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Sample records for lysholm positive displacement

  1. Wirelessly Interrogated Position or Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    Two simple position or displacement sensors based on inductance-capacitance resonant circuits have been conceived. These sensors are both powered and interrogated without use of wires and without making contact with other objects. Instead, excitation and interrogation are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. Both of the present position or displacement sensors consist essentially of variable rectangular parallel-plate capacitors electrically connected in series with fixed inductors. Simple inductance-capacitance circuits of the type used in these sensors are inherently robust; their basic mode of operation does not depend on maintenance of specific environmental conditions. Hence, these sensors can be used under such harsh conditions as cryogenic temperatures, high pressures, and radioactivity.

  2. Single screw interrupted thread positive displacement mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boblitt, Wayne W.

    1992-07-01

    A single screw positive displacement compressor mechanism employing shallow gate rotor tooth penetration of the main rotor for purposes of reducing internal leakage and consequent compressor inefficiencies is presented. The invention is provided with an interrupted main rotor thread for purposes of insuring multiple gate rotor teeth meshing with the drive portion of the main rotor thread, thereby reducing gate rotor tooth flank loads in the compressor section of the device. Provision is also made for main rotor thread baffling between the main rotor chamber section and the mechanism inlet.

  3. Axial flow positive displacement worm gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement engine has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes and the third twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. A combustor section extends axially downstream through at least a portion of the second section.

  4. Axial flow positive displacement worm compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement compressor has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first and second sections of a compressor assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first and second twist slopes in the first and second sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. An engine including the compressor has in downstream serial flow relationship from the compressor a combustor and a high pressure turbine drivingly connected to the compressor by a high pressure shaft.

  5. Position Displacement of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazutdinov, G.; Krełowski, J.; Beletsky, Y.; Valyavin, G.

    2015-04-01

    We reconsider the already published phenomenon of the blue shift of diffuse interstellar bands, observed in spectra of HD34078 (AE Aur) and members of the Sco OB1 association, in particular HD152233. We have analyzed 29 diffuse bands. Some of them, already proven as blue-shifted in our earlier study, are now confirmed using another instrument: the 6.5 m Clay telescope equipped with the MIKE spectrograph. The high signal-to-noise ratio (over 600) of our spectra allowed us to reveal even small small-scale displacements of positions (both blue and redshifts) of diffuse bands along the considered lines of sight. In some cases, the magnitude of deviation exceeds 10 km s-1. Also, we prove that profiles of many diffuse bands in spectra of HD34078 suffer significant broadening. The origin of the observed phenomena is discussed. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory (Chile).

  6. Performance characteristics of the Lysholm engine

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of a 5 in. diameter rotor Lysholm engine prototype running on simulated geothermal flows from 16 to 100% quality is described. Staging was performed with conventional Westinghouse 25 kW steam turbines demonstrating that such a process is feasible. Maximum efficiency and power noted were 37.2% and 26.3 kW respectively, but inhibiting factors were discovered which, upon correction, should allow efficiencies around 50% and powers up to 35 kW. Larger engines with minor modifications should get better efficiencies. Data was taken for inlet pressures of 75 to 120 psia and speeds of 3000 to 9000 rpm's. Further testing under similar conditions is planned.

  7. Examples of oil cavitation erosion in positive displacement pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halat, J. A.; Ellis, G. O.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of cavitation flow on piston type, positive displacement, hydraulic pumps are discussed. The operating principles of the pump and the components which are most subject to erosion effects are described. The mechanisms of cavitation phenomena are identified from photographic records. Curves are developed to show the solubility of air in water, oil-water emulsion, and industrial hydraulic oil.

  8. Positive displacement vacuum-sweep dispenser for small particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, P.M.; Glass, D.R.; Postman, D.

    1983-12-01

    A dispenser was developed for feeding small particles into a laboratory burner at a very constant flow rate. A positive displacement of a continuously replaced volume of particles is employed combined with a sonic ejector. The combination meets the requirements for good chemical measurements. The system also satisfies the requirements for laser-Doppler anemometry.

  9. FAN HOUSE INTERIOR. THREE MOTOR DRIVES FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT BLOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAN HOUSE INTERIOR. THREE MOTOR DRIVES FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT BLOWERS LINE UP ON NORTH WALL. CONCRETE PEDESTALS. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4291. Unknown Photographer, 2/26/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Positive displacement compounding of a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.

    1983-01-01

    A helical screw type positive displacement (PD) compressor and expander was considered as an alternative to the turbocharger and the power turbine in the Cummins advanced turbocompound engine. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) completed the design, layout, and performance prediction of the PD machines. The results indicate that a screw compressor-expander system is feasible up to at least 750 HP, dry operation of the rotors is feasible, cost and producibility are uncertain, and the system will yield about 4% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over the advanced turbocompound engine.

  11. 5 CFR 330.404 - Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations. 330.404 Section 330.404 Administrative... (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.404 Displacement of preference...

  12. 5 CFR 330.404 - Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations. 330.404 Section 330.404 Administrative... (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.404 Displacement of preference...

  13. 5 CFR 330.404 - Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations. 330.404 Section 330.404 Administrative... (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.404 Displacement of preference...

  14. 5 CFR 330.404 - Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations. 330.404 Section 330.404 Administrative... (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.404 Displacement of preference...

  15. 5 CFR 330.404 - Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Displacement of preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations. 330.404 Section 330.404 Administrative... (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.404 Displacement of preference...

  16. Displacement operator for quantum systems with position-dependent mass

    SciTech Connect

    Costa Filho, R. N.; Almeida, M. P.; Farias, G. A.; Andrade, J. S. Jr.

    2011-11-15

    A translation operator is introduced to describe the quantum dynamics of a position-dependent mass particle in a null or constant potential. From this operator, we obtain a generalized form of the momentum operator as well as a unique commutation relation for x and p{sub {gamma}}. Such a formalism naturally leads to a Schroedinger-like equation that is reminiscent of wave equations typically used to model electrons with position-dependent (effective) masses propagating through abrupt interfaces in semiconductor heterostructures. The distinctive features of our approach are demonstrated through analytical solutions calculated for particles under null and constant potentials like infinite wells in one and two dimensions and potential barriers.

  17. An Overview of NASA Research on Positive Displacement Type General Aviation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E.; Willis, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    The general aviation positive displacement engine program encompassing conventional, lightweight diesel, and rotary combustion engines is described. Lean operation of current production type spark ignition engines and advanced alternative engine concepts are emphasized.

  18. A Novel Position Estimation Method Based on Displacement Correction in AIS

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Shufang; Yang, Dongkai

    2014-01-01

    A new position estimation method by using the signals from two automatic identification system (AIS) stations is proposed in this paper. The time of arrival (TOA) method is enhanced with the displacement correction, so that the vessel's position can be determined even for the situation where it can receive the signals from only two AIS base stations. Its implementation scheme based on the mathematical model is presented. Furthermore, performance analysis is carried out to illustrate the relation between the positioning errors and the displacement vector provided by auxiliary sensors. Finally, the positioning method is verified and its performance is evaluated by simulation. The results show that the positioning accuracy is acceptable. PMID:25232913

  19. Empirical modeling of a Lysholm helical screw expander

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Testing of a Lysholm helical screw expander having a rotor diameter of 5.12 inches and an expansion ratio of 5.3 was performed with simulated geothermal fluid at an inlet pressure of 120 psia. The inlet quality, engine speed and pressure ratio were independently varied to produce a three-dimensional data matrix of 104 data points. Statistical curve fitting methods were adapted to produce equations for mass flow rate and power output in terms of the three variables associated with the data matrix. These explicit equations were combined with a steam table subroutine to produce a computer model for prediction of mass flow rate, power, efficiency and exhaust quality at a given set of operating conditions. The predictive ability observed during validation of the model is adequate for use in modeling of hybrid geothermal energy conversion systems. Mass flow rates werre predicted to within 2.7% of the measured values. For most conditions, predictions of power were within 3.3% of the measured values. Predictions of efficiency reflected the combined errors in prediction of power and mass flow rate. Efficiency predictions were in error by as much as 5% of the measured values. The predictions for exhaust quality were within 0.4% of the measured values. Isentropic engine efficiencies of over 43% were measured during the tests. An observed peak in efficiency represented an optimum pressure ratio and a trade-off between lower leakage fractions at high speeds and low inlet qualities, increasing frictional losses at high speeds, and increasing fluid and power densities at low qualities.

  20. FIELD TRIALS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Rob Beard

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this grant was to evaluate under real world conditions the performance of a new type of downhole pump, the hydraulically driven submersible diaphragm pump. This pump is supplied by Pumping Solutions Incorporated, Albuquerque NM. The original scope of the project was to install 10 submersible pumps, and compare that to 10 similar installations of rod pumps. As an operator, the system as tested was not ready for prime time, but has shown the ability to reduce costs, and increase production, if run times can be improved. The PSI group did improve the product and offered excellent service. The latest design appears to be much better, but more test data is needed to show short run life is not a problem. PSI and Beard Oil intend to continue testing the pump with non-government funding. The testing to date did not uncover any fundamental problems that would preclude the widespread use of this pump, and as an operator, I believe that with further improvement and testing, the pump can have a significant impact on stripper well costs. On the positive side, the pump was easy to run, was more power efficient then a rod pump, and is the only submersible that could handle the large quantities of solids typical of the production environment found at the Weber field and in CMB production. The product shows much promise for the future, and with continued design and testing, this type of submersible pump has the potential to become the standard of the industry.

  1. FIELD TRIALS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Rob Beard; Leland Traylor

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this grant was to evaluate under real world conditions the performance of a new type of downhole pump, the hydraulically driven submersible diaphragm pump. This pump is supplied by Pumping Solutions Incorporated, Albuquerque NM. The original scope of the project was to install 10 submersible pumps, and compare that to 10 similar installations of rod pumps. As an operator, the system as tested was not ready for prime time. The PSI group did improve the product and offered excellent service. The latest design appears to be much better, but more test data is needed to show short run life is not a problem. This product should continue to be developed; the testing did not uncover any fundamental problems that would preclude it's widespread use. On the positive side, the pump was easy to run, was more power efficient then a rod pump, and is the only submersible that could handle the large quantities of solids typical of CBM production. The product shows much promise for the future, and with continued design and testing, this type of submersible pump has the potential to become the standard of the industry.

  2. Measuring relative-story displacement and local inclination angle using multiple position-sensitive detectors.

    PubMed

    Matsuya, Iwao; Katamura, Ryuta; Sato, Maya; Iba, Miroku; Kondo, Hideaki; Kanekawa, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Motoichi; Hatada, Tomohiko; Nitta, Yoshihiro; Tanii, Takashi; Shoji, Shuichi; Nishitani, Akira; Ohdomari, Iwao

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel sensor system for monitoring the structural health of a building. The system optically measures the relative-story displacement during earthquakes for detecting any deformations of building elements. The sensor unit is composed of three position sensitive detectors (PSDs) and lenses capable of measuring the relative-story displacement precisely, even if the PSD unit was inclined in response to the seismic vibration. For verification, laboratory tests were carried out using an Xθ-stage and a shaking table. The static experiment verified that the sensor could measure the local inclination angle as well as the lateral displacement. The dynamic experiment revealed that the accuracy of the sensor was 150 μm in the relative-displacement measurement and 100 μrad in the inclination angle measurement. These results indicate that the proposed sensor system has sufficient accuracy for the measurement of relative-story displacement in response to the seismic vibration. PMID:22163434

  3. Open loop pneumatic control of a Lysholm engine or turbine exhaust pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Plonski, B.A.

    1981-07-17

    A Lysholm engine, or helical screw expander, is currently being evaluated at the University of California, Berkeley for staging with a conventional turbine in geothermal energy conversion. A pneumatic closed loop, proportional-integral control system was implemented to control the Lysholm engine's exhaust pressure for performance testing of the engine at constant inlet/outlet pressure ratios. The control system will also be used to control the exhaust pressure of the conventional turbine during future testing of the staged Lysholm-turbine system. Analytical modeling of the control system was performed and successful tuning was achieved by applying Ziegler-Nichol's tuning method. Stable control and quick response, of approximately 1 minute, was demonstrated for load and set point changes in desired exhaust pressures.

  4. Intrafraction displacement of prone versus supine prostate positioning monitored by real-time electromagnetic tracking.

    PubMed

    Butler, Wayne M; Merrick, Gregory S; Reed, Joshua L; Murray, Brian C; Kurko, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Implanted radiofrequency transponders were used for real-time monitoring of the intrafraction prostate displacement between patients in the prone position and the same patients in the supine position. Thirteen patients had three transponders implanted transperineally and were treated prone with a custom-fitted thermoplastic immobilization device. After collecting data from the last fraction, patients were realigned in the supine position and the displacements of the transponders were monitored for 5-7 minutes. Fourier transforms were applied to the data from each patient to determine periodicity and its amplitude. To remove auto correlation from the stream of displacement data, the distribution of short-term and long-term velocity components were calculated from Poincaré plots of paired sequential vector displacements. The mean absolute displacement was significantly greater prone than supine in the superior-inferior (SI) plane (1.2 ± 0.6 mm vs. 0.6 ± 0.4 mm, p= 0.015), but not for the lateral or anterior-posterior (AP) planes. Displacements were least in the lateral direction. Fourier analyses showed the amplitude of respiratory oscillations was much greater for the SI and AP planes in the prone versus the supine position. Analysis of Poincaré plots confirmed greater short-term variance in the prone position, but no difference in the long-term variance. The centroid of the implanted transponders was offset from the treatment isocenter by > 5 mm for 1.9% of the time versus 0.8% of the time for supine. These results confirmed significantly greater net intrafraction prostate displacement of patients in the prone position than in the supine position, but most of the difference was due to respiration-induced motion that was most pronounced in the SI and AP directions. Because the respiratory motion remained within the action threshold and also within our 5 mm treatment planning margins, there is no compelling reason to choose one treatment position over the other

  5. Attention Maintains Mental Extrapolation of Target Position: Irrelevant Distractors Eliminate Forward Displacement after Implied Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Observers' judgments of the final position of a moving target are typically shifted in the direction of implied motion ("representational momentum"). The role of attention is unclear: visual attention may be necessary to maintain or halt target displacement. When attention was captured by irrelevant distractors presented during the retention…

  6. Electromagnetic Tracking of Intrafraction Prostate Displacement in Patients Externally Immobilized in the Prone Position

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, Nathan; Wallner, Kent E.; Merrick, Gregory S.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intrafraction prostate displacement among patients immobilized in the prone position using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders. Methods and Materials: The Calypso localization system was used to track prostate motion in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy (XRT) for prostate cancer. All patients were treated in the prone position and immobilized with a thermoplastic immobilization device. Real-time measurement of prostate displacement was recorded for each treatment fraction. These measurements were used to determine the duration and magnitude of displacement along the three directional axes. Results: The calculated centroid of the implanted transponders was offset from the treatment isocenter by >=2 mm, >=3 mm, and >=4 mm for 38.0%, 13.9%, and 4.5% of the time. In the lateral dimension, the centroid was offset from the treatment isocenter by >=2 mm, >=3 mm, and >=4 mm for 2.7%, 0.4%, and 0.06% of the time. In the superior-inferior dimension, the centroid was offset from the treatment isocenter by >=2 mm, >=3 mm, and >=4 mm for 16.1%, 4.7%, and 1.5% of the time, respectively. In the anterior-posterior dimension, the centroid was offset from the treatment isocenter by >=2 mm, >=3 mm, and >=4 mm for 13.4%, 3.0%, and 0.5% of the time. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate displacement in the prone position is comparable to that in the supine position. For patients with large girth, in whom the supine position may preclude accurate detection of implanted radiofrequency transponders, treatment in the prone position is a suitable alternative.

  7. Engineering research on positive displacement gas expanders. Phase I technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, R. E.

    1984-02-01

    A research, design, and development program related to positive displacement gas expanders is reported. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate a more cost effective gas expander for use in those waste heat recovery systems which utilize an Organic Rankine Cycle. To provide a lower cost machine, the gas expander uses a positive displacement concept, rather than a turbine as currently used. Several positive displacement machine concepts were examined, and various performance measures have been developed for each of the concepts. The machine concepts were: single and multiple cylinder reciprocators, radial piston, roller piston, sliding vane, trochoidal, helical screw, and lobed rotor. For each of the concepts, designs were generated for machines operating with three different sets of operating conditions. These designs were then used to develop measures of efficiency and cost, and to examine other characteristics of the machines, such as development risk and ability to operate with different flow, pressure, and temperature levels. Based upon an evaluation of these characteristics, a specific concept was selected for further development. This concept is a double acting, single cylinder reciprocating machine with crossheads and ceramic liners.

  8. Determination of earthquake magnitude using GPS displacement waveforms from real-time precise point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Rongxin; Shi, Chuang; Song, Weiwei; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    For earthquake and tsunami early warning and emergency response, earthquake magnitude is the crucial parameter to be determined rapidly and correctly. However, a reliable and rapid measurement of the magnitude of an earthquake is a challenging problem, especially for large earthquakes (M > 8). Here, the magnitude is determined based on the GPS displacement waveform derived from real-time precise point positioning (RTPPP). RTPPP results are evaluated with an accuracy of 1 cm in the horizontal components and 2-3 cm in the vertical components, indicating that the RTPPP is capable of detecting seismic waves with amplitude of 1 cm horizontally and 2-3 cm vertically with a confidence level of 95 per cent. In order to estimate the magnitude, the unique information provided by the GPS displacement waveform is the horizontal peak displacement amplitude. We show that the empirical relation of Gutenberg (1945) between peak displacement and magnitude holds up to nearly magnitude 9.0 when displacements are measured with GPS. We tested the proposed method for three large earthquakes. For the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, our method provides a magnitude of M7.18 ± 0.18. For the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake the estimated magnitude is M8.74 ± 0.06, and for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake the value is M8.7 ± 0.1 after excluding some near-field stations. We, therefore, conclude that depending on the availability of high-rate GPS observations, a robust value of magnitude up to 9.0 for a point source earthquake can be estimated within tens of seconds or a few minutes after an event using a few GPS stations close to the epicentre. The rapid magnitude could be as a pre-requisite for tsunami early warning, fast source inversion and emergency response is feasible.

  9. Sliding and rotary PDM drilling keep horizontal well on target. [Positive Displacement Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L. )

    1993-07-12

    Improved drilling efficiency and the use of steerable positive displacement motors (PDMs) helped keep an Austin chalk horizontal well on target and below cost. Field development in the Austin chalk began more than 60 years ago; however, many wells have had low-to-average oil recovery. Recent thorough studies of the natural fracture matrix in the Austin chalk revealed that the fractures were not interconnected. The ability of a horizontal well to intersect numerous fracture systems made the Austin chalk an excellent candidate for horizontal drilling. This paper describes the well plan, its trajectory, bottom hole assemblies, and drilling results.

  10. An overview of NASA research on positive displacement type general aviation engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E.; Willis, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper surveys the current status of the aviation positive displacement engine programs underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel, and rotary combustion engines. Attention is given to topics such as current production type engine improvement, cooling drag reduction, fuel injection, and experimental and theoretical combustion studies. It is shown that the program's two major technical thrusts are directed toward lean operation of current production type spark ignition engines and advanced alternative engine concepts. Finally, an Otto cycle computer model is also covered.

  11. GPS Seismology: Using Precise Point Positioning for Resolving Surface Wave Displacements from Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragert, H.; Henton, J. A.; Lahaye, F.; Kouba, J.; Larson, K. M.; Rogers, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    High-rate continuous GPS data can provide direct, high-quality measurements of surface wave displacements generated by large earthquakes (Larson et al., 2003; Bock et al., 2004; Larson, 2009). To achieve high precision, differential positioning is often used in the GPS analysis strategy with distant reference stations held fixed. In this presentation, we examine the use of the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique to estimate epoch-by-epoch positions at single stations. Specifically, we use the PPP software developed by Natural Resources Canada (Heroux and Kouba, 2001) to analyze high-rate (5 Hz) GPS data collected at stations of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) in southern California at the time of the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake of April 4, 2010. The hypocenter for this earthquake was located in northern Baja California, approximately 50 km south of Mexicali on the US-Mexico border, at a depth of ~10 km. Large horizontal displacements were observed at a number of PBO GPS sites, with the largest peak-to-peak displacements exceeding 90 cm in the east-west component for 10-sec period waves observed at El Centro, CA (P496), located about 70 km northeast of the epicenter. The PPP technique clearly resolved surface waves with 1 to 2 cm amplitudes at sites more than 800 km away from the epicenter, illustrating that surface waves eventually reach even distant reference sites within the period of interest and can thereby introduce artifacts for differential GPS positioning. Fine-tuning of PPP methodology revealed the following: 1) Since the quality of a PPP solution will not be optimal until the carrier phase ambiguities have converged (tens of minutes), it is best to begin the analyses well before the arrival of seismic waves. To reduce computations, the data for this convergence period need not be high-rate; 2) The use of 5-second precise satellite clock sampling instead of the nominal 30-second clock sampling minimized clock interpolation errors and

  12. Expanding the realm of fiber optic confocal sensing for probing position, displacement, and velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Shafir, E.; Berkovic, G

    2006-10-20

    We describe a fiber optic confocal sensor (FOCOS) system that uses an optical fiber and a lens to accurately detect the position of an object at, or close to, the image plane of the fiber tip. The fiber characteristics (diameter and numerical aperture) and optics (lens F and magnification) define the span and precision of the sensor and may be chosen to fit a desired application of position and displacement sensing. Multiple measurement points (i.e., fiber-tip images) may be achieved by use of multiple wavelengths in the fiber, so that each wavelength images the fiber at a different plane due to the chromatic dispersion of the optics. Further multiplexing may be achieved by adding fibers on the optical axis. A FOCOS with multiplexed fibers and wavelengths may also be used for velocity measurements.

  13. Validation of a CFD Methodology for Positive Displacement LVAD Analysis Using PIV Data

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Varun; Deutsch, Steve; Manning, Keefe B.; Paterson, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to asses the hydrodynamic performance of a positive displacement left ventricular assist device. The computational model uses implicit large eddy simulation direct resolution of the chamber compression and modeled valve closure to reproduce the in vitro results. The computations are validated through comparisons with experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) data. Qualitative comparisons of flow patterns, velocity fields, and wall-shear rates demonstrate a high level of agreement between the computations and experiments. Quantitatively, the PIV and CFD show similar probed velocity histories, closely matching jet velocities and comparable wall-strain rates. Overall, it has been shown that CFD can provide detailed flow field and wall-strain rate data, which is important in evaluating blood pump performance. PMID:20353260

  14. Displacement measurement of the compliant positioning stage based on a computer micro-vision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Heng; Zhang, Xianmin; Wang, Ruizhou; He, Zhenya

    2016-02-01

    We propose a practical computer micro-vision-based method for displacement measurements of the compliant positioning stage. The algorithm of the proposed method is based on a template matching approach composed of an integer-pixel search and a sub-pixel search. By combining with an optical microscopy, a high resolution CCD camera and the proposed algorithm, an extremely high measuring precision is achieved. Various simulations and experiments are conducted. The simulation results demonstrate that the matching precision can reach to 0.01 pixel when the noise interference is low. A laser interferometer measurement system (LIMS) is established for comparison. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method possesses the same performance as the LIMS but exhibits a greater flexibility and operability. The measuring precision can theoretically attain to 2.83 nm/pixel.

  15. Validation of a CFD methodology for positive displacement LVAD analysis using PIV data.

    PubMed

    Medvitz, Richard B; Reddy, Varun; Deutsch, Steve; Manning, Keefe B; Paterson, Eric G

    2009-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to asses the hydrodynamic performance of a positive displacement left ventricular assist device. The computational model uses implicit large eddy simulation direct resolution of the chamber compression and modeled valve closure to reproduce the in vitro results. The computations are validated through comparisons with experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) data. Qualitative comparisons of flow patterns, velocity fields, and wall-shear rates demonstrate a high level of agreement between the computations and experiments. Quantitatively, the PIV and CFD show similar probed velocity histories, closely matching jet velocities and comparable wall-strain rates. Overall, it has been shown that CFD can provide detailed flow field and wall-strain rate data, which is important in evaluating blood pump performance. PMID:20353260

  16. Altering the volumetric expansion ratio of a Lysholm helical screw expander

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    This is an analysis of the effects of the volumetric expansion ratio on the operation of a Lysholm helical screw expander. Extensive testing of the University of California Lysholm engine with a 5.3 volumetric expansion ratio was performed. In this experiment, the expansion ratio has been reduced from 5.3 to 4.0. Tests were performed at a variety of speeds and qualities for a 5.0 pressure ratio and at a variety of speeds and pressure ratios for 99 percent quality. It was predicted that decreasing the volumetric expansion ratio would decrease the leakage fraction and thereby increase efficiency. This occurred as predicted. Isentropic efficiency increased 20 percent for 50 percent quality steam and 16 percent for 33 percent quality steam, all for an inlet pressure of 120 psia and a speed of 9000 rpm. A maximum efficiency of 47.2 percent was reached at 33 percent quality, 9000 rpm and a pressure ratio of 5.0. It was noted that the leakage rate did not appear to be a function of expansion ratio, as had been expected. Using this fact the previous empirical models of the engine were extended to include volumetric expansion ratio as a variable parameter.

  17. Nozzle optimization for water jet propulsion with a positive displacement pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, You-sheng; Xie, Ying-chun; Nie, Song-lin

    2014-06-01

    In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.

  18. Comparison of condylar displacement between three biotypological facial groups by using mounted models and a mandibular position indicator

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, José Pedro; Lopes, Jorge Dias; Ferreira, Afonso Pinhão

    2014-01-01

    Objective Facial-type-associated variations in diagnostic features have several implications in orthodontics. For example, in hyperdivergent craniofacial types, growth imbalances are compensated by displacement of the condyle. When diagnosis and treatment planning involves centric relation (CR), detailed knowledge of the condylar position is desirable. The present study aimed to measure condylar displacement (CD) between CR and maximum intercuspation in three facial types of an asymptomatic orthodontic population. Methods The study was conducted in 108 patients classified into three groups of 36 individuals each (27 women and 9 men; mean age, 20.5 years), based on the following facial patterns: hyperdivergent, hypodivergent, and intermediate. To quantify CD along the horizontal and vertical axes, the condylar position was analyzed using mounted casts on a semi-adjustable articulator and a mandibular position indicator. The Student t-test was used to compare CD between the groups. Results Vertical displacement was found to be significantly different between the hyperdivergent and hypodivergent groups (p < 0.0002) and between the hyperdivergent and intermediate groups (p < 0.0006). The differences in horizontal displacement were not significant between the groups. In each group, vertical CD was more evident than horizontal displacement was. Conclusions All facial types, especially the hyperdivergent type, carried a significantly high risk of CD. Therefore, the possibility of CD should be carefully evaluated and considered in the assessment of all orthodontic cases in order to accurately assess jaw relationships and avoid possible misdiagnosis. PMID:25473647

  19. Flow measurement of liquid hydrocarbons with positive displacement meters: the correction for slippage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berrocal, Agustín; Montalvo, Cristina; Blázquez, Juan; Balbás, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    In the oil industry, the economical and fiscal impact of the measurements accuracy on the custody transfer operations implies fulfilling strict requirements of legal metrology. In this work, we focus on the positive displacement meters (PD meters) for refined liquid hydrocarbons. The state of the art of the lack of accuracy due to slippage flow in these meters is revised. The slippage flow due to the pressure drop across the device has been calculated analytically by applying the Navier-Stokes equation. No friction with any wall of the slippage channel has been neglected and a more accurate formula than the one found in the literature has been obtained. PD meters are calibrated against a bidirectional prover in order to obtain their meter factor which allows correction of their indications. Instead of the analytical model, an empirical one is proposed to explain the variation of the meter factor of the PD meters with flow rate and temperature for a certain hydrocarbon. The empirical model is based on the historical calibration data, of 9 years on average, of 25 m with four types of refined hydrocarbon. This model has been statistically validated by linear least-squares fitting. By using the model parameters, we can obtain the meter factor corresponding to different conditions of temperature and flow rate from the conditions in which the devices were calibrated. The flow parameter is such that a 10% flow rate variation implies a meter factor variation lower than 0.01%. A rule of thumb value for the temperature parameter is 0.005% per degree Celsius. The model residuals allow surveillance of the device drift and quantifying its contribution to the meter factor uncertainty. The observed drift is 0.09% at 95% confidence level in the analyzed population of meters.

  20. Computerized method for measurement of displacement vectors of target positions on EPID cine images in stereotactic radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Anai, Shigeo; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nomoto, Satoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Yoshihiko; Terashima, Hiromi

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computerized method for measurement of displacement vectors of target position on electronic portal imaging device (EPID) cine images in a treatment without implanted markers. Our proposed method was based on a template matching technique with cross-correlation coefficient between a reference portal (RP) image and each consecutive portal (CP) image acquired by the EPID. EPID images with 512×384 pixels (pixel size:0.56 mm) were acquired in a cine mode at a sampling rate of 0.5 frame/sec by using an energy of 4, 6, or 10MV on linear accelerators. The displacement vector of the target on each cine image was determined from the position in which took the maximum cross-correlation value between the RP image and each CP image. We applied our method to EPID cine images of a lung phantom with a tumor model simulating respiratory motion, and 5 cases with a non-small cell lung cancer and one case of metastasis. For validation of our proposed method, displacement vectors of a target position calculated by our method were compared with those determined manually by two radiation oncologists. As a result, for lung phantom images, target displacements by our method correlated well with those by the oncologists (r=0.972 - 0.994). Correlation values for 4 cases ranged from 0.854 to 0.991, but the values for the other two cases were 0.609 and 0.644. This preliminary result suggested that our method may be useful for monitoring of displacement vectors of target positions without implanted markers in stereotactic radiotherapy.

  1. Adjusting and positioning method with high displacement resolution for large-load worktable based on the invariable restoring force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingzhi; Sun, Tao; Gu, Wei; Wen, Zhongpu; Guo, Tenghui

    2015-02-01

    With the fast development of the advanced equipment manufacturing toward precision and ultra-precision trend, especially with the continuously improving of the aviation engine's performance, the problem of high displacement resolution for the large-load two-dimension adjusting and positioning worktable used for the aeroengine assembling become evident. A method was proposed which is based on the invariable restoring force, and the adjusting and positioning physical model was established. The experiment results indicate that under the occasion of a load with 508 kilogram, the worktable has got a displacement resolution of 0.3μm after using the improved method compared to 1.4μm of the traditional method. The improved method could meet the requirements of aviation engine assembling worktable.

  2. Rotating and positive-displacement pumps for low-thrust rocket engines. Volume 2: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.

    1974-01-01

    Rotating and positive displacement pumps of various types were studied for pumping liquid fluorine for low thrust high performance rocket engines. Included in the analysis were: centrifugal, pitot, Barske, Tesla, drag, gear, vane, axial piston, radial piston, diaphragm and helirotor pump concepts. The centrifugal and gear pumps were carried through detail design and fabrication. After preliminary testing in Freon 12, the centrifugal pump was selected for further testing and development. It was tested in Freon 12 to obtain the hydrodynamic performance. Tests were also conducted in liquid fluorine to demonstrate chemical compatibility.

  3. The effect of expansion-ratio limitations on positive-displacement, total-flow geothermal power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1982-02-01

    Combined steam-turbine/positive-displacement engine (PDE) geothermal power systems are analyzed thermodynamically and compared with optimized reference flash-steam plants. Three different configurations of combined systems are considered. Treated separately are the cases of self-flowing and pumped wells. Two strategies are investigated that help overcome the inherent expansion-ratio limitation of PDE's: pre-flashing and pre-mixing. Parametrically-obtained results show the required minimum PDE efficiency for the combined system to match the reference plant for various sets of design conditions.

  4. Eddy current position indicating apparatus for measuring displacements of core components of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Day, Clifford K.; Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring displacements of core components of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor by means of an eddy current probe. The active portion of the probe is located within a dry thimble which is supported on a stationary portion of the reactor core support structure. Split rings of metal, having a resistivity significantly different than sodium, are fixedly mounted on the core component to be monitored. The split rings are slidably positioned around, concentric with the probe and symmetrically situated along the axis of the probe so that motion of the ring along the axis of the probe produces a proportional change in the probes electrical output.

  5. HIV positive men as fathers: Accounts of displacement, ir/responsibility and paternal emergence.

    PubMed

    Highton, Sean; Finn, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    It is now apparent that socio-cultural constructions of masculinity variously impact men's experiences of their HIV positive status, yet how being a father can feature in this mix remains under-researched. This study employed in-depth semi-structured interviews and Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis to explore the accounts of six self-identifying heterosexual fathers (four Black African migrants, two White European) who had been living with HIV from 5 to 24 years. While the HIV-related literature calls for the need to subvert 'traditional' expressions of masculinity as a means of promoting HIV prevention and HIV health, we argue that the lived experience for HIV positive men as fathers is more socially, discursively and thus more psychologically nuanced. We illustrate this by highlighting ways in which HIV positive men as fathers are not simply making sense of themselves as a HIV positive man for whom the modern (new) man and father positions are useful strategies for adapting to HIV and combating associated stigma. Discourses of modern and patriarchal fatherhoods, a gender-specific discourse of irresponsibility and the neoliberal conflation of heath and self-responsibility are also at work in the sense-making frames that HIV positive men, who are also fathers, can variously deploy. Our analysis shows how this discursive mix can underpin possibilities of often conflicted meaning and identity when living as a man and father with HIV in the United Kingdom, and specifically how discourses of fatherhood and HIV 'positive' health can complicate these men's expressions and inhabitations of masculinity. PMID:25908642

  6. The noncavitating performance and life of a small vane-type positive displacement pump in liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbricht, T. E.; Hemminger, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The low flow rate and high head rise requirements of hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion systems make the application of centrifugal pumps difficult. Positive displacement pumps are well-suited for these flow conditions, but little is known about their performance and life characteristics in liquid hydrogen. An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine the performance and life characteristics of a vane-type, positive displacement pump. In the experimental part of this effort, mass flow rate and shaft torque were determined as functions of shaft speed and pump pressure rise. Since liquid hydrogen offers little lubrication in a rubbing situation, pump life is an issue. During the life test, the pump was operated intermittently for 10 hr at the steady-state point of 0.074 lbm/sec (0.03 kg/sec) flow rate, 3000 psid (2.07 MPa) pressure rise, and 9000 rpm (938 rad/sec) shaft speed. Pump performance was monitored during the life test series and the results indicated no loss in performance. Material loss from the vanes was recorded and wear of the other components was documented. In the analytical part of this effort, a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code, developed in-house, was used to predict pump performance. The results of the experimental investigation are presented and compared with the results of the analysis. Results of the life test are also presented.

  7. The noncavitating performance and life of a small vane-type positive displacement pump in liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbricht, T. E.; Hemminger, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The low flow rate and high head rise requirements of hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion systems make the application of centrifugal pumps difficult. Positive displacement pumps are well-suited for these flow conditions, but little is known about their performance and life characteristics in liquid hydrogen. An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine the performance and life characteristics of a vane-type, positive displacement pump. In the experimental part of this effort, mass flow rate and shaft torque were determined as functions of shaft speed and pump pressure rise. Since liquid hydrogen offers little lubrication in a rubbing situation, pump life is an issue. During the life test, the pump was operated intermittently for 10 hr at the steady-state point of 0.074 lbm/sec (0.03 kg/sec) flow rate, 3000 psid (2.07 MPa) pressure rise, and 8000 rpm (838 rad/sec) shaft speed. Pump performance was monitored during the life test series and the results indicated no loss in performance. Material loss from the vanes was recorded and wear of the other components was documented. In the analytical part of this effort, a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code, developed in-house, was used to predict pump performance. The results of the experimental investigation are presented and compared with the results of the analysis. Results of the life test are also presented.

  8. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che; Junet, Laila Kalidah

    2015-04-01

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom's hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed` that, Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.

  9. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    SciTech Connect

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Junet, Laila Kalidah; Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che

    2015-04-24

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.

  10. An advanced CFD model to study the effect of non-condensable gas on cavitation in positive displacement pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannetti, Aldo; Stickland, Matthew T.; Dempster, William M.

    2015-09-01

    An advanced transient CFD model of a positive displacement reciprocating pump was created to study its behavior and performance in cavitating condition during the inlet stroke. The "full" cavitation model developed by Singhal et al. was utilized, and a sensitivity analysis test on two air mass fraction amounts (1.5 and 15 parts per million) was carried out to study the influence of the dissolved air content in water on the cavitation phenomenon. The model was equipped with user defined functions to introduce the liquid compressibility, which stabilizes the simulation, and to handle the two-way coupling between the pressure field and the inlet valve lift history. Estimation of the performance is also presented in both cases.

  11. Predicting positive mental health in internally displaced persons in Indonesia: the roles of economic improvement and exposure to violent conflict.

    PubMed

    Saragih Turnip, Sherly; Sörbom, Dag; Hauff, Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Positive mental health, rather than just the absence of mental illness, is rarely investigated among the internally displaced persons (IDPs) affected by violent conflict in low-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate a model that could explain the interrelationship between factors contributing to positive mental health in displaced populations. In a longitudinal study we examine poverty, exposure to traumatic events and the change of material well-being after one year. We collected data in two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) from a community-based sample of IDPs in Ambon, Indonesia, through face-to-face structured interviews with consenting adults. Participants of this study were IDPs lived in Ambon during the violent conflict period. We interviewed 471 IDPs in the first year and reinterviewed 399 (85%) of the same subjects in the second year. The IDPs possessed good sense of coherence and subjective well-being. Our final model, which was generated by the use of structural equation modeling, fits the data well (χ(2) = 52.51, df = 45, p = .21, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .019). Exposure to violent conflict had a negative impact on IDPs' mental health initially and better economic conditions improved it (r = -.30 and .29 respectively). Mental health status one year previously was a strong predictor of future mental health, followed by individual economic growth in the past year (r = .43 and .29 respectively). On a group level the IDPs were resilient and adaptive to survive in adverse living conditions after devastating violent conflict, and the economic improvement contributed to it. PMID:26059612

  12. Simultaneous piston position and tilt angle sensing for large vertical displacement micromirrors by frequency detection inductive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, V. F.-G.; Xie, H.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a frequency detection based inductive eddy current sensing mechanism to simultaneously sense the piston position and tilt angle of the mirror plate of large vertical displacement micromirrors that exhibit piston scan ranges above 100 μm. This is accomplished by sensing the inductance change, and thus resonant frequency shift, of two microfabricated sensing coils packaged underneath the mirror plate. For demonstration purpose, the coils were paired with discrete circuit components to oscillate at 11.9 MHz and 12.5 MHz, respectively. The piston position and tilt angle of the mirror plate could be simultaneously monitored over a 500 μm piston scan range, achieving a maximum piston sensitivity of 4.15 kHz/μm with a piston sensing resolution of 96 nm and a maximum tilt angle sensitivity of 60.5 kHz/° with a tilt angle sensing resolution of 0.0013°. Analytical modeling of the coil inductance change via image theory was also conducted, showing that the sensor sensitivity and resolution could be improved by increasing the coil oscillation frequency and decreasing the coil size.

  13. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  14. Comparison of a tube-holder (Rescuefix) versus tape-tying for minimizing double-lumen tube displacement during lateral positioning in thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sung Hye; Kang, Su Hwang; Kim, Jong Hae; Ryu, Taeha; Kim, Baek Jin; Jung, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Double-lumen endotracheal tubes (DLTs) are often displaced during change from the supine to the lateral decubitus position. The aim of this study was to determine whether Rescuefix, a recently developed tube-holder device, is more effective than the traditional tape-tying method for tube security during lateral positioning. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to a Rescuefix (R) group (n = 22) or a tape (T) group (n = 22). After intubation with a left-sided DLT and adjustment of the appropriate DLT position using a fiberoptic bronchoscope, the DLT was fixed firmly at the side of the mouth by either Rescuefix or Durapore tape. “Tracheal depth” (from the tracheal carina to the elbow connector of the DLT) and “bronchial depth” (from the left bronchial carina to the elbow connector of the DLT) were measured in the supine position using the fiberoptic bronchoscope. After positional change, tracheal and bronchial depths were measured as described above. As the primary endpoint, displacement of the DLT during positional change was evaluated by obtaining the difference in depths measured when the patient was in the supine and lateral decubitus positions. In addition, after lateral positioning of the patient, any requirement for repositioning the DLT was recorded. Results: After lateral positioning, there were no significant differences in changes in tracheal and bronchial depths between the groups (tracheal depth 6.1 ± 4.4 mm [R group] and 9.1 ± 5.6 mm [T group], P = 0.058; bronchial depth 6.5 ± 4.4 mm [R group], and 8.5 ± 4.6 mm [T group], P = 0.132). Although the amount of change in tracheal and bronchial depths was not different between the groups, the need to reposition the DLT was significantly lower in the R group than in the T group (32% vs 68%, P = 0.016). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that use of Rescuefix did not reduce the amount of DLT displacement, but it did significantly

  15. The Influence of Treatment Position (Prone vs. Supine) on Clip Displacement, Seroma, Tumor Bed and Partial Breast Target Volumes: Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Lakosi, Ferenc; Gulyban, Akos; Simoni, Selma Ben-Mustapha; Nguyen, Paul Viet; Cucchiaro, Séverine; Seidel, Laurence; Janvary, Levente; Nicolas, Sophie; Vavassis, Peter; Coucke, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    To analyse the displacement of surgical clips in prone (Pr) position and assess the consequences on target volumes and integral dose of partial breast irradiation (PBI). 30 post-lumpectomy breast cancer patients underwent CT imaging in supine (Su) and Pr. Clip displacements were measured by the distances from the clips to a common fix bony reference point. On each dataset, the tumour bed (TB = clips ± seroma), clinical target volume (CTV = TB + 1.5 cm) and planning target volumes (PTV = CTV + 1 cm) for PBI were determined and the volume pairs were compared. Furthermore estimation of integral dose ratio (IDR) within the breast from tangential treatment was performed as the ratio of the irradiated breast volume and the volume encompassing all clips. Clips close to the chest wall (CW) in Su showed significantly less displacement in Pr. The mean volumes of seroma, CTV and PTV were significantly higher in Pr than in Su. The PTV volume difference (Pr-Su) was significantly higher in patients with presence of seroma, deep clips and TB location in the superior-internal-quadrant (SIQ) and at the junction of superior quadrants (jSQ). In a multivariate analysis two factors remained significant: seroma and TB localization in SIQ-jSQ. The IDR was significantly larger in Su than in Pr (7.6 vs. 4.1 p < 0.01). Clip displacements varied considerably with respect to their relative position to the CW. In selected patients Pr position potentially leads to a significant increase in target volumes of PBI. Tangential beam arrangement for PBI should be avoided, not only in Su but in Pr as well in case of clip-based target volume definition. PMID:26676979

  16. A new method for detecting the abomasal position and characteristics of movement at the onset of the left displacement of the abomasum in cows.

    PubMed

    Itoh, N; Egawa, M; Kitazawa, T; Ueda, M; Koiwa, M

    2006-09-01

    A new method has been developed by us to observe the movements of the abomasum by using a magnet and digital magnetometer. Four cows with left displacement of the abomasum underwent conventional correction by rolling without tacking. A doughnut-type magnet was sutured to the pyloric region in a routine operation. The same was done in three control cows. The position of the pyloric region was observed with a digital magnetometer from outside the cow's body. The magnets in the pyloric region of the control cows were located at the right side of the abdominal cavity at 10-30 cm anterior to the udder base, and moved slightly in various directions within the span of a day. On the other hand, the magnets in the pyloric region of cows with abomasal displacement moved widely in the abdominal cavity from the normal right side to the abnormal left front side. A large movement of the magnet from the normal right side to the abnormal left side of the abdominal cavity was observed within 12 h of the onset of abomasal displacement. PMID:16922837

  17. Rotating and positive-displacement pumps for low-thrust rocket engines. Volume 1: Pump Evaluation and design. [of centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, C.; Csomor, A.

    1974-01-01

    Rotating and positive displacement pumps of various types were studied for pumping liquid fluorine for low-thrust, high-performance rocket engines. Included in the analysis were: centrifugal, pitot, Barske, Tesla, drag, gear, vane, axial piston, radial piston, diaphragm, and helirotor pump concepts. The centrifugal pump and the gear pump were selected and these were carried through detailed design and fabrication. Mechanical difficulties were encountered with the gear pump during the preliminary tests in Freon-12. Further testing and development was therefore limited to the centrifugal pump. Tests on the centrifugal pump were conducted in Freon-12 to determine the hydrodynamic performance and in liquid fluorine to demonstrate chemical compatibility.

  18. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  19. Finite element analysis of maxillary incisor displacement during en-masse retraction according to orthodontic mini-implant position

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Won; Lim, Joong-Ki; Lee, Kee-Joon; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chun, Youn-Sic

    2016-01-01

    Objective Orthodontic mini-implants (OMI) generate various horizontal and vertical force vectors and moments according to their insertion positions. This study aimed to help select ideal biomechanics during maxillary incisor retraction by varying the length in the anterior retraction hook (ARH) and OMI position. Methods Two extraction models were constructed to analyze the three-dimentional finite element: a first premolar extraction model (Model 1, M1) and a residual 1-mm space post-extraction model (Model 2, M2). The OMI position was set at a height of 8 mm from the arch wire between the second maxillary premolar and the first molar (low OMI traction) or at a 12-mm height in the mesial second maxillary premolar (high OMI traction). Retraction force vectors of 200 g from the ARH (-1, +1, +3, and +6 mm) at low or high OMI traction were resolved into X-, Y-, and Z-axis components. Results In M1 (low and high OMI traction) and M2 (low OMI traction), the maxillary incisor tip was extruded, but the apex was intruded, and the occlusal plane was rotated clockwise. Significant intrusion and counter-clockwise rotation in the occlusal plane were observed under high OMI traction and -1 mm ARH in M2. Conclusions This study observed orthodontic tooth movement according to the OMI position and ARH height, and M2 under high OMI traction with short ARH showed retraction with maxillary incisor intrusion. PMID:27478801

  20. Droplet distributions from melt displacement and ejection mechanism during Al ns-laser ablation and deposition experiments: Influence of laser spot position

    SciTech Connect

    Cultrera, L.; Lorusso, A.; Maiolo, B.; Cangueiro, L.; Vilar, R.; Perrone, A.

    2014-03-07

    Experimental observations of the angular distribution of droplets during laser ablation and deposition of Al thin films are presented and discussed. The experimental results, obtained by simply moving the laser spot position with respect to the rotation axis of the target, allow clarification of the unexpected symmetric double peaked angular droplet distribution on the films. These results provide direct evidence that a laser fluence threshold exists, beyond which droplets are generated from a melt displacement and ejection mechanism rather than from a phase explosion. The main directions of particulate ejection are related to the particular geometry of the laser generated tracks, whose profiles depend on the relative position of the incident beam with respect to the rotation axis of the target.

  1. 18,000 displacement vectors and 44 positions surveys of RFID tracers show a normal diffusion of the bedload in a proglacial stream (Bossons glacier, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, Hervé; Mugnier, Jean-Louis; Buoncristiani, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Bedload transport is a stochastic process during which each particle hops for a random length then rests for a random duration. In recent years, this probabilistic approach was investigated by theoretical models, numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. These experiments are generally carried out on short time scales with sand, but underline the diffusive behaviour of the bedload. Conversely, marked pebbles in natural streams have mainly be used to infer about transport processes and transport time of the bedload. In this study, the stochastic characteristics of bedload transport are inferred from the radio-frequency identification (RFID) of pebbles. In particular, we provide insights for answering the following question : is the bedload transport sub-diffusive, normally diffusive or super-diffusive at the long time scale (i.e. global range)? Experiments designed to investigate the phenomenology of bedload transport have been carried out in the proglacial area of Bossons glacier. This 350 m long alluvial plain exhibits daily flood from the glacial system and is still redistributing material from catastrophic events pre-dating our investigations. From 2011 to 2014, the position of the ˜ 1000 RFID tracers have been measured by a mobile antenna and a differential GPS during 44 surveys providing ˜ 2500 tracer positions. Additionnaly, in 2014, 650 new tracers were seeded upstream from a static RFID antenna located at the outlet of the study area. For the 1 to 32 cm fraction surveyed, both mobile and static antenna results show no evidence for a significant export outside of the surveyed zone. Initial data have been maximized by using each possible campaign pairs leading to ˜700 campaign pairs and more than 18,000 displacement vectors. To our knowledge, this is one of the most extensive dataset of tracers positions measured in a natural stream using the RFID methodology. Using 152 campaigns pairs with at least 20 retrieved tracers,r standard probability

  2. Synthesis of finite displacements and displacements in continental margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speed, R. C.; Elison, M. W.; Heck, F. R.; Russo, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    The scope of the project is the analysis of displacement-rate fields in the transitional regions between cratonal and oceanic lithospheres over Phanerozoic time (last 700 ma). Associated goals are an improved understanding of range of widths of major displacement zones; the partition of displacement gradients and rotations with position and depth in such zones; the temporal characteristics of such zones-the steadiness, episodicity, and duration of uniform versus nonunifrom fields; and the mechanisms and controls of the establishment and kinematics of displacement zones. The objective is to provide a context of time-averaged kinematics of displacement zones. The initial phase is divided topically among the methodology of measurement and reduction of displacements in the lithosphere and the preliminary analysis from geologic and other data of actual displacement histories from the Cordillera, Appalachians, and southern North America.

  3. Changes in the feed intake, pH and osmolality of rumen fluid, and the position of the abomasum of eight dairy cows during a diet-induced left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Van Winden, S C L; Brattinga, C R; Müller, K E; Schonewille, J Th; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Beynen, A C

    2004-04-17

    During the last six weeks of the dry period, eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a restricted amount of grass silage; after calving, a mixture of maize silage and concentrates was offered in a feeding regimen designed to induce a displacement of the abomasum. In the first month after calving, the cows were monitored for the following variables: feed intake and composition, milk production, the position of the abomasum, and the pH and osmolality of the rumen contents. In five of the eight cows, a left displacement of the abomasum occurred between four and 21 days after calving in the absence of other diseases. The displacement was temporary, lasting between five and 36 consecutive hours and one or two days in two of the cows (floaters), and for three or more days in the other three. Before these three cows developed the displacement, their abomasum was 4.3 to 7.9 cm higher, its contents had a higher mean osmolality (+19.2 mosmol/kg), and the ratio of roughage to concentrates in their feed was lower (-0.87) than in the three cows that did not develop clinical signs of a displaced abomasum. There were no significant differences in these variables between the floaters and the healthy cows. PMID:15130056

  4. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  5. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  6. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  7. Systems for producing precise movements of a joint over a wide range of speeds and displacements for tests of a static-position sense.

    PubMed

    Clark, F J; Burgess, R C

    1987-03-01

    This report describes 3 types of apparatus that were used to produce precise movements of a joint over a wide range of speeds and angles. The designs feature an ability for ultra slow rotation of the joint (fractions of a degree per min) with a minimum of extraneous cues. Two designs use servo-controlled DC motors configured as velocity servos and a third design uses a galvanometer motor configured as a position servo. Originally designed for use with humans in studies of proprioception with the ankle and two joints of the index finger (the metacarpophalangeal joint and proximal interphalangeal joint), the apparatuses should be useful in a variety of applications where precise control of velocity and position is needed. PMID:3573811

  8. Variable displacement blower

    DOEpatents

    Bookout, Charles C.; Stotts, Robert E.; Waring, Douglass R.; Folsom, Lawrence R.

    1986-01-01

    A blower having a stationary casing for rotatably supporting a rotor assembly having a series of open ended chambers arranged to close against the surrounding walls of the casing. Pistons are slidably mounted within each chamber with the center of rotation of the pistons being offset in regard to the center of rotation of the rotor assembly whereby the pistons reciprocate in the chambers as the rotor assembly turns. As inlet port communicates with the rotor assembly to deliver a working substance into the chamber as the pistons approach a top dead center position in the chamber while an outlet port also communicates with the rotor to exhaust the working substance as the pistons approach a bottom dead center position. The displacement of the blower is varied by adjusting the amount of eccentricity between the center of rotation of the pistons and the center of rotation of the rotor assembly.

  9. Rotor Displacement of the Ultrasonic Motor Having an Angular Displacement Self-Correction Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoduo; Kusakabe, Chiharu; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Takano, Takehiro

    1993-09-01

    This paper deals with the experimental investigation for confirmation of rotor displacement of the ultrasonic stepping motor having an angular displacement self-correction function. The experiment focused on the relationship between the rotor’s vibration displacement and its staying position for the self-correction. The result proved that the rotor always stays at the position where the displacement is smallest by cutting a slit into the rotor. Moreover, it has also been found that the stable self-correction of rotor angular displacement depends upon both the rotor driving frequency and rotor clamping force.

  10. Dual pressure displacement control system

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, J.E.; Klocke, C.C.

    1988-02-02

    This patent describes a dual pressure servo control system for a variable displacement hydraulic unit having displacement setting means positioned by a hydraulic servo mechanism. The hydraulic unit is provided with main loop lines at least one of which is capable of being subjected to high main loop pressure during operation of the hydraulic unit, a control line including a displacement control valve providing a controlled flow of fluid under pressure to the servo mechanism, and a source of fluid under pressure for the control line comprising a low pressure source connected to the control line through a check valve and high pressure source comprising of a high pressure control line connected to the control line downstream of the check valve. The high pressure control line includes a flow restriction limiting flow to the control line means and generating a significant flow induced pressure drop in the high pressure control line once movement in the servo mechanism is initiated.

  11. Positive Displacement Compressor Technology for Refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi

    Trends of compressor technologies for refrigerators, freezers and condensing units are presented in this paper. HFC refrigerants such as R134a and R404C are promising candidates as an altemative for R12. Performance of reciprocating and rotary compressors in the operation with R134A is described. In addition, compressor technologies such as efficiency improvement are described in the cases of reciprocating, rotary and scroll compressors.

  12. Positive Displacement Compressor Technology for Air Congitioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi

    Trends of compressor technologies for air conditioners are presented in this paper. HFC refrigerants such is R410A and R407C are promising candidates as an alternative for R22. Performance of rotary and scroll compressors in the operation with R410A and R407C are described. In addition, compressor technologies such as efficiency improvement, reliability and simulation methods are described in both cases of rotary and scroll compressors. Advanced compressor technologies developed for air conditioners are desired in the field of the global environment protection and the energy saving.

  13. Perceived displacement explains wolfpack effect.

    PubMed

    Šimkovic, Matúš; Träuble, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent's body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent's orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas with agents pointing toward the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent's pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent's body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent's body. PMID:25566114

  14. Displacement damage in bit error ratio performance of on-off keying, pulse position modulation, differential phase shift keying, and homodyne binary phase-shift keying-based optical intersatellite communication system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Shanghong; Gong, Zizheng; Zhao, Jing; Dong, Chen; Li, Xuan

    2016-04-10

    Displacement damage (DD) effect induced bit error ratio (BER) performance degradations in on-off keying (OOK), pulse position modulation (PPM), differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), and homodyne binary phase shift keying (BPSK) based systems were simulated and discussed under 1 MeV neutron irradiation to a total fluence of 1×1012  n/cm2 in this paper. Degradation of main optoelectronic devices included in communication systems were analyzed on the basis of existing experimental data. The system BER degradation was subsequently simulated and the variations of BER with different neutron irradiation location were also achieved. The result shows that DD on an Er-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is the dominant cause of system degradation, and a BPSK-based system performs better than the other three systems against DD. In order to improve radiation hardness of communication systems against DD, protection and enhancement of EDFA are required, and the use of a homodyne BPSK modulation scheme is a considered choice. PMID:27139876

  15. Optical measuring displacement transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dich, L. Z.

    1994-09-01

    Trends in the development and production of photoelectric displacement transducers are analyzed. The technical characteristics of certain transducers are briefly presented. A table of comparisons is given, based on available information sources.

  16. Internal displacement in Burma.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced. PMID:11026156

  17. Clinical outcome of arthroscopic reduction and suture for displaced acute and chronic tibial spine fractures.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports the clinical outcome of the arthroscopic reduction and pull-out suture technique in acute and chronic displaced tibial spine anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fractures. Between April 1997 and December 2000, 14 patients received an arthroscopic reduction and pull-out suturing of displaced tibial spine fractures (ACL avulsion fractures of tibia). Of 14 cases, ten were acute fractures and four were chronic nonunion fractures, in which all patients showed extension limitation. The mean follow-up period was 51 months (ranging from 30 to 80 months). At final follow-up, review of range of motion, Lachman test, anterior drawer test, KT-2000 arthrometer, Lysholm knee score, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score were evaluated. Compared to conventional pull-out suturing, several key modifications to surgical techniques were used. In all 14 patients, radiological bony union was detected at mean 12.3 weeks (range, 8-16 weeks) after surgery. All patients were able to return to their preinjury activity and sports level. At final follow-up, full range of motion was achieved in all patients. Anterior draw test, Lachman test, and KT-2000 (less than 3 mm side-to-side) were all negative in 13 patients. One female patient, who was 6 years old at the time of surgery, complained of no subjective instability, but showed Lachman grade I, and 5 mm side-to-side difference in KT-2000. She also revealed 10 degrees difference of genu recurvatum deformity. Two children (including the previously-mentioned 6-year-old female patient) showed leg-length discrepancy of 1 cm-the affected legs being longer-at final follow-up. The mean Lysholm knee scores were 95.6 (range, 92-100) and HSS knee scores were 96.4 (range, 91-100). Arthroscopic reduction with modified pull-out suturing technique in displaced tibial spine ACL avulsion fractures showed excellent union rate for both acute and chronic cases, without instability or extension limitations at minimum two

  18. Optical displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Dustin W.

    2008-04-08

    An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

  19. Polymerase chain displacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire L; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma J; Olson, Ken E; Alphey, Luke; Fu, Guoliang

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative PCR assays are now the standard method for viral diagnostics. These assays must be specific, as well as sensitive, to detect the potentially low starting copy number of viral genomic material. We describe a new technique, polymerase chain displacement reaction (PCDR), which uses multiple nested primers in a rapid, capped, one-tube reaction that increases the sensitivity of normal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Sensitivity was increased by approximately 10-fold in a proof-of-principle test on dengue virus sequence. In PCDR, when extension occurs from the outer primer, it displaces the extension strand produced from the inner primer by utilizing a polymerase that has strand displacement activity. This allows a greater than 2-fold increase of amplification product for each amplification cycle and therefore increased sensitivity and speed over conventional PCR. Increased sensitivity in PCDR would be useful in nucleic acid detection for viral diagnostics. PMID:23384180

  20. The photoelectric displacement converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoner, Valeriu V.

    2005-02-01

    In the article are examined questions of constructing photoelectric displacement converter satisfying demands that are stated above. Converter has channels of approximate and precise readings. The approximate reading may be accomplished either by the method of reading from a code mask or by the method of the consecutive calculation of optical scale gaps number. Phase interpolator of mouar strips" gaps is determined as a precise measuring. It is shown mathematical model of converter that allow evaluating errors and operating speed of conversion.

  1. Tunable beam displacer

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar-Serrano, Luis José; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P.

    2015-03-15

    We report the implementation of a tunable beam displacer, composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and two mirrors, that divides an initially polarized beam into two parallel beams whose separation can be continuously tuned. The two output beams are linearly polarized with either vertical or horizontal polarization and no optical path difference is introduced between them. The wavelength dependence of the device as well as the maximum separation between the beams achievable is limited mainly by the PBS characteristics.

  2. RTV 21 Displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-02-04

    A seal is needed for the cover of the Nitrogen Test Vessel in order to prevent leakage of the N{sub 2} gas. This seal is to be molded out of RTV 21. In this experiment, the Modulus of Elasticity of the RTV was sought after, and the displacements of the RTV due to various stresses were measured to see if they were large enough to provide a tight seal between the vessel and its cover.

  3. Alginate as a displacer for protein displacement chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Scouten, W H

    1996-01-01

    Alginate use in displacement chromatography as a displacer has been studied. The experiments showed that untreated alginate is the basis of potential displacer for displacement chromatography, but needs to be cleaved into smaller chains. Alginate treated with ultrasound, which cleaves alginate into shorter polysaccharide chains, gave better displacement than untreated alginate, while alginate subjected to limited acid hydrolysis gave the best results in displacement chromatography. It was found that the mixture of ovalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin separated well, and several components of ovalbumin were also separated and purified when alginate hydrolysate was used as a displacer. beta-Lactoglobulins A and B, which have the same molecular weight and differ in isoelectric point by only 0.1 pH units, were displaced from Q-Sepharose by alginate hydrolysate. PMID:9174919

  4. Genetics of bovine abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Zerbin, Ina; Lehner, Stefanie; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-04-01

    Displacement of the abomasum (DA) is a common inherited condition in Holstein cows. This article reviews the genetics of DA including risk factors, genetic parameters and molecular genetic results. Breeds other than Holsteins affected by DA include Guernseys, Jerseys, Brown Swiss, Ayrshires and Simmental-Red Holsteins. In most DA cases, left displacements of the abomasum (LDA) are seen. Lactation incidence rates are higher for DA in first lactation Holsteins compared to later lactations. For Holstein cows, heritability estimates for DA are between 0.03 and 0.53. Genetic correlation estimates among DA and milk production traits range from positive to negative. Genome-wide significant genomic regions associated with LDA are located on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 1, 3, 11, 20 and 23. Motilin-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA23 exhibit a functional relationship with LDA. Pathways for deposition of calcium, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and synaptic transmission are significantly related to LDA in Holsteins. Deciphering the DA-associated genomic regions and genes may be an important step in the quest to understand the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and in unravelling mutations with a causal relationship to DA. PMID:25840863

  5. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    SciTech Connect

    Sommars, Mark F.

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  6. An Ion Displacement Membrane Model

    PubMed Central

    Hladky, Stephen B.; Harris, Joseph D.

    1967-01-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented. PMID:6048876

  7. An electromechanical displacement transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villiers, Marius; Mahboob, Imran; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Hatanaka, Daiki; Fujiwara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Two modes of an electromechanical resonator are coupled through the strain inside the structure with a cooperativity as high as 107, a state-of-the-art value for purely mechanical systems, which enables the observation of normal-mode splitting. This coupling is exploited to transduce the resonator’s fundamental mode into the bandwidth of the second flexural mode, which is 1.4 MHz higher in frequency. Thus, an all-mechanical heterodyne detection scheme is implemented that can be developed into a high-precision displacement sensor.

  8. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes. PMID:20132270

  9. Adapting to variable prismatic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Robert B.; Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1989-01-01

    In each of two studies, subjects were exposed to a continuously changing prismatic displacement with a mean value of 19 prism diopters (variable displacement) and to a fixed 19-diopter displacement (fixed displacement). In Experiment 1, significant adaptation (post-pre shifts in hand-eye coordination) was found for fixed, but not for variable, displacement. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adaptation was obtained for variable displacement, but it was very fragile and is lost if the measures of adaptation are preceded by even a very brief exposure of the hand to normal or near-normal vision. Contrary to the results of some previous studies, an increase in within-S dispersion was not found of target pointing responses as a result of exposure to variable displacement.

  10. Displacement measurement of the depth migration of transparent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ishimaru, Ichirou; Ishizaki, Katsumi; Yasokawa, Toshiki; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nakai, Seiji; Takegawa, Kaoru; Tanaka, Naoyuki

    2006-12-11

    This letter reports a method for displacement measurement of the depth migration of transparent cells. This proposed optical spatial filtering method allows visualization of the transparent cells and determination of depth migration as a horizontal displacement positive or negative first order diffracted light on the detector surface. When the sample is displaced upward or downward from the focal plane, first and negative first order diffracted light form images at a different point as a light circle. The coordinates of these two light circles on the detector surface change places when the displacement of depth migration moves to the opposite direction.

  11. Strategies for displacing oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  12. Fiber optic multimode displacement sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.A.; Jarzynski, J.

    1996-04-01

    An underwater Optical Motion Sensor (OMS) based on a design first presented by W. B. Spillman, {ital Schlieren} {ital multimode} {ital fiber}-{ital optic} {ital hydrophone}, Applied Physics Letters 37(2), 15 July 1980, p. 145{endash}146 is described. The displacement sensor uses the same acoustooptical intensity modulation mechanism as Spillman, however the sensing mechanism is isolated from the ambient fluid environment by a small cylindrical aluminum enclosure (1{double_prime} OD{times}3/4{double_prime}). The enclosure contains an inertial mass and the fiber collimators. The inertial mass is suspended in the center of the enclosure by three small wires rigidly mounted to the walls. The mass and wires act as a cantilever beam system with a mechanical resonance near 100 Hz. The transduction mechanism consists of two opposed optical gratings aligned and positioned between the fiber collimators. One grating is mounted on the inertial mass while the other is mounted on the lower end cap of the enclosure. Relative motion between the gratings causes a modulation of the light transmitted through the gratings. The modulated beam is focused onto a photodetector and converted to electric current. The frequency response is flat from 200 Hz{endash}9 kHz with a minimum detectable displacement of 0.002 A and the dynamic range is 136 dB. The small size and light weight give the sensor an effective density of 1.08 g/cm{sup 3} making it almost neutrally buoyant in water. This in conjunction with the performance characteristics make this sensor suitable for use in acoustical sensing applications. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  14. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  15. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  16. Computing Fault Displacements from Surface Deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyzenga, Gregory; Parker, Jay; Donnellan, Andrea; Panero, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Simplex is a computer program that calculates locations and displacements of subterranean faults from data on Earth-surface deformations. The calculation involves inversion of a forward model (given a point source representing a fault, a forward model calculates the surface deformations) for displacements, and strains caused by a fault located in isotropic, elastic half-space. The inversion involves the use of nonlinear, multiparameter estimation techniques. The input surface-deformation data can be in multiple formats, with absolute or differential positioning. The input data can be derived from multiple sources, including interferometric synthetic-aperture radar, the Global Positioning System, and strain meters. Parameters can be constrained or free. Estimates can be calculated for single or multiple faults. Estimates of parameters are accompanied by reports of their covariances and uncertainties. Simplex has been tested extensively against forward models and against other means of inverting geodetic data and seismic observations. This work

  17. Which displaced spiral tibial shaft fractures can be managed conservatively?

    PubMed

    Toivanen, J A; Kyrö, A; Heiskanen, T; Koivisto, A M; Mattila, P; Järvinen, M J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a threshold for the initial displacement of a spiral tibial shaft fracture beyond which its retention in an acceptable position cannot be guaranteed by plaster immobilization. We reviewed the records and radiographs of 131 plaster cast-treated patients with spiral tibial shaft fracture, initially displaced 50% or less, for patients whose fracture had either lost its acceptable retention or consolidated in an unacceptable position. The fractures were classified, according to the true initial displacement as measured on the first radiographs, into four pairs of categories using cut-off points of 10, 20, 30 and 40% of the diameter of the tibial diaphysis. Comparison was then made of the proportions of failed treatments between each of these pairs. Plaster cast treatments failed in 28% when the true initial displacement was 30% or less, and in 46% when the true initial displacement was more than 30%. The risk of failed plaster cast treatment increased when true initial displacement exceeded 30%. In all patients whose plaster cast treatment was interrupted the true initial displacement was more than 30%. We therefore conclude that diaphyseal fractures of the tibia for which the initial displacement exceeds 30% are not suitable for plaster cast treatment. PMID:10990386

  18. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-04-15

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement.

  19. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  20. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  1. Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, R.E.

    1998-10-20

    There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

  2. Wireless Measurement of Rotation and Displacement Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetic field response sensor is designed to measure displacement or rotation rate without a physical connection to a power source, microprocessor, data acquisition equipment, or electrical circuitry. The sensor works with the magnetic field response recorder, which was described in Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28. These sensors are wirelessly powered and interrogated, and the measurement acquisition system and sensors are extremely lightweight.The response recorder uses oscillating magnetic fields to power the sensors. Once powered, the sensors respond with their own magnetic field. For displacement/ rotation measurements, the response recorder uses the sensor s response amplitude, which is dependent on the distance from the antenna. The recorder s antenna orientation and position are kept fixed, and the sampling period is constant.

  3. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  4. Polyimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments show variety of polyimidazoles prepared by aromatic nucleophilic displacement, from reactions of bisphenol imidazoles with activated difluoro compounds. Polyimidazoles have good mechanical properties making them suitable for use as films, moldings, and adhesives.

  5. Displacement sensing system and method

    DOEpatents

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  6. A novel linear displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ji-sen; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xi-hou; Zhang, Tian-heng

    2011-12-01

    With development of time grating technology in the past 10 years, the theory of using time to measure spatial displacement has been completed greatly. In the study of time grating, one novel linear displacement sensor is proposed based on the measurement principles of time grating. The measurement principles of linear displacement are similar to that of angular displacement. Both of them need one endless coordinate with uniform velocity. The theory of linear AC motor is used, and the three-phase winding with equal division space of 120° and three-phase exciting signal with uniform time are utilized to generate the endless moving coordinate with uniform velocity. The magnetic traveling wave arises from the left endpoint and disappears in the right endpoint, and it travels pole pitch distance of W during the periodic time of T with the uniform velocity. When magnetic traveling wave passes by the static probe and the moving probe, the electric signals will be induced on the winding, respectively. Therefore, the linear displacement can be achieved by comparing the phase between the two output induced signals from he static probe and the moving probe. Furthermore, in order to improve the machining technique, four kinds of winding framework are designed to employ. The experimental results show that advantages and disadvantages both exist in the design methods and the precision of experiment results reaches +/-2µm. The next study plan is to choose the most excellent design method through further experiments and improve the precision of displacement sensor greatly.

  7. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-15

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  8. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-01

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  9. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows. PMID:21319721

  10. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers:

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  11. Optical sensors for displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlade, S. M.

    1981-06-01

    A measurement system consists of sensors which are connected to a control center. The use of fiber optics as the communications link has a number of advantages. Two of the most important are immunity from electromagnetic interference and the elimination of the danger of electrical sparking in explosive environments. These advantages are reduced by the necessity to use electrical devices in the sensors. If the sensors were wholly optical then the advantages of fiber optics would apply to the entire system outside the control center. Optical sensors will be difficult to develop. Initially, at least, they are only justified in applications where such methods are becoming essential. One such area is in military aircraft. An optical displacement transducer can be obtained by using the displacement to alter the transmission aperture of a light beam. Attention is also given to strain measurement using two beam interferometry, Fabry-Perot interferometry displacement measurement, and strain induced birefringence.

  12. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  13. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  14. Optical Displacement Sensor for Sub-Hertz Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alexander; Chiao, Meng P.; Dekens, Frank G.

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses a sensor made from off-the-shelf electro-optical photodiodes and electronics that achieves 20 nm/(Hz)(exp 1/2) displacement sensitivity at 1 mHz. This innovation was created using a fiber-coupled laser diode (or Nd:YAG) through a collimator and an aperture as the illumination source. Together with a germanium quad photodiode, the above-mentioned displacement sensor sensitivities have been achieved. This system was designed to aid the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) with microthruster tests and to be a backup sensor for monitoring the relative position between a proof mass and a spacecraft for drag-free navigation. The optical displacement sensor can be used to monitor any small displacement from a remote location with minimal invasion on the system.

  15. 20 CFR 627.230 - Displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement. 627.230 Section 627.230... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.230 Displacement. (a) No currently employed worker shall be displaced by any participant (including partial displacement such as...

  16. 20 CFR 627.230 - Displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Displacement. 627.230 Section 627.230... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.230 Displacement. (a) No currently employed worker shall be displaced by any participant (including partial displacement such as...

  17. 20 CFR 627.230 - Displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement. 627.230 Section 627.230... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.230 Displacement. (a) No currently employed worker shall be displaced by any participant (including partial displacement such as...

  18. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  19. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

    2003-07-15

    A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

  20. Special Programming for Displaced Homemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, John S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Displaced homemakers returning to college need special services. These programs were developed by one university's center for women: Project Succeed, Back to School Workshops, and Special Programs to Build Self-Confidence. These programs were developed to provide on-the-job training while in college, help adults returning to college earn a degree,…

  1. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble polybenzimidazoles (PBI's) synthesized by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic difluoride compounds in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. These polymers exhibit good thermal, thermo-oxidative, and chemical stability, and high mechanical properties. Using benzimidazole monomers, more economical, and new PBI's processed more easily than commercial PBI, without loss of desirable physical properties.

  2. Free displacer and Ringbom displacer for a Malone refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.; Brown, A.O.

    1994-05-01

    Malone refrigeration uses a liquid near its critical point (instead of the customary gas) as the working fluid in a Stirling, Brayton, or similar regenerative or recuperative cycle. Thus far, we have focused on the Stirling cycle, to avoid the difficult construction of the high-pressure-difference counterflow recuperator required for a Brayton machine. Our first Malone refrigerator used liquid propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) in a double-acting 4-cylinder Stirling configuration. First measurements with a free displacer used in a liquid working fluid are presented. The displacer was operated both in harmonic mode and in Ringbom mode, in liquid carbon dioxide. The results are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

  3. Some Considerations on Horizontal Displacement and Horizontal Displacement Coefficient B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajduś, Krzysztof; Tajduś, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Mining-induced deformations of the ground surface and within the rock mass may pose danger not only for surface constructions but also for underground objects (e.g., tunnels, underground storages, garages), diverse types of pipelines, electric cables, etc. For a proper evaluation of hazard for surface and underground objects, such parameters as horizontal displacement and horizontal deformations, especially their maximum values, are of crucial importance. The paper is an attempt at a critical review of hitherto accomplished studies and state of the art of predicting horizontal displacement u, in particular the coefficient B, whose value allows determination of the value of maximum displacement if the value of maximum slope is known, or the value of maximum deformation if the value of maximum trough slope is recognized. Since the geodesic observations of fully developed subsidence troughs suggest that the value of the coefficient depends on the depth H, radius of main influences range r and properties of overburden rock, in particular the occurrence of sub-eras Paleogene and Neogene layers (old name: Quaternary and Tertiary) with low strength parameters, therefore a formula is provided in the present paper allowing for the estimation of the influence of those factors on the value of coefficient B.

  4. Bayesian speckle tracking. Part II: biased ultrasound displacement estimation.

    PubMed

    Byram, Brett; Trahey, Gregg E; Palmeri, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic displacement estimates have numerous clinical uses, including blood flow estimation, elastography, therapeutic guidance, and acoustic radiation force imaging (ARFI). These clinical tasks could be improved with better ultrasonic displacement estimates. Traditional ultrasonic displacement estimates are limited by the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The CRLB can be surpassed using biased estimates. In this paper, a framework for biased estimation using Bayes' theorem is described. The Bayesian displacement estimation method is tested against simulations of several common types of motion: bulk, step, compression, and acoustic-radiation-force-induced motion. Bayesian estimation is also applied to in vivo ARFI of cardiac ablation lesions. The Bayesian estimators are compared with the unbiased estimator, normalized cross-correlation. As an example, the peak displacement of the simulated acoustic radiation force response is reported because this position results in the noisiest estimates. Estimates were made with a 1.5-λ kernel and 20 dB SNR on 100 data realizations. Estimates using normalized cross-correlation and the Bayes' estimator had mean-square errors of 17 and 7.6 μm², respectively, and contextualized by the true displacement magnitude, 10.9 μm. Biases for normalized cross-correlation and the Bayes' estimator are -0.12 and -0.28 μm, respectively. In vivo results show qualitative improvements. The results show that with small amounts of additional information, significantly improved performance can be realized. PMID:23287921

  5. A DISPLACED SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN M87

    SciTech Connect

    Batcheldor, D.; Perlman, E. S.; Robinson, A.; Merritt, D.; Axon, D. J.

    2010-07-01

    Isophotal analysis of M87, using data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys, reveals a projected displacement of 6.8 {+-} 0.8 pc ({approx}0.''1) between the nuclear point source (presumed to be the location of the supermassive black hole, SMBH) and the photo-center of the galaxy. The displacement is along a position angle of 307{sup 0} {+-} 17{sup 0} and is consistent with the jet axis. This suggests the active SMBH in M87 does not currently reside at the galaxy center of mass, but is displaced in the counter-jet direction. Possible explanations for the displacement include orbital motion of an SMBH binary, gravitational perturbations due to massive objects (e.g., globular clusters), acceleration by an asymmetric or intrinsically one-sided jet, and gravitational recoil resulting from the coalescence of an SMBH binary. The displacement direction favors the latter two mechanisms. However, jet asymmetry is only viable, at the observed accretion rate, for a jet age of >0.1 Gyr and if the galaxy restoring force is negligible. This could be the case in the low-density core of M87. A moderate recoil {approx}1 Myr ago might explain the disturbed nature of the nuclear gas disk, could be aligned with the jet axis, and can produce the observed offset. Alternatively, the displacement could be due to residual oscillations resulting from a large recoil that occurred in the aftermath of a major merger {<=}1 Gyr ago.

  6. Pattern of dynamic displacements in a strike-slip earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltogianni, V.; Gianniou, M.; Moschas, F.; Stiros, S.

    2016-07-01

    High-rate (1 Hz) records from GPS stations uniformly distributed along the fault ruptures of the 2014 Samothraki-Gökçeada Mw6.9 earthquake in the North Aegean Trough, at the extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, were analyzed using the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique. Computed dynamic displacements shed light to the pattern of dynamic displacements during shallow strike-slip earthquakes. The area of near-field static seismic displacements bounds ramp-type, long-period dynamic displacements (fling steps) in the sense of static displacements. Along-fault and normal to fault components of dynamic displacement follow typical attenuation laws, but attenuation is higher in the fault-parallel component hence confined to the area of static dislocations. Forward directivity and local, especially topography-controlled amplification effects, consistent with accelerometer evidence, were also observed. The overall pattern seems to characterize shallow strike-slip earthquakes and is expected to prove useful to explain or even predict the near-field damaging potential of strike-slip earthquakes.

  7. Rapid Sunspot Displacement Associated with Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Deng, N.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    Many observational and modeling studies of solar eruptions merely treat photosphere as the lower boundary and assume no significant changes of magnetic fields anchoring there to occur during flares/CMEs. With increasing evidence of photospheric magnetic fields variations resulting from energy release in the upper atmosphere, Hudson, Fisher and Welsch (2008, ASP, 383, 221) proposed that the photosphere and even solar interior would respond in a back-reaction process to the coronal magnetic field restructuring. Inspired by this concept, we analyzed white-light images obtained with TRACE and report here rapid and permanent perturbation in the position of delta spot umbrae associated with five X-class flares. Our main results are the following: (1) The centroids of umbrae with opposite magnetic polarities undergo relative as well as overall displacement on the order of 1E3 km after flares/CMEs. (2) The estimated total kinetic energy associated with these motions (Ek) is on the order of 1E29 ergs and appears to correlate with the 6 mHZ seismic energy (Es) derived by the Monash group. (3) There appears correlation between both the Ek and Es corresponding to the velocity of CMEs. We suggest that: (1) sunspot displacement provides a direct observational evidence of the photospheric back-reaction and could potentially serve as an alternative excitation mechanism of seismic waves; (2) These could provide rational support to the back-reaction mechanism in the sense that its magnitude might be related to how violent the coronal magnetic field is disrupted. For selected events with good multiwavelength coverage, we also analyze in detail spatial as well as temporal relationship among the sunspot displacement, magnetic field changes, seismic sources, hard X-ray emissions, and overall flaring condition. This work is supported by NSF grants ATM 08-19662 and ATM 07-45744, and NASA grants NNX 08AQ90G, NNX 07AH78G, and NNX 08AQ32G.

  8. Hot-solvent miscible displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Awang, M.; Farouq Ali, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    This work describes an experimental and theoretical investigation of miscible displacement under nonisothermal conditions. The hot miscible floods were performed in an adiabatic glass bead pack, displacing one hydrocarbon by a more viscous hydrocarbon, the latter being at an elevated temperature. As a result, dispersion of both mass and heat took place, and was determined by temperature and concentration measurements. The system was simulated by coupled convective-diffusion and thermal conduction-convection equations. The results of the numerical as well as an approximate analytical solution were compared with the experimentally observed behavior. The numerical and experimental results point to the factors which should be considered in the choice of a solvent for a thermal-miscible type oil recovery process.

  9. Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  10. Software for determining the true displacement of faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Fuentes, R.; Nieto-Samaniego, Á. F.; Xu, S.-S.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important parameters of faults is the true (or net) displacement, which is measured by restoring two originally adjacent points, called “piercing points”, to their original positions. This measurement is not typically applicable because it is rare to observe piercing points in natural outcrops. Much more common is the measurement of the apparent displacement of a marker. Methods to calculate the true displacement of faults using descriptive geometry, trigonometry or vector algebra are common in the literature, and most of them solve a specific situation from a large amount of possible combinations of the fault parameters. True displacements are not routinely calculated because it is a tedious and tiring task, despite their importance and the relatively simple methodology. We believe that the solution is to develop software capable of performing this work. In a previous publication, our research group proposed a method to calculate the true displacement of faults by solving most combinations of fault parameters using simple trigonometric equations. The purpose of this contribution is to present a computer program for calculating the true displacement of faults. The input data are the dip of the fault; the pitch angles of the markers, slickenlines and observation lines; and the marker separation. To prevent the common difficulties involved in switching between operative systems, the software is developed using the Java programing language. The computer program could be used as a tool in education and will also be useful for the calculation of the true fault displacement in geological and engineering works. The application resolves the cases with known direction of net slip, which commonly is assumed parallel to the slickenlines. This assumption is not always valid and must be used with caution, because the slickenlines are formed during a step of the incremental displacement on the fault surface, whereas the net slip is related to the finite slip.

  11. Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

  12. Displaced epiphyseal plate of the terminal phalanx in a child.

    PubMed

    Michelinakis, E; Vourexaki, H

    1980-02-01

    A case of mallet finger in a child is described. The epiphysis of the terminal phalanx was displaced dorsally with the extensor tendon attached to it, and was first diagnosed two weeks after injury. The treatment was by open reduction. Radiograph three years later showed that a satisfactory position of the epiphysis and normal growth of the terminal phalanx had occurred. PMID:7364328

  13. Precision optical displacement measurements using biphotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Kevin; Pang, Shengshi; Kwiat, Paul G.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and examine the use of biphoton pairs, such as those created in parametric down-conversion or four-wave mixing, to enhance the precision and the resolution of measuring optical displacements by position-sensitive detection. We show that the precision of measuring a small optical beam displacement with this method can be significantly enhanced by the correlation between the two photons, given the same optical mode. The improvement is largest if the correlations between the photons are strong, and falls off as the biphoton correlation weakens. More surprisingly, we find that the smallest resolvable parameter of a simple split detector scales as the inverse of the number of biphotons for small biphoton number ("Heisenberg scaling"), because the Fisher information diverges as the parameter to be estimated decreases in value. One usually sees this scaling only for systems with many entangled degrees of freedom. We discuss the transition for the split-detection scheme to the standard quantum limit scaling for imperfect correlations as the biphoton number is increased. An analysis of an N -pixel detector is also given to investigate the benefit of using a higher resolution detector. The physical limit of these metrology schemes is determined by the uncertainty in the birth zone of the biphoton in the nonlinear crystal.

  14. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-21

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board. 16 figs.

  15. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  16. Meridional displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

    PubMed

    Gille, Sarah T

    2014-07-13

    Observed long-term warming trends in the Southern Ocean have been interpreted as a sign of increased poleward eddy heat transport or of a poleward displacement of the entire Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) frontal system. The two-decade-long record from satellite altimetry is an important source of information for evaluating the mechanisms governing these trends. While several recent studies have used sea surface height contours to index ACC frontal displacements, here altimeter data are instead used to track the latitude of mean ACC transport. Altimetric height contours indicate a poleward trend, regardless of whether they are associated with ACC fronts. The zonally averaged transport latitude index shows no long-term trend, implying that ACC meridional shifts determined from sea surface height might be associated with large-scale changes in sea surface height more than with localized shifts in frontal positions. The transport latitude index is weakly sensitive to the Southern Annular Mode, but is uncorrelated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. PMID:24891396

  17. Flight test of a displacement sidearm controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippay, A. L.; Kruk, R.; King, M.; Morgan, M.

    1986-01-01

    A six-axis displacement-stick sidearm controller was developed to enable single-handed control of remote manipulator operations in space. With a working model available, piloted evaluation became possible in a fly-by-computer variable-stability research aircraft, originally a Bell 205 helicopter. The original mechanization was limited to three rotational axes and a linear one, analogous to the collective stick. A newly designed short stickgrip was mounted and the spring force pattern adjusted to suit the helicopter flight control environment. A standard set of test maneuvers was flown by four experimental pilots with conventional helicopter flight controls and with sidearm controllers equipped with two different handgrips. Existing data from flight tests with an isometric-stick controller were added to complete the comparison. The displacement controller consistently achieved a rating of 3.0 to 3.5 on the Cooper-Harper scale, on par with the conventional controls. The same basic controller design was tested in spacecraft and remote manipulator simulations with very promising results. In each application operator/system integration was rapid and positive. The results demonstrate feasibility and support the design philosphy of using deflection as well as force to generate proprioceptive feedback.

  18. Meridional displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    PubMed Central

    Gille, Sarah T.

    2014-01-01

    Observed long-term warming trends in the Southern Ocean have been interpreted as a sign of increased poleward eddy heat transport or of a poleward displacement of the entire Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) frontal system. The two-decade-long record from satellite altimetry is an important source of information for evaluating the mechanisms governing these trends. While several recent studies have used sea surface height contours to index ACC frontal displacements, here altimeter data are instead used to track the latitude of mean ACC transport. Altimetric height contours indicate a poleward trend, regardless of whether they are associated with ACC fronts. The zonally averaged transport latitude index shows no long-term trend, implying that ACC meridional shifts determined from sea surface height might be associated with large-scale changes in sea surface height more than with localized shifts in frontal positions. The transport latitude index is weakly sensitive to the Southern Annular Mode, but is uncorrelated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. PMID:24891396

  19. Micromachined Tunneling Displacement Transducers for Physical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, T. W.; Kaiser, W. J.; Podosek, J. A.; Rockstad, H. K.; Reynolds, J. K.; Vote, E. C.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a series of tunneling sensors which take advantage of the extreme position sensitivity of electron tunneling. In these sensors, a tunneling displacement transducer, based on scanning tunneling microscopy principles, is used to detect the signal-induced motion of a sensor element. Through the use of high-resonant frequency mechanical elements for the transducer, sensors may be constructed which offer wide bandwidth, and are robust and easily operated. Silicon micromachining may be used to fabricate the transducer elements, allowing integration of sensor and control electronics. Examples of tunneling accelerometers and infrared detectors will be discussed. In each case, the use of the tunneling transducer allows miniaturization of the sensor as well as enhancement of the sensor performance.

  20. Dispersive effects of transverse magnet displacements in rolled arc achromats

    SciTech Connect

    Fieguth, T.; Kheifets, S.; Murray, J.J.

    1986-09-22

    The effect of transverse displacements of combined function magnets is investigated where the disperion in not matched due to roll. This dispersion function is perturbed by displacement of combined function magnets either singly or coherently. In the latter case the effect of a systematic (or DC) offset of magnets is examined. This type of error can occur due to systematics in the placement or the readout of Beam Position Monitors or equivalently by correcting the orbit of a beam of the wrong momentum with respect to the Arc magnet excitation. 5 refs., 18 figs.

  1. Digital system for dynamic turbine engine blade displacement measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    An instrumentation concept for measuring blade tip displacements which employs optical probes and an array of micro-computers is presented. The system represents a hitherto unknown instrumentation capability for the acquisition and direct digitization of deflection data concurrently from all of the blade tips of an operational engine rotor undergoing flutter or forced vibration. System measurements are made using optical transducers which are fixed to the case. Measurements made in this way are the equivalent of those obtained by placing three surface-normal displacement transducers at three positions on each blade of an operational rotor.

  2. Advances in Charge Displacement Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    We define new general density-based descriptors for the quantification of charge transfer and polarization effects associated with the interaction between two fragments and the formation of a chemical bond. Our aim is to provide a simple yet accurate picture of a chemical interaction by condensing the information on the charge rearrangement accompanying it into a few chemically meaningful parameters. These charge displacement (CD) parameters quantify the total charge displaced upon bond formation and decompose it into a charge transfer component between the fragments and charge rearrangements taking place within the fragments. We then show how the new parameters can be easily calculated using the well-known CD function, which describes the charge flow along a chosen axis accompanying the formation of a bond. The approach presented here can be useful in a wide variety of contexts, ranging from weak interactions to electronic excitations to coordination chemistry. In particular, we discuss here how the scheme can be used for the characterization of the donation and back-donation components of metal-ligand bonds, in combination with the natural orbitals for chemical valence (NOCV) theory. In doing so, we discuss the interesting relationship between the proposed parameters and the corresponding NOCV eigenvalues, commonly used as a measure of the electron charge displacement associated with a given bonding contribution. As a prototype case study, we investigate the bond between a N-heterocyclic carbene and different metallic fragments. Finally, we show that our approach can be used in combination with the energy decomposition of the extended transition state method, providing an estimate of both charge transfer and polarization contributions to the interaction energy. PMID:26824715

  3. Displacement Compensation of Temperature Probe Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.; Hubert, James A.; Barber, Patrick G.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of temperature data from a probe in a vertical Bridgman furnace growing germanium crystals revealed a displacement of the temperature profile due to conduction error. A theoretical analysis shows that the displacement compensation is independent of local temperature gradient. A displacement compensation value should become a standard characteristic of temperature probes used for temperature profile measurements.

  4. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  5. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  6. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  7. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  8. Technology and Structural Unemployment: Reemploying Displaced Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report concentrates on problems of displaced blue-collar and nonprofessional white-collar workers. Chapter 1 is a summary. Chapter 2 discusses policy issues and options focused on helping people prepare for worklife changes and helping workers to cope if displacement occurs. A definition and description of worker displacement are offered in…

  9. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  10. The case for character displacement in plants

    PubMed Central

    Beans, Carolyn M

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for character displacement as a widespread response to competition is now building. This progress is largely the result of the establishment of rigorous criteria for demonstrating character displacement in the animal literature. There are, however, relatively few well-supported examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores the potential for character displacement in plants by addressing the following questions: (1) Why aren't examples of character displacement in plants more common? (2) What are the requirements for character displacement to occur and how do plant populations meet those requirements? (3) What are the criteria for testing the pattern and process of character displacement and what methods can and have been used to address these criteria in the plant literature? (4) What are some additional approaches for studying character displacement in plants? While more research is needed, the few plant systems in which character displacement hypotheses have been rigorously tested suggest that character displacement may play a role in shaping plant communities. Plants are especially amenable to character displacement studies because of the experimental ease with which they can be used in common gardens, selection analyses, and breeding designs. A deeper investigation of character displacement in plants is critical for a more complete understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that permit the coexistence of plant species. PMID:24683467

  11. Displacement current and surface flashover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. R.; Caporaso, G. J.; Blackfield, D.; Chen, Y.-J.

    2007-09-01

    High-voltage vacuum insulator failure is generally due to surface flashover rather than insulator bulk breakdown. Vacuum surface flashover is widely believed to be initiated by a secondary electron emission avalanche along the vacuum-insulator interface. This process requires a physical mechanism to cause secondary electrons emitted from the insulator surface to return to that surface. Here, it is shown that when an insulator is subjected to a fast high-voltage pulse, the magnetic field due to displacement current through the insulator can provide this mechanism. This indicates the importance of the voltage pulse shape, especially the rise time, in the flashover initiation process.

  12. Displaced Children: The Psychological Implications.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Paramjit T; Fayyad, John A

    2015-10-01

    Millions of people across the world have been displaced or live in exile and/or as refugees largely as a consequence of wars, acts of terrorism, and catastrophic natural disasters. There are serious psychological consequences as a result of these extremely difficult life circumstances. Adults often can express their needs and have them be heard, whereas children are unable to do so. The children may be provided food, shelter, and clothing and have their medical needs attended to, but their emotional and psychological needs go unrecognized and unmet, with dire and monumental long-term consequences. PMID:26346385

  13. Upward and inward displacements of the acetabular component increase stress on femoral head in single endoprothesis models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqi; Kang, Yan; Chen, Yi; Liao, Weiming

    2009-01-01

    The centre of rotation of the hip can be displaced in hip dysplasia and revision arthroplasty. This study examined the effect of artificial femoral head load after acetabular component displacement in total hip arthroplasty. Sixteen total hip arthroplasty models of human cadaver specimens were reconstructed, and under different acetabular component position, the load around the femoral head was evaluated by strain gages. The results showed that the load was higher in the same specimens when the cup was moved 2 mm inward or upward, especially after the cup was moved more than 6 mm, and the load had an increasing effect in the inward group. In the upward group, an increasing effect happened at 8 mm upward displacement, but the stress value decreased from 4 mm to 6 mm upward displacement. In the same moving distance, the stress of inward displacement is obviously higher than upward displacement. Altogether, the results suggested that for both inward displacement and upward displacement of the acetabular cup, the load around the femoral head increased gradually, while the distance of the inward displacement and the superior displacement was increased. The greater the displacement, the bigger the loading contact stress. The upward displacement caused less stress change on the femoral head. The stress of the 6 mm upward position was lower than nearby positions; perhaps this site represented a stress buffering zone. PMID:19424694

  14. Understanding interferometry for micro-cantilever displacement detection

    PubMed Central

    Nörenberg, Tobias; Temmen, Matthias; Reichling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Summary Interferometric displacement detection in a cantilever-based non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) operated in ultra-high vacuum is demonstrated for the Michelson and Fabry–Pérot modes of operation. Each mode is addressed by appropriately adjusting the distance between the fiber end delivering and collecting light and a highly reflective micro-cantilever, both together forming the interferometric cavity. For a precise measurement of the cantilever displacement, the relative positioning of fiber and cantilever is of critical importance. We describe a systematic approach for accurate alignment as well as the implications of deficient fiber–cantilever configurations. In the Fabry–Pérot regime, the displacement noise spectral density strongly decreases with decreasing distance between the fiber-end and the cantilever, yielding a noise floor of 24 fm/Hz0.5 under optimum conditions. PMID:27547601

  15. Understanding interferometry for micro-cantilever displacement detection.

    PubMed

    von Schmidsfeld, Alexander; Nörenberg, Tobias; Temmen, Matthias; Reichling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interferometric displacement detection in a cantilever-based non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) operated in ultra-high vacuum is demonstrated for the Michelson and Fabry-Pérot modes of operation. Each mode is addressed by appropriately adjusting the distance between the fiber end delivering and collecting light and a highly reflective micro-cantilever, both together forming the interferometric cavity. For a precise measurement of the cantilever displacement, the relative positioning of fiber and cantilever is of critical importance. We describe a systematic approach for accurate alignment as well as the implications of deficient fiber-cantilever configurations. In the Fabry-Pérot regime, the displacement noise spectral density strongly decreases with decreasing distance between the fiber-end and the cantilever, yielding a noise floor of 24 fm/Hz(0.5) under optimum conditions. PMID:27547601

  16. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1995-05-30

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

  17. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

  18. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  19. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  20. A computer vision-based approach for structural displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yunfeng

    2010-04-01

    Along with the incessant advancement in optics, electronics and computer technologies during the last three decades, commercial digital video cameras have experienced a remarkable evolution, and can now be employed to measure complex motions of objects with sufficient accuracy, which render great assistance to structural displacement measurement in civil engineering. This paper proposes a computer vision-based approach for dynamic measurement of structures. One digital camera is used to capture image sequences of planar targets mounted on vibrating structures. The mathematical relationship between image plane and real space is established based on computer vision theory. Then, the structural dynamic displacement at the target locations can be quantified using point reconstruction rules. Compared with other tradition displacement measurement methods using sensors, such as accelerometers, linear-variable-differential-transducers (LVDTs) and global position system (GPS), the proposed approach gives the main advantages of great flexibility, a non-contact working mode and ease of increasing measurement points. To validate, four tests of sinusoidal motion of a point, free vibration of a cantilever beam, wind tunnel test of a cross-section bridge model, and field test of bridge displacement measurement, are performed. Results show that the proposed approach can attain excellent accuracy compared with the analytical ones or the measurements using conventional transducers, and proves to deliver an innovative and low cost solution to structural displacement measurement.

  1. Multiplexed displacement fiber sensor using thin core fiber exciter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Hefferman, Gerald; Wei, Tao

    2015-06-01

    This letter reports a multiplexed optical displacement sensor using a thin core fiber (TCF) exciter. The TCF exciter is followed by a stripped single mode optical fiber. A small section of buffer is used as the movable component along the single mode fiber. Ultra-weak cladding mode reflection (< - 75 dB) was employed to probe the refractive index discontinuity between the air and buffer coating boundary. The position change of the movable buffer segment results in a delay change of the cladding mode reflection. Thus, it is a measure of the displacement of the buffer segment with respect to the glass fiber. The insertion loss of one sensor was measured to be less than 3 dB. A linear relationship was evaluated between the measurement position and absolute position of the moving actuator. Multiplexed capability was demonstrated and no cross talk was found between the sensors.

  2. Influence of groundwater level to slope displacement by geodetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadarviana, Vera; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Santoso, Djoko; Kahar, Joenil; Achmad R., T.

    2016-05-01

    In the rainy season, Indonesia often experience landslide disasters. Rainwater flows on the surface of the ground and partially into the ground, and changing the groundwater level (GWL) which can cause pressure on surrounding material. Water becomes the main factor that triggered landslides because water causes pressure force on the slopes that are prone to move. With the geometric approach, slope material displacement vectors can be known, including the origin of the material pressure using dynamic mathematical model that considers GWL. The data was used 5 campaigns of GPS observations. The results are obtained the correlation coefficients between coefficient changes in groundwater levels to the vector position as a representative of correlation between the physical and geometric parameters. There is relatively strong because of the value of the average correlation coefficient is 0.91997. Further, curves between changes in groundwater levels and the displacement position shows that the greater the groundwater levels, the greater the material position shift occurs.

  3. Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.

  4. A Theoretical Model to Predict Both Horizontal Displacement and Vertical Displacement for Electromagnetic Induction-Based Deep Displacement Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Hongliang; Tong, Renyuan; Li, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type) to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA) to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA) has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors’ mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors’ monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency. PMID:22368467

  5. Hydraulic efficiency of a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement pump and motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Daniel

    Pumps and motors are commonly connected hydraulically to create hydrostatic drives, also known as hydrostatic transmissions. A typical hydrostatic transmission consists of a variable displacement pump and a fixed displacement motor. Maximum efficiency is typically created for the system when the motor operates at maximum volumetric displacement. The objective of this research is to determine if a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement motor can be more efficient than one with a fixed displacement motor. A work cycle for a Caterpillar 320D excavator was created and the efficiency of the hydrostatic drive system, controlling the swing circuit, with a fixed displacement motor was compared to the efficiency with a variable displacement motor. Both multiplicative and additive uncertainty analysis were performed to determine uncertainty models that could be used to analyze the robustness of the system with feedback control applied. A PID and an H∞ controller were designed for a position control model, as well as velocity control. It was found that while it may seem obvious to achieve maximum efficiency at maximum displacement, there are some cases where maximum efficiency is achieved at a lower displacement. It was also found that for the given work cycle, a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement motor can be more efficient.

  6. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-03-29

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

  7. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    HOFMAYER,C.H.

    1999-03-29

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

  8. Displaced electrode process for welding

    DOEpatents

    Heichel, L.J.

    1975-08-26

    A method is described for the butt-welding of a relatively heavy mass to a relatively small mass such as a thin-wall tube. In butt-welding heat is normally applied at the joint between the two pieces which are butt-welded together. The application of heat at the joint results in overheating the tube which causes thinning of the tube walls and porosity in the tube material. This is eliminated by displacing the welding electrode away from the seam toward the heavier mass so that heat is applied to the heavy mass and not at the butt seam. Examples of the parameters used in welding fuel rods are given. The cladding and end plugs were made of Zircalloy. The electrode used was of 2 percent thoriated tungsten. (auth)

  9. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  10. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  11. Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  12. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  13. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  14. Anterior Displacement of the Geniculate Ganglion.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Tomoyasu; Orita, Yorihisa; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 34-year-old Japanese woman with cholesteatoma of the middle ear. During the operation, this patient showed an unusual position of the geniculate ganglion. We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) images targeting the ear of the present case after the operation. We found that the shortest ranges from the ampullated end of the superior semicircular canal to the geniculate ganglion fossa were 5.1 mm on both sides. We did not find any cases with obvious dislocation of the geniculate ganglion among the 67 cases for which we had performed tympanoplasty. Displacement of the geniculate ganglion is either extremely rare or typically unnoticed because this abnormality is asymptomatic. We speculated that the unusual position of the geniculate ganglion was due to an incomplete development of the tympanic tegmen. When surgical treatment such as decompression of the facial nerve or tympanoplasty is performed, close attention should always be paid to the anatomy of the facial nerve from the labyrinthine segment to the geniculate ganglion. In the present case, although connective tissues existed around the anterior epitympanic recess, we left this lesion to avoid iatrogenic facial palsy. PMID:27340996

  15. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5′ end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. PMID:25762335

  16. Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.

  17. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs. PMID:22386615

  18. Capacitive Position Sensor For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Capacitive position sensor measures displacement of proof mass in prototype accelerometer described in "Single-Crystal Springs for Accelerometers" (NPO-18795). Sensor is ultrasensitive, miniature device operating at ultra-high frequency and described in more detail in "Ultra-High-Frequency Capacitive Displacement Sensor," (NPO-18675). Advances in design and fabrication of prototype accelerometer also applicable to magnetometers and other sensors in which sensed quantities measured in terms of deflections of small springs.

  19. Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Kirill G; Zhong, L; Pogorzalek, S; Eder, P; Fischer, M; Goetz, J; Xie, E; Wulschner, F; Inomata, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Di Candia, R; Las Heras, U; Sanz, M; Solano, E; Menzel, E P; Deppe, F; Marx, A; Gross, R

    2016-07-01

    Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power. PMID:27447495

  20. Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, L.; Pogorzalek, S.; Eder, P.; Fischer, M.; Goetz, J.; Xie, E.; Wulschner, F.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Di Candia, R.; Las Heras, U.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.

    2016-07-01

    Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power.

  1. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  2. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    F. Duan

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10{sup -5} adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M&O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure.

  3. Earth's Surface Displacements from the GPS Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonova, D.; Balodis, J.; Janpaule, I.; Morozova, K.

    2015-11-01

    The GPS observations of both Latvian permanent GNSS networks - EUPOS®-Riga and LatPos, have been collected for a period of 8 years - from 2007 to 2014. Local surface displacements have been derived from the obtained coordinate time series eliminating different impact sources. The Bernese software is used for data processing. The EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations in the surroundings of Latvia are selected as fiducial stations. The results have shown a positive tendency of vertical displacements in the western part of Latvia - station heights are increasing, and negative velocities are observed in the central and eastern parts. Station vertical velocities are ranging in diapason of 4 mm/year. In the case of horizontal displacements, site velocities are up to 1 mm/year and mostly oriented to the south. The comparison of the obtained results with data from the deformation model NKG_RF03vel has been made. Additionally, the purpose of this study is to analyse GPS time series obtained using two different data processing strategies: Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and estimation of station coordinates relatively to the positions of fiducial stations also known as Differential GNSS.

  4. Quantitative measurements of force and displacement using an optical trap.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, R M; Finer, J T; Chu, S; Spudich, J A

    1996-01-01

    We combined a single-beam gradient optical trap with a high-resolution photodiode position detector to show that an optical trap can be used to make quantitative measurements of nanometer displacements and piconewton forces with millisecond resolution. When an external force is applied to a micron-sized bead held by an optical trap, the bead is displaced from the center of the trap by an amount proportional to the applied force. When the applied force is changed rapidly, the rise time of the displacement is on the millisecond time scale, and thus a trapped bead can be used as a force transducer. The performance can be enhanced by a feedback circuit so that the position of the trap moves by means of acousto-optic modulators to exert a force equal and opposite to the external force applied to the bead. In this case the position of the trap can be used to measure the applied force. We consider parameters of the trapped bead such as stiffness and response time as a function of bead diameter and laser beam power and compare the results with recent ray-optic calculations. PMID:8785341

  5. Generating Sub-nanometer Displacement Using Reduction Mechanism Consisting of Torsional Leaf Spring Hinges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Hayashi, Masato; Marita, Sintaro

    2014-02-01

    Recent demand on the measurement resolution of precise positioning comes up to tens of picometers. Some distinguished researches have been performed to measure the displacement in picometer order, however, few of them can verify the measurement performance as available tools in industry. This is not only because the picometer displacement is not yet required for industrial use, but also due to the lack of standard tools to verify such precise displacement. We proposed a displacement reduction mechanism for generating precise displacement using torsional leaf spring hinges (TLSHs) that consist of four leaf springs arranged radially. It has been demonstrated that a prototype of the reduction mechanism was able to provide one-nanometer displacement with 1/1000 reduction rate by a piezoelectric actuator. In order to clarify the potential of the reduction mechanism, a displacement reduction table that can be mounted on AFM stage was newly developed using TLSHs. This paper describes the design of the reduction mechanism and the sub-nanometer displacement performance of the table obtained from its dynamic and static characteristics measured by displacement sensors and from the AFM images

  6. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  7. Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, Wanda Jo

    Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

  8. BLOCK DISPLACEMENT METHOD FIELD DEMONSTRATION AND SPECIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Block Displacement technique has been developed as a remedial action method for isolating large tracks of ground contaminated by hazardous waste. The technique places a low permeability barrier around and under a large block of contaminated earth. The Block Displacement proce...

  9. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  10. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  11. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  12. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  13. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  14. Capacitive Displacement Sensor With Frequency Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Simple displacement-measuring circuit senses capacitance between two parallel conducting plates and produces output signal, with frequency proportional to distance between plates. Principle of circuit provides advantages over other methods because of frequency-encoded output and high linearity. Used to measure displacements.

  15. Airbag roll marks & displaced rocks and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking southwest from the lander, soil disturbances indicating the spacecraft rolled through the landing site are visible. Arriving from the east, the lander, still encased in its protective airbags, rolled up a slight rise and then rolled back down to its final position. The inset at left shows displaced rocks near the rock 'Flat Top.' Dark patches of disturbed soil indicate where the rocks had originally rested Both insets show rocks that were pushed into the soil from the weight of the lander, visible from the areas of raised rims of dark, disturbed soil around several rocks. The south summit of Twin Peaks is in the background, while a lander petal, deflated airbag, and rear rover deployment ramp are in the foreground.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Crustal Displacements Due to Continental Water Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, T.; Wahr, J.; Milly, P. C. D.; Shmakin, A. B.; Blewitt, G.; Lavallee, D.; Larson, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of long-wavelength (> 100 km), seasonal variability in continental water storage on vertical crustal motions are assessed. The modeled vertical displacements (delta-r(sub M)) have root-mean-square (RMS) values for 1994-1998 as large as 8 mm with ranges up to 30 mm, and are predominantly annual in character. Regional strains are on the order of 20 nanostrain for tilt and 5 nanostrain for horizontal deformation. We compare delta-r(sub M) with observed Global Positioning System (GPS) heights (delta-r(sub O)) (which include adjustments to remove estimated effects of atmospheric pressure and annual tidal and non-tidal ocean loading) for 147 globally distributed sites. When the delta-r(sub O) time series are adjusted by delta-r(sub M), their variances are reduced, on average, by an amount equal to the variance of the delta-r(sub M). Of the delta-r(sub O) time series exhibiting a strong annual signal, more than half are found to have an annual harmonic that is in phase and of comparable amplitude with the annual harmonic in the delta-r(sub M). The delta-r(sub M) time series exhibit long-period variations that could be mistaken for secular tectonic trends or post-glacial rebound when observed over a time span of a few years.

  17. Crustal displacements due to continental water loading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Dam, T.; Wahr, J.; Milly, P.C.D.; Shmakin, A.B.; Blewitt, G.; Lavallee, D.; Larson, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of long-wavelength (> 100 km), seasonal variability in continental water storage on vertical crustal motions are assessed. The modeled vertical displacements (??rM) have root-mean-square (RMS) values for 1994-1998 as large as 8 mm, with ranges up to 30 mm, and are predominantly annual in character. Regional strains are on the order of 20 nanostrain for tilt and 5 nanostrain for horizontal deformation. We compare ??rM with observed Global Positioning System (GPS) heights (??rO) (which include adjustments to remove estimated effects of atmospheric pressure and annual tidal and non-tidal ocean loading) for 147 globally distributed sites. When the ??rO time series are adjusted by ??rM, their variances are reduced, on average, by an amount equal to the variance of the ??rM. Of the ??rO time series exhibiting a strong annual signal, more than half are found to have an annual harmonic that is in phase and of comparable amplitude with the annual harmonic in the ??rM. The ??rM time series exhibit long-period variations that could be mistaken for secular tectonic trends or post-glacial rebound when observed over a time span of a few years.

  18. Simulations of threshold displacement in beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew L.; Fossati, Paul C. M.; Grimes, Robin W.

    2016-07-01

    Atomic scale molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage have been performed on beryllium. Direct threshold displacement simulations along a geodesic projection of directions were used to investigate the directional dependence with a high spatial resolution. It was found that the directionally averaged probability of displacement increases from 0 at 35 eV, with the energy at which there is a 50% chance of a displacement occurring is 70 eV and asymptotically approaching 1 for higher energies. This is, however, strongly directionally dependent with a 50% probability of displacement varying from 35 to 120 eV, with low energy directions corresponding to the nearest neighbour directions. A new kinetic energy dependent expression for the average maximum displacement of an atom as a function of energy is derived which closely matches the simulated data.

  19. Using a 2D displacement sensor to derive 3D displacement information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Schubert F. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A 2D displacement sensor is used to measure displacement in three dimensions. For example, the sensor can be used in conjunction with a pulse-modulated or frequency-modulated laser beam to measure displacement caused by deformation of an antenna on which the sensor is mounted.

  20. Octamer displacement and redistribution in transcription of single nucleosomes.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donohue, M F; Duband-Goulet, I; Hamiche, A; Prunell, A

    1994-01-01

    Single nucleosomes were assembled on a 357bp DNA fragment containing a 5S RNA gene from sea urchin and a promoter for SP6 RNA polymerase, and were fractionated as a function of their positions by gel electrophoresis. Transcribed nucleosome positions were detected by observing band disappearance in gels, which in turn provided evidence for the displacement of the histone octamer upon transcription. Differential band disappearance showed that nucleosomes closer to the promoter were harder to transcribe, and transcription was blocked when the nucleosome proximal boundary was at the start site. Nucleosomes located at discrete positions were also eluted from the gel bands and transcribed. In this case, new bands appeared as a consequence of octamer redistribution. Such redistribution occurred over all untranscribed positions, as well as over transcribed positions close enough to the promoter. Similar conclusions were derived from another previously investigated fragment containing a Xenopus 5S RNA gene. Images PMID:8152924

  1. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  2. The Displacement of Mary Jones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Sharon

    1990-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Mary Jones as librarian at the University of Nebraska (1892-97), her resignation attributed to sex discrimination, the impact of her resignation on the library, and her subsequent positions at the University of Illinois, University of Iowa, and Los Angeles Public Library. A sidebar discusses women's career paths in the…

  3. Displacement sensor containing magnetic field sensing element between a pair of biased magnets movable as a unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Joseph K. (Inventor); Johnson, Mont A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A displacement sensor for providing an indication of the position of a first body relative to a second body, the first body being displaceable relative to the second body in a displacement direction. The sensor is composed of: two magnets that are spaced from one another in the displacement direction to define therebetween a region containing a magnetic field; a magnetic field sensing element mounted in the region; and components for coupling at least one of the magnets to one of the bodies and the magnetic field sensing element to the other of the bodies to produce a relative displacement between the at least one magnet and the magnetic field sensing element in the displacement direction in response to displacement of the first body relative to the second body.

  4. Experimental verification of displacement-current conduits in metamaterials-inspired optical circuitry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian; Engheta, Nader

    2012-05-11

    Electric displacement current is present in capacitors and optical waveguides; however, unlike the conduction current in metallic wires, it is not confined. Analogous to the contrast in conductivity between a metallic wire and the surrounding air, displacement-current wires based on near-zero permittivity media contain a large contrast in effective permittivity. As a variation on this idea, in this Letter, we demonstrate at microwave frequencies two displacement-current cables based on effectively negative and effectively positive permittivity metastructures. Our experimental results clearly show cablelike behaviors that allow bending of the structure while still confining and maintaining the primarily longitudinal forward and reverse effective displacement currents within each conduit. The results presented here experimentally verify the notion of displacement-current wires and cables in metatronics as metamaterial-inspired circuitry. PMID:23003040

  5. Total displacement functions for SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, W. J.; Williford, R. E.; Sickafus, K. E.

    1997-04-01

    Numerical solutions for the displacement functions in SiC are determined from the coupled integro-differential equations governing the total number of type- j atoms displaced in the collision cascade initiated by a primary knock-on atom (PKA) of type- i and energy E. Atomic scattering cross sections based on either the inverse power law screening potentials or the Ziegler, Biersack, and Littmark (ZBL) universal screening potential are used in the calculation of the displacement functions. The electronic stopping powers used in the calculations are either derived from the LSS and Bethe-Bloch theories or generated from the SRIM-96 electronic stopping power data base. The displacement functions determined using LSS/Bethe-Bloch electronic stopping powers are 25 to 100% larger than the displacement functions determined using the electronic stopping powers generated by SRIM-96. The total number of displaced atoms determined numerically for each PKA type, based on ZBL scattering cross sections and SRIM-96 electronic stopping powers, is in excellent agreement, over the entire range of PKA energies (10 eV to 10 MeV), with the total number of displacements determined by full cascade Monte Carlo simulations using the TRIM code in SRIM-96.

  6. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    PubMed Central

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-01-01

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm. PMID:26999146

  7. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem.

    PubMed

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-01-01

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm. PMID:26999146

  8. Displaced vertices in extended supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbach, S.; Franke, F.; Fraas, H.

    2000-10-01

    In extended supersymmetric models with additional singlet Higgs fields displaced vertices could be observed if the decay width of the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle becomes very small due to a singlino dominated LSP. We study the supersymmetric parameter space where displaced vertices of the second lightest neutralino exist in the NMSSM and an E6 inspired model. For a mass difference between LSP and NLSP of more than 10 GeV the singlet vacuum expectation value has to be at least of the order of /100 TeV in order to obtain a lightest neutralino with a singlino component large enough for displaced vertices.

  9. PDT - PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT TRACKING SOFTWARE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or

  10. Non-Uniform Displacements within the Achilles Tendon observed during Passive and Eccentric Loading

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon tissue displacement patterns under passive and eccentric loading conditions. Nine healthy young adults were positioned prone on an examination table with their foot secured to a rotating footplate aligned with the ankle. Subjects cyclically rotated their ankle over a 25 deg range of motion at 0.5 Hz. An inertial load geared to the footplate induced eccentric plantarflexor contractions with dorsiflexion. Passive cyclic ankle motion was also performed over the same angular range of motion. An ultrasound transducer positioned over the distal Achilles tendon was used to collect radiofrequency (RF) images at 70 frames/sec. Two-dimensional ultrasound elastographic analysis of the RF data was used to track tendon tissue displacements throughout the cyclic motion. Non-uniform tissue displacement patterns were observed in all trials, with the deeper portions of the Achilles tendon consistently exhibiting larger displacements than the superficial tendon (average of 0.9–2.6 mm larger). Relative to the passive condition, eccentric loading consistently induced smaller tissue displacements in all tendon regions, except for the superficial tendon in a flexed knee posture. Significantly greater overall tissue displacement was observed in a more extended knee posture (30 deg) relative to a flexed knee posture (90 deg). These spatial- and posture-dependent displacement patterns suggest that the tendon undergoes nonuniform deformation under in vivo loading conditions. Such behavior could reflect relative sliding between the distinct tendon fascicles that arise from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. PMID:25150898

  11. Seismic transducer measures small horizontal displacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, T. L.

    1965-01-01

    Pendular seismic transducer mounted on base plate measures small horizontal displacements of structures subjected to vibration where no fixed reference point is available. Enclosure of transducer in transparent plastic case prevents air currents from disturbing the pendulum balance.

  12. Amorphous wires in displacement sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Niarchos, D.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, a new displacement sensor is proposed which is based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique (MDL). Due to this technique, the displacement of a moving magnet at either the acoustic stress point of origin or the detecting coil can be sensed, due to the change of the peak value of the output voltage. This sensor uses the recently developed FeSiB and FeCoCrSiB amorphous wires. Reported results show a linear response for defined regions of displacement, and a monotonic one for the case of the 125 μm FeSiB wires. It is also shown that this sensor arrangement can be used for fabrication of displacement distribution integrated sensors. Finally, it is shown that use of amorphous wires makes the repeatability of the response of the sensor as accurate as 0.6% without using hardware or software calibration.

  13. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney

    PubMed Central

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female. PMID:26941503

  14. Inverted liver with suprahepatic, anteriorly displaced gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Harold; Ahmad, Usman

    2010-01-01

    A suprahepatic, anteriorly displaced gallbladder in association with an inverted liver is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. We report the clinical and radiologic findings associated with a 78-year-old woman presenting with shortness of breath, desaturation, hypercapnia and hypoxemia. An abnormal chest radiograph demonstrated right hemi-diaphragmatic elevation consistent with a possible eventration. Subsequent imaging by computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an inverted liver with an anteriorly displaced, suprahepatic gallbladder. PMID:20666167

  15. Displacement sensor for indoor machine calibrations.

    PubMed

    Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad; Butt, Saira

    2013-05-20

    This paper presents a simple displacement sensor for indoor machine calibrations. The sensor, which is placed in the path of a diverging laser beam, consists of two plane mirror pieces laterally displaced with the line joining their centers initially held perpendicular to the optical axis of the beam during the displacement of the sensor with one of the mirrors always traveling along the optical axis of the laser beam. The optical signals from the two mirrors are combined and a simple detector at the interference plane counts the fringes during the sensor displacement. The sensor could be mounted on the moving head of any mechanical machine, e.g., the lathe machine for displacement calibration. The device has been tested over a range of 10 cm beyond a distance of 150 cm from a diverging laser source giving an accuracy of 1.1015 μm. Theoretical modeling, simulation, and experimental results are presented which establish that the proposed sensor can be used as a promising displacement measuring device. PMID:23736230

  16. Effect of Body Mass Index on Intrafraction Prostate Displacement Monitored by Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Wayne M.; Morris, Mallory N.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Kurko, Brian S.; Murray, Brian C.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). Methods and Materials: The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a 'beam on' tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI {>=}30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Results: Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 {+-} 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 {+-} 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI {>=}30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. Conclusions: After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI.

  17. Reproductive health: a right for refugees and internally displaced persons.

    PubMed

    Austin, Judy; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; McGinn, Therese; Schlecht, Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Continued political and civil unrest in low-resource countries underscores the ongoing need for specialised reproductive health services for displaced people. Displaced women particularly face high maternal mortality, unmet need for family planning, complications following unsafe abortion, and gender-based violence, as well as sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Relief and development agencies and UN bodies have developed technical materials, made positive policy changes specific to crisis settings and are working to provide better reproductive health care. Substantial gaps remain, however. The collaboration within the field of reproductive health in crises is notable, with many agencies working in one or more networks. The five-year RAISE Initiative brings together major UN and NGO agencies from the fields of relief and development, and builds on their experience to support reproductive health service delivery, advocacy, clinical training and research. The readiness to use common guidance documents, develop priorities jointly and share resources has led to smoother operations and less overlap than if each agency worked independently. Trends in the field, including greater focus on internally displaced persons and those living in non-camp settings, as well as refugees in camps, the protracted nature of emergencies, and an increasing need for empirical evidence, will influence future progress. PMID:18513603

  18. Small displacement measurements with subatomic resolution by beat frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cíp, O.; Petrů, F.; Buchta, Z.; Lazar, J.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper a novel method for high-resolution measurement of displacements with sub-atomic resolution is described. With this method, a length change of an optical resonator is directly transformed to a radio-frequency signal. A tunable He-Ne laser is locked to a mode of the resonator using a digital signal processing technique. Heterodyne mixing of this locked laser with an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser converts the frequency of the laser locked to the cavity into the radio-frequency region. A HF counter measures the beat frequency from which the displacement can be derived directly. This method delivers inherent linearity and sub-nanometre resolution of the displacement over a range of several micrometres. An example of the capabilities of this system is given in this paper, where it is used for checking periodic deviations of a laser interferometer system. Emphasis is put on the construction of the optical resonator, on how its narrow resonance line-width is achieved, and how the required mechanical stability is achieved. The measurement range and the scale linearity are discussed in detail. Possible applications of this method are the calibration of nano-position systems based on PZT transducers, as well as inductive and capacitive sensors.

  19. Capacitive displacement sensor for detecting planar submicrometer motion.

    PubMed

    Avramov-Zamurovic, Svetlana; Yoo, Jae Myung; Dagalakis, Nicholas G

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the design of a very simple displacement sensor that measures the change in the position of an object by sensing the change in capacitance due to the movement of this object in the sensor fringing electric field. Two sensor geometries with small footprints were considered and several sensor variations were built and tested. At distances of approximately 0.5 μm and 30 μm, test results demonstrated that the sensors' resolution was in the order of tens of nanometers. PMID:27370483

  20. Domain wall displacement by remote spin-current injection

    SciTech Connect

    Skirdkov, P. N.; Zvezdin, K. A.; Belanovsky, A. D.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Grollier, J.; Cros, V.

    2014-06-16

    We demonstrate numerically the ability to displace a magnetic domain wall (DW) by remote spin current injection. We consider a long and narrow magnetic nanostripe with a single DW. The spin-polarized current is injected perpendicularly to the film plane through a small nanocontact which is located at certain distance from the DW initial position. We show that the DW motion can be initiated not only by conventional spin-transfer torque but also by indirect spin-torque, created by remote spin-current injection and then transferred to the DW by the exchange-spring mechanism. An analytical description of this effect is proposed.

  1. Centimeter Cosmo-Skymed Range Measurements for Monitoring Ground Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratarcangeli, F.; Nascetti, A.; Capaldo, P.; Mazzoni, A.; Crespi, M.

    2016-06-01

    The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR), based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano - Northern Italy), where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS), taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one) stable PS's are available around the

  2. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  3. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  4. Ultra-Sensitive Magnetoresistive Displacement Sensing Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, John D. (Inventor); Lairson, Bruce M. (Inventor); Ramesham, Rajeshuni (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An ultrasensitive displacement sensing device for use in accelerometers, pressure gauges, temperature transducers, and the like, comprises a sputter deposited, multilayer, magnetoresistive field sensor with a variable electrical resistance based on an imposed magnetic field. The device detects displacement by sensing changes in the local magnetic field about the magnetoresistive field sensor caused by the displacement of a hard magnetic film on a movable microstructure. The microstructure, which may be a cantilever, membrane, bridge, or other microelement, moves under the influence of an acceleration a known displacement predicted by the configuration and materials selected, and the resulting change in the electrical resistance of the MR sensor can be used to calculate the displacement. Using a micromachining approach, very thin silicon and silicon nitride membranes are fabricated in one preferred embodiment by means of anisotropic etching of silicon wafers. Other approaches include reactive ion etching of silicon on insulator (SOI), or Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of silicon nitride films over silicon substrates. The device is found to be improved with the use of giant magnetoresistive elements to detect changes in the local magnetic field.

  5. HELIUM EFFECTS ON DISPLACEMENT CASCADE IN TUNGSTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Nandipati, Giridhar; Roche, Kenneth J.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-09-30

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate He effects on displacement cascades in W. Helium content, proportion of interstitial and substitutional He and temperature were varied to reveal the various effects. The effect of interstitial He on the number of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced during cascade damage appears to be insignificant. However, interstitial He tends to fill a vacancy (V). Nevertheless, this process is less favorable than SIA-V recombination particularly when excess SIAs are present before a cascade. The efficiency of He filling and SIA-V recombination increases as temperature increases due to increased point defect mobility. Likewise, substitutional He is more susceptible to displacement during a collision cascade than W. This susceptibility increases towards higher temperatures. Consequently, the number of surviving V is governed by the interplay between displaced substitutional He and SIA-V recombination. The temperature dependence of these processes results in a minimum number of V reached at an intermediate temperature.

  6. Displacement Cascade Damage Production in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E; Malerba, Lorenzo; Nordlund, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in microstructure and mechanical properties in structural materials are the result of a complex set of physical processes initiated by the collision between an energetic particle (neutron or ion) and an atom in the lattice. This primary damage event is called an atomic displacement cascade. The simplest description of a displacement cascade is to view it as a series of many billiard-ball-like elastic collisions among the atoms in the material. This chapter describes the formation and evolution of this primary radiation damage mechanism to provide an overview of how stable defects are formed by displacement cascades, as well as the nature and morphology of the defects themselves. The impact of the relevant variables such as cascade energy and irradiation temperature is discussed, and defect formation in different materials is compared.

  7. Amorphization of Silicon Carbide by Carbon Displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2004-05-10

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the possibility of amorphizing silicon carbide (SiC) by exclusively displacing C atoms. At a defect generation corresponding to 0.2 displacements per atom, the enthalpy surpasses the level of melt-quenched SiC, the density decreases by about 15%, and the radial distribution function shows a lack of long-range order. Prior to amorphization, the surviving defects are mainly C Frenkel pairs (67%), but Si Frenkel pairs (18%) and anti-site defects (15%) are also present. The results indicate that SiC can be amorphized by C sublattice displacements. Chemical short-range disorder, arising mainly from interstitial production, plays a significant role in the amorphization.

  8. Correlation between balance and gait according to pelvic displacement in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Seon Woong; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations of balance and gait according to pelvic displacement in stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 58 stroke patients who had been admitted to a hospital. [Methods] A Global Postural System was used to measure pelvic displacement. To measure the balance ability, a Tetrax balance system was used to measure the weight distribution index and stability index. Gait ability was measured during the 10-Meter Walking Test and Figure-of-8 Walk Test. [Results] The results of this study showed that was significant positive correlation between the anterior superior iliac spine height difference in pelvic displacement and the weight distribution index and significant positive correlation between the posterior superior iliac spine height difference and the stability index in the normal position with the eyes closed. Statistically significant positive correlation also was found between the anterior superior iliac spine height difference and the straight and curved gait ability. [Conclusion] The increased pelvic displacement in stroke patients results in a decrease in balance ability and gait speed. This suggests that control of pelvic displacement is necessary before functional training for patients with stroke. PMID:26311948

  9. Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity

  10. Displacement sensors using soft magnetostrictive alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Reilly, R. E.

    1994-09-01

    We report results on the response of a family of displacement sensors, which are based on the magentostrictive delay line (MDL) technique, using current conductors orthogonal to the MDL. Such sensing technique is based on the change of the magnetic circuit at the acoustic stress point of origin due to the displacement of a soft magnetic material above it. Integrated arrays of sensors can be obtained due to the acoustic delay line technique and they can be used as tactile arrays, digitizers or devices for medical applications (gait analysis etc.), while absence of hysteresis and low cost of manufacturing make them competent in this sector of sensor market.

  11. Displacement sensors using soft magnetostrictive alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hristoforou, E. . Inst. of Material Science); Reilly, R.E. . Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-09-01

    The authors report results on the response of a family of displacement sensors, which are based on the magnetostrictive delay line (MDL) technique, using current conductor orthogonal to the MDL. Such sensing technique is based on the change of the magnetic circuit and the acoustic stress point of origin due to the displacement of a soft magnetic material above it. Integrated arrays of sensors can be obtained due to the acoustic delay line technique and they can be used as tactile arrays, digitizers or devices for medical application (gait analysis etc.), while absence of hysteresis and low cost of manufacturing make them competent in this sector of sensor market.

  12. Atomistic Simulation of Displacement Cascades in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Corrales, Louis R.; BP McGrail and GA Cragnolino

    2002-05-06

    Low energy displacement cascades in zircon (ZrSiO4) initiated by a Zr primary knock-on atom have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using a Coulombic model for long-range interactions, Buckingham potential for short-range interactions and Ziegler-Biersack potentials for close pair interactions. Displacements were found to occur mainly in the O sublattice, and O replacements by a ring mechanism were predominant. Clusters containing Si interstitials bridged by O interstitials, vacancy clusters and anti-site defects were found to occur. This Si-O-Si bridging is considerable in quenched liquid ZrSiO4.

  13. Fibre optic distributed differential displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Michael T. V.; Brown, Anthony W.; Colpitts, Bruce G.

    2011-05-01

    A Fibre Optic Distributed Differential Displacement Sensor is modelled and experimentally verified to determine shape. Created using a steel tape, 9/125 μm single mode fibre, and adhesive, the FODDDS can be used to determine shape or displacement of any object to which it is bonded. A circular shape is examined, and a radius of curvature comparison yields an error of 2%. The sensitivity of the FODDDS, for the substrate thickness used in this experiment, is shown to be 1.27 mm between adjacent data points, which corresponds to a radius of curvature of 103 m.

  14. Maxillary tooth displacement in the infratemporal fossa

    PubMed Central

    Roshanghias, Korosh; Peisker, Andre; Zieron, Jörg Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Wisdom tooth operations are sometimes accompanied by complications. This case report shows complications during upper jaw third molar removal. Expectable problems during oral surgery should be planned to be solved in advance. Displacement of the third molar during oral surgeries as a considerable complication is rarely discussed scientifically. A good design of flap, adequate power for extraction, and clear view on the surgical field are crucial. Three-dimensional radiographic diagnostics in terms of cone beam computed tomography is helpful after tooth displacement into the infratemporal fossa.

  15. Maxillary tooth displacement in the infratemporal fossa.

    PubMed

    Roshanghias, Korosh; Peisker, Andre; Zieron, Jörg Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Wisdom tooth operations are sometimes accompanied by complications. This case report shows complications during upper jaw third molar removal. Expectable problems during oral surgery should be planned to be solved in advance. Displacement of the third molar during oral surgeries as a considerable complication is rarely discussed scientifically. A good design of flap, adequate power for extraction, and clear view on the surgical field are crucial. Three-dimensional radiographic diagnostics in terms of cone beam computed tomography is helpful after tooth displacement into the infratemporal fossa. PMID:27605997

  16. Displacement Patterns of Blunt Rib Fractures and Their Relationship to Thoracic Coinjuries: Minimal Displacements Count.

    PubMed

    Bugaev, Nikolay; Breeze, Janis L; Alhazmi, Majid; Anbari, Hassan S; Arabian, Sandra S; Rabinovici, Reuven

    2016-03-01

    Displacement patterns of rib fractures (RF) and their association with thoracic coinjuries and outcomes are unknown. This is a retrospective review of adult patients with blunt closed RF who underwent chest CT at a Level I trauma center (2007-2012). Displacement patterns of RF were compared among the three-dimensional planes using CT images. An analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was performed to identify displacements in each plane most strongly associated with chest coinjuries. Univariate analysis was used to find association of displaced RF with hospital course and outcome. There were 1127 RF (245 patients, most in ribs 3-9, 45 per cent displaced). Axial displacement was the most common, with odds ratios 7.20 and 2.13 compared with cranio-caudal, and impaction-separation (along rib axis) movement, respectively. Axial displacement thresholds performed well with hemothorax (2.8 mm, ROC = 0.74), pneumothorax (2.6 mm, ROC = 0.70), hemopneumothorax (3.1 mm, ROC = 0.77), flail chest (3.4 mm, ROC = 0.80), and chest tube placement (2.8 mm, ROC = 0.75). RF displacement was associated with increased days on mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. In conclusion, even minimal RF displacement is associated with increased risk of chest coinjuries and chest tube placement, and displacements correlated with increased days on mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. Future studies are required to investigate these associations, especially in relationship to the indications for rib plating. PMID:27099054

  17. Do displacement activities help preschool children to inhibit a forbidden action?

    PubMed

    Pecora, Giulia; Addessi, Elsa; Schino, Gabriele; Bellagamba, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Displacement activities are commonly recognized as behavioral patterns, mostly including self-directed actions (e.g., scratching, self-touching), that often occur in situations involving conflicting motivational tendencies. In ethology, several researchers have suggested that displacement activities could facilitate individuals in dealing with the stress experienced in a frustrating context. In child developmental research, some authors have assessed whether distraction strategies could help children to inhibit a dominant response during delay of gratification tasks. However, little is known about the displacement activities that young children may produce in such situations. This study was aimed at investigating whether displacement activities had an effect on preschool children's ability to postpone an immediate gratification (i.e., interacting with an attractive toy, a musical box), thereby functioning as regulators of their emotional state. To this end, we administered 143 2- to 4-year-olds with a delay maintenance task and related their performance with displacement activities they produced during the task and with actions with an external object. Children's latency to touch the musical box was positively related to their rate of displacement activities. However, the rate of displacement activities increased progressively as long as the children were able to inhibit the interaction with the musical box. In addition, the rate of displacement activities during the first 1 min of test did not predict the ability of children to inhibit the interaction with the box. These results suggest that displacement activities represented a functionless by-product of motivational conflict rather than a strategy that children used to inhibit their response to an attractive stimulus. PMID:24907630

  18. RECOVERY OF METAL USING ALUMINUM DISPLACEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of typical metals (Cu, Pb, Sn, Ni) from printed circuit and metal finishing waste streams was evaluated using displacement with aluminum. he metal is recovered as non-hazardous metal particles and can be recycled by smelting. n acceptable aluminum metal configuration ...

  19. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  20. Measurement of gas quantities by liquid displacement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of equations relating the different variables involved in gas quantity measurements by liquid displacement from a Mariotte flask. The results are used to elucidate design criteria and operational procedures required for the realization of various degrees of desired accuracy down to 0.01%.

  1. The Income Losses of Displaced Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijzen, Alexander; Upward, Richard; Wright, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    We use a new, matched worker-firm dataset for the United Kingdom to estimate the income loss resulting from firm closure and mass layoffs. We track workers for up to nine years after the displacement event, and the availability of predisplacement characteristics allows us to implement difference-in-differences estimators using propensity score…

  2. Job Displacement and the Rural Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael

    High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…

  3. RECOVERY OF METALS USING ALUMINUM DISPLACEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of typical metals (Cu, Pb, Sn, Ni) from printed circuit and metal finishing waste streams was evaluated using displacement with aluminum. he metal is recovered as non-hazardous metal particles and can be recycled by smelting. n acceptable aluminum metal configuration ...

  4. Developing Programs for (Displaced) Homemakers in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    Two projects (Preparation of Vocational Personnel for Assessing Needs and Improving Employability of Selected Homemakers, November 1978 through June 1979, and Developing and Providing Multipurpose Employability Services and a Supportive Environment for Displaced Homemakers and Related Groups, February 1979 through June 1980) were conducted to…

  5. Ko Displacement Theory for Structural Shape Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of the Ko displacement theory for predictions of structure deformed shapes was motivated in 2003 by the Helios flying wing, which had a 247-ft (75-m) wing span with wingtip deflections reaching 40 ft (12 m). The Helios flying wing failed in midair in June 2003, creating the need to develop new technology to predict in-flight deformed shapes of unmanned aircraft wings for visual display before the ground-based pilots. Any types of strain sensors installed on a structure can only sense the surface strains, but are incapable to sense the overall deformed shapes of structures. After the invention of the Ko displacement theory, predictions of structure deformed shapes could be achieved by feeding the measured surface strains into the Ko displacement transfer functions for the calculations of out-of-plane deflections and cross sectional rotations at multiple locations for mapping out overall deformed shapes of the structures. The new Ko displacement theory combined with a strain-sensing system thus created a revolutionary new structure- shape-sensing technology.

  6. Stability of Helium Clusters during Displacement Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Xiao, H. Y.; Gao, Fei; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Zhiguo; Liu, K. Z.

    2007-02-01

    The interaction of displacement cascades with helium-vacancy clusters is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The He-vacancy clusters initially consist of 20 vacancies with a Helium-to-vacancy ratio ranging from 0.2 to 3. The primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy, Ep, varies from 2 keV to 10 keV, and the PKA direction is chosen such that a displacement cascade is able to directly interact with a helium-vacancy cluster. The simulation results show that the effect of displacement cascades on a helium-vacancy cluster strongly depends on both the helium-to-vacancy ratio and the PKA energy. For the same PKA energy, the size of helium-vacancy clusters increases with the He/V ratio, but for the same ratio, the cluster size changes more significantly with increasing PKA energy. It has been observed that the He-vacancy clusters can be dissolved when the He/V ratio less than 1, but they are able to re-nucleate during the thermal spike phase, forming small He-V nuclei. When the He/V ratio is larger than 1, the He-V clusters can absorb a number of vacancies produced by displacement cascades, forming larger He-V clusters. These results are discussed in terms of PKA energy, helium-to-vacancy ratio, number of vacancies produced by cascades, and mobility of helium atoms.

  7. Retraining Displaced Workers--Barriers and Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolansky, William D.

    Although plant closings and layoffs have been happening for a long time, today's recessions, major changes in the structure of the economy, and a tight job market have combined to make plant closings a more serious problem. Workers are faced with unemployment from both traditional labor-displacing changes, such as the increasing use of robotics;…

  8. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

    2000-01-01

    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  9. Polymer displacement/shielding in protein chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Galaev, I Y; Mattiasson, B

    2000-05-12

    An overview of different applications of polymer interactions with ion-exchange and dye-affinity chromatographic matrices is presented here. The strength of interaction between the ligand and the polymer plays a crucial role in deciding the mode of chromatographic application. Charged, non-ionic and thermosensitive polymers such as poly(ethylene imine), poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) and poly(vinyl caprolactam) respectively, show different degrees of interaction with the dye molecules in dye ligand chromatography. Polymers, with their ability of multipoint and hence strong attachment to the chromatographic matrices, were used as efficient displacers in displacement chromatography. The polymer displacement resulted in better recoveries and sharper elution profiles than traditional salt elutions. The globule-coil transition of the thermosensitive reversible soluble-insoluble polymer, poly(vinyl caprolactam), can be exploited in dye-affinity columns for the temperature induced displacement of the bound protein. In another situation, prior to the column chromatography of crude protein extract, polymers formed complexes with the dye matrix and "shielded" the column. The polymer shielding decreased the nonspecific interactions without affecting the specific interactions of the target protein to the dye matrix. PMID:10872581

  10. Careers for Homemakers (A Displaced Homemakers Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Marlene

    St. Louis Community College's Careers for Homemakers program is a vocational counseling program designed to help displaced homemakers enter the job market for the first time or after a significant absence. The program's goal is to place participants, chosen according to academic or economic disadvantaged eligibility, in jobs consistent with their…

  11. Opening Doors for the Displaced Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Martha Norris

    2000-01-01

    Describes the many benefits now available to laid-off and displaced textile and apparel-related workers through the North American Free Trade Agreement's Transitional Adjustment Allowance (NAFTA-TAA), which allows them to attend college for the first time. Examines the effectiveness of the TAA program and concludes that there is room for "cautious…

  12. Efficiency Improvements to the Displacement Based Multilevel Structural Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plunkett, C. L.; Striz, A. G.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Multilevel Structural Optimization (MSO) continues to be an area of research interest in engineering optimization. In the present project, the weight optimization of beams and trusses using Displacement based Multilevel Structural Optimization (DMSO), a member of the MSO set of methodologies, is investigated. In the DMSO approach, the optimization task is subdivided into a single system and multiple subsystems level optimizations. The system level optimization minimizes the load unbalance resulting from the use of displacement functions to approximate the structural displacements. The function coefficients are then the design variables. Alternately, the system level optimization can be solved using the displacements themselves as design variables, as was shown in previous research. Both approaches ensure that the calculated loads match the applied loads. In the subsystems level, the weight of the structure is minimized using the element dimensions as design variables. The approach is expected to be very efficient for large structures, since parallel computing can be utilized in the different levels of the problem. In this paper, the method is applied to a one-dimensional beam and a large three-dimensional truss. The beam was tested to study possible simplifications to the system level optimization. In previous research, polynomials were used to approximate the global nodal displacements. The number of coefficients of the polynomials equally matched the number of degrees of freedom of the problem. Here it was desired to see if it is possible to only match a subset of the degrees of freedom in the system level. This would lead to a simplification of the system level, with a resulting increase in overall efficiency. However, the methods tested for this type of system level simplification did not yield positive results. The large truss was utilized to test further improvements in the efficiency of DMSO. In previous work, parallel processing was applied to the

  13. Weak Values from Displacement Currents in Multiterminal Electron Devices.

    PubMed

    Marian, D; Zanghì, N; Oriols, X

    2016-03-18

    Weak values allow the measurement of observables associated with noncommuting operators. Up to now, position-momentum weak values have been mainly developed for (relativistic) photons. In this Letter, a proposal for the measurement of such weak values in typical electronic devices is presented. Inspired by the Ramo-Shockley-Pellegrini theorem that provides a relation between current and electron velocity, it is shown that the displacement current measured in multiterminal configurations can provide either a weak measurement of the momentum or strong measurement of position. This proposal opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied physics with state-of-the-art electronic technology. As an example, a setup for the measurement of the Bohmian velocity of (nonrelativistic) electrons is presented and tested with numerical experiments. PMID:27035291

  14. Weak Values from Displacement Currents in Multiterminal Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, D.; Zanghı, N.; Oriols, X.

    2016-03-01

    Weak values allow the measurement of observables associated with noncommuting operators. Up to now, position-momentum weak values have been mainly developed for (relativistic) photons. In this Letter, a proposal for the measurement of such weak values in typical electronic devices is presented. Inspired by the Ramo-Shockley-Pellegrini theorem that provides a relation between current and electron velocity, it is shown that the displacement current measured in multiterminal configurations can provide either a weak measurement of the momentum or strong measurement of position. This proposal opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied physics with state-of-the-art electronic technology. As an example, a setup for the measurement of the Bohmian velocity of (nonrelativistic) electrons is presented and tested with numerical experiments.

  15. Displacement interferometry with stabilization of wavelength in air.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Josef; Holá, Miroslava; Cíp, Ondřej; Cížek, Martin; Hrabina, Jan; Buchta, Zdeněk

    2012-12-01

    We present a concept of suppression of the influence of variations of the refractive index of air in displacement measuring interferometry. The principle is based on referencing of wavelength of the coherent laser source in atmospheric conditions instead of traditional stabilization of the optical frequency and indirect evaluation of the refractive index of air. The key advantage is in identical beam paths of the position measuring interferometers and the interferometer used for the wavelength stabilization. Design of the optical arrangement presented here to verify the concept is suitable for real interferometric position sensing in technical practice especially where a high resolution measurement within some limited range in atmospheric conditions is needed, e.g. in nanometrology. PMID:23262728

  16. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals’ understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and thus reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so due to their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply due to the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object’s location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species’ performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past. PMID:24611641

  17. Online Image-based Monitoring of Soft-tissue Displacements for Radiation Therapy of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Emerging prolonged, hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens rely on high-dose conformality to minimize toxicity and thus can benefit from image guidance systems that continuously monitor target position during beam delivery. To address this need we previously developed, as a potential add-on device for existing linear accelerators, a novel telerobotic ultrasound system capable of real-time, soft-tissue imaging. Expanding on this capability, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize an image-based technique for real-time detection of prostate displacements. Methods and Materials: Image processing techniques were implemented on spatially localized ultrasound images to generate two parameters representing prostate displacements in real time. In a phantom and five volunteers, soft-tissue targets were continuously imaged with a customized robotic manipulator while recording the two tissue displacement parameters (TDPs). Variations of the TDPs in the absence of tissue displacements were evaluated, as was the sensitivity of the TDPs to prostate translations and rotations. Robustness of the approach to probe force was also investigated. Results: With 95% confidence, the proposed method detected in vivo prostate displacements before they exceeded 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 mm in anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral directions. Prostate pitch was detected before exceeding 4.7 Degree-Sign at 95% confidence. Total system time lag averaged 173 ms, mostly limited by ultrasound acquisition rate. False positives (FPs) (FP) in the absence of displacements did not exceed 1.5 FP events per 10 min of continuous in vivo imaging time. Conclusions: The feasibility of using telerobotic ultrasound for real-time, soft-tissue-based monitoring of target displacements was confirmed in vivo. Such monitoring has the potential to detect small clinically relevant intrafractional variations of the prostate position during beam delivery.

  18. [Genetic analysis of the prevalence of abomasal displacement and its relationship to milk output characteristics in German Holstein cows].

    PubMed

    Ricken, M; Hamann, H; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2004-09-01

    Genetic parameters for the prevalence of abomasal displacement and for milk yield traits were estimated using a data set of 3578 cows. The animals originated from 50 farms near Hanover being under the official milk recording scheme. At these farms all cases of abomasal displacement in German Holsteins were registered from July 2001 to January 2003. Using REML heritability estimates in linear animal models were h2 = 0.034 +/- 0.014, h2 = 0.017 +/- 0.013 and h2 = 0.029 +/- 0.011 for all cases of abomasal displacement, leftsided abomasal displacement and rightsided abomasal displacement, respectively. Additive genetic correlations between all cases of abomasal displacement and milk yield traits were small, ranging from rg = -0.20 (fat content) to rg = 0.08 (milk kg). However, there was a highly positive additive genetic correlation between leftsided abomasal displacement and milk yield of rg = 0.683 +/- 0.227. Leftsided abomasal displacement was correlated additive genetically to fat and protein yield, fat and protein content with rg = 0.595 +/- 0.297, r9 = 0.653 +/- 0.250, rg = -0.768 +/- 0.3280 und rg = -0.643 +/- 0.354, respectively. The additive genetic correlation to the ratio between fat and protein content was rg = -0.585 +/- 0.470. For rightsided abomasal displacement, additive genetic correlations were of similar size but with reversed signs. The estimates obtained for the residual correlations were negligibly small throughout. PMID:15503538

  19. Correlation Between Clinical Findings of Temporomandibular Disorders and MRI Characteristics of Disc Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman; Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Sheikh, Soheyl; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sonam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is a common condition that is best evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The first step in MR imaging of the TMJ is to evaluate the articular disk, or meniscus, in terms of its morphologic features and its location relative to the condyle in both closed- and open-mouth positions. Disk location is of prime importance because the presence of a displaced disk is a critical sign of TMJ dysfunction. However, disk displacement is also frequently seen in asymptomatic volunteers. It is important for the maxillofacial radiologist to detect early MR imaging signs of dysfunction, thereby avoiding the evolution of this condition to its advanced and irreversible phase which is characterized by osteoarthritic changes such as condylar flattening or osteophytes. Further the MR imaging techniques will allow a better understanding of the sources of TMJ pain and of any discrepancy between imaging findings and patient symptoms. Henceforth, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether MRI findings of various degrees of disk displacement could be correlated with the presence or absence of clinical signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Materials and Methods : In this clinical study, 44 patients (88 TMJs) were examined clinically and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients with clinical signs and symptoms of TMDs either unilaterally or bilaterally and considered as study group. Group 2 consisted of 22 patients with no signs and symptoms of TMDs and considered as control group. MRI was done for both the TMJs of each patient. Displacement of the posterior band of articular disc in relation to the condyle was quantified as anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR), anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDWR), posterior disc displacement (PDD). Results : Disk displacement was found in 18 (81.8%) patients of 22 symptomatic subjects in Group 1

  20. Closed loop control of dielectric elastomer actuators based on self-sensing displacement feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzello, G.; Naso, D.; York, A.; Seelecke, S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a sensorless control algorithm for a positioning system based on a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). The voltage applied to the membrane and the resulting current can be measured during the actuation and used to estimate its displacement, i.e., to perform self-sensing. The estimated displacement can be then used as a feedback signal for a position control algorithm, which results in a compact device capable of operating in closed loop control without the need for additional electromechanical or optical transducers. In this work, a circular DEA preloaded with a bi-stable spring is used as a case of study to validate the proposed control architecture. A comparison of the closed loop performance achieved using an accurate laser displacement sensor for feedback is also provided to better assess the performance limitations of the overall sensorless scheme.

  1. Quantum point contact displacement transducer for a mechanical resonator at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Yuma; Mahboob, Imran; Onomitsu, Koji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2013-11-04

    Highly sensitive displacement transduction of a 1.67 MHz mechanical resonator with a quantum point contact (QPC) formed in a GaAs heterostructure is demonstrated. By positioning the QPC at the point of maximum mechanical strain on the resonator and operating at 80 mK, a displacement responsivity of 3.81 A/m is measured, which represents a two order of magnitude improvement on the previous QPC based devices. By further analyzing the QPC transport characteristics, a sub-Poisson-noise-limited displacement sensitivity of 25 fm/Hz{sup 1/2} is determined which corresponds to a position resolution that is 23 times the standard quantum limit.

  2. Residual Seminal Vesicle Displacement in Marker-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer and the Impact on Margin Design

    SciTech Connect

    Smitsmans, Monique H.P.; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Catton, Charles N.; Jaffray, David A.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Herk, Marcel van

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to quantify residual interfraction displacement of seminal vesicles (SV) and investigate the efficacy of rotation correction on SV displacement in marker-based prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). We also determined the effect of marker registration on the measured SV displacement and its impact on margin design. Methods and Materials: SV displacement was determined relative to marker registration by using 296 cone beam computed tomography scans of 13 prostate cancer patients with implanted markers. SV were individually registered in the transverse plane, based on gray-value information. The target registration error (TRE) for the SV due to marker registration inaccuracies was estimated. Correlations between prostate gland rotations and SV displacement and between individual SV displacements were determined. Results: The SV registration success rate was 99%. Displacement amounts of both SVs were comparable. Systematic and random residual SV displacements were 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm in the left-right direction, respectively, and 2.8 mm and 3.1 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, respectively. Rotation correction did not reduce residual SV displacement. Prostate gland rotation around the left-right axis correlated with SV AP displacement (R{sup 2} = 42%); a correlation existed between both SVs for AP displacement (R{sup 2} = 62%); considerable correlation existed between random errors of SV displacement and TRE (R{sup 2} = 34%). Conclusions: Considerable residual SV displacement exists in marker-based IGRT. Rotation correction barely reduced SV displacement, rather, a larger SV displacement was shown relative to the prostate gland that was not captured by the marker position. Marker registration error partly explains SV displacement when correcting for rotations. Correcting for rotations, therefore, is not advisable when SV are part of the target volume. Margin design for SVs should take these uncertainties into

  3. Global surface displacement data for assessing variability of displacement at a point on a fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hecker, Suzanne; Sickler, Robert; Feigelson, Leah; Abrahamson, Norman; Hassett, Will; Rosa, Carla; Sanquini, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a global dataset of site-specific surface-displacement data on faults. We have compiled estimates of successive displacements attributed to individual earthquakes, mainly paleoearthquakes, at sites where two or more events have been documented, as a basis for analyzing inter-event variability in surface displacement on continental faults. An earlier version of this composite dataset was used in a recent study relating the variability of surface displacement at a point to the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes on faults, and to hazard from fault rupture (Hecker and others, 2013). The purpose of this follow-on report is to provide potential data users with an updated comprehensive dataset, largely complete through 2010 for studies in English-language publications, as well as in some unpublished reports and abstract volumes.

  4. Evidence that displacement activities facilitate behavioural transitions in ring-tailed lemurs.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Victoria; Semple, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    Displacement activities are behavioural patterns defined by their apparent irrelevance to an animal's ongoing actions. Despite being identified in diverse taxa, their function remains poorly understood. One hypothesis posits that displacement activities facilitate transitions between different behaviours by mediating changes in animals' motivational state. Under this hypothesis, it is predicted that displacement activities will occur more frequently around changes in behaviour than at other times, and also that rates of displacement activities will be higher before than after such behavioural transitions. We tested these two predictions in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). During focal observations, animals' behavioural state was continuously recorded, as were all occurrences of self-scratching, a common displacement activity in this species. Self-scratching rates were found to be significantly elevated both before and after behavioural transitions. Furthermore, self-scratching rates were significantly higher before behavioural transitions occurred than after. These results, therefore, provide support for the hypothesis that displacement activities facilitate behavioural transitions in L. catta. PMID:22561968

  5. Protein displacement in dye-ligand chromatography using neutral and charged polymers.

    PubMed

    Galaev IYu; Arvidsson, P; Mattiasson, B

    1998-01-01

    Displacement chromatography was demonstrated to perform separations efficiently under mass-overloaded conditions, offering advantages such as increased product recovery and purity, superior resolving power, and concentration and purification in a single processing step. The use of water-soluble polymers for protein displacement in dye-ligand chromatography was initiated in our laboratory. The polymers for displacement were selected using differences spectroscopy to monitor their interactions with a dye-ligand in solution. Non-charged polymers such as poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) and poly(N-vinyl caprolactam) efficiently displaced lactate dehydrogenase from porcine muscle from a Blue Sepahrose column. The latter polymer, being thermosensitive, could be easily removed from the eluate and recovered by precipitation at 45 degrees C and low-speed centrifugation. The positively charged polymer poly(ethylene imine) proved to be an even more efficient displacer. The dye-ligand column could be regenerated after application of displacer either by washing with a solution of the soluble ligand Cibacron Blue (in the case of non-charged polymers) or by washing with highly alkaline solutions containing polyanions (in the case of poly(ethylene imine)) The latter formed a soluble complex with poly(ethylene imine) and stripped the column from the polymer. PMID:10076852

  6. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region. PMID:21590557

  7. Loading effects in GPS vertical displacement time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memin, A.; Boy, J. P.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Watson, C.; Gravelle, M.; Tregoning, P.

    2015-12-01

    Surface deformations due to loading, with yet no comprehensive representation, account for a significant part of the variability in geodetic time series. We assess effects of loading in GPS vertical displacement time series at several frequency bands. We compare displacement derived from up-to-date loading models to two global sets of positioning time series, and investigate how they are reduced looking at interannual periods (> 2 months), intermediate periods (> 7 days) and the whole spectrum (> 1day). We assess the impact of interannual loading on estimating velocities. We compute atmospheric loading effects using surface pressure fields from the ECMWF. We use the inverted barometer (IB) hypothesis valid for periods exceeding a week to describe the ocean response to the pressure forcing. We used general circulation ocean model (ECCO and GLORYS) to account for wind, heat and fresh water flux. We separately use the Toulouse Unstructured Grid Ocean model (TUGO-m), forced by air pressure and winds, to represent the dynamics of the ocean response at high frequencies. The continental water storage is described using GLDAS/Noah and MERRA-land models. Non-hydrology loading reduces the variability of the observed vertical displacement differently according to the frequency band. The hydrology loading leads to a further reduction mostly at annual periods. ECMWF+TUGO-m better agrees with vertical surface motion than the ECMWF+IB model at all frequencies. The interannual deformation is time-correlated at most of the locations. It is adequately described by a power-law process of spectral index varying from -1.5 to -0.2. Depending on the power-law parameters, the predicted non-linear deformation due to mass loading variations leads to vertical velocity biases up to 0.7 mm/yr when estimated from 5 years of continuous observations. The maximum velocity bias can reach up to 1 mm/yr in regions around the southern Tropical band.

  8. Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals

    PubMed Central

    Allen, William L.; Stevens, Martin; Higham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal visual signals have the potential to act as an isolating barrier to prevent interbreeding of populations through a role in species recognition. Within communities of competing species, species recognition signals are predicted to undergo character displacement, becoming more visually distinctive from each other, however this pattern has rarely been identified. Using computational face recognition algorithms to model primate face processing, we demonstrate that the face patterns of guenons (tribe: Cercopithecini) have evolved under selection to become more visually distinctive from those of other guenon species with whom they are sympatric. The relationship between the appearances of sympatric species suggests that distinguishing conspecifics from other guenon species has been a major driver of diversification in guenon face appearance. Visual signals that have undergone character displacement may have had an important role in the tribe’s radiation, keeping populations that became geographically separated reproductively isolated on secondary contact. PMID:24967517

  9. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Ronca, Enrico Tarantelli, Francesco; Pastore, Mariachiara Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  10. Emergency contraception among refugees and the displaced.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, L; McGinn, T

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, the international relief community began to recognize and address the reproductive health needs of refugees and displaced populations. A minimum initial service package of reproductive health services for refugees and the displaced, which includes emergency contraception (EC), was developed and recommended for use in refugee settings. This paper describes the experience of one international relief organization, the International Rescue Committee (IRC), in introducing EC into its worldwide reproductive health program. A recent IRC survey found that EC is available in 4 out of 14 settings where it provides reproductive health services. A case study from Tanzania demonstrates the modes of delivery, the demand for EC by women who have experienced sexual violence, and the community responses to this method of contraception. More information, education, and communication directed at refugee communities; more donor support for supplies; and institutional commitment to train staff are needed to expand refugee access to EC. PMID:9859638

  11. Internal Displacements in Cement during Ballistic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, S. G.; Proud, W. G.; Field, J. E.

    2004-07-01

    The technique of Digital Speckle Radiography (DSR) has been shown to be widely applicable to the field of ballistics through its ability to measure internal displacement fields to a high precision. In a DSR experiment, a flat plane, typically 500 μm thick, of X-ray opaque filings are introduced into the sample during manufacture. Flash X-rays can then be used to image the plane, both before and during an impact event, to produce random speckled images on an X-ray film. Small sub-regions of the images can be tracked relative to each other using a Digital Speckle Photography (DSP) correlation algorithm. This produces a displacement field within the specimen on the seeded plane. By repeating an experiment with identical specimens, but varying the delay of the X-ray exposure, a full time history of the impact event can be obtained.

  12. Indicator displacement assays inside live cells.

    PubMed

    Norouzy, Amir; Azizi, Zahra; Nau, Werner M

    2015-01-12

    The macrocycle p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (CX4) and the fluorescent dye lucigenin (LCG) form a stable host-guest complex, in which the dye fluorescence is quenched. Incubation of live V79 and CHO cells with the CX4/LCG chemosensing ensemble resulted in its spontaneous uptake. Subsequent addition of choline, acetylcholine, or protamine, which have a high affinity for CX4 and are capable of entering cells, resulted in a fluorescence switch-on response. This can be traced to the displacement of LCG from CX4 by the analytes. The results establish the principal functionality of indicator displacement assays with synthetic receptors for the detection of the uptake of bioorganic analytes by live cells. PMID:25430503

  13. Evolution of character displacement in Darwin's finches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary

    2006-07-14

    Competitor species can have evolutionary effects on each other that result in ecological character displacement; that is, divergence in resource-exploiting traits such as jaws and beaks. Nevertheless, the process of character displacement occurring in nature, from the initial encounter of competitors to the evolutionary change in one or more of them, has not previously been investigated. Here we report that a Darwin's finch species (Geospiza fortis) on an undisturbed Galápagos island diverged in beak size from a competitor species (G. magnirostris) 22 years after the competitor's arrival, when they jointly and severely depleted the food supply. The observed evolutionary response to natural selection was the strongest recorded in 33 years of study, and close to the value predicted from the high heritability of beak size. These findings support the role of competition in models of community assembly, speciation, and adaptive radiations. PMID:16840700

  14. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronca, Enrico; Pastore, Mariachiara; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Tarantelli, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  15. Displacement phenomena in lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wonryeon

    2015-10-01

    The work described here examines displacement phenomena that play a role in lectin affinity chromatography and their potential to impact reproducibility. This was achieved using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), a lectin widely used in monitoring cancer. Four small identical LEL columns were coupled in series to form a single affinity chromatography system with the last in the series connected to an absorbance detector. The serial affinity column set (SACS) was then loaded with human plasma proteins. At the completion of loading, the column set was disassembled, the four columns were eluted individually, the captured proteins were trypsin digested, the peptides were deglycosylated with PNGase F, and the parent proteins were identified through mass spectral analyses. Significantly different sets of glycoproteins were selected by each column, some proteins appearing to be exclusively bound to the first column while others were bound further along in the series. Clearly, sample displacement chromatography (SDC) occurs. Glycoproteins were bound at different places in the column train, identifying the presence of glycoforms with different affinity on a single glycoprotein. It is not possible to see these phenomena in the single column mode of chromatography. Moreover, low abundance proteins were enriched, which facilitates detection. The great advantage of this method is that it differentiates between glycoproteins on the basis of their binding affinity. Displacement phenomena are concluded to be a significant component of the separation mechanism in heavily loaded lectin affinity chromatography columns. This further suggests that care must be exercised in sample loading of lectin columns to prevent analyte displacement with nonretained proteins. PMID:26348026

  16. Ultra-High-Frequency Capacitive Displacement Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Kaiser, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Improved class of compact, high-resolution capacitive displacement sensors operates at excitation frequency of 915 MHz and measures about 7.5 by 4 by 2 centimeters. Contains commercially available 915-MHz oscillator and transmission-line resonator. Resonator contains stripline inductor in addition to variable capacitor. Ultrahigh excitation frequency offers advantages of resolution and frequency response. Not deleteriously affected by mechanical overdriving, or contact between electrodes.

  17. Character displacement and the origins of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pfennig, David W.; Pfennig, Karin S.

    2012-01-01

    In The Origin of Species, Darwin proposed his ‘principle of divergence of character’ (a process now termed ‘character displacement’) to explain how new species arise and why they differ from one other phenotypically. Darwin maintained that the origin of species, and the evolution of differences between them, is ultimately caused by divergent selection acting to minimize competitive interactions between initially similar individuals, populations, and species. Here, we examine the empirical support for the various claims that constitute Darwin’s principle, specifically that: (1) competition promotes divergent trait evolution; (2) the strength of competitively mediated divergent selection increases with increasing phenotypic similarity between competitors; (3) divergence can occur within species; and (4) competitively mediated divergence can trigger speciation. We also explore aspects that Darwin failed to consider. In particular, we describe how: (1) divergence can arise from selection acting to lessen reproductive interactions; (2) divergence is fueled by the intersection of character displacement and sexual selection; and (3) phenotypic plasticity may play a key role in promoting character displacement. Generally, character displacement is well supported empirically, and it remains a vital explanation for how new species arise and diversify. PMID:21043778

  18. Simultaneous muscle force and displacement transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.; Culler, V. H. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A myocardial transducer for simultaneously measuring force and displacement within a very small area of myocardium is disclosed. The transducer comprised of an elongated body forked at one end to form an inverted Y shaped beam with each branch of the beam constituting a low compliant tine for penetrating the myocardium to a predetermined depth. Bonded to one of the low compliance tines is a small piezoresistive element for converting a force acting on the beam into an electrical signal. A third high compliant tine of the transducer, which measures displacement of the myocardium in a direction in line with the two low compliant tines, is of a length that just pierces the surface membrane. A small piezoresistive element is bonded to the third tine at its upper end where its bending is greatest. Displacement of the myocardium causes a deformation in curvature of the third tine, and the second small piezoresistive element bonded to the surface of its curved end converts its deformation into an electrical signal.

  19. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  20. Highly sensitive displacement measurement based on spectral interferometry and Vernier effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militky, J.; Kadulova, M.; Hlubina, P.

    2016-05-01

    A highly sensitive measurement of the displacement of an interferometer mirror based on spectral interferometry and Vernier effect is proposed and demonstrated. The displacement measurement employs two interferometers in tandem, an interferometer represented by a combination of a polarizer, a birefrigent quartz crystal and an analyzer, and a Michelson interferometer. In the setup the Vernier effect is generated and the resultant channeled spectrum is with the envelope which shifts with the displacement of the interferometer mirror. We analyze the new measurement method theoretically and show that the sensitivity of the displacement measurement based on the wavelength interrogation is substantially increased in comparison to a standard method with a Michelson interferometer. We also demonstrate the realization of the measurement setup in which the position of the interferometer mirror is controlled via a closed-loop piezo positioning system. Experimental results show that the displacement measurement can reach a sensitivity of 264 nm/μm, which is substantially increased in comparison to -34 nm/μm reached for a standard measurement.

  1. Are Children Really Inferior Goods? Evidence from Displacement-Driven Income Shocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindo, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the causal link between income and fertility by analyzing women's fertility response to the large and permanent income shock generated by a husband's job displacement. I find that the shock reduces total fertility, suggesting that the causal effect of income on fertility is positive. A model that incorporates the time cost of…

  2. Calculation of the Displacement Current Using the Integral Form of Ampere's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Derives the magnetic field as a function of position between two capacitor plates during discharge with the use of the integral form of Ampere's law and real currents only. The displacement current must be included to obtain the same result for arbitrary choices of contours. (Author/GA)

  3. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  4. Fluid displacement under elastic membranes: Dynamics and interfacial instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Housseiny, Talal; Christov, Ivan; Juel, Anne; Stone, Howard

    2012-11-01

    The spreading of fluids under a flexible membrane is a feature of many systems such as the lateral intrusion of magma under a terrestrial crust, or when blood spreads underneath the skin giving the signature color of bruises. In this work, we investigate the displacement of a viscous fluid by a gas underneath an elastic membrane. We consider a radial Hele-Shaw cell where the upper plate is an elastic sheet. The dynamics of the interface between the injected gas and the displaced fluid are fundamentally modified by the presence of an elastic boundary, which leads to the suppression of viscous fingering below a critical flow rate. We demonstrate theoretically the mechanism of suppression and find the corresponding critical flow rate. In addition, we study the dynamics of a stable (circular) interface propagating underneath an elastic membrane and derive the scaling laws for both the position of the interface and the shape of the elastic membrane. Our theoretical findings agree very well with the experimental results of D. Pihler-Puzovic et al. (PRL 2012). T. T. Al-Housseiny is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-0646086.

  5. Effects of spatially displaced feedback on remote manipulation tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manahan, Meera K.; Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Hwang, Ellen Y.; Legendre, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several studies have been performed to determine the effects on computer and direct manipulation task performance when viewing conditions are spatially displaced. Whether results from these studies can be directly applied to remote manipulation tasks is quenstionable. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the effects of reversed, inverted, and inverted/reversed views on remote manipulation task performance using two 3-Degree of Freedom (DOF) hand controllers and a replica position hand controller. Results showed that trials using the inverted viewing condition showed the worst performance, followed by the inverted/reversed view and the reversed view when using the 2x3 DOF. However, these differences were not significant. The inverted and inverted/reversed viewing conditions were significantly worse than the normal and reversed viewing conditions when using the Kraft Replica. A second evaluation was conducted in which additional trials were performed with each viewing condition to determine the long term effects of spatially displaced views on task performance for the hand controllers. Results of the second evaluation indicated that there was more of a difference in performance between the perturbed viewing conditions and the normal viewing condition with the Kraft Replica than with the 2x3 DOF.

  6. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  7. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  8. Worker Displacement Still Common in the Late 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Diane E.

    1991-01-01

    Even during a period of rapid employment growth, over four million people were displaced from their jobs in the 1980s. Workers displaced during the latter half of the decade had a much easier time finding new jobs. (Author)

  9. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the DIn

  10. Improving Students' Understanding of Waves by Plotting a Displacement-Time Graph in Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yajun

    2012-04-01

    The topic of waves is one that many high school physics students find difficult to understand. This is especially true when using some A-level textbooks1,2used in the U.K., where the concept of waves is introduced prior to the concept of simple harmonic oscillations. One of the challenges my students encounter is understanding the difference between displacement-time graphs and displacement-position graphs. Many students wonder why these two graphs have the same sinusoidal shape. Having the students use multimedia simulations allows them to see, in a hands-on fashion, the relationship between the two graphs.

  11. Nonlinearity error separation and self-correction methods for time grating displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaokang; Peng, Donglin; Wang, Xianquan; Yang, Wei

    2006-11-01

    A novel type of displacement sensor named time grating is introduced for measuring space with time. Multi-position probes measuring method is used to separate the non-linearity error of time grating, and Fourier series harmonic wave correction method is proposed to correct the error by software. Experiment results coming out from applications conform the remarkable effectiveness of these methods. A time grating displacement sensor with accuracy of +/-0.8" is developed. Test results show that high-precision measurement is achieved without high-precision manufacture. The realization of error self-correction endows time grating sensor with intelligence.

  12. Performance characterization of an internsity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, Erik Allan; Todd, Michael D; Puckett, Santhony D

    2010-09-30

    A testbed simulating an intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensor is experimentally characterized, and the implications regarding sensor design are discussed. Of interest are the intensity distribution of the transmitted optical signal and the relationships between sensor architecture and performance. Particularly, an intensity-modulated sensor's sensitivity, linearity, displacement range, and resolution are functions of the relative positioning of its transmitting and receiving fibers. In this paper, sensor architectures with various combinations of these performance metrics are discussed. A sensor capable of micrometer resolution is reported, and it is concluded that this work could lead to an improved methodology for sensor design.

  13. Super-radiant super-resolving displacement estimation via multiple photons by the Wang's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Li-Xin; Abdureyim, Muhammad-Tursun; Liu, Run-Qin; Yu, Sheng-Qing; Guo, Ling; Zhou, Xiang-Ling

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a super-radiant measurement scheme to achieve Heisenberg limit super-resolving displacement estimation by encoding multiple light momenta into a three-level atomic ensemble with multiple ? photons. And by the Wang's method (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 083601), we use ? coherent pulses to prepare a ?-excitation super-radiant state in a super-position of two timed Dicke states that are ? light momenta apart in the momentum space. The phase difference between these two states induced by a uniform displacement of the atomic ensemble has ? sensitivity. In the end, we introduce two experiments based on Ramsey interferometry in crystal and in ultracold atoms.

  14. Swallowing accelerometry signal feature variations with sensor displacement.

    PubMed

    Mamun, Khondaker A; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom

    2015-07-01

    Dual-axis accelerometry has recently shown promise as a non-invasive method for detecting swallowing impairment using signal processing and pattern classification algorithms. However, it is unknown whether variations in sensor placement alter signal characteristics, threatening the accuracy of signal processing classifiers for aspiration detection. To address this question, water swallows were recorded in 14 healthy adults using a dual-axis accelerometer in 13 different positions (baseline, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm above, below and to the right of baseline). The baseline position was midline, immediately below the thyroid cartilage during quiet breathing. After segmentation and pre-processing, signal features were extracted in multiple domains (time, frequency, time-frequency). The effect of sensor position on signal feature distributions was examined with non-parametric statistical analysis. The analysis showed that the sensor could be displaced by as much as 4 mm inferior and lateral to the baseline position and by up to 6 mm above the baseline location without significantly altering time-frequency features. In other words, when considering the baseline position as the origin, the admissible region for sensor placement spans 10 mm in the superior-inferior axis and 8 mm in the medial-lateral direction. Results of this study suggest that time-frequency representations of accelerometry signals are most robust to sensor placement variations around the baseline position. The implication of this finding is that a swallowing accelerometry classifier based on time-frequency features can likely tolerate small variations in sensor location without degradation in classification performance. PMID:26003287

  15. Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Shariati, Maryam; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-09-11

    This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.

  16. 20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separation, displacement or dismissal..., Spouse, or Divorced Spouse Annuity Beginning Date § 218.30 Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (a) General. When an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from...

  17. 20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separation, displacement or dismissal..., Spouse, or Divorced Spouse Annuity Beginning Date § 218.30 Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (a) General. When an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from...

  18. 20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation, displacement or dismissal..., Spouse, or Divorced Spouse Annuity Beginning Date § 218.30 Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (a) General. When an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from...

  19. 20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Separation, displacement or dismissal..., Spouse, or Divorced Spouse Annuity Beginning Date § 218.30 Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (a) General. When an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from...

  20. 20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Separation, displacement or dismissal..., Spouse, or Divorced Spouse Annuity Beginning Date § 218.30 Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (a) General. When an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from...

  1. Job Displacement and Labor Market Mobility. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Swaim, Paul

    A study examined the labor market mobility of displaced workers, using a new data file that matches the January 1984, 1986, and 1988 Displaced Worker Surveys (DWS) to the March Current Population Surveys in the same years. This large database provides information on displaced workers and their families and permits comparison of the geographic…

  2. Implications of Research on Displaced Workers. ERIC Digest No. 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Michele

    Worker displacement is more closely related to structural features associated with firms than to the characteristics of the individuals who lost their jobs. Despite economic growth, large numbers of displaced workers continue to experience difficulty in making labor market adjustments. Programs to retrain and reemploy displaced workers exist at…

  3. Rhetorics of Displacement: Constructing Identities in Forced Relocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Katrina M.

    2012-01-01

    Forced displacement has often involved the use of rhetoric, both by government institutions and by people who struggle not only to survive displacement, but also to resist it. In this article, the author offers first a theoretical framework that informs her thinking about displacement narratives. She briefly examines two published displacement…

  4. 7 CFR 1944.667 - Relocation and displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relocation and displacement. 1944.667 Section 1944.667...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.667 Relocation and displacement... maximum amount of temporary or permanent relocation costs proposed to be allowed. (b) Displacement....

  5. 7 CFR 1944.667 - Relocation and displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relocation and displacement. 1944.667 Section 1944... displacement. (a) Relocation. Public bodies and agencies must comply with the requirements of the Uniform... maximum amount of temporary or permanent relocation costs proposed to be allowed. (b) Displacement....

  6. 7 CFR 1944.667 - Relocation and displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Relocation and displacement. 1944.667 Section 1944.667...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.667 Relocation and displacement... maximum amount of temporary or permanent relocation costs proposed to be allowed. (b) Displacement....

  7. 7 CFR 1944.667 - Relocation and displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relocation and displacement. 1944.667 Section 1944... displacement. (a) Relocation. Public bodies and agencies must comply with the requirements of the Uniform... maximum amount of temporary or permanent relocation costs proposed to be allowed. (b) Displacement....

  8. 7 CFR 1944.667 - Relocation and displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relocation and displacement. 1944.667 Section 1944.667...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.667 Relocation and displacement... maximum amount of temporary or permanent relocation costs proposed to be allowed. (b) Displacement....

  9. Helping the Displaced Homemaker: One Day at a Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Karen

    This paper describes the displaced homemaker, defines her plight, and delineates the successful Displaced Homemaker Program conducted by the Fort Wayne area (CETA) consortium. The emphases of the program focus on the fundamental concerns of the displaced homemaker, i.e., the establishment of a new identity, the resolution of financial problems,…

  10. Displacement properties of the product of two finite recursive matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnabei, Marilena; Montefusco, Laura B.

    2002-12-01

    We study the displacement properties, with respect to a suitable displacement operator, of the product of two finite sections of recursive matrices, and we give an explicit evaluation of the displacement rank of such a product in the case when the second matrix is a finite Toeplitz or Hankel matrix.

  11. Dynamics and structure of energetic displacement cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Averback, R.S.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Benedek, R.

    1987-12-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress in the understanding of energetic displacement cascades and the primary state of damage in metals. On the theoretical side, the availability of supercomputers has greatly enhanced our ability to simulate cascades by molecular dynamics. Recent application of this simulation technique to Cu and Ni provides new insight into the dynamics of cascade processes. On the experimental side, new data on ion beam mixing and in situ electron microscopy studies of ion damage at low temperatures reveal the role of the thermodynamic properties of the material on cascade dynamics and structure. 38 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Displaced and non-displaced Colombian children's evaluations of moral transgressions, retaliation, and reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low-risk) (N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high-risk) (N = 94), evenly divided by gender, at 6-, 9-, and 12 - years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of peer-oriented moral transgressions (hitting and not sharing toys). The vast majority of children evaluated moral transgressions as wrong. Group and age differences were revealed, however, regarding provocation and retaliation. Children who were exposed to violence, in contrast to those with minimum exposure, judged it more legitimate to inflict harm or deny resources when provoked and judged it more okay to retaliate for reasons of retribution. Surprisingly, and somewhat hopefully, all children viewed reconciliation as feasible. The results are informative regarding theories of morality, culture, and the effects of violence on children's social development. PMID:25722543

  13. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monzel, C.; Schmidt, D.; Kleusch, C.; Kirchenbüchler, D.; Seifert, U.; Smith, A-S; Sengupta, K.; Merkel, R.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique—dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20 nm and 10 μs. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes. PMID:26437911

  14. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monzel, C; Schmidt, D; Kleusch, C; Kirchenbüchler, D; Seifert, U; Smith, A-S; Sengupta, K; Merkel, R

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique--dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20 nm and 10 μs. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes. PMID:26437911

  15. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monzel, C.; Schmidt, D.; Kleusch, C.; Kirchenbüchler, D.; Seifert, U.; Smith, A.-S.; Sengupta, K.; Merkel, R.

    2015-10-01

    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique--dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20 nm and 10 μs. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes.

  16. Competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of organic matter on iron oxide: II. Displacement and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B; Mehlhorn, T.L.; Liang, Liyuan

    1996-08-01

    The competitive interactions between organic matter compounds and mineral surfaces are poorly understood, yet these interactions may play a significant role in the stability and co-transport of mineral colloids and/or environmental contaminants. In this study, the processes of competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM) are investigated with several model organic compounds in packed beds of iron oxide-coated quartz columns. Results demonstrated that strongly-binding organic compounds are competitively adsorbed and displace those weakly-bound organic compounds along the flow path. Among the four organic compounds studied, polyacrylic acid (PAA) appeared to be the most competitive, whereas SR-NOM was more competitive than phthalic and salicylic acids. A diffuse adsorption and sharp desorption front (giving an appearance of irreversible adsorption) of the SR-NOM breakthrough curves are explained as being a result of the competitive time-dependent adsorption and displacement processes between different organic components within the SR-NOM. The stability and transport of iron oxide colloids varied as one organic component competitively displaces another. Relatively large quantities of iron oxide colloids are transported when the more strongly-binding PAA competitively displaces the weakly-binding SR-NOM or when SR-NOM competitively displaces phthalic and salicylic acids. Results of this study suggest that the chemical composition and hence the functional behavior of NOM (e.g., in stabilizing mineral colloids and in complexing contaminants) can change along its flow path as a result of the dynamic competitive interactions between heterogeneous NOM subcomponents. Further studies are needed to better define and quantify these NOM components as well as their roles in contaminant partitioning and transport. 37 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  18. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Methods Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Results Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Conclusions Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on

  19. Glacial Debutressing and Displacement History of the Driest Rockslide (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, Matthias; Loew, Simon; Glueer, Franziska; Grämiger, Lorenz

    2016-04-01

    Only few studies have been performed, where the physical interactions between a retreating valley glacier and rock slope movements have been recorded and analyzed in detail. The Driest landslide, situated at the current tongue of the Great Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps, offers a unique case study, because the history of the Great Aletsch Glacier has been studied in great detail by various researchers and the Driest landslide displacements can be unraveled for similar time windows. In this paper we focus on the most recent observation period, i.e. the rockslide and glacier history since the Little Ice Age, when the entire Driest landslide was covered by the glacial ice. Our kinematic model of the Driest landslide, based on field mapping and photogrammetric analyses, was confirmed by displacement vector data from two robotic total stations recording daily displacements of 12 reflectors positioned within the instability. The rockslide basal rupture plane is a compound sliding surface composed of a steeply dipping head scarp, a presumably moderately steep central section, and an upward directed daylighting frontal section. This rupture plane geometry is structurally conditioned by a regional fault in the head scarp area and a rotating Alpine foliation in the toe area. The most recent displacement history of this old rotational rockslide has been unraveled by lichenometry (i.e. systematic mapping of greenish Rhizocarpon Geographicum diameters) in the deepest part of the head scarp, calibrated with dendrochronologic data. Depending on the lichen profile position within the head scarp area, different displacement time histories of the Driest landslide can be developed and correlated with glacial ice elevations as recorded by multiple aerial images and historical documents. Whereas displacement rates before 1991 were in the order of 1 cm/year, significantly higher displacement rates ranging between 7 and 13 cm/year are recorded in the head scarp area for the period

  20. Photosensitivities of rhodopsin mutants with a displaced counterion.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kei; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2010-11-30

    Visual pigments consist of a protein moiety opsin and an 11-cis-retinal chromophore that is covalently bound to the opsin via a Schiff base linkage. They have a high photosensitivity, which can be attributed to the high probability of photon absorption and the high photoisomerization quantum yield of the retinal chromophore. Both of these parameters are regulated by the opsin, though the precise mechanism is unknown. We previously found that counterion residue E113, which stabilizes the proton on the Schiff base, is involved in the efficient photoisomerization in vertebrate visual pigments. To test the positional effect of the counterion on the photon absorption and the photoisomerization, we measured the photosensitivities of a set of mutants of bovine rhodopsin in which the counterion was displaced to position 90, 94, 117, or 292. The molar extinction coefficient was reduced in many of the mutants, leading to reductions in the photosensitivity for monochromatic lights. However, the oscillator strength, the probability of photon absorption integrated over the entire wavenumber range of the absorption band, was relatively similar among the mutants and the wild type. In addition, the quantum yields of the mutants were not markedly different from that of the wild type. These results indicate that the counterion does not need to be located at position 113 for a high photosensitivity for natural light. Interestingly, all of the mutants exhibited greatly increased hydroxylamine sensitivity. This result suggests that the counterion in vertebrate visual pigments is optimally located for the stability of the Schiff base linkage. PMID:21038858

  1. Displacement of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve: Rare variant of Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Nobuyuki; Kurosaki, Kenichi; Yasuda, Kenji; Mizuno, Masanori; Sakaguchi, Heima; Hoashi, Takaya; Ichikawa, Hajime; Shiraishi, Isao

    2016-08-01

    In Ebstein's anomaly, the points of attachment, or hinges, of the septal and mural leaflets in the right ventricle are displaced away from the atrioventricular junction. In contrast, the junctional hinge of the anterior leaflet usually retains a normal position. Here, we report a case of giant right atrial aneurysm due to isolated displacement of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve in an infant, a rare variant of Ebstein's anomaly. Enlargement of the right atrium, which was initially diagnosed during the fetal period, progressively and markedly dilated after birth and was successfully treated with surgical resection. Isolated displacement of the anterior leaflet should be recognized as a variant of Ebstein's anomaly. PMID:27324596

  2. Fiber optic displacement sensor for medal detection using fiber bundled probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, M.; Samian, Supadi, Pujiyanto, Yhuwana, Y. G. Yhun

    2016-03-01

    A simple fiber optic displacement sensor (FODS) based on intensity modulation technique is investigated using a bundle multimode plastic fiber as a probe for various medals detection. The sensor consists of a light source, a probe, and photodiode detector. The sensor is capable of measuring displacements of flat medals ranging from 0.05 to 4.2 mm using a red light source of wavelength 630 nm. The highest sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 0.0048 mV/μm over 50-650 µm for the gold medal. The sensor is highly sensitive at the front slope and very useful for close distance target. The simplicity of the design, high sensitivity, long dynamic range and the low cost of the fabrication make it suitable for wider applications in industries as position control and micro displacement measurement in the hazardous region.

  3. Improved GPS-based coseismic displacement monitoring using high-precision oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbach, U.; Schön, S.

    2015-05-01

    The determination of high-frequency displacements using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations with sampling frequencies > 1 Hz has attracted much interest in recent years, e.g., in seismology. We propose a new concept for GPS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) that takes advantage of a highly stable oscillator connected to the GPS receiver by modeling its behavior. We show that the high-frequency noise of kinematic GPS height estimates can be reduced by a factor of up to 4 to the level of 2-3 mm and the overall standard deviation including systematic long periodic errors by a factor of up to 2 to the 1 cm level. Consequently, valuable small and currently hidden vertical displacements can be detected that are not visible with classical PPP. Using data of the 2010 Chile earthquake, we demonstrate that coseismic vertical displacements with an amplitude of only 5 mm can be recovered using PPP with the proposed clock modeling strategy.

  4. Ventriculoatrial shunt catheter displacement in a child with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return: case report.

    PubMed

    Elhammady, Mohamed Samy A; Benglis, David M; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Sandberg, David I; Ragheb, John

    2008-07-01

    Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts remain the most used alternative to ventriculoperitoneal shunts in infants with hydrocephalus. The authors report a case of an acute VA shunt malfunction as a result of distal catheter displacement in an 18-month-old girl with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. The child presented with respiratory compromise, and a chest radiograph revealed a lung infiltrate and normal position of the distal shunt catheter tip. Computed tomography demonstrated stable ventricle size in comparison with previous studies. As the patient's respiratory distress progressed, she required intubation, mechanical ventilation with high airway pressures and inspired oxygen concentrations, muscle relaxants, and sedation. A routine morning chest radiograph several days after admission revealed displacement of the distal catheter into the left innominate vein. Later that day the child's pupils were noted to be large and unreactive and a distal shunt malfunction was diagnosed. Complications of VA shunts and the presumed mechanism by which the catheter became displaced are discussed. PMID:18590399

  5. Small step tracking - Implications for the oculomotor 'dead zone'. [eye response failure below threshold target displacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyman, D.; Steinman, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Recently Timberlake, Wyman, Skavenski, and Steinman (1972) concluded in a study of the oculomotor error signal in the fovea that 'the oculomotor dead zone is surely smaller than 10 min and may even be less than 5 min (smaller than the 0.25 to 0.5 deg dead zone reported by Rashbass (1961) with similar stimulus conditions).' The Timberlake et al. speculation is confirmed by demonstrating that the fixating eye consistently and accurately corrects target displacements as small as 3.4 min. The contact lens optical lever technique was used to study the manner in which the oculomotor system responds to small step displacements of the fixation target. Subjects did, without prior practice, use saccades to correct step displacements of the fixation target just as they correct small position errors during maintained fixation.

  6. Classification of abomasal displacement in cows according to histopathology of the liver and clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Y; Itoh, N; Taniyama, H; Kitazawa, T; Yokota, H; Koiwa, M; Ohtsuka, H; Terasaki, N; Maeno, K; Mizoguchi, M; Takeuchi, Y; Tanigawa, M; Nakamura, T; Watanabe, H; Matsuguchi, Y; Kukino, T; Honma, A

    2002-11-01

    Histopathological features of livers and blood chemical values in cows with abomasal displacement were investigated. Liver biopsy samples were collected during redressment operations in 92 cows with abomasal displacement, and the samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid Schiff (PAS). Blood was collected for chemical tests. Livers were histopathologically divided into the following four types: normal histology cases (21%), fatty degeneration cases (36%), cloudy swelling cases (19%) and fatty degeneration cases with cloudy swelling (24%). The number of PAS-positive samples was significantly higher in the normal histology group and significantly lower in the severe fatty degeneration group and severe cloudy swelling group. Cows with fatty degeneration had significantly higher levels of serum 3-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acid and aspartate aminotransferase than did those with cloudy swelling or normal histology. The results indicate that the morbid conditions of cows with abomasal displacement can be classified into four types. PMID:12489873

  7. Voltage-induced membrane displacement in patch pipettes activates mechanosensitive channels

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Ziv; Silberberg, Shai D.; Magleby, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    The patch-clamp technique allows currents to be recorded through single ion channels in patches of cell membrane in the tips of glass pipettes. When recording, voltage is typically applied across the membrane patch to drive ions through open channels and to probe the voltage-sensitivity of channel activity. In this study, we used video microscopy and single-channel recording to show that prolonged depolarization of a membrane patch in borosilicate pipettes results in delayed slow displacement of the membrane into the pipette and that this displacement is associated with the activation of mechanosensitive (MS) channels in the same patch. The membrane displacement, ≈1 μm with each prolonged depolarization, occurs after variable delays ranging from tens of milliseconds to many seconds and is correlated in time with activation of MS channels. Increasing the voltage step shortens both the delay to membrane displacement and the delay to activation. Preventing depolarization-induced membrane displacement by applying positive pressure to the shank of the pipette or by coating the tips of the borosilicate pipettes with soft glass prevents the depolarization-induced activation of MS channels. The correlation between depolarization-induced membrane displacement and activation of MS channels indicates that the membrane displacement is associated with sufficient membrane tension to activate MS channels. Because membrane tension can modulate the activity of various ligand and voltage-activated ion channels as well as some transporters, an apparent voltage dependence of a channel or transporter in a membrane patch in a borosilicate pipette may result from voltage-induced tension rather than from direct modulation by voltage. PMID:10588750

  8. Finding the displacement of wood structure in heritage building by 3D laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Wang, R. Z.; Lin, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    Heritage buildings are highly prone to long term damage from the microclimate, scourge and vandalism, which can result in damaged materials, structures, painting and cultural heritage items. This study will focus on finding the displacement of wood structural members through the use of a 3D laser scanner and the 4D concept of time. The results will compare the scans from different periods to find the difference (if any) in the structural member position. Wood structures usually consist of numerous wood members connected to form the structure. However, these members can be damaged in various ways such as physical mechanisms, chemical reactions, and biological corrosion. When damage to the wood structure occurs, the structural displacement can be affected, and if affected severely, can lead to a building collapse. Monitoring of the structural displacement is the best way to discover damage immediately and to preserve the heritage building. However, the Cultural Heritage Preservation Law in Taiwan prohibits the installation of monitoring instruments (e.g strain gauge, accelerometer) in historic structures (heritage buildings). Scanning the wood structure with 3D lasers is the most non-intrusive method and quickly achieves displacement through visualization. The displacement scan results can be compared with different periods and different members to analyze the severity of damage. Once the 3D scanner is installed, the whole building is scanned, and point clouds created to build the visual building model. The structural displacement can be checked via the building model and the differences are measured between each member to find the high risk damaged areas or members with large displacement. Early detection of structural damage is the most effective way means of preservation.

  9. An interferometric strain-displacement measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, William N., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the relative in-plane displacement over a gage length as short as 100 micrometers is described. Two closely spaced indentations are placed in a reflective specimen surface with a Vickers microhardness tester. Interference fringes are generated when they are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. As the distance between the indentations expands or contracts with applied load, the fringes move. This motion is monitored with a minicomputer-controlled system using linear diode arrays as sensors. Characteristics of the system are: (1) gage length ranging from 50 to 500 micrometers, but 100 micrometers is typical; (2) least-count resolution of approximately 0.0025 micrometer; and (3) sampling rate of 13 points per second. In addition, the measurement technique is non-contacting and non-reinforcing. It is useful for strain measurements over small gage lengths and for crack opening displacement measurements near crack tips. This report is a detailed description of a new system recently installed in the Mechanisms of Materials Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The intent is to enable a prospective user to evaluate the applicability of the system to a particular problem and assemble one if needed.

  10. Fluorescence enhancement aided by metal ion displacement.

    PubMed

    Susini, Vanessa; Ienco, Andrea; Lucia Rossi, Veronica; Paolicchi, Aldo; Sanesi, Antonio

    2016-06-15

    Immunosensors are one of the most common platform used in clinical laboratories, in particular the class based on Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assays (ELFA) takes advantage of the amplification step of the enzyme, usually the alkaline phosphatase, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a fluorescent substrate leading it to fluoresce. Anyway, they suffer in sensitivity if compared to molecular diagnostic or more modern in vitro diagnostic devices. In our work, a simple and effective mechanism to enhance the fluorescent signal, and hence the sensitivity of the system, is presented. It is based on the metal ion displacement principle in which a second fluorophore, in our case Calcein Blue, quenched by a cobalt ion is add to the first one (4-MUP), and, in presence of inorganic phosphate, it will be progressively activated by the inorganic phosphate itself leading to the metal displacement. In this way Calcein Blue, newly free to fluoresce, contributes to global fluorescent signal generated by 4-MU. We have tested our proof of principle on a currently used immunoanalyzer, that is VIDAS® system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) obtaining a fluorescence enhancement of about 50% for each concentration of hydrolyzed 4-MUP tested. PMID:26851581

  11. Regression models for estimating coseismic landslide displacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Newmark's sliding-block model is widely used to estimate coseismic slope performance. Early efforts to develop simple regression models to estimate Newmark displacement were based on analysis of the small number of strong-motion records then available. The current availability of a much larger set of strong-motion records dictates that these regression equations be updated. Regression equations were generated using data derived from a collection of 2270 strong-motion records from 30 worldwide earthquakes. The regression equations predict Newmark displacement in terms of (1) critical acceleration ratio, (2) critical acceleration ratio and earthquake magnitude, (3) Arias intensity and critical acceleration, and (4) Arias intensity and critical acceleration ratio. These equations are well constrained and fit the data well (71% < R2 < 88%), but they have standard deviations of about 0.5 log units, such that the range defined by the mean ?? one standard deviation spans about an order of magnitude. These regression models, therefore, are not recommended for use in site-specific design, but rather for regional-scale seismic landslide hazard mapping or for rapid preliminary screening of sites. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Moral Reasoning in Violent Contexts: Displaced and Non-Displaced Colombian Children's Evaluations of Moral Transgressions, Retaliation, and Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low risk; N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high risk; N = 94), evenly divided by gender at 6, 9, and 12 years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of…

  13. Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.

    2012-12-01

    Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of

  14. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  15. On the derivation of coseismic displacement fields using differential radar interferometry: The Landers earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Rosen, Paul A.; Goldstein, Richard M.; Gabriel, Andrew; Werner, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    We present a map of the coseimic displacement field resulting from the Landers, California, June 28, 1992, earthquake derived using data acquired from an orbiting high-resolution radar system. We achieve results more accurate than previous space studies and similar in accuracy to those obtained by conventional field survey techniques. Data from the ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar instrument acquired in April, July, and August 1992 are used to generate a high-resolution, wide area map of the displacements. The data represent the motion in the direction of the radar line of sight to centimeter level precision of each 30-m resolution element in a 113 km by 90 km image. Our coseismic displacement contour map gives a lobed pattern consistent with theoretical models of the displacement field from the earthquake. Fine structure observed as displacement tiling in regions several kilometers from the fault appears to be the result of local surface fracturing. Comparison of these data with Global Positioning System and electronic distance measurement survey data yield a correlation of 0.96; thus the radar measurements are a means to extend the point measurements acquired by traditional techniques to an area map format. The technique we use is (1) more automatic, (2) more precise, and (3) better validated than previous similar applications of differential radar interferometry. Since we require only remotely sensed satellite data with no additioanl requirements for ancillary information. the technique is well suited for global seismic monitoring and analysis.

  16. Respiratory Displacement of the Thoracic Aorta: Physiological Phenomenon With Potential Implications for Thoracic Endovascular Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Tim Frederik; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Rengier, Fabian; Geisbuesch, Philipp; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Boeckler, Dittmar; Eichinger, Monika; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and direction of respiratory displacement of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta during breathing maneuvers. In 11 healthy nonsmokers, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in transverse orientation at the tracheal bifurcation during maximum expiration and inspiration as well as tidal breathing. The magnitude and direction of aortic displacement was determined relatively to resting respiratory position for the ascending (AA) and descending (DA) aorta. To estimate a respiratory threshold for occurrence of distinct respiratory aortic motion, the latter was related to the underlying change in anterior-posterior thorax diameter. Compound displacement between maximum expiration and inspiration was 24.3 {+-} 6.0 mm for the AA in the left anterior direction and 18.2 {+-} 5.5 mm for the DA in the right anterior direction. The mean respiratory thorax excursion during tidal breathing was 8.9 {+-} 2.8 mm. The respiratory threshold, i.e., the increase in thorax diameter necessary to result in respiratory aortic displacement, was estimated to be 15.7 mm. The data suggest that after a threshold of respiratory thorax excursion is exceeded, respiration is accompanied by significant displacement of the thoracic aorta. Although this threshold may not be reached during tidal breathing in the majority of individuals, segmental differences during forced respiration impact on aortic geometry, may result in additional extrinsic forces on the aortic wall, and may be of significance for aortic prostheses designed for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

  17. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, J.D.

    1999-03-09

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

  18. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan David

    1999-01-01

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments.

  19. Solar cell angular position transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Gray, D. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An angular position transducer utilizing photocells and a light source is disclosed. The device uses a fully rotatable baffle which is connected via an actuator shaft to the body whose rotational displacement is to be measured. The baffle blocks the light path between the light source and the photocells so that a constant semicircular beam of light reaches the photocells. The current produced by the photocells is fed through a resistor, a differential amplifier measures the voltage drop across the resistor which indicates the angular position of the actuator shaft and hence of the object.

  20. Pulse tube stirling machine with warm gas-driven displacer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi

    2010-05-01

    A pulse tube type stirling machine with warm gas-driven displacer which has a displacer rod is discussed with numerical simulation when it is used as a cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. It has both the advantages of gas-driven-stirling machine with high efficiency and simplicity and the advantages of pulse tube machine with no moving parts at low temperatures. A nodal analysis method that includes the linear motor and the displacer in the machine is introduced. Numerical results show that it has high potential to be used as the cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. In this type of machine, there is an optimum phase angle between displacer and piston, and an optimum swept volume ratio of displacer over compressor for efficiency. The phase angle and swept volume ratio can be adjusted by the natural frequency of the displacer and the diameter of the displacer rod when it is used as a refrigerator.

  1. [Survival analysis of German Holstein cows after an abomasal displacement].

    PubMed

    Ricken, M; Hamann, H; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2005-02-01

    From 1996 to 2002 5159 cattle with abomasal displacement was treated in the Clinic for Cattle, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover. An analysis of systematic effects on influences on the length of survival following surgical correction of the abomasal displacement could be performed for 1411 cows. These animals were under the official milk recording scheme. Significant influences on lifetime after an abomasal displacement were interval between calving and diagnosis of disease, lactation number, type of abomasal displacement, inbreeding coefficient, calving difficulties, region of origin and sire of the calf. The lifetime after an abomasal displacement significantly differed between several months of calving and some sires of the cow. The individual milk yield in lactations before and after abomasal displacement of the cow was significant for the length of lifetime. The heritability estimate for length of lifetime after abomasal displacement using residual maximum likelihood (REML) in a linear animal model was h2 = 0.01-0.03. PMID:15787315

  2. Automatic Alignment of Displacement-Measuring Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Peter; Regehr, Martin; Spero, Robert; Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar; Loya, Frank; Logan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A control system strives to maintain the correct alignment of a laser beam in an interferometer dedicated to measuring the displacement or distance between two fiducial corner-cube reflectors. The correct alignment of the laser beam is parallel to the line between the corner points of the corner-cube reflectors: Any deviation from parallelism changes the length of the optical path between the reflectors, thereby introducing a displacement or distance measurement error. On the basis of the geometrical optics of corner-cube reflectors, the length of the optical path can be shown to be L = L(sub 0)cos theta, where L(sub 0) is the distance between the corner points and theta is the misalignment angle. Therefore, the measurement error is given by DeltaL = L(sub 0)(cos theta - 1). In the usual case in which the misalignment is small, this error can be approximated as DeltaL approximately equal to -L(sub 0)theta sup 2/2. The control system (see figure) is implemented partly in hardware and partly in software. The control system includes three piezoelectric actuators for rapid, fine adjustment of the direction of the laser beam. The voltages applied to the piezoelectric actuators include components designed to scan the beam in a circular pattern so that the beam traces out a narrow cone (60 microradians wide in the initial application) about the direction in which it is nominally aimed. This scan is performed at a frequency (2.5 Hz in the initial application) well below the resonance frequency of any vibration of the interferometer. The laser beam makes a round trip to both corner-cube reflectors and then interferes with the launched beam. The interference is detected on a photodiode. The length of the optical path is measured by a heterodyne technique: A 100- kHz frequency shift between the launched beam and a reference beam imposes, on the detected signal, an interferometric phase shift proportional to the length of the optical path. A phase meter comprising analog

  3. Nucleosome Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Nucleosome positioning is not only related to genomic DNA compaction but also to other biological functions. After the chromatin is digested by micrococcal nuclease, nucleosomal (nucleosome-bound) DNA fragments can be sequenced and mapped on the genomic DNA sequence. Due to the development of modern DNA sequencing technology, genome-wide nucleosome mapping has been performed in a wide range of eukaryotic species. Comparative analyses of the nucleosome positions have revealed that the nucleosome is more frequently formed in exonic than intronic regions, and that most of transcription start and translation (or transcription) end sites are located in nucleosome linker DNA regions, indicating that nucleosome positioning influences transcription initiation, transcription termination, and gene splicing. In addition, nucleosomal DNA contains guanine and cytosine (G + C)-rich sequences and a high level of cytosine methylation. Thus, the nucleosome positioning system has been conserved during eukaryotic evolution.

  4. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  5. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  6. DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula. PMID:24211259

  7. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture. PMID:27363950

  8. Searching for displaced Higgs boson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric; Lombardo, Salvator; Slone, Oren

    2015-10-01

    We study a simplified model of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson decaying to a degenerate pair of scalars which travel a macroscopic distance before decaying to SM particles. This is the leading signal for many well-motivated solutions to the hierarchy problem that do not propose additional light colored particles. Bounds for displaced Higgs boson decays below 10 cm are found by recasting existing tracker searches from Run I. New tracker search strategies, sensitive to the characteristics of these models and similar decays, are proposed with sensitivities projected for Run II at √{s }=13 TeV . With 20 fb-1 of data, we find that Higgs branching ratios down to 2 ×1 0-4 can be probed for centimeter decay lengths.

  9. Some comments on particle image displacement velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lourenco, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    Laser speckle velocimetry (LSV) or particle image displacement velocimetry, is introduced. This technique provides the simultaneous visualization of the two-dimensional streamline pattern in unsteady flows as well as the quantification of the velocity field over an entire plane. The advantage of this technique is that the velocity field can be measured over an entire plane of the flow field simultaneously, with accuracy and spatial resolution. From this the instantaneous vorticity field can be easily obtained. This constitutes a great asset for the study of a variety of flows that evolve stochastically in both space and time. The basic concept of LSV; methods of data acquisition and reduction, examples of its use, and parameters that affect its utilization are described.

  10. Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever

    SciTech Connect

    Vinante, A.

    2014-07-21

    We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 μT, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2 K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

  11. Sample displacement batch chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotasinska, Marta; Richter, Verena; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    In downstream processing large scale chromatography plays an important role. For its development screening experiments followed by pilot plant chromatography are mandatory steps. Here we describe fast, simple, and inexpensive methods for establishing a preparative chromatography for the separation of complex protein mixtures, based on sample displacement batch chromatography. The methods are demonstrated by anion-exchange chromatography of a human plasma protein fraction (Cohn IV-4), including the screening step and scaling up of the chromatography by a factor of 100. The results of the screening experiments and the preparative chromatography are monitored by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. In summary we provide a protocol which should be easily adaptable for the chromatographic large scale purification of other proteins, in the laboratory as well as in industry for commercial manufacturing. For the latter these protocols cover the initial piloting steps for establishing a sample batch chromatography based on packed columns rather than batch chromatography. PMID:24648085

  12. Optical inverse-square displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Robert D.; Kychakoff, George

    1989-01-01

    This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R+.DELTA.R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as ##EQU1##

  13. Optical inverse-square displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Howe, R.D.; Kychakoff, G.

    1989-09-12

    This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R + [Delta]R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as given in an equation. 10 figs.

  14. Relativistic Lagrangian displacement field and tensor perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampf, Cornelius; Wiegand, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the purely spatial Lagrangian coordinate transformation from the Lagrangian to the basic Eulerian frame. We demonstrate three techniques for extracting the relativistic displacement field from a given solution in the Lagrangian frame. These techniques are (a) from defining a local set of Eulerian coordinates embedded into the Lagrangian frame; (b) from performing a specific gauge transformation; and (c) from a fully nonperturbative approach based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) split. The latter approach shows that this decomposition is not tied to a specific perturbative formulation for the solution of the Einstein equations. Rather, it can be defined at the level of the nonperturbative coordinate change from the Lagrangian to the Eulerian description. Studying such different techniques is useful because it allows us to compare and develop further the various approximation techniques available in the Lagrangian formulation. We find that one has to solve the gravitational wave equation in the relativistic analysis, otherwise the corresponding Newtonian limit will necessarily contain spurious nonpropagating tensor artifacts at second order in the Eulerian frame. We also derive the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor in the Lagrangian frame, and find that it is not only excited by gravitational waves but also by tensor perturbations which are induced through the nonlinear frame dragging. We apply our findings to calculate for the first time the relativistic displacement field, up to second order, for a Λ CDM Universe in the presence of a local primordial non-Gaussian component. Finally, we also comment on recent claims about whether mass conservation in the Lagrangian frame is violated.

  15. Connecting localized DNA strand displacement reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullor Ruiz, Ismael; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Lad, Amitkumar; Mendoza, Oscar; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions.Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR02434J

  16. High quality GPU rendering with displaced pixel shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Choi, Jae

    2006-03-01

    Direct volume rendering via consumer PC hardware has become an efficient tool for volume visualization. In particular, the volumetric ray casting, the most frequently used volume rendering technique, can be implemented by the shading language integrated with graphical processing units (GPU). However, to produce high-quality images offered by GPU-based volume rendering, a higher sampling rate is usually required. In this paper, we present an algorithm to generate high quality images with a small number of slices by utilizing displaced pixel shading technique. Instead of sampling points along a ray with the regular interval, the actual surface location is calculated by the linear interpolation between the outer and inner points, and this location is used as the displaced pixel for the iso-surface illumination. Multi-pass and early Z-culling techniques are applied to improve the rendering speed. The first pass simply locates and stores the exact surface depth of each ray using a few pixel instructions; then, the second pass uses instructions to shade the surface at the previous position. A new 3D edge detector from our previous research is integrated to provide more realistic rendering results compared with the widely used gradient normal estimator. To implement our algorithm, we have made a program named DirectView based on DirectX 9.0c and Microsoft High Level Shading Language (HLSL) for volume rendering. We tested two data sets and discovered that our algorithm can generate smoother and more accurate shading images with a small number of intermediate slices.

  17. Dealing with the Effects of Sensor Displacement in Wearable Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Banos, Oresti; Toth, Mate Attila; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Most wearable activity recognition systems assume a predefined sensor deployment that remains unchanged during runtime. However, this assumption does not reflect real-life conditions. During the normal use of such systems, users may place the sensors in a position different from the predefined sensor placement. Also, sensors may move from their original location to a different one, due to a loose attachment. Activity recognition systems trained on activity patterns characteristic of a given sensor deployment may likely fail due to sensor displacements. In this work, we innovatively explore the effects of sensor displacement induced by both the intentional misplacement of sensors and self-placement by the user. The effects of sensor displacement are analyzed for standard activity recognition techniques, as well as for an alternate robust sensor fusion method proposed in a previous work. While classical recognition models show little tolerance to sensor displacement, the proposed method is proven to have notable capabilities to assimilate the changes introduced in the sensor position due to self-placement and provides considerable improvements for large misplacements. PMID:24915181

  18. Dealing with the effects of sensor displacement in wearable activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Toth, Mate Attila; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Most wearable activity recognition systems assume a predefined sensor deployment that remains unchanged during runtime. However, this assumption does not reflect real-life conditions. During the normal use of such systems, users may place the sensors in a position different from the predefined sensor placement. Also, sensors may move from their original location to a different one, due to a loose attachment. Activity recognition systems trained on activity patterns characteristic of a given sensor deployment may likely fail due to sensor displacements. In this work, we innovatively explore the effects of sensor displacement induced by both the intentional misplacement of sensors and self-placement by the user. The effects of sensor displacement are analyzed for standard activity recognition techniques, as well as for an alternate robust sensor fusion method proposed in a previous work. While classical recognition models show little tolerance to sensor displacement, the proposed method is proven to have notable capabilities to assimilate the changes introduced in the sensor position due to self-placement and provides considerable improvements for large misplacements. PMID:24915181

  19. Displacements and segment linkage in strike-slip fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, D. C. P.

    Small-scale, well exposed strike-slip fault zones near Kirkcudbright, Scotland, cut sub-vertical bedding, so that mapped bed separations allow the displacements, linkage and evolution of fault segments to be assessed. Displacement variations along the segments can be related to lithologic variations, conjugate relationships, offsets, segment linkage and fault bends. High displacement gradients at the tips of conjugate and offset faults produce convex-upwards ( E-type) displacement-distance ( d-x) profiles. Contractional fault bends and linkage points are marked by a decrease in fault displacement, producing partially concave-upwards ( D-type) d-x profiles. Where fault displacement gradients are steep, wallrocks are marked by structures such as synthetic faults, normal drag folding, ductile strain and veining, which transfer displacement. The faults studied tend to have lower r/ dMAX ratios (where r = distance between the point of maximum displacement and the fault tip on a particular profile, and dMAX = maximum displacement on the profile) than are shown by normal faults in map view. This may be because r is measured parallel to the displacement direction and/or because of lithologic variations.

  20. Absence of a long lasting southward displacement of the HCS in the minimum preceding Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuepu; Zhao, Xuepu; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Schrrer, Phil H.

    Definitive observational evidence of a 10 degrees southward displacement of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) from the heliographic equator was obtained from Ulysses cosmic-ray and magnetic field observations in the rapid transit from the south to north solar poles between September, 1994 and May, 1995 [Simpson et al., 1996; Smith et al., 2000]. A similar southward displacement in the green-line corona observed during multiple solar minima was found to be a persistent and repeated phenomenon [Osherovich et al., 1999]. Statistical analysis of the heliospheric magnetic field polarity observed near Earth also indicated that the average HCS was displaced southward during solar minimum times and that the temporary southward displacement of the HCS detected during the Ulysses and WIND interval may be a persistent phenomenon [Mursula and Hiltula, 2003]. The positive-negative and north-south HCS displacements computed using a potential field - source surface model applied to Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO)observations between 1976 and 2001 revealed the existence of two long intervals of southward HCS displacement near the minimum phase before Solar Cycles 22 and 23, consistent with earlier observations and with the statistical results [Zhao et al., 2005]. We extend the study to early 2008 and find no similar long HCS southward displacement interval between 2005 and 2008. This absence appears to be consistent with other abnormal phenomena observed during the minimum phase preceding Solar Cycle 24.

  1. Mandibular molar displacement secondary to the use of forces to retract the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bassat, Y; Baumrind, S; Korn, E L

    1986-01-01

    first molar (Table IIC.6). In general, it seems reasonable to infer that the growth-related displacement of the mandible influenced the final position of the lower first molar more profoundly than did the treatment-associated displacement of the upper molar. PMID:3455792

  2. Migratory Reed Warblers Need Intact Trigeminal Nerves to Correct for a 1,000 km Eastward Displacement.

    PubMed

    Kishkinev, Dmitry; Chernetsov, Nikita; Heyers, Dominik; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that experienced night-migratory songbirds can determine their position, but it has remained a mystery which cues and sensory mechanisms they use, in particular, those used to determine longitude (east-west position). One potential solution would be to use a magnetic map or signpost mechanism like the one documented in sea turtles. Night-migratory songbirds have a magnetic compass in their eyes and a second magnetic sense with unknown biological function involving the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1). Could V1 be involved in determining east-west position? We displaced 57 Eurasian reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) with or without sectioned V1. Sham operated birds corrected their orientation towards the breeding area after displacement like the untreated controls did. In contrast, V1-sectioned birds did not correct for the displacement. They oriented in the same direction after the displacement as they had done at the capture site. Thus, an intact ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve is necessary for detecting the 1,000 km eastward displacement in this night-migratory songbird. Our results suggest that V1 carries map-related information used in a large-scale map or signpost sense that the reed warblers needed to determine their approximate geographical position and/or an east-west coordinate. PMID:23840374

  3. Analysis of Landslides Based on Displacements of Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozas-Calvache, A. T.; Pérez-García, J. L.; Fernández-del Castillo, T.; Gómez-López, J. M.; Colomo-Jiménez, C.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the development of UAS has allowed the obtaining of high resolution and accurate cartographic products, such as DSMs and orthoimages. These products can be used in studies of the evolution of landslides. The stability of slopes is a main issue because, among others, it can suppose a serious risk to infrastructures. Until this moment, some studies for analysing slope movements have been carried out using the comparison of positions of well-defined points or comparing two surfaces obtained from two DSMs. In this paper we present a methodology for analysing landslides based on some linear elements located on the terrain. More specifically, we analyse some lines of road sections which are located on an unstable slope, checking the movements of the landslide and their effect on the infrastructure. The methodology includes the obtaining of high resolution orthoimages and DSMs which correspond to two or more epochs of the same landslide, the 3D digitizing of common linear elements, and the computing of the displacements of matched lines (from two epochs) using positional control methods based on lines. The proposed methodology has been tested using two DSMs and two orthoimages (corresponding to two epochs) obtained from two photogrammetric projects developed with an UAS. This real case was applied to an unstable slope with landslides which affected several sections of a road. The results have demonstrated the viability of the proposed methodology in analysing the behaviour of the landslide and more specifically, the effects on these infrastructures.

  4. Detection of Stimulus Displacements Across Saccades is Capacity-Limited and Biased in Favor of the Saccade Target

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, David E.; Robinson, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal image displacements caused by saccadic eye movements are generally unnoticed. Recent theories have proposed that perceptual stability across saccades depends on a local evaluation process centered on the saccade target object rather than on remapping and evaluating the positions of all objects in a display. In three experiments, we examined whether objects other than the saccade target also influence perceptual stability by measuring displacement detection thresholds across saccades for saccade targets and a variable number of non-saccade objects. We found that the positions of multiple objects are maintained across saccades, but with variable precision, with the saccade target object having priority in the perception of displacement, most likely because it is the focus of attention before the saccade and resides near the fovea after the saccade. The perception of displacement of objects that are not the saccade target is affected by acuity limitations, attentional limitations, and limitations on memory capacity. Unlike previous studies that have found that a postsaccadic blank improves the detection of displacement direction across saccades, we found that postsaccadic blanking hurt the detection of displacement per se by increasing false alarms. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that visual working memory underlies the perception of stability across saccades. PMID:26640430

  5. Displacement of lower third molar into the lateral pharyngeal space in a case of mandibular angle fracture: An unusual complication

    PubMed Central

    Kasatwar, Akash; Bhola, Nitin; Borle, Rajiv; Rajanikanth, K.

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the angle of the mandible accounts for nearly one-third of all fractures involved. The presence of lower third molar increases the risk of fracture in angle region. The third molar acts as an area of weakness leading to fracture lines passing medially, distally, and occasionally through it. Angle fracture leads to the mobility of the third molar and sometimes its displacement. Third molars maintain its position in favorable fracture and can be displaced in unfavorable fractures. Displacement of lower third molar in lateral pharyngeal space due to mandibular fracture is not seen commonly. To our knowledge, this is the first reported incidence of displacement of the third molar into lateral pharyngeal space in a case of mandibular fracture. PMID:27307673

  6. [Positive psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-01

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health. PMID:26857411

  7. Development of Displacement Gages Exposed to Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, D. E.; Cook, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) has three non-vented segment-to-segment case field joints. These joints use an interference fit J-joint that is bonded at assembly with a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) inboard of redundant O-ring seals. Full-scale motor and sub-scale test article experience has shown that the ability to preclude gas leakage past the J-joint is a function of PSA type, joint moisture from pre-assembly humidity exposure, and the magnitude of joint displacement during motor operation. To more accurately determine the axial displacements at the J-joints, two thermally durable displacement gages (one mechanical and one electrical) were designed and developed. The mechanical displacement gage concept was generated first as a non-electrical, self-contained gage to capture the maximum magnitude of the J-joint motion. When it became feasible, the electrical displacement gage concept was generated second as a real-time linear displacement gage. Both of these gages were refined in development testing that included hot internal solid rocket motor environments and simulated vibration environments. As a result of this gage development effort, joint motions have been measured in static fired RSRM J-joints where intentional venting was produced (Flight Support Motor #8, FSM-8) and nominal non-vented behavior occurred (FSM-9 and FSM-10). This data gives new insight into the nominal characteristics of the three case J-joint positions (forward, center and aft) and characteristics of some case J-joints that became vented during motor operation. The data supports previous structural model predictions. These gages will also be useful in evaluating J-joint motion differences in a five-segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor.

  8. Comparison of shock-induced displacements with displacements produced by a centrifuge acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, T.G.; Rodeman, R.

    1984-01-01

    Verification of the functional reliability of some electrical components under the action of mechanical shock is often desired. As an example, contact chatter (the closure for short-time intervals) of the normally open contact points in a thermal switch is a possible failure model which must be screened out by testing. Theoretically, it should be possible to do this acceptance testing with a centrifuge at a lower cost if one could determine the centrifuge acceleration level needed to produce the maximum displacement that could be realized under a given shock loading. A method was derived to determine this displacement relationship for the two different types of loads. A superposition-of-modes technique was used to develop the relationship. Numerical results are presented for a simple cantilever where closed-form solutions for modal parameters are readily available. The peak response in each mode is determined and all such peaks are summed to determine the maximum that could be realized from a based-excited, haversine acceleration pulse. This numerical result is then compared with the centrifuge-induced displacement to determine the desired relationship. This result was then successfully used to infer the cntrifuge level needed to test a small, mechanically complicated, thermal switch. 3 references, 3 figures.

  9. Does condylar height decrease more in temporomandibular joint nonreducing disc displacement than reducing disc displacement?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying-Kai; Yang, Chi; Cai, Xie-Yi; Xie, Qian-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to compare condylar height changes of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) quantitatively, to get a better understanding of the changes in condylar height of patients with anterior disc displacement who had received no treatment, and to provide useful information for treatment protocol. This longitudinal retrospective study enrolled 206 joints in 156 patients, which were divided into ADDWR group and ADDwoR group based on magnetic resonance imaging examination. The joints were assessed quantitatively for condylar height at initial and follow-up visits. Also, both groups were further divided into 3 subgroups according to age: <15 years group, 15 to 21 years group, and 22 to 35 years group. Paired t test and independent t test were used to assess intra- and intergroup differences. The average age of the ADDwR group was 19.65 years with a mean of 9.47 months’ follow-up. The follow-up interval of the patients with ADDwoR was 7.96 months, with a mean age of 18.51 years. Condylar height in ADDwoR tended to decrease more than those in ADDwR, especially during the pubertal growth spurt and with the presence of osteoarthrosis, meaning ADDwoR could cause a severe disturbance in mandibular development. Thus, an early disc repositioning was suggested to avoid decrease in condylar height. PMID:27583909

  10. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of threshold displacement energies in zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Pedro A.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Yu, Jianguo; Weber, William J.

    2009-10-15

    Molecular-dynamics simulations were used to examine the displacement threshold energy (Ed) surface for Zr, Si and O in zircon using two different interatomic potentials. For each sublattice, the simulation was repeated from different initial conditions to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated value of Ed. The displacement threshold energies vary considerably with crystallographic direction and sublattice. The average displacement energy calculated with a recently developed transferable potential is about 120 and 60 eV for cations and anions, respectively. The oxygen displacement energy shows good agreement with experimental estimates in ceramics.

  12. Nonlinear displacement analysis of advanced propeller structures using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Kielb, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The steady state displacements of a rotating advanced turboprop are computed using the geometrically nonlinear capabilities of COSMIC NASTRAN Rigid Format 4 and MSC NASTRAN Solution 64. A description of the modified Newton-Raphson algorithm used by Solution 64 and the iterative scheme used by Rigid Format 4 is provided. A representative advanced turboprop, SR3, was used for the study. Displacements for SR3 are computed for rotational speeds up to 10,000 rpm. The results show Solution 64 to be superior for computating displacements of flexible rotating structures. This is attributed to its ability to update the displacement dependent centrifugal force during the solution process.

  13. Comparative clinical efficacy evaluation of three gingival displacement systems

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Bhoyar, Anjali; Agarwal, Surendra; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Parlani, Swapnil; Murthy, Varsha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We compared the clinical efficacy of three gingival displacement systems to accurately record intra-crevicular margins of tooth preparation. Materials and Methods: One mechanical (magic foam cord) and two chemico-mechanical (expasyl paste and retraction cord impregnated with 15% aluminum chloride) gingival displacement systems were used. This study was conducted on the maxillary central incisors of 20 patients (20-60 years old) requiring full coverage restoration. All the three gingival displacement systems were tested in three sessions at an interval of 14 days in same order. The casts were sectioned and viewed under an optical microscope, followed by quantitative measurements of the width of the pre and postretracted sulci. Results: All the three displacement systems produced highly significant horizontal gingival displacement. Retraction cord soaked in 15% aluminum chloride produced maximum displacement (0.74 mm), followed by expasyl paste (0.48 mm) whereas magic foam cord produced the least displacement (0.41 mm). Conclusions: Gingival displacement shown by each displacement system was found to be more than the accepted value necessary for elastomeric impression accuracy (0.2 mm) to record intra-crevicular margins of tooth preparation. PMID:26604620

  14. Application of vascular bundle displacement in the optic disc for glaucoma detection using fundus images.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Arriaga, José Abel de la; Felipe-Riverón, Edgardo M; Garduño-Calderón, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a methodology for glaucoma detection based on measuring displacements of blood vessels within the optic disc (vascular bundle) in human retinal images. The method consists of segmenting the region of the vascular bundle in an optic disc to set a reference point in the temporal side of the cup, determining the position of the centroids of the superior, inferior, and nasal vascular bundle segmented zones located within the segmented region, and calculating the displacement from normal position using the chessboard distance metric. The method was successful in 62 images out of 67, achieving 93.02% sensitivity, 91.66% specificity, and 91.34% global accuracy in pre-diagnosis. PMID:24530536

  15. Mode-locking external-cavity laser-diode sensor for displacement measurements of technical surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Czarske, Juergen; Moebius, Jasper; Moldenhauer, Karsten

    2005-09-01

    A novel laser sensor for position measurements of technical solid-state surfaces is proposed. An external Fabry-Perot laser cavity is assembled by use of an antireflection-coated laser diode together with the technical surface. Mode locking results from pumping the laser diode synchronously to the mode spacing of the cavity. The laser cavity length, i.e., the distance to the measurement object, is determined by evaluation of the modulation transfer function of the cavity by means of a phase-locked loop. The mode-locking external-cavity laser sensor incorporates a resonance effect that results in highly resolving position and displacement measurements. More than a factor-of-10 higher resolution than with conventional nonresonant sensing principles is achieved. Results of the displacement measurements of various technical surfaces are reported. Experimental and theoretical investigations are in good agreement.

  16. Left abomasal displacement between the uterus and rumen during bovine twin pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Vertenten, Geert; Cornillie, Pieter; Schauvliege, Stijn; Gasthuys, Frank; van Loon, Gunther; Deprez, Piet

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe two cases of left displaced abomasum (LDA) in Holstein cattle at 6 and 9 months of twin gestation. Clinical examination revealed signs of proximal ileus with marked abdominal distension, but no ping sounds. An unusually high position of the gravid uterine horn on the left side was observed with ultrasound. Left exploratory laparotomy confirmed that the abomasum was displaced to the left and entrapped between the rumen and twin gravid uterine horn. A left surgical approach was necessary to correct the condition. Both animals recovered and gave birth to healthy twins. The present cases indicate that the subomental position of a heavy twin gravid uterine horn is a possible mechanical cause of LDA. PMID:23271188

  17. Left abomasal displacement between the uterus and rumen during bovine twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pardon, Bart; Vertenten, Geert; Cornillie, Pieter; Schauvliege, Stijn; Gasthuys, Frank; van Loon, Gunther; Deprez, Piet

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe two cases of left displaced abomasum (LDA) in Holstein cattle at 6 and 9 months of twin gestation. Clinical examination revealed signs of proximal ileus with marked abdominal distension, but no ping sounds. An unusually high position of the gravid uterine horn on the left side was bserved with ultrasound. Left exploratory laparotomy confirmed that the abomasum was displaced to the left and entrapped between the rumen and twin gravid uterine horn. A left surgical approach was necessary to correct the condition. Both animals recovered and gave birth to healthy twins. The present cases indicate that the subomental position of a heavy twin gravid uterine horn is a possible mechanical cause of LDA. PMID:23271188

  18. GNSS-derived Coseismic Displacement of the Gökçeada Earthquake (2014, Mw:6.9) based on 1 Hz GNSS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özer Yiğit, Cemal; Tiryakioğlu, Ibrahim; Halis Saka, M.; Metin Alkan, Reha

    2015-04-01

    GNSS technology has been extensively used to measure crustal deformation and widely used to construct displacement waveforms. GNSS seismology uses GNSS receiver as displacement seismometer for earthquake studies. In other words, it can sense large dynamic displacement without saturation. In GNSS, relative positioning method requires a reference station with no-motion whereas Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method does not need any reference station. However, PPP method, unlike relative positioning method, requires readily precise GNSS satellite orbit and clock product calculated beforehand to perform absolute positioning using a single GNSS receiver data. In case of large earthquake, it may be crucial to select stable reference for relative positioning. Therefore, in order to monitor ground motion pattern caused by the earthquake, PPP method is advantageous because it provides absolute coseismic displacements with respect to a global reference frame. In this study, we investigate the pattern of coseismic displacement and velocity of the Gokceada (Turkey) earthquake (United States Geological Survey M=6.9, May 24, 2014 - 09:25:02 UTC). One hertz of 8 continuous GNSS stations, part of CORS-TR network, were processed using PPP and relative positioning techniques to estimate epoch-by-epoch positions of the sites. The epicenter distance of GNSS stations are ranging from 90 km to 250 km. CSRS-PPP and GAMIT-Track tool software were used for PPP and relative positioning solution, respectively. We analyze the ground motion characteristic of GNSS-derived displacement and velocity. Results show that the travelling time of earthquake wave for each station increased with respect to epicentral distance. Results also demonstrate that the shaking amplitude generated by the earthquake decreased while epicentral distance increased. Peak to peak displacement of the closest station to epicenter is around 10 cm and 5 cm for north and east component, respectively. For selected farthest

  19. One-dimensional immiscible displacement experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, N. R.; Graham, D. N.; Farquhar, G. J.

    1992-08-01

    In recent years, a great deal of attention has focused on the development of various methods to predict the fate of immiscible contaminants (NAPL's) in soils. In an attempt to satisfy this requirement, a host of numerical models has been developed. Unfortunately, there exist little experimental data to verify the assumptions used in the derivation of these immiscible flow models. One objective of this paper is to report on a non-destructive measurement technique which was used to capture the relative organic-phase saturation variations in a number of two-phase flow displacement experiments. The data obtained from these experiments were compared to results obtained from a one-dimensional, finite-element based, two-phase flow model. The experiments consisted of five separate trials using three different immiscible liquids (hydraulic oil, kerosene and hexane) in a water-saturated column. Irregular immiscible liquid infiltration fronts were observed in four of the five experiments, indicating that very small-scale heterogeneities control the infiltration of immiscible liquids into soil. Independent of the column experiments, saturation-capillary pressure curves were determined for the various liquids. In general, the simulated NAPL saturation vs. time profiles agreed very well with the observations for all five of the trials.

  20. Motional displacements in proteins incorporating dynamical diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, Derya; Smith, Jeremy; Glyde, Henry

    The average mean square displacement (MSD), , of hydrogen H in proteins is measured using incoherent neutron scattering methods. The observed MSD shows a marked increase in magnitude at a temperature TD ~= 240 K. This is widely interpreted as a dynamical transition to large MSDs which make function possible in proteins. However, when the data is interpreted in terms of a single averaged MSD, the extracted depends on the neutron momentum transfer, ℏQ , used in the measurement. We have shown recently that this apparent dependence on Q arises because the dynamical diversity of the H in the protein is neglected[2]. We present models of the dynamical diversity of H in Lysosyme that when used in the analysis of simulated neutron data lead to consistent, Q independent values for the average MSD and for the diversity model.2. D. Vural and L. Hong, J. C. Smith and H. R. Glyde. Phys. Rev. E 91, 052705 (2015). Supported in part by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, USDOE, ER46680.

  1. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David J.; McNamee, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer, a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  2. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, D.J.; McNamee, M.J.

    1985-07-18

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  3. Rupture models with dynamically determined breakdown displacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The critical breakdown displacement, Dc, in which friction drops to its sliding value, can be made dependent on event size by specifying friction to be a function of variables other than slip. Two such friction laws are examined here. The first is designed to achieve accuracy and smoothness in discrete numerical calculations. Consistent resolution throughout an evolving rupture is achieved by specifying friction as a function of elapsed time after peak stress is reached. Such a time-weakening model produces Dc and fracture energy proportional to the square root of distance rupture has propagated in the case of uniform stress drop. The second friction law is more physically motivated. Energy loss in a damage zone outside the slip zone has the effect of increasing Dc and limiting peak slip velocity (Andrews, 1976). This article demonstrates a converse effect, that artificially limiting slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium has a toughening effect, increasing fracture energy and Dc proportionally to rupture propagation distance in the case of uniform stress drop. Both the time-weakening and the velocity-toughening models can be used in calculations with heterogeneous stress drop.

  4. INFLUENCE OF MASS ON DISPLACEMENT THRESHOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, A.; Nandipati, Giridhar; Roche, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-12-30

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the effect of mass on displacement threshold energy in Cr, Mo, Fe and W. For each interatomic potential, the mass of the atoms is varied among those metals for a total of 16 combinations. The average threshold energy over all crystal directions is calculated within the irreducible crystal directions using appropriate weighting factors. The weighting factors account for the different number of equivalent directions among the grid points and the different solid angle coverage of each grid point. The grid points are constructed with a Miller index increment of 1/24 for a total of 325 points. For each direction, 10 simulations each with a different primary-knock-on atom are performed. The results show that for each interatomic potential, the average threshold energy is insensitive to the mass; i.e., the values are the same within the standard error. In the future, the effect of mass on high-energy cascades for a given interatomic potential will be investigated.

  5. Particle displacement tracking applied to air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic Particle Image Velocimeter (PIV) techniques offer many advantages over conventional photographic PIV methods such as fast turn around times and simplified data reduction. A new all electronic PIV technique was developed which can measure high speed gas velocities. The Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) technique employs a single cw laser, small seed particles (1 micron), and a single intensified, gated CCD array frame camera to provide a simple and fast method of obtaining two-dimensional velocity vector maps with unambiguous direction determination. Use of a single CCD camera eliminates registration difficulties encountered when multiple cameras are used to obtain velocity magnitude and direction information. An 80386 PC equipped with a large memory buffer frame-grabber board provides all of the data acquisition and data reduction operations. No array processors of other numerical processing hardware are required. Full video resolution (640x480 pixel) is maintained in the acquired images, providing high resolution video frames of the recorded particle images. The time between data acquisition to display of the velocity vector map is less than 40 sec. The new electronic PDT technique is demonstrated on an air nozzle flow with velocities less than 150 m/s.

  6. High precision optical fiber bundle displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hui-min; Chen, You-ping; Zhang, Gang; Zhou, Zu-de

    2006-02-01

    A noncontact optical fiber bundle displacement sensor with nanometer resolution and low drift is proposed. The principle of the sensor is based on reflective intensity modulation technique. The optical fiber bundle probe contains one transmitting bundle and two receiving bundles. There are 727 identical glass optical fibers with a diameter of 50μm arranged in a concentric random pattern at the probe end. The diameter of the probe coated with a thin stainless ferrule is as small as 2.5mm. A carrier amplifier system is adopted to reduce dc drift and the interference of ambient stray light. The disturbance caused by fluctuation of light source and variation of target surface reflectivity is eliminated by taking a ratio of two receiving signals. The thermal drifts from two photoelectric signal processing circuits cancel out each other by using elements with identical specifications for both photodetector-amplifier chains. The sensitivity of the sensor is 5.9mV/nm over a linear range of 700-2300μm with a nonlinearity of 1%. The achieved resolution is 1nm/square root Hz; over a dynamic bandwidth of 10KHz and the dynamic range is 286dB. It has been proved that the sensor run sufficiently well when used with nano-technological instruments.

  7. Hydrodynamic analysis of the displacement conditions of formation fluids using an axisymmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernoshchuk, I. B.

    2008-03-01

    The axisymmetric problem of the displacement of formation fluids by a drilling mud filtrate with filter cake formation is considered. An analysis is made of the distribution and variation of the main parameters of the process: filtrate volume, filter cake thickness, oil saturation, and pressure. The positions of the water-saturation and salt-concentration fronts are determined. The results are compared with the geophysical logging data for straight-hole drilling.

  8. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  9. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  10. Living positively as HIV positive.

    PubMed

    Garraty, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    A nursing student records a brief biography of a Zambian nurse and certified midwife living with HIV/AIDS while shadowing the nurse during an undergraduate cross-cultural course in Macha, Zambia in January 2009. The nurse strives to live positively, educating, encouraging, and empowering others. PMID:21294466

  11. Coseismic Gravity and Displacement Signatures Induced by the 2013 Okhotsk Mw8.3 Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbin; Xu, Changyi; Zhu, Yiqing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) RL05 data from January 2003 to October 2014 were used to extract the coseismic gravity changes induced by the 24 May 2013 Okhotsk Mw8.3 deep-focus earthquake using the difference and least square fitting methods. The gravity changes obtained from GRACE data agreed well with those from dislocation theory in both magnitude and spatial pattern. Positive and negative gravity changes appeared on both sides of the epicenter. The positive signature appeared on the western side, and the peak value was approximately 0.4 microgal (1 microgal = 10(-8) m/s²), whereas on the eastern side, the gravity signature was negative, and the peak value was approximately -1.1 microgal. It demonstrates that deep-focus earthquakes Mw ≤ 8.5 are detectable by GRACE observations. Moreover, the coseismic displacements of 20 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations on the Earth's surface were simulated using an elastic dislocation theory in a spherical earth model, and the results are consistent with the GPS results, especially the near-field results. We also estimated the gravity contributions from the coseismic vertical displacements and density changes, analyzed the proportion of these two gravity change factors (based on an elastic dislocation theory in a spherical earth model) in this deep-focus earthquake. The gravity effect from vertical displacement is four times larger than that caused by density redistribution. PMID:27598158

  12. Quantifying the Interfractional Displacement of the Gastroesophageal Junction During Radiation Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jingya; Lin, Steven H.; Dong Lei; Balter, Peter; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Starkschall, George

    2012-06-01

    patient positioning. Because systematic displacement in the SI direction had dosimetric impact and correlated with tidal volume, better accounting for depth of breathing is needed to reduce interfractional variability.

  13. Real-time measurement system for in-plane displacement and strain based on vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Jin, Yi; Zhu, Ye; Zhai, Chao

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, combining optical measurement with conventional material testing machine, a real-time in-plane displacement and strain measurement system is built, which is applied to the material testing machine. This system can realize displacement and strain measurement of a large deformation sample moreover it can observe the sample crack on line. The change of displacement field is obtained through the change of center coordinate of each point of a grid lattice in the surface of the testing sample, according to two-dimensional sort coding for the grid in the traditional automated grid method, in this paper, an improved one-dimensional code method is adopted which make calculating speed much faster and the algorithm more adaptable. The measurement of the stability and precision of this system are made using the calibration board whose position precision is about 1.5 micron. The results show that the short-time stability of this system is about 0.5micron. At last, this system is used for strain measurement in a sample tension test, and the result shows that the system can acquire in-plane displacement and strain measurement results accurately and real-time, the velocity of image processing can reach 10 frame per second; or it can observe sample crack on line and storage the test process, the max velocity of observation and storage is 100 frame per second.

  14. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  15. An interferometric radar for displacement measurement and its application in civil engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, D.; Nagayama, T.; Sun, Z.; Fujino, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Recent progress in radar techniques and systems has led to the development of a microwave interferometer, potentially suitable for non-contact displacement monitoring of civil engineering structures. This paper describes a new interferometric radar system, named IBIS-S, which is possible to measure the static or dynamic displacement at multiple points of structures simultaneously with high accuracy. In this paper, the technical characteristics and specification of the radar system is described. Subsequently, the actual displacement sensitivity of the equipment is illustrated using the laboratory tests with random motion upon a shake table. Finally the applications of the radar system to the measurement on a cable-stayed bridge and a prestressed concrete bridge are presented and discussed. Results show that the new system is an accurate and effective method to measure displacements of multiple targets of structures. It should be noted that the current system can only measure the vibration of the target position along the sensor's line of sight. Hence, proper caution should be taken when designing the sensor posture and prior knowledge of the direction of motion is necessary.

  16. Analysis, construction, and testing of a large displacement bistable piezoelectric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal, J.; Giannopoulos, G.; Vantomme, J.

    2007-04-01

    Piezoelectric structures are used in a variety of applications where instant response, high energy conversion efficiency and accurate control are required. However, in the actuation domain they present an important drawback, which is the small displacement capacity. In the present work non-linear mechanics and more specifically snap-through buckling are used to transform a traditional bimorph structure with two piezoelectric layers and an aluminum substrate into a non-linear high displacement actuator with increased combination of force/displacement output. Large displacements are attained with the transition of the structure from one equilibrium position to another. A closed form analytical solution for the snap-through behavior of piezoelectric/composite beams is presented. The effect of piezoelectric actuation is introduced in this model through equivalent bending moments produced through the bimorph setting of the piezoelectric actuator. Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT) is used for the elaboration of an equivalent single layer structure that takes into account the influence on the stiffness of the structure due to the piezoelectric layers. During the development the importance of boundary conditions has been revealed and thus it has been modeled too. Results from finite element analysis as well as the actuators' construction and the experimental setup and subsequent results are presented.

  17. An overview of NASA research on positive displacement general-aviation engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The research and technology program related to improved and advanced general aviation engines is described. Current research is directed at the near-term improvement of conventional air-cooled spark-ignition piston engines and at future alternative engine systems based on all-new spark-ignition piston engines, lightweight diesels, and rotary combustion engines that show potential for meeting program goals in the midterm and long-term future. The conventional piston engine activities involve efforts on applying existing technology to improve fuel economy, investigation of key processes to permit leaner operation and reduce drag, and the development of cost effective technology to permit flight at high-altitudes where fuel economy and safety are improved. The advanced engine concepts activities include engine conceptual design studies and enabling technology efforts on the critical or key technology items.

  18. Criteria for design of the Yucca Mountain structures, systems and components for fault displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Stepp, C.; Hossain, Q.; Nesbit, S.; Hardy, M.

    1995-12-31

    The DOE intends to design the Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) for fault displacements to provide reasonable assurance that they will meet the preclosure safety performance objectives established by 10 CFR Part 60. To the extent achievable, fault displacement design of the facility will follow guidance provided in the NRC Staff Technical Position. Fault avoidance will be the primary design criterion, especially for spatially compact or clustered SSCs. When fault avoidance is not reasonably achievable, expected to be the case for most spatially extended SSCs, engineering design procedures and criteria or repair and rehabilitation actions, depending on the SSC`s importance to safety, are provided. SSCs that have radiological safety importance will be designed for fault displacements that correspond to the hazard exceedance frequency equal to their established seismic safety performance goals. Fault displacement loads are generally localized and may cause local inelastic response of SSCs. For this reason, the DOE intends to use strain-based design acceptance criteria similar to the strain-based criteria used to design nuclear plant SSCs for impact and impulsive loads.

  19. Design, fabrication, and testing of fiber Bragg grating sensors for cryogenic long-range displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jicheng; Neumann, H.; Ramalingam, R.

    2015-06-01

    It is essential to measure the shrinkage/expansion and positioning/aligning of magnets and to control valve displacement which plays a vital role in experiments like the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam tube and Cryo pumps. Hence, a displacement sensor which, over a long working range, can be operated under extreme environmental conditions needs to be developed. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) have been considered to be excellent sensor elements useful for a variety of applications. This paper will discuss a long range displacement sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings for cryogenic temperature applications. The cryo pump inlet valve control requirements have been taken as example specifications for sensor design. To achieve the development goal, a proper signal transducer and sensor package were designed. A study of the strain transmission of surface-bonded FBG was conducted. The influence of bonding thickness and bonding length was reported. The design, fabrication, and performance were tested at low temperature of around 77 K. The sensor performance was found to be satisfactory at both room temperature and 77 K and linearly for long-range displacement of 550 mm with 14 pm/mm sensitivity and 0.142 mm accuracy.

  20. Blade Displacement Measurement Technique Applied to a Full-Scale Rotor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.; Romander, Ethan A.; Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2012-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry were acquired during the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The objectives were to measure the blade displacement and deformation of the four rotor blades as they rotated through the entire rotor azimuth. These measurements are expected to provide a unique dataset to aid in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. They are used to resolve the blade shape and position, including pitch, flap, lag and elastic deformation. Photogrammetric data encompass advance ratios from 0.15 to slowed rotor simulations of 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology and system development, descriptions of image processing, uncertainty considerations, preliminary results covering static and moderate advance ratio test conditions and future considerations are presented. Comparisons of experimental and computational results for a moderate advance ratio forward flight condition show good trend agreements, but also indicate significant mean discrepancies in lag and elastic twist. Blade displacement pitch measurements agree well with both the wind tunnel commanded and measured values.

  1. Solvent isotope effects on nucleophilic displacement reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetic solvent isotope effect, KSIE, (k/sub H/sub 2/O//k/sub D/sub 2/O/), at 25.0/sup 0/C and ionic strength, I, equal to 0.20 +- 0.02 M was measured for the nucleophilic displacement of iodine ion from iodomethane, iodoacetamide, and iodoacetate ion, thiophene from S-Methylthiophenium ion, and tosylate ion from methyl tosylate by bromide ion, chloride ion, acetate ion, hydroxide ion, water, ammonia, ethylenediamine, n-butylamine, piperazine, piperidine, quinuclidine, and 1,4-Diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (DABCO), and the monoprotonated cations of ethylenediamine, piperazine, and DABCO. By means of solvent partition measurements at 25.0/sup 0/C and I = 0.02 M between H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O and a common immiscible organic solvent, the ground state activity coefficients in D/sub 2/O, the solution in H/sub 2/O being chosen as the reference state, were determined for the nitrogen-containing nucleophiles (except ammonia) and the substrates methyl tosylate, iodoacetamide, and iodoacetic acid. The solubilities at 25.0/sup 0/C of the picrate and tetraphenylborate salts of the monoprotonated cationic forms of ethylenediamine, piperazine, and DABCO were measured to determine the activity coefficients in D/sub 2/O of these ions relative to an H/sub 2/O reference state. Applying the Eyring equation, the activity coefficients of the transition states in D/sub 2/O, reference state H/sub 2/O, were calculated.

  2. TMJ Disc Displacement without Reduction Management

    PubMed Central

    Al-Baghdadi, M.; Durham, J.; Araujo-Soares, V.; Robalino, S.; Errington, L.; Steele, J.

    2014-01-01

    Various interventions have been used for the management of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement without reduction (DDwoR), but their clinical effectiveness remains unclear. This systematic review investigated the effects of these interventions and is reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Electronic and manual searches up to November 1, 2013, were conducted for English-language, peer-reviewed, publications of randomized clinical trials comparing any form of conservative or surgical interventions for patients with clinical and/or radiologic diagnosis of acute or chronic DDwoR. Two primary outcomes (TMJ pain intensity and maximum mouth opening) and a number of secondary outcomes were examined. Two reviewers performed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Data collection and analysis were performed according to Cochrane recommendations. Twenty studies involving 1,305 patients were included. Data analysis involved 21 comparisons between a variety of interventions, either between interventions, or between intervention and placebo or no intervention. Meta-analysis on homogenous groups was conducted in 4 comparisons. In most comparisons made, there were no statistically significant differences between interventions relative to primary outcomes at short- or long-term follow-up (p > .05). In a separate analysis, however, the majority of reviewed interventions reported significantly improved primary outcome measures from their baseline levels over time (p < .05). Evidence levels, however, are currently insufficient for definitive conclusions, because the included studies were too heterogeneous and at an unclear to high risk of bias. In view of the comparable therapeutic effects, paucity of high-quality evidence, and the greater risks and costs associated with more complex interventions, patients with symptomatic DDwoR should be initially treated by the simplest and

  3. Displacement of soil pore water by trichloroethylene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.; Aiken, G.R.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) are important pollutants because of their widespread use as chemical and industrial solvents. An example of the pollution caused by the discharge of DNAPLs is found at the Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged directly into the unsaturated zone. This discharge has resulted in the formation of a plume of TCE-contaminated water in the aquifer downgradient of the discharge. A zone of dark-colored groundwater containing a high dissolved organic C content has been found near the point of discharge of the TCE. The colored-water plume extends from the point of discharge at least 30 m (100 feet) downgradient. Fulvic acids isolated from the colored-waters plume, from water from a background well that has not been affected by the discharge of chlorinated solvents, and from soil pore water collected in a lysimeter installed at an uncontaminated site upgradient of the study area have been compared. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the fulvic acids from the colored waters and from the lysimeter are very similar, but are markedly different from the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the fulvic acid from the background well. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum and the DOC fractionation profile of the colored groundwater and the soil pore water are very similar to each other, but quite different from those of the background water. It is proposed from these observations that this colored water is soil pore water that has been displaced by a separate DNAPL liquid phase downward to the saturated zone.

  4. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tip seals, times three times the number of rotors, according to the following formula: cc = (max... based on engine displacement. (1) Class I—0 to 169 cc (0 to 10.4 cu. in.). (i) Class I motorcycles with engine displacement less than 50 cc comprise the Class I-A subclass. (ii) Class I motorcycles with...

  5. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tip seals, times three times the number of rotors, according to the following formula: cc = (max... based on engine displacement. (1) Class I—0 to 169 cc (0 to 10.4 cu. in.). (i) Class I motorcycles with engine displacement less than 50 cc comprise the Class I-A subclass. (ii) Class I motorcycles with...

  6. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tip seals, times three times the number of rotors, according to the following formula: cc = (max... based on engine displacement. (1) Class I—0 to 169 cc (0 to 10.4 cu. in.). (i) Class I motorcycles with engine displacement less than 50 cc comprise the Class I-A subclass. (ii) Class I motorcycles with...

  7. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  8. 46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153.966 Section 153... SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement. The person in charge of cargo transfer...

  9. 46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153.966 Section 153... SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement. The person in charge of cargo transfer...

  10. 46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153.966 Section 153... SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement. The person in charge of cargo transfer...

  11. 46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153.966 Section 153... SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement. The person in charge of cargo transfer...

  12. 46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153.966 Section 153... SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement. The person in charge of cargo transfer...

  13. Multiferroic bismuth ferrite material core based inductive displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, R.; Biswal, M. R.; Nanda, J.; Mishra, N. C.

    2012-07-01

    In this research, an inductive displacement sensor with multiferroic bismuth ferrite core has been realized. The bismuth ferrite sample is synthesized and its structural and dielectric properties are studied. A rod-shaped bismuth ferrite core is prepared and displaced through the inductor of a RLC circuit. The performance of the prepared bismuth ferrite core has been compared with a commercially available ferrite core.

  14. Changes in the Age and Education Profile of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…

  15. 24 CFR 578.83 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the URA and implementing regulations at 49 CFR part 24. A displaced person must be advised of his... comparable replacement dwelling. See 49 CFR 24.205(c)(2)(ii)(D). (2) Displaced person. (i) For the purposes... CFR 24.2(a)(9)(ii)); (D) The person is a program participant occupying transitional housing...

  16. 24 CFR 578.83 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the URA and implementing regulations at 49 CFR part 24. A displaced person must be advised of his... comparable replacement dwelling. See 49 CFR 24.205(c)(2)(ii)(D). (2) Displaced person. (i) For the purposes... CFR 24.2(a)(9)(ii)); (D) The person is a program participant occupying transitional housing...

  17. 25 CFR 700.133 - Notice of displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of displacement. 700.133 Section 700.133 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Relocation Requirements § 700.133 Notice of displacement. After the Commission's Relocation...

  18. 5 CFR 351.701 - Assignment involving displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assignment involving displacement. 351.701 Section 351.701 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Assignment Rights (Bump and Retreat) § 351.701 Assignment involving displacement....

  19. 25 CFR 700.133 - Notice of displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of displacement. 700.133 Section 700.133 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Relocation Requirements § 700.133 Notice of displacement. After the Commission's Relocation...

  20. 5 CFR 351.701 - Assignment involving displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignment involving displacement. 351.701 Section 351.701 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Assignment Rights (Bump and Retreat) § 351.701 Assignment involving displacement....

  1. 25 CFR 700.133 - Notice of displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of displacement. 700.133 Section 700.133 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Relocation Requirements § 700.133 Notice of displacement. After the Commission's Relocation...

  2. 25 CFR 700.133 - Notice of displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of displacement. 700.133 Section 700.133 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Relocation Requirements § 700.133 Notice of displacement. After the Commission's Relocation...

  3. 25 CFR 700.133 - Notice of displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of displacement. 700.133 Section 700.133 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Relocation Requirements § 700.133 Notice of displacement. After the Commission's Relocation...

  4. 5 CFR 351.701 - Assignment involving displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assignment involving displacement. 351.701 Section 351.701 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Assignment Rights (Bump and Retreat) § 351.701 Assignment involving displacement....

  5. Displacement, Outplacement, or Inplacement? Options for Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltzius, Thomas J.

    This report considers the differences among displacement, outplacement, and inplacement and looks at the risks, benefits, and costs of each. Displacement is defined as the termination of employment with little attention given to corporate or individual needs. Outplacement is defined as the pre-planned management of employee termination, addressing…

  6. Displaced Professionals: Higher Education's Role in Retraining. Workforce Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Paul J.; And Others

    This booklet, which is intended for practitioners in continuing higher education, examines the role of higher education in retraining displaced professionals. The booklet begins with brief descriptions of four innovative university programs for displaced professionals and an exploration of higher education's role in retraining displaced…

  7. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  8. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  9. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  10. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  11. How minimum detectable displacement in a GNSS Monitoring Network change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmi Erkoç, Muharrem; Doǧan, Uǧur; Aydın, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    The minimum detectable displacement in a geodetic monitoring network shows the displacement magnitude which may be just discriminated with known error probabilities. This displacement, which is originally deduced from sensitivity analysis, depends on network design, observation accuracy, datum of the network, direction of the displacement and power of the statistical test used for detecting the displacements. One may investigate how different scenarios on network design and observation accuracies influence the minimum detectable displacements for the specified datum, a-priorly forecasted directions and assumed power of the test and decide which scenario is the best or most optimum. It is sometimes difficult to forecast directions of the displacements. In that case, the minimum detectable displacements in a geodetic monitoring network are derived on the eigen-directions associated with the maximum eigen-values of the network stations. This study investigates how minimum detectable displacements in a GNSS monitoring network change depending on the accuracies of the network stations. For this, CORS-TR network in Turkey with 15 stations (a station fixed) is used. The data with 4h, 6h, 12 h and 24 h observing session duration in three sequential days of 2011, 2012 and 2013 were analyzed with Bernese 5.2 GNSS software. The repeatabilities of the daily solutions belonging to each year were analyzed carefully to scale the Bernese cofactor matrices properly. The root mean square (RMS) values for daily repeatability with respect to the combined 3-day solution are computed (the RMS values are generally less than 2 mm in the horizontal directions (north and east) and < 5 mm in the vertical direction for 24 h observing session duration). With the obtained cofactor matrices for these observing sessions, the minimum detectable displacements along the (maximum) eigen directions are compared each other. According to these comparisons, more session duration less minimum detectable

  12. Competitive displacement among post-Paleozoic cyclostome and cheilostome bryozoans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; McKinney, F. K.; Lidgard, S.; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Encrusting bryozoans provide one of the few systems in the fossil record in which ecological competition can be observed directly at local scales. The macroevolutionary history of diversity of cyclostome and cheilostome bryozoans is consistent with a coupled-logistic model of clade displacement predicated on species within clades interacting competitively. The model matches observed diversity history if the model is perturbed by a mass extinction with a position and magnitude analogous to the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary event, Although it is difficult to measure all parameters in the model from fossil data, critical factors are intrinsic rates of extinction, which can be measured. Cyclostomes maintained a rather low rate of extinction, and the model solutions predict that they would lose diversity only slowly as competitively superior species of cheilostomes diversified into their environment. Thus, the microecological record of preserved competitive interactions between cyclostome and cheilostome bryozoans and the macroevolutionary record of global diversity are consistent in regard to competition as a significant influence on diversity histories of post-Paleozoic bryozoans.

  13. Phase Change Effects on Immiscible Flow Displacements in Radial Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadlouydarab, Majid; Azaiez, Jalel; Chen, Zhangxin

    2014-11-01

    We report a systematic simulation of immiscible fluid-fluid displacements in radial injection in the presence of phase change. Due to the presence of two fluid-fluid interfaces in the system, a special treatment has been adopted. To track the leading interface position, two highly accurate methods including Level Set and Immersed Interface Method were used, while for locating the trailing interface an energy equation was adopted assuming the existence of a constant thin condensate layer. Dimensional analysis led to three important dimensionless groups including capillary number (Ca), Jacob number (Ja) and viscosity ratios (M) of the three fluids. Simulation results indicate significant influences of these parameters on the development of the instability and the interfacial morphology of fingers. Increasing Ca or M tends to amplify the interfacial instability, fingertip splitting, and results in longer fingers. In contrast, increasing Ja has stabilizing effects due to an increase of the thickness of the condensate layer. On the other hand at lower viscosity ratios as well as lower Ca, because of compensation effects of the phase change, both leading and trailing interfaces are found to be less unstable. Moreover accumulated condensate and oil saturation depletion curves show increasing and decreasing trends, respectively, when the Ca increases. Although viscosity ratio and Ja have similar effects on the accumulated condensate, they do not show any effect on the oil depletion saturation.

  14. High-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer of linear displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ping; Xia, Haojie; Fei, Yetai

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution transducer of linear displacements is presented. The system is based on semiconductor laser illumination and a diffraction grating applied as a length master. The theory of the optical method is formulated using Doppler description. The relationship model among the interference strips, measurement errors, grating deflection around the X, Y and Z axes and translation along the Z axis is built. The grating interference strips' direction and space is not changed with movement along the X (direction of grating movement), Y (direction of grating line), Z axis, and the direction and space has a great effect when rotating around the X axis. Moreover the space is little affected by deflection around the Z axis however the direction is changed dramatically. In addition, the strips' position shifted rightward or downwards respectively for deflection around the X or Y axis. Because the emitted beams are separated on the grating plane, the tilt around the X axis error of the stage during motion will lead to the optical path difference of the two beams resulting in phase shift. This study investigates the influence of the tilt around the X axis error. Experiments show that after yaw error compensation, the high-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer readings can be significantly improved. The error can be reduced from +/-80 nm to +/-30 nm in maximum.

  15. Lower molar and incisor displacement associated with mandibular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Bravo, L A; Ben-Bassat, Y; Curry, S; Korn, E L

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of alveolar modeling at the apices of the mandibular incisor and first molar specifically associated with appositional and resorptive changes on the lower border of the mandible during growth and treatment. Cephalometric data from superimpositions on anterior cranial base, mandibular implants of the Björk type, and anatomical "best fit" of mandibular border structures were integrated using a recently developed strategy, which is described. Data were available at annual intervals between 8.5 and 15.5 years for a previously described sample of approximately 30 children with implants. The average magnitudes of the changes at the root apices of the mandibular first molar and central incisor associated with modeling/remodeling of the mandibular border and symphysis were unexpectedly small. At the molar apex, mean values approximated zero in both anteroposterior and vertical directions. At the incisor apex, mean values approximated zero in the anteroposterior direction and averaged less than 0.15 mm/year in the vertical direction. Standard deviations were roughly equal for the molar and the incisor in both the anteroposterior and vertical directions. Dental displacement associated with surface modeling plays a smaller role in final tooth position in the mandible than in the maxilla. It may also be reasonably inferred that anatomical best-fit superimpositions made in the absence of implants give a more complete picture of hard tissue turnover in the mandible than they do in the maxilla. PMID:9107373

  16. Apparatus for certification of angular-displacement transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, B. N.

    1984-04-01

    An apparatus for determining the accuracy of inductive, photoelectric, and other angle-to-code converters with angular displacement transducers is examined. The operation of the various test stands for this purpose is based on measuring the electric output pulse signals from the sample transducers and a reference transducer and recording them in the form of phase difference diagrams, while the shafts of both transducers rotate synchronously, then determining the error of the sample transducer from those diagrams superposed on one another so as to correspond to the same angular position of both shafts. The mechanical components of such a test stand include an electric drive motor with speed regulation, a belt transmission, a worm gear for speed reduction, a flexible coupling, a bellows, a stator fixture, a centering mechanism, an index dial, a digital counter, and a tape winder. Prototypes of such a test stand were checked against a special phase meter with a kinematometer. These tests stands were found to be adequate for certification of transducers in the 1-2 precision class.

  17. Synthetic-wavelength self-mixing interferometry for displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junbao; Zhu, Hongbin; Xia, Wei; Guo, Dongmei; Hao, Hui; Wang, Ming

    2016-06-01

    A simple synthetic-wavelength self-mixing interferometer is proposed for precision displacement measurement. Choosing the frequency difference of the orthogonally polarized dual frequency He-Ne laser appropriately, we introduce synthetic wavelength theory into self-mixing interference principle and demonstrate a feasible optical configuration by simply adjusting the optical design of self-mixing interferometer. The phase difference between the two orthogonally polarized feedback fringes is observed, and the tiny displacement of the object can be measured through the phase change of the synthetic signal. Since the virtual synthetic wavelength is 106 times larger than the operating wavelength, sub-nanometer displacement of the object can be obtained in millimeter criterion measurement without modulation, demodulation and complicated electrical circuits. Experimental results verifies the synthetic wavelength self-mixing interferometer's ability of measuring nanoscale displacement, which provides a potential approach for contactless precision displacement measurement in a number of scientific and industrial applications.

  18. Character displacement of song and morphology in African tinkerbirds

    PubMed Central

    Kirschel, Alexander N. G.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Divergence in acoustic signals between populations of animals can lead to species recognition failure, reproductive isolation, and speciation. Character displacement may facilitate coexistence of species in natural communities, yet evidence for character displacement in acoustic signals is scant. Here, we find evidence of character displacement in song as well as body size and bill size of 2 related African tinkerbirds. Playback experiments indicate that related species' songs are perceived differently in sympatry than in allopatry. We suggest character displacement occurs in phenotypic traits facilitating species recognition, which has important implications for understanding the processes that lead to speciation and diversification. Because many of the sites where the 2 species coexist are areas where pristine rainforest has been degraded, results also suggest that anthropogenic pressures resulting from deforestation may be a contributing cause of character displacement in these species. PMID:19420223

  19. Apes Communicate about Absent and Displaced Objects: Methodology Matters

    PubMed Central

    Lyn, Heidi; Russell, Jamie L.; Leavens, David A.; Bard, Kim A.; Boysen, Sarah T.; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Displaced reference is the ability to refer to an item that has been moved (displaced) in space and/or time, and has been called one of the true hallmarks of referential communication. Several studies suggest that nonhuman primates have this capability, but a recent experiment concluded that in a specific situation (absent entities) human infants display displaced reference but chimpanzees do not. Here we show that chimpanzees and bonobos of diverse rearing histories are capable of displaced reference to absent and displaced objects. It is likely that some of the conflicting findings from animal cognition studies are due to relatively minor methodological differences, but are compounded by interpretation errors. Comparative studies are of great importance in elucidating the evolution of human cognition, however, greater care must be taken with methodology and interpretation for these studies to accurately reflect species differences. PMID:23681052

  20. Development and Displacement in India: Reforming the Economy towards Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Kalim

    2012-05-01

    Displacement of human populations from the natural habitats results in a host of socio-economic impacts. This study will focus on mainly farmers and tribal communities in India and how the modernisation process has affected these communities especially since the adoption of neoliberal economic reforms. For the rural people the displacement is a traumatic both in terms livelihoods and cultural point of view. The paper will analyse the issues of displacement of the villages that have been relatively isolated from the outside world. The development induced displacement becomes important due to its impact on the rural communities through land alienation in the form of protests by the affected communities. I find that not even a single study shows the socio-economic and environmental effects of these policies on the rural poor. Analysis of the reasons for these changes point in many directions. Displacement, the loss of traditional livelihoods of the rural communities and environmental destruction are the most prominent among them.

  1. Displacement and deformation measurement for large structures by camera network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    A displacement and deformation measurement method for large structures by a series-parallel connection camera network is presented. By taking the dynamic monitoring of a large-scale crane in lifting operation as an example, a series-parallel connection camera network is designed, and the displacement and deformation measurement method by using this series-parallel connection camera network is studied. The movement range of the crane body is small, and that of the crane arm is large. The displacement of the crane body, the displacement of the crane arm relative to the body and the deformation of the arm are measured. Compared with a pure series or parallel connection camera network, the designed series-parallel connection camera network can be used to measure not only the movement and displacement of a large structure but also the relative movement and deformation of some interesting parts of the large structure by a relatively simple optical measurement system.

  2. A Linear, Millimetre Displacement-to-Frequency Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Agee, John T.; Petto, Four K.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel linear, high-fidelity millimetre displacement-to-frequency transducer, based on the resistive conversion of displacement into a proportional voltage, and then frequency. The derivation of the nonlinearity, fidelity and sensitivity of the transducer is presented. Experimental results confirm that a displacement of 0–100 mm is converted into a frequency range of 0–100 kHz, with a normalised fidelity factor of 99.91%, and a worst-case nonlinearity of less than 0.08%. Tests using laboratory standards show that a displacement of 10 mm is transduced with an accuracy of ±0.6%, and a standard deviation of 530 Hz. Estimates included in the paper show that the transducer could cost less than 1% of existing systems for millimeter displacement measurement. PMID:23112631

  3. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  4. Relationship between Class III malocclusion and hyoid bone displacement during swallowing: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Hasan Suat; Gorgulu, Serkan; Karacay, Seniz; Akca, Eralp; Olmez, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The displacement of the hyoid bone (HB) is a critical biomechanical component of the swallowing function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the swallowing-induced vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB in subjects with 2 different magnitudes of skeletal Class III malocclusion, by means of real-time, balanced turbo-field-echo (B-TFE) cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Methods The study population comprised 19 patients with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion, 16 with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, and 20 with a skeletal Class I relationship. Before the commencement of the study, all subjects underwent cephalometric analysis to identify the nature of skeletal malformations. B-TFE images were obtained for the 4 consecutive stages of deglutition as each patient swallowed 10 mL of water, and the vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB were measured at each stage. Results At all stages of swallowing, the vertical position of the HB in the severe Class III malocclusion group was significantly lower than those in the mild Class III and Class I malocclusion groups. Similarly, the horizontal displacement of the HB was found to be significantly associated with the severity of malocclusion, i.e., the degree of Class III malocclusion, while the amount of anterior displacement of the HB decreased with an increase in the severity of the Class III deformity. Conclusions Our findings indicate the existence of a relationship between the magnitude of Class III malocclusion and HB displacement during swallowing. PMID:23112950

  5. Achilles tendon displacement patterns during passive stretch and eccentric loading are altered in middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate middle-age effects on Achilles displacement patterns under passive stretch and eccentric loading. Healthy young (24.1±1.4 years, n=9) and middle-aged (49.0±3.1 years, n=9) adults were positioned prone and the ankle was cyclically (0.5 Hz, 25 deg range) dorsiflexed during passive stretch and active lengthening. Achilles displacements were tracked in cine ultrasound using 2D speckle tracking. Displacements were found to be non-uniform, with mid and deep portions of the tendon displacing more than superficial portions. However, the degree of non-uniformity was significantly reduced in middle-aged adults, suggesting a potential age-related reduction in inter-fascicle sliding or a shift in loading sharing between plantarflexors. Eccentric loading reduced displacement magnitudes, likely reflecting distal tendon stretch induced via active muscle contractions. Changes in tendon displacement with active loading were greater in middle-aged adults, which could reflect greater tendon compliance. The observed age-related changes in Achilles tendon behavior may have implications for both plantarflexor performance and injury risk. PMID:25962378

  6. Microstrain in tetragonal lead-zirconate-titanate: The effect of pressure on the ionic displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Frantti, J. Fujioka, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, J.; Vogel, S. C.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-08-15

    Piezoelectric materials respond to external stimuli by adjusting atomic positions. In solid-solutions, the changes occurring in atomic scale are very complex since the short- and long-range order are different. Standard methods used in diffraction data analysis fail to model the short-range order accurately. Pressure-induced cation displacements in ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.45}Ti{sub 0.55})O{sub 3} perovskite oxide are modeled by starting from a short-range order. We show that the model gives the average structure correctly and properly describes the local structure. The origin of the microstrain in lead zirconate titanate is the spatially varying Zr and Ti concentration and atomic distances, which is taken into account in the simulation. High-pressure neutron powder diffraction and simulation techniques are applied for the determination of atomic positions and bond-valences as a function of pressure. Under hydrostatic pressure, the material loses its piezoelectric properties far before the transition to the cubic phase takes place. The total cation valence +6 is preserved up to 3.31 GPa by compensating the increasing B-cation valence by decreasing Pb-displacement from the high-symmetry position. At 3.31 GPa, Pb-displacement is zero and the material is no more ferroelectric. This is also the pressure at which the Pb-valence is minimized. The average structure is still tetragonal. The model for microstrain predicts that the transition occurs over a finite pressure range: Pb-displacements are spatially varying and follow the distribution of Zr and Ti ions.

  7. Presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferents does not vary with center of pressure displacements during upright standing.

    PubMed

    Johannsson, J; Duchateau, J; Baudry, S

    2015-07-01

    The present work was designed to investigate the presynaptic modulation of soleus Ia afferents with the position and the direction of the displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) during unperturbed upright standing and exaggerated CoP displacements in young adults. Hoffmann (H) reflex was evoked in the soleus by stimulating the tibial nerve at the knee level. Modulation of Ia presynaptic inhibition was assessed by conditioning the H reflex with fibular nerve (D1 inhibition) and femoral nerve (heteronymous facilitation) stimulation. Leg muscle activity was assessed by electromyography (EMG). The results indicate that in unperturbed standing and exaggerated CoP displacements, the H-reflex amplitude was greater during forward than backward CoP direction (p<0.05). However, the amplitude of the conditioned H reflex (expressed relative to unconditioned H reflex) did not vary with CoP displacement, regardless of the experimental condition. The soleus EMG was greater during forward than backward CoP direction and during anterior than posterior position in both experimental conditions (p<0.05). The modulation of the unconditioned H reflex with CoP direction was positively associated with the corresponding changes in soleus EMG (r(2)>0.34). The tibialis anterior EMG did not change during unperturbed standing, but was greater for backward than forward CoP direction during exaggerated CoP displacements. In this experimental condition, soleus EMG was negatively associated with tibialis anterior EMG (r(2)=0.81). These results indicate that Ia presynaptic inhibition is not modulated with CoP direction and position, but rather suggest that CoP displacements induced changes in excitability of the soleus motor neuron pool. PMID:25869621

  8. Lower Bound on the Mean Square Displacement of Particles in the Hard Disk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richthammer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The hard disk model is a 2D Gibbsian process of particles interacting via pure hard core repulsion. At high particle density the model is believed to show orientational order, however, it is known not to exhibit positional order. Here we investigate to what extent particle positions may fluctuate. We consider a finite volume version of the model in a box of dimensions 2 n × 2 n with arbitrary boundary configuration, and we show that the mean square displacement of particles near the center of the box is bounded from below by c log n. The result generalizes to a large class of models with fairly arbitrary interaction.

  9. Is the Job Training Partnership Act Training Displaced Homemakers? A Technical Report on Services to Displaced Homemakers under JTPA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Abby

    The Displaced Homemakers Network surveyed its 425 programs in the winter of 1985 to determine the extent and nature of services to displaced homemakers under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). Also sought was information about the barriers to JTPA that kept program operators from bidding successfully for contracts. Finally, the survey…

  10. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  11. Reliable estimation of shock position in shock-capturing compressible hydrodynamics codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    The displacement method for estimating shock position in a shock-capturing compressible hydrodynamics code is introduced. Common estimates use simulation data within the captured shock, but the displacement method uses data behind the shock, making the estimate consistent with and as reliable as estimates of material parameters obtained from averages or fits behind the shock. The displacement method is described in the context of a steady shock in a one-dimensional lagrangian hydrodynamics code, and demonstrated on a piston problem and a spherical blast wave.The displacement method's estimates of shock position are much better than common estimates in such applications.

  12. Experimental demonstration of a displacement noise free interferometry scheme for gravitational wave detectors showing displacement noise reduction at low frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Perreca, Antonio; Chelkowski, Simon; Freise, Andreas; Hild, Stefan

    2010-03-15

    This paper reports an experimental demonstration of partial displacement noise free laser interferometry in the gravitational wave detection band. The used detuned Fabry-Perot cavity allows the isolation of the mimicked gravitational wave signal from the displacement noise on the cavities input mirror. By properly combining the reflected and transmitted signals from the cavity a reduction of the displacement noise was achieved. Our results represent the first experimental demonstration of this recently proposed displacement noise free laser interferometry scheme. Overall, we show that the rejection ratio of the displacement noise to the gravitational wave signal was improved in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 kHz with a typical factor of {approx}60.

  13. Displaced logarithmic profile of the velocity distribution in the boundary layer of a turbulent flow over an unbounded flat surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talpos, Simona; Apostol, Marian

    2015-12-01

    It is shown that the Reynolds equations for a turbulent flow over an unbounded flat surface in the presence of a constant pressure-gradient lead to a displaced logarithmic profile of the velocity distribution; the displaced logarithmic profile is obtained by assuming a constant production rate of turbulence energy. The displacement height measured on the (vertical) axis perpendicular to the surface is either positive or negative. For a positive displacement height the boundary layer exhibits an inversion, while for a negative displacement height the boundary layer is a direct one. In an inversion boundary layer the logarithmic velocity profile is disrupted into two distinct branches separated by a logarithmic singularity. The viscosity transforms this logarithmic singularity into a sharp edge, governed by a generalized Reynolds number. The associated temperature distribution is calculated, and the results are discussed in relation to meteorological boundary-layer jets and stratified layers. The effects of gravitation and atmospheric thermal or fluid-mixture concentration gradients ("external forcings") are also considered; it is shown that such circumstances may lead to various modifications of the boundary layers. A brief presentation of a similar situation is described for a circular pipe.

  14. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: the effects of body orientation and language on memory.

    PubMed

    Vinson, David W; Abney, Drew H; Dale, Rick; Matlock, Teenie

    2014-01-01

    Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person's body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings are in line with previous work on spatial displacement that uses a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory. PMID:25071628

  15. Active suppression of a beam under a moving mass using a pointwise fiber Bragg grating displacement sensing system.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching; Wu, Rong-Hua

    2012-10-01

    This paper investigates active vibration control of a beam under a moving mass using a pointwise fiber Bragg grating (FBG) displacement sensing system. Dynamic responses of the proposed FBG displacement sensor are demodulated with an FBG filter and verified with measurement results obtained from a noncontact fiber-optic displacement sensor. System identification of the beam is first performed with a piezoceramic actuator and positive position feedback (PPF) controllers are designed based on the identified results. Then, transient responses of the beam under a moving mass with different moving conditions are measured using the FBG displacement sensor. A high-speed camera is used to detect the speed of the moving mass for further discussions about its influence on the transient response. Finally, active vibration control of the beam under the moving mass is performed and fast Fourier transform (FFT) as well as short-time Fourier transform (STFT) are employed to demonstrate control performances. For the case in which a rolling steel ball is directed from a slide to the beam to generate the moving mass, reductions of the vibration up to 50% and 60% are achieved in the frequency domain for the first and second modes of the beam, respectively. Based on the control experiments on the smallscale beam, results in this work show that the proposed FBG displacement sensing system can be used in research on the moving mass problem. PMID:23143564

  16. Combined Effects of Mass and Velocity on Forward Displacement and Phenomenological Ratings: A Functional Measurement Approach to the Momentum Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sa Teixeira, Nuno; Oliveira, Armando Monica; Amorim, Michel-Ange

    2010-01-01

    Representational Momentum (RepMo) refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as…

  17. Case report of a posterior disc displacement without and with reduction.

    PubMed

    Huddleston Slater, James J R; Lobbezoo, Frank; Hofman, Nico; Naeije, Machiel

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the case of a patient with an acute posterior disc displacement without reduction (PDDWR), whose temporomandibular joint (TMJ) showed, after physiotherapeutic manipulation, the characteristics of a posterior disc displacement with reduction (PDDR). Opto-electronic condylar movement recordings in both the PDDR state and the PDDWR state, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the TMJ in the PDDR state were carried out to document the case. The first 2 physiotherapeutic manipulations were initially successful in reducing the disc, but a few days later the joint showed a relapse to the PDDWR state. From the third manipulation on, now 12 months ago, the patient has been free of symptoms of the PDDWR state. Condylar movement traces of the joint in the PDDWR state indicated that the condyle was prevented from entering the fossa completely. The downward condylar movement deflections during the early phase of closing, recorded after the second manipulation, showed the reduction of the posteriorly displaced disc during closing. The movement recordings also showed that the PDDR could be eliminated by submaximal opening and closing movements. The MRI scans, taken after the third, successful manipulation, showed the disc to be in a normal position with respect to the condyle when the mouth was closed, and to be posteriorly displaced when the mouth was maximally opened. The case shows that manipulation techniques may successfully reverse an acute PDDWR into a PDDR. The technique of MRIs and condylar movement recordings show promise in further unraveling the morphological and clinical features of posterior disc displacements. PMID:16279486

  18. Robustness of IPSA optimized high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy treatment plans to catheter displacements

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) optimized brachytherapy treatment plans are characterized with large isolated dwell times at the first or last dwell position of each catheter. The potential of catheter shifts relative to the target and organs at risk in these plans may lead to a more significant change in delivered dose to the volumes of interest relative to plans with more uniform dwell times. Material and methods This study aims to determine if the Nucletron Oncentra dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter can be optimized to improve the robustness of high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy plans to catheter displacements. A set of 10 clinically acceptable prostate plans were re-optimized with a DTDC parameter of 0 and 0.4. For each plan, catheter displacements of 3, 7, and 14 mm were retrospectively applied and the change in dose volume histogram (DVH) indices and conformity indices analyzed. Results The robustness of clinically acceptable prostate plans to catheter displacements in the caudal direction was found to be dependent on the DTDC parameter. A DTDC value of 0 improves the robustness of planning target volume (PTV) coverage to catheter displacements, whereas a DTDC value of 0.4 improves the robustness of the plans to changes in hotspots. Conclusions The results indicate that if used in conjunction with a pre-treatment catheter displacement correction protocol and a tolerance of 3 mm, a DTDC value of 0.4 may produce clinically superior plans. However, the effect of the DTDC parameter in plan robustness was not observed to be as strong as initially suspected. PMID:27504129

  19. Application of Laser Speckle Pattern Interferometry for Precise Measurements of Displacement Distribution in Porous Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Murakami, Akira; Kato, Motoki

    This paper deals with experiments for detecting two-dimensional microscopic deformations by laser speckle pattern interferometry system. The optical setup uses a laser diode for the source together with a lens to expand the laser beam, and an inspection area can be chosen with the optical setup between 5×7.5 mm2 (microscopic range) up to 200×300 mm2 (macroscopic range). The measurements by the macroscopic and microscopic ranges are performed without marking to get overall and detailed deformations of porous ceramic materials respectively. In the macroscopic measurement, it was shown that pore of the ceramics is recognized as a kind of the marker in generating interference fringe. On the other hand, displacement behavior related to the microscopic structure of material can be observed when spatial decomposition of measuring distance is smaller than the pore size is achieved by limiting the inspection area to micro region. In this condition, displacement data with continuous distribution has not been obtained, because displacement measured at pore inside and that at material surface are detected in the one under way without distinguishing at all in the measurement for this microscopic region. However, through the measurement of displacement behavior in crack tip vicinity, it was confirmed that measured displacement distribution agrees with the analytic solution if the data is detected in the position where pore and surface concavity are avoided along the crack edge. By arranging measured data based on above-mentioned processing, valuable information such as strain distributions between adjacent pore was obtained from the measurement for microscopic region.

  20. A Combined Approach to Cartographic Displacement for Buildings Based on Skeleton and Improved Elastic Beam Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuangang; Guo, Qingsheng; Sun, Yageng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    Scale reduction from source to target maps inevitably leads to conflicts of map symbols in cartography and geographic information systems (GIS). Displacement is one of the most important map generalization operators and it can be used to resolve the problems that arise from conflict among two or more map objects. In this paper, we propose a combined approach based on constraint Delaunay triangulation (CDT) skeleton and improved elastic beam algorithm for automated building displacement. In this approach, map data sets are first partitioned. Then the displacement operation is conducted in each partition as a cyclic and iterative process of conflict detection and resolution. In the iteration, the skeleton of the gap spaces is extracted using CDT. It then serves as an enhanced data model to detect conflicts and construct the proximity graph. Then, the proximity graph is adjusted using local grouping information. Under the action of forces derived from the detected conflicts, the proximity graph is deformed using the improved elastic beam algorithm. In this way, buildings are displaced to find an optimal compromise between related cartographic constraints. To validate this approach, two topographic map data sets (i.e., urban and suburban areas) were tested. The results were reasonable with respect to each constraint when the density of the map was not extremely high. In summary, the improvements include (1) an automated parameter-setting method for elastic beams, (2) explicit enforcement regarding the positional accuracy constraint, added by introducing drag forces, (3) preservation of local building groups through displacement over an adjusted proximity graph, and (4) an iterative strategy that is more likely to resolve the proximity conflicts than the one used in the existing elastic beam algorithm. PMID:25470727

  1. A combined approach to cartographic displacement for buildings based on skeleton and improved elastic beam algorithm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuangang; Guo, Qingsheng; Sun, Yageng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    Scale reduction from source to target maps inevitably leads to conflicts of map symbols in cartography and geographic information systems (GIS). Displacement is one of the most important map generalization operators and it can be used to resolve the problems that arise from conflict among two or more map objects. In this paper, we propose a combined approach based on constraint Delaunay triangulation (CDT) skeleton and improved elastic beam algorithm for automated building displacement. In this approach, map data sets are first partitioned. Then the displacement operation is conducted in each partition as a cyclic and iterative process of conflict detection and resolution. In the iteration, the skeleton of the gap spaces is extracted using CDT. It then serves as an enhanced data model to detect conflicts and construct the proximity graph. Then, the proximity graph is adjusted using local grouping information. Under the action of forces derived from the detected conflicts, the proximity graph is deformed using the improved elastic beam algorithm. In this way, buildings are displaced to find an optimal compromise between related cartographic constraints. To validate this approach, two topographic map data sets (i.e., urban and suburban areas) were tested. The results were reasonable with respect to each constraint when the density of the map was not extremely high. In summary, the improvements include (1) an automated parameter-setting method for elastic beams, (2) explicit enforcement regarding the positional accuracy constraint, added by introducing drag forces, (3) preservation of local building groups through displacement over an adjusted proximity graph, and (4) an iterative strategy that is more likely to resolve the proximity conflicts than the one used in the existing elastic beam algorithm. PMID:25470727

  2. Wide-range displacement expressions for standard fracture mechanics specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapp, J. A.; Gross, B.; Leger, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Wide-range algebraic expressions for the displacement of cracked fracture mechanics specimens are developed. For each specimen two equations are given: one for the displacement as a function of crack length, the other for crack length as a function of displacement. All the specimens that appear in ASTM Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials (E 399) are represented in addition to the crack mouth displacement for a pure bending specimen. For the compact tension sample and the disk-shaped compact tension sample, the displacement at the crack mouth and at the load line are both considered. Only the crack mouth displacements for the arc-shaped tension samples are presented. The agreement between the displacements or crack lengths predicted by the various equations and the corresponding numerical data from which they were developed are nominally about 3 percent or better. These expressions should be useful in all types of fracture testing including fracture toughness, K-resistance, and fatigue crack growth.

  3. Development of a wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration responses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Spencer, Billie F

    2013-01-01

    Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM), earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:23881123

  4. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. PMID:27074674

  5. Measurement of chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Lv, Hao; Jiao, Teng; Lu, Guohua; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhao; Liu, Miao; Jing, Xijing; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of chest wall displacement is an important approach for measuring mechanics of chest wall, which has considerable significance for assessing respiratory system and diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, existing optical methods for measuring chest wall displacement are inconvenient for some specific patients such as the female patients and the patients with bandaged chest. In this letter, we proposed a method for measuring chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave and established corresponding mathematic model and set up a terahertz measurement system. The main advantages of this method are that it can measure the chest wall displacement of the subjects without taking off clothes or arranging any markers. To validate this method and assess the performance of the terahertz system, in vitro, the displacement of a water module driven by a linear guide rail was measured by the terahertz system and compared with the actual displacement of the water module. The results showed that the waveforms measured with two methods have a good agreement, and the relative error is less than 5% and sufficiently good for measurement demands. In vivo, the synchronous experiment was performed on five human volunteers with the terahertz system and a respiratory belt transducer. The results demonstrate that this method has good performance and promising prospects for measuring chest wall displacement.

  6. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement. PMID:26184197

  7. The role of environmental degradation in population displacement.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, S

    1998-01-01

    This article answers a series of questions about the role of environmental degradation in population displacement, refugee movement, and migration. The environment tends not to be included in the reasons for migration. Roger's indicators of migration potential include population growth, economic restructuring, increased economic disparities, and increased refugee flows. Myers (1993) estimated that international displacement and internal displacement may amount to about 25 million and may rise to 150 million by 2050. The role of the environment in displacement must be examined in the broader political and cultural context. Definitions of environmental refugees are ambiguous and inconsistent, and research has not answered why people continue to move to Mexico City and Chongqing, China, which both have very high levels of pollution. El-Hinnawi (1985) defined 3 groups of environmental refugees: those displaced due to natural disasters; those displaced due to permanent habitat changes; and those displaced who migrated from areas that cannot support their basic needs and who desire an improved quality of life. Lonergan (1994) identified environmental stresses as natural disasters, cumulative or slow-onset changes, accidental disruptions or industrial accidents, development projects, and conflict and warfare. These 5 causes must be treated separately and not lumped together as environmental degradation. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption associated with climate change may increase migration. Global measures must address world poverty and promote sustainable development. PMID:12321719

  8. Effect of Audio Coaching on Correlation of Abdominal Displacement With Lung Tumor Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakata, Manabu; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of audio coaching on the time-dependent behavior of the correlation between abdominal motion and lung tumor motion and the corresponding lung tumor position mismatches. Methods and Materials: Six patients who had a lung tumor with a motion range >8 mm were enrolled in the present study. Breathing-synchronized fluoroscopy was performed initially without audio coaching, followed by fluoroscopy with recorded audio coaching for multiple days. Two different measurements, anteroposterior abdominal displacement using the real-time positioning management system and superoinferior (SI) lung tumor motion by X-ray fluoroscopy, were performed simultaneously. Their sequential images were recorded using one display system. The lung tumor position was automatically detected with a template matching technique. The relationship between the abdominal and lung tumor motion was analyzed with and without audio coaching. Results: The mean SI tumor displacement was 10.4 mm without audio coaching and increased to 23.0 mm with audio coaching (p < .01). The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 with free breathing. Applying audio coaching, the correlation coefficients improved significantly (range, 0.93-0.99; p < .01), and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became larger in 75% of all sessions. Conclusion: Audio coaching served to increase the degree of correlation and make it more reproducible. In addition, the phase shifts between tumor motion and abdominal displacement were improved; however, all patients breathed more deeply, and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became slightly larger with audio coaching than without audio coaching.

  9. Biomechanical model-based displacement estimation in micro-sensor motion capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. L.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Sun, S. Y.; Wu, J. K.; Wong, W. C.

    2012-05-01

    In micro-sensor motion capture systems, the estimation of the body displacement in the global coordinate system remains a challenge due to lack of external references. This paper proposes a self-contained displacement estimation method based on a human biomechanical model to track the position of walking subjects in the global coordinate system without any additional supporting infrastructures. The proposed approach makes use of the biomechanics of the lower body segments and the assumption that during walking there is always at least one foot in contact with the ground. The ground contact joint is detected based on walking gait characteristics and used as the external references of the human body. The relative positions of the other joints are obtained from hierarchical transformations based on the biomechanical model. Anatomical constraints are proposed to apply to some specific joints of the lower body to further improve the accuracy of the algorithm. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an optical motion capture system. The method is also demonstrated in outdoor and indoor long distance walking scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate clearly that the biomechanical model improves the displacement accuracy within the proposed framework.

  10. An error compensation method of laser displacement sensor in the inclined surface measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Xiong, Zhongxing; Li, Bin

    2015-10-01

    Laser triangulation displacement sensor is an important tool in non-contact displacement measurement which has been widely used in the filed of freeform surface measurement. However, measurement accuracy of such optical sensors is very likely to be influenced by the geometrical shape and face properties of the inspected surfaces. This study presents an error compensation method for the measurement of inclined surfaces using a 1D laser displacement sensor. The effect of the incident angle on the measurement results was investigated by analyzing the laser spot projected on the inclined surface. Both the shape and the light intensity distribution of the spot will be influenced by the incident angle, which lead to the measurement error. As the beam light spot size is different at different measurement position according to Gaussian beam propagating laws, the light spot projectted on the inclinde surface will be an ellipse approximatively. It's important to note that this ellipse isn't full symmetrical because the spot size of Gaussian beam is different at different position. By analyzing the laws of the shape change, the error compensation model can be established. This method is verified through the measurement of an ceramic plane mounted on a high-accuracy 5-axis Mikron UCP 800 Duro milling center. The results show that the method is effective in increasing the measurement accuracy.

  11. Curvature in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems is limited to the region of amyloplast displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weise, S. E.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Kiss, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitropic sensing in stems and stem-like organs is hypothesized to occur in the endodermis. However, since the endodermis runs the entire length of the stem, the precise site of gravisensing has been difficult to define. In this investigation of gravisensitivity in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis, we positioned stems in a high gradient magnetic field (HGMF) on a rotating clinostat. Approximately 40% of the young, wild-type (WT) inflorescences, for all positions tested, curved toward the HGMF in the vicinity of the stem exposed to the field. In contrast, when the wedge was placed in the basal region of older inflorescence stems, no curvature was observed. As a control, the HGMF was applied to a starchless mutant, and 5% of the stems curved toward the field. Microscopy of the endodermis in the WT showed amyloplast displacement in the vicinity of the HGMF. Additional structural studies demonstrated that the basal region of WT stems experienced amyloplast displacement and, therefore, suggest this region is capable of gravity perception. However, increased lignification likely prevented curvature in the basal region. The lack of apical curvature after basal amyloplast displacement indicates that gravity perception in the base is not transmitted to the apex. Thus, these results provide evidence that the signal (and thus, response) resulting from perception in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems is spatially restricted.

  12. Estimates of Minor Ocean Tide Loading Displacement and Its Impact on Continuous GPS Coordinate Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Jiang, Weiping; Ding, Wenwu; Deng, Liansheng; Peng, Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    The site displacement due to ocean tidal loading is regarded as one of the largest uncertainties in precise geodetic positioning measurements, among which the effect of minor ocean tides (MOT), except for the 11 main tidal constituents, are sometimes neglected in routine precise global positioning system (GPS) data processing. We find that MOT can cause large vertical loading displacements with peak-to-peak variations reaching more than 8 mm at coastal/island stations. The impact of MOT on the 24-hour GPS solution is slightly larger than the magnitude of MOT loading itself, with peak-to-peak displacement variation at about 10 mm for the horizontal and 30 mm for the vertical components. We also find that the vertical velocity of all the selected stations in the Southwest Pacific was reduced by more than 10% after considering the MOT effect, while stations with weighted root mean square reduced data account for 62%, 59%, and 36% for the up, east, and north components respectively, in particular for most coastal/island stations. Furthermore, MOT correction could significantly reduce the annual signal of the global stacked east component, the near fortnightly and the long-term periodic signals in the up component. The power of some anomalous harmonics of 1.04 cycle per year is also decreased to some extent. These results further proved the benefits of MOT correction in precise GPS data processing. PMID:24658620

  13. Cockpit Window Edge Proximity Effects on Judgements of Horizon Vertical Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    To quantify the influence of a spatially fixed edge on vertical displacement threshold, twenty-four males (12 pilots, 12 non-pilots) were presented a series of forced choice, paired comparison trials in which a 32 deg arc wide, thin, luminous horizontal stimulus line moved smoothly downward through five angles from a common starting position within a three second-long period. The five angles were 1.4, 1.7, 2, 2.3, and 2.6 deg. Each angle was presented paired with itself and the other four angles in all combinations in random order. For each pair of trials the observer had to choose which trial possessed the largest displacement. A confidence response also was made. The independent variable was the angular separation between the lower edge of a stable 'window' aperture through which the stimulus was seen to move and the lowest position attained by the stimulus. It was found that vertical displacement accuracy is inversely related to the angle separating the stimulus and the fixed window edge (p = .05). In addition, there is a strong tendency for pilot confidence to be lower than that of non-pilots for each of the three angular separations. These results are discussed in erms of selected cockpit features and as they relate to how pilots judge changes in aircraft pitch attitude.

  14. Nanometer displacement measurement of a multiwalled carbon nanotube cantilever under aqueous conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Soongeun; Lee, Hyung Woo; Park, Hyojun; Kim, Soohyun

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we report nanometer displacement measurement of an individual multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) in liquid, based on the high accuracy localization of individual fluorescent nanoparticles. In order to visualize a MWNT cantilever in liquid, a fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticle with an amine conjugate was selectively attached at the end of a nanotube by noncovalent hydrogen bonding between amine and carboxylic groups. Physical absorption of ethylenediamine gas vapor onto an as-fabricated MWNT cantilever renders the nanotube hydrophilic, enabling manipulation of the MWNT cantilever in liquid without bending or breaking. A fluorescent nanoparticle was localized by a two-dimensional Gaussian fit for the fluorescence intensity of the particle. During the manipulation of the nanotube cantilever in liquid, the displacement was determined by the positional change of the localized nanoparticle. The measurement technique was evaluated by measuring the displacement of a MWNT cantilever subjected to controlled manipulation such as a single line scan, step and stair response. The positional accuracy of the measurement was experimentally found to be 7 nm. The fluorescence measurement of a hydrophilic MWNT cantilever can be further used in biological applications such as biochemical sensors and single molecule force spectroscopy.

  15. Doppler displacements in kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Marcel; Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Terradas, Jaume; Verth, Gary; Soler, Roberto

    Doppler displacements in kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes Presenting author: M. Goossens Co-authors: R. Soler, J. Terradas, T. Van Doorsselaere, G. Verth The standard interpretation of the transverse MHD waves observed in the solar atmosphere is that they are non-axisymmetric kink m=1) waves on magnetic flux tubes. This interpretation is based on the fact that axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric fluting waves do not displace the axis of the loop and the loop as a whole while kink waves indeed do so. A uniform transverse motion produces a Doppler displacement that is constant across the magnetic flux tube. A recent development is the observation of Doppler displacements that vary across the loop. The aim of the present contribution is to show that spatial variations of the Doppler displacements across the loop can be caused by kink waves. The motion associated with a kink wave is purely transverse only when the flux tube is uniform and sufficiently thin. Only in that case do the radial and azimuthal components of displacement have the same amplitude and is the azimuthal component a quarter of a period ahead of the radial component. This results in a unidirectional or transverse displacement. When the flux tube is non-uniform and has a non-zero radius the conditions for the generation of a purely transverse motion are not any longer met. In that case the motion in a kink wave is the sum of a transverse motion and a non-axisymmetric rotational motion that depends on the azimuthal angle. It can produce complicated variations of the Doppler displacement across the loop. I shall discuss the various cases of possible Doppler displacenents that can occur depending on the relative sizes of the amplitudes of the radial and azimuthal components of the displacement in the kink wave and on the orientation of the line of sight.

  16. Combination of optically measured coordinates and displacements for quantitative investigation of complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrae, Peter; Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Jueptner, Werner P. O.; Nadeborn, Werner; Osten, Wolfgang

    1996-09-01

    Holographic interferometry makes it possible to measure high precision displacement data in the range of the wavelength of the used laser light. However, the determination of 3D- displacement vectors of objects with complex surfaces requires the measurement of 3D-object coordinates not only to consider local sensitivities but to distinguish between in-plane deformation, i.e. strains, and out-of-plane components, i.e. shears, too. To this purpose both the surface displacement and coordinates have to be combined and it is advantageous to make the data available for CAE- systems. The object surface has to be approximated analytically from the measured point cloud to generate a surface mesh. The displacement vectors can be assigned to the nodes of this surface mesh for visualization of the deformation of the object under test. They also can be compared to the results of FEM-calculations or can be used as boundary conditions for further numerical investigations. Here the 3D-object coordinates are measured in a separate topometric set-up using a modified fringe projection technique to acquire absolute phase values and a sophisticated geometrical model to map these phase data onto coordinates precisely. The determination of 3D-displacement vectors requires the measurement of several interference phase distributions for at least three independent sensitivity directions depending on the observation and illumination directions as well as the 3D-position of each measuring point. These geometric quantities have to be transformed into a reference coordinate system of the interferometric set-up in order to calculate the geometric matrix. The necessary transformation can be realized by means of a detection of object features in both data sets and a subsequent determination of the external camera orientation. This paper presents a consistent solution for the measurement and combination of shape and displacement data including their transformation into simulation systems. The

  17. Inhomogeneous phase shifting: an algorithm for nonconstant phase displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez-Quinones, Alejandro; Malacara-Doblado, Daniel

    2010-11-10

    In this work, we have developed a different algorithm than the classical one on phase-shifting interferometry. These algorithms typically use constant or homogeneous phase displacements and they can be quite accurate and insensitive to detuning, taking appropriate weight factors in the formula to recover the wrapped phase. However, these algorithms have not been considered with variable or inhomogeneous displacements. We have generalized these formulas and obtained some expressions for an implementation with variable displacements and ways to get partially insensitive algorithms with respect to these arbitrary error shifts.

  18. The first derivative of the carotid displacement pulse.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, A. H.; Spodick, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    The amplitude and time relationships of the carotid derivative in normal individuals and unselected cardiac patients is investigated together with the effects of different contraction strengths in patients with pulsus alternans and subjects challenged with isoproterenol and propranolol. Data regarding the relationship between the preejection period (PEP) and the ratio of peak to total amplitude of the carotid displacement pulse derivative are presented. It is found that cardiac abnormality tends to reduce the rate of rise of the carotid displacement pulse. The results obtained show that the PEP is a somewhat more sensitive index of the changes studied than the carotid displacement derivative.

  19. Radial displacement of lateral meniscus after partial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong

    2006-05-01

    Radial displacement or extrusion of the meniscus has been reported as a complication after meniscal transplantation and is sometimes observed in knees with advanced osteoarthritis. In this report, the case of a patient with radial displacement of the lateral meniscus after partial meniscectomy is presented. He had an incomplete discoid lateral meniscus with an anterior horn tear. The inner portion of the lateral meniscus was excised to leave a width of 8 to 10 mm. However, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed radial displacement of the mid-body of the lateral meniscus and a compatible finding of chondromalacia of the lateral compartment of the knee. PMID:16651179

  20. NMR imaging of immiscible displacements in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Majors, P.D.; Li, P.; Peters, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    We introduce a rapid, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) technique to resolve and measure multiple fluid phases in porous media. Liquids are resolved on the basis of their NMR spin-spin (T{sub 2}) relaxation times, and their intensities are corrected via attenuation analysis. The spatially resolved and corrected NMRI intensities are normalized to yield fluid saturations. In-situ saturation measurements are presented for three immiscible (oil and water) displacements in the same Berea sandstone core. NMRI and effluent recovery methods were compared. T{sub 2} of the displacement fluids were observed to be sensitive to displacement conditions.

  1. Method of making self-calibrated displacement measurements

    DOEpatents

    Pedersen, Herbert N.

    1977-01-01

    A method for monitoring the displacement of an object having an acoustically reflective surface at least partially submerged in an acoustically conductive medium. The reflective surface is designed to have a stepped interface responsive to an incident acoustic pulse to provide separate discrete reflected pulses to a receiving transducer. The difference in the time of flight of the reflected acoustic signals corresponds to the known step height and the time of travel of the signals to the receiving transducer provides a measure of the displacement of the object. Accordingly, the reference step length enables simultaneous calibration of each displacement measurement.

  2. Scanning Twyman interferometer for measuring small angular displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianguo; Tong, Yue

    2010-12-01

    We present a simple but effective method for measuring small angular displacement based on a scanning Twyman interferometer ,in which, one of the two mirrors is mounted on the piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) droved by saw-tooth voltage, the status of interference fringes changes from static to dynamic. A photoelectric detector detects this dynamic photo-signal and changes into electronic signal. The signal is inputted into an oscillograph. The oscillogram will present interference crests. The method for measuring small angular displacement is based on the linear relation between the angular displacement and the crest shift on the oscillogram.

  3. Scanning Twyman interferometer for measuring small angular displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianguo; Tong, Yue

    2011-05-01

    We present a simple but effective method for measuring small angular displacement based on a scanning Twyman interferometer ,in which, one of the two mirrors is mounted on the piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) droved by saw-tooth voltage, the status of interference fringes changes from static to dynamic. A photoelectric detector detects this dynamic photo-signal and changes into electronic signal. The signal is inputted into an oscillograph. The oscillogram will present interference crests. The method for measuring small angular displacement is based on the linear relation between the angular displacement and the crest shift on the oscillogram.

  4. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010.

    PubMed

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Wallace, Rodrick

    2011-06-01

    Serial forced displacement has been defined as the repetitive, coercive upheaval of groups. In this essay, we examine the history of serial forced displacement in American cities due to federal, state, and local government policies. We propose that serial forced displacement sets up a dynamic process that includes an increase in interpersonal and structural violence, an inability to react in a timely fashion to patterns of threat or opportunity, and a cycle of fragmentation as a result of the first two. We present the history of the policies as they affected one urban neighborhood, Pittsburgh's Hill District. We conclude by examining ways in which this problematic process might be addressed. PMID:21607786

  5. Helium vs. Proton Induced Displacement Damage in Electronic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringo, Sawnese; Barghouty, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the specific effects of displacement damage due to the passage of protons and helium nuclei on some typical electronic materials will be evaluated and contrasted. As the electronic material absorbs the energetic proton and helium momentum, degradation of performance occurs, eventually leading to overall failure. Helium nuclei traveling at the same speed as protons are expected to impart more to the material displacement damage; due to the larger mass, and thus momentum, of helium nuclei compared to protons. Damage due to displacement of atoms in their crystalline structure can change the physical properties and hence performance of the electronic materials.

  6. Investigation of Creep Properties in RAINBOW High Displacement Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haertling, Gene; Furman, Eugene; Li, Guang; Barron, Bret; Moon, Youngwoo

    1997-01-01

    Results from this study on fatigue in Rainbow and Cerambow actuators show that these high displacement actuators have definite fatigue rates and lifetimes depending upon (1) the amount of displacement generated, (2) how hard they are driven electrically, and (3) the microstructure (grain size) of the ceramic material. Lifetimes for some actuators were on the order of 10(exp 7) cycles at near dc (1 Hz) frequencies while others still retained up to 74% of their displacement at 2.1 x 10(exp 7) Hz.

  7. Interfraction Displacement of Primary Tumor and Involved Lymph Nodes Relative to Anatomic Landmarks in Image Guided Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, Nuzhat; Balik, Salim; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze primary tumor (PT) and lymph node (LN) position changes relative to each other and relative to anatomic landmarks during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for patients with locally advanced lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In 12 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer PT, LN, carina, and 1 thoracic vertebra were manually contoured on weekly 4-dimensional fan-beam CT scans. Systematic and random interfraction displacements of all contoured structures were identified in the 3 cardinal directions, and resulting setup margins were calculated. Time trends and the effect of volume changes on displacements were analyzed. Results: Three-dimensional displacement vectors and systematic/random interfraction displacements were smaller for carina than for vertebra both for PT and LN. For PT, mean (SD) 3-dimensional displacement vectors with carina-based alignment were 7 (4) mm versus 9 (5) mm with bony anatomy (P<.0001). For LN, smaller displacements were found with carina- (5 [3] mm, P<.0001) and vertebra-based (6 [3] mm, P=.002) alignment compared with using PT for setup (8 [5] mm). Primary tumor and LN displacements relative to bone and carina were independent (P>.05). Displacements between PT and bone (P=.04) and between PT and LN (P=.01) were significantly correlated with PT volume regression. Displacements between LN and carina were correlated with LN volume change (P=.03). Conclusions: Carina-based setup results in a more reproducible PT and LN alignment than bony anatomy setup. Considering the independence of PT and LN displacement and the impact of volume regression on displacements over time, repeated CT imaging even with PT-based alignment is recommended in locally advanced disease.

  8. Uncovering deformation processes from surface displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramondo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this talk is to provide an overview about the most recent outcomes in Earth Sciences, describe the role of satellite remote sensing, together with GPS, ground measurement and further data, for geophysical parameter retrieval in well known case studies where the combined approach dealing with the use of two or more techniques/datasets have demonstrated their effectiveness. The Earth Sciences have today a wide availability of instruments and sensors able to provide scientists with an unprecedented capability to study the physical processes driving earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and other dynamic Earth systems. Indeed measurements from satellites allow systematic observation of the Earth surface covering large areas, over a long time period and characterized by growing sample intervals. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique has demonstrated its effectiveness to investigate processes responsible for crustal faulting stemming from the detection of surface deformation patterns. Indeed using satellite data along ascending and descending orbits, as well as different incident angles, it is possible in principle to retrieve the full 3D character of the ground motion. To such aim the use of GPS stations providing 3D displacement components is a reliable complementary instrument. Finally, offset tracking techniques and Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI) may provide a contribution to the analysis of horizontal and NS deformation vectors. The estimation of geophysical parameters using InSAR has been widely discussed in seismology and volcanology, and also applied to deformation associated with groundwater and other subsurface fluids. These applications often involve the solution of an inverse problem, which means the retrieval of optimal source parameters at depth for volcanoes and earthquakes, from the knowledge of surface deformation from InSAR. In recent years, InSAR measurements combined with traditional seismological and

  9. Structural Alterations from Multiple Displacement Amplification of a Human Genome Revealed by Mate-Pair Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xiang; Rosenlund, Magnus; Hooper, Sean D.; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; He, Liqun; Fu, Yutao; Mangion, Jonathan; Sjöblom, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive identification of the acquired mutations that cause common cancers will require genomic analyses of large sets of tumor samples. Typically, the tissue material available from tumor specimens is limited, which creates a demand for accurate template amplification. We therefore evaluated whether phi29-mediated whole genome amplification introduces false positive structural mutations by massive mate-pair sequencing of a normal human genome before and after such amplification. Multiple displacement amplification led to a decrease in clone coverage and an increase by two orders of magnitude in the prevalence of inversions, but did not increase the prevalence of translocations. While multiple strand displacement amplification may find uses in translocation analyses, it is likely that alternative amplification strategies need to be developed to meet the demands of cancer genomics. PMID:21799804

  10. Development of a precision indentation and scratching system with a tool force and displacement control module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-jun; Kwon, Kihwan; Bang, Jinhyeok; Cho, Nahmgyoo; Han, Chang-soo; Choi, Nak-sam

    2007-04-01

    This article presents a tip-based micropatterning system with a precision device for measuring the machine force and the tool path. The machine force is obtained by a tool control module with a leaf spring and a capacitive displacement sensor. It is controlled to provide a force that ranges from 80 μN to 8 N. The force sensing unit, which is part of the module, is mounted on a PZT (PbZrTi) driven in-feed motion stage with a resolution of 1 nm. The work piece is set on an X-Y motion stage, and the position can be controlled with a tool path accuracy of 5 nm. Micropatterning and precision indentation experiments were performed, while the machined surfaces were examined by atomic force microscopy. From these results, the feasibility of the system for precise force-displacement control was verified for application in tip-based precision machining.

  11. Negative urgency and emotion regulation strategy use: Associations with displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jillian Panuzio; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E

    2015-09-01

    The numerous public health consequences of interpersonal aggression highlight the necessity of a comprehensive understanding of factors influencing its perpetration. This study examined direct and interactive associations between negative urgency and emotion regulation strategy use in predicting displaced aggression under conditions of negative mood. Participants were 197 male and female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to employ either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression in response to a negative mood induction. Immediately afterwards, participants engaged in an analog displaced aggression task. Results revealed direct, positive associations between negative urgency and aggression. In addition, the use of suppression was associated with greater aggression than was the use of reappraisal alone. Counter to the hypothesis, there were no interactive effects between negative urgency and emotion regulation strategy use in predicting aggression. Findings suggest reducing negative urgency and use of suppression as potential intervention targets for individuals who engage in aggressive behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:502-512, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25753818

  12. The use of a prosthetic tissue expander to displace bowel from a brachytherapy implant site

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.G.; Harrison, L.B.; Dattoli, M.; Concepcion, R.; Minsky, B.D.; Fortner, J. )

    1990-12-01

    We describe the use of a prosthetic maneuver to displace bowel from an implant site. The patient presented with a recurrent low grade fibrosarcoma which was grossly excised with positive microscopic margins in the right paravertebral area. For this reason we performed an Iridium-192 implant using afterloading catheters. Because of several dense adhesions, it was not possible to mobilize an omental sling over the implant site. To prevent the small bowel from lying on the catheters, we inserted a prosthetic breast tissue expander. This was expanded with saline and bacitracin solution and placed in the tumor bed overlying the catheters, thereby displacing the small bowel away from the sources. A postoperative CT scan with gastrograffin demonstrated that this procedure was effective. There were no complications. We conclude that such devices are suitable for use under these circumstances and can achieve the objective of decreasing the dose of radiation to the small bowel.

  13. Long-delayed bright dancing sprite with large horizontal displacement from its parent flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Lu, G.; Lee, L. J.; Feng, G.

    2015-12-01

    A long-delayed very bright dancing sprite with large horizontal displacement from its parent flash was observed. The dancing sprite lasted only 60 ms, and the morphology consisted of three fields with two slim dim sprite elements in the first two fields and a very bright large sprite element in the third field, different from other observations. The bright sprite displaced at least 38 km from its parent flash and occurred over comparatively higher cloud top region. The parent flash was positive, with only one return stroke (~24 kA) and obvious continuing current process, and the charge moment change of the stroke was small (roughly the threshold for sprite production). All of the sprite elements occurred during the continuing current period, and the bright sprite induced considerable current. The sprite dancing features may be linked to parent storm electrical structure, dynamics and microphysics, and the parent CG discharge process which was consistent with VHF observations.

  14. Severe Impaction of the Primary Mandibular Second Molar Accompanied by Displacement of the Permanent Second Premolar

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Junko; Kinoshita-Kawano, Shoko; Hayashi-Sakai, Sachiko; Mitomi, Tomoe; Sano-Asahito, Tomiko

    2015-01-01

    Tooth impaction is defined as any tooth that fails to erupt into a normal functional position and remains unerupted beyond the time at which it should normally erupt. Reports of impaction and eruption failure in primary teeth are relatively rare compared to permanent teeth. We report 2 rare cases where the second premolar was located on the occlusal side of the impacted mandibular second primary molar. In the first case, the succedaneous permanent tooth erupted after extraction of the primary tooth, fenestration, and traction. In the second case, the succedaneous permanent tooth erupted without fenestration or traction. Although the etiology of the tooth displacement was unknown in both cases, inhibition of the eruptive movement of the primary molar may have been associated with displacement of the succedaneous permanent premolar. PMID:25810929

  15. Atomic Force Microscopy in Dynamic Mode with Displacement Current Detection in Double Cantilever Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Falk; Müller, Anne‑Dorothea; Hietschold, Michael; Gessner, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    A cantilever array for dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) is presented, the vertical displacement of which is analyzed by the detection of displacement currents in the electrodes. Each cantilever in the array consists of an actuation part that allows an independent vertical movement, and a sensor part. The lateral distance between the tips of the different cantilevers is fixed to 10 μm. When operated as an actuator, a voltage is applied between the silicon membrane and the underlaying electrode. Due to the resulting coulomb forces, the vertical position of the tip is controllable. The reaction time in this mode is shorter than the response time of a piezostack. The sensor part, on the other hand, allows the device to work in dynamic mode without a laser deflection system. The vertical resolution achieved is below 1 nm. The dependence of force distance curves on the excitation amplitude is shown.

  16. Kicking the (barking) dog effect: the moderating role of target attributes on triggered displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, William C; Bushman, Brad J; Vasquez, Eduardo A; Miller, Norman

    2008-10-01

    Sometimes aggression is displaced onto a target who is not totally innocent but emits a mildly irritating behavior called a triggering event. In three experiments, the authors examine stable personal attributes of targets that can impact such triggered displaced aggression (TDA). Lower levels of TDA were directed to targets whose attitudes were similar as compared to dissimilar to those of the actor (Experiment 1) and to targets who were ingroup as compared to out-group members (Experiment 2). Conceptually replicating the findings of Experiments 1 and 2, the manipulated valence of the target (viz., liked, neutral, and disliked) functioned in a similar manner, with positive valence serving a buffering function against a triggering action that followed an initial provocation (Experiment 3). The results from all three experiments are consistent with cognitive neoassociationist theory. PMID:18660383

  17. Ultra-precision positioning assembly

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Locke, Stanley F.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  18. Retrieving real-time precise co-seismic displacements with a standalone single-frequency GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kejie; Ge, Maorong; Li, Xingxing; Babeyko, Andrey; Ramatschi, Markus; Bradke, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, Global Positioning System (GPS) plays an increasingly important role in retrieving real-time precise co-seismic displacements for geo-hazard monitoring and early warning. Several real-time positioning approaches have been demonstrated for such purpose, such as real-time kinematic relative positioning, precise point positioning, etc., where dual-frequency geodetic receivers are applied for the removal of ionosphere delays by inter-frequency combination. At the same time, it would be also useful to develop efficient algorithms for estimating precise displacements with low-cost GPS receivers since they can make a denser network or multi-sensors combination without putting too much financial burden. In this contribution, we present a new method to retrieve precise co-seismic displacements in real-time using a standalone single-frequency receiver. In the new method, observations prior to an earthquake are utilized to establish a precise ionospheric delay prediction model, so that precise co-seismic displacements can be obtained without any convergence process. Our method was validated with an outdoor experiment as well as by re-processing of 1-Hz GPS data collected by the GEONET network during the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake. For the latter, RMS against dual-frequency receivers constituted 2 cm for horizontal components and 3 cm for the vertical component. We specially address the observation biases and their impact on the accuracy of single frequency positioning. Our approach makes real-time GPS displacement monitoring with dense network much more affordable in terms of financial costs.

  19. The tail domain of tomosyn controls membrane fusion through tomosyn displacement by VAMP2

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Fujikura, Kohei; Sakaue, Mio; Okimura, Kenjiro; Kobayashi, Yuta; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Sakisaka, Toshiaki

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} The tail domain of tomosyn has no effect on the tomosyn-SNARE complex formation. {yields} The tail domain binding to the VAMP-like domain allows VAMP2 to displace tomosyn. {yields} Tomosyn displacement by VAMP2 leads to SNARE complex formation. {yields} The SNARE complex formation drives membrane fusion. -- Abstract: Neurotransmitter release is regulated by SNARE complex-mediated synaptic vesicle fusion. Tomosyn sequesters target SNAREs (t-SNAREs) through its C-terminal VAMP-like domain (VLD). Cumulative biochemical results suggest that the tomosyn-SNARE complex is so tight that VAMP2 cannot displace tomosyn. Based on these results, the tomosyn-SNARE complex has been believed to be a dead-end complex to inhibit neurotransmitter release. On the other hand, some studies using siRNA depletion of tomosyn suggest that tomosyn positively regulates exocytosis. Therefore, it is still controversial whether tomosyn is a simple inhibitor for neurotransmitter release. We recently reported that the inhibitory activity of tomosyn is regulated by the tail domain binding to the VLD. In this study, we employed the liposome fusion assay in order to further understand modes of action of tomosyn in detail. The tail domain unexpectedly had no effect on binding of the VLD to t-SNARE-bearing liposomes. Nonetheless, the tail domain decreased the inhibitory activity of the VLD on the SNARE complex-mediated liposome fusion. These results indicate that the tail domain controls membrane fusion through tomosyn displacement by VAMP2. Deletion of the tail domain-binding region in the VLD retained the binding to t-SNAREs and promoted the liposome fusion. Together, we propose here a novel mechanism of tomosyn that controls synaptic vesicle fusion positively by serving as a placeholder for VAMP2.

  20. Topographic effects on surface displacement during dike propagation and fault displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhoo, M.; Walter, T. R.; Acocella, V.

    2012-12-01

    Deformation of a volcano landscape during faulting and hydro-fracturing is influenced by its topography. This is particularly relevant if magmatic or tectonic sources are shallow. Although the high spatial resolution of InSAR data enables us to detect and identify such "topographic effects", most of the related modeling approaches still rely on a flat free surface in a half-space. To include these topographic effects in models, we develop a method based on triangular dislocation elements (TDE). TDE's have similar accuracies as their rectangular counterparts, however, are much more flexible during discretization of complex surfaces (magmatic sources and topography). Here we first present a way to solve the problem of singularities along the sides or beneath the vertices of TDEs. Utilizing the method we can simulate open and closed surfaces of any complex geometry. Second we apply this approach to develop a code based on the displacement discontinuity method as an indirect boundary element method (BEM), with constant dislocation shape functions. We apply this code to study topographic effects during dike intrusion and dike propagation, together with fault displacements. In systematic tests, we explore the mutual interaction of the topography and the source location, illustrated in synthetic SAR interferograms. We furthermore show that the existence of deep craters and valleys strongly affect the geometric and physical properties of a dike as well as its corresponding surface deformation. Finally, we use this approach for modeling magmatic sources beneath real volcanoes, such as on Galapagos and elsewhere. By comparison to half-space solutions we demonstrate that topographic effects and the interactions with the sources located inside the body of a volcano have an important contribution to the signals and proper interpretation of the shapes and pressure changes at magmatic reservoirs of any shape.