumn and winter 2000­2002. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. The bobcat diet varies by age

McCay, Timothy S.

206

Gene Sets for Utilization of Primary and Secondary Nutrition Supplies in the Distal Gut of Endangered Iberian Lynx  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads) related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of ‘presumptive’ aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding ‘active’ lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(amino)lipids, glyco(amino)glycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases) in genes encoding ?-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of ?-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of ?-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although ?-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80–100% wild rabbits) but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely suggests a tighter, more coordinated and complex evolutionary and nutritional ecology scenario of carnivore gut microbial communities than has been previously assumed. PMID:23251564

Alcaide, María; Messina, Enzo; Richter, Michael; Bargiela, Rafael; Peplies, Jörg; Huws, Sharon A.; Newbold, Charles J.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Simón, Miguel A.; López, Guillermo; Yakimov, Michail M.; Ferrer, Manuel

2012-01-01

207

Gene sets for utilization of primary and secondary nutrition supplies in the distal gut of endangered Iberian lynx.  

PubMed

Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads) related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of 'presumptive' aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding 'active' lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(amino)lipids, glyco(amino)glycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases) in genes encoding ?-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of ?-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of ?-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although ?-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80-100% wild rabbits) but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely suggests a tighter, more coordinated and complex evolutionary and nutritional ecology scenario of carnivore gut microbial communities than has been previously assumed. PMID:23251564

Alcaide, María; Messina, Enzo; Richter, Michael; Bargiela, Rafael; Peplies, Jörg; Huws, Sharon A; Newbold, Charles J; Golyshin, Peter N; Simón, Miguel A; López, Guillermo; Yakimov, Michail M; Ferrer, Manuel

2012-01-01

208

Reconsidering the Specialist-Generalist Paradigm in Niche Breadth Dynamics: Resource Gradient Selection by Canada Lynx and Bobcat  

PubMed Central

The long-standing view in ecology is that disparity in overall resource selection is the basis for identifying niche breadth patterns, with species having narrow selection being classified “specialists” and those with broader selection being “generalists”. The standard model of niche breadth characterizes generalists and specialists as having comparable levels of overall total resource exploitation, with specialists exploiting resources at a higher level of performance over a narrower range of conditions. This view has gone largely unchallenged. An alternate model predicts total resource use being lower for the specialized species with both peaking at a comparable level of performance over a particular resource gradient. To reconcile the niche breadth paradigm we contrasted both models by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species’ niche, we determined that Canada lynx demonstrated higher total performance over a restricted set of variables, specifically those related to snow and altitude, while bobcat had higher total performance across most variables. Unlike predictions generated by the standard model, bobcat level of exploitation was not compromised by the trade-off with peak performance, and Canada lynx were not restricted to exploiting a narrower range of conditions. Instead, the emergent pattern was that specialist species have a higher total resource utilization and peak performance value within a smaller number of resources or environmental axes than generalists. Our results also indicate that relative differences in niche breadth are strongly dependent on the variable under consideration, implying that the appropriate model describing niche breadth dynamics between specialists and generalists may be more complex than either the traditional heuristic or our modified version. Our results demonstrate a need to re-evaluate traditional, but largely untested, assumptions regarding resource utilization in species with broad and narrow niches. PMID:23236508

Peers, Michael J. L.; Thornton, Daniel H.; Murray, Dennis L.

2012-01-01

209

Reconsidering the specialist-generalist paradigm in niche breadth dynamics: resource gradient selection by Canada lynx and bobcat.  

PubMed

The long-standing view in ecology is that disparity in overall resource selection is the basis for identifying niche breadth patterns, with species having narrow selection being classified "specialists" and those with broader selection being "generalists". The standard model of niche breadth characterizes generalists and specialists as having comparable levels of overall total resource exploitation, with specialists exploiting resources at a higher level of performance over a narrower range of conditions. This view has gone largely unchallenged. An alternate model predicts total resource use being lower for the specialized species with both peaking at a comparable level of performance over a particular resource gradient. To reconcile the niche breadth paradigm we contrasted both models by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species' niche, we determined that Canada lynx demonstrated higher total performance over a restricted set of variables, specifically those related to snow and altitude, while bobcat had higher total performance across most variables. Unlike predictions generated by the standard model, bobcat level of exploitation was not compromised by the trade-off with peak performance, and Canada lynx were not restricted to exploiting a narrower range of conditions. Instead, the emergent pattern was that specialist species have a higher total resource utilization and peak performance value within a smaller number of resources or environmental axes than generalists. Our results also indicate that relative differences in niche breadth are strongly dependent on the variable under consideration, implying that the appropriate model describing niche breadth dynamics between specialists and generalists may be more complex than either the traditional heuristic or our modified version. Our results demonstrate a need to re-evaluate traditional, but largely untested, assumptions regarding resource utilization in species with broad and narrow niches. PMID:23236508

Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

2012-01-01

210

The effect of climatic forcing on population synchrony and genetic structuring of the Canadian lynx  

PubMed Central

The abundance of Canadian lynx follows 10-year density fluctuations across the Canadian subcontinent. These cyclic fluctuations have earlier been shown to be geographically structured into three climatic regions: the Atlantic, Continental, and Pacific zones. Recent genetic evidence revealed an essentially similar spatial structuring. Introducing a new population model, the “climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns” model, we link the observed ecological and evolutionary patterns. Specifically, we demonstrate that there is greater phase synchrony within climatic zones than between them and show that external climatic forcing may act as a synchronizer. We simulated genetic drift by using data on population dynamics generated by the climate forcing of ecological and evolutionary patterns model, and we demonstrate that the observed genetic structuring can be seen as an emerging property of the spatiotemporal ecological dynamics. PMID:15067131

Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Ehrich, Dorothee; Rueness, Eli Knispel; Lingjærde, Ole Chr.; Chan, Kung-Sik; Boutin, Stan; O'Donoghue, Mark; Robinson, David A.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

2004-01-01

211

Diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

An 18-yr-old male bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with chronic moderate weight loss and acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. Hypercalcemia and azotemia were present on the serum chemistry panel. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hyperechoic renal cortices, but no evidence of neoplasia. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were mildly elevated, intact parathyroid hormone was severely elevated, and parathormone-related protein was undetected, suggesting primary hyperparathyroidism with possible renal dysfunction. Azotemia lessened in severity following diuresis, but hypercalcemia persisted; thus primary hyperparathyroidism was considered the most probable differential diagnosis. A second ultrasound including the cervical region revealed a solitary intraparenchymal left thyroid nodule. The nodule was surgically excised; histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Although primary hyperparathyroidism was suspected, diagnosis was not achieved from serum chemistry values alone. This case emphasizes the importance of diagnostic imaging and histopathology in the investigation of persistently abnormal laboratory values. PMID:22950324

Goodnight, Andrea L; Gottfried, Sharon D; Emanuelson, Karen

2011-09-01

212

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) breeding in captivity: the importance of environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment is an improvement in the biological functioning of nonhuman animals in captivity resulting from modifications to their environment; however, specifying appropriate and practical measures of enrichment is problematic. This study analyzes the behavior of 4 bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Jerez Zoo before and after the application of a global program of environmental enrichment that included (a) changes in the size and complexity of their installations, (b) the introduction of new objects into compounds, (c) changes in diet, and (d) modifications in the grouping of animals. A factorial correspondence analysis showed a highly significant relationship among individual animals, behavior, and experimental design. Behaviors such as locomotion, repeated pacing, vigilance, and grooming more often occurred before enrichment, whereas exploratory and food behaviors were more often associated with the enrichment phase. After the implementation of the enrichment program, the bobcats bred successfully for the first time since their arrival in the zoo. PMID:21442505

Mollá, María I; Quevedo, Miguel A; Castro, Francisca

2011-01-01

213

Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.  

PubMed

Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging. PMID:22236440

Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

2012-05-01

214

Performance and loads data from an outdoor hover test of a Lynx tail rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Lynx tail rotor was tested in hover at the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The test objectives were to measure the isolated rotor performance to provide a baseline for subsequent testing, and to operate the rotor throughout the speed and collective envelope before testing in the NFAC 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Rotor forces and blade bending moments were measured at ambient wind conditions from zero to 6.23 m/sec. The test envelope was limited to rotor speeds of 1550 to 1850 rpm and minus 13 deg to plus 20 deg of blade collective pitch. The isolated rotor performance and blade loads data are presented.

Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Smith, Charles A.; Hagen, Martin J.

1989-01-01

215

Individual identification of endangered species using mosquito blood meals: a proof-of-concept study in Iberian lynx.  

PubMed

Host identification from mosquito blood meals has been routinely used to identify the feeding preferences of insects in studies on transmission of vector-borne pathogens. Here, we identified for the first time the susceptibility of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to the attack of a wild mosquito female, the mosquito Anopheles atroparvus. Furthermore, we used 11 microsatellite markers to test for the utility of vertebrate DNA isolated from insect blood meals for individual identification of wildlife. Only the three smallest markers were successfully amplified; however, this genotype did not match with any of the previously genotyped individuals in southern Spain. These results support the use of DNA from mosquito blood meals as a non-invasive source of DNA and a powerful tool on epidemiological and conservation biology studies. However, as may be the case of other non-invasive sampling methods, the utility of this technique is probably limited by the quantity and quality of vertebrate DNA. PMID:25656463

Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Méndez, María; Ruiz, Santiago; Godoy, José A; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

2015-04-01

216

Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid. PMID:22099537

Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

2012-02-01

217

Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.  

PubMed

Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers) was found in lynx from Norway and Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF), which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway) or high habitat fragmentation (BPF). The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum) on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and microsatellite population divergence patterns with climatic and ecological factors may suggest separate selective pressures acting on males and females in this solitary carnivore. PMID:25551216

Ratkiewicz, Miros?aw; Matosiuk, Maciej; Saveljev, Alexander P; Sidorovich, Vadim; Ozolins, Janis; Männil, Peep; Balciauskas, Linas; Kojola, Ilpo; Okarma, Henryk; Kowalczyk, Rafa?; Schmidt, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

218

Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories.

Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

2014-01-01

219

Study of the Lynx-Cancer void galaxies. - V. The extremely isolated galaxy UGC 4722  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed study of the extremely isolated Sdm galaxy UGC 4722 (MB = -17.4) located in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. UGC 4722 is a member of the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies, and has also been identified as one of the most isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Optical images of the galaxy however show that it has a peculiar morphology with an elongated ˜14 kpc-long plume. New observations with the Russian 6-m telescope (BTA) and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the ionized and neutral gas in UGC 4722 reveal the second component responsible for the disturbed morphology of the system. This is a small, almost completely destroyed, very gas-rich dwarf (MB = -15.2, M(H I)/LB ˜ 4.3) We estimate the oxygen abundance for both galaxies to be 12 + log (O/H) ˜ 7.5-7.6 which is two to three times lower than what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation for similar galaxies in denser environments. The ugr colours of the plume derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images are consistent with a simple stellar population with a post starburst age of 0.45-0.5 Gyr. This system hence appears to be the first known case of a minor merger with a prominent tidal feature consisting of a young stellar population.

Chengalur, J. N.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Makarov, D. I.; Perepelitsyna, Y. A.; Safonova, E. S.; Karachentsev, I. D.

2015-04-01

220

Study of the Lynx-Cancer void galaxies-V. The extremely isolated galaxy UGC4722  

E-print Network

We present a detailed study of the extremely isolated Sdm galaxy UGC4722 (M_B = -17.4) located in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. UGC4722 is a member of the catalogue of isolated galaxies, and has also been identified as one of the most isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Optical images of the galaxy however show that it has a peculiar morphology with an elongated ~ 14 kpc long plume. New observations with the Russian 6-m telescope (BTA) and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the ionised and neutral gas in UGC4722 reveal the second component responsible for the disturbed morphology of the system. This is a small, almost completely destroyed, very gas-rich dwarf (M_B = -15.2, M_HI/L_B ~4.3). We estimate the oxygen abundance for both galaxies to be 12+log(O/H) ~ 7.5-7.6, which is 2-3 times lower than what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation for similar galaxies in denser environments. The ugr colours of the plume derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images are consisten...

Chengalur, J N; Makarov, D I; Perepelitsyna, Y A; Safonova, E S; Karachentsev, I D

2015-01-01

221

Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches because of avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses on bobcats and their directly transmitted viral pathogen, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), to investigate the effects of urbanization on bobcat movement. We predicted that urban development, including major freeways, would limit bobcat movement and result in genetically structured host and pathogen populations. We analysed molecular markers from 106 bobcats and 19 FIV isolates from seropositive animals in urban southern California. Our findings indicate that reduced gene flow between two primary habitat patches has resulted in genetically distinct bobcat subpopulations separated by urban development including a major highway. However, the distribution of genetic diversity among FIV isolates determined through phylogenetic analyses indicates that pathogen genotypes are less spatially structured--exhibiting a more even distribution between habitat fragments. We conclude that the types of movement and contact sufficient for disease transmission occur with enough frequency to preclude structuring among the viral population, but that the bobcat population is structured owing to low levels of effective bobcat migration resulting in gene flow. We illustrate the utility in using multiple molecular markers that differentially detect movement and gene flow between subpopulations when assessing connectivity.

Lee, Justin S.; Ruell, Emily W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alonso, Robert S.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

2012-01-01

222

The molecular detection of relaxin and its receptor RXFP1 in reproductive tissue of Felis catus and Lynx pardinus during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Relaxin acts as a pregnancy-specific signal in feline species, but specific information about protein structure and binding is essential for the improvement of pregnancy diagnosis in endangered feline species, like the Iberian lynx. To generate a felid-specific relaxin antibody, the DNA and protein sequences of lynx and cat were determined and peptides were chosen for antibody generation. In addition, relaxin and relaxin receptor (RXFP1) mRNA expressions were measured in uteri and ovaries of pregnant domestic cats and lynx placentae. Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, it was established that feline placenta is the main source of relaxin during pregnancy. In other tested tissues, relaxin mRNA expression was weak. The RXFP1 mRNA expression was found mainly in cat uterine tissue and feline placentae. It was assumed that these tissues were main targets for relaxin. In the ovary, relaxin immunostaining was associated with blood vessels, signifying its role in vascularization. PMID:22187673

Braun, Beate C; Vargas, Astrid; Jewgenow, Katarina

2012-03-01

223

Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the northern Appalachians.  

PubMed

Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple bioclimatic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential impact of these threats on semi-isolated populations at the range margin. Decreased snowfall may affect marten and lynx through decreased prey vulnerability and decreased competitive advantage over sympatric carnivores. I used a spatially explicit population model to assess potential effects of predicted changes in snowfall by 2055 on regional marten and lynx populations. The models' habitat rankings were derived from previous static models that correlated regional distribution with snowfall and vegetation data. Trapping scenarios were parameterized as a 10% proportional decrease in survival, and logging scenarios were parameterized as a 10% decrease in the extent of older coniferous or mixed forest. Both species showed stronger declines in the simulations due to climate change than to overexploitation or logging. Marten populations declined 40% because of climate change, 16% because of logging, and 30% because of trapping. Lynx populations declined 59% because of climate change, 36% because of trapping, and 20% in scenarios evaluating the effects of population cycles. Climate change interacted with logging in its effects on the marten and with trapping in its effects on the lynx, increasing overall vulnerability. For both species larger lowland populations were vulnerable to climate change, which suggests that contraction may occur in the core of their current regional range as well as among smaller peripheral populations. Despite their greater data requirements compared with bioclimatic models, mesoscale spatial viability models are important tools for generating more biologically realistic hypotheses regarding biotic response to climate change. PMID:17650258

Carroll, Carlos

2007-08-01

224

Modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (Lynx rufus) using verified records.  

PubMed

Helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. Since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. Bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in North America. The increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their importance as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites that may affect wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Our objective was to predict the potential presence of the tapeworm Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929, the fluke Alaria marcianae (La Rue, 1917) and the roundworm Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) in southern Illinois. The empirical presence of these parasites in localities across the region was analysed in combination with a sampling bias layer (i.e. bobcat presence) and with environmental data: layers of water, soil, land cover, human density and climate variables in MAXENT to create maps of potential presence for these three species in an area of 46436 km2. All climatic variables were low contributors (0.0-2.0% contribution to model creation) whereas land cover surfaced as an important variable for the presence of A. marcianae (7.6%) and T. cati (6.3%); human density (4.8%) was of secondary importance for T. rileyi. Variables of importance likely represent habitat requirements necessary for the completion of parasite life cycles. Larger areas of potential presence were found for the feline specialist T. rileyi (85%) while potential presence was less likely for A. marcianae (73%), a parasite that requires multiple aquatic intermediate hosts. This study provides information to wildlife biologists and health officials regarding the potential impacts of growing bobcat populations in combination with complex and changing environmental factors. PMID:25549497

Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

2014-10-01

225

Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.  

PubMed

Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3998960

Tiekotter, K L

1985-04-01

226

A comparison of two field chemical immobilization techniques for bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Anesthetic protocols that allow quick induction, short processing time, and rapid reversal are necessary for researchers performing minimally invasive procedures (including morphometric measurements or attachment of radiocollars). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of medetomidine and butorphanol as a substitute for xylazine in ketamine-based field immobilization protocols for bobcats (Lynx rufus) to reduce recovery and total field times. During 2008 and 2009, 11 bobcats were immobilized with an intramuscular combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg)-xylazine (0.75 mg/kg) (KX) or ketamine (4 mg/kg)-medetomidine (40 mcg/kg)-butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg) (KMB). Time to initial sedation, recumbency, and full anesthesia were recorded postinjection. Time to head up, sternal, standing, full recovery, and total processing times were recorded post-reversal. Throughout anesthesia, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and noninvasive hemoglobin-oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded at 5-min intervals. The KX combination had a median time to full anesthesia of 10 min, a median recovery time of 46 min, and a median total processing time of 83 min. Alternatively, the KMB combination had a median time to full anesthesia of 21 min, a median recovery time of 18 min, and a median total processing time of 64 min. The KX protocol produced a median HR of 129 beats/min, RR of 25 breaths/min, RT of 38.3 degrees C, and SpO2 of 93%. The KMB protocol produced a median HR of 97 beats/min, RR of 33 breaths/min, RT of 38.4 degrees C, and SpO2 of 92%. Though both protocols provided safe and reliable sedation, the benefits of using medetomidine and butorphanol to lower ketamine doses and decrease processing time for brief nonsurgical sedation of bobcats in the field are presented. PMID:22204051

Rockhill, Aimee P; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Powell, Roger A; DePerno, Christopher S

2011-12-01

227

Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.  

PubMed

Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure. PMID:24741092

Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

2014-07-01

228

Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape.  

PubMed

Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches because of avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses on bobcats and their directly transmitted viral pathogen, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), to investigate the effects of urbanization on bobcat movement. We predicted that urban development, including major freeways, would limit bobcat movement and result in genetically structured host and pathogen populations. We analysed molecular markers from 106 bobcats and 19 FIV isolates from seropositive animals in urban southern California. Our findings indicate that reduced gene flow between two primary habitat patches has resulted in genetically distinct bobcat subpopulations separated by urban development including a major highway. However, the distribution of genetic diversity among FIV isolates determined through phylogenetic analyses indicates that pathogen genotypes are less spatially structured-exhibiting a more even distribution between habitat fragments. We conclude that the types of movement and contact sufficient for disease transmission occur with enough frequency to preclude structuring among the viral population, but that the bobcat population is structured owing to low levels of effective bobcat migration resulting in gene flow. We illustrate the utility in using multiple molecular markers that differentially detect movement and gene flow between subpopulations when assessing connectivity. PMID:22335296

Lee, Justin S; Ruell, Emily W; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alonso, Robert S; Troyer, Jennifer L; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

2012-04-01

229

Evolution of Puma Lentivirus in Bobcats (Lynx rufus) and Mountain Lions (Puma concolor) in North America  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. IMPORTANCE An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure. PMID:24741092

Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E. K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

2014-01-01

230

Presence of Echinococcus oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863) Lühe, 1910 in Lynx rufus texensis Allen, 1895 from San Fernando, Tamaulipas State, in north-east Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bobcat was found recently killed on “Highway 101” near the town of San Fernando, Tamanlipas State, Mexico (100 km south of Brownsville, TX, U.S.A.). The cat (Lynx rufus texensis) was parasitized by several species of meassodes and trematodes, but mainly by a cestode, Echinococcus oligarthrus. The diagnostic characterintics of this cestode are described and illnstrated. E. oligarthrus has not

Narciso Salinas-López; Fernando Jiménz-Guzm?; Alejandro Cruz-Reyes

1996-01-01

231

Detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx, including Enterococcus faecium strains of CC17 and the new singleton ST573.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) within the faecal flora of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx. The association with other resistance genes and the detection of virulence genes were also analysed. From 2008 to 2010, 365 faecal samples from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx were collected and tested for VRE recovery. Mechanisms of resistance to vancomycin and other antibiotics, as well as genes encoding virulence factors were detected through PCR. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was performed for Enterococcus faecium strains. VRE were recovered in 8 of the 365 analysed samples. The vanA gene was identified in two E. faecium isolates recovered from Iberian wolf faecal samples and the remaining six showed intrinsic resistance (3 vanC1-E. gallinarum and 3 vanC2-E. casseliflavus, from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx faecal samples, respectively). One vanA-containing isolate showed tetracycline and erythromycin resistance [with erm(B) and tet(L) genes] and the other one also exhibited ampicillin and kanamycin resistance [with erm(B), tet(M) and aph(3')-III genes]. One of the vanA-isolates revealed a new sequence type named ST573 and the other one belonged to the CC17 clonal complex (ST18). The hyl gene was detected in one E. casseliflavus and three E. gallinarum but not among vanA-positive isolates, and the occurrence of cylA and cylL genes was confirmed in two E. casseliflavus isolates. A low prevalence of VRE has been detected in faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx and strains with an acquired mechanism of resistance to vancomycin have not been detected among Iberian lynx. PMID:22018960

Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; López, María; Guerra, Ana; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

2011-12-01

232

Quantifying home range habitat requirements for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Vermont, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We demonstrate how home range and habitat use analysis can inform landscape-scale conservation planning for the bobcat, Lynx rufus, in Vermont USA. From 2005 to 2008, we outfitted fourteen bobcats with GPS collars that collected spatially explicit locations from individuals every 4. h for 3-4. months. Kernel home range techniques were used to estimate home range size and boundaries, and to quantify the utilization distribution (UD), which is a spatially explicit, topographic mapping of how different areas within the home range are used. We then used GIS methods to quantify both biotic (e.g. habitat types, stream density) and abiotic (e.g. slope) resources within each bobcat's home range. Across bobcats, upper 20th UD percentiles (core areas) had 18% less agriculture, 42% less development, 26% more bobcat habitat (shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types), and 33% lower road density than lower UD percentiles (UD valleys). For each bobcat, we used Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate and compare 24 alternative Resource Utilization Functions (hypotheses) that could explain the topology of the individual's UD. A model-averaged population-level Resource Utilization Function suggested positive responses to shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types within 1. km of a location, and negative responses to roads and mixed forest cover types within 1. km of a location. Applying this model-averaged function to each pixel in the study area revealed habitat suitability for bobcats across the entire study area, with suitability scores ranging between -1.69 and 1.44, where higher values were assumed to represent higher quality habitat. The southern Champlain Valley, which contained ample wetland and shrub habitat, was a concentrated area of highly suitable habitat, while areas at higher elevation areas were less suitable. Female bobcat home ranges, on average, had an average habitat suitability score of near 0, indicating that home ranges consisted of both beneficial and detrimental habitat types. We discuss the application of habitat suitability mapping and home range requirements for bobcat conservation and landscape scale management. ?? 2011.

Donovan, T.M.; Freeman, M.; Abouelezz, H.; Royar, K.; Howard, A.; Mickey, R.

2011-01-01

233

Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described. PMID:15188962

Hamir, Amir N; Stasko, Judi; Rupprecht, Charles E

2004-04-01

234

Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).  

PubMed

Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide an adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. PMID:17984266

Franklin, Samuel P; Troyer, Jennifer L; Terwee, Julie A; Lyren, Lisa M; Kays, Roland W; Riley, Seth P D; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

2007-10-01

235

Cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats.  

PubMed

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) infections in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from a region where C. felis is recognized in domestic cats, North Carolina (NC), and a region where C. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, Pennsylvania (PA). Samples from NC (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats. Samples from PA (n=70) were collected post-mortem onto Nobuto blood collecting strips by the PA Game Commission. Each sample was tested using a C. felis specific PCR assay as well as a PCR assay targeting host DNA to rule out the presence of PCR inhibitors. Three samples were excluded due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Thirty-three percent (10/30) of the samples from NC and 7% (5/69) of the samples from PA tested positive for the presence of C. felis. The proportion of C. felis positive bobcats from NC was significantly different than that from PA (P<0.005). Despite the lower prevalence of C. felis infections in bobcats from PA this finding is unique and indicates the potential for C. felis infections in domestic cats in the northeastern USA if the appropriate tick vectors are present. Veterinary practitioners in PA should be on alert for cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. Further studies about the epidemiology and transmission of C. felis infections among both domestic cats and bobcats are needed. PMID:18295403

Birkenheuer, Adam J; Marr, Henry S; Warren, Camille; Acton, Anne E; Mucker, Eric M; Humphreys, Jan G; Tucker, Melissa D

2008-05-01

236

Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide ap adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Kays, R.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Boyce, W.M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

2007-01-01

237

Presence of Echinococcus oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863) Lühe, 1910 in Lynx rufus texensis Allen, 1895 from San Fernando, Tamaulipas state, in north-east Mexico.  

PubMed

A bobcat was found recently killed on "Highway 101" near the town of San Fernando, Tamaulipas State, Mexico (100 km south of Brownsville, TX, U.S.A.). The cat (Lynx rufus texensis) was parasitized by several species of nematodes and trematodes, but mainly by a cestode, Echinococcus oligarthrus. The diagnostic characteristics of this cestode are described and illustrated. E. oligarthrus has not been reported previously in North America. This is the first time that the strobilar stage has been recovered from a "bobcat". A potential public health problem may be raised by the presence of this cestode in Mexico. PMID:8894772

Salinas-López, N; Jiménez-Guzmán, F; Cruz-Reyes, A

1996-07-01

238

Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002–2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations.

Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Clifford, Deana L.; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P.D.

2013-01-01

239

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx rufus) in North America, Central America and South America were screened for B. henselae antibodies. The overall prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was respectively 19.4% in pumas and 23.1% in bobcats, with regional variations. In the USA, pumas from the southwestern states were more likely to be seropositive for B. henselae (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55, 5.11) than pumas from the Northwest and Mountain states. Similarly, adults were more likely to be B. henselae seropositive than juveniles and kittens (PR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.93). Adult pumas were more likely to have higher B. henselae antibody titers than juveniles and kittens (p = 0.026). B. henselae antibody prevalence was 22.4% (19/85) in bobcats from the USA and 33.3% (2/6) in the Mexican bobcats. In the USA, antibody prevalence varied depending on the geographical origin of the bobcats. In California, the highest prevalence was in bobcats from the coastal range (37.5%). These results suggest a potential role of wild felids in the epidemiological cycle of Bartonella henselae or closely related Bartonella species. PMID:15099499

Chomel, Bruno B; Kikuchi, Yoko; Martenson, Janice S; Roelke-Parker, Melodie E; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Janet E; Laudre, John; Murphy, Kerry; Swift, Pamela K; Kramer, Vicki L; O'brien, Stephen J

2004-01-01

240

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American free-ranging or captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a major zoonotic agent infecting a wide range of mammals, including wild felids. Like domestic cats, wild felids are involved in the complete infective cycle of T. gondii, as they can host in their gastrointestinal tract sexually mature parasites and shed infective oocysts in their feces. In order to evaluate the importance of this wildlife reservoir, 438 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1999 from 438 pumas (Felis concolor) and from 58 bobcats (Lynx rufus) from North America, Central America and South America were screened for antibodies to T. gondii. The overall prevalence of T. gondii antibodies was 22.4% in pumas and 51.7% in bobcats, with regional variations. Adults were more likely to be seropositive than juveniles and kittens (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.61; confidence interval (CI) = 1.15, 4.04). In the US, pumas from the southwestern states (Arizona, California and New Mexico) were more likely to be seropositive for T. gondii ( PR = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.32-5.18 ) than pumas from the northwestern and mountain states (Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Wyoming). Male pumas from the US were more likely to be seropositive than females (PR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.11-3.92), whereas female pumas from Mexico, Central America and South America were more likely to be seropositive than female pumas from Canada and the US (PR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.09-5.69). Captive pumas were also more likely to be seropositive (21.7%, 29/92) for T. gondii than free-ranging animals (19.9%, 69/346) (PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.17). PMID:15019138

Kikuchi, Yoko; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Martenson, Janice S; Swift, Pamela K; O'Brien, Stephen J

2004-02-26

241

Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.  

PubMed

The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence. PMID:21270003

Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

2011-01-01

242

Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange.  

PubMed

Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats ( Lynx rufus ) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002-2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations. PMID:23957865

Serieys, Laurel E K; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Poppenga, Robert H; Clifford, Deana L; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P D

2013-12-01

243

Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland - do people want to keep the doors open?  

PubMed

This study investigates individuals' preferences toward protection programs aimed at increasing the chances of survival of the two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland. Those two groups, the Lowland and the Carpathian population, are exposed to different risks of extinction as they have different numbers, different-sized areas of occupation and different migration possibilities. Using a discrete choice experiment we examine the influence of the initial degree of endangerment on the allocation of respondents' funds. The results show that people prefer to invest in the conservation of the lynx population, which has initially lower chances of survival. The main driver of respondents' choices seems to be loss aversion rather than the urge to invest in an option with an expected higher outcome. This observation can be interpreted as people trying to keep all the options - doors - open by devoting more funds to the more vulnerable population than to the more stable one. Employing a scale-extended latent class model allowed us to detect segments among individuals showing different types of response behavior, including a form of serial non-participation. PMID:23811031

Bartczak, Anna; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

2013-11-15

244

Distribution and prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats (Lynx rufus), the natural reservoir, and other wild felids in thirteen states.  

PubMed

Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan parasite of wild and domestic felids, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic and some exotic felids in the United States. The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is the natural reservoir for this parasite, but other felids such as Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryii) and domestic cats may maintain long-term parasitemias and serve as reservoirs. Experimentally, two tick species, Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum, have demonstrated the ability to transmit C. felis. These two tick species have overlapping distributions throughout much of the southeastern United States. The objective of the current study was to determine the distribution and prevalence of C. felis in free-ranging bobcat populations from 13 states including California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and West Virginia. These states were selected because of differential vector presence; D. variabilis is present in each of these states except for the region of Colorado sampled and A. americanum is currently known to be present only in a subset of these states. Blood or spleen samples from 696 bobcats were tested for C. felis infection by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay which targeted the first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1). Significantly higher prevalences of C. felis were detected from Missouri (79%, n=39), North Carolina (63%, n=8), Oklahoma (60%, n=20), South Carolina (57%, n=7), Kentucky (55%, n=74), Florida (44%, n=45), and Kansas (27%, n=41) compared with Georgia (9%, n=159), North Dakota (2.4%, n=124), Ohio (0%, n=19), West Virginia (0%, n=37), California (0%, n=26), and Colorado (0%, n=67). In addition to bobcats, seven cougars (Puma concolor) from Georgia, Louisiana, and North Dakota and one serval (Leptailurus serval) from Louisiana were tested for C. felis. Only one cougar from Louisiana was PCR positive, which represents the first report of an infected cougar outside of the Florida panther population. These data also indicate that C. felis is present in North Dakota where infection has not been reported in domestic cats. Based on a nonparametric analysis, prevalence rates were significantly higher in states where there are established populations of A. americanum, which supports recent data on the experimental transmission of C. felis by A. americanum and the fact that domestic cat clinical cases are temporally associated with A. americanum activity. Collectively, these data confirm that bobcats are a common reservoir for C. felis and that A. americanum is likely an epidemiologically important vector. PMID:21071149

Shock, Barbara C; Murphy, Staci M; Patton, Laura L; Shock, Philip M; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Prange, Suzanne; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Bevins, Sarah N; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R; Nettles, Victor F; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

2011-02-10

245

"Ears of the lynx" sign in a marchiafava-bignami patient: structural basis and fiber-tracking DTI contribution to the understanding of this imaging abnormality.  

PubMed

The "ears of the lynx" sign was previously reported as a neuroimaging finding observed in patients with autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia in association with a thin corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC). We report a patient with a chronic form of Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) that presented with this imaging feature. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber-tracking data support that this finding is a consequence of the structural derangement, which enlarges a preexisting border zone of the bundles of fibers from the corpus callosum (CC) genu to the forceps minor and anterior corona radiata. Therefore, we assume that despite their pathological differences, damage to the anterior portion of the CC is responsible for the imaging similarities between MBD and ARHSP-TCC. PMID:23216703

Pacheco, Felipe Torres; Rego, Milena Morais; do Rego, Jose Iram Mendonça; da Rocha, Antonio J

2014-01-01

246

Characterization of the Commercially-Available Fluorescent Chloroquine-BODIPY Conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a Marker for Chloroquine Resistance and Uptake in a 96-Well Plate Assay  

PubMed Central

Chloroquine was a cheap, extremely effective drug against Plasmodium falciparum until resistance arose. One approach to reversing resistance is the inhibition of chloroquine efflux from its site of action, the parasite digestive vacuole. Chloroquine accumulation studies have traditionally relied on radiolabelled chloroquine, which poses several challenges. There is a need for development of a safe and biologically relevant substitute. We report here a commercially-available green fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a proxy for chloroquine accumulation. This compound localized to the digestive vacuole of the parasite as observed under confocal microscopy, and inhibited growth of chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 more extensively than in the resistant strains 7G8 and K1. Microplate reader measurements indicated suppression of LynxTag-CQGREEN efflux after pretreatment of parasites with known reversal agents. Microsomes carrying either sensitive- or resistant-type PfCRT were assayed for uptake; resistant-type PfCRT exhibited increased accumulation of LynxTag-CQGREEN, which was suppressed by pretreatment with known chemosensitizers. Eight laboratory strains and twelve clinical isolates were sequenced for PfCRT and Pgh1 haplotypes previously reported to contribute to drug resistance, and pfmdr1 copy number and chloroquine IC50s were determined. These data were compared with LynxTag-CQGREEN uptake/fluorescence by multiple linear regression to identify genetic correlates of uptake. Uptake of the compound correlated with the logIC50 of chloroquine and, more weakly, a mutation in Pgh1, F1226Y. PMID:25343249

Chan, Kitti W. K.; Choy, Kit-Ying; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce; Lear, Martin J.; Nosten, François H.; Tan, Kevin S. W.; Chow, Larry M. C.

2014-01-01

247

Use of stratigraphic models as soft information to constrain stochastic modeling of rock properties: Development of the GSLIB-Lynx integration module  

SciTech Connect

Rock properties in volcanic units at Yucca Mountain are controlled largely by relatively deterministic geologic processes related to the emplacement, cooling, and alteration history of the tuffaceous lithologic sequence. Differences in the lithologic character of the rocks have been used to subdivide the rock sequence into stratigraphic units, and the deterministic nature of the processes responsible for the character of the different units can be used to infer the rock material properties likely to exist in unsampled regions. This report proposes a quantitative, theoretically justified method of integrating interpretive geometric models, showing the three-dimensional distribution of different stratigraphic units, with numerical stochastic simulation techniques drawn from geostatistics. This integration of soft, constraining geologic information with hard, quantitative measurements of various material properties can produce geologically reasonable, spatially correlated models of rock properties that are free from stochastic artifacts for use in subsequent physical-process modeling, such as the numerical representation of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport. Prototype modeling conducted using the GSLIB-Lynx Integration Module computer program, known as GLINTMOD, has successfully demonstrated the proposed integration technique. The method involves the selection of stratigraphic-unit-specific material-property expected values that are then used to constrain the probability function from which a material property of interest at an unsampled location is simulated.

Cromer, M.V. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

1995-10-01

248

Spider toxins comprising disulfide-rich and linear amphipathic domains: a new class of molecules identified in the lynx spider Oxyopes takobius.  

PubMed

In addition to the conventional neurotoxins and cytotoxins, venom of the lynx spider Oxyopes takobius was found to contain two-domain modular toxins named spiderines: OtTx1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. These toxins show both insecticidal activity (a median lethal dose against flesh fly larvae of 75 ?g·g(-1)) and potent antimicrobial effects (minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range 0.1-10 ?m). Full sequences of the purified spiderines were established by a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and cDNA cloning. They are relatively large molecules (~ 110 residues, 12.0-12.5 kDa) and consist of two distinct modules separated by a short linker. The N-terminal part (~ 40 residues) contains no cysteine residues, is highly cationic, forms amphipathic ?-helical structures in a membrane-mimicking environment, and shows potent cytolytic effects on cells of various origins. The C-terminal part (~ 60 residues) is disulfide-rich (five S-S bonds), and contains the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK/knottin) signature. The N-terminal part of spiderines is very similar to linear cytotoxic peptides found in various organisms, whereas the C-terminal part corresponds to the usual spider neurotoxins. We synthesized the modules of OtTx1a and compared their activity to that of full-length mature toxin produced recombinantly, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal part, which retained full-length toxin activity in both insecticidal and antimicrobial assays. The unique structure of spiderines completes the range of two-domain spider toxins. PMID:24118933

Vassilevski, Alexander A; Sachkova, Maria Y; Ignatova, Anastasija A; Kozlov, Sergey A; Feofanov, Alexei V; Grishin, Eugene V

2013-12-01

249

Development and validation of a fecal PCR assay for Notoedres cati and application to notoedric mange cases in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Northern California, USA.  

PubMed

Notoedric mange in felids is a devastating disease caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to the mite Notoedres cati. The burrowing of the mite causes intense pruritis resulting in self-mutilation, secondary bacterial infection, and often death of affected felids if left untreated. Our understanding of how notoedric mange is maintained in felid populations, and the true geographic extent of infestations, has been hampered because wild felids are elusive and, thus, traditional diagnostic methods are difficult to implement. To create a noninvasive diagnostic test, we developed and validated a novel PCR assay to detect N. cati DNA in fecal samples of bobcats (Lynx rufus) and used this assay to investigate a recent outbreak of mange in northern California, United States. Although the fecal PCR assay was 100% specific and could detect as few as 1.9 mites/200 ?g of feces, it had a moderate sensitivity of 52.6%, potentially due to intermittent shedding of mites in feces or fecal PCR inhibitors. In a field investigation, 12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.23) of fecal samples (n=65) collected from Rancho San Antonia County Park and Open Space Preserve in Santa Clara County, California were PCR-positive for N. cati. When this estimate was adjusted for test sensitivity, the corrected proportion for fecal samples containing N. cati was 23% (95% CI: 0.14, 0.36), suggesting widespread mange in this area. This novel PCR assay will be an important tool to assess the distribution and spread of notoedric mange in bobcats and could be validated to test other wild felids such as mountain lions (Puma concolor). The assay could also be used to detect notoedric mange in domestic cats (Felis catus), particularly feral cats, which may also suffer from mange and could represent an important contributor to mange in periurban bobcat populations. PMID:23568905

Stephenson, Nicole; Clifford, Deana; Worth, S Joy; Serieys, Laurel E K; Foley, Janet

2013-04-01

250

Early-type Galaxies at z = 1.3. I. The Lynx Supercluster: Cluster and Groups at z = 1.3. Morphology and Color-Magnitude Relation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We confirm the detection of three groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z ? 1.3, through spectroscopic follow-up and X-ray imaging, and we give estimates for their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies compared to the two central clusters, RX J0849+4452 and RX J0848+4453. Using spectroscopic follow-up and multi-wavelength photometric redshifts, we select 89 galaxies in the clusters, of which 41 are spectroscopically confirmed, and 74 galaxies in the groups, of which 25 are spectroscopically confirmed. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30%-40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g., based on Sérsic index). In luminosity-selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of bulge-dominated galaxies with a diffuse component that we visually identified as a disk and which we classified as bulge-dominated spirals, e.g., Sas. The ETG fractions never rise above ?50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in other massive clusters at z ? 1. In the groups, ETG fractions never exceed ?25%. However, overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions (ETG plus Sas) are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z ~ 1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as spirals might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star formation seems to have been quenched before experiencing a morphological transformation. Because their fraction is smaller at lower redshifts, they might be the spiral population that evolves into ETGs. For mass-selected samples of galaxies with masses M > 1010.6 M ? within ? > 500 Mpc-2, the ETG and overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions show no significant evolution with respect to local clusters, suggesting that morphological transformations might occur at lower masses and densities. The ETG mass-size relation shows evolution toward smaller sizes at higher redshift in both clusters and groups, while the late-type mass-size relation matches that observed locally. When compared to the clusters, the group ETG red sequence shows lower zero points (at ~2?) and larger scatters, both expected to be an indication of a younger galaxy population. However, we show that any allowed difference between the age in groups and clusters would be small when compared to the differences in age in galaxies of different masses.

Mei, Simona; Stanford, S. Adam; Holden, Brad P.; Raichoor, Anand; Postman, Marc; Nakata, Fumiaki; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ford, Holland C.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rosati, Piero; Tanaka, Masayuki; Huertas-Company, Marc; Rettura, Alessandro; Shankar, Francesco; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Demarco, Ricardo; Eisenhardt, Peter; Jee, Myungkook J.; Koyama, Yusei; White, Richard L.

2012-08-01

251

Toxoplasmosis in Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) in Québec, Canada  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii, one of the more common zoonotic parasites in the world, can cause serious illness in humans and other animals worldwide. Felids are the only host that can shed T. gondii oocysts, which are essential to the perpetuation of the parasite cycle. In much of Boreal Canada, the Canadian ...

252

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z = 1.3. I. THE LYNX SUPERCLUSTER: CLUSTER AND GROUPS AT z = 1.3. MORPHOLOGY AND COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION  

SciTech Connect

We confirm the detection of three groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, through spectroscopic follow-up and X-ray imaging, and we give estimates for their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies compared to the two central clusters, RX J0849+4452 and RX J0848+4453. Using spectroscopic follow-up and multi-wavelength photometric redshifts, we select 89 galaxies in the clusters, of which 41 are spectroscopically confirmed, and 74 galaxies in the groups, of which 25 are spectroscopically confirmed. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30%-40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g., based on Sersic index). In luminosity-selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of bulge-dominated galaxies with a diffuse component that we visually identified as a disk and which we classified as bulge-dominated spirals, e.g., Sas. The ETG fractions never rise above Almost-Equal-To 50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in other massive clusters at z Almost-Equal-To 1. In the groups, ETG fractions never exceed Almost-Equal-To 25%. However, overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions (ETG plus Sas) are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z {approx} 1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as spirals might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star formation seems to have been quenched before experiencing a morphological transformation. Because their fraction is smaller at lower redshifts, they might be the spiral population that evolves into ETGs. For mass-selected samples of galaxies with masses M > 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun} within {Sigma} > 500 Mpc{sup -2}, the ETG and overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions show no significant evolution with respect to local clusters, suggesting that morphological transformations might occur at lower masses and densities. The ETG mass-size relation shows evolution toward smaller sizes at higher redshift in both clusters and groups, while the late-type mass-size relation matches that observed locally. When compared to the clusters, the group ETG red sequence shows lower zero points (at {approx}2{sigma}) and larger scatters, both expected to be an indication of a younger galaxy population. However, we show that any allowed difference between the age in groups and clusters would be small when compared to the differences in age in galaxies of different masses.

Mei, Simona; Raichoor, Anand; Huertas-Company, Marc [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 5 Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Adam Stanford, S.; Rettura, Alessandro; Jee, Myungkook J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, Brad P.; Illingworth, Garth D. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85478 Garching (Germany); Ford, Holland C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosati, Piero [European South Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Tanaka, Masayuki; Koyama, Yusei [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Shankar, Francesco [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Carrasco, Eleazar R. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Demarco, Ricardo [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Eisenhardt, Peter [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

2012-08-01

253

Factors affecting seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. In the present stud...

254

Comparative patterns of adrenal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx ( Lynx canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress and animal well-being are often assessed using concentrations of glucocorticoids (GCs), a product of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal\\u000a axis. However, GC concentrations can also be modulated by predictable events, such as changes in season or life history stage.\\u000a Understanding normative patterns of adrenal activity is critical for making valid conclusions about changes in GC concentrations.\\u000a In this study, we validated an

Kerry V. FansonNadja; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Jeffrey R. Lucas

255

Galemys 19 (n especial): 3-15, 2007 ISSN: 1137-8700  

E-print Network

IBÃ?RICO (Lynx pardinus), LINCE BOREAL (L. lynx) Y LINCE ROJO (L. rufus) PARA EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UN and cells from Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynx (L. lynx) and bobcats (L. rufus) to establish natural conditions. This is the case of the Iberian lynx, the most endangered felid in the world. Despite

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

256

Mammalogy Laboratory 9 Carnivora & Pholidota General Notes: It may seem like we have several species represented, but there are several  

E-print Network

(domestic cat)* Puma concolor (cougar) Lynx rufus (bobcat) L. canadensis (Canada lynx) Leopardus pardalis: Felis, Lynx, Acinonyx, Neofelis, Panthera, Puma, Leopardus, Uncia Material in Lab: Felis sylvestris

Sullivan, Jack

257

Inferring species distributions in the absence of occurrence records: An example considering wolverine ( Gulo gulo) and Canada lynx ( Lynx canadensis) in New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about geographic distributions is required for species conservation and management. Ultimately, this information is derived from records of occurrence. However, the reliability and availability of occurrence records are variable. A conceptual framework for evaluating the reliability of occurrence records is provided. Only records associated with physical evidence, especially a museum voucher specimen, are considered verified. However, errors in species

Jennifer K. Frey

2006-01-01

258

Economic Impacts of Designating Critical Habitat Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: Case Study of the Canada Lynx (Lynx Canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of species and their habitats yields economic benefits to society. The principal U.S. species conservation law, the Endangered Species Act (ESA), requires the designation of critical habitat for ESA-listed species. The ESA provides room for economic analysis to enter conservation decisions by stipulating that the decision to designate a particular area take into account the resulting economic impact. Unfortunately,

Timm Kroeger; Frank Casey

2006-01-01

259

Pleistocene and ecological effects on continental-scale genetic differentiation in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

The potential for widespread, mobile species to exhibit genetic structure without clear geographic barriers is a topic of growing interest. Yet the patterns and mechanisms of structure--particularly over broad spatial scales--remain largely unexplored for these species. Bobcats occur across North America and possess many characteristics expected to promote gene flow. To test whether historical, topographic or ecological factors have influenced genetic differentiation in this species, we analysed 1 kb mtDNA sequence and 15 microsatellite loci from over 1700 samples collected across its range. The primary signature in both marker types involved a longitudinal cline with a sharp transition, or suture zone, occurring along the Great Plains. Thus, the data distinguished bobcats in the eastern USA from those in the western half, with no obvious physical barrier to gene flow. Demographic analyses supported a scenario of expansion from separate Pleistocene refugia, with the Great Plains representing a zone of secondary contact. Substructure within the two main lineages likely reflected founder effects, ecological factors, anthropogenic/topographic effects or a combination of these forces. Two prominent topographic features, the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, were not supported as significant genetic barriers. Ecological regions and environmental correlates explained a small but significant proportion of genetic variation. Overall, results implicate historical processes as the primary cause of broad-scale genetic differentiation, but contemporary forces seem to also play a role in promoting and maintaining structure. Despite the bobcat's mobility and broad niche, large-scale landscape changes have contributed to significant and complex patterns of genetic structure. PMID:22548482

Reding, Dawn M; Bronikowski, Anne M; Johnson, Warren E; Clark, William R

2012-06-01

260

The complete mitochondrial genome of striped lynx spider Oxyopes sertatus (Araneae: Oxyopidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Oxyopes sertatus is a circular molecule of 14,442?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The A?+?T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 75.9% (T: 42.9%; C: 8.2%; A: 33.0%; G: 15.9%). COII, COIII and ND4 genes begin with TTG as start codon; ATP6, COI, ND1 and ND5 genes begin with ATA as start codon, ATP8, Cyt b, ND2 and ND3 genes begin with ATT as start codon, ND6 gene begins with GTG as start codon, while ND4L gene start with a typical ATG initiation codon. ND2 gene is terminated with TAG as stop codon, Cyt b and ND5 end with TA, COI, ND1 and ND4L end with T, ATP6, ATP8, COII, COIII, ND3, ND4 and ND6 end with TAA. PMID:25208169

Pan, Wen-Jian; Fang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Peng; Pan, Hong-Chun

2014-09-10

261

Spray more, get more: masculinity, television advertising and the Lynx effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent growth in both the advertising of male grooming products and the sales of such products in Britain and, as such, it is important that we examine the representations of men, masculinity and the male role that are being used to advertise and indeed sell this new and growing market sector. After all, advertising cannot help

Rebecca Feasey

2009-01-01

262

The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 - <50%, 50 - <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness. PMID:23861963

Rockhill, Aimee P; DePerno, Christopher S; Powell, Roger A

2013-01-01

263

Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat ( Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited information on bobcat ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation and fertilizing ability. Bobcats were electroejaculated under general anesthesia in November (autumn) and April (spring), and endocrine and sperm traits were characterized. Testosterone (mean±SEM: 0.90±0.15 ng\\/mL) was not different between sampling times, but cortisol (average: 13.95±1.73?g\\/dL) was significantly higher in April. Average number of spermatozoa was 10.0±3.4×106 sperm\\/ejaculate, with

N. Gañán; R. González; A. Sestelo; J. J. Garde; I. Sánchez; J. M. Aguilar; M. Gomendio; E. R. S. Roldan

2009-01-01

264

Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the Pennsylvania bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus).  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2002 bobcat blood samples were collected, in association with the Pennsylvania Game Commission, during the recently reactivated bobcat hunting and trapping season. Sex, age, and county/township data were recorded for each animal. Blood was tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test. In the 2-yr study, 131 bobcat samples were collected in 14 Pennsylvania counties and 109 (83%) of these had antibodies to T. gondii (titer>or=25). A two-way Chi-Square test (95% confidence interval) yielded no significance differences in antibody prevalence between males (83%) and females (88%) or adults (83%) and juveniles (77%). All 14 counties had at least one bobcat with antibodies to T. gondii. PMID:16699165

Mucker, Eric M; Dubey, J P; Lovallo, Matthew J; Humphreys, Jan G

2006-01-01

265

Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

There is limited information on bobcat ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation and fertilizing ability. Bobcats were electroejaculated under general anesthesia in November (autumn) and April (spring), and endocrine and sperm traits were characterized. Testosterone (mean+/-SEM: 0.90+/-0.15 ng/mL) was not different between sampling times, but cortisol (average: 13.95+/-1.73 microg/dL) was significantly higher in April. Average number of spermatozoa was 10.0+/-3.4 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate, with values being significantly higher in April. Sperm motility (average 55.7+/-5.8% motile sperm) was not different between sampling times. The proportion of normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate (average: 14.7+/-2.1%) was significantly higher in April, but the percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes (average: 43.7+/-3.8%) was significantly higher in autumn. Spermatozoa were cryopreserved in a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST) or Biladyl, both containing 20% egg yolk and 4% glycerol. Diluted sperm were loaded into straws, refrigerated using a programmable thermoblock with a dry chamber, frozen in nitrogen vapors, thawed, and incubated in F-10 medium with 5% fetal bovine serum for up to 3h. After cryopreservation in TEST, there were about 50% motile sperm upon thawing, and survival was high during incubation post-thaw. Cryopreservation in Biladyl led to similar results, but motility decreased substantially during incubation post-thaw. Bobcat spermatozoa fertilized domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro. Fertilization rates were higher for sperm collected in April and cryopreserved in TEST (46%) than for those cryopreserved using Biladyl (<3%). Fertilized oocytes cleaved in culture, and some (27%) reached the morula stage. This study has allowed us to gain further baseline information on bobcat reproduction, explore sperm cryopreservation conditions, and show that fertilizing capacity can be tested using in vitro-matured cat oocytes. These results will be important for future conservation efforts. PMID:19410285

Gañán, N; González, R; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Sánchez, I; Aguilar, J M; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S

2009-08-01

266

The Effect of Illumination and Time of Day on Movements of Bobcats (Lynx rufus)  

PubMed Central

Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 - <50%, 50 - <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness. PMID:23861963

Rockhill, Aimee P.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Powell, Roger A.

2013-01-01

267

SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN THE PENNSYLVANIA BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS RUFUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

From 2000-2002 bobcat serum samples were collected, in association with the Pennsylvania Game Commission, during the recently reactivated bobcat hunting and trapping season. Sex, age and county/township data were recorded for each sample. Sera were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using t...

268

Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

E-print Network

Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization fertilized domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro. Fertilization rates were higher for sperm collected that fertilizing capacity can be tested using in vitro­matured cat oocytes. These results will be important

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

269

Research Note Precommercial Thinning Reduces Snowshoe Hare  

E-print Network

including the United States federally threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), can be abundant in young, experiment, forest management, Lynx canadensis, lynx foraging habitat, Montana, precommercial thinning.?2 forests of western Montana, USA, where there is a persistent population of Canada lynx. Post

Mills, L. Scott

270

Ecology, 88(11), 2007, pp. 27362743 2007 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations undergo cyclic in the predator community. Key words: alternative prey; Canada lynx; Lepus americanus; Lynx canadensis; population GRADIENTS IN DIET AFFECT POPULATION DYNAMICS OF CANADA LYNX JAMES D. ROTH,1,6 JOHN D. MARSHALL,2 DENNIS L

271

Author's personal copy Combining resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for  

E-print Network

States, Canada lynx Lynx canadensis is a federally threatened bor- eal species that may require of anthropogenic disturbance (Channell and Lomolino, 2000; Schaefer, 2003). Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), listed for Canada lynx at their southern range periphery John R. Squires a, , Nicholas J. DeCesare b , Lucretia E

272

Introduction Many studies of herbivore and predator dynamics have estimated  

E-print Network

and Sibly 2002).A different form of numerical response of lynx (Lynx canadensis) to snowshoe hares (Lepus described a relationship between lynx density and hare density, not between lynx r and hare density. It is the latter approach that is investigated here. Predators such as lynx and prey such as snowshoe hares

Krebs, Charles J.

273

PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARKRECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY  

E-print Network

and are the primary prey base of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), a carnivore recently listed as threatened prey of several forest carni- vores, especially Canada lynx. Lynx are considered sensitive species as a threatened species in the contiguous United States (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2000); management of lynx

274

Reconsidering the Specialist-Generalist Paradigm in Niche Breadth Dynamics: Resource Gradient Selection by  

E-print Network

by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus Selection by Canada Lynx and Bobcat Michael J. L. Peers1 *, Daniel H. Thornton1,2 , Dennis L. Murray1 1. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species' niche, we determined that Canada lynx

275

, 20132495, published 30 October 20132802013Proc. R. Soc. B Michael J. L. Peers, Daniel H. Thornton and Dennis L. Murray  

E-print Network

, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions and Dennis L. Murray displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat Evidence for large-scale effects of competition. 2013 Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat

276

Conservation Genetics 1: 285288, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

to distinguish among all four felid species of northern North America (lynx, bobcat [Lynx rufus], cougar [Felis in the Netherlands. 285 Technical note Identifying lynx and other North American felids based on MtDNA analysis L 30 October 2000; accepted 1 November 2000 Key words: felids, hair snags, lynx, Lynx canadensis

277

Molecular Ecology Notes (2005) 5, 6061 doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2004.00831.x 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

E-print Network

and Zfy) for domestic cat (Felis silvestris; GenBank acces- sion AF253014, AF252989), bobcat (Lynx rufus samples, lynx, noninvasive, scat, sex identification Received 05 August 2004; revision accepted 23; AF253002, AF252975), cougar (Puma concolor; AF253018, AF252988), and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx; AF

278

Original Article Using Population Genetics for Management of  

E-print Network

are recognized as distinct subspecies, with Lynx rufus fasciatus west and Lynx rufus pallescens east, Lynx rufus, Oregon, population genetics, subspecies, trapping. The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is the most international regulation of listed Lynx species. This CITES classification requires state wildlife agencies

Clark, William R.

279

Research Article The Effect of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements  

E-print Network

Research Station, Box 8089, Missoula, MT 59807, USA ABSTRACT Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Canada lynx (Lynx and lynx. (JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 71(5):1409­1418; 2007) DOI: 10.2193/2005-682 KEY WORDS Canis latrans, competition, coyote, lynx, Lynx canadensis, recreation, snow compaction, snowmobile, snowshoe

280

Anatomy of a population cycle: the role of density dependence and demographic variability on numerical  

E-print Network

and species-specific (Canada lynx: Lynx canadensis; small rodents: Microtus, Lemmus and Clethrionomys spp models, reductions in reproductive potential in both the lynx and small rodent systems led to notably

Row, Jeffrey R.

281

La chasse au gupard et au lynx en Syrie et en Irak au Moyen 7 fvrier 2012  

E-print Network

'entreprendre la gazelle dorcade, tandis que ceux de la Sam!wa ont des lignes plus gracieuses. La plupart de ces train après les gazelles une journée entière. Ces guépards ont longue échine et longue queue ; haussant la maison familiale des Munqi%, ne s'attaquant jamais aux chèvres, gazelles domestiques et chevaux

Boyer, Edmond

282

DNA Analysis of Hair and Scat Collected Along Snow Tracks to Document the Presence of Canada Lynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow tracking is often used to inventory carnivore communities, but species identification using this method can produce ambiguous and misleading results. DNA can be extracted from hair and scat samples collected from tracks made in snow. Using DNA analysis could allow positive track identification across a broad range of snow conditions, thus increasing survey accuracy and efficiency. We investigated the

KEVIN S. McKELVEY; JEFFREY VON KIENAST; KEITH B. AUBRY; GARY M. KOEHLER; BENJAMIN T. MALETZKE; JOHN R. SQUIRES; EDWARD L. LINDQUIST; STEVE LOCH; MICHAEL K. SCHWARTZ

2006-01-01

283

Patterns and processes of spatial genetic structure in a mobile and continuously distributed species, the bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population structure, the term used to describe the reproductive and demographic cohesiveness of con-specific individuals, is a fundamental concept in ecology and evolution. Despite the importance, patterns and processes of population structure are poorly understood, particularly for highly mobile species with broad distributions. For these organisms, the ability to disperse across large distances and occupy diverse habitats should promote gene

Dawn Marie Reding

2011-01-01

284

Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas ( Felis concolor ) and bobcats ( Lynx rufus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas

Bruno B. Chomel; Yoko Kikuchi; Janice S. Martenson; Melodie E. Roelke-Parker; Chao-Chin Chang; Rickie W. Kasten; Janet E. Foley; John Laudre; Kerry Murphy; Pamela K. Swift; Vicki L. Kramer

2004-01-01

285

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American free-ranging or captive pumas ( Felis concolor) and bobcats ( Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is a major zoonotic agent infecting a wide range of mammals, including wild felids. Like domestic cats, wild felids are involved in the complete infective cycle of T. gondii, as they can host in their gastrointestinal tract sexually mature parasites and shed infective oocysts in their feces. In order to evaluate the importance of this wildlife reservoir, 438

Yoko Kikuchi; Bruno B Chomel; Rickie W Kasten; Janice S Martenson; Pamela K Swift; Stephen J O’Brien

2004-01-01

286

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 94, pp. 51475152, May 1997  

E-print Network

(Lynx canadensis Kerr, 1792) are well known (1­4). These 9- to 11-year fluctuations are commonly in snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx: Asymmetric food web configurations between hare and lynx (statistical Kingdom, March 3, 1997 (received for review May 30, 1996) ABSTRACT The snowshoe hare and the Canadian lynx

Krebs, Charles J.

287

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 95, pp. 1543015435, December 1998  

E-print Network

in fur returns of the Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) have influenced ecological theory profoundly (1 to processes: Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle (statistical modeling nonlinearity America, lynx populations undergo 10-year cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 to the present

Krebs, Charles J.

288

In the early 1800s, Canadian fur traders began to notice dramatic fluctuations in snowshoe hare (Lepus ameri-  

E-print Network

(Lepus ameri- canus) and Canadian lynx populations (Lynx canadensis) (Winterhalder 1980). Almost 100 Company to document an interrelated rise and fall in hare and lynx populations (Elton and Nicholson 1942 in regulating these populations and their interactions (Krebs et al. 2001). The case of the lynx and the hare

Kelly, Maggi

289

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.  

E-print Network

, 24 West Chewuch, Winthrop, WA 98862, USA ABSTRACT Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research. Habitat Fragmentation and the Persistence of Lynx and permissions requests should be directed to the individual publisher as copyright holder. #12;Lynx Special

Dever, Jennifer A.

290

196 Northwest Science, Vol. 79, Nos. 2&3, 2005 John R. Squires1  

E-print Network

:jsquires@fs.fed.us Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the contiguous U. S. reside in small, widely distributed patches and Fish Department, 260 Buena Vista, Lander, Wyoming 82520 Movements of a Male Canada Lynx Crossing the Greater Yellowstone Area, Including Highways Abstract From 1999­2001, a male Canada lynx engaged in yearly

291

exclusion was assessed by t tests, treating each year as a separate comparison. The survival on control trees  

E-print Network

is suggested. Periodic population fluctuations of the Can- ada lynx (Lynx canadensis) have greatly in- fluenced Dynamic Structure of Canada Lynx Populations Within Three Climatic Regions Nils Chr. Stenseth,1,2 * Kung of Canada, lynx populations undergo regular density cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 onward

Krebs, Charles J.

292

SPECIES PROFILE New Hampshire Wildlife Action Plan A-261  

E-print Network

(Lynx rufus) occupy wooded habitats that provide cover and allow for stalking or ambush (Anderson modeled with GIS using two approaches, empirical and mechanistic or process oriented. Bobcat Lynx rufus [lynx (Lynx canadensis)]. In recent decades, bobcat populations in New Hampshire have declined pre

New Hampshire, University of

293

.. ConservationGenetics1: 285-288,2000. ~, @2001KluwerAcademicPublishers.Printedin theNetherlands. 285  

E-print Network

-Elmer), 2.5 mM MgCh, 200 JLM each dNTP, North America (lynx, bobcat [Lynx rufus], cougar 0.3 mg/ml BSA, 1Netherlands. 285 Technical note Identifying lynx and other North American felids based on MtDNA analysis L. Scott October 2000; accepted 1 November 2000 Key words: felids, hair snags,lynx, Lynx canadensis

Mills, L. Scott

294

Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest  

PubMed Central

A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases. PMID:24521984

Hiestand, Shelby J.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Jiménez, F. Agustín

2014-01-01

295

75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Stillwater State Forest. The DNRC prepared a 50-year HCP to address impacts from incidental take of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are listed as...

2010-09-17

296

http://www.jstor.org Capturing Beavers in Box Traps  

E-print Network

, Kamler et al. 2002), lynx (Lynx canadensis) (Mowat et al. 1994, Kolbe et al. 2003), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) (Gehrt and Fritzell 1996), but little is known about the efficacy of box traps to capture aquatic

DeStefano, Stephen

297

PRIMATES,16(3): 335-349, September 1975 335 SHORT COMMUNICATION  

E-print Network

of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) to Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Predation HAROLD GOUZOULES, University or more bobcats (Lynx rufus) is described. One incident of pre- dation was observed and four additional

Fedigan, Linda M.

298

JENNIFER A. FELTNER jafeltner@gmail.com 617-308-2175  

E-print Network

using Access, Excel and ArcGIS for studies on the ecology and management of mountain lions (Puma concolor), black bears (Ursus americanus) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) · Identified species from camera trap

Lewison, Rebecca

299

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.  

E-print Network

simultaneously collected telemetry data on sympatric coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus). Gray foxes coyotes (Canis latrans) y gatos monteses (Lynx rufus) simp´atricos. Los zorros grises fueron

Schweik, Charles M.

300

ORIGINAL PAPER Factors conditioning the camera-trapping efficiency  

E-print Network

medium-sized carnivores in Spain. The main target for these surveys has been the Iberian lynx, the most carnivores should be designed. Keywords Lynx pardinus . Camera trapping . Wildlife management . Carnivores

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

301

Biology Graphs - Predator and Prey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the numerical relationship between the population growth of predator (lynx) and prey (hare) over a 90 year period as shown in a graph. The graph shows that as the population of hares increases, the population of lynx increases. As the population of lynx continue to increase, the population of hares decreases. Questions probe student thinking on this relationship and other factors that may impact the population of the hare and the lynx.

302

Ecological Modelling 170 (2003) 453469 Modeling the brown bear population in Slovenia  

E-print Network

Ecological Modelling 170 (2003) 453­469 Modeling the brown bear population in Slovenia A tool as populations of other large predator species, such as wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx). The Slovenian it represents the source for natural re-colonization or reintroduction of the bear into Slovenia's neighboring

Dzeroski, Saso

2003-01-01

303

Large Carnivore Management in a MultiLevel Institutional Setting: Problems and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the large carnivore policies in Finland, Norway and Sweden (Fennoscandia) is to establish sustainable management of the four large (mammal) carnivores; bear ( ursus arctos ), wolf ( canis lupus ), lynx ( lynx lynx ) wolverine ( gulo gulo ) but also the golden eagle ( aquila chrysaetos ). Since this is clearly in conflict with

Camilla Sandström; Jani Pellikka

304

Estimating cost functions for the four large carnivores in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swedish carnivore policy goal for the four large carnivores – wolverine (Gulo gulo), wolf (Canis lupus), brown bear (Ursus arctos) and lynx (Lynx lynx) – is to ensure a minimum viable population on a long-term basis. To reach this goal the policy restricts population regulation activities, like hunting (prohibited for wolverine and wolf and restricted for brown bear and

Göran Bostedt; Pontus Grahn

2008-01-01

305

Estimating snowshoe hare population density from pellet plots: a further evaluation  

E-print Network

method raises the question of its spatial and temporal generality. The listing of the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) as a threatened species in the United States has stimulated much research on snowshoe hares as potential prey of lynx in the western states (Ruggiero et al. 2000), and pellet plots may become

Krebs, Charles J.

306

Habitat Relations Habitat Modeling Used to Predict Relative  

E-print Network

(Lynx rufus) from bowhunters with remotely-sensed data to build models that describe habitat Information Systems (GIS), habitat model, Iowa, Lynx rufus, relative abundance. In the last few decades). Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are the most broadly distributed felid in North America and populations

Clark, William R.

307

Overview of Forest Carnivore Survey Efforts in the Bitterroot Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance of forested habitats through natural or man-made causes is thought to adversely affect medium-sized carnivores such as the American marten (Martes americana), fisher (Martes pennanti), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and lynx (Lynx lynx). In order to recognize these impacts it is necessary to be able to accurately detect the presence of these species in both natural and disturbed habitats. This

Kerry R. Foresman

308

The cost of maturing early in a solitary carnivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central to the theory of life history evolution is the existence of trade-offs between different traits, such as the trade-off\\u000a between early maturity and an extended period of body growth. Based on analysis of the reproductive tracts of harvested Eurasian\\u000a lynx (Lynx lynx) females in Norway, we find that females that mature early are generally heavier than those that postpone

Erlend B. Nilsen; Henrik Brøseth; John Odden; John D. C. Linnell

2010-01-01

309

Wildlife Report Roger L. Di Silvestro  

E-print Network

. Although similar to the bobcat ( E rufus),the lynx can be distin- guished by its longer legs, larger feet-6044 ISBN 0-12-041000-1 PRINTEDINTllE UNITEDSTATES OF AMERICA #12;The Lynx Stephen DeStefano I1ni\\~ersir!oi I(:.r!io SPECIES DESCRIPTION AND NATURAL HISTORY The lynx (Felis lj~ns)is a predator of the Northern

DeStefano, Stephen

310

Predator-prey oscillations, synchronization and pattern formation in ecological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological systems and their component biological populations exhibit a broad spectrum of non-equilibrium dynamics ranging from characteristic natural cy-cles to more complex chaotic oscillations [1]. Perhaps the most spectacular example of this dynamic is Ecology's well known hare-lynx cycle. Despite unpredictable population fluctuations from one cycle to the next in the snow-shoe hare (Lepus americanus) and the Canadian lynx (Lynx

Bernd Blasius; Ralf Tonjes

311

Sinks without borders: snowshoe hare dynamics in a complex Paul C. Griffin and L. Scott Mills  

E-print Network

), many more species live in so-called `patchy metapopulations' (Harrison 1994), in which individuals move US, where managing forests for high snowshoe hare density is a priority for conservation of Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis. We estimated density and demographic rates via markÁrecapture live trapping

Mills, L. Scott

312

Life Tracks Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are descriptions of and information about various endangered species in Wisconsin. They include: the timber wolf (Canis lupus lycaon); Forester's tern (Sterna forsteri); the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis); Higgins' eye pearly mussel (Lampsilis higginsii); the piping plover (Charadrius melodus); the osprey (Pandion haliaetus); the…

Brynildson, Inga

313

Hunting behaviour of a sympatric felid and canid in relation to vegetative cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivore foraging behaviour is suited for hunting in specific vegetative cover types and therefore is largely stereotypical within taxonomic families. Felids typically employ dense cover to stalk or ambush prey, whereas canids do not make use of vegetation when hunting. Sympatric lynx, Lynx canadensis, and coyotes, Canis latrans, were tracked in snow for three winters and hunting behaviour in relation

Dennis L. Murray; Stan Boutin; Mark O'Donoghue; Vilis O. Nams

1995-01-01

314

PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARK-RECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) undergo remarkable cycles and are the primary prey base of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), a carnivore recently listed as threatened in the contiguous United States. Efforts to evalu- ate hare densities using pellets have traditionally been based on regression equations developed in the Yukon, Canada. In western Montana, we evaluated whether or not local regression equations

L. SCOTT MILLS; KAREN E. HODGES

315

UnitedStates Department of  

E-print Network

#12;UnitedStates Department of American Marten, Fisher, Lynx, and Wolverine: Survey Methods. 1995.American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine: survey methods for their detection. Gen. Tech. Rep for their use to monitor population change. Retrieval Terms: furbearers, forest carnivores, survey methods

Standiford, Richard B.

316

Evaluation of a top predator from Norway as indicator organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

widespread viable populations in the forested areas in Norway that effectively predates upon middle sized cervids. Population estimates are unce rtain, but it is believed that there are 400- 600 lynxes in Norway. Almost reaching the point of extinction in Norway during the 1930's, lynx populations have slowly increased in numbers a nd are believed to have spread to all

Runhild Gjelsvik; Helene Stensrud

317

Camera Trap Success Among Carnivores and Prey Animals in Tazewell County, Virginia  

E-print Network

, including: Ursus americanus (black bear), Lynx rufus (bobcat), Canis latrans (coyote), Vulpes vulpes (red-sized mammalian and terrestrial avian species known to occur at our study site. Specifically, we targeted Ursus americanus (black bear), Lynx rufus (bobcat), Canis latrans (c

Vance, James A.

318

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), three of six European wildc...

319

Carnivores as Focal Species for Conservation Planning in the Rocky Mountain Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability analysis of well-selected focal species can complement ecosystem- level conservation planning by revealing thresholds in habitat area and landscape connec- tivity. Mammalian carnivores are good candidates for focal species because their distri- butional patterns often strongly reflect regional-scale population processes. We incorporated focal species analysis of four carnivore species, fisher (Martes pennanti), lynx (Lynx can- adensis), wolverine (Gulo gulo),

Carlos Carroll; Reed F. Noss; Paul C. Paquet

2001-01-01

320

United States Department of Agriculture  

E-print Network

.C., USA. 35 pp. Cover photo: Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) by M. Jackson. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color.720.2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights

Beck, Jeffrey L.

321

First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).  

PubMed

Infections with feline hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have been documented in domestic cats and free-ranging feline species with high prevalences in Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynxes (Lynx lynx), European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African lions (Panthera leo) in Tanzania and domestic cats in South Africa. The prevalence of hemoplasmas has not yet been investigated in free-ranging felids in southern Africa. In this study we screened 73 blood samples from 61 cheetahs in central Namibia for the presence of hemoplasmas using quantitative real-time PCR. One of the cheetahs tested PCR-positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and RNAse P genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the Mycoplasma haemofelis/haemocanis group. This is the first molecular evidence of a hemoplasma infection in a free-ranging cheetah. PMID:23123173

Krengel, Annika; Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Wachter, Bettina; Willi, Barbara; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2013-03-23

322

Enhancing species distribution modeling by characterizing predator-prey interactions.  

PubMed

Niche theory is a well-established concept integrating a diverse array of environmental variables and multispecies interactions used to describe species geographic distribution. It is now customary to employ species distribution models (SDMs) that use environmental variables in conjunction with species location information to characterize species' niches and map their geographic ranges. The challenge remains, however, to account for the biotic interactions of species with other community members on which they depend. We show here how to connect species spatial distribution and their dependence with other species by modeling spatially explicit predator-prey interactions, which we call a trophic interaction distribution model (TIDM). To develop the principles, we capitalized on data from Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced into Colorado. Spatial location information for lynx obtained from telemetry was used in conjunction with environmental data to construct an SDM. The spatial locations of lynx-snowshoe hare encounters obtained from snow-tracking in conjunction with environmental data were used to construct a TIDM. The environmental conditions associated with lynx locations and lynx-hare encounters identified through both SDM and TIDM revealed an initial transient phase in habitat use that settled into a steady state. Nevertheless, despite the potential for the SDM to broadly encompass all lynx hunting and nonhunting spatial locations, the spatial extents of the SDM and TIDM differed; about 40% of important lynx-snowshoe hare locations identified in the TIDM were not identified in the lynx-only SDM. Our results encourage greater effort to quantify spatial locations of trophic interactions among species in a community and the associated environmental conditions when attempting to construct models aimed at projecting current and future species geographic distributions. PMID:24640545

Trainor, Anne M; Schmitz, Oswald J; Ivan, Jacob S; Shenk, Tanya M

2014-01-01

323

Cortical parvalbumin and somatostatin GABA neurons express distinct endogenous modulators of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  

PubMed

BackgroundInhibition from GABAergic interneurons in brain circuits is a critical component of cognitive function. This inhibition is regulated through a diverse network of neuromodulation. A number of recent studies suggest that one of the major regulators of interneuron function is nicotinic acetylcholinergic transmission and dysregulation of both systems is common in psychiatric conditions. However, how nicotinic modulation impacts specific subpopulations of diverse GABAergic interneurons remains in question. One potential way of conferring specificity to the convergence of GABAergic and nicotinic signaling is through the expression of a unique family of nicotinic acetycholine receptor modulators, the Lynx family. The present study sought to identify members of the Lynx family enriched in cortical interneurons and to elucidate subpopulations of GABAergic neurons that express unique nicotinic modulators.ResultsWe utilize double fluorescence in situ hybridization to examine the interneuronal expression of the Lynx family in adult mouse visual cortex. We find that two of the Lynx family members, Lynx1 and Lypd6, are enriched in interneuron populations in cortex. Nearly all parvalbumin interneurons express Lynx1 but we did not detect Lypd6 in this population. Conversely, in somatostatin interneurons Lypd6 was found in a subset localized to deep cortical layers but no somatostatin neurons show detectable levels of Lynx1. Using a combination of genetic and viral manipulations we further show that a subpopulation of deep-layer cortico-cortical long-range somatostatin neurons also express Lypd6.ConclusionsThis work shows that distinct subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons express unique Lynx family members. The pattern of expression of Lynx family members within interneurons places them in a unique position to potentially regulate the convergence of GABAergic and nicotinic systems, dysfunction of which are characteristic of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25359633

Demars, Michael P; Morishita, Hirofumi

2014-10-31

324

Comparison of properties of digital spectrometer systems.  

PubMed

We have tested two digital spectrometer systems, the DSP 9660 and Lynx(®) modules, connected to a HPGe detector. Lynx(®) is a fully integrated 32K channel signal analyzer based on digital signal processing techniques, which offers advanced digital stabilization. The model DSP 9660 digitalizes the signal directly at a very high sampling rate. The evaluated properties were integral nonlinearity, differential linearity, channel profiles, resolution and throughput. We found that the DSP system has slightly inferior resolution and throughput in comparison with the Lynx(®) system. PMID:24342559

Mazanova, Monika; Dryak, Pavel; Kovar, Petr; Auerbach, Pavel

2014-05-01

325

A Cellular Model for Spatial Population Dynamics Chu Yue (Stella) Donga  

E-print Network

Department. Figure 1 shows lynx population data from [1] with muskrat population data from [2] from 1821 roughly correspond to troughs of the muskrat population. This observation provides motivation for studying

Reiter, Clifford A.

326

Transaction chains: achieving serializability with low latency in geo-distributed storage systems  

E-print Network

, which occurs quickly. To evaluate Lynx, we built three applications: an auction service, a Twitter://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2517349.2522729 Studies done at Google and Amazon show that Web users are sensitive

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

327

78 FR 17632 - Caribou-Targhee National Forest; Idaho and Wyoming; Amendment to the Targhee Revised Forest Plan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Forest proposes to amend the Targhee Revised Forest Plan (1997) to include a map identifying specific areas where the Northern Rockies Lynx Management Direction (NRLMD, 2007) applies. Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process: The decision on...

2013-03-22

328

Molecular characterization of Theileria spp. using ribosomal RNA  

E-print Network

in erythrocytes of bobcats (Lynx rufus), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi), cougars (Felis concolor stanleyana), Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris), white tiger (P. tigris), and ocelots (Felis pardalis) (Kier et al., 1982a, 1982b...

Bendele, Kylie Gayle

2005-11-01

329

Nesting Range, Spatial Use, Habitat Selection and Sex Identification of the Greater Raodrunner (Geococcyx californianus)  

E-print Network

(Lynx rufus) or coyotes (Canis latrans). It was originally developed for northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) on south Texas rangelands utilizing the first decimeter as the strata of interest. For roadrunners, which stand approximately 30-cm high...

Montalvo, Andrea

2012-11-27

330

78 FR 59429 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the distribution of ecosystems northward and up mountain...pp. 230, 232). As climate changes over a landscape, the ecosystems that support lynx are...should one occur. As climate change scenarios and ecosystem responses become...

2013-09-26

331

The Role of Free-ranging Mammals in the Deposition of Escherichia coli into a Texas Floodplain  

E-print Network

canadensis North American Beaver Castor canadensis Wild Turkey Maleagris gallopavo Bobcat Lynx rufus Red-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus Coyote Canis latrans Killdeer Charadrius vociferus Roadrunner Geococcyx californianus California...

Parker, Israel David

2011-10-21

332

75 FR 28587 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...occurred at night during the Airborne Laser (ABL) testing program. A single Terrier-Lynx...when testing the Airborne Laser system (ABL). Northern elephant seals, Pacific harbor...g., up to 10 nighttime launches for ABL testing per year). Additionally,...

2010-05-21

333

78 FR 2710 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Conforming Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: January 7, 2013. Description: Application of SmartLynx Airlines Estonia OU requesting a foreign air carrier permit and exemption authority authorizing the carrier to operate charter foreign air...

2013-01-14

334

78 FR 53002 - Notice of Proposed Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUMMARY: The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) requested a waiver of the Federal Transit Administration...This utility relocation will be performed in connection with the CATS LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an...

2013-08-27

335

Selecting habitat to survive: the impact of road density on survival in a large carnivore.  

PubMed

Habitat selection studies generally assume that animals select habitat and food resources at multiple scales to maximise their fitness. However, animals sometimes prefer habitats of apparently low quality, especially when considering the costs associated with spatially heterogeneous human disturbance. We used spatial variation in human disturbance, and its consequences on lynx survival, a direct fitness component, to test the Hierarchical Habitat Selection hypothesis from a population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in southern Norway. Data from 46 lynx monitored with telemetry indicated that a high proportion of forest strongly reduced the risk of mortality from legal hunting at the home range scale, while increasing road density strongly increased such risk at the finer scale within the home range. We found hierarchical effects of the impact of human disturbance, with a higher road density at a large scale reinforcing its negative impact at a fine scale. Conversely, we demonstrated that lynx shifted their habitat selection to avoid areas with the highest road densities within their home ranges, thus supporting a compensatory mechanism at fine scale enabling lynx to mitigate the impact of large-scale disturbance. Human impact, positively associated with high road accessibility, was thus a stronger driver of lynx space use at a finer scale, with home range characteristics nevertheless constraining habitat selection. Our study demonstrates the truly hierarchical nature of habitat selection, which aims at maximising fitness by selecting against limiting factors at multiple spatial scales, and indicates that scale-specific heterogeneity of the environment is driving individual spatial behaviour, by means of trade-offs across spatial scales. PMID:23874381

Basille, Mathieu; Van Moorter, Bram; Herfindal, Ivar; Martin, Jodie; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Andersen, Reidar; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

336

PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARK–RECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Snowshoe,hares (Lepus americanus) undergo remarkable,cycles and are the primary,prey base of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), a carnivore recently listed as threatened in the contiguous United States. Efforts to evalu- ate hare densities using pellets have traditionally been based on regression equations developed in the Yukon, Canada. In western Montana, we evaluated whether or not local regression equations performed better

L. SCOTT MILLS; PAUL C. GRIFFIN; KAREN E. HODGES; KEVIN McKELVEY; LEN RUGGIERO; TODD ULIZIO

2005-01-01

337

UV-B-induced plant stress as a possible cause of ten-year hare cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation has been assumed to be a necessary factor in the ten-year population cycle of the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) and Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis). The UV-B-induced plant stress hypothesis, in contrast, predicts that hare performance, especially reproduction, is negatively related to sunspot numbers, because production of UV-B-protective phenolics in food plants in periods of low sunspot activity, when the

Vidar Selås

2006-01-01

338

Selecting Habitat to Survive: The Impact of Road Density on Survival in a Large Carnivore  

PubMed Central

Habitat selection studies generally assume that animals select habitat and food resources at multiple scales to maximise their fitness. However, animals sometimes prefer habitats of apparently low quality, especially when considering the costs associated with spatially heterogeneous human disturbance. We used spatial variation in human disturbance, and its consequences on lynx survival, a direct fitness component, to test the Hierarchical Habitat Selection hypothesis from a population of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in southern Norway. Data from 46 lynx monitored with telemetry indicated that a high proportion of forest strongly reduced the risk of mortality from legal hunting at the home range scale, while increasing road density strongly increased such risk at the finer scale within the home range. We found hierarchical effects of the impact of human disturbance, with a higher road density at a large scale reinforcing its negative impact at a fine scale. Conversely, we demonstrated that lynx shifted their habitat selection to avoid areas with the highest road densities within their home ranges, thus supporting a compensatory mechanism at fine scale enabling lynx to mitigate the impact of large-scale disturbance. Human impact, positively associated with high road accessibility, was thus a stronger driver of lynx space use at a finer scale, with home range characteristics nevertheless constraining habitat selection. Our study demonstrates the truly hierarchical nature of habitat selection, which aims at maximising fitness by selecting against limiting factors at multiple spatial scales, and indicates that scale-specific heterogeneity of the environment is driving individual spatial behaviour, by means of trade-offs across spatial scales. PMID:23874381

Basille, Mathieu; Van Moorter, Bram; Herfindal, Ivar; Martin, Jodie; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Andersen, Reidar; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

339

Responses of a top and a meso predator and their prey to moon phases.  

PubMed

We compared movement patterns and rhythms of activity of a top predator, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, a mesopredator, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and their shared principal prey, the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, in relation to moon phases. Because the three species are mostly nocturnal and crepuscular, we hypothesized that the shared prey would reduce its activity at most risky moon phases (i.e. during the brightest nights), but that fox, an intraguild prey of lynx, would avoid lynx activity peaks at the same time. Rabbits generally moved further from their core areas on darkest nights (i.e. new moon), using direct movements which minimize predation risk. Though rabbits responded to the increased predation risk by reducing their activity during the full moon, this response may require several days, and the moon effect we observed on the rabbits had, therefore, a temporal gap. Lynx activity patterns may be at least partially mirroring rabbit activity: around new moons, when rabbits moved furthest and were more active, lynxes reduced their travelling distances and their movements were concentrated in the core areas of their home ranges, which generally correspond to areas of high density of rabbits. Red foxes were more active during the darkest nights, when both the conditions for rabbit hunting were the best and lynxes moved less. On the one hand, foxes increased their activity when rabbits were further from their core areas and moved with more discrete displacements; on the other hand, fox activity in relation to the moon seemed to reduce dangerous encounters with its intraguild predator. PMID:23579570

Penteriani, Vincenzo; Kuparinen, Anna; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, José Vicente; Fedriani, José María; Calzada, Javier; Moreno, Sacramento; Villafuerte, Rafael; Campioni, Letizia; Lourenço, Rui

2013-11-01

340

Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes.  

PubMed

The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success include protective legislation, supportive public opinion, and a variety of practices making coexistence between large carnivores and people possible. The European situation reveals that large carnivores and people can share the same landscape. PMID:25525247

Chapron, Guillaume; Kaczensky, Petra; Linnell, John D C; von Arx, Manuela; Huber, Djuro; Andrén, Henrik; López-Bao, José Vicente; Adamec, Michal; Álvares, Francisco; Anders, Ole; Bal?iauskas, Linas; Balys, Vaidas; Bed?, Péter; Bego, Ferdinand; Blanco, Juan Carlos; Breitenmoser, Urs; Brøseth, Henrik; Bufka, Lud?k; Bunikyte, Raimonda; Ciucci, Paolo; Dutsov, Alexander; Engleder, Thomas; Fuxjäger, Christian; Groff, Claudio; Holmala, Katja; Hoxha, Bledi; Iliopoulos, Yorgos; Ionescu, Ovidiu; Jeremi?, Jasna; Jerina, Klemen; Kluth, Gesa; Knauer, Felix; Kojola, Ilpo; Kos, Ivan; Krofel, Miha; Kubala, Jakub; Kunovac, Saša; Kusak, Josip; Kutal, Miroslav; Liberg, Olof; Maji?, Aleksandra; Männil, Peep; Manz, Ralph; Marboutin, Eric; Marucco, Francesca; Melovski, Dime; Mersini, Kujtim; Mertzanis, Yorgos; Mys?ajek, Robert W; Nowak, Sabina; Odden, John; Ozolins, Janis; Palomero, Guillermo; Paunovi?, Milan; Persson, Jens; Poto?nik, Hubert; Quenette, Pierre-Yves; Rauer, Georg; Reinhardt, Ilka; Rigg, Robin; Ryser, Andreas; Salvatori, Valeria; Skrbinšek, Tomaž; Stojanov, Aleksandar; Swenson, Jon E; Szemethy, László; Trajçe, Aleksandër; Tsingarska-Sedefcheva, Elena; Vá?a, Martin; Veeroja, Rauno; Wabakken, Petter; Wölfl, Manfred; Wölfl, Sybille; Zimmermann, Fridolin; Zlatanova, Diana; Boitani, Luigi

2014-12-19

341

In situ analysis of carbon isotopes in North American diamonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamonds from three North American kimberlite occurrences were investigated with cathodoluminescence (CL) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine their growth history and carbon isotope composition. Diamonds analyzed include fourteen from Lynx (Quebec), twelve from Kelsey Lake (Colorado) and eleven from A154 South (Diavik mine, Northwest Territories). Growth histories for the diamonds vary from simple to highly complex based on their CL images and depending on the individual stone. Deformation laminae are evident in CL images of the Lynx diamonds that typically are brownish in color. Two to five points per diamond were analyzed by SIMS for carbon isotope composition. Sample heterogeneity is minimal in terms of ?13C (vs. PDB) values. Points within single diamond had a maximum range of approximately 1 ‰. The results for the A154 South (-6.4 to -3 ‰) and Kelsey Lake (-11.2 to -2.6 ‰) stones were in accordance with earlier reported values. The Lynx kimberlite stones have anomalously high ratios and range from -3.5 to +0.2 ‰ (average: -1.4 ‰). No previous carbon isotope analyses on diamonds from Lynx or any other eastern Superior craton occurrence have been published. The diamonds possess carbon isotope ratios higher than those for the only other reported analyses of Superior craton diamonds at Wawa, Ontario (-5.5 to -1.1 ‰). In global terms, the only published analyses of diamonds that consistently contain even higher values are those from New South Wales (Australia). However, these diamonds are alluvial and contain eclogitic and/or exotic mineral inclusions. The Lynx diamonds are entirely peridotitic and from a primary deposit. The unusually low (i.e. >-5‰) ?13C values of the Lynx (and Wawa) diamonds may indicate a different carbon reservoir for the Superior craton mantle as compared to other cratons.

van Rythoven, A. D.; Hauri, E. H.; Wang, J.; McCandless, T.; Shirey, S. B.; Schulze, D. J.

2010-12-01

342

Native predators reduce harvest of reindeer by Sámi pastoralists.  

PubMed

Contemporary efforts to protect biological diversity recognize the importance of sustaining traditional human livelihoods, particularly uses of the land that are compatible with intact landscapes and ecologically complete food webs. However, these efforts often confront conflicting goals. For example, conserving native predators may harm pastoralist economies because predators consume domestic livestock that sustain people. This potential conflict must be reconciled by policy, but such reconciliation requires a firm understanding of the effects of predators on the prey used by people. We used a long-term, large-scale database and Bayesian models to estimate the impacts of lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and brown bear (Ursus arctos) on harvest of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by Sami pastoralists in Sweden. The average annual harvest of reindeer averaged 25% of the population (95% credible interval = 19, 31). Annual harvest declined by 96.6 (31, 155) reindeer for each lynx family group (the surveyed segment of the lynx population) in a management unit and by 94.3 (20, 160) for each wolverine reproduction (the surveyed segment of the wolverine population). We failed to detect effects of predation by brown bear. The mechanism for effects of predation on harvest was reduced population growth rate. The rate of increase of reindeer populations declined with increasing abundance of lynx and wolverine. The density of reindeer, latitude, and weather indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation also influenced reindeer population growth rate. We conclude that there is a biological basis for compensating the Sámi reindeer herders for predation on reindeer. PMID:22908719

Hobbs, N Thompson; Andrén, Henrik; Persson, Jens; Aronsson, Malin; Chapron, Guillaume

2012-07-01

343

The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.  

PubMed

Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote movements within an area containing lynx and designated lynx habitat. PMID:24367565

Gese, Eric M; Dowd, Jennifer L B; Aubry, Lise M

2013-01-01

344

The Influence of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements during Winter in High-Elevation Landscapes  

PubMed Central

Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote movements within an area containing lynx and designated lynx habitat. PMID:24367565

Gese, Eric M.; Dowd, Jennifer L. B.; Aubry, Lise M.

2013-01-01

345

Alternatives to Robinson and Redford's method of assessing overharvest from incomplete demographic data  

E-print Network

) Lynx rufus 1 10 1.40 0.64 0.60 0.63 2.40 1.28 1.51 1.89 1.53 1.50 -- f 1.46 Crowe (1975) Mirounga angustirostris 5 14 2.40 0...). f Fecundities are not age specific, hence ? PA = ? COM . Fecundities are from Millar and Zammuto (1983) except for Ochotona princeps and Lynx rufus. 23 Slade et al. -- Simplified calculations of growth rates Table 3. Estimated rates...

Slade, Norman A.; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Alexander, Helen M.

1998-02-01

346

The military operator's experience of reliability and maintainability characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the British Army's approach to the achievement of high reliability and maintainability in rotorcraft during the procurement process. Attention is given to experience accumulated to date with the Gazelle, Scout, Agusta A109A, and Lynx helicopters; these offer lessons with respect to the Gem engine, fuel filtering, vibration, and an aircraft flight control system.

Jones, R. Mcc.

347

Bowhunting in France, an emergent city dweller leisure  

E-print Network

, or by original ecological methods but insufficient alone to allow a correct management of faun populations, when they are not, moreover, dangerous for the resident populations: reintroduction of great predators like the lynx in the Vosges in 1972, the wolf in the Alpes in 1992 and even the bear in the Pyrénées in 1996. In this context

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

A sex difference in the behavioural response of nesting mountain bluebirds ( Sialia currucoides ) to a mounted predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passerine nests can benefit parental fitness, but defense against predators may be costly. Although this paradigm is well\\u000a studied, no studies have been conducted on mountain bluebirds (Sialia currucoides). We observed the response of 17 bluebird pairs with nestlings to a mounted bobcat (Lynx rufus) and two controls. Bluebird pairs clearly differentiated the mounted predator and males moved closer to

K. W. Gibson; A. Moehrenschlager

2008-01-01

349

Disturbance Ecology of North American Boreal  

E-print Network

forest (taiga, western United States, and eastern United States) where lynx are found, resulting forest zone, called the taiga, into the #12;Chapter 3--Agee 40 subalpine forests of the western United.Ihavechosenheretorefertotheborealforestasanyforestwith boreal features. This includes not only the taiga, but forests to the south such as the higher elevation

350

Echinococcus multilocularis in European wolves ( Canis lupus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nested PCR was used as a diagnostic tool to investigate the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm in protected species of carnivores in Slovakia. Twenty-three faecal samples from wolves, four samples from bears and three samples from lynx from the Muránska Planina mountains and eight samples from wolves from the Bukovské Vrchy mountains were examined. E. multilocularis DNA was detected in

K. Martínek; L. Kolá?ová; E. Hapl; I. Literák; M. Uhrin

2001-01-01

351

Comparing the effect of different spine and leg designs for a small, bounding quadruped robot  

E-print Network

Comparing the effect of different spine and leg designs for a small, bounding quadruped robot Peter ***Chair of Biomechatronics, Technische Universit¨at Ilmenau, Germany 1 Introduction We present Lynx-robot, a quadruped, modular, compliant robot. It features an either directly actuated, single-joint spine design

Thévenaz, Jacques

352

Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.  

PubMed Central

Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog. PMID:3196978

Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

1988-01-01

353

78 FR 4382 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Northwest Iowa; Under Alternative Site Framework  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...proposed zone would include one ``magnet'' site: Proposed Site 1 (417.4 acres)--City of Le Mars Industrial Park in the southwest corner of Le Mars bounded by the CN rail line to the west, Industrial Road/Lynx Road to the east and County...

2013-01-22

354

Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.  

PubMed

The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals. PMID:22037661

Bilandži?, Nina; Dež?ek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Doki?, Maja; Simi?, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

2012-01-01

355

Data-Centric Supercomputing Environment Yellowstone  

E-print Network

(yellowstone) Cray XT5m (lynx) IBM Power 575/32 (128) POWER6/DDR-IB (bluefire) IBM p575/16 (112) POWER5+/HPS (blueice) IBM p575/8 (78) POWER5/HPS (bluevista) IBM BlueGene/L (frost) IBM POWER4/Colony (bluesky) bluesky

356

THE HISTORICAL AND RECENT DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS OF MAMMALS IN PORTUGAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and recent data on Portuguese mammals are presinted in this paper, occurring on the mainland andor in the Azores and Madeira Atlantic islands. Nowadays, 95 species of mammals are known in Portugal, of which only one (Nyctalus azoreum) is an endemic species and three 'others (Pipistrellus maderensis, Microtus cabrerae and Lynx pardina) are exclusive for Portugal and Spain. Moreover,

MARGARIDA SANTOS-REIS; MARIA DA Luz MATHIAS

1996-01-01

357

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neosport caninum antibodies in Spanish ibex (Capra pryenaica hispanica)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. The Iberian lynx (L...

358

Forest Grouse and Ptarmigan KATHY MARTIN, CATHY DOYLE, SUSAN HANNON, & FRITZ MUELLER  

E-print Network

of grouse. Two species, spruce grouse (Falcipennis canadensis) and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), inhabit-ranging predators (goshawk, golden eagle, harrier, coyote, lynx, fox, wolverine, wolf) hunt in both forest chick) for F canadensis populations ranges from 40% to 81% in southern Canada and the northern United

Krebs, Charles J.

359

Small Pleistocene felines of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the currently available fossil record of small felines in North America. Felis amnicola Gillette is shown by statistical methods to be conspecific with F. wiedii and is proposed as a subspecies F. wiedii amnicola. Pre-Wisconsinan specimens of Lynx rufus are brought together as L. rufus calcaratus. The occurrence of F. yagouaroundi in post-Hemphillian deposits of North America

Lars Werdelin

1985-01-01

360

Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes  

PubMed Central

We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans. PMID:22718941

Scorza, Andrea V.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R.

2012-01-01

361

Space Use and Habitat Selection by Bobcats in the Fragmented Landscape of South-Central Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, bobcats (Lynx rufus) were found throughout the Corn Belt region, but they nearly disappeared from this area due to habitat loss and unregulated harvest that occurred during the century after European settlement. Reports of bobcat occurrences have been increasing in Iowa, USA, and biologists would like to understand the mechanisms enabling bobcats to recolonize this fragmented agricultural landscape. We

Stephanie A. Tucker; William R. Clark; Todd E. Gosselink

2008-01-01

362

Zoonotic parasites of bobcats around human landscapes.  

PubMed

We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans. PMID:22718941

Carver, Scott; Scorza, Andrea V; Bevins, Sarah N; Riley, Seth P D; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R

2012-09-01

363

Modelling habitat overlap among sympatric mesocarnivores in southern Illinois, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few researchers have developed large-scale habitat models for sympatric carnivore species. We created habitat models for red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in southern Illinois, USA, using the Penrose distance statistic, remotely sensed landscape data, and sighting location data within a GIS. Our objectives were to quantify and spatially model potential habitat differences among species.

Patrick T. McDonald; Clayton K. Nielsen; Tonny J. Oyana; Wanxiao Sun

2008-01-01

364

The rise and fall of bobcat populations in New Hampshire: Relevance of historical harvests to understanding current patterns of abundance and distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvest records reveal that populations of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in New Hampshire have undergone substantial changes during the past 200 years. In the 1800s, a nearly continuous bounty program resulted in annual harvests that averaged ?30 bobcats. Harvests increased in 1915, and fluctuated from 100 to 400 bobcats during the 1920s through the 1950s. In 1959, harvests peaked at 421

J. A. Litvaitis; J. P. Tash; C. L. Stevens

2006-01-01

365

Impact of Natural and Artificial Barriers to Dispersal on the Population Structure of Bobcats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated population structure and genetic diversity for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Michigan, USA, which are distributed throughout the upper peninsula (UP) and the northern half of the lower peninsula (LP) of Michigan. Specifically, we assessed the influence of natural and artificial barriers to dispersal on the genetic population structure of the bobcat across Michigan, as well as in each

DEVIN G. MILLIONS; BRADLEY J. SWANSON

2007-01-01

366

Home range and diet of bobcats in eastern Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the status of the bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation has stemmed concomitantly from a desire to learn more of the habits of this animal and to monitor the effects of anthropogenic activities on these habits. We have begun a long-term program to acquire data on home ranges, population density, habitat usage,

J. T. Kitchings; J. D. Story

1979-01-01

367

Bobcat Spatial Distribution and Habitat Use Relative to  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding interactions among bobcats (Lynx rufus) may lend insight into less understood life history traits of the bobcat and improve management of the species. Moreover, data from manipulative experiments pertaining to bobcat ecology are largely absent from the scientific literature. Therefore, we investigated bobcat spatial organization and habitat use after an experimental population reduction on an 11,735-ha study site in

GREGORY S. LYNCH; Joseph W. Jones; JORDONA D. KIRBY; ROBERT J. WARREN; Daniel B. Warnell

368

The Effectiveness of Individual Identification of Bobcats using Automatically Triggered Cameras in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the research of bobcat (Lynx rufus) populations a better understanding of their range in lower Michigan can be found. The use of automatically triggered cameras is an effective way to obtain bobcat range and status information. Automatically triggered cameras allow for population studies to be executed without having to trap any animals.

Karen Ickes; Paul Keenlance

2009-01-01

369

A Multivariate Habitat Model for Female Bobcats: A GIS Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a Geographical Information System (GIS) based habitat model for female bobcats (Lynx rufus) and subjected the model to internal-validation, cross- validation, and validation using independent data. The model predicted probability of an area being used by female bobcats increased (P <0.001) as slope and distance to ma- ture pine stands increased. Probability of an area being used by

L. Mike Conner; Bruce D. Leopold

370

Spatial Organization of Adult Bobcats in a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Ecosystem in Southwestern Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lynx rufus (bobcat) home-range sizes have been studied throughout the Southeast, but study duration is generally î 2 years and number of bobcats sampled is often < 20. There have been even fewer studies dealing with spatial interactions of bobcats, and fewer still within a Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem. Because both bobcat home-range sizes and the degree that space

Jessica C. Cochrane; Jordona D. Kirby; Ivy G. Jones; L. Mike Conner; Robert J. Warren

2006-01-01

371

Hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in Texas.  

PubMed

Twelve coyotes (Canis latrans), three bobcats (Lynx rufus) and six ocelots (Felis pardalis) from the Gulf Coast of Texas were infected with Hepatozoon sp. The geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir. PMID:3411720

Mercer, S H; Jones, L P; Rappole, J H; Twedt, D; Lack, L L; Craig, T M

1988-07-01

372

Habitat Use of Bobcats at Two Spatial Scales in Southwestern Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat needs of wildlife are important for science-based wildlife manage- ment. Further, these needs may differ based upon the ecosystem in which the species lives. Bobcat habitat use within the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forest ecosystem has received little attention. Therefore, we monitored 21 bobcats (Lynx rufus) (8 M, 13 F) during 2001-2002 in southwestern Georgia to determine habitat use

Ivy A. Godbois; Joseph W. Jones; L. Mike Conner; Robert J. Warren

2003-01-01

373

RABIES ANTIBODY PREVALENCE AND VIRUS TISSUE TROPISM IN WILD CARNIVORES IN VIRGINIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivores trapped in a rabies control program in Virginia were examined for rabies virus and serum neutralizing antibody. Local antibody prevalence ranged from 0% to 29% in gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Rabies virus was pantropic in naturally infected gray foxes and a bobcat (Lynx rufus).

ANDREW B. CAREYPVirginia; ROBERT G. MC LEAN

374

Evidence of a Limited Schizogonous Cycle for cytauxzoon fells in Bobcats Following Exposure to Infected Ticks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizogonous tissue stages of Cy- tauxzoon felis (Apicomplexa: Theileridae) were not observed by microscopic evaluation of impression smears of liver, spleen, lung and lymph nodes in 10 bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Oklahoma with naturally occurring piroplasm infections. Schizogonous stages were observed in similar tissues from experimentally-infected bobcats at 1 1 days postexposure to infected Der- macentor variabilis, but not at

Edmour F. Blouin; A. Alan Kocan; Katherine M. Kocan; Jakie Hair

375

Rabies antibody prevalence and virus tissue tropism in wild carnivores in Virginia.  

PubMed

Carnivores trapped in a rabies control program in Virginia were examined for rabies virus and serum neutralizing antibody. Local antibody prevalence ranged from 0% to 29% in gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Rabies virus was pantropic in naturally infected gray foxes and a bobcat (Lynx rufus). PMID:739588

Carey, A B; McLean, R G

1978-10-01

376

Bobcat Diet on an Area Managed for Northern Bobwhite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified bobcat (Lynx rufus) diet on a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) dominated area managed for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), hereafter quail. We sorted prey items to species when possible, but for analysis we categorized them into 1 of 5 classes: rodent, bird, deer, rabbit, and other species. Bobcat diet did not dif- fer seasonally (X2 = 17.82, P =

Ivy A. Godbois; Joseph W. Jones; L. Mike Conner; Robert J. Warren

2003-01-01

377

Bobcat Home Range Size Relative to Habitat Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range is generally considered to be a function of habitat quality, but there have been few published studies that explicitly address this idea. We used empirically developed bobcat habitat models to predict habitat quality within bobcat home ranges on 2 study areas in central Mississippi. We then assessed the relationship between home range size and habitat

L. Mike Conner; Joseph W. Jones; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold

2001-01-01

378

HELMINTHS OF SOUTH DAKOTA BOBCATS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the trapping season of 1977-78 and 1978-79, 51 bobcat (Lynx rufus) carcasses were obtained from fur dealers in South Dakota and examined for parasitic helminths. Diaphragm, tongue, and masseter muscle samples from 153 bobcats were examined for trichinosis. Nematodes located included Toxascaris leonina in 46 of 51 (90%), Toxocara mystax in 2 of 51 (4%). Physaloptera prae­ putialis in

Elizabeth C. Schitoskey

379

Environmental influences on the sexual dimorphism in body size of western bobcats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual size dimorphism might be influenced by environmental constraints on sexual selection or by intraspecific competition between males and females. We studied bobcats (Lynx rufus) in collections of museum specimens from western North America to examine these hypotheses. Structural body size was estimated from several measurements of the skull, ln-transformed and indexed through principal components analysis. Sexual dimorphism in body

F. Stephen Dobson; John D. Wigginton

1996-01-01

380

EXPOSURE TO FELINE AND CANINE PATHOGENS IN BOBCATS AND GRAY FOXES IN URBAN AND RURAL ZONES OF A NATIONAL PARK IN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of bobcats (Lynx rufus) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus )t o a range of common canine and feline pathogens was assessed in urban and rural zones of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, a National Park in the San Francisco Bay Area, (California, USA) from 1992 to 1995. Testing included serology for canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine adenovirus,

Seth P. D. Riley; Janet Foley; Bruno Chomel

381

DNA Identification of Mountain Lions Involved in Livestock Predation and Public Safety Incidents and Investigations  

E-print Network

and individual identities of a mountain lion (Puma concolor) and a bobcat (Lynx rufus) from swab samples Avenue, Davis, CA 95616. Ernest phone (530) 754-8245 and email hbernest@ucdavis.edu. Key Words: Puma concolor, bobcat, forensic, genetics, DNA techniques, noninvasive sampling, fecal DNA, prey swab DNA

Ernest, Holly

382

233Vet. Res. 35 (2004) 233241 INRA, EDP Sciences, 2004  

E-print Network

article Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor. Bartonella henselae / bobcat / Felis concolor / Lynx rufus / puma * Corresponding author: bbchomel. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas

Boyer, Edmond

2004-01-01

383

Tracking Cats: Problems with Placing Feline Carnivores O, dD Isoscapes  

E-print Network

(Puma concolor) with precipitation-based assignment isoscapes to test the feasibility of isotopic geo/Findings: We used coupled dDh and d18 Oh measurements from the North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma analyzed. Bobcat and puma lacked a significant correlation between H/O isotopes in hair and local waters

Schöne, Bernd R.

384

Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated

J. D. Story; W. J. Galbraith; J. T. Kitchings

1982-01-01

385

A Juvenile Sichuan Golden Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Predated by a Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Qinling Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that hawks, panthers, jackals, lynxes and wolves may prey on Sichuan golden monkeys in the wild [1, 2], but all these assumptions were based on observations of dead monkeys eaten by predators, and no direct attack of a living individual has been witnessed. During our field study on the behavioural ecology of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in

Shuyi Zhang; Baoping Ren; Baoguo Li

1999-01-01

386

A simple, inexpensive video camera setup for the study of avian nest activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-lapse video photography has become a valuable tool for collecting data on avian nest activity and depredation; however, commercially available systems are expensive (.USA $4000\\/unit). We designed an inexpensive system to identify causes of nest failure of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) and assessed its utility at Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia. We successfully identified raccoon (Procyon lotor), bobcat (Lynx rufus),

John B. Sabine; J. Michael Meyers; Sara H. Schweitzer

387

Combining domain knowledge and statistical models in time series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new approach to time series modeling that\\u000acombines subject-matter knowledge of the system dynamics with statistical\\u000atechniques in time series analysis and regression. Applications to American\\u000aoption pricing and the Canadian lynx data are given to illustrate this approach.

Tze Leung Lai; Samuel Po-Shing Wong

2006-01-01

388

TERRI THORN, Wildlife Biologist  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPECIALTY AREAS Wildlife Biologist: Major duties included data creation, acquisition, maintenance, and manipulation. Provided both biological and GIS expertise in the designation of critical habitat for Canada lynx, breeding piping plovers, Preble's meadow jumping mouse, and the Colorado butterfly plants. Worked with all types of spatial data including satellite and aerial imagery, videography, vector and rastor data. Other duties have

B. S. South; Oak Hammock Marsh

389

Short communicationWildl. Biol. 18: 215-224 (2012) DOI: 10.2981/10-105  

E-print Network

in areas where their status is uncertain. Key words: Canada lynx, detection probability, forest carnivores, is important to conservationists and land managers. The presence of carnivores can be especially difficult carnivores is particularly effective because it does not require a solicited response from the animal, it do

390

Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2014), pages 8191, Dublin, Ireland, August 23-24, 2014.  

E-print Network

of similarity, as pairs of text may differ from some minor nuanced aspects of meaning, to relatively important on the source site, to advertisements, cookie requirements, to encoding for Spanish diacritics. We used the lynx, Bob Rehder, and M. E. Schreiner. 1997. How well can passage mean- ing be derived without using word

391

POPULATION TRENDS IN FURBEARERS IN NEBRASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population trends are documented from 1941 to 1997 for the 12 species of furbearing mammals harvested in Nebraska. Populations of red fox (Vulpes vulpes, raccoon (Procyon lotor), beaver (Castor canadensis), coyote (Canis lupus), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) have increased during this period. Populations of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), mink (Mustela vison), eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius), long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), and

L. M. Landholt; Hugh H. Genoways

2000-01-01

392

3.1 Presettlement and Historic Fish and Wildlife Communities  

E-print Network

, of the Northwest Fur Company and the Hudson Bay Company recorded observations of mountain lion. He also hunted deer COMMUNITIES black and grizzly bears as being present. Vanek points out that by the late 1880s mountain lions lion, badger, and lynx are practically trapped out. Around the early 1800s elk numbers were approaching

393

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in 3 zoos in Mexico City, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus...

394

Revisiting food-based models of territoriality in solitary predators.  

PubMed

Food availability is considered a major factor determining spacing behaviour in territorial species, especially for females. Theoretically, spatial overlap (considered the opposite of territoriality) and food availability are related in a nonlinear manner (hypothesized inverted-U function), with high overlap levels at the extremes of a food availability gradient and low overlap at intermediate levels of this gradient. Similar patterns are expected for encounter frequencies owing to its expected correlation with spatial overlap. However, these predictions have rarely been tested in highly structured social systems on a broad gradient of food availability, which implicitly requires experimental manipulation. We test these predictions in a solitary, territorial and trophic specialist, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, taking advantage of a three-decade data set of spatial behaviour in different scenarios of food availability (i.e. rabbit density). In contrast with expectations, home range overlap among resident females was low (median overlap index = 0·08, range 0-0·57) and core area overlap was nearly nil (median overlap index = 0, range 0-0·22) throughout the entire gradient of prey availability. Furthermore, spatial associations between pairs of females were negligible regardless marked variation in prey availability. Therefore, we did not find support for a model of flexible lynx territoriality driven by food availability. Our results suggest that the exclusive use of space in the Iberian lynx was not related to food. Lack of influence of prey availability on lynx territoriality may be adaptive to cope with the consequences of frequent drought-induced periods of prey scarcity or other disturbance typically affecting wild rabbit populations in Mediterranean environments. Thus, lynx would adopt an obstinate strategy of territoriality that consists in defending exclusive areas across a broad range of resource availability ensuring an exclusive access to the minimum amount of prey necessary for survival and eventually reproduction even during periods of prey scarcity. However, we found signs that territoriality was influenced by lynx density in a nonlinear fashion. Our results suggest the occurrence of population regulation through territoriality in this species. PMID:24720673

López-Bao, José V; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Delibes, Miguel; Fedriani, José M; Calzada, Javier; Ferreras, Pablo; Palomares, Francisco

2014-04-11

395

When species' ranges meet: assessing differences in habitat selection between sympatric large carnivores.  

PubMed

Differentiation in habitat selection among sympatric species may depend on niche partitioning, species interactions, selection mechanisms and scales considered. In a mountainous area in Sweden, we explored hierarchical habitat selection in Global Positioning System-collared individuals of two sympatric large carnivore species; an obligate predator, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a generalist predator and scavenger, the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Although the species' fundamental niches differ widely, their ranges overlap in this area where they share a prey base and main cause of mortality. Both lynx and wolverines selected for steep and rugged terrain in mountainous birch forest and in heaths independent of scale and available habitats. However, the selection of lynx for their preferred habitats was stronger when they were forming home ranges and they selected the same habitats within their home ranges independent of home range composition. Wolverines displayed a greater variability when selecting home ranges and habitat selection also varied with home range composition. Both species selected for habitats that promote survival through limited encounters with humans, but which also are rich in prey, and selection for these habitats was accordingly stronger in winter when human activity was high and prey density was low. We suggest that the observed differences between the species result primarily from different foraging strategies, but may also depend on differences in ranging and resting behaviour, home range size, and relative density of each species. Our results support the prediction that sympatric carnivores with otherwise diverging niches can select for the same resources when sharing main sources of food and mortality. PMID:23242426

Rauset, Geir Rune; Mattisson, Jenny; Andrén, Henrik; Chapron, Guillaume; Persson, Jens

2013-07-01

396

Modeling population dynamics: A quantile approach.  

PubMed

The paper investigates the modeling of population dynamics, both conceptually and empirically. It presents a reduced form representation that provides a flexible characterization of population dynamics. It leads to the specification of a threshold quantile autoregression (TQAR) model, which captures nonlinear dynamics by allowing lag effects to vary across quantiles of the distribution as well as with previous population levels. The usefulness of the model is illustrated in an application to the dynamics of lynx population. We find statistical evidence that the quantile autoregression parameters vary across quantiles (thus rejecting the AR model as well as the TAR model) as well as with past populations (thus rejecting the quantile autoregression QAR model). The results document the nature of dynamics and cycle in the lynx population over time. They show how both the period of the cycle and the speed of population adjustment vary with population level and environmental conditions. PMID:25661501

Chavas, Jean-Paul

2015-04-01

397

Predator-prey systems depend on a prey refuge.  

PubMed

Models of near-exclusive predator-prey systems such as that of the Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare have included factors such as a second prey species, a Holling Type II predator response and climatic or seasonal effects to reproduce sub-sets of six signature patterns in the empirical data. We present an agent-based model which does not require the factors or constraints of previous models to reproduce all six patterns in persistent populations. Our parsimonious model represents a generalised predator and prey species with a small prey refuge. The lack of the constraints of previous models, considered to be important for those models, casts doubt on the current hypothesised mechanisms of exclusive predator-prey systems. The implication for management of the lynx, a protected species, is that maintenance of an heterogeneous environment offering natural refuge areas for the hare is the most important factor for the conservation of this species. PMID:25058806

Chivers, W J; Gladstone, W; Herbert, R D; Fuller, M M

2014-11-01

398

Interspecies transmission of Cytauxzoon felis.  

PubMed

The causative agent of feline cytauxzoonosis was experimentally inoculated into 4 species of domestic farm animals, 9 species of laboratory animals, and 17 wildlife species. The inoculum consisted of freshly collected or deep-frozen blood and/or tissue homogenates from domestic cats euthanatized in extremis with experimentally transmitted feline cytauxzoonosis. A bobcat, Lynx rufus floridanus (Florida bobcat), developed cytauxzoonosis typical of the disease observed in domestic cats and died of the disease 2 weeks after inoculation. A persistent parasitemia, but no overt signs of illness, developed in another bobcat, Lynx rufus rufus (eastern bobcat). The sheep developed a low persistent parasitemia, but no clinical signs of illness. There was no clear evidence of cytauxzoonosis demonstrated by necropsy or histopathologic or blood smear examinations in all other species. Additionally, freshly collected blood and/or tissue homogenates from animals of various species, except bobcats, failed to produce evidence of cytauxzoonosis when subinoculated into domestic cats. PMID:6807139

Kier, A B; Wightman, S R; Wagner, J E

1982-01-01

399

The Cosmic X-ray Background spectrum observed with ROSAT and ASCA  

E-print Network

We have made a series of joint spectral fits for two blank fields, the Lockman Hole and the Lynx-3A field, where a significant amount of both ASCA and ROSAT PSPC data exist after thorough screenings. The ASCA SIS, GIS and ROSAT PSPC spectra from these fields have been fitted simultaneously. Comparison at E>1$keV shows general agreement within 10% in the Lockman Hole data and a 20-30% disagreement in the Lynx-3A data, indicating remaining observation-dependent systematic problems. In both cases, satisfactory fits have been found for the overall 0.1-10 keV spectrum with an extragalactic power-law component (or a broken power-law component with steepening at E<1 keV), a hard thermal component with plasma temperature of kT\\approx 0.14 keV and a soft thermal component kT\\approx 0.07 keV.

T. Miyaji; Y. Ishisaki; Y. Ogasaka; Y. Ueda; M. J. Freyberg; G. Hasinger; Y. Tanaka

1998-03-28

400

SURVIVAL AND CAUSE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY OF ADULT BOBCATS IN CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise and unbiased estimates of survival and ~nortality patterns are requisite to ~inderstand pop- ulation d>~amics of bobcats (Lynx ntfus) within temperate ecosystems. Although previous research has ex- amined bobcat sunival. most studies have been short term (<5yr) and protided limited information on sex- and season-specific mortality rates. We determined annual and seasonal sunival rates of 68 radiomarked hobcats during

MICHAEL J. CHAMBERLAIN; BRUCE D. LEOPOLD; LOREN W. BURGER; BRUCE W. PLOWMAN; Joseph W. Jones

401

Geological characteristics of high-level subvolcanic porphyritic intrusions associated with the Wolverine Zn-Pb-Cu volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposit, Finlayson Lake District, Yukon, Canada 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 2000 field season, a project was initiated to study the geology, geochemistry and alteration characteristics of high-level subvolcanic porphyritic intrusions associated with the Wolverine volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposit in the Finlayson Lake district, Yukon. Subvolcanic porphyritic intrusions within the Wolverine deposit are located approximately 10-20 m beneath exhalative sulphide bodies or iron-formation in four zones (Wolverine\\/Lynx, Fisher, Sable

Stephen J. Piercey; Jan M. Peter; Geoffrey D. Bradshaw; Terry Tucker; Suzanne Paradis

402

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Two Galaxies at z=2.3 and z=2.9: New Probes of Chemical and Dynamical Evolution at High Redshift  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents Keck optical and infrared spectroscopy of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission lines in two Lyman alpha emitting galaxies at z>2. These data provide insight on the evolution of fundamental galaxy scaling relations at early epochs, especially the luminosity-velocity and luminosity-metallicity relations. Lynx 2-9691 exhibits extended [O III] emission over a diameter of >28 kpc, reminiscent of

Chip Kobulnicky; David Koo

2000-01-01

403

Heterozygosity-fitness correlations and inbreeding depression in two critically endangered mammals.  

PubMed

The relation among inbreeding, heterozygosity, and fitness has been studied primarily among outbred populations, and little is known about these phenomena in endangered populations. Most researchers conclude that the relation between coefficient of inbreeding estimated from pedigrees and fitness traits (inbreeding-fitness correlations) better reflects inbreeding depression than the relation between marker heterozygosity and fitness traits (heterozygosity-fitness correlations). However, it has been suggested recently that heterozygosity-fitness correlations should only be expected when inbreeding generates extensive identity disequilibrium (correlations in heterozygosity and homozygosity across loci throughout the genome). We tested this hypothesis in Mohor gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) and Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). For Mohor gazelle, we calculated the inbreeding coefficient and measured heterozygosity at 17 microsatellite loci. For Iberian lynx, we measured heterozygosity at 36 microsatellite loci. In both species we estimated semen quality, a phenotypic trait directly related to fitness that is controlled by many loci and is affected by inbreeding depression. Both species showed evidence of extensive identity disequilibrium, and in both species heterozygosity was associated with semen quality. In the Iberian lynx the low proportion of normal sperm associated with low levels of heterozygosity was so extreme that it is likely to limit the fertility of males. In Mohor gazelle, although heterozygosity was associated with semen quality, inbreeding coefficient was not. This result suggests that when coefficient of inbreeding is calculated on the basis of a genealogy that begins after a long history of inbreeding, the coefficient of inbreeding fails to capture previous demographic information because it is a poor estimator of accumulated individual inbreeding. We conclude that among highly endangered species with extensive identity disequilibrium, examination of heterozygosity-fitness correlations may be an effective way to detect inbreeding depression, whereas inbreeding-fitness correlations may be poor indicators of inbreeding depression if the pedigree does not accurately reflect the history of inbreeding. PMID:22897325

Ruiz-López, María José; Gañan, Natalia; Godoy, José Antonio; Del Olmo, Ana; Garde, Julian; Espeso, Gerardo; Vargas, Astrid; Martinez, Fernando; Roldán, Eduardo R S; Gomendio, Montserrat

2012-12-01

404

The role of predation and food limitation on claims for compensation, reindeer demography and population dynamics  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in biodiversity conservation is to facilitate viable populations of large apex predators in ecosystems where they were recently driven to ecological extinction due to resource conflict with humans. Monetary compensation for losses of livestock due to predation is currently a key instrument to encourage human–carnivore coexistence. However, a lack of quantitative estimates of livestock losses due to predation leads to disagreement over the practice of compensation payments. This disagreement sustains the human–carnivore conflict. The level of depredation on year-round, free-ranging, semi-domestic reindeer by large carnivores in Fennoscandia has been widely debated over several decades. In Norway, the reindeer herders claim that lynx and wolverine cause losses of tens of thousands of animals annually and cause negative population growth in herds. Conversely, previous research has suggested that monetary predator compensation can result in positive population growth in the husbandry, with cascading negative effects of high grazer densities on the biodiversity in tundra ecosystems. We utilized a long-term, large-scale data set to estimate the relative importance of lynx and wolverine predation and density-dependent and climatic food limitation on claims for losses, recruitment and population growth rates in Norwegian reindeer husbandry. Claims of losses increased with increasing predator densities, but with no detectable effect on population growth rates. Density-dependent and climatic effects on claims of losses, recruitment and population growth rates were much stronger than the effects of variation in lynx and wolverine densities. Synthesis and applications. Our analysis provides a quantitative basis for predator compensation and estimation of the costs of reintroducing lynx and wolverine in areas with free-ranging semi-domestic reindeer. We outline a potential path for conflict management which involves adaptive monitoring programmes, open access to data, herder involvement and development of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models to disentangle complex responses including multiple stakeholders and individual harvester decisions. PMID:25558085

Tveraa, Torkild; Stien, Audun; Brøseth, Henrik; Yoccoz, Nigel G

2014-01-01

405

Excystation of Isospora arctopitheci Rodhain, 1933 with notes on a similar process in Isospora bigemina (Stiles, 1891) Lühe, 1906  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The in vitro excystation process of sporozoites of Isospora arctopitheci Rodhain, 1933 from the titi marmoset Saguinus geoffroyi and of Isospora bigemina (Stiles, 1891) Lühe, 1906 from the bobcat, Lynx rufus is presented. Sporocysts of both species lack a Stieda body and when exposed to a trypsin-sodium taurocholate (pH 7.4) excysting fluid the walls of both collapse in a

Donald W. Duszynski; Clarence A. Speer

1976-01-01

406

Landscape Analysis of Bobcat Habitat in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Controversy over bobcat (Lynx rufus) management in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan (NLP), USA, stimulated a need for information on the distribution of Michigan bobcats. From March 2003 to October 2004, we conducted a radiotelemetry and scent- station survey study of bobcats in the NLP. We developed,a spatial model,to predict bobcat distribution throughout,the NLP based on bobcat area

TIMOTHY S. PREUSS; THOMAS M. GEHRING

2007-01-01

407

PREDATOR URINES AS CHEMICAL BARRIERS TO WHITE-TAILED DEER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed whether bobcat (Lynx rufus) or coyote (Canis latrans) urine could reduce white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of established feeding areas or trails. A four-week experiment evaluating deer use of eight feeding stations, four each with coyote or bobcat urine was conducted at a 2,200 ha fenced facility in northern Ohio with high deer densities (38\\/km2). At this

Jerrold L. Belant; Thomas W. Seamans; Laura A. Tyson

1998-01-01

408

Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.  

PubMed

Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens. PMID:9732040

Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D

1998-06-01

409

Food habits and space use of gray foxes in relation to sympatric coyotes and bobcats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: To investigate interspecific relationships between,gray foxes ( Urocyon,cinereoargenteus) and sympatric,coy- otes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), we quantified occurrence of food items in carnivore scats and used rela- tive abundances,of scats on transects to assess space use. Dietary-overlap indices between,the two canid species were high during summer and fall (x = 0.89) when fruits were prevalent in scats

Jennifer C. C. Neale; Benjamin N. Sacks

2001-01-01

410

Estimating Bobcat Abundance Using Automatically Triggered Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ineffective survey methods of carnivores limit the ability of managers and researchers to make sound research conclusions and management recommendations. Because bobcats (Lynx rufus) are individually identifiable due to their unique coat patterns, it may be possible to obtain density estimates using capture-recapture models. We photo-trapped bobcats on the 3,156-ha Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge in southern Texas from September 2000

RICHARD D. HEILBRUN; NOVA J. SILVY; MARKUS J. PETERSON; MICHAEL E. TEWES

2006-01-01

411

SPACE-USE PATTERNS OF BOBCATS RELATIVE TO SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF NORTHERN BOBWHITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In the southeastern United States, supplemental feeding of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) is a common,management,practice. To determine,whether,bobcats (Lynx rufus) are attracted to supplemental,food provided to northern bobwhites and whether this food affects bobcat home-range size, we radiomarked bobcats and assessed space use relative to supplemental feeding. Wefound,little evidence to suggest that bobcat home-range,sizes were affected by the supplemental food,

IVY A. GODBOIS; L. MIKE CONNER; ROBERT J. WARREN; Gehrt

2004-01-01

412

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATOR REMOVAL AND WHITE-TAILED DEER NET PRODUCTIVITY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the impact of predation on productivity of white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Texas by removing predators from one area and compar- ing the results to a control area. A total of 188 coyotes (Canis latrans) and 120 bobcats (Lynx rufus) were removed during predator removal efforts on the approximately 5,400-acre (2,186-ha) experimental

SAMUEL L. BEASOM

413

Effects of a highway and mitigation projects on bobcats in Southern Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roads are a common landscape feature that may negatively impact wildlife. These impacts may be reduced by altering roads and their right-of-ways. We studied impacts of a 4-lane divided highway on bobcats (Lynx rufus) in southern Texas. From June 1997 to May 1999, 25 bobcats were found dead on the 32.2 km section of highway we studied. Mortalities were more

A. T Cain; V. R Tuovila; D. G Hewitt; M. E Tewes

2003-01-01

414

Synthetic aperture radar: not just a sensor of last resort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern high-performance Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems have evolved into highly versatile, robust, and reliable tactical sensors, offering images and information not available from other sensor systems. For example, real-time images are routinely formed by the Sandia-designed General Atomics (AN\\/APY-8) Lynx SAR yielding 4-inch resolution at 25 km range (representing better than arc-second resolutions) in clouds, smoke, and rain. Sandia\\

Lars M. Wells; Armin W. Doerry

2003-01-01

415

Measuring OS support for real-time CORBA ORBs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of real time operating systems, VxWorks and LynxOS, and general purpose operating systems with real time extensions, Windows NT, Solaris, and Linux, for real time ORB middleware. While holding the hardware and ORB constant, we vary these operating systems and measure platform-specific variations in context switching overhead and priority inversions. Our findings illustrate

David L. Levine; Sergio Flores-Gaitan; Christopher D. Gill; Douglas C. Schmidt

1999-01-01

416

Assessing dam implementation impact on threatened carnivores: the case of Alqueva in SE Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large dam construction in water deficient areas is a management decision often controversial. Besides providing water storage,\\u000a economical benefits, and a source of renewable energy, the construction and flooding caused by large dams cause disruptions\\u000a in natural systems. We monitored the pre- and post-Alqueva dam impacts on the threatened carnivore species (polecat, otter,\\u000a wildcat and Iberian lynx) populations in SE

Maria J. Santos; Nuno M. Pedroso; Joaquim P. Ferreira; Hugo M. Matos; Teresa Sales-Luís; Íris Pereira; Carla Baltazar; Clara Grilo; Ana T. Cândido; Inês Sousa; Margarida Santos-Reis

2008-01-01

417

Exercise Session 1 Alessandro Abate  

E-print Network

for lynxes (l(t), t 0) and that of hares (h(t), t 0). Assume that the control Input b(u) (hare birth rate.haber@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft September 9, 2010 ­ Ac.Yr. 2010/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise = Ax + Bu, y = Cx. Relate the new variable x with q. 2. Fix a control input u(t). What conditions

Abate, Alessandro

418

Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges\\u000a to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods—scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares—to\\u000a collect detection–nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) throughout the rugged Vermont landscape. We analyzed these data using occupancy

Robert A. LongTherese; Therese M. Donovan; Paula MacKay; William J. Zielinski; Jeffrey S. Buzas

2011-01-01

419

Effectiveness of Scat Detection Dogs for Detecting Forest Carnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We assessed the detection and accuracy rates of detection dogs trained to locate scats from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus). During the summers of 2003–2004, 5 detection teams located 1,565 scats (747 putative black bear, 665 putative fisher, and 153 putative bobcat) at 168 survey sites throughout Vermont, USA. Of 347 scats

ROBERT A. LONG; THERESE M. DONOVAN; PAULA MACKAY; WILLIAM J. ZIELINSKI; JEFFREY S. BUZAS

2007-01-01

420

Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (Lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (Felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (Martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (Gulo gulo), 4 mink (Mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor). Sarcocystis muris and Toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions. PMID:6816776

Dubey, J P

1982-12-01

421

Effectiveness of Scat Detection Dogs for Detecting Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the detection and accuracy rates of detection dogs trained to locate scats from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus). During the summers of 2003-2004, 5 detection teams located 1,565 scats (747 putative black bear, 665 putative fisher, and 153 putative bobcat) at 168 survey sites throughout Vermont, USA. Of 347 scats genetically

Carnivores ROBERT A. LONG; THERESE M. DONOVAN; PAULA MACKAY; WILLIAM J. ZIELINSKI; JEFFREY S. BUZAS

422

Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. Painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. However, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-Canidae species. Here, we extended cross-species painting with dog probes to seven more species representing six carnivore families: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the stone marten (Martes foina), the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Javan mongoose (Hepestes javanicas), the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The numbers and positions of intra-chromosomal rearrangements were found to differ among these carnivore species. A comparative map between human and stone marten, and a map among the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), stone marten and human were also established to facilitate outgroup comparison and to integrate comparative maps between stone marten and other carnivores with such maps between human and other species. These comparative maps give further insight into genome evolution and karyotype phylogenetic relationships among carnivores, and will facilitate the transfer of gene mapping data from human, domestic dog and cat to other species. PMID:22086079

Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Wang, D; Tanomtong, A; Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

2012-01-01

423

A Fall fur-hunt from Maine to New Brunswick, Canada: The 1858 journal of Manly Hardy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecologists, conservationists, and others increasingly ask questions that require a reliable understanding of natural conditions in the past. For example, when the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to list the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) under the Federal Endangered Species Act, there was a need to know the historical status of this species in the northeastern US. The natural history writings of Manly Hardy, a successful, nineteenth-century businessman and respected amateur naturalist from Brewer, ME, proved useful in assessing the lynx's historical status. Because of the wide array of potential uses of Hardy's writings, the objective of this paper is to make biologists and other scholars aware of Hardy, especially his 15 surviving journals, 1852-1899. Hardy left the most extensive published record of any of the naturalists who wrote about wildlife in Maine from the late 1800s through the early 1900s. His articles and essays covered a wide range of subjects about a variety of bird and mammal species. A recently published biographical sketch of Hardy contains an annotated bibliography of his publications along with the republication of 14 of his mammalian works. In contrast, this article contains an example of his unpublished journal writing with significant wildlife observations.

Krohn, W.B.

2005-01-01

424

Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with modified molecular signature and enhanced neuronal tropism leading to high mortality in wild carnivores.  

PubMed

An ongoing canine distemper epidemic was first detected in Switzerland in the spring of 2009. Compared to previous local canine distemper outbreaks, it was characterized by unusually high morbidity and mortality, rapid spread over the country, and susceptibility of several wild carnivore species. Here, the authors describe the associated pathologic changes and phylogenetic and biological features of a multiple highly virulent canine distemper virus (CDV) strain detected in and/or isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), stone (Martes foina) and pine (Martes martes) martens, from a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a domestic dog. The main lesions included interstitial to bronchointerstitial pneumonia and meningopolioencephalitis, whereas demyelination--the classic presentation of CDV infection--was observed in few cases only. In the brain lesions, viral inclusions were mainly in the nuclei of the neurons. Some significant differences in brain and lung lesions were observed between foxes and mustelids. Swiss CDV isolates shared together with a Hungarian CDV strain detected in 2004. In vitro analysis of the hemagglutinin protein from one of the Swiss CDV strains revealed functional and structural differences from that of the reference strain A75/17, with the Swiss strain showing increased surface expression and binding efficiency to the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). These features might be part of a novel molecular signature, which might have contributed to an increase in virus pathogenicity, partially explaining the high morbidity and mortality, the rapid spread, and the large host spectrum observed in this outbreak. PMID:22362965

Origgi, F C; Plattet, P; Sattler, U; Robert, N; Casaubon, J; Mavrot, F; Pewsner, M; Wu, N; Giovannini, S; Oevermann, A; Stoffel, M H; Gaschen, V; Segner, H; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

2012-11-01

425

Using PGFM (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2?) as a non-invasive pregnancy marker for felids.  

PubMed

Understanding the complex endocrine interactions that control reproduction in felids is essential for captive breeding management. The most important demand is a quick and reliable pregnancy diagnosis. However, the occurrence of pseudopregnancies in felids complicates matters. We investigated whether the fecal prostaglandin metabolite (PGFM) recently suggested for pregnancy diagnosis in the lynx is suitable for all felid species. We found that increased levels of PGFM during the last trimester indicate pregnancy in seven of the eight main lineages of the carnivore family Felidae. PGFM levels in a sand cat (domestic cat lineage) were basal at mating and remained so until Day 40 post-mating. Day 41 marked the beginning of a distinct increase culminating in peak levels of 6.5 ?g/g before parturition and decreasing again to baseline thereafter. Similar pregnancy profiles were obtained from the domestic cat, the leopard cat, the lynx, the ocelot and the caracal lineage, whereas in pseudopregnant individuals (sand cat, Iberian and Eurasian lynx) fecal PGFM remained at basal levels. In pregnant cheetahs (puma lineage) PGFM increased above basal following day ?48 peaking before pregnancy but remained at baseline in pseudopregnant females. Discrepancies existed in the Panthera lineage. While Chinese leopard, Sumatran tiger, and the black panther showed marked increases of PGFM during the last weeks of pregnancy, only moderate increases in PGFM levels were found in the Indochinese tiger and the Persian leopard. Altogether, PGFM as tool for pregnancy diagnosis has been proven to be useful in breeding management of felids. PMID:22192399

Dehnhard, M; Finkenwirth, C; Crosier, A; Penfold, L; Ringleb, J; Jewgenow, K

2012-04-01

426

A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application  

SciTech Connect

(U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

1999-05-27

427

Mega starbirth cluster is biggest, brightest and hottest ever seen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artist’s impression of the Lynx Arc hi-res Size hi-res: 4519 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Robert A.E. Fosbury (European Space Agency/Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Germany) Artist’s impression of the Lynx Arc This illustration shows an artist’s impression of the so-called Lynx arc, a newly identified distant super-cluster that contains a million blue-white stars twice as hot as similar stars in our Milky Way galaxy. The Lynx arc is one million times brighter than the well-known Orion Nebula, a nearby prototypical ‘starbirth’ region visible with small telescopes. The stars in the Lynx arc are more than twice as hot as the Orion Nebula’s central stars, with surface temperatures up to 80 000°C. Though there are much bigger and brighter star-forming regions than the Orion Nebula in our local Universe, none are as bright as the Lynx arc, nor do they contain such large numbers of hot stars. The stars are so hot that a very large fraction of their light is emitted in the ultraviolet that makes the gas glow with the green and red colours illustrated here. The so-called Lynx Arc is one million times brighter than the well-known Orion Nebula, a nearby prototypical 'starbirth' region visible with small telescopes. The newly identified super-cluster contains a million blue-white stars that are twice as hot as similar stars in our Milky Way galaxy. It is a rarely glimpsed example of the early days of the Universe where furious firestorms of starbirth blazed across the skies. The spectacular cluster's opulence is dimmed when seen from Earth only by the fact that it is 12 000 million light years away. The discovery of this unique and tantalising object was the result of a systematic study of distant clusters of galaxies carried out with major X-ray, optical and infrared telescopes, including the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, ROSAT and the Keck Telescopes. Bob Fosbury, of the European Space Agency's Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility in Germany, and a team of international co-authors report the discovery in the 20 October 2003 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The mega-cluster of stars appears as a puzzling red arc behind a distant galaxy cluster 5400 million light-years away in the northern constellation of Lynx. The arc is the stretched and magnified image of a mysterious celestial object about 12 000 million light-years away (at a redshift of 3.36), far beyond the cluster of galaxies. This means that the remote source existed when the Universe was less than 2000 million years old. Fosbury and colleagues first tried to identify the arc by analysing the light from the object, but the team was not able to recognise the pattern of colours in the spectral signature of the remote object. While looking for matches with the colour spectrum, Fosbury realised that the light was related to that of the nearby Orion Nebula, a star-forming region in our own Milky Way. However where the Orion Nebula is powered by only four hot and bright blue stars, the Lynx Arc must contain around a million such stars! Furthermore, the spectrum shows that the stars in the Lynx Arc are more than twice as hot as the Orion Nebula's central stars, with surface temperatures up to 80 000°C. Though there are much bigger and brighter star-forming regions than the Orion Nebula in our local Universe, none are as bright as the Lynx Arc, nor do they contain such large numbers of hot stars. Even the most massive, normal nearby stars are no hotter than around 40 000°C. However, stars forming from the original, pristine gas in the early Universe can be more massive and consequently much hotter - perhaps up to 120 000°C. The earliest stars may have been as much as several hundred solar masses, but the chemical make-up of the Universe today prevents stars from forming beyond about 100 solar masses. Such 'primordial' super-hot stars are thought to be the first luminous objects to condense after the Big Bang cooled. Astronomers believe that these first 'monster' stars formed considerably earlier than the Lynx Arc - up

2003-10-01

428

Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting.  

PubMed

Chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. Painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. However, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-Canidae species. Here, we extended cross-species painting with dog probes to seven more species representing six carnivore families: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the stone marten (Martes foina), the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Javan mongoose (Hepestes javanicas), the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The numbers and positions of intra-chromosomal rearrangements were found to differ among these carnivore species. A comparative map between human and stone marten, and a map among the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), stone marten and human were also established to facilitate outgroup comparison and to integrate comparative maps between stone marten and other carnivores with such maps between human and other species. These comparative maps give further insight into genome evolution and karyotype phylogenetic relationships among carnivores, and will facilitate the transfer of gene mapping data from human, domestic dog and cat to other species. PMID:22086079

Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Wang, D; Tanomtong, A; Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

2012-01-01

429

Responses of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) to predator chemicals.  

PubMed

Free-ranging beaver (Castor canadensis) in two different beaver populations in New York State were exposed to predator chemicals to test feeding inhibition. Solvent extracts of feces were applied to stem sections of aspen, the preferred food tree of beavers, permitting smelling and tasting the samples. Predator odors were from wolf (Canis lupus), coyote (Canis latrans), dog (Canis familiaris), black bear (Ursus americanus), river otter (Lutra canadensis), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and African lion (Panthera leo). The experiment was repeated. The predator odors reduced feeding compared to untreated or solvent-treated controls. One population consumed 17.0% of the samples with predator odor and 27.0% of the controls in summer, and 48.4% and 60.0%, respectively, in autumn. The other population accepted 3.15% of the predator odor samples and 11.05% of the controls in summer. Coyote, lynx, and river otter odors had the strongest effects. Diesel oil and bitter-tasting neem extract had weaker effects. Predator odors are promising as feeding repellents for beaver. PMID:24234632

Engelhart, A; Müller-Schwarze, D

1995-09-01

430

A Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If top predators are to persist into future years, they will likely need the help of committed advocates. The Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe (LCIE)--a network comprised of scientists, government representatives, and non-governmental agency representatives--works to "maintain and restore, in coexistence with people, viable populations of large carnivores as an integral part of ecosystems and landscapes across Europe." The LCIE website provides information about five important carnivorous species: wolverines, brown bears, wolves, Eurasian lynx, and Iberian lynx. The site also links to a variety of downloadable publications regarding LCIE, the aforementioned five species, and a variety of conservation and management issues. From the Carnivore Damage Protection page site visitors can download the latest issue of the LCIE newsletter, which is published to facilitate communication between people working to prevent carnivore damage. The site also contains some nice animal images, and links to the Eurasian Lynx Online Information System (reported on October 15, 2004 in the NSDL Report for the Life Sciences). This site is also reviewed in the November 12, 2004_NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

431

Antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in Canada.  

PubMed

Antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [CAV-2], feline herpesvirus [FHV], phocine herpesvirus [PHV-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [DMV], phocine distemper virus [PDV], parainfluenza virus type 3 [PI3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [DRV], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, Borrelia burgdorferi and Toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals, including cougars (Fellis concolor), lynxes (Fellis lynx), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), fishers (Martes pennanti), wolverines (Gulo gulo), wolves (Canis lupus), black bears (Ursus americanus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), which had been collected at several locations in Canada between 1984 and 2001. Antibodies to a number of viruses were detected in species in which these infections have not been reported before, for example, antibodies to CAV-2 in walruses, to PDV in black bears, grizzly bears, polar bears, lynxes and wolves, to DMV in grizzly bears, polar bears, walruses and wolves, to PI3 in black bears and fishers, and to DRV in belugas and walruses. PMID:15338705

Philippa, J D W; Leighton, F A; Daoust, P Y; Nielsen, O; Pagliarulo, M; Schwantje, H; Shury, T; Van Herwijnen, R; Martina, B E E; Kuiken, T; Van de Bildt, M W G; Osterhaus, A D M E

2004-07-31

432

The Atsa Suborbital Observatory: An Observatory for a Commercial Suborbital Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of astronomical observations made above Earth's atmosphere have long been understood: free access to spectral regions inaccessible from Earth (e.g., UV) or affected by the atmosphere's content (e.g., IR). Most robotic, space-based telescopes maintain large angular separation between the Sun and an observational target in order to avoid accidental damage to instruments from the Sun. For most astronomical targets, this possibility is easily avoided by waiting until objects are visible away from the Sun. For the Solar System objects inside Earth's orbit, this is never the case. Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. Commercial suborbital spacecraft are largely expected to go to ~100 km altitude above Earth, providing a limited amount of time for astronomical observations. The unique scientific advantage to these observations is the ability to point close to the Sun: if a suborbital spacecraft accidentally turns too close to the Sun and fries an instrument, it is easy to land the spacecraft and repair the hardware for the next flight. Objects uniquely observed during the short observing window include inner-Earth asteroids, Mercury, Venus, and Sun-grazing comets. Both open-FOV and target-specific observations are possible. Despite many space probes to the inner Solar System, scientific questions remain. These include inner-Earth asteroid size and bulk density informing Solar System evolution studies and efforts to develop methods of mitigation against imminent impactors to Earth; chemistry and dynamics of Venus' atmosphere addressing physical phenomena such as greenhouse effect, atmospheric super-rotation and global resurfacing on Venus. With the Atsa Suborbital Observatory, we combine the strengths of both ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with both in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. Rapid turnaround will depend only on flight frequency. Data are stored on-board for retrieval when the spacecraft lands. We provide robust instrumentation that can survive suborbital spaceflight, assessment of the feasibility of the requested observations, rigorous scripting of the telescope operation, integration of the telescope plus instrument in a provider spacecraft, and periodic preventive maintenance for the telescope and instrument suite. XCOR Aerospace's Lynx III spacecraft is the best candidate vehicle to host a suborbital astronomical observatory. Unlike other similar vehicles, the Lynx will operate with only 1 or 2 people onboard (the pilot and an operator), allowing for each mission to be totally dedicated to the observation (no tourists will be bumping about; no other experiments will affect spacecraft pointing). A stable platform, the Lynx can point to an accuracy of ± 0.5o. Fine pointing is done by the telescope system. Best of all, the Lynx has a dorsal pod that opens directly to space. For astronomical observations, the best window is NO window. Currently, we plan to deploy a 20" diameter telescope in the Lynx III dorsal pod. XCOR Aerospace has the goal of eventually maintaining a Lynx flight frequency capability of 4 times/day. As with any observatory, Atsa will be available for observations by the community at large.

Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.

2012-12-01

433

Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving impaired cholinergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ly-6/neurotoxin (Lynx) proteins have been shown to modulate cognition and neural plasticity by binding to nAChR subtypes and modulating their function. Hence, changes in nAChR regulatory proteins such as Lynx proteins could underlie the dysregulation of nAChRs in AD. Using Western blotting, we detected bands corresponding to the Lynx proteins prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and Lypd6 in human cortex indicating that both proteins are present in the human brain. We further showed that PSCA forms stable complexes with the ?4 nAChR subunit and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells. In addition, we analyzed protein levels of PSCA and Lypd6 in postmortem tissue of medial frontal gyrus from AD patients and found significantly increased PSCA levels (approximately 70%). In contrast, no changes in Lypd6 levels were detected. In concordance with our findings in AD patients, PSCA levels were increased in the frontal cortex of triple transgenic mice with an AD-like pathology harboring human transgenes that cause both age-dependent ?-amyloidosis and tauopathy, whereas Tg2576 mice, which display ?-amyloidosis only, had unchanged PSCA levels compared to wild-type animals. These findings identify PSCA as a nAChR-binding protein in the human brain that is affected in AD, suggesting that PSCA-nAChR interactions may be involved in the cognitive dysfunction observed in AD. PMID:25680266

Jensen, Majbrit M; Arvaniti, Maria; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Michalski, Dominik; Pinborg, Lars H; Härtig, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Morten S

2015-04-01

434

Implementation uncertainty when using recreational hunting to manage carnivores.  

PubMed

1. Wildlife managers often rely on resource users, such as recreational or commercial hunters, to achieve management goals. The use of hunters to control wildlife populations is especially common for predators and ungulates, but managers cannot assume that hunters will always fill annual quotas set by the authorities. It has been advocated that resource management models should account for uncertainty in how harvest rules are realized, requiring that this implementation uncertainty be estimated.2. We used a survival analysis framework and long-term harvest data from large carnivore management systems in three countries (Estonia, Latvia and Norway) involving four species (brown bear, grey wolf, Eurasian lynx and wolverine) to estimate the performance of hunters with respect to harvest goals set by managers.3. Variation in hunter quota-filling performance was substantial, ranging from 40% for wolverine in Norway to nearly 100% for lynx in Latvia. Seasonal and regional variation was also high within country-species pairs. We detected a positive relationship between the instantaneous potential to fill a quota slot and the relative availability of the target species for both wolverine and lynx in Norway.4. Survivor curves and hazards - with survival time measured as the time from the start of a season until a quota slot is filled - can indicate the extent to which managers can influence harvest through adjustments of season duration and quota limits.5.Synthesis and applications. We investigated seven systems where authorities use recreational hunting to manage large carnivore populations. The variation and magnitude of deviation from harvest goals was substantial, underlining the need to incorporate implementation uncertainty into resource management models and decisions-making. We illustrate how survival analysis can be used by managers to estimate the performance of resource users with respect to achieving harvest goals set by managers. The findings in this study come at an opportune time given the growing popularity of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models in fisheries and a push towards incorporating MSE into terrestrial harvest management. PMID:23197878

Bischof, Richard; Nilsen, Erlend B; Brøseth, Henrik; Männil, Peep; Ozoli?š, Ja?nis; Linnell, John D C; Bode, Michael

2012-08-01

435

Quantification of the humoral immune response and hemoplasma blood and tissue loads in cats coinfected with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and feline leukemia virus.  

PubMed

'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) is a hemotropic mycoplasma (aka hemoplasma) of domestic cats and wild felids. In a transmission study, we exposed eight specified pathogen-free cats to blood from Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus) infected with CMhm. The cats were coinfected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) from an Iberian lynx or with a prototype FeLV. The goal of the present study was to quantify the humoral immune response to CMhm and to identify potential target tissues and sequestration sites. Antibodies were measured by a recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and blood and tissue loads were quantified using real-time PCR. Seven out of eight cats became CMhm-infected; all of these cats seroconverted between 3 and 13 weeks after inoculation. Antibody levels correlated with the CMhm blood loads. The peak CMhm blood loads were inversely correlated with the incubation period. PCR-positive results were found in all 24 tissues tested but not for all samples. Although all tissues were PCR-positive in one cat euthanized ten weeks after infection, many tissues tested negative in six cats euthanized at week 20 after infection. In several cats, the spleen, lung, liver, heart and aorta contained more copies than expected given the tissue's blood supply, but most tissues contained fewer copies than expected. In conclusion, this is the first study to quantify the humoral immune response and tissue loads in CMhm-FeLV-coinfected cats. The tissue loads appeared to correlate with the duration of infection and with the blood loads, but no evidence of significant CMhm tissue sequestration was found. PMID:22588083

Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Cattori, Valentino; Geret, Catrina P; Novacco, Marilisa; Meli, Marina L; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2012-08-01

436

Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.  

PubMed

Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs. PMID:15526881

Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

2004-09-01

437

Implementation uncertainty when using recreational hunting to manage carnivores  

PubMed Central

1. Wildlife managers often rely on resource users, such as recreational or commercial hunters, to achieve management goals. The use of hunters to control wildlife populations is especially common for predators and ungulates, but managers cannot assume that hunters will always fill annual quotas set by the authorities. It has been advocated that resource management models should account for uncertainty in how harvest rules are realized, requiring that this implementation uncertainty be estimated. 2. We used a survival analysis framework and long-term harvest data from large carnivore management systems in three countries (Estonia, Latvia and Norway) involving four species (brown bear, grey wolf, Eurasian lynx and wolverine) to estimate the performance of hunters with respect to harvest goals set by managers. 3. Variation in hunter quota-filling performance was substantial, ranging from 40% for wolverine in Norway to nearly 100% for lynx in Latvia. Seasonal and regional variation was also high within country–species pairs. We detected a positive relationship between the instantaneous potential to fill a quota slot and the relative availability of the target species for both wolverine and lynx in Norway. 4. Survivor curves and hazards – with survival time measured as the time from the start of a season until a quota slot is filled – can indicate the extent to which managers can influence harvest through adjustments of season duration and quota limits. 5. Synthesis and applications. We investigated seven systems where authorities use recreational hunting to manage large carnivore populations. The variation and magnitude of deviation from harvest goals was substantial, underlining the need to incorporate implementation uncertainty into resource management models and decisions-making. We illustrate how survival analysis can be used by managers to estimate the performance of resource users with respect to achieving harvest goals set by managers. The findings in this study come at an opportune time given the growing popularity of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models in fisheries and a push towards incorporating MSE into terrestrial harvest management. PMID:23197878

Bischof, Richard; Nilsen, Erlend B; Brøseth, Henrik; Männil, Peep; Ozoli?š, Ja?nis; Linnell, John D C; Bode, Michael

2012-01-01

438

PAnalyzer: A software tool for protein inference in shotgun proteomics  

PubMed Central

Background Protein inference from peptide identifications in shotgun proteomics must deal with ambiguities that arise due to the presence of peptides shared between different proteins, which is common in higher eukaryotes. Recently data independent acquisition (DIA) approaches have emerged as an alternative to the traditional data dependent acquisition (DDA) in shotgun proteomics experiments. MSE is the term used to name one of the DIA approaches used in QTOF instruments. MSE data require specialized software to process acquired spectra and to perform peptide and protein identifications. However the software available at the moment does not group the identified proteins in a transparent way by taking into account peptide evidence categories. Furthermore the inspection, comparison and report of the obtained results require tedious manual intervention. Here we report a software tool to address these limitations for MSE data. Results In this paper we present PAnalyzer, a software tool focused on the protein inference process of shotgun proteomics. Our approach considers all the identified proteins and groups them when necessary indicating their confidence using different evidence categories. PAnalyzer can read protein identification files in the XML output format of the ProteinLynx Global Server (PLGS) software provided by Waters Corporation for their MSE data, and also in the mzIdentML format recently standardized by HUPO-PSI. Multiple files can also be read simultaneously and are considered as technical replicates. Results are saved to CSV, HTML and mzIdentML (in the case of a single mzIdentML input file) files. An MSE analysis of a real sample is presented to compare the results of PAnalyzer and ProteinLynx Global Server. Conclusions We present a software tool to deal with the ambiguities that arise in the protein inference process. Key contributions are support for MSE data analysis by ProteinLynx Global Server and technical replicates integration. PAnalyzer is an easy to use multiplatform and free software tool. PMID:23126499

2012-01-01

439

Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals. PMID:16387445

Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

2006-03-31

440

[Analysis and identification of chemical constituents in Siwu decoction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS(E)].  

PubMed

This research analyzed the chemical constituents of Siwu decoction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS(E). Base on the data of mass and related-literatures, 43 peaks were profiled and 25 compounds, which contain 8 monoterpene glycosides from Paeonia lactiflora and 13 phthalides from Rhizoma chuanxiong and Radix angelica sinensis mainly, were identified in both positive and negative mode respectively. Meanwhile, chemical constituents of water extract and 60% ethanol extract of Siwu decoction were compared by the principal constituent analysis with MarkerLynx software, which provides the basis for the active ingredients of Siwu decoction. PMID:24494558

Wang, Zhen-Fang; Zhao, Yang; Pang, Xu; Yu, He-Shui; Kang, Li-Ping; Gao, Yue; Ma, Bai-Ping

2013-11-01

441

Exploring Potential Chemical Transformation by Chemical Profiling Approach for Rapidly Evaluating Chemical Consistency between Sun-Dried and Sulfur-Fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) based on a chemical profiling method was applied to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba. By virtue of the high resolution, high speed of UPLC, and the accurate mass measurement of TOFMS coupled with reliable MarkerLynx software, five newly assigned monoterpene glycoside sulfonates were found and identified in sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba samples. This method could be applied for rapid quality evaluation of different kinds of sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba among commercial samples. PMID:24381637

Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wen, Chengping; Fan, Yongsheng

2013-01-01

442

Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

2006-01-01

443

Horace's Journey Through Arcadia  

E-print Network

and shade lead Menalcas to sing). Nature mimicking human song: Ecl. 1.4–5 (woods echo Tityrus’s song), 8.3–4 (songs cause lynxes to settle down and rivers to change course). Melancholy sympathetic nature: Ecl. 2.3–4 (densely shaded grove mimics Corydon...; unlike Memmius’s acquaintance Lucretius, Philodemus rubbed elbows with great political men (Piso) and with other poets who rubbed elbows with great political men (Varius Rufus, Plotius Tucca, Vergil, Quintilius Varus, and perhaps Horace).20 Lucretius...

Welch, Tara S.

2008-04-01

444

Evidence of a limited schizogonous cycle for Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats following exposure to infected ticks.  

PubMed

Schizogonous tissue stages of Cytauxzoon felis (Apicomplexa: Theileridae) were not observed by microscopic evaluation of impression smears of liver, spleen, lung and lymph nodes in 10 bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Oklahoma with naturally occurring piroplasm infections. Schizogonous stages were observed in similar tissues from experimentally-infected bobcats at 11 days postexposure to infected Dermacentor variabilis, but not at 30 days following tick feeding. The schizogonous cycle of this parasite appears to be short, although the bobcat appears to be a long-term carrier. PMID:3114505

Blouin, E F; Kocan, A A; Kocan, K M; Hair, J

1987-07-01

445

Pasteurella multocida in an infected tiger bite.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of Pasteurella multocida wound infection caused by a tiger bite. We investigated the normal fang flora of large zoo cats and found P multocida in cultures from seven tigers, three of four leopards, and one lynx. Sucrose fermentation was found to be highly media dependent and unpredictable. The literature relative to P multocida in bite-wound infections is reviewed with special reference to bites by animals other than cats and dogs. With the addition of the present case, the animals involved have been two rats, two opossums, two lions, one horse, one rabbit, one boar, one panther, and one tiger. PMID:3839375

Woolfrey, B F; Quall, C O; Lally, R T

1985-08-01

446

Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated that food preferences for bobcats in eastern Tennessee are similar to those in other southeastern states where the habitat is similar to the Oak Ridge area and somewhat different from those with significantly different habitat.

Story, J.D.; Galbraith, W.J.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-01-01

447

Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

Sowizral, Henry A.

1990-01-01

448

First Student Project at the University of Tennessee at Martin Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Tennessee at Martin has recently completed the construction and setup of an observatory. The dome houses a 16" Meade telescope with SBIG STL-11000M CCD. For its first project, observations of the Delta Scuti type variable SZ Lynx were taken in March and analyzed using MiraPRO. A simple ephemeris calculation was done, and compared to previous results. This project was done under the University Scholars program, a four year scholarship program which includes a faculty-mentored research project.

Crews, Lionel J.; Turner, K.; Wesner, P.

2011-05-01

449

Access to the Internet and Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently revised, this page from the Blindness Resource Center is an annotated directory of Websites dealing with issues of Internet access for the blind. The categories include accessible Web design, LYNX Web browser use, Net Tamer, access resources, Unix access, Java access, Windows access, and other blindness links. The sites presented are sharply-focused and provide specific information and instructions for the blind and support staff on software designed to improve access, as well as detailed advice to Webmasters on creating sites that are accessible. The Website is sponsored and maintained by the New York Institute for Special Education.

450

Toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther California.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in Norther Ccalifornia. The highest prevalence was among bobcats (Lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. Other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (Procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (Canis latrans). Two gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. Oone badger with an indirect hemagglutination antibody titer of 1:8192 was found to harbor T. gondii in its brain tissues. PMID:1142562

Riemann, H P; Howarth, J A; Ruppanner, R; Franti, C E; BEHYMER, D E

1975-04-01

451

RXJ0848.6+4453: The Evolution of Galaxy Sizes and Stellar Populations in a z=1.27 Cluster  

E-print Network

RXJ0848.6+4453 (Lynx W) at redshift 1.27 is part of the Lynx Supercluster of galaxies. Our analysis of stellar populations and star formation history in the cluster covers 24 members and is based on deep optical spectroscopy from Gemini North and imaging data from HST. Focusing on the 13 bulge-dominated galaxies for which we can determine central velocity dispersions, we find that these show a smaller evolution of sizes and velocity dispersions than reported for field galaxies and galaxies in poorer clusters. The galaxies in RXJ0848.6+4453 populate the Fundamental Plane similar to that found for lower redshift clusters with a zero point offset corresponding to an epoch of last star formation at z_form= 1.95+-0.2. The spectra of the galaxies in RXJ0848.6+4453 are dominated by young stellar populations at all galaxy masses and in many cases show emission indicating low level on-going star formation. The average age of the young stellar populations (estimated from H-zeta) is consistent with a major star formatio...

Jorgensen, Inger; Toft, Sune; Bergmann, Marcel; Zirm, Andrew; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Grutzbauch, Ruth

2014-01-01

452

Design exploration and verification platform, based on high-level modeling and FPGA prototyping, for fast and flexible digital communication in physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many research fields as high energy physics (HEP), astrophysics, nuclear medicine or space engineering with harsh operating conditions, the use of fast and flexible digital communication protocols is becoming more and more important. The possibility to have a smart and tested top-down design flow for the design of a new protocol for control/readout of front-end electronics is very useful. To this aim, and to reduce development time, costs and risks, this paper describes an innovative design/verification flow applied as example case study to a new communication protocol called FF-LYNX. After the description of the main FF-LYNX features, the paper presents: the definition of a parametric SystemC-based Integrated Simulation Environment (ISE) for high-level protocol definition and validation; the set up of figure of merits to drive the design space exploration; the use of ISE for early analysis of the achievable performances when adopting the new communication protocol and its interfaces for a new (or upgraded) physics experiment; the design of VHDL IP cores for the TX and RX protocol interfaces; their implementation on a FPGA-based emulator for functional verification and finally the modification of the FPGA-based emulator for testing the ASIC chipset which implements the rad-tolerant protocol interfaces. For every step, significant results will be shown to underline the usefulness of this design and verification approach that can be applied to any new digital protocol development for smart detectors in physics experiments.

Magazzù, G.; Borgese, G.; Costantino, N.; Fanucci, L.; Incandela, J.; Saponara, S.

2013-02-01

453

UPLC-QTOF-MS with chemical profiling approach for rapidly evaluating chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction was rapidly evaluated by UPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with the MarkerLynx software. Two different kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction: water extract of mixed six constituent herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and dispensing granules decoction: mixed water extract of each individual herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, were prepared. Results Chemical difference was found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, and albiflorin, paeoniflorin, gallic acid, amygdalin, and hydroxysafflor yellow A were identified as the significantly changed components during decocting Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction. All the peaks of mass spectrum from Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction and each herb were extracted and integration by using QuanLynx™. And the optimized data was used for linear regression analysis. The contribution of each herb in Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and the optimal compatibility proportion of dispensing granule decoction were derived from the linear regression equation. Conclusions The optimal dosage proportionality of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu dispensing granule decoction was obtained as 2.5:0.2:1:0.5:0.6:0.1 (DG : CX : BS : SD : TR : HH), which guided better clinic application of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction as dispensing granule decoctions usage, and it also provided some experimental data to reveal the compatibility rule of the relative TCM formulae. PMID:23176049

2012-01-01

454

Polymorphism of CAG repeats in androgen receptor of carnivores.  

PubMed

Androgen effect is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). The polymorphism of CAG triplet repeat (polyCAG), in the N-terminal transactivation domain of the AR protein, has been involved either in endocrine or neurological disorders in human. We obtained partial sequence of AR exon 1 in 10 carnivore species. In most carnivore species, polyglutamine length polymorphism presented in all three CAG repeat regions of AR, in contrast, only CAG-I site polymorphism presented in primate species, and CAG-I and CAG-III sites polymorphism presented in Canidae. Therefore, studies focusing on disease-associated polymorphism of poly(CAG) in carnivore species AR should investigate all three CAG repeats sites, and should not only consider CAG-I sites as the human disease studies. The trinucleotide repeat length in carnivore AR exon 1 had undergone from expansions to contractions during carnivores evolution, unlike a linear increase in primate species. Furthermore, the polymorphisms of the triplet-repeats in the same tissue (somatic mosaicism) were demonstrated in Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx, Clouded leopard, Chinese tiger, Black leopard and Leopard AR. And, the abnormal stop codon was found in the exon 1 of three carnivore species AR (Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx and Black leopard). It seemed to have a high frequency presence of tissue-specific somatic in carnivores AR genes. Thus the in vivo mechanism leading to such highly variable phenotypes of the described mutations, and their impact on these animals, are worthwhile to be further elucidated. PMID:21643744

Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiuyue; Wang, Xiaofang; Zeng, Bo; Jia, Xiaodong; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong

2012-03-01

455

A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

2013-01-01

456

A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

2014-01-01

457

Serologic survey of trichinellosis in wild mammals kept in a Mexico City Zoo.  

PubMed

A serologic survey of Trichinella infection was carried out to determine the prevalence of this parasitosis among wild mammals kept in captivity at the Chapultepec Zoo. This was prompted by the necropsy finding of a heavy Trichinella infection in a Canadian polar bear (Ursus maritimus) that had been kept at the Zoo for more than 11 years. The parasites recovered were identified as T. nativa (T2). A serologic study based on ELISA and Western blot analysis was performed in serum samples from two polar bears (U. maritimus), six wolves (Canis lupus); nine foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus); seven coyotes (Canis latrans); nine jaguars (Panthera onca); ten lions (Panthera leo); 11 tigers (Panthera tigris); six panthers (Panthera pardus); eight leopards (Panthera pardus); two lynxes (Lynx rufus); five pumas (Felis concolor); one yagouaroundi (Felis yagouaroundi); and one ocelot (Felis pardalis). In these assays, 25% and 27% of the samples studied were positive using total muscle larva extract from T. nativa (T2) or T. spiralis (T1), respectively. When T. spiralis (T1) excretory/secretory products or surface/stichosomal antigens were used, 15 and 13% positivity was obtained respectively. The reactivity rates obtained among the different groups varied from 11 to 83%, wolves having the highest infection rate. Western blot analysis of positive ELISA sera showed an antigenic recognition pattern characteristic of animals infected with Trichinella. PMID:9017871

Yépez-Mulia, L; Arriaga, C; Peña, M A; Gual, F; Ortega-Pierres, G

1996-12-31

458

A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.  

PubMed

Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool. PMID:24484483

Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

2014-04-01

459

[New evidence for the spread of Thelazia callipaeda in the Far East].  

PubMed

Thelazia callipaeda nematodes parasitize in the eyes of domestic and wild carnivorous mammals (more often in Canidae). Numerous cases of human infestation are also known. The nematode spreads in South and East Asia although in the last decade this has been reported from dogs, cats and wolves in South and Central Europe as well. In the Russian Federation, T. callipaeda was earlier observed in dogs, cats, foxes and raccoon dogs in some regions of the Russian Far East. Two cases of human infestation were also reported. There has been no evidence of T. callipaeda in Russia in the past 50 years. Postmortem parasitological surveys of various wild carnivores were performed in the Primorsky Territory of Russia in the winter of 2012 to the summer of 2014. Conjunctival sac including the space under the nictitating membrane was sought for nematodes. T. callipaeda was detected in 28 sables of the 492 examined ones, in 5 out of the 11 raccoon dogs, in 2 out of the 3 foxes, and in one lynx. The examination of 25 kolinskies, 4 American minks, 3 Amur leopard cats, 2 yellow-throated martens and one badger provided negative results. The sable and the wild lynx are firstly reported as hosts of T. callipaeda. The findings suggest that there is a persisting natural reservoir of zoonotic thelaziosis in the Russian Far East. The epidemiological importance of this fact should not be underestimated. PMID:25850318

2015-01-01

460

Citizen Science and Citizen Space Exploration: Potentials for Professional Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Citizens in Space is a project of the United States Rocket Academy, with the goal of promoting citizen science and citizen space exploration. This goal is enabled by the new reusable suborbital spacecraft now under development by multiple companies in the US. For the first phase of this project, we have acquired a contract for 10 flights on the Lynx suborbital spacecraft, which is under construction by XCOR Aerospace in Mojave, CA. This represents, to the best of our knowledge, the largest single bulk purchase of suborbital flights to date. Citizens in Space has published an open call for experiments to fly on these missions, which we expect will begin in late 2013 or early 2014. We will be selecting approx. 100 small experiments and 10 citizen astronauts to fly as payload operators. Although our primary goal is to encourage citizen science, these flight opportunities are also open to professional researchers who have payloads that meet our criteria. We believe that the best citizen-science projects are collaborations between professional and citizen scientists. We will discuss various ways in which professional scientists can collaborate with citizen scientists to take advantage of the flight opportunities provided by our program. We will discuss the capabilities of the Lynx vehicle, the 1u- and 2u-CubeSat form factor we are using for our payloads, and general considerations for payload integration. As an example of the payloads we can accommodate, we will discuss a NASA-inspired experiment to collect particles from the upper atmosphere.;

Wright, E.

2012-12-01

461

Predicting the potential demographic impact of predators on their prey: a comparative analysis of two carnivore-ungulate systems in Scandinavia.  

PubMed

1. Understanding the role of predation in shaping the dynamics of animal communities is a fundamental issue in ecological research. Nevertheless, the complex nature of predator-prey interactions often prevents researchers from modelling them explicitly. 2. By using periodic Leslie-Usher matrices and a simulation approach together with parameters obtained from long-term field projects, we reconstructed the underlying mechanisms of predator-prey demographic interactions and compared the dynamics of the roe deer-red fox-Eurasian lynx-human harvest system with those of the moose-brown bear-gray wolf-human harvest system in the boreal forest ecosystem of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula. 3. The functional relationship of both roe deer and moose ? to changes in predation rates from the four predators was remarkably different. Lynx had the strongest impact among the four predators, whereas predation rates by wolves, red foxes, or brown bears generated minor variations in prey population ?. Elasticity values of lynx, wolf, fox and bear predation rates were -0·157, -0·056, -0·031 and -0·006, respectively, but varied with both predator and prey densities. 4. Differences in predation impact were only partially related to differences in kill or predation rates, but were rather a result of different distribution of predation events among prey age classes. Therefore, the age composition of killed individuals emerged as the main underlying factor determining the overall per capita impact of predation. 5. Our results confirm the complex nature of predator-prey interactions in large terrestrial mammals, by showing that different carnivores preying on the same prey species can exert a dramatically different demographic impact, even in the same ecological context, as a direct consequence of their predation patterns. Similar applications of this analytical framework in other geographical and ecological contexts are needed, but a more general evaluation of the subject is also required, aimed to assess, on a broader systematic and ecological range, what specific traits of a carnivore are most related to its potential impact on prey species. PMID:22077484

Gervasi, Vincenzo; Nilsen, Erlend B; Sand, Håkan; Panzacchi, Manuela; Rauset, Geir R; Pedersen, Hans C; Kindberg, Jonas; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Odden, John; Liberg, Olof; Swenson, Jon E; Linnell, John D C

2012-03-01

462

Anatomy of a population cycle: the role of density dependence and demographic variability on numerical instability and periodicity.  

PubMed

Determining the causes of cyclic fluctuations in population size is a central tenet in population ecology and provides insights into population regulatory mechanisms. We have a firm understanding of how direct and delayed density dependence affects population stability and cyclic dynamics, but there remains considerable uncertainty in the specific processes contributing to demographic variability and consequent change in cyclic propensity. Spatiotemporal variability in cyclic propensity, including recent attenuation or loss of cyclicity among several temperate populations and the implications of habitat fragmentation and climate change on this pattern, highlights the heightened need to understand processes underlying cyclic variation. Because these stressors can differentially impact survival and productivity and thereby impose variable time delays in density dependence, there is a specific need to elucidate how demographic vital rates interact with the type and action of density dependence to contribute to population stability and cyclic variation. Here, we address this knowledge gap by comparing the stability of time series derived from general and species-specific (Canada lynx: Lynx canadensis; small rodents: Microtus, Lemmus and Clethrionomys spp.) matrix population models, which vary in their demographic rates and the direct action of density dependence. Our results reveal that density dependence acting exclusively on survival as opposed to productivity is destabilizing, suggesting that a shift in the action of population regulation toward reproductive output may decrease cyclic propensity and cycle amplitude. This result was the same whether delayed density dependence was pulsatile and acted on a single time period (e.g. t-1, t-2 or t-3) vs. more constant by affecting a successive range of years (e.g. t-1,…, t-3). Consistent with our general models, reductions in reproductive potential in both the lynx and small rodent systems led to notably large drops in cyclic propensity and amplitude, suggesting that changes in this vital rate may contribute to the spatial or temporal variability observed in the cyclic dynamics of both systems. Collectively, our results reveal that the type of density dependence and its effect on different demographic parameters can profoundly influence numeric stability and cyclic propensity and therefore may shift populations across the cyclic-to-noncyclic boundary. PMID:24438480

Row, Jeffrey R; Wilson, Paul J; Murray, Dennis L

2014-01-20

463

Predicting the potential demographic impact of predators on their prey: a comparative analysis of two carnivore–ungulate systems in Scandinavia  

PubMed Central

1. Understanding the role of predation in shaping the dynamics of animal communities is a fundamental issue in ecological research. Nevertheless, the complex nature of predator–prey interactions often prevents researchers from modelling them explicitly. 2. By using periodic Leslie–Usher matrices and a simulation approach together with parameters obtained from long-term field projects, we reconstructed the underlying mechanisms of predator–prey demographic interactions and compared the dynamics of the roe deer–red fox–Eurasian lynx–human harvest system with those of the moose–brown bear–gray wolf–human harvest system in the boreal forest ecosystem of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula. 3. The functional relationship of both roe deer and moose ? to changes in predation rates from the four predators was remarkably different. Lynx had the strongest impact among the four predators, whereas predation rates by wolves, red foxes, or brown bears generated minor variations in prey population ?. Elasticity values of lynx, wolf, fox and bear predation rates were ?0·157, ?0·056, ?0·031 and ?0·006, respectively, b